WorldWideScience

Sample records for societal values research

  1. The societal impact value of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, D.E.

    1995-04-01

    A key ill-defined issue in the management and regulation of potentially hazardous conditions is that of the value to be associated with a reduction (or existence) of human health risks, such as radiation exposure or hazardous substance ingestion. Empirical observations of societal behavior patterns lead to a relationship for the quantitative value of societal risk impact which is consistent with general societal risk acceptance, is not inconsistent with ''de facto'' risk regulation, and is suitable and appropriate as a specification or guide for risk management and risk regulation. This societal risk impact expression is: Impact ($/year) = (8 x 10 7 ) NR i 4/3 where Ri = individual annual mortality risk; N = number of persons in the population sharing the risk and benefits. The change in Impact which can be derived from a regulation or risk management activity is the value of annual benefit which society would expect to forego (or annual equivalent cost to incur) in consideration of the activity

  2. Linking soil systems to societal value systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Daedlow, Katrin; Techen, Anja; Kaiser, David Brian

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable management of soils is needed to avoid soil degradation and to maintain soil functions. This requires the assessment of how human activities drive soil management, how soil management affect soil functions and soil degradation, which trade-offs occur and how they compromise sustainable development targets. In the frame of the German research programme "Soils as a sustainable resource for the bio-economy - BonaRes", we developed an enhanced approach of the DPSIR (driver-pressure-state-impact-response) cycle which helps to assess these interrelations. Because not all soil functions can be maximized simultaneously in space and time and trade-offs are inevitable, it depends on the societal value system to decide which management practices and respective soil functional performances are valued sustainably. We analysed the applicability of three valuation concepts being prominent in research about social-ecological systems, namely resource efficiency, ecosystem services, and ethics and equity. The concept of resource efficiency is based in the life-cycle thinking and is often applied at the level of the farming systems and in the context of bio-economy strategies. It covers the use of natural (water, energy, nutrients, land) and economic resources. At the landscape level, the concept of ecosystem services is prominent. Here, the contribution of soils to the provisioning, regulating and cultural services of the natural ecosystems is considered. Ethical considerations include the intrinsic values of nature as well as issues of local and global equity between different societal groups, generations, and localities. The three concepts cover different problem dimensions and complexity levels of soil management and decision making. Alone, none of them are capable to discover complex questions of sustainable soil management and development. Rather, the exact spatial and temporal framing of the sustainability problem at stake determines which combination of the value

  3. Can value-based insurance impose societal costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lane; Dall, Timothy M; Ruiz, David; Saavoss, Josh; Tongue, John

    2014-09-01

    Among policy alternatives considered to reduce health care costs and improve outcomes, value-based insurance design (VBID) has emerged as a promising option. Most applications of VBID, however, have not used higher cost sharing to discourage specific services. In April 2011, the state of Oregon introduced a policy for public employees that required additional cost sharing for high-cost procedures such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Our objectives were to estimate the societal impact of higher co-pays for TKA using Oregon as a case study and building on recent work demonstrating the effects of knee osteoarthritis and surgical treatment on employment and disability outcomes. We used a Markov model to estimate the societal impact in terms of quality of life, direct costs, and indirect costs of higher co-pays for TKA using Oregon as a case study. We found that TKA for a working population can generate societal benefits that offset the direct medical costs of the procedure. Delay in receiving surgical care, because of higher co-payment or other reasons, reduced the societal savings from TKA. We conclude that payers moving toward value-based cost sharing should consider consequences beyond direct medical expenses. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating societal relevance of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbertz, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Scientific research is performed to elucidate how the world around us is functioning. One dimension of the acquired knowledge is that it can be used to develop various sectors of society such as industry, education, governmental practices, the health system or social cohesion. A main characteristic

  5. Opportunities for Increasing Societal Value of Remote Sensing Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opportunities for Increasing Societal Value of Remote Sensing Data in South Africa's Strategic Development Priorities: A Review. ... Despite the enormous capital required to fund remote sensing initiatives, governments ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  6. Nine American Lifestyles: Values and Societal Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Arnold

    1984-01-01

    Americans are a diverse people, but their values, dreams, and attitudes place them in distinct lifestyle groups. Nine adult lifestyles are described and how they may change in response to future economic, social, and political conditions is examined. (RM)

  7. Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation of the Mkapa administration's anti corruption efforts. Bruce Heilman, Lawrean Ndumbaro. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2001 7(1): 1-20). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  9. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronteltap, Amber; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Tobi, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.

  10. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies.

  11. The Societal and Economic Value of Rotator Cuff Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Acevedo, Daniel; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Romeo, Anthony; Tongue, John; Williams, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although rotator cuff disease is a common musculoskeletal problem in the United States, the impact of this condition on earnings, missed workdays, and disability payments is largely unknown. This study examines the value of surgical treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tears from a societal perspective. Methods: A Markov decision model was constructed to estimate lifetime direct and indirect costs associated with surgical and continued nonoperative treatment for symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. All patients were assumed to have been unresponsive to one six-week trial of nonoperative treatment prior to entering the model. Model assumptions were obtained from the literature and data analysis. We obtained estimates of indirect costs using national survey data and patient-reported outcomes. Four indirect costs were modeled: probability of employment, household income, missed workdays, and disability payments. Direct cost estimates were based on average Medicare reimbursements with adjustments to an all-payer population. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results: The age-weighted mean total societal savings from rotator cuff repair compared with nonoperative treatment was $13,771 over a patient’s lifetime. Savings ranged from $77,662 for patients who are thirty to thirty-nine years old to a net cost to society of $11,997 for those who are seventy to seventy-nine years old. In addition, surgical treatment results in an average improvement of 0.62 QALY. Societal savings were highly sensitive to age, with savings being positive at the age of sixty-one years and younger. The estimated lifetime societal savings of the approximately 250,000 rotator cuff repairs performed in the U.S. each year was $3.44 billion. Conclusions: Rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears produces net societal cost savings for patients under the age of sixty-one years and greater QALYs for all patients. Rotator cuff repair is cost

  12. Reflecting Societal Values in Designing Flood Risk Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Office of Public Works (OPW began the National Catchment-based Flood Risk Assessment and Management (CFRAM Programme through a series of pilot studies. A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA Framework was developed through the pilot studies that integrated a number of objectives related to a wide range of potential impacts and benefits into the core of process of appraising and selecting suitable flood risk management measures for a given area or location, and then for prioritising national investments for different schemes and projects. This MCA Framework, that provides a systematic process of developing a non-monetised but numerical indicator of benefit and impact, has since been implemented nationally in the preparation of the Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs. A key feature of the MCA is that it should represent societal values. To this end, nationally representative quantitative research was undertaken to determine global weights that reflect the perceived importance of each of the objectives for reducing economic, social and environmental / cultural risks in flood management strategies. Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, in conjunction with a pair-wise comparison of criteria relating to these risks, was utilised to determine weights. In excess of 1,000 structured interviews were completed where the relative importance of these objectives were assessed using a seven-point scale. The weighting given to each of the 13 specific objectives identified broadly followed expectations, with risk to people followed by risk to homes and properties being respectively the first and second most important, although some were given greater or less weighting than expected. The national application of the MCA Framework, using the weighted objectives based on this process, through the CFRAM Programme has generally lead to the identification of appropriate and, based on local consultation, acceptable options for each community.

  13. Knowledge as Public Property : The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouter, Lex M

    2008-01-01

    Universities are funded by public means to a large extend. It’s reasonable to expect that society benefits from the results. For scientific research this means that it should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual investigators must explicitly consider the societal

  14. The Influence of Societal Values on Organizational Culture at Company Level –the Romanian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Ovidiu CERCEL

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze the influence of societal values in modelling the organizational culture at company level. Studies conducted by different researchers highlighted the differences of perception between peoples’ values in their society in relation with the values of their colleagues of different nationalities. Finally, these values influence the importance that people grants to work, leisure, family and social status. The purpose of this paper is to draw the highlights of a new...

  15. Value of Information Analysis from a Societal Perspective : A Case Study in Prevention of Major Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohseninejad, Leyla; van Baal, Pieter H. M.; van den Berg, Matthijs; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha

    Objectives: Productivity losses usually have a considerable impact on cost-effectiveness estimates while their estimated values are often relatively uncertain. Therefore, parameters related to these indirect costs play a role in setting priorities for future research from a societal perspective.

  16. Value of information analysis from a societal perspective: a case study in prevention of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseninejad, Leyla; van Baal, Pieter H M; van den Berg, Matthijs; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha

    2013-06-01

    Productivity losses usually have a considerable impact on cost-effectiveness estimates while their estimated values are often relatively uncertain. Therefore, parameters related to these indirect costs play a role in setting priorities for future research from a societal perspective. Until now, however, value of information analyses have usually applied a health care perspective for economic evaluations. Hence, the effect of productivity losses has rarely been investigated in such analyses. The aim of the current study therefore was to investigate the effects of including or excluding productivity costs in value of information analyses. Expected value of information analysis (EVPI) was performed in cost-effectiveness evaluation of prevention from both societal and health care perspectives, to give us the opportunity to compare different perspectives. Priorities for future research were determined by partial EVPI. The program to prevent major depression in patients with subthreshold depression was opportunistic screening followed by minimal contact psychotherapy. The EVPI indicated that regardless of perspective, further research is potentially worthwhile. Partial EVPI results underlined the importance of productivity losses when a societal perspective was considered. Furthermore, priority setting for future research differed according to perspective. The results illustrated that advise for future research will differ for a health care versus a societal perspective and hence the value of information analysis should be adjusted to the perspective that is relevant for the decision makers involved. The outcomes underlined the need for carefully choosing the suitable perspective for the decision problem at hand. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Challenge Based Innovation: Translating Fundamental Research into Societal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikka, Joona; Utriainen, Tuuli; Repokari, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on work done at IdeaSquare, a new innovation experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The paper explores the translation of fundamental research into societal applications with the help of multidisciplinary student teams, project- and problem-based learning and design thinking methods. The theme is…

  18. Societal impact metrics for non-patentable research in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D.; Isett, K.; Melkers, J.; Song, L.; Trivedi, R.

    2016-07-01

    Indicators of research impact tend to revolve around patents, licenses and startups. However, much university research is non-patentable and therefore doesn’t register in those metrics. That does not mean such research lacks impact, just that it follows different pathways to use in society. Without the visibility of patents, license income and jobs created in startups, society risks ignoring or discounting the societal impact of such research and therefore of undervaluing the research itself. In order to make visible the importance of research advances underpinning broader societal advance, in this project we explore the possibility of developing metrics of research impact for research whose results are relevant to professional practice. (Author)

  19. SKB's program for societal research 2004-2011. An evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, Olof

    2012-04-01

    This evaluation of the program of societal research that SKB conducted the years 2004-2011 has been performed on behalf of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The review has focused on answers to a series of questions as follows: General questions - Why was a program started? - What was SKB's purpose with the program? - Does the result mean that the objective has been achieved? - Has the program had effects (positive or negative) that were not anticipated when the purpose was formulated? - Strengths and weaknesses of the program? Questions about the implementation - How did announcement and selection procedures work? - Which forms were used for reporting results from the research projects? Questions about the continued investment in societal research - Are there such needs? - In that case, is it in SKB's interest to contribute financially to such research? - What forms might be appropriate if SKB sees interest to contribute financially to such research?

  20. Grand societal challenges in information systems research and education

    CERN Document Server

    vom Brocke, Jan; Hofmann, Sara; Tumbas, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    This book examines how information systems research and education can play a major role in contributing to solutions to the Societal Grand Challenges formulated in "The Millennium Project" (millenium-project.org). Individual chapters focus on specific challenges, review existing approaches and contributions towards solutions in information systems research and outline a research agenda for these challenges. The topics considered in this volume range from climate change, population growth, global ICT availability, breakthroughs in science and technology and energy demand to ethical decision-making, policymaking, gender status and transnational crime prevention. It is the first book to present ideas on how the Information Systems discipline can contribute to the solution on this wide spectrum of grand societal challenges.

  1. Creating value from societal challenges; Waarde creeren uit maatschappelijke uitdagingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    The Dutch government requested the Advisory Council for Science and Technology Policy (AWT) to report on how to contribute to addressing societal challenges through (1) the top sector policy, (2) the profiling policy, and (3) the European framework program Horizon 2020, or a combination of these policies. The AWT bases his opinion on the nature of the societal challenges, the commitment of the business community and the commitment of the knowledge institutes (Chapter 2). Next, follow the reasons why the market insufficiently picks up the challenges, the tools that the government can deploy to do something about it, and the constraints that the government runs into (Chapter 3). Subsequently four cases are discussed (energy, healthcare, mobility and security), followed by experiences in other countries (Chapter 4). Finally, conclusions and recommendations are given (chapter 5 and 6) [Dutch] Het kabinet vraagt de AWT om advies uit te brengen over de vraag hoe in Nederland optimaal kan worden bijgedragen aan de aanpak van maatschappelijke uitdagingen via (1) het topsectorenbeleid, (2) het profileringsbeleid, en (3) het Europese kaderprogramma Horizon 2020, dan wel een combinatie van deze beleidsprogramma's. De AWT baseert zijn advies op de aard van de maatschappelijke uitdagingen, de inzet van het bedrijfsleven en de inzet van de kennisinstellingen (hoofdstuk 2). Dan volgen de redenen waarom de markt deze uitdagingen onvoldoende oppakt, de instrumenten die de overheid kan inzetten om hier iets aan te doen en de beperkingen waar de overheid tegenaan loopt (hoofdstuk 3). Daarna komen vier casussen aan bod (energie, zorg, mobiliteit en veiligheid), gevolgd door ervaring in enkele andere landen (hoofdstuk 4). Het advies besluit met conclusies en aanbevelingen (hoofdstuk 5 en 6)

  2. Creating value from societal challenges; Waarde creeren uit maatschappelijke uitdagingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    The Dutch government requested the Advisory Council for Science and Technology Policy (AWT) to report on how to contribute to addressing societal challenges through (1) the top sector policy, (2) the profiling policy, and (3) the European framework program Horizon 2020, or a combination of these policies. The AWT bases his opinion on the nature of the societal challenges, the commitment of the business community and the commitment of the knowledge institutes (Chapter 2). Next, follow the reasons why the market insufficiently picks up the challenges, the tools that the government can deploy to do something about it, and the constraints that the government runs into (Chapter 3). Subsequently four cases are discussed (energy, healthcare, mobility and security), followed by experiences in other countries (Chapter 4). Finally, conclusions and recommendations are given (chapter 5 and 6) [Dutch] Het kabinet vraagt de AWT om advies uit te brengen over de vraag hoe in Nederland optimaal kan worden bijgedragen aan de aanpak van maatschappelijke uitdagingen via (1) het topsectorenbeleid, (2) het profileringsbeleid, en (3) het Europese kaderprogramma Horizon 2020, dan wel een combinatie van deze beleidsprogramma's. De AWT baseert zijn advies op de aard van de maatschappelijke uitdagingen, de inzet van het bedrijfsleven en de inzet van de kennisinstellingen (hoofdstuk 2). Dan volgen de redenen waarom de markt deze uitdagingen onvoldoende oppakt, de instrumenten die de overheid kan inzetten om hier iets aan te doen en de beperkingen waar de overheid tegenaan loopt (hoofdstuk 3). Daarna komen vier casussen aan bod (energie, zorg, mobiliteit en veiligheid), gevolgd door ervaring in enkele andere landen (hoofdstuk 4). Het advies besluit met conclusies en aanbevelingen (hoofdstuk 5 en 6)

  3. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...with Parsons’ causal assumption, in the nineties values were recognized on top of the cultural control –values control norms which in turn control...determines intention which may end in behavior. 7 Defining Human Values Cross- cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main

  4. On the societal nature of praxis and organic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-03-01

    In its focus on social practices, the feature article presents an interesting theoretical framework for rethinking not only where and how knowing and learning in science education exhibit themselves but also we might change our own research practice. The framework is not new to me, as I have advocated it explicitly for more than 15 years. But over time it became apparent to me that some particularities of participation in practice may be grounded more strongly in an orientation towards the societal nature of any human praxis. In this forum contribution, I present a theoretical approach built on societal-historical activity theory that also takes activism as a major category for theorizing participation. This approach not only covers the extent of the social practice framework but also allows us to make thematic the production of inequity and restrictions to access science and engineering that are characteristic of many societies.

  5. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    of each potential infrastructure investment, and funding those investments that collectively produce the largest expected net benefit over time. While this type of process is clearly subject to budget constraints, it could quantify the often informal evaluation of linkages between infrastructure, ocean research, the value of information produced, societal objectives, and economic benefits. Addressing the numerous complex science questions facing the entire ocean research enterprise in 2030 from government to academia, industry to nonprofits, local to global scale represents a major challenge, requiring collaboration across the breadth of the ocean sciences community and nearly seamless coordination between ocean-related federal agencies.

  6. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate

  7. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ark Gerrit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research. For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector. For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity. These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance, after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms

  8. A Process Towards Societal Value within a Community-Based Regional Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Åslund

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes, activities and tasks of a community-based area development project are described. The main process has been used three times and a model is presented. An earlier developed process map has been verified. The description of the project can help other communities to plan development projects. The illustration can be valuable for entrepreneurs who are planning a societal value initiative and for decision-makers and stakeholders who can contribute to, are concerned with, or may be affected by societal entrepreneurship. Observation, participating studies, dokumentations and an interview with the project leader has been carried out. Data have been analyzed and compared with the previously developed process map to achieve a deeper understanding of the processes within societal entrepreneurship. The purpose was to study and describe the processes of a community-based area development project and to compare it with a previously developed process map and to verify the process map.

  9. ASPIRE: Active Societal Participation in Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, C.; Parrish, J.; Harris, L.; Posselt, J.; Hatch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Active Societal Participation In Research and Education (ASPIRE) aims to cultivate a generation of geoscientists with the leadership knowledge and skills, scholarship, and material support to reframe and rebrand the geosciences as socially relevant and, thereby, to broaden participation in these fields. This generation of geoscientists will do so by bridging longstanding divides that impede access to and inclusion in the geosciences: between basic and applied science, between scholars in the academy and members of historically marginalized communities, and between the places where science is needed and the places where it is typically conducted. To bring about these types of change, we draw upon, refine, and institutionalize the working group model as the Mobile Working Group (MWG), directly referencing the need to move outside of the "ivory tower" and into the community. Led by a geoscientist with one foot in the academy and the other in the community - the Boundary Spanner - each MWG will focus on a single issue linked to a single community. ASPIRE supports multiple MWGs working across the geographic, ethnographic and "in practice" community space, as well as across the body of geoscience research and application. We hypothesize that in institutionalizing a new mode of geoscience research (MWG), learning from Boundary Spanners experiences with MWG, and refining a leadership development program from our findings, that we will have a scalable leadership tool and organizational structure that will rebrand the geosciences as socially relevant and inclusive of geoscientists from diverse backgrounds even as the "science space" of geoscience expands to incorporate in-community work.

  10. Understanding Societal Impact in Research and Technology Organisations using Productive Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, Aad; Löwik, Sandor; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Research organisations receiving at least partly public funding are increasingly required to show their societal impact. Assessing societal impact is a complex task, because it involves very different aspects, is prone to bias from the assessor and even may be contradictory. Using the process and

  11. Integrating societal perspectives and values for improved stewardship of a coastal ecosystem engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Scyphers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oyster reefs provide coastal societies with a vast array of ecosystem services, but are also destructively harvested as an economically and culturally important fishery resource, exemplifying a complex social-ecological system (SES. Historically, societal demand for oysters has led to destructive and unsustainable levels of harvest, which coupled with multiple other stressors has placed oyster reefs among the most globally imperiled coastal habitats. However, more recent studies have demonstrated that large-scale restoration is possible and that healthy oyster populations can be sustained with effective governance and stewardship. However, both of these require significant societal support or financial investment. In our study, we explored relationships among how coastal societies (1 perceive and value oyster ecosystem services, (2 recognize and define problems associated with oyster decline, and (3 perceive or support stewardship initiatives. We specifically focused on the SES of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica and coastal societies in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a region identified as offering among the last and best opportunities to sustainably balance conservation objectives with a wild fishery. We found that, in addition to harvest-related benefits, oysters were highly valued for providing habitat, mitigating shoreline erosion, and improving water quality or clarity. Our results also showed that although most respondents recognized that oyster populations have declined, many respondents characterized the problem differently than most scientific literature does. Among a variety of initiatives for enhancing sustainability, spawning sanctuaries and reef restoration were well supported in all states, but support for harvest reductions was less consistent. Our study suggests that public support for maintaining both harvest and ecosystem services exists at societal levels and that enhancing public awareness regarding the extent and causes

  12. Evolution of the societal value of water resources for economic development versus environmental sustainability in Australia from 1843 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Wei, J., , Dr; Western, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    The scale of human activity in the last 200 years has reached a point where our actions are affecting the global biophysical environment to such a degree and at such a speed that irreversible effects are being observed. Societal values are generally seen as leading to changes in human decisions and actions, but have not been addressed adequately in current water management, which is blind to changes in the social drivers for, or societal responses to, management decisions. This paper describes the evolution of societal value of water resources in Australia over a period of 169 years. These values were classified into two groups: supporting economic development versus supporting environmental sustainability. The Sydney Morning Herald newspaper was used as the main data source to track the changes in the societal value of water resources. Content analysis was used to create a description of the evolution of these societal values. Mathematical regression analysis, in combination of transition theory, was used to determine the stages of transition of the societal value, and the co-evolved social-ecological framework was used to explain how the evolution of societal values interacted with water management policies/practices and droughts. Key findings included that the transition of the societal value of water resources fitted the sigmoid curve - a conceptual S curve for the transition of social systems. Also, the transition of societal value of water resources in Australia went through three stages: (1) pre-development (1900s-1960s), when the societal value of water resources was dominated by economic development; (2) take-off (1962-1980), when the societal value of water resources reflected the increasing awareness of the environment due to the outbreak of pollution events; (3) acceleration (1981-2011), when the environment-oriented societal value of water resources combined with the Millennium Drought to trigger a package of policy initiatives and management practices

  13. Understanding societal impact through productive interactions: ICT research as a case

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan de Jong; Katharine Barker; Deborah Cox; Thordis Sveinsdottir; Peter Van den Besselaar

    2014-01-01

    Universities are increasingly expected to fulfill a third mission in addition to those of research and education. Universities must demonstrate engagement with society through the application and exploitation of knowledge. As societal impact of research is uncertain, long term and always dependent on other factors, we argue here that evaluation should focus on the conditions under which societal impact is generated rather than on the impact itself. Here we focus on a specific set of those con...

  14. Societal value of generic medicines beyond cost-saving through reduced prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the added societal value of generic medicines beyond their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. In addition, an observational case study will document the impact of generic entry on access to pharmacotherapy in The Netherlands and an illustrative exercise was carried out to highlight the budget impact of generic entry. A narrative literature review was carried out to explore the impact of generic medicines on access to pharmacotherapy, innovation and medication adherence. Data from the Medicines and Medical Devices Information Project database in The Netherlands were used for the case study in which the impact of generic medicine entrance on the budget and the number of users was calculated as an illustrative exercise. Generic medicines have an additional societal value beyond their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. Generic medicines increase access to pharmacotherapy, provide a stimulus for innovation by both originator companies and generic companies and, under the right circumstances, have a positive impact on medication adherence. Generic medicines offer more to society than just their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. As such, governments must not focus only on the prices of generic medicines as this will threaten their long-term sustainability. Governments must therefore act appropriately and implement a coherent set of policies to increase the use of generic medicines.

  15. Measuring and improving the societal impact of health care research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, J.; Muscat, N.A.; Keskimäki, I.; Lindahl, A.K.; Pfaff, H.; Wismar, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; et al, [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Health care research is increasingly being evaluated in terms of its contribution to new market products and services, among other factors, in the European Union’s new Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, Horizon 2020. However, discoveries in health care research often are not marketable

  16. "Cultural fit": individual and societal discrepancies in values, beliefs, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2006-04-01

    The author examined the relationship between cultural values, beliefs, and subjective well-being (SWB) in the context of the "cultural fit" proposition with 3 diverse Chinese samples from Taiwan and Mainland China (N = 581). The author found that beliefs regarding the independent self, the interdependent self, active control, and relationship harmony as forming individual-level culture were consistently related to SWB. Furthermore, the author found that the magnitude of cultural fit was associated with SWB for certain groups of the Chinese people. It is most interesting that the direction of cultural fit regarding independent self was also important for SWB. Specifically, people who endorsed higher independent self but expected lower societal endorsement of such views were better off in SWB than those of the opposite combination.

  17. Traditions and Transitions in Quantitative Societal Culture Research in Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Mark, F.; Søndergaard, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative societal culture research (QSCR) in organization studies crystallizes a configuration of social science perspectives and methods that became prominent in the 1970s. We consider the qualities of and boundaries around cultural groups that this tradition emphasizes, and other...... characteristics of cultural groups that it does not emphasize. Current debates surrounding this tradition reflect both recent social science innovations and rediscoveries of early social science perspectives. Our analysis of quantitative cross-cultural societal research in organization studies considers...... this process of crystallization, innovation and rediscovery. We suggest ways to address current controversies and promote conversations with other research approaches....

  18. Adoption research, practice, and societal trends: Ten years of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Mary O'Leary

    2017-12-01

    Adoption involves the legal transfer of parental rights and responsibilities from a child's birth parents to adults who will raise the child (Reitz & Watson, 1992). Research related to adoption has expanded over the past 10 years and has incorporated more focus on implications for practice and public policy. This expansion has reflected increased awareness of the lived experience of adopted individuals, in addition to that of adoptive families and birth or first parents and families, collectively known as the adoption kinship network (Grotevant & McRoy, 1998). Trends discussed included research and social trends or movements (2007-2017) since the publication of the final article in a series of articles in the psychological literature related to adoption in The Counseling Psychologist (Baden & Wiley, 2007; Lee, 2003; O'Brien & Zamostny, 2003; Wiley & Baden, 2005; Zamostny, O'Brien, Baden, & Wiley, 2003; Zamostny, Wiley, O'Brien, Lee, & Baden, 2003). This article summarizes the social trends and research related to adoption over the last 10 years, including longitudinal and meta-analytic studies, increased research and conceptualization of ethnic and racial identity development, research on microaggressions, and research on diverse adoptive families, including those with gay and lesbian parents. Social trends included increased knowledge related to Internet accessibility, genetic information, continued focus on openness, and viewing adoption through a more critical lens. Implications are discussed for the development of programs that enhance competence of mental health professionals and adoption professionals in adoption-competent practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The

  20. Leaders' charismatic leadership and followers' commitment — The moderating dynamics of value erosion at the societal level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebert, D.; Heinitz, K.; Buengeler, C.K.

    2016-01-01

    In modern societies, followers might dissociate from their leaders. In our conceptual paper we discuss how the societal-level process of value erosion (Sennett, 2005) influences this phenomenon. First, we outline in what way value erosion will lead to followers' leadership-related cynicism on the

  1. Improving University Research Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley O’Reilly

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the current data management practices of university researchers at an Intermountain West land-grant research university in the United States. Key findings suggest that researchers are primarily focused on the collection and housing of research data. However, additional research value exists within the other life cycle stages for research data—specifically in the stages of delivery and maintenance. These stages are where most new demands and requirements exist for data management plans and policies that are conditional for external grant funding; therefore, these findings expose a “gap” in current research practice. These findings should be of interest to academics and practitioners alike as findings highlight key management gaps in the life cycle of research data. This study also suggests a course of action for academic institutions to coalesce campus-wide assets to assist researchers in improving research value.

  2. Researching Values in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers methodological issues that arise when values form the main focus of empirical educational research. Includes discussion of the idea that social science, in general, and educational research, in particular, are forms of moral inquiry. Outlines a methodology of educational research, drawing from work by Imre Lakatos, Alasdair MacIntyre,…

  3. Public Value Posters: Conveying Societal Benefits of Extension Programs through Evaluation Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Scott; Meyer, Nathan; Mohr, Caryn; Troschinetz, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The public value poster session is a new tool for effectively demonstrating and reporting the public value of Extension programming. Akin to the research posters that have long played a critical role in the sharing of findings from academic studies, the public value poster provides a consistent format for conveying the benefits to society of…

  4. Measuring societal effects of transdisciplinary research projects: design and application of an evaluation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Alexander I; Helgenberger, Sebastian; Wiek, Arnim; Scholz, Roland W

    2007-11-01

    Most Transdisciplinary Research (TdR) projects combine scientific research with the building of decision making capacity for the involved stakeholders. These projects usually deal with complex, societally relevant, real-world problems. This paper focuses on TdR projects, which integrate the knowledge of researchers and stakeholders in a collaborative transdisciplinary process through structured methods of mutual learning. Previous research on the evaluation of TdR has insufficiently explored the intended effects of transdisciplinary processes on the real world (societal effects). We developed an evaluation framework for assessing the societal effects of transdisciplinary processes. Outputs (measured as procedural and product-related involvement of the stakeholders), impacts (intermediate effects connecting outputs and outcomes) and outcomes (enhanced decision making capacity) are distinguished as three types of societal effects. Our model links outputs and outcomes of transdisciplinary processes via the impacts using a mediating variables approach. We applied this model in an ex post evaluation of a transdisciplinary process. 84 out of 188 agents participated in a survey. The results show significant mediation effects of the two impacts "network building" and "transformation knowledge". These results indicate an influence of a transdisciplinary process on the decision making capacity of stakeholders, especially through social network building and the generation of knowledge relevant for action.

  5. Emerging research in micro and nano systems: opportunities and challenges for societal impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2010-02-01

    In just a few decades, micro and nano technologies have changed the way that we live - how we work and communicate; the food and medicine that we consume; the clothing that we use; and the entertainment that we seek. While these technologies are being actively investigated in several research communities, the potential for continued societal impact is constrained by resources available for system-level research. Given the long time-lines and levels of investment that are typically necessary to develop functional systems, strategic prioritization of research directions from the perspective of societal needs can be helpful. This paper outlines the findings of an NSF-sponsored road-mapping workshop that was held in 2009, with the intention of initiating a conversation about the opportunities and challenges for micro and nano systems. Four areas of need were discussed: environmental sensing; health care; infrastructure monitoring; and energy alternatives. Possible research trajectories were identified by envisioning technological goals for the year 2040, and linking these to horizons for 2015 and 2025. This paper also provides few examples of current research in each of the four application domains. It is noted that a systems perspective can help to keep the research focused, accelerating and amplifying the societal gain with available resources. Practical and affordable solutions at the system level will require partnerships between specialists, and also between academia and industry.

  6. Personal Values and Attitudes towards Societal and Environmental Accountability: A Study of MBA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Asit

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to promote corporate societal and environmental accountability (SEA) should be informed by an understanding of stakeholders' attitudes toward enhanced accountability standards. However, little is known regarding current attitudes on this subject or the determinants of these attitudes. To address this issue, this study examines the…

  7. The Evolution of Scientific Trajectories in Rice: Mapping the Relation between Research and Societal Priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarli, T.; Rafols, I.

    2016-07-01

    How do specific technologies emerge? How is the scientific research related to technologies prioritised, in governments, firms, universities, and other actors involved in research? Related to these questions is the question of how we investigate trajectories of science and technologies, and how to model their relation. In this paper we aim to answer the initial question for a case study, rice, proposing to use new data, methods, and indicators. We discuss a number of insights on the evolution of the research trajectory on rice since the 1980’s, worldwide and for a number of countries which dominate the world rankings in rice production and/or in rice publications. Using a number of socio-economic indicators at the country level, we relate priorities on the research side (publication topics) and on the societal side finding limited relations between supply and demand of research. In the paper we also discuss the combination of scientometric and socio-economic indicators, suggesting that they may be useful for future research on the relation between societal needs and research priorities. (Author)

  8. The social value of clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Michelle G J L; van Delden, Johannes J M; Bredenoord, Annelien L

    2014-09-05

    International documents on ethical conduct in clinical research have in common the principle that potential harms to research participants must be proportional to anticipated benefits. The anticipated benefits that can justify human research consist of direct benefits to the research participant, and societal benefits, also called social value. In first-in-human research, no direct benefits are expected and the benefit component of the risks-benefit assessment thus merely exists in social value. The concept social value is ambiguous by nature and is used in numerous ways in the research ethics literature. Because social value justifies involving human participants, especially in early human trials, this is problematic. Our analysis and interpretation of the concept social value has led to three proposals. First, as no direct benefits are expected for the research participants in first-in-human trials, we believe it is better to discuss a risk- value assessment instead of a risk - benefit assessment. This will also make explicit the necessity to have a clear and common use for the concept social value. Second, to avoid confusion we propose to limit the concept social value to the intervention tested. It is the expected improvement the intervention can bring to the wellbeing of (future) patients or society that is referred to when we speak about social value. For the sole purpose of gaining knowledge, we should not expose humans to potential harm; the ultimate justification of involving humans in research lies in the anticipated social value of the intervention. Third, at the moment only the validity of the clinical research proposal is a prerequisite for research to take place. We recommend making the anticipated social value a prerequisite as well. In this paper we analyze the use of the concept social value in research ethics. Despite its unavoidable ambiguity, we aim to find a best use of the concept, subject to its role in justifying involving humans in first

  9. Developing an Arctic Observing Network: Looking Beyond Scientific Research as a Driver to Broader Societal Benefits as Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will address the first ever application of the Societal Benefit Areas approach to continuing efforts to develop an integrated pan-Arctic Observing Network. The scientific research community has been calling for an Arctic Observing Network since the early years of this century, at least. There is no question of the importance of research-driven observations at a time when rapid changes occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system are affecting people and communities in the Arctic and in regions far from the Arctic. Observations are need for continued environmental monitoring and change detection; improving understanding of how the system and its components function, and how they are connected to lower latitude regions; advancing numerical modeling capabilities for forecasting and projection; and developing value-added products and services for people and communities, and for decision- and policymaking. Scientific research is, without question, a benefit to society, but the benefits of Earth observations extend beyond scientific research. Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) were first described by the international Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and have since been used by USGEO as the basis for its National Earth Observation Assessments. The most recent application of SBAs to Earth observing realized a framework of SBAs, SBA Sub-areas, and Key Objectives required for the completion of a full Earth observing assessment for the Arctic. This framework, described in a report released in June 2017, and a brief history of international efforts to develop an integrated pan-Arctic Observing Network, are the subjects of this presentation.

  10. Productive interactions for societal impact: Developing a research information system for agriculture (RIS-Agric) at Stellenbosch University, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, N.; Esterhuyse, H.

    2016-07-01

    Assessments of the societal impact of research rely on primary data as input to the relevant indicators. In the current project, the data collection for indicator construction is guided by the SIAMPI approach to societal impact assessment. According to SIAMPI, the achievement of societal impact involves two elements: stakeholders and productive interactions. The latter includes three kinds of interactions: direct personal interactions; indirect interactions where contact is mediated by a material or human ‘carrier’; and financial interactions that refer to the economic exchanges between researchers and stakeholders. The question to be explored is whether the assessment of the societal impact of research can be facilitated by capturing any direct, indirect and financial interactions between researchers and societal stakeholders in a research information system. CREST/SciSTIP is developing such a system, called RIS-Agric, in cooperation with the Faculty of AgriSciences at Stellenbosch University and four agricultural research funders in South Africa that represent different agricultural commodities. A RIS with productive interactions at its core – and the funded research project as the unit of observation – will produce the necessary data for indicators linked to the societal impact of research, in addition to generating insights about the ‘pathway’ from research to societal impact. The indicators need to be ‘socially robust’ in the sense that their validation processes should include the research beneficiaries and their representatives. In doing so, RIS-Agric will produce a useful, standardised measurement mechanism that is aligned across the different commodities. The focus on productive interactions will be supplemented by other methods in order to enable the quantification of societal impact in the form of ‘impact scores’. (Author)

  11. Personal Values in HCI Research

    OpenAIRE

    Sas, Corina

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a broad overview of the core values underpinning my research agenda for more than a decade. It draws from value research, research values, and values in HCI, and concludes with some insights on the challenges and opportunities of developing a value-driven personal research agenda.

  12. Blog Citations as Indicators of the Societal Impact of Research : Content Analysis of Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations are good indicators for the societal impact or benefits of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging.org published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty‐one (22.68% of all cited journals were from the social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy‐five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited at the time of citation was 5.8 years. Discussion and criticism were the two main categories of motivations. Overall, the study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact. A considerable number of citation motivations in blogs such as disputing a belief, suggesting policies, providing a solution to a problem, reacting to media, criticism and the like seemed to support gaining societal benefits. Societal benefits are considered as helping stimulate new approaches to social issues, or informing public debate and policymaking. Lower self‐citation (compared to some other altmetric measures such as tweets and the fact that blogging involves generating content (i.e. an intellectual process give them an advantage for altmetrics. However, limitations and contextual issues such as disciplinary differences and low uptake of altmetrics, in general, in scholarly communication should not be ignored when using blogs as a data source for altmetrics.

  13. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tina Simonèiè; Thomas A. Spies; Robert L. Deal; Andrej Bonèina

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal...

  14. Societal values in the allocation of healthcare resources: is it all about the health gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Marshall, Deborah; Caulfield, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, public distrust in unavoidable value-laden decisions on the allocation of resources to new health technologies has grown. In response, healthcare organizations have made considerable efforts to improve their acceptability by increasing transparency in decision-making processes. However, the social value judgments (distributive preferences of the public) embedded in them have yet to be defined. While the need to explicate such judgments has become widely recognized, the most appropriate approach to accomplishing this remains unclear. The aims of this review were to identify factors around which distributive preferences of the public have been sought, create a list of social values proposed or used in current resource allocation decision-making processes for new health technologies, and review approaches to eliciting such values from the general public. Social values proposed or used in making resource allocation decisions for new health technologies were identified through three approaches: (i) a comprehensive review of published, peer-reviewed, empirical studies of public preferences for the distribution of healthcare; (ii) an analysis of non-technical factors or social value statements considered by technology funding decision-making processes in Canada and abroad; and (iii) a review of appeals to funding decisions on grounds in part related to social value judgments. A total of 34 empirical studies, 10 technology funding decision-making processes, and 12 appeals to decisions were identified and reviewed. The key factors/patient characteristics addressed through policy statements and around which distributive preferences of the public have been sought included severity of illness, immediate need, age (and its relationship to lifetime health), health gain (amount and final outcome/health state), personal responsibility for illness, caregiving responsibilities, and number of patients who could benefit (rarity). Empirical studies typically

  15. Indian program on management of high level radioactive waste - emphasis on value recovery for societal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Tomar, Neelima Singh; Kumar, Amar; Wadhwa, S.; Diwan, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Power Programme in India is based on 'closed fuel cycle'. Closed fuel cycle involves reprocessing and recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) coming out of nuclear reactors. During reprocessing, uranium and plutonium, constituting bulk of the SNF are separated and subsequently recycled. The remaining small portion constitutes high level radioactive waste containing most of the fission products and minor actinides. A three-step strategy involving immobilization, interim storage followed by ultimate disposal has been adopted in India for management of High Level Waste (HLW). Borosilicate glass matrix has been identified for immobilization of HLW owing to optimal waste loading, adequate leach resistance and long term stability of the product. An interim storage facility is in operation for storage and surveillance of VWP. A comprehensive program based on screening of different materials like granite, argillite, clay with respect to sorption of different radionuclides is being pursued to identify the suitable areas of disposal of the conditioned waste products. Separation of useful radionuclides like "1"3"7Cs, "9"0Sr, "9"0Y, "1"0"6Ru etc and its utilization for societal applications is being practiced in India. (author)

  16. The impact of societal cultural values and individual social beliefs on the perceived effectiveness of managerial influence strategies: a meso approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, P.P.; Kennedy, J.C.; Tata, J.; Yukl, G.; Bond, M.H.; Peng, T.K.; Srinivas, E.S.; Howell, J.P.; Prieto, L.; Koopman, P.L.; Boonstra, J.J.; Pasa, S.; Lacassagne, M.F.; Higashide, H.; Cheosakul, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a 12-nation study designed to test empirically the relationships between societal cultural values, individual social beliefs, and the perceived effectiveness of different influence strategies. The relationships between three types of broad influence strategy

  17. Fundamental Cardiovascular Research: Returns on Societal Investment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joseph A; Ardehali, Reza; Clarke, Kimberli Taylor; Del Zoppo, Gregory J; Eckhardt, Lee L; Griendling, Kathy K; Libby, Peter; Roden, Dan M; Sadek, Hesham A; Seidman, Christine E; Vaughan, Douglas E

    2017-07-21

    Recent decades have witnessed robust successes in conquering the acutely lethal manifestations of heart and vascular diseases. Many patients who previously would have died now survive. Lifesaving successes like these provide a tremendous and easily recognized benefit to individuals and society. Although cardiovascular mortality has declined, the devastating impact of chronic heart disease and comorbidities on quality of life and healthcare resources continues unabated. Future strides, extending those made in recent decades, will require continued research into mechanisms underlying disease prevention, pathogenesis, progression, and therapeutic intervention. However, severe financial constraints currently jeopardize these efforts. To chart a path for the future, this report analyzes the challenges and opportunities we face in continuing the battle against cardiovascular disease and highlights the return on societal investment afforded by fundamental cardiovascular research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Report on Societal-cultural Norms and Values and Peer Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Peng; Gwozdz, Wencke; Reisch, Lucia A.

    is the European Social Survey (ESS). The report extends the work presented in D7.1.2 in which we have demonstrated that peer effects between the children/ teenagers in the schools exist and that they are systematically linked to collectivist and individualistic values in the different I.Family countries.......This report is part of Task 7.3.1. As outlined in the Description of Work, we aim to identify health related social norms and values on a national level and compare them cross-culturally, using publicly available, cross-national data sources. In our case, the best available public source...

  19. Individual, Country and Societal Cluster Differences on Measures of Personality, Attitudes, Values, and Social Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences on 38 subscales from 4 major domains--personality, social attitudes, values, and social norms. These scales were administered to participants who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R], N = 1,600) and U.S. college students (N = 429). Total variability of each subscale was…

  20. Analyzing Data Citations to Assess the Scientific and Societal Value of Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Downs, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Stakeholders in the creation, distribution, support, funding, and use of scientific data can benefit by understanding the value that the data have for society and science. For decades, the scientific community has been using citations of articles in the published scientific literature as one of the primary measures used for evaluating the performance of scientists, departments, institutions, and scientific disciplines. Similarly, citations in the published literature of scientific data may be useful for measuring and assessing the value of the scientific data and the performance of the individuals, projects, programs, and organizations that have contributed to the data and their use. The results of citation analysis and other assessments of the value of data also can contribute to planning for future data collection, development, distribution, and preservation efforts. The planned release of new data citation indexes and the more widespread adoption of unique data identifiers and automated attribution mechanisms have the potential to improve significantly the capabilities for analyzing citations of scientific data. In addition, rapid developments in the systems and capabilities for disseminating data, along with education and workforce development on the importance of data attribution and on techniques for data citation, can improve practices for citing scientific data. Such practices need to lead not only to better aggregate statistics about data citation, but also to improved characterization and understanding of the impact of data use in terms of the benefits for science and society. Analyses of citations in the scientific literature were conducted for data that were distributed by an interdisciplinary scientific data center during a five-year period (1997 - 2011), to identify the scientific fields represented by the journals and books in which the data were cited. Secondary citation analysis also was conducted for a sample of scientific publications that used

  1. Regarding Societal Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Blackwood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce our special thematic section on societal change. We begin by providing an overview of the aims of the section, and how these aims grew out of a need to address conceptual and empirical challenges in the study of societal change. In response to these challenges, the section was intended to provide a forum for theoretical and empirical work from a range of disciplinary perspectives on how societies change, and how such change can be understood. Together, the contributions argue for (1 the need to contextualize the study of societal change, (2 the value of considering factors and processes other than collective action in transforming societies, (3 the importance of ideology and its operation through social institutions such as news media, and (4 an imperative to ensure that our research is fully engaged with society in terms of its grounding in social issues, its sensitivity to our own social context as researchers, and in its practices and outcomes.

  2. Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020 Retrospective and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Roco, Mihail C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents a comprehensive perspective on the global scientific, technological, and societal impact of nanotechnology since 2000, and explores the opportunities and research directions in the next decade to 2020.  The vision for the future of nanotechnology presented here draws on scientific insights from U.S. experts in the field, examinations of lessons learned, and international perspectives shared by participants from 35 countries in a series of high-level workshops organized by Mike Roco of the National Science Foundation (NSF), along with a team of American co-hosts that includes Chad Mirkin, Mark Hersam, Evelyn Hu, and several other eminent U.S. scientists.  The study performed in support of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) aims to redefine the R&D goals for nanoscale science and engineering integration and to establish nanotechnology as a general-purpose technology in the next decade. It intends to provide decision makers in academia, industry, and government with a n...

  3. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  4. Societal transformations in the face of climate. Research priorities for the next decade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.J.; Behagel, J.H.; Hegger, D.; Mees, H.; Rijswick, M.; Termeer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change Creates new challenges for the global society. Responding to climate change is a complex process of societal transformations that should be studied as such. The contribution of the social sciences is crucial to the understanding of these processes of change. The growing body of

  5. Is “end of life” a special case? Connecting Q with survey methods to measure societal support for views on the value of life-extending treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mason (Helen); M. Collins (Marissa); N. McHugh (Neil); Godwin, J. (Jon); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); C.R. Donaldson (Cam); R.M. Baker (Rachel)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractPreference elicitation studies reporting societal views on the relative value of end-of-life treatments have produced equivocal results. This paper presents an alternative method, combining Q methodology and survey techniques (Q2S) to determine the distribution of 3 viewpoints on the

  6. Societal views on NICE, cancer drugs fund and value-based pricing criteria for prioritising medicines: a cross-sectional survey of 4118 adults in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Warren G; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2013-08-01

    The criteria used by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for accepting higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for some medicines over others, and the recent introduction of the Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) in England, are assumed to reflect societal preferences for National Health Service resource allocation. Robust empirical evidence to this effect is lacking. To explore societal preferences for these and other criteria, including those proposed for rewarding new medicines under the future value-based pricing (VBP) system, we conducted a choice-based experiment in 4118 UK adults via web-based surveys. Preferences were determined by asking respondents to allocate fixed funds between different patient and disease types reflecting nine specific prioritisation criteria. Respondents supported the criteria proposed under the VBP system (for severe diseases, address unmet needs, are innovative--provided they offered substantial health benefits, and have wider societal benefits) but did not support the end-of-life premium or the prioritisation of children or disadvantaged populations as specified by NICE, nor the special funding status for treatments of rare diseases, nor the CDF. Policies introduced on the basis of perceived--and not actual--societal values may lead to inappropriate resource allocation decisions with the potential for significant population health and economic consequences. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Comparison of societal risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    The utility of the societal risk approach to the design and evaluation of safeguards systems is examined with particular reference to the comparison of the relative effectiveness of various safeguards mechanisms. Research on threat evaluation is reviewed, and the need for further research on consequences is discussed in terms of the extension of the definition of the safeguards objective from system capability to societal consequences and the establishment of public confidence. 14 references

  8. Expansion of the wilderness values scale with three sub-scales: Personal maintenance, expression and learning, and societal maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy M. Schuster; Ken Cordell; Gary T. Green

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to expand the wilderness value scale administered in the 1994 and 2000 versions of the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment using questions included in the 2003 NSRE. A data set of 1,900 cases was randomly split in half. Validity of the additional questions was tested using principal component analysis, a confirmatory...

  9. SMAP Impact Analysis of Early Adopter Research-Two Case studies on the scientific and societal benefits of SMAP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, V. M.; Wu, H. T.; Moran, S.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    To document and evaluate the use of SMAP science products in applications, the SMAP Phase E Applications Plan proposes to "conduct case studies to address a basic question: How are SMAP science products used in decision support systems and how does the new data stream affect the system performance?" The objective is to determine the value of SMAP data to the six categories of applications based on Early Adopters' experiences, where value is defined as the scientific and/or societal benefit. Since SMAP is the first mission with a pre-launch Early Adopter Program, the post-launch case study is also unprecedented. In this talk, we will show some results of the SMAP Early Adopters, with focus on the two case studies in the applications of agriculture and weather forecasting, respectively. For agriculture, we will show the work of USDA/NASS (National Agriculture Statistics Service) scientists (Zhengwei Yang and Rick Mueller). Using SMAP soil moisture products, they have been working on the establishment of a visualization, analytics, and dissemination tool to support and improve US national crop condition monitoring. Scientifically, this study will improve our understanding on the impact of crop canopy on the SMAP SM retrieval and on the mapping relation between SMAP SM and NASS soil moisture survey results. Socio-economically, the use of SMAP data and web-based tool will improve the consistency, reliability, objectivity, and efficiency of cropland soil moisture monitoring and assessment, which will benefit the current end users of the NASS weekly report including farmers, insurance companies, and financial institutes. For weather, we will show the work of NOAA scientists (Xiwu Zhan, Weizhong Zheng, and Mike Ek) on the transition of NASA SMAP research products to NOAA operational numerical weather and seasonal climate predictions and research hydrological forecasts. Results of initial analyses and validation of the assimilation of SMAP soil moisture in NOAA's Global

  10. Herbarium data: Global biodiversity and societal botanical needs for novel research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shelley A; Soltis, Pamela S; Belbin, Lee; Chapman, Arthur D; Nelson, Gil; Paul, Deborah L; Collins, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    Building on centuries of research based on herbarium specimens gathered through time and around the globe, a new era of discovery, synthesis, and prediction using digitized collections data has begun. This paper provides an overview of how aggregated, open access botanical and associated biological, environmental, and ecological data sets, from genes to the ecosystem, can be used to document the impacts of global change on communities, organisms, and society; predict future impacts; and help to drive the remediation of change. Advocacy for botanical collections and their expansion is needed, including ongoing digitization and online publishing. The addition of non-traditional digitized data fields, user annotation capability, and born-digital field data collection enables the rapid access of rich, digitally available data sets for research, education, informed decision-making, and other scholarly and creative activities. Researchers are receiving enormous benefits from data aggregators including the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), Integrated Digitized Biocollections (iDigBio), the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA), and the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL), but effective collaboration around data infrastructures is needed when working with large and disparate data sets. Tools for data discovery, visualization, analysis, and skills training are increasingly important for inspiring novel research that improves the intrinsic value of physical and digital botanical collections.

  11. Zoonotic and Non-Zoonotic Diseases in Relation to Human Personality and Societal Values: Support for the Parasite-Stress Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Thornhill

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The parasite-stress model of human sociality proposes that humans' ontogenetic experiences with infectious diseases as well as their evolutionary historical interactions with these diseases exert causal influences on human psychology and social behavior. This model has been supported by cross-national relationships between parasite prevalence and human personality traits, and between parasite prevalence and societal values. Importantly, the parasite-stress model emphasizes the causal role of non-zoonotic parasites (which have the capacity for human-to-human transmission, rather than zoonotic parasites (which do not, but previous studies failed to distinguish between these conceptually distinct categories. The present investigation directly tested the differential predictive effects of zoonotic and non-zoonotic (both human-specific and multihost parasite prevalence on personality traits and societal values. Supporting the parasite-stress model, cross-national differences in personality traits (unrestricted sexuality, extraversion, openness to experiences and in societal values (individualism, collectivism, gender equality, democratization are predicted specifically by non-zoonotic parasite prevalence.

  12. The economics of comparative effectiveness studies: societal and private perspectives and their implications for prioritizing public investments in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David; Basu, Anirban; Conti, Rena

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) can provide valuable information for patients, providers and payers. These stakeholders differ in their incentives to invest in CER. To maximize benefits from public investments in CER, it is important to understand the value of CER from the perspectives of these stakeholders and how that affects their incentives to invest in CER. This article provides a conceptual framework for valuing CER, and illustrates the potential benefits of such studies from a number of perspectives using several case studies. We examine cases in which CER provides value by identifying when one treatment is consistently better than others, when different treatments are preferred for different subgroups, and when differences are small enough that decisions can be made based on price. We illustrate these findings using value-of-information techniques to assess the value of research, and by examining changes in pharmaceutical prices following publication of a comparative effectiveness study. Our results suggest that CER may have high societal value but limited private return to providers or payers. This suggests the importance of public efforts to promote the production of CER. We also conclude that value-of-information tools may help inform policy decisions about how much public funds to invest in CER and how to prioritize the use of available public funds for CER, in particular targeting public CER spending to areas where private incentives are low relative to social benefits.

  13. Learning about the Earth through Societally-relevant Interdisciplinary Research Projects: the Honours Integrated Science Program at McMaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, C.; Symons, S. L.; Harvey, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    Students in the Honours Integrated Science (iSci) program at McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) learn about the Earth through interdisciplinary research projects that focus on important societal issues. The iSci program is a new and innovative undergraduate program that emphasizes the links between scientific disciplines and focuses on learning through research and the development of scientific communication skills. The program accepts up to 60 students each year and is taught by a team of 18 instructors comprising senior and junior faculty, post-doctoral fellows, a lab coordinator, instructional assistant, a librarian and library staff, and an administrator. The program is designed around a pedagogical model that emphasizes hands-on learning through interdisciplinary research (Research-based Integrated Education: RIE) and is mostly project-based and experiential. In their freshman year students learn fundamental Earth science concepts (in conjunction with chemistry, physics, mathematics and biology) through research projects focused on environmental contamination, interplanetary exploration, the effect of drugs on the human body and environment, sustainable energy, and cancer. In subsequent years they conduct research on topics such as the History of the Earth, Thermodynamics, Plant-Animal Interactions, Wine Science, Forensics, and Climate Change. The iSci program attracts students with a broad interest in science and has been particularly effective in directing high quality students into the Earth sciences as they are introduced to the discipline in their first year of study through research projects that are interesting and stimulating. The structure of the iSci program encourages consideration of geoscientific applications in a broad range of societally relevant research projects; these projects are reviewed and modified each year to ensure their currency and ability to meet program learning objectives.

  14. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  15. Is "end of life" a special case? Connecting Q with survey methods to measure societal support for views on the value of life-extending treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Helen; Collins, Marissa; McHugh, Neil; Godwin, Jon; Van Exel, Job; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    Preference elicitation studies reporting societal views on the relative value of end-of-life treatments have produced equivocal results. This paper presents an alternative method, combining Q methodology and survey techniques (Q2S) to determine the distribution of 3 viewpoints on the relative value of end-of-life treatments identified in a previous, published, phase of this work. These were Viewpoint 1, "A population perspective: value for money, no special cases"; Viewpoint 2, "Life is precious: valuing life-extension and patient choice"; and Viewpoint 3, "Valuing wider benefits and opportunity cost: the quality of life and death." A Q2S survey of 4,902 respondents across the United Kingdom measured agreement with these viewpoints; 37% most agreed with Viewpoint 1, 49% with Viewpoint 2, and 9% with Viewpoint 3. Regression analysis showed associations of viewpoints with gender, level of education, religion, voting preferences, and satisfaction with the NHS. The Q2S approach provides a promising means to investigate how in-depth views and opinions are represented in the wider population. As demonstrated in this study, there is often more than 1 viewpoint on a topic and methods that seek to estimate that averages may not provide the best guidance for societal decision-making. © 2018 The Authors. Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. PROSPECTIVE LEADERS' VIEW ON ROMANIAN SOCIETAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATANA GHEORGHE ALEXANDRU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with Romanian prospective leaders’ perceptions and expectations concerning the societal culture. It is a part of a European research project, GLOBE Students, dealing with the interrelations between societal culture and leadership. The basic theoretical constructs and methodological framework of investigation are those developed by GLOBE international research project. In adapting our research to student population peculiarities, GLOBE Beta questionnaire was altered through adding new items (scales. The sample consists in 429 students in business/economics and engineering, belonging to three Romanian universities. The findings show that in student’s opinion there are significant differences between societal culture practices and values (expectations on all nine cultural dimensions in GLOBE model.

  17. Creating Societal Benefits and Corporate Profits

    OpenAIRE

    Raisch, Sebastian; Probst, Gilbert; Gomez, Peter; Zimmermann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The odds of launching a new business that creates value for both the company and the public can be improved with good planning. An in-depth analysis of how four companies created for-profit initiatives that also have high societal value suggests that each followed a similar step-by-step process to achieve what the researchers call synergistic value creation. Those steps include establishing cross-business incubators and installing multi-perspective monitoring systems.

  18. Citizen Science as a Tool for Scientific Research and Societal Benefit at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Amy

    2018-01-01

    NASA's strategic goals include advancing knowledge and opportunity in space and improving life on Earth. We support these goals through extensive programs in space and Earth science research accomplished via space-based missions and research funding. NASA's "system" is configured to conduct science using (1) in-house personnel and (2) grants, contracts, and agreements with external entities (academia, industry, international space agencies.

  19. Grand Challenges: Science, Engineering, and Societal Advances, Requiring Networking and Information Technology Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — ...the U.S. Government makes critical decisions about appropriate investments in IT R and D to help society forward both socially and economically. To inform that...

  20. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A; Deal, Robert L; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions--Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  1. Putting impact into context: the Janus face of the public value of arts and humanities research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview to the Forum on the Public Value of Arts and Humanities Research which follows it. The author argues that the current gloom in the arts and humanities as a result of the increasing pressure for societal utility does not recognise the complete picture. A growing

  2. Responding to complex societal challenges: A decade of Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) interdisciplinary research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Rice, M.; Bogardi, J.; Canadell, J.G.; Dhakal, S.; Ingram, J.; Leemans, R.; Rosenberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Earth system is an integrated, self-regulating system under increasing pressure from anthropogenic transformation. The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), which was established by the international global environmental change research programs (i.e., DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP)

  3. Accelerating science and innovation societal benefits of European research in Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Radford, Tim; Jakobsson, Camilla; Marsollier, Arnaud; Mexner, Vanessa; O'Connor, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The story so far. Collaborative research in particle physics. The lesson for Europe: co-operation pays. Medicine and life sciences. The body of knowledge: particles harnessed for health. Energy and the environment. Think big: save energy and clean up the planet. Communication and new technologies. The powerhouse of invention. Society and skills. Power to the people. The European Strategy for Particle Physics. Update 2013.

  4. Impacts and societal benefits of research activities at Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. L.; Burkhart, J. F.; Courville, Z.; Dibb, J. E.; Koenig, L.; Vaughn, B. H.

    2017-12-01

    Summit Station began as the site for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core in 1989. Since then, it has hosted both summer campaign science, and since 1997, year-round observations of atmospheric and cryospheric processes. The station has been continuously occupied since 2003. While most of the science activities at the station are supported by the US NSF Office of Polar Programs, the station also hosts many interagency and international investigations in physical glaciology, atmospheric chemistry, satellite validation, astrophysics and other disciplines. Summit is the only high elevation observatory north of the Arctic circle that can provide clean air or snow sites. The station is part of the INTER-ACT consortium of Arctic research stations with the main objective to identify, understand, predict and respond to diverse environmental changes, and part of the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) that coordinates Arctic research activities and provides a networked, observations-based view of the Arctic. The Summit Station Science Summit, sponsored by NSF, assembled a multidisciplinary group of scientists to review Summit Station science, define the leading research questions for Summit, and make community-based recommendations for future science goals and governance for Summit. The impact of several on-going observation records was summarized in the report "Sustaining the Science Impact of Summit Station, Greenland," including the use of station data in weather forecasts and climate models. Observations made at the station as part of long-term, year-round research or during shorter summer-only campaign seasons contribute to several of the identified Social Benefit Areas (SBAs) outlined in the International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework published by the IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute and Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks as an outcome of the 2016 Arctic Science Ministerial. The SBAs supported by research

  5. Do societal values influence financial development? : New evidence on the effects of post materialism and institutions on stock markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordaan, J.A.; Dima, Dogdan; Goleț, Ionuț

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present new evidence on the effects of social values on stock market development. Using panel data for a heterogeneous set of 43 countries, we use the Inglehart post materialism index to identify the relation between the degree of post materialism and the size of stock markets.

  6. Communique Declaration: The New Dynamics of Higher Education and Research for Societal Change and Development (2nd UNESCO Higher Education Assembly July, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the communique declaration on the new dynamics of higher education and research for societal change and development. This declaration begins with a preamble and focuses on (1) social responsibility of higher education; (2) access, equity and quality; (3) internationalisation, regionalisation and globalisation; (4) learning…

  7. The Value of Research in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Gay Helen; Slowik, Amy J. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, two researchers interviewed twenty-three library administrators of comparable academic libraries at American universities for their views of the value of research in academic libraries. The interview questions focused on the administrators' perceived value of academic librarians' research, incentives given to academic…

  8. SKB's program for societal research 2004-2011. An evaluation; SKB:s program foer samhaellsforskning 2004-2011. En utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Olof [Energi- och miljoestrategi O. Soederberg, Solna (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    This evaluation of the program of societal research that SKB conducted the years 2004-2011 has been performed on behalf of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The review has focused on answers to a series of questions as follows: General questions - Why was a program started? - What was SKB's purpose with the program? - Does the result mean that the objective has been achieved? - Has the program had effects (positive or negative) that were not anticipated when the purpose was formulated? - Strengths and weaknesses of the program? Questions about the implementation - How did announcement and selection procedures work? - Which forms were used for reporting results from the research projects? Questions about the continued investment in societal research - Are there such needs? - In that case, is it in SKB's interest to contribute financially to such research? - What forms might be appropriate if SKB sees interest to contribute financially to such research?.

  9. HOW FUTURE MANAGERS VIEW SOCIETAL CULTURE: A CROSS-COUNTRY COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    CATANA DOINA; CATANA GHEORGHE ALEXANDRU

    2011-01-01

    Our study aims at enriching the existing literature about the prospective managers view of an ideal societal value system and the existing cultural practices in their society. The findings about the students' perception on cultural practices and their expectations about societal culture are helpful in imagining the societal culture in its dynamics. The research sample consists of 727 students in business and engineering on undergraduate and graduate levels from Romania and Slovenia. The reaso...

  10. Motivational values and gendered research performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Given theory offered by Kuhn and Lakatos that predicts academic research can be non-innovative, this research sought to test the extent to which the motivational values of highly productive researchers are innovative. Research purpose: The aim of the research was to test theory predicting the structure of motivational values of academics in the South African university context. Motivation for the study: The study was motivated by a lack of knowledge about whether innovative and self-transcendence (the prioritisation of the needs of others values characterise highly productive researchers. Research design, approach and method: A large South African university was sampled. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modelling techniques were applied. Main findings: Findings indicate that non-innovative and gendered motivational values of security (sensitivity to uncertainty and safety issues are associated with higher productivity. However, hedonism (self-oriented and benevolence (self-transcendent values are both found to be negatively associated with research productivity. Practical/managerial implications: Supporting Kuhn’s perspective, innovative values such as self-direction are not found to be related to research productivity. Contribution/value-add: This study provides evidence in support of theory which predicts that academic research might not be motivated by innovative values.

  11. Are sciences essential and humanities elective? Disentangling competing claims for humanities research public value

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption s construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair prejudice: we argue for a prima facie case to answer in assuming that arts and humanities research s lower societal value. We identify a set of claims circulating in policy circles regarding scienc...

  12. Articulation: how societal goals matter in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018387

    2016-01-01

    Science policies try to steer scientists to conduct societally relevant research. This societal relevance is often expressed in large societal goals, such as addressing sustainability or helping with the problems that an ageing society might bring. Emerging technologies, like nanotechnology, are

  13. Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

  14. Research on digestive and liver diseases: a priority for Europe - the societal importance of gastrointestinal diseases and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbrugger, Reinhold; Quaglio, GianLuca; O'Morain, Colm; Rubig, Paul; Manns, Michael

    2013-08-01

    On 18 September 2012, in the European Parliament in Brussels, a public meeting was held between Science and Technology Options Assessments of the Parliament and the United European Gastroenterology to review the position of gastrointestinal and liver research in the context of the European Union. The meeting reflected the past situation, the ongoing close collaboration as well as facts and options on the upcoming European Union research programme Horizon 2020 that is in planning and will cover the years from 2014 to 2020.

  15. Risk assessment and societal choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otway, H J

    1975-02-15

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned; plans for further technological progress are being met by a variety of demands for a closer examination of the benefits and risks of large-scale technologies. In this paper the concepts of risk assessment are presented and a model is proposed which illustrates the importance of socio-psychological mechanisms in the acceptance of technological risks. The research plan of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project is outlined: this work is directed toward gaining an improved understanding of how societies judge the acceptability of technologies and how societal attitudes and anticipated responses may be better integrated into the decision-making process. Some preliminary results are reported. (author)

  16. Risk assessment and societal choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned; plans for further technological progress are being met by a variety of demands for a closer examination of the benefits and risks of large-scale technologies. In this paper the concepts of risk assessment are presented and a model is proposed which illustrates the importance of socio-psychological mechanisms in the acceptance of technological risks. The research plan of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project is outlined: this work is directed toward gaining an improved understanding of how societies judge the acceptability of technologies and how societal attitudes and anticipated responses may be better integrated into the decision-making process. Some preliminary results are reported. (author)

  17. Cost-effective psychotherapy for personality disorders in The Netherlands: the value of further research and active implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeteman, D.I.; Busschbach, J.J.V.; Verheul, R.; Hoomans, T.; Kim, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective In a budget-constrained health care system, decisions regarding resource allocation towards research and implementation are critical and can be informed by cost-effectiveness analysis. The objective of this study was to assess the societal value of conducting further research to inform

  18. Consumption value theory and the marketing of public health: an effective formative research tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas G; Byus, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Contemporary public health requires the support and participation of its constituency. This study assesses the capacity of consumption value theory to identify the basis of this support. A telephone survey design used simple random sampling of adult residents of Cherokee County, Oklahoma. Factor analysis and stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify and classify personal and societal level support variables. Most residents base societal level support on epistemic values. Direct services clientele base their support on positive emotional values derived from personal contact and attractive programs. Residents are curious about public health and want to know more about the health department. Where marketing the effectiveness of public health programs would yield relatively little support, marketing health promotion activities may attract public opposition. This formative research tool suggests a marketing strategy for public health practitioners.

  19. Constructing the Value of Information Systems Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Building on a social constructivist approach, this commentary examines the value of Information Systems (IS) research and its bearing on the future of the discipline in three steps as follows. First, it is argued that the product of IS scholars can serve as a proxy for IS research and that the su......Building on a social constructivist approach, this commentary examines the value of Information Systems (IS) research and its bearing on the future of the discipline in three steps as follows. First, it is argued that the product of IS scholars can serve as a proxy for IS research...

  20. Good research practices for measuring drug costs in cost-effectiveness analyses: a societal perspective: the ISPOR Drug Cost Task Force report--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Mansley, Edward C; Abbott, Thomas A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Hay, Joel W; Smeeding, James

    2010-01-01

    Major guidelines regarding the application of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) have recommended the common and widespread use of the "societal perspective" for purposes of consistency and comparability. The objective of this Task Force subgroup report (one of six reports from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research [ISPOR] Task Force on Good Research Practices-Use of Drug Costs for Cost Effectiveness Analysis [Drug Cost Task Force (DCTF)]) was to review the definition of this perspective, assess its specific application in measuring drug costs, identify any limitations in theory or practice, and make recommendations regarding potential improvements. Key articles, books, and reports in the methodological literature were reviewed, summarized, and integrated into a draft review and report. This draft report was posted for review and comment by ISPOR membership. Numerous comments and suggestions were received, and the report was revised in response to them. The societal perspective can be defined by three conditions: 1) the inclusion of time costs, 2) the use of opportunity costs, and 3) the use of community preferences. In practice, very few, if any, published CEAs have met all of these conditions, though many claim to have taken a societal perspective. Branded drug costs have typically used actual acquisition cost rather than the much lower social opportunity costs that would reflect only short-run manufacturing and distribution costs. This practice is understandable, pragmatic, and useful to current decision-makers. Nevertheless, this use of CEA focuses on static rather than dynamic efficacy and overlooks the related incentives for innovation. Our key recommendation is that current CEA practice acknowledge and embrace this limitation by adopting a new standard for the reference case as one of a "limited societal" or "health systems" perspective, using acquisition drug prices while including indirect costs and community preferences. The

  1. Value of research and value of development in early assessments of new medical technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Grutters, Janneke P.C.; van Harten, Wim H.; Joore, Manuela A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In early stages of development of new medical technologies, there are conceptually separate but related societal decisions to be made concerning adoption, further development (i.e., technical improvement), and research (i.e., clinical trials) of new technologies. This article presents a

  2. Trust in organizations — organizational, intergroup, and value research perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltiainen J.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this overview article, we discuss the importance of trust for organizations by employing a multilevel and multidisciplinary perspective. We complement and contribute to the existing reviews by (1 considering trust not only within and between individuals and organizations, but also at the societal level, (2 bridging findings and literature from the fields of organizational, intergroup, and value research, and (3 summarizing recent research on the dynamics of trust and its development in organizations. Related to contemplating trust at various levels, we present multiple topics such as individual’s tendency to trust, employees’ trust in leaders, trust between groups with examples from organizational mergers and interethnic relations, and the relationship between trust and societies’ economic competitiveness. We conclude by summarizing recent organizational literature about the development of trust, transfers of trust towards different levels of leadership, and reciprocity in employees’ trust and fairness perceptions. In so doing, we contribute to the means to promote trust, active citizenship and socially sustainable growth of organizations and our societies.

  3. Responses to Environmental & Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth (RESCUE) foresight initiative - towards a European response to grand challenges in sustainability research and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, B.; et al.

    2012-04-01

    The "Responses to Environmental and Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth" (RESCUE; www.esf.org/rescue) foresight initiative - a joint COST-ESF "Frontiers of Science" initiative - aimed to help Europe address the societal and scientific challenges related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues. In RESCUE, the focus of attention was on people and the goal was to stimulate an integrated, innovative response from natural, social and human sciences. The RESCUE foresight initiative began in September 2009 and has recently been completed. RESCUE had the following key objectives: 1. To propose a strategic process for natural, social and human sciences to improve their ability and capacity to work together to address global environmental change through interdisciplinary synergy and to respond effectively to societal and policy-relevant needs; 2. To articulate new scientific issues related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues, especially those of transdisciplinary nature and of major relevance to society; 3. To explore new approaches towards truly integrated, interdisciplinary science, and to facilitate the 'revolution' in education and capacity building it requires. The work of RESCUE focused on the following themes: · Contributions from social sciences and humanities in developing responses to challenges of the Anthropocene; · Collaboration between the natural, social and human sciences in global environmental change and resilience studies; · Requirements for research methodologies and data; · Education and capacity building - towards a 'revolution'; · The interface between science and policy, communication and outreach. The RESCUE recommendations include the following issues to be addressed by science-funders, science policy-makers, researchers, practitioners, educators and a range of other societal actors: · develop an institutional framework for an open knowledge society, · re-organise research so

  4. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R and D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about $30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about $23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about $50 million (of which NSF awards about $30 million and EPA about $6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public

  5. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, M. C.

    2003-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R&D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about 30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about 23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about 50 million (of which NSF awards about 30 million and EPA about 6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public.

  6. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, M.C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2003-08-15

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R and D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about $30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about $23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about $50 million (of which NSF awards about $30 million and EPA about $6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public.

  7. SOCIETAL CULTURE: A COMPARISON OF ROMANIAN, AUSTRIAN AND GERMAN STUDENTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATANA DOINA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study compares the students’ view on the existing cultural practices with their ideal societal value system in compared societies. For the purpose of this investigation, Austria and Germany were selected to represent Central European values since they are seen as a ‘bridge’ between Eastern and Western European societal values. The research findings are helpful in identifying signs of cultural convergence of Romanian societal culture with Central European values. In doing so, our study will hopefully broaden the body of knowledge about the cultural harmonization between newer and older members of European Union. As seen in the literature review section, such studies started only a few years ago. Comparison of Romanian, Austrian and German students’ perspective on societal culture is performed for the first time by the authors of this study. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

  8. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis....... In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FOS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (Breuer, Mruck and Roth 2002; Mruck and Breuer 2003). This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology......, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research....

  9. Value Orientations of Future Teachers-Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botalova, Olga B.; Osipova, Seraphima V.; Asenova, Nazymgul S.; Kenenbaeva, Marzhan A.; Kuderina, Aizhan Y.; Zholtaeva, Gulnar; Boribekova, Farzana; Zhanatbekova, Nazym; Vedilina, Elena A.; Azanbekova, Gulnaz

    2016-01-01

    Values are keystones of society; they can vary depending on the professional activity. Teacher's values play an important role, since they directly affect the formation of knowledge of students. The paper presents the characteristics of one of the structural components of future teachers' active scientific position--pedagogic values such as…

  10. Customer Oriented System of Values Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ROMAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wind of change in the past few years in the business environment regarding the customer value perspectives. This paper delivers a framework that entails the value creation development. Academics and business practitioners are interested in defining the concept of value and, more clearly, customer value. The objective met by the system of values in a company is to create principles that deliver the image of company internally and externally. It is about what the employees should know and what the customer should feel or see related to that company. It is very important from the point of view of competition in the market. The purpose of this study is to analyze and characterize through an econometric model the importance of customer oriented system of value in the companies from Iasi through a defined database. Identification of subgroups within the database could help elucidate trends and facilitate future model value building. The main objective is to reveal if the companies from Iasi have a stated or applied system of value and which is the place of customer-oriented value occupies in any system of value from the companies from Iasi. The foundations of the projects ensure that the design is conducted effectively and efficiently. Findings can be used as recommendations for the firms in Iasi because this paper considers and quantifies how the system of value of an organization is addressed and its importance in the context of the companies of Iasi County.

  11. Catalyzing Cross-Disciplinary Research and Education Within and Beyond the Environmental and Geosciences to Address Emerging, Societally-Relevant Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cak, A. D.; Vigdor, L. J.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Giebel, B. M.; Santistevan, C.; Chasteau, C.

    2017-12-01

    Tackling emergent, societally-relevant problems in the environmental sciences is hardly confined to a single research discipline, but rather requires collaborations that bridge diverse domains and perspectives. While new technologies (e.g., Skype) can in theory unite otherwise geographically distributed participation in collaborative research, physical distance nevertheless raises the bar on intellectual dialogue. Such barriers may reveal perceptions of or real differences across disciplines, reflecting particular traditions in their histories and academic cultures. Individual disciplines are self-defined by their scientific, epistemologic, methodologic, or philosophical traditions (e.g., difficulties in understanding processes occurring at different scales, insufficient research funding for interdisciplinary work), or cultural and discursive hurdles (e.g., navigating a new field's jargon). Coupled with these challenges is a considerable deficiency in educating the next generation of scientists to help them develop a sufficient comfort level with thinking critically across multiple disciplinary domains and conceptual frameworks. To address these issues, the City University of New York (CUNY), the largest public urban university in the U.S., made a significant investment in advancing cross-disciplinary research and education, culminating in the opening of the CUNY Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) in New York City (NYC) in late 2014. We report here on our experiences incubating new collaborative efforts to address environmental science-related research as it is interwoven with the ASRC's five research initiatives (Environmental Sciences, Neuroscience, Structural Biology, Photonics, and Nanoscience). We describe the ASRC's overall structure and function as both a stand-alone interdisciplinary center and one that collaborates more broadly with CUNY's network of twenty-four campuses distributed across NYC's five boroughs. We identify challenges we have faced so

  12. Measuring values for cross-cultural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Hoorn, A.A.J. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the empirical relevance of the recent critique that values surveys, as they are, suffer from the problem of measuring marginal preferences rather than values. By surveying items from cross-cultural surveys by Hofstede, Inglehart and GLOBE, we show that the marginal

  13. Personal, societal, and ecological values of wilderness: Sixth World Wilderness Congress proceedings on research, management, and allocation, Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; Greg H. Aplet; John C. Hendee

    2000-01-01

    The papers contained in Volume II of these Proceedings represent a combination of papers originally scheduled for the delayed 1997 meeting of the World Wilderness Congress and those submitted in response to a second call for papers when the Congress was rescheduled for October 24-29, 1998, in Bangalore, India. Just as in Volume I, the papers are divided into seven...

  14. Personal, societal, and ecological values of wilderness: Sixth World Wilderness Congress proceedings on research, management, and allocation, Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; Greg H. Aplet; John C. Hendee

    1998-01-01

    The papers contained in Volume I of these Proceedings were originally scheduled for presentation at the Sixth World Wilderness Congress in Bangalore, India, in 1997. Due to a delay of the Congress until 1998, these 27 papers were compiled for publication prior to presentation. Volumes I and II contain papers covering seven topics: protected area systems: challenges,...

  15. Beliefs to practice in postsecondary science education: The value of research/the research value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Shelley Donna

    The intent of this study was to examine how beliefs of postsecondary science educators about the nature of science, and of education, influence their pedagogical decisions. Data were collected by interviewing six instructors who held Doctoral degrees in physics, chemistry, or biology, and by observing them in their classrooms. Grounded theory methodology guided data collection and analysis. Instructors shared many similarities. During childhood each became interested in a particular area of science, and surprisingly, was influenced by cross-gender role models. Each performed well in school, possessed a strong sense of self-efficacy, and was optimistic about the future. Initially, none chose teaching as their career. The scientific "research" culture into which these individuals were socialized defined success as the acquisition of a prestigious research position. For a variety of reasons they chose to become science educators. Given the pervasiveness of these scientific community norms, tension and discomfort accompanied this transition to teaching. Nevertheless, each developed a deep commitment to teaching excellence. They shared several teaching techniques, including use of the scientific method, historical references, tools for aiding visualization, relevant examples, and storytelling. The instructors were attempting to implement interactive teaching in safe, comfortable, disciplined classrooms. The influence of beliefs about the nature of science and of education was not unexpected, however, what was surprising was the significant impact on pedagogy of the "research" value. The "research" culture, so dominant during their own education, continued to inform their beliefs, and was revealed in their teaching. These instructors shared a series of pedagogical goals for their students, progressing from becoming "knowledgeable," to becoming "educated," and finally to engaging in creative thinking, or having original "ideas." The highest goal-having ideas, asking

  16. STS: Adding Value To Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David D.; Chubin, Daryl E.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Kumar and Chubin-edited collection, "Science, Technology, and Society: A Sourcebook on Research and Practice". Presents an outline of the 12 chapters that examine STS trends, curriculum, teaching, learning, mentoring, advocacy, public policy, and issues for further research. (Author/WRM)

  17. Pushing or sharing as value-driven strategies for societal change in global supply chains: two case studies in the British-South African fresh fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, C.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Glasbergen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Business strategy is linked to organisational values and culture, which is determined to some extent by national culture. This can provide a challenge in a global supply chain where culture and values at one end of the chain do not correspond with culture at the other end. This paper contends that

  18. Ethical issues and societal expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlay, D.

    2010-01-01

    Daniel Metlay (NWTRB) declared that institutions had always recognised an ethical obligation to manage high- level radioactive waste in unprecedented ways. This obligation has not only endured, but has become more explicit and multidimensional and it now subsumed under a more general rubric of 'societal expectations'. D. Metlay directed attention toward the proceedings of previous RWMC-RF workshop ', which contains five essays, authored by Kjell Andersson, Andrew Blowers, Carl-Reinhold Braakenhielm, Francois Dermange, and Patricia Fleming, that are relevant to the question of ethical issues and societal expectations. D. Metlay observed that 'societal expectations' are hard to define and thus very hard to measure. They may vary considerably with time and from country to country. As an illustration he referred to an inquiry performed by a task group 30 years ago in a document entitled 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management' (NUREG-0300) on behalf of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Conclusions from D. Metlay are that, for the most part, societal expectations in the United States appear to be quite stable over a period of more than 30 years. In two areas, however, there are clear differences in emphasis between expectations articulated in the last few years and those recorded in 1978. (1) While then there was emphasis on the operational reliability of organisations and institutions. In particular, much care was taken to discuss the inherent limitations on bureaucratic error-correction in the future. The focus is nowadays more on bureaucratic behaviours associated with carrying out decision-making processes in the present. (2) While there is current emphasis on the importance of trust, transparency, and accountability, the NRC document may cast some doubt on the reliability of a stepwise decision-making process. In the domain of radioactive waste management, error signals are notoriously unclear, and strong disagreements over objectives and value trade

  19. Value of curiosity-oriented research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M; Greer, J R; Jevons, F R; Langrish, J; Watkins, D S

    1970-03-14

    Is the most profit to be had from research inspired by curiosity or by foresight of practical applications? A recent suggestion that the answer could be found by evaluating curiosity-oriented projects has proved hard to follow up.

  20. Psychological and pedagogical research of modern young people values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova N.V.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available this article is based on the psycho-pedagogical research of values orientation formation in different age groups. This research touches upon diverse approaches to values development and acceptance among children, teenagers and youngsters. This article adduses quantitative analysis of values preferences in different periods of life as well as qualitative analysis of these values in each age group.

  1. Ubuntu research values needed for Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Chris

    2012-05-15

    Ex Africa semper aliquid novi. Africa's health researchers last month took greater collective responsibility for cultivating their continent's historically neglected and under-funded work when an international forum in Cape Town agreed on co-operative strategies to translate their findings into improving more lives on the ground.

  2. Children's proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    that is above or outside the institutional setting or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn...... and develop. Understanding school or kindergarten as (part of) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda are no longer simply thoughts about the school – for economic reasons – having space for as many pupils...... as possible (schools for all). Such thoughts can be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. The point is to clarify or sharpen...

  3. Public values: core or confusion? Introduction to the centrality and puzzlement of public values research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck Jørgensen, T.; Rutgers, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public administration

  4. The societal costs of insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Wade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan G WadeCPS Research, Glasgow, ScotlandObjective: Insomnia can be broadly defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or sleep that is not refreshing or of poor quality with negative effect on daytime function. Insomnia can be a primary condition or comorbid to an underlying disorder. Subjective measures of insomnia used in population studies, usually based on complaints of unsatisfactory sleep, put the prevalence at about 10%. Insomnia is more common in the elderly and in women, and is often associated with medical and psychiatric disorders. This review examines the measures used to assess quality of sleep (QOS and daytime functioning and the impact of insomnia on society using these measures.Methods: Literature searches were performed to identify all studies of insomnia (primary and comorbid in adults (aged 18–64 years and the elderly (aged ≥ 65 years with baseline and/or outcomes relating to QOS or daytime functioning. The impact of poor QOS on quality of life (QOL, psychomotor and cognitive skills, health care resource utilization, and other societal effects was examined.Results: Although definitions and measurement scales used to assess sleep quality vary widely, it is clear that the societal consequences of insomnia are substantial and include impaired QOL and increased health care utilization. The impact of poor QOS and impaired daytime functioning common in insomnia can lead to indirect effects such as lower work productivity, increased sick leave, and a higher rate of motor vehicle crashes.Conclusions: Insomnia is associated with substantial direct and indirect costs to society. It is almost impossible to separate the costs associated with primary and comorbid insomnia. More studies are required which control for the severity of any primary disorder to accurately evaluate the costs of comorbid insomnia. Development of standardized diagnostic and assessment scales will enable more accurate quantification of the true

  5. Don't Discount Societal Value in Cost-Effectiveness Comment on "Priority Setting for Universal Health Coverage: We Need Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes, Not Just More Evidence on Cost-Effectiveness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William

    2017-01-14

    As healthcare resources become increasingly scarce due to growing demand and stagnating budgets, the need for effective priority setting and resource allocation will become ever more critical to providing sustainable care to patients. While societal values should certainly play a part in guiding these processes, the methodology used to capture these values need not necessarily be limited to multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA)-based processes including 'evidence-informed deliberative processes.' However, if decision-makers intend to not only incorporates the values of the public they serve into decisions but have the decisions enacted as well, consideration should be given to more direct involvement of stakeholders. Based on the examples provided by Baltussen et al, MCDA-based processes like 'evidence-informed deliberative processes' could be one way of achieving this laudable goal. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  6. An Action Research Study in an Icelandic Preschool: Developing Consensus about Values and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Ingibjorg; Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Values education is embedded in the curricula of all the Nordic countries. However, values education remains a neglected area for research and practice in early childhood education and care. This article reports on the aspects of an action research project conducted in a preschool in Iceland, across a period of 18 months. The study focused on the…

  7. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  8. Western hardwoods : value-added research and demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. W. Green; W. W. Von Segen; S. A. Willits

    1995-01-01

    Research results from the value-added research and demonstration program for western hardwoods are summarized in this report. The intent of the program was to enhance the economy of the Pacific Northwest by helping local communities and forest industries produce wood products more efficiently. Emphasis was given to value-added products and barriers to increased...

  9. Reflecting on future research concerning the added value of FM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, PA; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, C; Sarasoja, AL

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize recent research findings and reflections on The Added Value of Facilities Management and to outline perspectives for future research and development of the added value of FM.
    Methodology - The article is based on reflections on contributions to the recently published book

  10. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2//sup -/ induced climate change: a research agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    In adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, mankind is unintentionally conducting a great biological and geophysical experiment. This experiment can be expected to increase scientific understanding of ecological systems and of the processes in the ocean and the atmosphere that partially determine world climate. But from the standpoint of governments and peoples, the major problem to be solved is to understand the nature of the impacts on societies of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), with the objective of avoiding or ameliorating unfavorable impacts and gaining most benefit from favorable impacts. The research program proposed herein is designed to provide the understanding needed to achieve this objective. It is based on a recognition of the distinctive characteristics of the CO/sub 2/ problem. It is concluded that three kinds of research on the consequences of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and possible climatic changes are called for: assessment of risks; research to enhance beneficial effects and lessen harmful ones, where this is possible, and to slow down rates of carbon dioxide emission; and study of potential social and institutional responses to projected climatic changes.

  11. Mapping the Delivery of Societal Benefit through the International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, S. M.; Gallo, J.

    2017-12-01

    The international Arctic scientific community has identified the need for a sustained and integrated portfolio of pan-Arctic Earth-observing systems. In 2017, an international effort was undertaken to develop the first ever Value Tree framework for identifying common research and operational objectives that rely on Earth observation data derived from Earth-observing systems, sensors, surveys, networks, models, and databases to deliver societal benefits in the Arctic. A Value Tree Analysis is a common tool used to support decision making processes and is useful for defining concepts, identifying objectives, and creating a hierarchical framework of objectives. A multi-level societal benefit area value tree establishes the connection from societal benefits to the set of observation inputs that contribute to delivering those benefits. A Value Tree that relies on expert domain knowledge from Arctic and non-Arctic nations, international researchers, Indigenous knowledge holders, and other experts to develop a framework to serve as a logical and interdependent decision support tool will be presented. Value tree examples that map the contribution of Earth observations in the Arctic to achieving societal benefits will be presented in the context of the 2017 International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework. These case studies will highlight specific observing products and capability groups where investment is needed to contribute to the development of a sustained portfolio of Arctic observing systems.

  12. Astrobiology, discovery, and societal impact

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    The search for life in the universe, once the stuff of science fiction, is now a robust worldwide research program with a well-defined roadmap probing both scientific and societal issues. This volume examines the humanistic aspects of astrobiology, systematically discussing the approaches, critical issues, and implications of discovering life beyond Earth. What do the concepts of life and intelligence, culture and civilization, technology and communication mean in a cosmic context? What are the theological and philosophical implications if we find life - and if we do not? Steven J. Dick argues that given recent scientific findings, the discovery of life in some form beyond Earth is likely and so we need to study the possible impacts of such a discovery and formulate policies to deal with them. The remarkable and often surprising results are presented here in a form accessible to disciplines across the sciences, social sciences, and humanities.

  13. Reflecting on future research concerning the added value of FM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    on contributions to the recently published book “The Added Value of Facilities Management” and related future studies, as well as further exploration of five main themes. Findings – Added value is expected to be central in the future development of FM, which is confirmed by recent foresight studies....... There is a need for a better understanding of alignment between FM and core business, performance measurement methods and how models such as the FM Value Map can be of value to the involved stakeholders. Corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainability and branding have great potential to add value......Purpose – This paper aims to summarize recent research findings and reflections on The Added Value of Facilities Management (FM) and to outline perspectives for future research and development of the added value of FM. Design/methodology/approach – The article is based on reflections...

  14. Integral Methodological Pluralism in Science Education Research: Valuing Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nancy T.; Callihan, Laurie P.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the multiple methodologies used in educational research and proposes a model that includes all of them as contributing to understanding educational contexts and research from multiple perspectives. The model, based on integral theory (Wilber in a theory of everything. Shambhala, Boston, 2000) values all forms of research as…

  15. Research Evaluation and the Assessment of Public Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molas-Gallart, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Funding organisations are increasingly asking academics to show evidence of the economic and social value generated by their research. These requests have often been associated with the emergence of a so-called "new social contract for research" and are related to the implementation of new research evaluation systems. Although the…

  16. Congruence and Performance of Value Concepts in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo Beckers

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two value concepts are dominant in the social sciences: (1 Schwartz's theory of basic human values, measured through the Portrait Values Questionnaire (ESS and (2 Inglehart's postmaterialism and Welzel's extension to the self-expression values scale (WVS/EVS. To advance research in values, two questions need to be addressed: (1 Are the concepts and measurements of values in the different approaches interchangeable? (2 Which of the concepts performs better for explaining moral and social attitudes? This study contributes to the discussion on value concepts by comparing these value instruments using individual level data from an online access panel (n = 762 and assessing the performance of values instruments for microexplanations of moral (end-of-life attitudes and sexual morality and social attitudes (xenophobia. Overall, the measurement model of basic human values with the PVQ provides a sound basis for comparing the Schwartz values to postmaterialism and self-expression values. In both cases, there are positive correlations with universalism and self-direction and negative correlations with tradition/conformity and security, which do not exceed 0.4. Regarding the performance, it turns out that the Schwartz values are in toto a more powerful tool than both Inglehart's postmaterialism and Welzel's self-expression values, in terms of explained variance as well as in terms of standardized effects.

  17. In Defense of a Social Value Requirement for Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Rid, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Many guidelines and commentators endorse the view that clinical research is ethically acceptable only when it has social value, in the sense of collecting data which might be used to improve health. A version of this social value requirement is included in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Nuremberg Code, and is codified in many national research regulations. At the same time, there have been no systematic analyses of why social value is an ethical requirement for clinical research. Recognizing this gap in the literature, recent articles by Alan Wertheimer and David Resnik argue that the extant justifications for the social value requirement are unpersuasive. Both authors conclude, contrary to almost all current guidelines and regulations, that it can be acceptable across a broad range of cases to conduct clinical research which is known prospectively to have no social value. The present article assesses this conclusion by critically evaluating the ethical and policy considerations relevant to the claim that clinical research must have social value. This analysis supports the standard view that social value is an ethical requirement for the vast majority of clinical research studies and should be mandated by applicable guidelines and policies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Values in environmental research: Citizens’ views of scientists who acknowledge values

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCright, Aaron M.; Allen, Summer; Dietz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Scientists who perform environmental research on policy-relevant topics face challenges when communicating about how values may have influenced their research. This study examines how citizens view scientists who publicly acknowledge values. Specifically, we investigate whether it matters: if citizens share or oppose a scientist’s values, if a scientist’s conclusions seem contrary to or consistent with the scientist’s values, and if a scientist is assessing the state of the science or making a policy recommendation. We conducted two 3x2 factorial design online experiments. Experiment 1 featured a hypothetical scientist assessing the state of the science on the public-health effects of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), and Experiment 2 featured a scientist making a policy recommendation on use of BPA. We manipulated whether or not the scientist expressed values and whether the scientist’s conclusion appeared contrary to or consistent with the scientist’s values, and we accounted for whether or not subjects’ values aligned with the scientist’s values. We analyzed our data with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques. Our results provide at least preliminary evidence that acknowledging values may reduce the perceived credibility of scientists within the general public, but this effect differs depending on whether scientists and citizens share values, whether scientists draw conclusions that run contrary to their values, and whether scientists make policy recommendations. PMID:29069087

  19. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  20. The Added Value of FM : Different Research Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, P; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, C; von Felten, D; Lindholm, A

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present and compare research perspectives and theoretical reflections from a variety of academic fields on the concept of Added Value of Facilities Management (FM).
    Theory: The starting point is the so-called FM Value Map, which was presented in a paper by Jensen

  1. Religiosity and value system of young lecturers: qualitative research data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavenkov Oleg Vladimirovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Orthodox religion as a factor of formation of spiritual and value system of young teachers. Young lecturers belong to the socio-demographic group of 20 to 35 years involved mainly in teaching and research activities. The article presents the results of a qualitative study of value system of 23 informants. The study showed that the system of values of informants is characterized by syncretism. Almost all the informants are religious, but religiosity is differently ranked in their value system. Religiosity is often in a latent form.

  2. The value of Internet research to Danish council reporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings from qualitative interviews with nine Danish council reporters on how they use the Internet for research on council affairs. Through qualitative interviews, the article aims to qualify and expand findings from survey research on journalists' use of the Internet...... for research and asks how much value journalists add to information found on the Internet and how important Internet research is compared to other types of research. The journalists interviewed found that the council website was useful as a provider of factual information about the council and a searchable...

  3. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2012-01-01

    of the psycho-societal methodology, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research. Resumen La naturaleza social de la...... subjetividad: un desafío metodológico interdisciplinario Henning Salling Olesen El volumen temático presenta una aproximación psicosocial a la investigación empírica cualitativa en diversas áreas de la vida social cotidiana. Es una aproximación que integra una teoría de la subjetividad y una interpretación de...... metodología que integra experiencias hermenéuticas desde el análisis de texto y el psicoanálisis. Es un enfoque particular sobre la subjetividad como un aspecto del objeto de investigación y como un aspecto del proceso de la investigación. Por el término “aproximación” se indica la conexión intrínseca entre...

  4. Valuing of research project in energy field with real options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Blasio, N.; Marzo, G.; Turatto, R.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an application of real options theory for valuing a research project in the field of stranded gas valorisation. After a presentation of the theory, the analysis addresses the use of real options evaluation for generating alternative pathways in order to add new value to the R D projects. It also shows how real option approach may be important for selecting among competitive projects, but also for providing a system for valorisation of decision-maker flexibility [it

  5. Value Arguments in Science Research Articles: Making the Case for the Importance of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    It is in the interest of scholarly journals to publish important research and of researchers to publish in important journals. One key to making the case for the importance of research in a scholarly article is to incorporate value arguments. Yet there has been no rhetorical analysis of value arguments in the literature. In the context of…

  6. Animating Research with Counseling Values: A Training Model to Address the Research-to-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristi A.; Dewell, John A.; Holmes, Courtney M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistent research-to-practice gap poses a problem for counselor education. The gap may be caused by conflicts between the humanistic values that guide much of counseling and the values that guide research training. In this article, the authors address historical concerns regarding research training for students and the conducting of research…

  7. DOES FAIR VALUE REPRESENT A CONCERN FOR ROMANIAN RESEARCHERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurcau Anca-Sabina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the actual economic context, the fair value concept is of high interest .We tried to see if the concept is only talk about, or if research in Romania has been actually done on this theme. We have analyzed the Romanian Journals recognized by CNCSIS in order to see if this concept represents a concern for Romanian researchers. This article is a literature review of the economic Romanian journals recognize by CNCSIS in the field of “fair value”.

  8. Societal Dynamics Understanding Social Knowledge and Wisdom

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    At both a micro-information level and a macro-societal level, the concepts of “knowledge” and “wisdom” are complementary – in both decisions and in social structures and institutions.  At the decision level, knowledge is concerned with how to make a proper choice of means, where “best” is measured as the efficiency toward achieving an end.  Wisdom is concerned with how to make a proper choice of ends  that attain “best” values. At a societal level, knowledge is managed through science/technology and innovation.  And while science/technology is society's way to create new means with high efficiencies, they reveal nothing about values.  Technology can be used for good or for evil, to make the world into a garden or to destroy all life.  It is societal wisdom which should influence the choice of proper ends -- ends to make the world a garden. How can society make progress in wisdom as well as knowledge?  Historically, the disciplines of the physical sciences and biology have provided sci...

  9. Values Education Research Trends in Turkey: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldag, Adem

    2016-01-01

    The present study makes a situation analysis of graduate theses on values education published between 1999 and 2015 in Turkey. It has a qualitative research design, wherein data is collected through document analysis. The form developed for this purpose is comprised of nine sections, each of which focuses on a different aspect: universities,…

  10. What does existing research say about value co-creation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Merethe Stjerne; Tanev, Stoyan; Pedrosa, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a literature review on co-creation, which is summarized into emerging research areas and insights as a basis for a future research agenda for value co-creation. The search methodology is based on a keywords search on ISI Web of Knowledge, leading to 82 articles with a summary...... of four emerging subject areas within marketing science, service management, new product development & innovation and general business and management. The four subject areas lead to new key driving forces of value co-creation by involving the customers in experience networks, where both creating......-customer interaction events, which are extremely personal with unique products, services and experiences. In general the paper is starting up a conceptual refinement on value co-creation by addressing the key characteristics of current literature and driving forces of co-creation....

  11. Can Participatory Action Research Create Value for Business Model Innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Mogens; Rasmussen, Ole Horn; Fast, Alf Michael

    Innovation (BMI)?” – has been investigated from five different perspectives based upon The Business Model Cube and The Where to Look Model. Using both established and newly developed tools the paper presents how. Theory and data from two cases are presented and it is demonstrated how industry increase......Abstract: Participatory Action Research (PAR) has a longer academic history compared with the idea of business models (BMs). This paper indicates how industries gain by using the combined methodology. The research question "Can participatory action research create value for Business Model...... their monetary and/or non-monetary value creation doing BMI based upon PAR. The process is essential and using the methodology of PAR creates meaning. Behind the process, the RAR methodology and its link to BM and BMI may contribute to theory construction and creation of a common language in academia around...

  12. Building Student Awareness of Societal Decision-Making Challenges about Energy through the Study of Earth System Data and Innovations in Energy-Related Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.; Berding, M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy literacy requires knowledge about the trade-offs inherent in energy alternatives, about how humans use energy and have choices in how much energy to use, and about what changes to the Earth system are occurring from energy uses. It also requires collaborative decision-making skills coupled with awareness about what values we bring to the table as we negotiate solutions that serve both personal needs and the common good. Coming up with a notion of the common good requires delineating how environmental crises occurring in other parts of the world compare to our own. We also need to understand criteria for judging what might be viable solutions. This presentation describes work that SRI International is carrying out to meet these awareness-building needs. SRI educational researchers created a curriculum that immerses students in studying regional climate change data about California in comparison to global climate change. Students ponder solution energy-related strategies and impact analyses. The curriculum will be described, as will a collaboration between SRI educational researchers and materials scientists. The scientists are designing and testing technologies for producing biofuels and solar power, and for sequestering carbon from coal fired power plants. As they apply principles of science and engineering to test materials intended to meet these energy challenges, they understand that even if the tests prove successful, if there is not economic feasibility or environmental advantage, the technology may not stand as a viable solution. This educator-scientist team is using the Essential Energy Principles and Next Generation Science Standards to articulate milestones along a trajectory of energy learning. The trajectory starts with simple understandings of what energy is and what constitute our energy challenges. It ends with more the types of more sophisticated understandings needed for designing and testing energy technology solutions.

  13. Understanding the value added to clinical care by educational activities. Value of Education Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, G S; Headrick, L A; Boex, J R

    1999-10-01

    In an era of competition in health care delivery, those who pay for care are interested in supporting primarily those activities that add value to the clinical enterprise. The authors report on their 1998 project to develop a conceptual model for assessing the value added to clinical care by educational activities. Through interviews, nine key stakeholders in patient care identified five ways in which education might add value to clinical care: education can foster higher-quality care, improve work satisfaction of clinicians, have trainees provide direct clinical services, improve recruitment and retention of clinicians, and contribute to the future of health care. With this as a base, an expert panel of 13 clinical educators and investigators defined six perspectives from which the value of education in clinical care might be studied: the perspectives of health-care-oriented organizations, clinician-teachers, patients, education organizations, learners, and the community. The panel adapted an existing model to create the "Education Compass" to portray education's effects on clinical care, and developed a new set of definitions and research questions for each of the four major aspects of the model (clinical, functional, satisfaction, and cost). Working groups next drafted proposals to address empirically those questions, which were critiqued at a national conference on the topic of education's value in clinical care. The next step is to use the methods developed in this project to empirically assess the value added by educational activities to clinical care.

  14. Measuring Values in Environmental Research: A Test of an Environmental Portrait Value Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Thijs; Steg, Linda; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2018-01-01

    Four human values are considered to underlie individuals’ environmental beliefs and behaviors: biospheric (i.e., concern for environment), altruistic (i.e., concern for others), egoistic (i.e., concern for personal resources) and hedonic values (i.e., concern for pleasure and comfort). These values are typically measured with an adapted and shortened version of the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS), to which we refer as the Environmental-SVS (E-SVS). Despite being well-validated, recent research has indicated some concerns about the SVS methodology (e.g., comprehensibility, self-presentation biases) and suggested an alternative method of measuring human values: The Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ). However, the PVQ has not yet been adapted and applied to measure values most relevant to understand environmental beliefs and behaviors. Therefore, we tested the Environmental-PVQ (E-PVQ) – a PVQ variant of E-SVS –and compared it with the E-SVS in two studies. Our findings provide strong support for the validity and reliability of both the E-SVS and E-PVQ. In addition, we find that respondents slightly preferred the E-PVQ over the E-SVS (Study 1). In general, both scales correlate similarly to environmental self-identity (Study 1), energy behaviors (Studies 1 and 2), pro-environmental personal norms, climate change beliefs and policy support (Study 2). Accordingly, both methodologies show highly similar results and seem well-suited for measuring human values underlying environmental behaviors and beliefs. PMID:29743874

  15. Value of qualitative research in the study of massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Ania; Porcino, Antony; Vehoef, Marja J

    2008-12-15

    Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used in health research because it is particularly suited to the study of complex topics or issues about which little is known and concerning which quantification cannot easily create or effectively convey understanding. By exploring the lived experience of people providing and receiving massage therapy and the meaning that those people ascribe to those experiences, in-depth understanding of the nature of massage therapy and of how it affects people's lives is possible. Qualitative research may also provide insights into the outcomes, process and context of massage therapy that cannot be fully achieved through quantification alone.The purpose of the present article is to describe qualitative research and to discuss its value to the massage therapy profession. The target audience is massage therapists who want to be able to better understand the research literature, novice massage therapy researchers who are unfamiliar with qualitative research, and teachers of research methods courses in massage therapy training programs who want to include qualitative research methods in their curriculum.

  16. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  17. The value of integrating policy people and space in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Louise; Birla, Ravi K

    2009-03-01

    In this article, we address several tangible and intangible factors, which are difficult to quantify and often overlooked yet are crucial for research success. We discuss three dimensions which encompass: (1) policy, (2) people, and (3) space. Policies, such as rules and regulations, define the culture of any research program/initiative. Governing rules and regulations defined within these policies are dictated by cultural values. Individuals who exhibit strong leadership, promote innovation, and exercise strategic planning often determine the governing policies. People are the most valuable asset available to any institution. Ensuring the professional growth (personal and scientific) and creating an environment which supports collaborative and collegial research through teamwork are factors that are important for individuals. Space, the physical work environment, is the third dimension of our model and is often an underutilized resource. In addition to the physical layout and design of the space, creating a positive work atmosphere which supports research initiatives is equally important and can create valuable momentum to research efforts. Collectively, these three dimensions (policy, people, and space) have a significant impact on the success of any research initiative. The primary objective of this article is to create awareness and emphasize the importance of implementing these variables within research initiatives in academic settings.

  18. Academic Library Administrators Perceive Value in Their Librarians’ Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Perkins, G.H. & Slowik, A.J.W. (2013. The value of research in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 74(2, 143-158. Retrieved from http://crl.acrl.org/content/74/2/143.full.pdf+html Abstract Objective – To explore academic library administrators’ perceived value of their librarians’ research, specifically the importance to the profession and the library community. Design – Qualitative, exploratory study using a survey questionnaire. Setting – Academic libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – 23 library administrators. Methods – During the summer of 2010, one of the authors conducted 20-30 minute telephone interviews with 23 academic library administrators. Interviews were recorded and transcribed for coding. Interview questions 1-3 and 8-19 were content-analyzed; the authors described common themes for each of these questions. Items 4-7 had Likert scale response formats, and a mean and standard deviation were computed for each of these items. Main Results – The benefits of librarians’ research included fulfilling tenure-track requirements, enriching relationships with teaching faculty, library faculty recognition, improved services and programs, collaboration with others, research result application to daily issues, development as librarians, and improved knowledge of the research field. The perceived current changes and future issues for university libraries included increased digitization of collections, scholarly communication, and expanded instructional engagement of faculty and students, as well as future economic downturn and budget cuts. Administrators noted several methods that influenced their thinking: professional meetings, reading professional journals, informal discussions with colleagues, and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Academic library administrators used a variety of methods to support their librarians’ research. These included tenure-track requirements

  19. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  20. Technology Education and Societal Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberti, Anthony F.

    1994-01-01

    Citizens in a democracy should understand the relationship of technological development to societal change. The rationale for universal technological education stems from the ideals of cultural education, the responsibilities of democratic life, and the need for economic security. Technology education furthers understanding of our technological…

  1. Societal Forces That ERODE Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert; Kaufman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or…

  2. VALUE - Validating and Integrating Downscaling Methods for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Benestad, Rasmus; Kotlarski, Sven; Huth, Radan; Hertig, Elke; Wibig, Joanna; Gutierrez, Jose

    2013-04-01

    Our understanding of global climate change is mainly based on General Circulation Models (GCMs) with a relatively coarse resolution. Since climate change impacts are mainly experienced on regional scales, high-resolution climate change scenarios need to be derived from GCM simulations by downscaling. Several projects have been carried out over the last years to validate the performance of statistical and dynamical downscaling, yet several aspects have not been systematically addressed: variability on sub-daily, decadal and longer time-scales, extreme events, spatial variability and inter-variable relationships. Different downscaling approaches such as dynamical downscaling, statistical downscaling and bias correction approaches have not been systematically compared. Furthermore, collaboration between different communities, in particular regional climate modellers, statistical downscalers and statisticians has been limited. To address these gaps, the EU Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) action VALUE (www.value-cost.eu) has been brought into life. VALUE is a research network with participants from currently 23 European countries running from 2012 to 2015. Its main aim is to systematically validate and develop downscaling methods for climate change research in order to improve regional climate change scenarios for use in climate impact studies. Inspired by the co-design idea of the international research initiative "future earth", stakeholders of climate change information have been involved in the definition of research questions to be addressed and are actively participating in the network. The key idea of VALUE is to identify the relevant weather and climate characteristics required as input for a wide range of impact models and to define an open framework to systematically validate these characteristics. Based on a range of benchmark data sets, in principle every downscaling method can be validated and compared with competing methods. The results of

  3. Smart Materials in the Netherlands. From fundamental research to innovative societal applications; Smart Materials in Nederland. Van Fundamenteel Onderzoek naar Innovatieve Maatschappelijke Toepassingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callant, C.

    2012-11-15

    Research in the field of smart materials in the Netherlands is subdivided into structural materials research and functional materials research. In addition, it shows a breakdown by type of material: metals, polymers and composites. Netherlands is particularly active in a number of sub-areas carries out research on a global level, such as selfhealing materials and biomimetic materials [Dutch] Onderzoek op het gebied van slimme materialen wordt in Nederland onderverdeeld in constructief materiaalonderzoek en functioneel materiaalonderzoek. Daarnaast kent men een onderverdeling naar soort materiaal: metalen, polymeren en composieten. Nederland is op een aantal deelgebieden bijzonder actief en voert daarbij onderzoek uit op wereldniveau, zoals selfhealing materials en biomimetic materials.

  4. The value and cost of university research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Bernard, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors provide a brief overview of the value and costs of U.S. university research reactors (URRs). More than three dozen URRs are currently operating in an approximately equal number of states. These URRs are an important part of the U.S. capabilities in nuclear science and technology. These multipurpose research facilities are located on the campuses of universities and colleges and therefore are easily accessible to university staff and students as well as to the high-technology industries, which often are located near universities. The close proximity, i.e., convenient location, to a diverse user base is a major reason for the multifaceted applications of URRs, including basic and applied science, technology, education, and industrial applications. The URRs have an extraordinarily broad range of applicability, including medicine and the life sciences, materials science, environmental sciences, earth and planetary sciences, and nuclear energy

  5. Sports, Global Politics, and Social Value Change: A Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rensmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their important role in forging, constructing and self-ascribing social identities and shaping popular culture, sports have long been a marginalized subject of social science inquiry, cultural studies, and research on international politics. Only in recent years this has begun to change. The article seeks to advance the still nascent but emerging cross-disciplinary field of research on sports and global politics in two ways: first, by addressing largely unexplored issues of sports, politics, and social conflicts, putting the spotlight on sociopolitical arenas beyond commercialized sports mega events, which have attracted most scholarly attention in contemporary research; and second, by generating hypotheses on the indirect political effects of sports cultures, in particular on the relationship between local social identities—reinforced through sports—and cosmopolitan value change. These interlinked spatial and substantive claims ground a new critical research framework and agenda: it examines sports as profoundly embedded in socioeconomic, cultural and political forms of rule and domination but also seeks to disclose sports’ emancipatory and subversive potential in advancing globalization from below.

  6. Improving societal acceptance of rad waste management policy decisions: an approach based on complex intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Suman

    2008-01-01

    In today's context elaborate public participation exercises are conducted around the world to elicit and incorporate societal risk perceptions into nuclear policy Decision-Making. However, on many occasions, such as in the case of rad waste management, the society remains unconvinced about these decisions. This naturally leads to the questions: are techniques for incorporating societal risk perceptions into the rad waste policy decision making processes sufficiently mature? How could societal risk perceptions and legal normative principles be better integrated in order to render the decisions more equitable and convincing to society? Based on guidance from socio-psychological research this paper postulates that a critical factor for gaining/improving societal acceptance is the quality and adequacy of criteria for option evaluation that are used in the policy decision making. After surveying three rad waste public participation cases, the paper identifies key lacunae in criteria abstraction processes as currently practiced. A new policy decision support model CIRDA: Complex Intelligent Risk Discourse Abstraction model that is based on the heuristic of Risk-Risk Analysis is proposed to overcome these lacunae. CIRDA's functionality of rad waste policy decision making is modelled as a policy decision-making Abstract Intelligent Agent and the agent program/abstraction mappings are presented. CIRDA is then applied to a live (U.K.) rad waste management case and the advantages of this method as compared to the Value Tree Method as practiced in the GB case are demonstrated. (author)

  7. MOTIVATION, VALUES, AND CAREER RESEARCH AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gergely

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Career and motivation examinations are an interesting point to consider at all times. This is not only the company leaders need to find and hire the adequate employee but they have to be capable of keeping them. However, what motivates the individual? What is necessary for employees to stay at the organization? What kind of carrier expectation they have? These questions are not only important when somebody is in the system but when somebody is at the beginning of their work. Due to these questions, we have considered important to carry out examinations on motivation, value, and career among the employees and students. The research has been conducted among the students at the University of Debrecen Faculty of Economics. These students will be the fresh enterers of the labor market and may become talented employees of organizations. In the research joint surveys have been applied. The questionnaires were related to working values, values, motivation and career. The sample contains 235 full-time students. One of the positive results of the examination is sampled students are strongly performance motivated. Regarding their performances, the pursuit of success and the need for execution tasks are important, and the high level of effort-performance is outstanding. The results are closely aligned with the sampled students because personal development is important to them and this is a typical age characteristic. The appearance for fulfilling basic needs such as safety, material and physical environment and self-assertion also have a key role. Regarding their career orientation security is in the center of attention. They do not want reputation with all their hearts. Furthermore, management and leadership are not the most important for them. The career anchor analysis has also proved this because leader competence was the lowest career anchor. In the future it would be worth extending the research to the other faculties of the University of Debrecen or

  8. A Psycho-Societal Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellon, Karsten

    This is a project about Danish vocational bachelor students admitted on the basis of an Individual Competency Assessment (VPL/IKV) in light of a Psycho-Societal Approach. The core idea of this paper is to present a PhD project which aims to contribute findings regarding students enrolled in a Dan...... in a Danish vocational Bachelor’s education program (teachers program under the frame of University College) through Validation of Prior Learning by the use of an Individual Competencies Assessment (VPL/IKV).......This is a project about Danish vocational bachelor students admitted on the basis of an Individual Competency Assessment (VPL/IKV) in light of a Psycho-Societal Approach. The core idea of this paper is to present a PhD project which aims to contribute findings regarding students enrolled...

  9. HOW FUTURE MANAGERS VIEW SOCIETAL CULTURE: A CROSS-COUNTRY COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATANA DOINA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims at enriching the existing literature about the prospective managers view of an ideal societal value system and the existing cultural practices in their society. The findings about the students' perception on cultural practices and their expectations about societal culture are helpful in imagining the societal culture in its dynamics. The research sample consists of 727 students in business and engineering on undergraduate and graduate levels from Romania and Slovenia. The reason we have chosen to compare Romanian sample with the cultural profile of the "average" future manager from Slovenia is the scientific curiosity of finding out if there are signs of cultural convergence of Romania with a previous communist country, and an older member of European Union. In doing so, our study will hopefully broaden the body of knowledge about the cultural convergence (or divergence? between the former socialist countries joining European Union. The theoretical and methodological foundation is rooted in GLOBE international research project. Our findings revealed that at practices level,Romanians perceive significant higher Power Distance and significant lower mean value for Uncertainty Avoidance. At the expectations level, the Romanians and Slovenians are very similar in the desire concerning their societies orientation toward In group/Family Collectivism, Assertiveness and Performance Orientation, and record significant differenced in all the other societal values. The fact that for all the cultural expectations the future managers assign different mean values than for the correspondent practices make us expect that they will act to change their cultural environments. Still, the cultural orientation of Romanian future middle managers will differ in many regards from the Slovenian sample averages.

  10. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for Value-Added Products (VAPs) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun; (2) progress on existing VAPs; (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved; (4) other work that leads to a VAP; (5) top requested VAPs from the ARM Data Archive; and (6) a summary of VAP and data releases to production and evaluation. New information is highlighted in blue text. New information about processed data by the developer is highlighted in red text. The upcoming milestones and dates are highlighted in green.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Workshop on environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The Workshop was part of a process of elucidating areas of uncertainty where research is needed before meaningful forecasts and sound decisions can be made about the CO/sub 2/ issue. The conferees were divided into five panels dealing with the ocean and the cryosphere: the less managed biosphere; the managed biosphere (chiefly agricultural, forest, and grazing lands); the ways society and its institutions might respond to climate changes; and issues involving the economic and geopolitical consequences of CO/sub 2/ build-up. Also, 28 papers or discussion drafts dealing with a wide variety of topics were contributed to the conference.

  12. International Conference on Informatics and Communication Technologies for Societal Developmen

    CERN Document Server

    Bhojan, Anand; Peter, J

    2015-01-01

    This volume comprises research papers presented at the International Conference on Informatics and Communication Technologies for Societal Development (ICICTS 2014) held at Karunya University, India. The content focuses on the recent advancements in image or signal processing, computer vision, communication technologies, soft computing, advanced computing, data mining, and knowledge discovery. The primary objective of this volume is to facilitate advancement and application of the knowledge and to promote ideas that solve problems faced by society through cutting-edge technologies. The chapters contain selected articles from academicians, researchers, and industry experts in the form of frameworks, models, and architectures. Practical approaches, observations, and results of research that promotes societal development are also incorporated. This volume will serve as a useful compendium for interested readers and researchers working towards societal development from the technological perspective.

  13. The science commons in health research: structure, function, and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Deegan, Robert

    The "science commons," knowledge that is widely accessible at low or no cost, is a uniquely important input to scientific advance and cumulative technological innovation. It is primarily, although not exclusively, funded by government and nonprofit sources. Much of it is produced at academic research centers, although some academic science is proprietary and some privately funded R&D enters the science commons. Science in general aspires to Mertonian norms of openness, universality, objectivity, and critical inquiry. The science commons diverges from proprietary science primarily in being open and being very broadly available. These features make the science commons particularly valuable for advancing knowledge, for training innovators who will ultimately work in both public and private sectors, and in providing a common stock of knowledge upon which all players-both public and private-can draw readily. Open science plays two important roles that proprietary R&D cannot: it enables practical benefits even in the absence of profitable markets for goods and services, and its lays a shared foundation for subsequent private R&D. The history of genomics in the period 1992-2004, covering two periods when genomic startup firms attracted significant private R&D investment, illustrates these features of how a science commons contributes value. Commercial interest in genomics was intense during this period. Fierce competition between private sector and public sector genomics programs was highly visible. Seemingly anomalous behavior, such as private firms funding "open science," can be explained by unusual business dynamics between established firms wanting to preserve a robust science commons to prevent startup firms from limiting established firms' freedom to operate. Deliberate policies to create and protect a large science commons were pursued by nonprofit and government funders of genomics research, such as the Wellcome Trust and National Institutes of Health. These

  14. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore

  15. The Value of Action Research in Middle Grades Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Micki M.

    2006-01-01

    Action research is one of the relevant methodologies for addressing research questions and issues in middle grades education. Accounting for nearly 20% of published middle grades research studies (Hough, 2003), action research has emerged as an important and appropriate research method. In addition to reviewing the historical context, this article…

  16. Developing and Testing a Method to Measure Academic Societal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paul; Moutinho, Luiz; Godinho, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to extend understanding of the business and societal impact of academic research. From a business school perspective, it has taken stock of the role of academic research and relevance in business and society. The proposed conceptual framework highlights the forces influencing the pursuit of academic rigour and relevance in…

  17. Advances in research methods for information systems research data mining, data envelopment analysis, value focused thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Osei-Bryson, Kweku-Muata

    2013-01-01

    Advances in social science research methodologies and data analytic methods are changing the way research in information systems is conducted. New developments in statistical software technologies for data mining (DM) such as regression splines or decision tree induction can be used to assist researchers in systematic post-positivist theory testing and development. Established management science techniques like data envelopment analysis (DEA), and value focused thinking (VFT) can be used in combination with traditional statistical analysis and data mining techniques to more effectively explore

  18. The Value of Qualitative Research into Teaching and Learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    replication, validity, rigour, generalisation) that scripts the research as science. ... Most of these factors are hard to measure within a quantitative research framework alone. Law‟s .... concepts of theoretical sample and of saturation in qualitative research is .... Reflexive ethnography: a guide to researching selves and others.

  19. The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

  20. The perceptions of research values and priorities in water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has played an important role in water resource management and a consensus on research objectives would increase the efficiency of these practices. In this paper we aimed to elicit the views of attendees of the 3rd Orange River Basin Symposium regarding water-related research, by using both quantitative and ...

  1. Sensitivity Analysis in Observational Research: Introducing the E-Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Ding, Peng

    2017-08-15

    Sensitivity analysis is useful in assessing how robust an association is to potential unmeasured or uncontrolled confounding. This article introduces a new measure called the "E-value," which is related to the evidence for causality in observational studies that are potentially subject to confounding. The E-value is defined as the minimum strength of association, on the risk ratio scale, that an unmeasured confounder would need to have with both the treatment and the outcome to fully explain away a specific treatment-outcome association, conditional on the measured covariates. A large E-value implies that considerable unmeasured confounding would be needed to explain away an effect estimate. A small E-value implies little unmeasured confounding would be needed to explain away an effect estimate. The authors propose that in all observational studies intended to produce evidence for causality, the E-value be reported or some other sensitivity analysis be used. They suggest calculating the E-value for both the observed association estimate (after adjustments for measured confounders) and the limit of the confidence interval closest to the null. If this were to become standard practice, the ability of the scientific community to assess evidence from observational studies would improve considerably, and ultimately, science would be strengthened.

  2. Research on Customer Value Based on Extension Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Yan, Yang; Wei-Hua, Li

    Extenics is a new discipline for dealing with contradiction problems with formulize model. Extension data mining (EDM) is a product combining Extenics with data mining. It explores to acquire the knowledge based on extension transformations, which is called extension knowledge (EK), taking advantage of extension methods and data mining technology. EK includes extensible classification knowledge, conductive knowledge and so on. Extension data mining technology (EDMT) is a new data mining technology that mining EK in databases or data warehouse. Customer value (CV) can weigh the essentiality of customer relationship for an enterprise according to an enterprise as a subject of tasting value and customers as objects of tasting value at the same time. CV varies continually. Mining the changing knowledge of CV in databases using EDMT, including quantitative change knowledge and qualitative change knowledge, can provide a foundation for that an enterprise decides the strategy of customer relationship management (CRM). It can also provide a new idea for studying CV.

  3. Fostering Research Engagement in Partnership Schools: Networking and Value Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Frank; McLellan, Ros W.; Schofield, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The call for teachers and schools to become more research-engaged is resonating stronger than ever with government efforts to improve research impact and educational quality in the United Kingdom (UK) and many other countries. In these endeavors strengthening the social network structure and collegial relationships that enable collaborative…

  4. The Instrumental Value of Conceptual Frameworks in Educational Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars from diverse fields and research traditions agree that the conceptual framework is a critically important component of disciplined inquiry. Yet, there is a pronounced lack of shared understanding regarding the definition and functions of conceptual frameworks, which impedes our ability to design effective research and mentor novice…

  5. The Value of Surprising Findings for Research on Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    In the work of Armstrong (Journal of Business Research, 2002), I examined empirical research on the scientific process and related these to marketing science. The findings of some studies were surprising. In this reply, I address surprising findings and other issues raised by commentators.

  6. Human choice and climate change. Volume 1: The societal framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, S.; Malone, E.

    1998-01-01

    This book is Volume 1 of a four-volume set which assesses social science research that is relevant to global climate change from a wide-ranging interdisciplinary perspective. Attention is focused on the societal framework as it relates to climate change. This series is indispensable reading for scientists and engineers wishing to make an effective contribution to the climate change policy debate

  7. Radiation technology in ground nut improvement and societal deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, G.S.S.; Badigannavar, A.M.; Kale, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The best way to summarize the impact of mutation research in ground nut for societal deployment is for 1) developing suitable varieties for different agro-climatic zones in the country, 2) providing a source material for developing new varieties by other universities, 3) replacing traditional crops with TG varieties, 4) transforming socioeconomic status of peanut peasants and 5) enhanced ground nut productivity

  8. The value of closed-circuit rebreathers for biological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Richrad L.; Lobel, Phillip S.; Tomoleoni, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Closed-circuit rebreathers have been used for underwater biological research since the late 1960s, but have only started to gain broader application within scientific diving organizations within the past two decades. Rebreathers offer certain specific advantages for such research, especially for research involving behavior and surveys that depend on unobtrusive observers or for a stealthy approach to wildlife for capture and tagging, research that benefits from extended durations underwater, and operations requiring access to relatively deep (>50 m) environments (especially in remote locations). Although many institutions have been slow to adopt rebreather technology within their diving programs, recent developments in rebreather technology that improve safety, standardize training requirements, and reduce costs of equipment and maintenance, will likely result in a trend of increasing utilization of rebreathers for underwater biological research.

  9. Valuing Professional Development Components for Emerging Undergraduate Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, I.

    2015-12-01

    In 2004 the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) at Oregon State University (OSU) established a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program to engage undergraduate students in hands-on research training in the marine sciences. The program offers students the opportunity to conduct research focused on biological and ecological topics, chemical and physical oceanography, marine geology, and atmospheric science. In partnership with state and federal government agencies, this ten-week summer program has grown to include 20+ students annually. Participants obtain a background in the academic discipline, professional development training, and research experience to make informed decisions about careers and advanced degrees in marine and earth system sciences. Professional development components of the program are designed to support students in their research experience, explore career goals and develop skills necessary to becoming a successful young marine scientist. These components generally include seminars, discussions, workshops, lab tours, and standards of conduct. These componentscontribute to achieving the following professional development objectives for the overall success of new emerging undergraduate researchers: Forming a fellowship of undergraduate students pursuing marine research Stimulating student interest and understanding of marine research science Learning about research opportunities at Oregon State University "Cross-Training" - broadening the hands-on research experience Exploring and learning about marine science careers and pathways Developing science communication and presentation skills Cultivating a sense of belonging in the sciences Exposure to federal and state agencies in marine and estuarine science Academic and career planning Retention of talented students in the marine science Standards of conduct in science Details of this program's components, objectives and best practices will be discussed.

  10. Exploring Students' Articulation of Value in a Social Research Methods Class: Towards a Phenomenography of Value Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglietti, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study describes journalism students' value making of social research methods, such as sampling, data gathering strategies and quantitative and qualitative data analysis, by using a mixed-­method approach to analyze 260 written reflection assignments. In their reflections, 26 student participants assessed the value of their new knowledge of…

  11. The Value of ERP Curriculum Integration: Perspectives from the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Michelle; Dickson, Warren

    2013-01-01

    In the current economic conditions, many institutions face dwindling budgets and an increased focus on proving the value of the education provided. The effort and costs required to integrate Enterprise Resource Planning systems into course curricula are a significant investment of resources for any university. This paper examines the expense of…

  12. The value of research : telling the R&T story

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) plays a leadership role in shaping and executing a National Research and Technology (R&T) program. The agency also acts as a convener; collaborations with State, industry, and academic partners provide the fo...

  13. Northeastern conifer research: Multiple species and multiple values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; John C. Brissette; Richard W. Judd

    2014-01-01

    The northern conifer, or spruce-fir, forest of the northeastern USA and adjacent Canada has had a defining influence on the economy and culture of the region. The same can be said of the USDA Forest Service’s research in this forest, which began more than 100 years ago. Forest Service research has evolved since that time in response to changes in the needs and...

  14. Exploring the value of qualitative research films in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Fran; Jenkins, Sue; Seers, Kate; Barker, Karen

    2015-11-27

    Many healthcare professionals use both quantitative and qualitative research to inform their practice. The usual way to access research findings is through peer-reviewed publications. This study aimed to understand the impact on healthcare professionals of watching and discussing a short research based film. The film, 'Struggling to be me' portrays findings from a qualitative synthesis exploring people's experiences of chronic pain, and was delivered as part of an inter-professional postgraduate e-learning module. The innovation of our study is to be the first to explore the impact of qualitative research portrayed through the medium of film in clinical education. All nineteen healthcare professionals enrolled on the course in December 2013 took part in on-line interviews or focus groups. We recorded and transcribed the interviews verbatim and used the methods of Grounded Theory to analyse the interview transcripts. Watching and discussing the film became a stimulus for learning : (a) A glimpse beneath the surface explored a pro-active way of seeing the person behind the pain (b) Pitfalls of the Medical Model recognised the challenge, for both patient and clinician, of 'sitting with' rather than 'fixing' an ill person; (c) Feeling bombarded by despair acknowledged the intense emotions that the clinicians brings to the clinical encounter; (d) Reconstructing the clinical encounter as a shared journey reconstructed the time-constrained clinical encounter as a single step on a shared journey towards healing, rather than fixing. Films portraying qualitative research findings can stimulate a pro-active and dialectic form of knowing. Research-based qualitative films can make qualitative findings accessible and can be a useful resource in clinical training. Our research presents, for the first time, specific learning themes for clinical education.

  15. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  16. Public Leadership and processes of societal innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Societal actors can come against problems that cross the traditional boundaries of sectors, organisations and routines. Processes of societal innovation are started on the way to an unknown future, creating new solutions and new corporations. In this paper I focus on the question how public leaders

  17. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E

    2007-09-26

    Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic alpha diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For beta diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious beta diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  18. Taxonomic bias in biodiversity data and societal preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudet, Julien; Grandcolas, Philippe; Blin, Amandine; Vignes-Lebbe, Régine; Legendre, Frédéric

    2017-08-22

    Studying and protecting each and every living species on Earth is a major challenge of the 21 st century. Yet, most species remain unknown or unstudied, while others attract most of the public, scientific and government attention. Although known to be detrimental, this taxonomic bias continues to be pervasive in the scientific literature, but is still poorly studied and understood. Here, we used 626 million occurrences from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the biggest biodiversity data portal, to characterize the taxonomic bias in biodiversity data. We also investigated how societal preferences and taxonomic research relate to biodiversity data gathering. For each species belonging to 24 taxonomic classes, we used the number of publications from Web of Science and the number of web pages from Bing searches to approximate research activity and societal preferences. Our results show that societal preferences, rather than research activity, strongly correlate with taxonomic bias, which lead us to assert that scientists should advertise less charismatic species and develop societal initiatives (e.g. citizen science) that specifically target neglected organisms. Ensuring that biodiversity is representatively sampled while this is still possible is an urgent prerequisite for achieving efficient conservation plans and a global understanding of our surrounding environment.

  19. Factors Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Technical and Organizational Recommendations by Farmers Involved with Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in Cameroon. A Research Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga, Andre; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    In order to promote cocoa production and assist cocoa farmers in overcoming diseases in this crop, the government of Cameroon created an experimental corporation called Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in 1974. This organization functioned much like an extension service to provide information about crop production and disease control.…

  20. Increasing value and reducing waste: addressing inaccessible research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian; Vickers, Andrew; Jefferson, Tom; Dickersin, Kay; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krumholz, Harlan M; Ghersi, Davina; van der Worp, H Bart

    2014-01-18

    The methods and results of health research are documented in study protocols, full study reports (detailing all analyses), journal reports, and participant-level datasets. However, protocols, full study reports, and participant-level datasets are rarely available, and journal reports are available for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. Furthermore, information provided in study protocols and reports varies in quality and is often incomplete. When full information about studies is inaccessible, billions of dollars in investment are wasted, bias is introduced, and research and care of patients are detrimentally affected. To help to improve this situation at a systemic level, three main actions are warranted. First, academic institutions and funders should reward investigators who fully disseminate their research protocols, reports, and participant-level datasets. Second, standards for the content of protocols and full study reports and for data sharing practices should be rigorously developed and adopted for all types of health research. Finally, journals, funders, sponsors, research ethics committees, regulators, and legislators should endorse and enforce policies supporting study registration and wide availability of journal reports, full study reports, and participant-level datasets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The applied value of public investments in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danielle; Azoulay, Pierre; Sampat, Bhaven N

    2017-04-07

    Scientists and policy-makers have long argued that public investments in science have practical applications. Using data on patents linked to U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants over a 27-year period, we provide a large-scale accounting of linkages between public research investments and subsequent patenting. We find that about 10% of NIH grants generate a patent directly but 30% generate articles that are subsequently cited by patents. Although policy-makers often focus on direct patenting by academic scientists, the bulk of the effect of NIH research on patenting appears to be indirect. We also find no systematic relationship between the "basic" versus "applied" research focus of a grant and its propensity to be cited by a patent. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Differences Between Individual and Societal Health State Valuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R.; Jerant, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Objective The concept of “adaptation” has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Research Design Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Subjects Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. Measures The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Results Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Conclusion Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies. PMID:19543121

  3. The Value of Qualitative Methods in Social Validity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leko, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    One quality indicator of intervention research is the extent to which the intervention has a high degree of social validity, or practicality. In this study, I drew on Wolf's framework for social validity and used qualitative methods to ascertain five middle schoolteachers' perceptions of the social validity of System 44®--a phonics-based reading…

  4. Ag Data Commons: Adding Value to Open Agricultural Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public access to results of federally-funded research is a new mandate for large departments of the United States government. Public access to scholarly literature from U.S. investments is straightforward, with policies and systems like PubMed Central and PubAg (http://pubag.nal.usda.gov) already im...

  5. The value of comparative research in major day surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop-Gironés, Alba; Vergara-Duarte, Montse; Sánchez, Josep Anton; Tarafa, Gemma; Benach, Joan

    2017-05-19

    To measure time trends in major day surgery rates according to hospital ownership and other hospital characteristics among the providers of the public healthcare network of Catalonia, Spain. Data from the Statistics of Health Establishments providing Inpatient Care. A generalized linear mixed model with Gaussian response and random intercept and random slopes. The greatest growth in the rate of major day surgery was observed among private for-profit hospitals: 42.9 (SD: 22.5) in 2009 versus 2.7 (SD: 6.7) in 1996. These hospitals exhibited a significant increase in major day surgery compared to public hospitals (coefficient 2; p-value <0.01) CONCLUSIONS: The comparative evaluation of hospital performance is a decisive tool to ensure that public resources are used as rationally and efficiently as possible. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Value of pharmaceuticals: ensuring the future of research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serajuddin, Hamida K; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the current situation under which the pharmaceutical industry is criticized for the production of drugs with potential adverse effects, the high prices of medicines, and aggressive marketing practices, and to provide a proposal to rectify the situation. Published books, pharmaceutical journals, Web of Science database using the search terms pharmaceutical, research, development, marketing, cost, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Web site. Most breakthroughs in the treatment of diseases and prolongation of lives have come about through pharmaceuticals discovered and developed by the pharmaceutical industry. While the process of discovering and developing new pharmaceuticals is lengthy, costly, and lacking any assurance of success, investment in research and development by the U.S. pharmaceutical industry has increased progressively, reaching 51.3 billion dollars in 2005. Yet the annual number of FDA approvals of new molecular entities (NMEs) has gradually decreased over the past 10 years. Additionally, a large part of the patent life of a successful NME is consumed during this lengthy development phase. Few businesses, if any, have such long product gestation lives and risks. For these reasons, the pharmaceutical industry is often in a rush to recoup its investment before the product's patent expires, and this is the root cause of many criticisms against the pharmaceutical industry. To rectify the current situation, a new system is proposed under which innovator pharmaceutical companies would be allowed royalties for their products after the expiration of patents, in a manner similar to the way in which other intellectual properties (such as books, music, films) are protected by copyright. Such a system would allow pharmaceutical companies to continue research on new pharmaceutical products unimpeded by the patent clock. Given appropriate legislative or other facilitatory actions, a royalty-based system for the marketing of generic products after

  7. Archives and societal provenance Australian essays

    CERN Document Server

    Piggott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Records and archival arrangements in Australia are globally relevant because Australia's indigenous people represent the oldest living culture in the world, and because modern Australia is an ex-colonial society now heavily multicultural in outlook. Archives and Societal Provenance explores this distinctiveness using the theoretical concept of societal provenance as propounded by Canadian archival scholars led by Dr Tom Nesmith. The book's seventeen essays blend new writing and re-workings of earlier work, comprising the fi rst text to apply a societal provenance perspective to a national sett

  8. Science and societal partnerships to address cumulative impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn J Lundquist

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Funding and priorities for ocean research are not separate from the underlying sociological, economic, and political landscapes that determine values attributed to ecological systems. Here we present a variation on science prioritisation exercises, focussing on inter-disciplinary research questions with the objective of shifting broad scale management practices to better address cumulative impacts and multiple users. Marine scientists in New Zealand from a broad range of scientific and social-scientific backgrounds ranked 48 statements of research priorities. At a follow up workshop, participants discussed five over-arching themes based on survey results. These themes were used to develop mechanisms to increase the relevance and efficiency of scientific research while acknowledging socio-economic and political drivers of research agendas in New Zealand’s ocean ecosystems. Overarching messages included the need to: 1 determine the conditions under which ‘surprises’ (sudden and substantive undesirable changes are likely to occur and the socio-ecological implications of such changes; 2 develop methodologies to reveal the complex and cumulative effects of change in marine systems, and their implications for resource use, stewardship, and restoration; 3 assess potential solutions to management issues that balance long-term and short-term benefits and encompass societal engagement in decision-making; 4 establish effective and appropriately resourced institutional networks to foster collaborative, solution-focused marine science; and 5 establish cross-disciplinary dialogues to translate diverse scientific and social-scientific knowledge into innovative regulatory, social and economic practice. In the face of multiple uses and cumulative stressors, ocean management frameworks must be adapted to build a collaborative framework across science, governance and society that can help stakeholders navigate uncertainties and socio-ecological surprises.

  9. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O'Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Societal costs and burden of otitis media in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speets AM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anouk Speets1, Judith Wolleswinkel1, Cristina Cardoso21Pallas health research and consultancy, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Algés, PortugalAbstract: This study aimed to estimate the resource consumption and societal impact of otitis media (OM in children younger than five years of age in Portugal. An Internet survey on generic childhood symptoms and diseases was administered to a sample of parents. This self-report survey had been previously implemented in other European countries. Medically confirmed OM was defined as symptoms of earache or “running ear” and/or a diagnosis of OM provided by a medical doctor. Direct medical, nonmedical, and indirect nonmedical costs were calculated for individual cases. Mean total costs per OM episode were estimated at €334. This corresponds to an estimated societal impact of 72 million €/year, of which 39% were indirect nonmedical costs. An epidemiological study should help to confirm the results of this study, and evaluate whether an intervention to reduce the occurrence and/or duration of OM may have an impact on societal costs and quality of life for affected families.Keywords: otitis media, costs, societal burden, Portugal

  11. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  12. Values-Based Self-Reflective Action Research for Promoting Gender Equality: Some Unexpected Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The idea of using values as a means of guiding our research decisions and judging the validity of our claims of knowledge is well established in literature on the self-reflective genre of action research. Values in action research should always result in virtuous behaviour--to promote the general social good. However, ideas of what constitutes the…

  13. The Gender-Differential Impact of Work Values on Prospects in Research Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttges, Annett; Fay, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Women are strongly underrepresented at top positions in research, with some research suggesting the postdoctoral career stage is a critical stage for female researchers. Drawing on role congruity theory and social cognitive career theory, we tested the gender-differential impact of work values (extrinsic rewards-oriented work values and work-life…

  14. Societal embedding of climate-friendly innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeyrynen, E.; Kivisaari, Sirkku; Lovio, R.

    2002-01-01

    This project assesses the possibilities of constructing a market for climate-friendly energy technologies by applying the process of 'societal embedding of innovations'. The term refers to an interactive learning process amongst three groups of key actors: producers, users and societal actors. Their co-operation shapes the innovation to fit the needs of the market and contributes to creation of conditions in which the innovation can be adopted. The project consists of two case studies: (1) Shaping of the ESCO energy service concept in Finnish municipalities and (2) Increasing the use of wood pellets in single-family houses. The case studies have illustrated the possibilities and limitations concerning the application of societal embedding in the energy sector. The project indicates that societal embedding may promote the implementation of climate-friendly energy technologies in at least three ways. Firstly, the process mobilises key actors to cooperation. This generates interactive learning on the problem and its solving. Market construction is forged ahead by mutual adaptation of the innovation and its environment. Secondly, this approach offers a tool to examine the societal quality of the innovation, a question related vitally to climate change. Thirdly, by producing new knowledge of the needs on the market this approach supports the societal actors in choosing different instruments to induce the intended transition to sustainability. (orig.)

  15. The value of respect in human research ethics: a conceptual analysis and a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, I J; Thomson, C J H

    2014-01-01

    In order to continue to maintain public trust and confidence in human research, participants must be treated with respect. Researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members need to be aware that modern considerations of this value include: the need for a valid consenting process, the protection of participants who have their capacity for consent compromised; the promotion of dignity for participants; and the effects that human research may have on cultures and communities. This paper explains the prominence of respect as a value when considering the ethics of human research and provides practical advice for both researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members in developing respectful research practices.

  16. Individual rights versus societal duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, E

    1999-10-29

    In 'bioethics', the rights to self-determination and to informed consent of the patient are prerequisites to every medical decision: paternalism is no longer a justifiable attitude. Hence, it seems that compulsory vaccination is an unacceptable praxis. Even John Stuart Mill. however, took into account other values: e.g. the duty not to harm others. This article is dedicated to the analysis of the historical development of these values and to their relevance for the ethics of vaccination. The acceptability of coercion is upheld, but no clear-cut answers are given in general: in every case the pros and cons of coercion are to be weighed carefully against each other.

  17. La Società Umanitaria e la diffusione del Metodo Montessori (1908-1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pozzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Società Umanitaria ofMilan, between 1918 and 1923, played an essential role in spreading and developing the Montessori Method. Studying in the Historical Archive of Società Umanitaria the numerous documents there collected, the author reconstructed the crucial moments of the extremely significant collaboration between Maria Montessori and Augusto Osimo, General Secretary of the Società Umanitaria.This complex and in-depth investigation was guided by the analysis, in specific, of the training courses for Montessori teachers organised by Società Umanitaria, essentially unexamined before this study, that allowed the researcher to have a deep insight into the action of Società Umanitaria aimed to promote and implement the Montessori Method in Italy and all around the world.

  18. Advances in complex societal, environmental and engineered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Essaaidi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses recent technological progress that has led to an increased complexity in many natural and artificial systems. The resulting complexity research due to the emergence of new properties and spatio-temporal interactions among a large number of system elements - and between the system and its environment - is the primary focus of this text. This volume is divided into three parts: Part one focuses on societal and ecological systems, Part two deals with approaches for understanding, modeling, predicting and mastering socio-technical systems, and Part three includes real-life examples. Each chapter has its own special features; it is a self-contained contribution of distinguished experts working on different fields of science and technology relevant to the study of complex systems. Advances in Complex Systems of Contemporary Reality: Societal, Environmental and Engineered Systems will provide postgraduate students, researchers and managers with qualitative and quantitative methods for handling th...

  19. Embracing value co-creation in primary care services research: a framework for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janamian, Tina; Crossland, Lisa; Jackson, Claire L

    2016-04-18

    Value co-creation redresses a key criticism of researcher-driven approaches to research - that researchers may lack insight into the end users' needs and values across the research journey. Value co-creation creates, in a step-wise way, value with, and for, multiple stakeholders through regular, ongoing interactions leading to innovation, increased productivity and co-created outcomes of value to all parties - thus creating a "win more-win more" environment. The Centre of Research Excellence (CRE) in Building Primary Care Quality, Performance and Sustainability has co-created outcomes of value that have included robust and enduring partnerships, research findings that have value to end users (such as the Primary Care Practice Improvement Tool and the best-practice governance framework), an International Implementation Research Network in Primary Care and the International Primary Health Reform Conference. Key lessons learned in applying the strategies of value co-creation have included the recognition that partnership development requires an investment of time and effort to ensure meaningful interactions and enriched end user experiences, that research management systems including governance, leadership and communication also need to be "co-creative", and that openness and understanding is needed to work across different sectors and cultures with flexibility, fairness and transparency being essential to the value co-creation process.

  20. Societal individualism–collectivism and uncertainty avoidance as cultural moderators of relationships between job resources and strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Winny; Allen, Tammy D.; Zhang, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    Summary The job demands–resources model is a dominant theoretical framework that describes the influence of job demands and job resources on employee strain. Recent research has highlighted that the effects of job demands on strain vary across cultures, but similar work has not explored whether this is true for job resources. Given that societal characteristics can influence individuals' cognitive structures and, to a lesser extent, values in a culture, we address this gap in the literature and argue that individuals' strain in reaction to job resources may differ across cultures. Specifically, we theorize that the societal cultural dimensions of individualism–collectivism and uncertainty avoidance shape individual‐level job resource–strain relationships, as they dictate which types of resources (i.e., individual vs. group preference‐oriented and uncertainty‐reducing vs. not) are more likely to be valued, used, or effective in combating strain within a culture. Results revealed that societal individualism–collectivism and uncertainty avoidance independently moderated the relationships between certain job resources (i.e., job control, participation in decision making, and clear goals and performance feedback) and strain (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intentions). This study expands our understanding of the cross‐cultural specificity versus generalizability of the job demands–resources model. PMID:29780207

  1. Societal individualism-collectivism and uncertainty avoidance as cultural moderators of relationships between job resources and strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seulki; Shen, Winny; Allen, Tammy D; Zhang, Haiyan

    2018-05-01

    The job demands-resources model is a dominant theoretical framework that describes the influence of job demands and job resources on employee strain. Recent research has highlighted that the effects of job demands on strain vary across cultures, but similar work has not explored whether this is true for job resources. Given that societal characteristics can influence individuals' cognitive structures and, to a lesser extent, values in a culture, we address this gap in the literature and argue that individuals' strain in reaction to job resources may differ across cultures. Specifically, we theorize that the societal cultural dimensions of individualism-collectivism and uncertainty avoidance shape individual-level job resource-strain relationships, as they dictate which types of resources (i.e., individual vs. group preference-oriented and uncertainty-reducing vs. not) are more likely to be valued, used, or effective in combating strain within a culture. Results revealed that societal individualism-collectivism and uncertainty avoidance independently moderated the relationships between certain job resources (i.e., job control, participation in decision making, and clear goals and performance feedback) and strain (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intentions). This study expands our understanding of the cross-cultural specificity versus generalizability of the job demands-resources model.

  2. The Value of Collaborative Research before Independent Research in Undergraduate Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to the importance of undergraduate research in teacher education programs. Before undertaking independent research, it is essential that music education students gain exposure to a range of research skills and develop basic research competencies. In this study, I explored the influence of a semester-long collaborative…

  3. Values Education as Holistic Development for All Sectors: Researching for Effective Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that values education has moved from being associated most heavily with the religious agenda of faith schools to being central to updated research insights into effective pedagogy. As such, it represents a vital approach to education in any school setting. The paper draws on an array of values education research and practice in…

  4. Increasing societal value of earth observation data and services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User @

    in South Africa's Strategic Development Priorities: A Review. Paidamwoyo ... temporal trends, disease vulnerability mapping, stratification of risk factors and intervention in .... protection and sustainable use of natural and environmental assets.

  5. Importance of risk comparison for individual and societal decision-making after the Fukushima disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio

    2018-01-30

    Risk comparison is essential for effective societal and individual decision-making. After the Fukushima disaster, studies compared radiation and other disaster-related risks to determine the effective prioritizing of measures for response. Evaluating the value of risk comparison information can enable effective risk communication. In this review, the value of risk comparison after the Fukushima disaster for societal and individual decision-making is discussed while clarifying the concept of radiation risk assessment at low doses. The objectives of radiation risk assessment are explained within a regulatory science framework, including the historical adoption of the linear non-threshold theory. An example of risk comparison (i.e. radiation risk versus evacuation-related risk in nursing homes) is used to discuss the prioritization of pre-disaster measures. The effective communication of risk information by authorities is discussed with respect to group-based and face-to-face approaches. Furthermore, future perspectives regarding radiation risk comparisons are discussed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  6. The Value of Long-Term Research at the Five USGS WEBB Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J. B.; Murphy, S. F.; Scholl, M. A.; Wickland, K.; Aulenbach, B. T.; Hunt, R.; Clow, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term catchment studies are sentinel sites for detecting, documenting, and understanding ecosystem processes and environmental change. The small catchment approach fosters in-depth site-based hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological process understanding, while a collective network of catchment observatories offers a broader context to synthesize understanding across a range of climates and geologies. The USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program is a network of five sites established in 1991 to assess the impact of climate and environmental change on hydrology and biogeochemistry. Like other networks, such as the USDA - Forest Service Experimental Forests and the Czech Geomon network, WEBB exploits gradients of climate, geology, and topography to understand controls on biogeochemical processes. We present examples from each site and some cross-site syntheses to demonstrate how WEBB has advanced catchment science and informed resource management and policy. WEBB has relied on strong academic partnerships, providing long-term continuity for shorter-term academic grants, which have offered rich graduate educational opportunities. Like other sites and networks, the long-term datasets and process understanding of WEBB provide context to detect and interpret change. Without this backdrop, we have no baseline to quantify effects of droughts, floods, and extreme events, and no test sites to validate process-based models. In an era of lean budgets for science funding, the long-term continuity of WEBB and other catchment networks is in jeopardy, as is the critical scientific value and societal benefits they embody.

  7. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due

  8. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-09

    Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research

  9. Programs with societal benefits at the Cornell University TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.D.; Aderhold, H.C.; Hossain, T.Z.

    1993-01-01

    In its 30 yr of operation, the Cornell TRIGA reactor has been used for many educational and research programs that provide general benefits to society. In addition to supporting graduate-level education of nuclear scientists and engineers, it has been extensively used in undergraduate and graduate courses and research by nonspecialists and, through the medium of tours, in education of the general public. Some educational functions have been described previously. In this paper, examples are presented of research of societal interest in nonnuclear fields. The first two rely mainly on radiography, and the remaining five on neutron activation analysis (NAA)

  10. Researching in the community: the value and contribution of nurses to community based or primary health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthow, Christine; Jones, Bernadette; Macdonald, Lindsay; Vernall, Sue; Gallagher, Peter; McKinlay, Eileen

    2015-05-01

    To describe the role, contribution and value of research nurses in New Zealand community-based or primary health care research. Research nurses are increasingly recognised as having a key role in undertaking successful research in hospitals and clinical trial units however only limited work has been undertaken to examine their role in community-based research. Undertaking health research in the community has unique challenges particularly in relation to research design and recruitment and retention of participants. We describe four community-based research projects involving research nurses, each with particular recruitment, retention and logistical problems. Vignettes are used to illustrate the role, contribution and value of research nurses in a diverse range of community research projects. The knowledge and skills used by research nurses in these projects included familiarity with communities, cultural competence, health care systems and practice philosophies and in particular with vulnerable populations. Their research actions and activities include competence with a broad range of research methodologies, organisational efficiency, family-centred approach, along with advocacy and flexibility. These are underpinned by nursing knowledge and clinical expertise contributing to an ability to work autonomously. These four projects demonstrate that research nurses in community-based research possess specific attributes which facilitate successful study development, implementation and outcome.

  11. Assessing the Expected Value of Research Studies in Reducing Uncertainty and Improving Implementation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sabine E; Dixon, Simon; Stevens, John W

    2017-07-01

    With low implementation of cost-effective health technologies being a problem in many health systems, it is worth considering the potential effects of research on implementation at the time of health technology assessment. Meaningful and realistic implementation estimates must be of dynamic nature. To extend existing methods for assessing the value of research studies in terms of both reduction of uncertainty and improvement in implementation by considering diffusion based on expert beliefs with and without further research conditional on the strength of evidence. We use expected value of sample information and expected value of specific implementation measure concepts accounting for the effects of specific research studies on implementation and the reduction of uncertainty. Diffusion theory and elicitation of expert beliefs about the shape of diffusion curves inform implementation dynamics. We illustrate use of the resulting dynamic expected value of research in a preterm birth screening technology and results are compared with those from a static analysis. Allowing for diffusion based on expert beliefs had a significant impact on the expected value of research in the case study, suggesting that mistakes are made where static implementation levels are assumed. Incorporating the effects of research on implementation resulted in an increase in the expected value of research compared to the expected value of sample information alone. Assessing the expected value of research in reducing uncertainty and improving implementation dynamics has the potential to complement currently used analyses in health technology assessments, especially in recommendations for further research. The combination of expected value of research, diffusion theory, and elicitation described in this article is an important addition to the existing methods of health technology assessment.

  12. Linking the Observation of Essential Variables to Societal Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylak-Glassman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Different scientific communities have established sets of commonly agreed upon essential variables to help coordinate data collection in a variety of Earth observation areas. As an example, the World Meteorological Organization Global Climate Observing System has identified 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), such as sea-surface temperature and carbon dioxide, which are required to monitoring the climate and detect and attribute climate change. In addition to supporting climate science, measuring these ECVs deliver many types of societal benefits, ranging from disaster mitigation to agricultural productivity to human health. While communicating the value in maintaining and improving observational records for these variables has been a challenge, quantifying how the measurement of these ECVs results in the delivery of many different societal benefits may help support their continued measurement. The 2016 National Earth Observation Assessment (EOA 2016) quantified the impact of individual Earth observation systems, sensors, networks, and surveys (or Earth observation systems, for short) on the achievement of 217 Federal objectives in 13 societal benefit areas (SBAs). This study will demonstrate the use of the EOA 2016 dataset to show the different Federal objectives and SBAs that are impacted by the Earth observation systems used to measure ECVs. Describing how the measurements from these Earth observation systems are used not only to maintain the climate record but also to meet additional Federal objectives may help articulate the continued measurement of the ECVs. This study will act as a pilot for the use of the EOA 2016 dataset to map between the measurements required to observe additional sets of variables, such as the Essential Ocean Variables and Essential Biodiversity Variables, and the ability to achieve a variety of societal benefits.

  13. Meeting ecological and societal needs for freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Poff, N.L.; Angermeier, P.L.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gleick, P.H.; Hairston, N.G.; Jackson, R.B.; Johnston, C.A.; Richter, B.D.; Steinman, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Human society has used freshwater from rivers, lakes, groundwater, and wetlands for many different urban, agricultural, and industrial activities, but in doing so has overlooked its value in supporting ecosystems. Freshwater is vital to human life and societal well-being, and thus its utilization for consumption, irrigation, and transport has long taken precedence over other commodities and services provided by freshwater ecosystems. However, there is growing recognition that functionally intact and biologically complex aquatic ecosystems provide many economically valuable services and long-term benefits to society. The short-term benefits include ecosystem goods and services, such as food supply, flood control, purification of human and industrial wastes, and habitat for plant and animal life—and these are costly, if not impossible, to replace. Long-term benefits include the sustained provision of those goods and services, as well as the adaptive capacity of aquatic ecosystems to respond to future environmental alterations, such as climate change. Thus, maintenance of the processes and properties that support freshwater ecosystem integrity should be included in debates over sustainable water resource allocation.The purpose of this report is to explain how the integrity of freshwater ecosystems depends upon adequate quantity, quality, timing, and temporal variability of water flow. Defining these requirements in a comprehensive but general manner provides a better foundation for their inclusion in current and future debates about allocation of water resources. In this way the needs of freshwater ecosystems can be legitimately recognized and addressed. We also recommend ways in which freshwater ecosystems can be protected, maintained, and restored.Freshwater ecosystem structure and function are tightly linked to the watershed or catchment of which they are a part. Because riverine networks, lakes, wetlands, and their connecting groundwaters, are literally the

  14. Value-centric business development: descriptive and prescriptive research into five different companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukushkin, Merili; Otto, Tauno; Howard, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    The companies that discover changes and possibilities within the value system first and make use of them are considered to be prime movers and often are more successful than those who adapt late. Research has been done on multiple levels for understanding value-centric business from a practical......, and results involved in both the descriptive and the prescriptive phases of the research....... perspective as well as from a theoretical perspective. In the first stage of the research (Descriptive Study 1), practical experience and knowledge were gained simultaneously from a case company and from literature-based case analysis. As output of a prescriptive study, a specification of a proactive value...

  15. When Inequality Fails: Power, Group Dominance, and Societal Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pratto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social dominance theory was developed to account for why societies producing surplus take and maintain the form of group-based dominance hierarchies, in which at least one socially-constructed group has more power than another, and in which men are more powerful than women and adults more powerful than children. Although the theory has always allowed for societies to differ in their severity of group-based dominance and how it is implemented, it has predicted that alternative forms of societal organization will occur rarely and not last. This paper revisits aspects of the theory that allow for the possibility of societal alternatives and change. We also consider boundary conditions for the theory, and whether its current theoretical apparatus can account for societal change. By expanding the typical three-level dynamic system to describe societies (micro-meso-macro into four levels (including meta to consider how societies relate to one another, we identify political tensions that are unstable power structures rather than stable hierarchies. In research on institutions, we identify smaller-scale alternative forms of social organization. We identify logical, empirical, and theoretical shortcomings in social dominance theory’s account of stability and change, consider alternative forms of social organization, and suggest fruitful avenues for theoretical extension.

  16. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity: An Interdisciplinary Methodological Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Salling Olesen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thematic issue presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis. Its particular focus is on subjectivity—as an aspect of the research object and as an aspect of the research process. By the term "approach" is indicated the intrinsic connection between the theorizing of an empirical object and the reflection of the research process and the epistemic subject. In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FQS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (BREUER, MRUCK & ROTH, 2002; MRUCK & BREUER, 2003. This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120345

  17. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  18. Shaping Societal Impact: between control and cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messemaker, M.; Wolbers, J.J.; Treurniet, W.; Boersma, F.K.; Comes, T; Fiedrich, F; Fortier, S; Geldermann, J; Muller, T

    2013-01-01

    In our modern society, the impact of large-scale safety and security incidents can be large and diverse. Yet, this societal impact is makeable and controllable to a limited extent. At best, the effect of concrete response actions is that the direct damage is somewhat reduced and that the recovery is

  19. Theorizing Learning in Life History - a psycho-societal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2007-01-01

    to the understanding of knowledge, based on examples from the author's research into professional learning (general practitioners). The pivotal role of language use and language socialisation is explained in brief, developing a psychodynamic complement to a language game concept of language use.......  Taking it's point of departure in some critical remarks to some of the most important recent theorizing of learning, this article presents an alternative framework for theorizing learning as a subjective process in a social and societal context, based in life history research. Key concepts...

  20. Societal costs of multiple sclerosis in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Peter; O'Boyle, Derek; Larkin, Aidan; McGuigan, Christopher; O'Rourke, Killian

    2018-05-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Ireland, and estimates the associated direct, indirect, and intangible costs to society based on a large nationally representative sample. A questionnaire was developed to capture the demographics, disease characteristics, healthcare use, informal care, employment, and wellbeing. Referencing international studies, standardized survey instruments were included (e.g. CSRI, MFIS-5, EQ-5D) or adapted (EDSS) for inclusion in an online survey platform. Recruitment was directed at people with MS via the MS Society mailing list and social media platforms, as well as in traditional media. The economic costing was primarily conducted using a 'bottom-up' methodology, and national estimates were achieved using 'prevalence-based' extrapolation. A total of 594 people completed the survey in full. The sample had geographic, disease, and demographic characteristics indicating good representativeness. At an individual level, average societal cost was estimated at €47,683; the average annual costs for those with mild, moderate, and severe MS were calculated as €34,942, €57,857, and €100,554, respectively. For a total Irish MS population of 9,000, the total societal costs of MS amounted to €429m. Direct costs accounted for just 30% of the total societal costs, indirect costs amounted to 50% of the total, and intangible or QoL costs represented 20%. The societal cost associated with a relapse in the sample is estimated as €2,438. The findings highlight that up to 70% of the total costs associated with MS are not routinely counted. These "hidden" costs are higher in Ireland than the rest of Europe, due in part to significantly lower levels of workforce participation, a higher likelihood of permanent workforce withdrawal, and higher levels of informal care needs. The relationship between disease progression and costs emphasize the societal importance of managing and slowing the progression of the illness.

  1. Methodology for value/impact assessment of nuclear regulatory research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.

    1978-12-01

    A methodology for conducting a value/impact assessment of research programs has been developed to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an improved capability for allocating resources for confirmatory research. This report presents a seven-step evaluation process and applies it to selected units of research. The methodology is intended to provide insight into the technical merits of the programs, one dimension of the complex problem of resource allocation for confirmatory research

  2. Subcontracting and network development in the value chain of Talentree Research services

    OpenAIRE

    Leppilampi, Antti

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the research is to investigate the role of subcontractors as a part of market research companies’ value chain. Another objective of the thesis is to find out how network development and knowledge sharing can help Talentree Research services to cope with changing business environments. Data was gathered through a questionnaire and a company representative interview. The questionnaire was sent to the key persons of a randomly selected group of Finnish market research compan...

  3. Integration of information for research and education: changes in the value chain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Vet, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the value chain induced by the use of ICT are discussed. ICT will lead to innovation not only in the research information system but also in the educational information system or even the education system at large.

  4. Cross-Cultural Psychology as a Scholarly Discipline: On the Flowering of Culture in Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marshall H.; Lonner, Walter J.; Berry, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines interrelationship of culture and behavior. Perspectives include absolutism and relativism, each with methodological consequences for such research concerns as values gender differences, cognition, aggression, intergroup relations, and psychological acculturation. Describes societal concerns relating to these topics. Contains 88…

  5. A quarter century of Culture's Consequences: a review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede's cultural values framework

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley L Kirkman; Kevin B Lowe; Cristina B Gibson

    2006-01-01

    Since Geert Hofstede's Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (Sage, 1980) was published, researchers have utilized Hofstede's cultural values framework in a wide variety of empirical studies. We review 180 studies published in 40 business and psychology journals and two international annual volumes between 1980 and June 2002 to consolidate what is empirically verifiable about Hofstede's cultural values framework. We discuss limitations in the Hofstede-inspir...

  6. Measuring the Value Added by Technical Documentation: A Review of Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Reviews existing work on establishing value of technical documentation to determine its principles. States that value can be returned by reducing internal investment, increasing sales, and reducing after-sales costs. Argues that further research will improve the understanding of information as the product itself, rather than simply a supporting…

  7. Work Values and Attitudes: A Review of Recent Research and Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Sabir A.

    1980-01-01

    Work values and attitudes are important in understanding an individual's career choice. The historical development of the concept of work, cross-cultural perspectives on work, and development of work values are discussed in light of recent research on sex and socioeconomic class differences. (JN)

  8. How Do Our Values Inform Ethical Research? A Narrative of Recognizing Colonizing Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzidic, Peta; Bishop, Brian

    2017-12-01

    How do you reconcile tensions between ethical research practice, personal values, and disciplinary values? This article focuses on an ethical challenge involving the engagement of rural Indigenous community members that emerged during my PhD fieldwork. The narrative illustrates the necessity to engage in critical reflexive research practice, a process which saw me respond to my own feelings of "wrong" and "right," contemplate a distinction between procedural ethics and virtue ethics in community-based research, explore colonizing research practices, and endeavor to reconcile an instance where the values of community psychology appeared in contest. The "voice" in this narrative is that of the first author; the dual authorship reflects the ongoing collaboration between both authors. When this ethical issue came about, our relationship was one of "student" and "supervisor"; we are now colleagues and friends. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  9. Collaborative partnership and the social value of clinical research: a qualitative secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Sanna-Maria; Halkoaho, Arja; Kangasniemi, Mari; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2017-10-25

    Protecting human subjects from being exploited is one of the main ethical challenges for clinical research. However, there is also a responsibility to protect and respect the communities who are hosting the research. Recently, attention has focused on the most efficient way of carrying out clinical research, so that it benefits society by providing valuable research while simultaneously protecting and respecting the human subjects and the communities where the research is conducted. Collaboration between partners plays an important role and that is why we carried out a study to describe how collaborative partnership and social value are emerging in clinical research. A supra-analysis design for qualitative descriptive secondary analysis was employed to consider a novel research question that pertained to nurse leaders' perceptions of ethical recruitment in clinical research and the ethics-related aspects of clinical research from the perspective of administrative staff. The data consisted of two separate pre-existing datasets, comprising 451 pages from 41 interviews, and we considered the research question by using deductive-inductive content analysis with NVivo software. A deductive analysis matrix was generated on the basis of two requirements, namely collaborative partnership and social value, as presented in An Ethical Framework for Biomedical Research by Emanuel et al. The findings showed that collaborative partnership was a cornerstone for ethical clinical research and ways to foster inter-partner collaboration were indicated, such as supporting mutual respect and equality, shared goals and clearly defined roles and responsibilities. In addition, the social value of clinical research was an important precondition for ethical clinical research and its realisation required the research partners to demonstrate collaboration and shared responsibility during the research process. However, concerns emerged that the multidimensional meaning of clinical research for

  10. Cultivating Perspectival Acuity: The Value and Cost of Integrating Theory, Craft, Research, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Manganelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents reflections on integrating theory, craft, research, and practice to improve the accuracy and resiliency of each. The reflections build toward a set of statements about the value and the cost of integrating theory, craft, research, and practice. Specifically, the authors offer the Privileged Work / Non-Privileged Work Framework and concept of cultivating Perspectival Acuity.

  11. Operationalizing the Concept of Value--An Action Research-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, Dag; Olsson, Annika; Karlsson, Sture

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: While the importance of measuring customer satisfaction levels is well established, less research exists on how organizations operationalize such knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to describe an action research (AR) case study resulting in a workshop model to operationalize the concept of value. The model facilitates organizational…

  12. The use of p-values in applied research: Interpretation and new trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Marasini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a controversy on the use and interpretation of p-values in applied research. In recent years several applied and theoretical journals have started to discuss on the appropriate use of p-values in research fields such as Psychology, Ecology, and Medicine. First, the notion of p-value has some intrinsic limitations, which have been already highlighted in the statistical literature, but are far from being recognized in applied research. Second, it has emerged the so-called practice of p-hacking, which consists in analyzing and re-analyzing data until obtaining a significant result in terms of a p-value less than 0.05. In the light of these problems, we review two alternative theoretical frameworks, given by the use of Bayes factor and a recent proposal that leads to evaluate statistical hypotheses in terms of a priori and a posteriori odds ratios.

  13. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...... for discussing the implications of combining multiple perspectives in overall sustainability assessments of the food system. We explored how values were embedded in five research perspectives: (1) food science, (2) discourse analysis, (3) phenomenology, (4) neoclassical welfare economics, and (5) actor......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values...

  14. Societal Conditions and the Gender Difference in Well-Being: Testing a Three-Stage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Li, Chen; Diener, Edward F

    2017-03-01

    Findings from a meta-analysis on gender differences in self-esteem (Zuckerman et al., 2016) suggest that the relation between the degree to which societal conditions are favorable to women and gender difference in self-esteem might be quadratic; when conditions improve, women's self-esteem (relative to that of men) trends downward but when conditions continue to improve, women's self-esteem begins to trend upward. Testing whether these relations generalize to subjective well-being, the present study found a quadratic relation between improving societal conditions and the gender difference in life satisfaction and positive affect (women are lower than men when societal conditions are moderately favorable compared to when they are at their worst and at their best); the relation was linear for negative emotion (women report more negative emotions than men when societal conditions are better). Directions for future research that will address potential explanations for these results are proposed.

  15. Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Drabble, Sarah J; Rudolph, Anne; Goode, Jackie; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Researchers sometimes undertake qualitative research with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health interventions. To systematically explore how qualitative research is being used with trials and identify ways of maximising its value to the trial aim of providing evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. A sequential mixed methods study with four components. (1) Database search of peer-reviewed journals between January 2008 and September 2010 for articles reporting the qualitative research undertaken with specific trials, (2) systematic search of database of registered trials to identify studies combining qualitative research and trials, (3) survey of 200 lead investigators of trials with no apparent qualitative research and (4) semistructured telephone interviews with 18 researchers purposively sampled from the first three methods. Qualitative research was undertaken with at least 12% of trials. A large number of articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials (n=296) were published between 2008 and 2010. A total of 28% (82/296) of articles reported qualitative research undertaken at the pre-trial stage and around one-quarter concerned drugs or devices. The articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356), the design and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356), the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356), the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356), and the health condition in the trial (9%, 33/356). The potential value of the qualitative research to the trial endeavour included improving the external validity of trials and facilitating interpretation of trial findings. This value could be maximised by using qualitative research more at the pre-trial stage and reporting findings with explicit attention to the implications for the trial endeavour. During interviews

  16. Are life-extending treatments for terminal illnesses a special case? Exploring choices and societal viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Neil; van Exel, Job; Mason, Helen; Godwin, Jon; Collins, Marissa; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Criteria used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to assess life-extending, end-of-life (EoL) treatments imply that health gains from such treatments are valued more than other health gains. Despite claims that the policy is supported by societal values, evidence from preference elicitation studies is mixed and in-depth research has shown there are different societal viewpoints. Few studies elicit preferences for policies directly or combine different approaches to understand preferences. Survey questions were designed to investigate support for NICE EoL guidance at national and regional levels. These 'Decision Rule' and 'Treatment Choice' questions were administered to an online sample of 1496 UK respondents in May 2014. The same respondents answered questions designed to elicit their agreement with three viewpoints (previously identified and described) in relation to provision of EoL treatments for terminally ill patients. We report the findings of these choice questions and examine how they relate to each other and respondents' viewpoints. The Decision Rule questions described three policies: DA - a standard 'value for money' test, applied to all health technologies; DB - giving special consideration to all treatments for terminal illnesses; and DC - giving special consideration to specific categories of treatments for terminal illnesses e.g. life extension (as in NICE EoL guidance) or those that improve quality-of-life (QoL). Three Treatment Choices were presented: TA - improving QoL for patients with a non-terminal illness; TB - extending life for EoL patients; and TC - improving QoL at the EoL. DC received most support (45%) with most respondents giving special consideration to EoL only when treatments improved QoL. The most commonly preferred treatment choices were TA (51%) and TC (43%). Overall, this study challenges claims about public support for NICE's EoL guidance and the focus on life extension at EoL and substantiates

  17. THE CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE VALUE RELEVANCE RESEARCH FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen- Alexandra BALTARIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the scientific literature referring to the value relevance of reported accounting information over a twelve year period starting from 2002. The approach of the paper is a theoretical (conceptual one. In order to complete the purpose of the paper we selected as research method the longitudinal qualitative analysis. The qualitative analysis carried out presents a deductive character. Our conclusions regarding the general characteristics of the research field pertaining to the value relevance of reported accounting information are drawn based on the main results and scientific contributions identified in the research field of interest.

  18. Societal costs of diabetes mellitus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortsø, C; Green, A; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide comprehensive real-world evidence on societal diabetes-attributable costs in Denmark. METHODS: National register data are linked on an individual level through unique central personal registration numbers in Denmark. All patients in the Danish National Diabetes Register in 2011 (N...... = 318 729) were included in this study. Complication status was defined according to data from the Danish National Hospital Register. Diabetes-attributable costs were calculated as the difference between costs of patients with diabetes and the expected costs given the annual resource consumption...... of the diabetes-free population. RESULTS: Societal costs attributable to diabetes were estimated to be at least 4.27 billion EUR in 2011, corresponding to 14,349 EUR per patient-year. A twofold higher healthcare resource usage was found for patients with diabetes as compared with the diabetes-free population...

  19. Understanding the Societal Impact of Humanities Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz; Johansson, Lasse Gøhler

    2016-01-01

    in society. An important assumption in this paper is that impact should be studied both from conceptual, qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Any approach that focuses merely on scientific outputs (such as publications or citations) or that relies on purely bibliometric indicators will result...... both quantitative and qualitative tools, the paper argues that we need a better and more comprehensive understanding of the role the humanities as part of a wider web of societal institutions, networks, and agents. Granted that the impact of humanities breakthroughs cannot be located at clearly......The critical problem for understanding the societal impact of humanities scholarship is that we currently have no satisfactory tools for understanding how wider social impacts occur and, by implication, very few guidelines for stimulating a reflexive dialogue about the influence of the humanities...

  20. Children’s proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn and develop. Understanding school or daycare as (part of......) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda in a (Danish) welfare state with well-developed school- and daycare system, are no longer simply thoughts about the school having space for as many pupils as possible...... (schools for all). Such thoughts can or should be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. These questions require an ethical...

  1. Are life-extending treatments for terminal illnesses a special case? Exploring choices and societal viewpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. McHugh (Neil); van Exel, J. (Job); H. Mason (Helen); Godwin, J. (Jon); M. Collins (Marissa); Donaldson, C. (Cam); R.M. Baker (Rachel)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractCriteria used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to assess life-extending, end-of-life (EoL) treatments imply that health gains from such treatments are valued more than other health gains. Despite claims that the policy is supported by societal values,

  2. Societal megatrends and trends in vehicle technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Duysinx, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The confrence enviions the future trends in automotive technologies at the light of societal megatrends. Different emerging technologies for the vehicle powertrain are envisionned for the next decade: piston engines with natural gas, battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells systems. In addition one must also consider the arrival of autonomous driving and of the race for lightweight design of cars.

  3. Trading of shares in the Societates Publicanorum?

    OpenAIRE

    Poitras, Geoffrey; Geranio, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the often repeated modern claim of significant trading in ‘shares of the societates publicanorum’ (partes) during the late Roman Republic cannot be supported using the available ‘primary sources’. Building on recent contributions detailing the economy of the late Republic, in general, and the tax farming activities of the publicani, in particular, an alternative more plausible legal and commercial explanation of the ‘primary sources’ – especially In Vatinium [12.29] an...

  4. Access to Information About Stuttering and Societal Knowledge of Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little influence on knowledge of stuttering. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. The influence of world societal forces on social tolerance. A time comparative study of prejudices in 32 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Societal variation in xenophobia, homophobia, and other prejudices is frequently explained by the economic background and political history of different countries. This article expands these explanations by considering the influence of world societal factors on individual attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on survey data collected within the World Value Survey and European Values Study framework between 1989 and 2010. Data are combined to a three-wave cross-sectional design including about 130,000 respondents from 32 countries. Results show that xenophobia and homophobia are influenced by the national political history, societal affluence, and the presence of international organizations. Global forces, however, are of particular importance for homophobia.

  6. Approaching a Conceptual Framework for Research on Sustainability Performance in Corporate Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    variations of stakeholder engagement and adopt a value chain narrative in their sustainability reporting. Multi-stakeholder reporting standards like the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and the UN Global Compact (UNGC) are adopted by corporations across industries, but only target sustainability issues...... in supply- and value chains to a limited extent. Though, this article proposes that the ongoing work towards new standards for integrated sustainability reporting represents a unique opportunity for increasing the presence of supply- and value chain perspectives in reporting in a way that facilitates a more...... optimal use of sustainability reports as a primary data source in research. Hence, this article proposes a conceptual framework for research on sustainability performance in corporate value chains, which potentially increases the future contributions to both the literature let alone practice. Different...

  7. Fairness hypothesis and managing the risks of societal technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, R.; Rayner, S.

    1986-08-01

    Much of the literature on risk perception and management has asked how society should resolve the question, ''How safe is safe enough'' There has been political and technical disagreement over the types of answers that may be given, as well as over the social values attached to perceived probabilities and magnitudes of various outcomes. Despite controversy, there seems to have been a large measure of consensus that, ''How safe is safe enough'' is the right question to ask. This paper sets out to question that assumption. Various ingenious techniques of risk analysis have sought to discover the real risks inherent in various activities, but from a sociocultural viewpoint it can be seen that no single answer can be given to the problem of adequate safety in a complex society which contains a wide variety of perceptual biases about danger, expectations of the good life, and levels of demand for safety. The paper argues that, from a societal risk-management perspective, we should be addressing a different range of questions that views societal risk as a whole rather than as the sum of individual hazards. Resolving the question, ''How safe is safe enough'' is less important in making societal technology choices than ''How fair is safe enough?'' A recent empirical pilot study is reported which explored the fairness hypotheses in the context of nuclear power. The results indicate that the process of technology choice should recognize explicitly the preferred principles different parties hold with respect to obtaining consent from those affected by the risks, distributing the liabilities, and justifying trust in the relevant institutions. The paper closes with a discussion of future prospects for the fairness approach in areas such as noxious facility siting

  8. A Tuned Value Chain Model for University Based Public Research Organisation. Case Lut Cst.

    OpenAIRE

    Vesa Karvonen; Matti Karvonen; Andrzej Kraslawski

    2012-01-01

    The Porter´s value chain model was introduced for strategic business purposes. During the last decades also Universities and University based institutes have started to use actions similar to private business concepts. A University based institute is not independent actor like company but there are interest groups who are expecting them to act like they would be. This article discusses about the possibility of utilize tuned value chain to public research organizations (PRO). Also the interact...

  9. A Tuned Value Chain Model for University Based Public Research Organisation: Case Lut Cst

    OpenAIRE

    Karvonen, Vesa; Karvonen, Matti; Kraslawski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The Porter´s value chain model was introduced for strategic business purposes. During the last decades also Universities and University based institutes have started to use actions similar to private business concepts. A University based institute is not independent actor like company but there are interest groups who are expecting them to act like they would be. This article discusses about the possibility of utilize tuned value chain to public research organizations (PRO). Also the interact...

  10. Growth, financial development, societal norms and legal institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses whether societal norms help to explain cross-country differences in financial development. We analyze whether societal norms in addition to legal institutions have an impact on financial development. We address the implications of the inclusion of societal norms for the analysis

  11. A Tuned Value Chain Model for University Based Public Research Organisation. Case Lut Cst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Karvonen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Porter´s value chain model was introduced for strategic business purposes. During the last decades also Universities and University based institutes have started to use actions similar to private business concepts. A University based institute is not independent actor like company but there are interest groups who are expecting them to act like they would be. This article discusses about the possibility of utilize tuned value chain to public research organizations (PRO. Also the interactions of tuned value chain model to existing industrial network are discussed. The case study object is the Centre for Separation Technology (CST at Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT in Finland.

  12. Stakeholder values and ecosystems in developing open access to research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Bridgette; Sveinsdottir, Thordis; Smallwood, Rod

    2014-05-01

    One aspect of understanding how to develop open access to research data is to understand the values of stakeholders in the emerging open data ecosystem. The EU FP7 funded project Policy RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe (RECODE) (Grant Agreement No: 321463) undertook such research to identify stakeholder values and mapped the emerging ecosystem. In this paper we outline and discuss the findings of this research. We address three key objectives, which are: (a) the identification and mapping of the diverse range of stakeholder values in Open Access data and data dissemination and preservation; (b) mapping stakeholder values on to research ecosystems using case studies from different disciplinary perspectives; and (c) evaluate and identify good practice in addressing conflicting value chains and stakeholder fragmentation. The research was structured on three related actions: (a) an analysis of policy and related documents and protocols, in order to map the formal expression of values and motivations; (b) conducting five case studies in particle physics, health sciences, bioengineering, environmental research and archaeology. These explored issues of data size; quality control, ethics and data security; replication of large datasets; interoperability; and the preservation of diverse types of data; and (c) undertaking a validation and dissemination workshop that sought to better understand how to match policies with stakeholder drivers and motivations to increase their effectiveness in promoting Open Access to research data. The research findings include that there is clearly an overall drive for Open Data Access within the policy documents, which is part of a wider drive for open science in general. This is underpinned by the view of science as an open enterprise. Although there is a strong argument for publicly funded science to be made open to the public the details of how to make research data open as yet still unclear. Our research found

  13. Discuss the value of T2 relaxation time in the research of femorotibial joint biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jinglian; Song Lingling; Liang Biling; Ye Ruixin; Yun Wenjuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of T 2 relaxation time in the research of the biomechanics and function of cartilage of knee joint. Methods: Knees of 20 healthy adults and 19 osteoarthritis patients were examined with sagittal 8-echo sequence. The T 2 value of cartilage was calculated. The T 2 values in the superficial and deeper cartilage of femoral and tibial joint were compared, so did between the osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults. Results: The T 2 values in the superficial and the deeper tibital cartilage were (48.8±6.3) ms, (44.3±5.7) ms, respectively. The T 2 values in the superficial and deeper femoral cartilage were (52.1±5.7) ms, (47.7±5.3) ms, respectively. There was a significant difference between superficial and deeper femoral cartilage (t=3.148 and t=3.384, P 2 value in the tibial cartilage of osteoarthritis patients was (56.0±9.1) ms and was higher than that of healthy adults. There was a significant difference between osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults (t=-3.446, P 2 relaxation time can be used in the research of the biomechanics and function of cartilage and has a application value in clinical diagnosis. (authors)

  14. A Framework for Enhancing the Value of Research for Dissemination and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Gila; Glasgow, Russell E; Carpenter, Christopher R; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Rabin, Borsika A; Fernandez, Maria E; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide that identifies critical evaluation and reporting elements necessary to move research into practice is needed. We propose a framework that highlights the domains required to enhance the value of dissemination and implementation research for end users. We emphasize the importance of transparent reporting on the planning phase of research in addition to delivery, evaluation, and long-term outcomes. We highlight key topics for which well-established reporting and assessment tools are underused (e.g., cost of intervention, implementation strategy, adoption) and where such tools are inadequate or lacking (e.g., context, sustainability, evolution) within the context of existing reporting guidelines. Consistent evaluation of and reporting on these issues with standardized approaches would enhance the value of research for practitioners and decision-makers.

  15. Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern

    2001-01-01

    In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than

  16. Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than

  17. THE CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE VALUE RELEVANCE RESEARCH FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen- Alexandra BALTARIU

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the scientific literature referring to the value relevance of reported accounting information over a twelve year period starting from 2002. The approach of the paper is a theoretical (conceptual) one. In order to complete the purpose of the paper we selected as research method the longitudinal qualitative analysis. The qualitative analysis carried out presents a deductive character. Our conclusions regarding the general characteristics of the research fi...

  18. Individual and societal consequences of hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dømgaard, Mikala; Bagger, Malene; Rhee, Nicolai Alexander

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia and fear of hypoglycemia threaten individuals' ability to work and drive. We studied the effect of hypoglycemia on the individual and society, with a focus on possible implications of new European union legislation on patients' continued ability to drive. METHODS: A cross......-sectional survey of Danish Diabetes Association members was conducted to investigate individual and societal consequences of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 3117/9951 individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) (32.2%) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (67.8%) completed the survey. The calculated incidence rates of self...

  19. The Value of Emic Research in Sport for Development and Peace Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrman, Hillel; Zach, Sima

    2018-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the value of researching the emic perceptions expressed by participants of sport for development and peace (SDP) programs about their program. An Israeli SDP program was chosen which addresses Arab children's educational needs through sport. Ten semi-structured interviews were held with participants: two Jewish male…

  20. Geocapabilities: Toward an International Framework for Researching the Purposes and Values of Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Michael; Lambert, David; Tani, Sirpa

    2013-01-01

    GeoCapabilities is a transatlantic collaborative project for researching the purposes and values of geography education through a "capabilities approach." Inspired by the writings of philosopher Amartya Sen and economist Martha Nussbaum, the capabilities approach provides a normative framework for understanding the broader aims of…

  1. The Case Study as Research Heuristic: Lessons from the R&D Value Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Klein, Hans K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of prototype case studies as the foundation for later evaluation through two studies from the "R&D Value Mapping Project," a study that will involve more than 30 cases. Explores the usefulness of case studies in defining and assessing subsequent research efforts. (SLD)

  2. Locating tissue collections in tissue economies--deriving value from biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro Mikael

    2006-01-01

    sample collections are challenged by varying conceptions of value, as well as structural factors that relate to the combination of different public population information systems in the Finnish research system. Such challenges reflect a tension in the economic aspirations of the ideology of the knowledge...

  3. Research of quality values and stability study of vaginal suppositories containing fluconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Олександрівна Бур’ян

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Stability is one of the main quality values of remedies. Biopharmaceutical properties of drugs and efficiency of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes of active compounds in human’s organism completely depend on physico-chemical values permanence and microbiological stability of every unit of drug. The aim of research resulting in the article was to determine the main quality values stability and microbiological purity of vaginal suppositories containing fluconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate after storage under certain conditions.Materials and methods. During both storage under room temperature and keeping in cool place vaginal suppositories prepared upon hydrophilic basis were periodically verified on indicators of description, identification, average weight and homogeneity of weight, dissolution, microbiological purity and active ingredients assay in unit dose. All research tests were carried out in accordance with both the SPhU requirements and elaborated draft of quality control procedures for «Flugedyn» remedy.Results. As a result of quality values study of suppositories test samples the efficiency and reliability of developed techniques and normative documentation draft of remedy were confirmed. Samples have been kept for as long as 5 years don’t comply with the requirements of normative documentation of remedy.Conclusion. Thus, summation of research data allow recommend following optimal storage period for vaginal suppositories «Flugedyn»: keep 3 years in dry place at a temperature 2 to 25 оС

  4. Research on the Value of AACSB Business Accreditation in Selected Areas: A Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The AACSB claims that its accreditation provides evidence of business school quality in a variety of areas. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing research on the value of AACSB accreditation on four key topics of importance to schools, prospective students, and employers: effect on obtaining quality students, students' job placement, faculty…

  5. Social Values Reflections through the Use of EFL Storytelling: An Action Research with Primary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Combariza, Claudia Milena; Rodríguez Chapetón, María Ximena; Rojas Rincón, Vanessa Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the results of an action research project carried out with a group of third graders at a public school in Bogotá. The project aimed to gain insights into the use of English as foreign language storytelling and to analyze the way in which students reflect upon their own social values. The findings suggest that the use of…

  6. Guiding principles of value creation through collaborative innovation in pharmaceutical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Liang; He, Jeff

    2018-02-01

    Open innovation has become the main trend in pharmaceutical research. Potential obstacles and pitfalls of collaborations often lead to missed opportunities and/or poorly executed partnerships. This paper aims to provide a framework that facilitates the execution of successful collaborations. We start by mapping out three checkpoints onto early-stage collaborative partnerships: inception, ignition and implementation. Different value types and value drivers are then laid out for each phase of the partnership. We proceed to propose a ratio-driven approach and a value-adjustment mechanism, enhancing the probability of successes in pharmaceutical research collaborations. These guiding principles combined should help the partners either reach agreement more quickly or move on to the next potential project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Driving biofuels in Europe. A research on the interaction between external regulation and value chain governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aantjes, J.C.

    2007-05-01

    To explain the unforeseen ascendancy of biofuels in the transport sector, a thorough understanding of the biofuel industry (i.e. the value chain) is crucial. Next to the industry structure, it seems that the regulatory framework surrounding the chain also contributes to the formation and structure of the biofuel industry in Europe. This assumption rests on the 2003 European Union (EU) biofuel directives for the promotion of biofuels in EU member states. With tax exemptions and reference values, the European Commission (EC) achieves to raise the amount of biofuels in transportation. The hypothesis in this thesis is that the European biofuel industry reflects a correlation between external regulation and value chain structure. More specifically, it is expected to be a mutual relation. The proposition is that value chain actors not only anticipate to the regulatory environment, they are also likely to influence decision-making on regulations in their advantage. Simply stated, value chain actors are concerned with the regulatory framework in order to enhance their position in the chain. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, this is an interesting proposition since the interaction between regulations and value chain governance receive little attention in theory. For the food industry, this approach contributes to understand the development in biofuel regulations and the European biofuel industry. Chapter Two reports the theoretical foundation of this study. The research framework rests on two rather independent streams of literature. The first part discusses 'value chain theory' and enables to examine how the biofuel value chains in Europe looks like. Among the analytical instruments of this research tradition, the role of powerful actors in controlling the value chain is elaborated in depth. The second stream is rooted in political theory and is characterized as 'political decision-making theory'. Its focus is on the formulation of governmental regulation. A

  8. The Value of Developing a Mixed-Methods Program of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovich, Shannon

    2017-07-01

    This article contributes to the discussion of the value of utilizing mixed methodological approaches to conduct nursing research. To this end, the author of this article proposes creating a mixed-methods program of research over time, where both quantitative and qualitative data are collected and analyzed simultaneously, rather than focusing efforts on designing singular mixed-methods studies. A mixed-methods program of research would allow for the best of both worlds: precision through focus on one method at a time, and the benefits of creating a robust understanding of a phenomenon over the trajectory of one's career through examination from various methodological approaches.

  9. Research ethics across the 49th parallel: the potential value of pilot testing "equivalent protections" in Canadian research institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, James V; McDonald, Michael; Meslin, Eric M

    2005-01-01

    Canada and the United States share the world's largest trade partnership and an increasing concern about divergent regulatory approaches to common industries. Canadian research institutes receive more research funding from the U.S. National Institutes of Health than any other country, much of it to fund multi-centre and collaborative research between the two countries. Because of these close economic and research ties, and the extensive similarities between the two countries in the review and oversight of ethics in human subjects research, we propose that Canada would be an ideal country for a pilot-test of the feasibility of "equivalent protections," a U.S. regulation that permits comparison of protections for human subjects between institutions in the two countries. The "equivalent protections" has been advocated by various bodies in the United States as a potentially beneficial mechanism for improving oversight of foreign trials. As well, we argue that "equivalent protections" could prove to be valuable for Canada in five specific ways: (1) by potentially reducing administrative burden on Canadian research institutions administering U.S. federal research funding; (2) by creating symbolic value of an explicit recognition by the United States that procedures normally followed for the protection of human subjects in Canadian research institutions are at least equivalent to those provided by the U.S. regulations; (3) by lowering the opportunity cost of investing in research in Canada; (4) by affording Canada an opportunity to enhance its leadership role in international research by offering an alternative to the U.S. regulatory model for the protection of human subjects; and (5) by providing a model for how the idea of equivalent protections might be addressed for research funded by Canadian agencies but conducted in other countries.

  10. P value and the theory of hypothesis testing: an explanation for new researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biau, David Jean; Jolles, Brigitte M; Porcher, Raphaël

    2010-03-01

    In the 1920s, Ronald Fisher developed the theory behind the p value and Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson developed the theory of hypothesis testing. These distinct theories have provided researchers important quantitative tools to confirm or refute their hypotheses. The p value is the probability to obtain an effect equal to or more extreme than the one observed presuming the null hypothesis of no effect is true; it gives researchers a measure of the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis. As commonly used, investigators will select a threshold p value below which they will reject the null hypothesis. The theory of hypothesis testing allows researchers to reject a null hypothesis in favor of an alternative hypothesis of some effect. As commonly used, investigators choose Type I error (rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true) and Type II error (accepting the null hypothesis when it is false) levels and determine some critical region. If the test statistic falls into that critical region, the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. Despite similarities between the two, the p value and the theory of hypothesis testing are different theories that often are misunderstood and confused, leading researchers to improper conclusions. Perhaps the most common misconception is to consider the p value as the probability that the null hypothesis is true rather than the probability of obtaining the difference observed, or one that is more extreme, considering the null is true. Another concern is the risk that an important proportion of statistically significant results are falsely significant. Researchers should have a minimum understanding of these two theories so that they are better able to plan, conduct, interpret, and report scientific experiments.

  11. The Place of Crowdfunding in the Discovery of Scientific and Social Value of Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Savio, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems. I start with the idea that medical knowledge is a structured and intermediate public good and explain from this perspective that funding systems as a whole, rather than any of their parts (such as expert-based reviews) ought to be considered devices for the discovery of the social and scientific value of research. If so, we should not be concerned with whether crowdfunding bypasses expert reviews, but with whether it may constitute an improvement of extant funding systems. In the second part, I speculate that crowdfunding may ameliorate, albeit limitedly, some recalcitrant failures of funding systems, such as the sponsorship of research on neglected diseases, and smooth funding adaptations for scientific transitions. If, after trial, such hypotheses turn out to be true, crowdfunding ought to be promoted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Uncovering the Topic Landscape of Product-Service System Research: from Sustainability to Value Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakyeon Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the product-service system (PSS is considered a promising business model that can create more value for customers, PSS research has enjoyed remarkable growth in its volume and coverage over the last decade. This study aims to delineate the thematic landscape of PSS research by identifying latent topics from a large amount of scholarly data. Ten topics of PSS research are identified by applying the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model to 1229 PSS publications published between 2000 and 2016. The ten PSS topics are briefly reviewed to provide an overview of what has previously been studied in PSS research. We also investigate which topics rise or fall in popularity by identifying hot and cold topics of PSS research. It is observed that the focus of discussions on the benefits of PSS has shifted from sustainability to value creation. Also, increasing attention has been paid to more practical topics such as PSS implementation. The areas of subspecialty of the top ten PSS journals are also examined to explore the interdisciplinary nature of PSS research and thematic differences across disciplines. The findings of this study can provide rich implications for both academia and practice in the field of PSS.

  13. Maximising value from a United Kingdom Biomedical Research Centre: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D; Channon, Keith M; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki

    2017-08-14

    Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country's international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) apply the evidence base on how best to support the various partnerships in this large, multi-stakeholder research system and (2) research how these partnerships play out in a new, ambitious programme of translational research. Organisational case study, informed by the principles of action research. A cross-cutting theme, 'Partnerships for Health, Wealth and Innovation' has been established with multiple sub-themes (drug development, device development, business support and commercialisation, research methodology and statistics, health economics, bioethics, patient and public involvement and engagement, knowledge translation, and education and training) to support individual BRC research themes and generate cross-theme learning. The 'Partnerships' theme will support the BRC's goals by facilitating six types of partnership (with patients and citizens, clinical services, industry, across the NIHR infrastructure, across academic disciplines, and with policymakers and payers) through a range of engagement platforms and activities. We will develop a longitudinal progress narrative centred around exemplar case studies, and apply theoretical models from innovation studies (Triple Helix), sociology of science (Mode 2 knowledge production) and business studies (Value Co-creation). Data sources will be the empirical research studies within individual BRC research themes (who will apply separately for NHS ethics approval), plus documentary analysis and interviews and ethnography with research

  14. The sanitation value chain: its concept and new research collaboration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamizu, N.

    2017-03-01

    Sanitation is essential for promoting health, preventing environment pollution, conserving ecosystem, and recovering and recycling resources. Therefore, it can be said that sanitation is closely related to such current global issues as poverty, urban slum, conservation of ecosystem, and resources management. Namely, the question, “How can we handle the waste from 10 billion people in future?” is a global environmental problem to be solved. In developing world, population is growing rapidly especially in urban slums and they have still high under 5 mortality and poverty issues. It also reported that 2.4 billion people are still using unimproved sanitation facilities, including 946 million people who are still practicing open defecation in 2015 (UN, 2015). On the other hand, depopulation and aging are progressing especially in rural area of developed world. Based on the above mentioned background, new research project on sanitation value chain has started. This is a collaboration project with LIPI, RIHN (Research Institute of Humanity and Nature, Kyoto) and HU (Hokkaido University). The concept of the sanitation value chain and the brief summary of the project are discussed in the keynote presentation. The concept of sanitation value chain proposed in the project : The project is proposing new concept, Sanitation Value Chain, which has the following basic policies: 1) Put values of people/and community in the centre of discussion, and prepare sanitation system to drive this value chain; 2) Design the sanitation system by focusing on incentive for individual users and community; 3) Recognize a sanitation system as an integrated system with social and technical systems; 4) Design the sanitation system by making a good matching between social characteristics and prerequisites of the technologies. The goals of the research are 1) To propose the Sanitation Value Chain as a common solution for both developing and developed countries, 2) To show the validity of the

  15. Learning in Life History - psycho-societal interpretation of biographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2008-01-01

    Taking its point of departure from some critical remarks about some of the most important recent theorizing of learning, this article presents an alternative framework for theorizing learning as a subjective process in a social and societal context, based on life history research. The key concepts...... of subjectivity and experience, derived from European critical theory, are briefly introduced with respect to their intellectual background. Based on examples from the author’s research into the professional learning, the article outlines the implications of these concepts in relation to an understanding...... of emotional aspects of learning in everyday life and to an understanding of knowledge. The pivotal role of language use and language socialisation is explained in brief, and a psychodynamic complement to a language game concept of language use is developed....

  16. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  17. Extending life for people with a terminal illness: a moral right and an expensive death? Exploring societal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Neil; Baker, Rachel M; Mason, Helen; Williamson, Laura; van Exel, Job; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Collins, Marissa; Donaldson, Cam

    2015-03-07

    Many publicly-funded health systems apply cost-benefit frameworks in response to the moral dilemma of how best to allocate scarce healthcare resources. However, implementation of recommendations based on costs and benefit calculations and subsequent challenges have led to 'special cases' with certain types of health benefits considered more valuable than others. Recent debate and research has focused on the relative value of life extensions for people with terminal illnesses. This research investigates societal perspectives in relation to this issue, in the UK. Q methodology was used to elicit societal perspectives from a purposively selected sample of data-rich respondents. Participants ranked 49 statements of opinion (developed for this study), onto a grid, according to level of agreement. These 'Q sorts' were followed by brief interviews. Factor analysis was used to identify shared points of view (patterns of similarity between individuals' Q sorts). Analysis produced a three factor solution. These rich, shared accounts can be broadly summarised as: i) 'A population perspective - value for money, no special cases', ii) 'Life is precious - valuing life-extension and patient choice', iii) 'Valuing wider benefits and opportunity cost - the quality of life and death'. From the factor descriptions it is clear that the main philosophical positions that have long dominated debates on the just allocation of resources have a basis in public opinion. The existence of certain moral positions in the views of society does not ethically imply, and pragmatically cannot mean, that all are translated into policy. Our findings highlight normative tensions and the importance of critically engaging with these normative issues (in addition to the current focus on a procedural justice approach to health policy). Future research should focus on i) the extent to which these perspectives are supported in society, ii) how respondents' perspectives relate to specific resource allocation

  18. Public opinion research in France: A new approach through people's values understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bres-Tutino, France; Pages, Jean-Pierre; Leger, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear energy perception by the public has not only technical aspects but is also relevant to public debate and related to people's values. The developed countries and affluent societies, have been showing, in particular, a shift towards post-materialist values. Some of these values and needs environment protection, quality of life, involvement in decision-making process (government, corporates) must be taken into account when analysing public opinion towards nuclear energy. That is the reason why since 1992 a yearly nuclear barometer survey has been run, jointly, by the main corporations involved in nuclear research and industry CEA, the French Atomic Energy Commission, COGEMA, EDF and FRAMATOME. This barometer includes not only quantitative indicators but also, several series of questions on public attitude towards risk perception, controversial issues discussed in the media, potential energy sources for the future, politicians credibility etc. In addition, a very detailed public segmentation allows researchers to analyse similarities and differences related to age, gender, level of education of the population. This paper intends to give some concrete examples and current results on French public attitude towards nuclear energy and on the relation between social values and support for nuclear power

  19. Applications and societal benefits of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L; Neal, Mike A

    2009-07-27

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years.

  20. Taking stock of project value creation: A structured literature review with future directions for research and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus; Svejvig, Per

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to take stock of what we know about project value creation and to present future directions for research and practice. We performed an explorative and unstructured literature review, which was subsequently paired with a structured literature review. We join several research areas...... by adopting the project value creation perspective on literature relating to benefits, value, performance, and success in projects. Our review includes 111 contributions analyzed through both an inductive and deductive approach. We find that relevant literature dates back to the early 1980s, and the still...... developing value-centric view has been the subject of many publications in recent years. We contribute to research on project value creation through four directions for future research: rejuvenating value management through combining value, benefits, and costs; supplementing value creation with value capture...

  1. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children’s Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O’Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children’s Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA. PMID:26949970

  2. Value-based integrated (renal) care: setting a development agenda for research and implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, Pim P; Biermann, Claus; Bruijnzeels, Marc A

    2016-08-02

    Integrated care services are considered a vital strategy for improving the Triple Aim values for people with chronic kidney disease. However, a solid scholarly explanation of how to develop, implement and evaluate such value-based integrated renal care services is limited. The aim of this study was to develop a framework to identify the strategies and outcomes for the implementation of value-based integrated renal care. First, the theoretical foundations of the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care and the Triple Aim were united into one overarching framework through an iterative process of key-informant consultations. Second, a rapid review approach was conducted to identify the published research on integrated renal care, and the Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, and Business Source Premier databases were searched for pertinent articles published between 2000 and 2015. Based on the framework, a coding schema was developed to synthesis the included articles. The overarching framework distinguishes the integrated care domains: 1) type of integration, 2) enablers of integration and the interrelated outcome domains, 3) experience of care, 4) population health and 5) costs. The literature synthesis indicated that integrated renal care implementation strategies have particularly focused on micro clinical processes and physical outcomes, while little emphasis has been placed on meso organisational as well as macro system integration processes. In addition, evidence regarding patients' perceived outcomes and economic outcomes has been weak. These results underscore that the future challenge for researchers is to explore which integrated care implementation strategies achieve better health and improved experience of care at a lower cost within a specific context. For this purpose, this study's framework and evidence synthesis have set a developmental agenda for both integrated renal care practice and research. Accordingly, we plan further work to develop an implementation

  3. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.

    2009-11-01

    Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation

  4. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Zussblatt, Niels P.; Plourde, Kenton J.; Wender, Ben A.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis—methods commonly applied in financial and operations management—to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios—combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  5. Satellite Climate Data Records: Development, Applications, and Societal Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review paper discusses how to develop, produce, sustain, and serve satellite climate data records (CDRs in the context of transitioning research to operation (R2O. Requirements and critical procedures of producing various CDRs, including Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs, Thematic CDRs (TCDRs, Interim CDRs (ICDRs, and climate information records (CIRs are discussed in detail, including radiance/reflectance and the essential climate variables (ECVs of land, ocean, and atmosphere. Major international CDR initiatives, programs, and projects are summarized. Societal benefits of CDRs in various user sectors, including Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Energy, Heath, Water, Transportation, and Tourism are also briefly discussed. The challenges and opportunities for CDR development, production and service are also addressed. It is essential to maintain credible CDR products by allowing free access to products and keeping the production process transparent by making source code and documentation available with the dataset.

  6. Status, Power, and Intergroup Relations: The Personal Is the Societal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T; Dupree, Cydney H; Nicolas, Gandalf; Swencionis, Jillian K

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchies in the correlated forms of power (resources) and status (prestige) are constants that organize human societies. This article reviews relevant social psychological literature and identifies several converging results concerning power and status. Whether rank is chronically possessed or temporarily embodied, higher ranks create psychological distance from others, allow agency by the higher ranked, and exact deference from the lower ranked. Beliefs that status entails competence are essentially universal. Interpersonal interactions create warmth-competence compensatory tradeoffs. Along with societal structures (enduring inequality), these tradeoffs reinforce status-competence beliefs. Race, class, and gender further illustrate these dynamics. Although status systems are resilient, they can shift, and understanding those change processes is an important direction for future research, as global demographic changes disrupt existing hierarchies.

  7. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Corinne; Rösch, Andreas; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  8. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.moser@zhaw.ch [Institute of Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Rösch, Andreas [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Stauffacher, Michael [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Transdisciplinarity Laboratory, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-16

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  9. Research Ethics Review and Aboriginal Community Values: Can the Two be Reconciled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathleen Cranley; Kaufert, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH ETHICS REVIEW COMMITTEES (RECs) are heavily influenced by the established academic or health care institutional frameworks in which they operate, sharing a cultural, methodological and ethical perspective on the conduct of research involving humans. The principle of autonomous choice carries great weight in what is a highly individualistic decision-making process in medical practice and research. This assumes that the best protection lies in the ability of patients or research participants to make competent, voluntary, informed choices, evaluating the risks and benefits from a personal perspective. Over the past two decades, North American and international indigenous researchers, policy makers and communities have identified key issues of relevance to them, but ignored by most institutional or university-based RECs. They critique the current research review structure, and propose changes on a variety of levels in an attempt to develop more community sensitive research ethics review processes. In doing so, they have emphasized recognition of collective rights including community consent. Critics see alternative policy guidelines and community-based review bodies as challenging the current system of ethics review. Some view them as reflecting a fundamental difference in values. In this paper, we explore these developments in the context of the political, legal and ethical frameworks that have informed REC review. We examine the process and content of these frameworks and ask how this contrasts with emerging Aboriginal proposals for community-based research ethics review. We follow this with recommendations on how current REC review models might accommodate the requirements of both communities and RECs.

  10. Determination of the value of the occupational man-Sievert: research on reference values in the asbestos industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assign relative reference values to the cost of the man-Sievert, the implicit costs are calculated for preventing the occupational health risks associated with the asbestos industry in France and the United Kingdom. The results for the cost of the man-Sievert were (0.4 to 1.2) 10 5 F and (3.4 to 9.2) 10 5 F respectively compared to the equivalent workbench cost of 30.10 5 F for PWR reactors in France. (author)

  11. The Role of Language in the Selection of Entrepreneurial Opportunities for Societal Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberg, Philip; Urbig, Diemo; Procher, Vivien D.; Dana, Leo-Paul

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation and selection of entrepreneurial opportunities for societal support often takes place in a global and, thereby, foreign language context. While previous research demonstrated that foreign language use influences individuals’ decision-making, our knowledge on the impact of foreign

  12. Dialogue as a tool for societal valorization of environmental and industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metze, T.A.P.; Schuitmaker, Tjerk Jan; Bitsch, Lise; Betten, W.; de Cock Buning, T.; Broerse, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this project we explored and experimented with how a meaningful dialogue can be operationalized most effectively in the terms of enhancing societal valorisation of environmental and industrial biotechnology. We did so in the context of the Dutch research consortium BE-Basic. The project is

  13. `Hard science': a career option for socially and societally interested students? Grade 12 students' vocational interest gap explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Annemie; Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2017-11-01

    A key theme in science education research concerns the decline in young peoples' interest in science and the need for professionals in hard science. Goal Congruity Theory posits that an important aspect of the decision whether to pursue hard science for study or as a career is the perception that hard science careers do not fulfil social (working with people) and societal (serving or helping others) interests. In this qualitative study, we explore grade 12 students' perceptions about the social and societal orientation of hard science careers. Furthermore, we investigate the variation in students' social and societal interests. Six focus groups were conducted with 58 grade 12 students in Flanders. Our results indicate that a number of students hold stereotypical views about hard science careers' social orientation, while others believe cooperation with others is an important aspect of hard science careers nowadays. Furthermore, our results show that students believe hard science careers can be societally oriented in the sense that they often associate them with innovation or societal progress. Finally, our results indicate that students may differentiate direct versus indirect societal orientation. These findings contribute to literature regarding social and societal interests and students' perceptions of hard science careers.

  14. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Harrison, Wendy; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI), 5666-36,227) and 212 (95% UI, 37-612), respectively. More than 11% (95% UI, 6.3-17) of the pig population was infected with the parasite when using tongue examination as diagnostic method. For the year 2012 the number of DALYs per thousand person-years for NCC-associated epilepsy was 0.7 (95% UI, 0.2-1.6). Around 5 million USD (95% UI, 797,535-16,933,477) were spent due to NCC-associated epilepsy and nearly 3 million USD (95% UI, 1,095,960-5,366,038) were potentially lost due to porcine cysticercosis. Our results show that T. solium imposes a serious public health, agricultural and economic threat for Tanzania. We urge that a One Health approach, which involves the joint collaboration and effort of veterinarians, medical doctors, agricultural extension officers

  15. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  16. Advancing medicine one research note at a time: the educational value in clinical case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabán-Martinez Alberto J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A case report—a brief written note that describes unique aspects of a clinical case—provides a significant function in medicine given its rapid, succinct, and educational contributions to scientific literature and clinical practice. Despite the growth of, and emphasis on, randomized clinical trials and evidenced-based medicine, case reports continue to provide novel and exceptional knowledge in medical education. The journal BMC Research Notes introduces a new “case reports” section to provide the busy clinician with a forum in which to document any authentic clinical case that provide educational value to current clinical practice. The aim is for this article type to be reviewed, wherever possible, by specialized Associate Editors for the journal, in order to provide rapid but thorough decision making. New ideas often garnered by and documented in case reports will support the advancement of medical science — one research note at a time.

  17. Advancing medicine one research note at a time: the educational value in clinical case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J; Beltrán, Wilfredo F García

    2012-07-06

    A case report--a brief written note that describes unique aspects of a clinical case--provides a significant function in medicine given its rapid, succinct, and educational contributions to scientific literature and clinical practice. Despite the growth of, and emphasis on, randomized clinical trials and evidenced-based medicine, case reports continue to provide novel and exceptional knowledge in medical education. The journal BMC Research Notes introduces a new "case reports" section to provide the busy clinician with a forum in which to document any authentic clinical case that provide educational value to current clinical practice. The aim is for this article type to be reviewed, wherever possible, by specialized Associate Editors for the journal, in order to provide rapid but thorough decision making. New ideas often garnered by and documented in case reports will support the advancement of medical science--one research note at a time.

  18. Arab Societal Awareness of Dental Veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfouzan, Afnan; Al-Sanie, Aisha A; Al-Dhafiri, Reem A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the Arab society's knowledge, awareness, and attitudes toward dental veneers. A cross-sectional study was performed by collecting data through an online questionnaire created using the Survey Monkey website and distributed among Middle Eastern societies through social media to ascertain participants' knowledge and awareness regarding dental veneers. The sample included Arab laypeople who were over 18 years old, to represent the awareness of the majority regarding dental veneers. The sample of this study included 1,332 subjects from different Middle Eastern nationalities, mainly Saudis, Kuwaitis, and Emiratis (15.6% of males and 84.4% of females). The results of this study showed that the total knowledge of dental veneers is 50.12%. The respondents with the highest level of knowledge acquired their information mainly from newspapers and magazines, followed by the Internet, then dentists, then social media, and, finally, friends and relatives. Cost was the only factor limiting 38.4% of subjects from receiving veneers, and 56% of the subjects would receive veneers if they were free of cost. In total, 72.6% of the respondents believed that veneers are currently overused. The knowledge and awareness of dental veneers were below a satisfactory level. Participants who relied on social media as a source of information had lower knowledge levels. This study emphasized the need for continual societal education regarding dental veneers.

  19. Satellite Power System (SPS) societal assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Construction and operation of a 60-unit (300 GW) domestic SPS over the period 2000 to 2030 would stress many segments of US society. A significant commitment of resources (land, energy, materials) would be required, and a substantial proportion of them would have to be committed prior to the production of any SPS electricity. Estimated resource demands, however, seem to be within US capabilities. Modifications will be required of institutions called upon to deal with SPS. These include financial, managerial and regulatory entities and, most particularly, the utility industry. Again, the required changes, while certainly profound, seem to be well within the realm of possibility. Enhanced cooperation in international affairs will be necessary to accommodate development and operation of the SPS. To remove its potential as a military threat and to reduce its vulnerability, either the SPS itself must become an international enterprise, or it must be subject to unrestricted international inspection. How either of these objectives could, in fact, be achieved, or which is preferable, remains unclear. Forty-four concerns about the SPS were identified via a public outreach experiment involving 9000 individuals from three special interest organizations. The concerns focused on environmental impacts (particularly the effects of microwave radiation) and the centralizing tendency of the SPS on society. The interim results of the public outreach experiment influenced the scope and direction of the CDEP; the final results will be instrumental in defining further societal assessment efforts.

  20. Model-Based Exploration of Societal Aging in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Logtens, T.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Mismanagement of societal aging is an important threat to health care, social security, and the economy of many nations. A System Dynamics simulation model related to societal aging in the Netherlands and its implications for the Dutch welfare system is used here to generate exploratory scenarios

  1. Using customer relationships to acquire technological innovation: a value-chain analysis of supplier contracts with scientific research institutions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "In this exploratory research, a value-chain analysis is used to investigate how industrial suppliers working with the European Research Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) gain benefits resulting from technological innovation".

  2. Acquisition and Cataloguing Processes: Changes as a Result of Customer Value Discovery Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue McKnight

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ This study seeks to highlight the profound effect of Customer Value Discovery research on the internal business processes of two university libraries in the areas of cataloguing and acquisitions.Methods ‐ In this project, “Customer Discovery Workshops” with academic staff, students, and university stakeholders provided library managers and staff with information on what services and resources were of value to customers. The workshops also aimed to discover what features of existing library services and resources irritated the students, staff, and faculty. A student satisfaction survey assessed longer‐term impact of library changes to students in one university.Results ‐ The findings resulted in significant changes to collection development, acquisitions, and cataloguing processes. A number of value added services were introduced for the customer. The project also resulted in greater speed and efficiency in dealing with collection development, acquisitions, and cataloguing by the introduction of more technology‐enhanced services. Overall customer satisfaction was improved during the project period.Conclusion ‐ The changes to services introduced as a result of customer feedback also improved relationships between librarians and their university community, through the introduction of a more proactive and supportive service.

  3. Toward Value-Based Pricing to Boost Cancer Research and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana, Alberto; Amir, Eitan; Tannock, Ian F

    2016-06-01

    The high market price of new anticancer agents has stimulated debate about the long-term sustainability of healthcare systems and whether these new agents can continue to be supported by public healthcare or by private insurers. In addition, some drugs have been approved with limited clinical benefit, raising concerns about setting a minimum requirement for medical benefit. Options to resolve these problems include raising the bar for approval of new drugs and/or pricing of new agents based on the medical benefit that they offer to patients. In this commentary, we suggest that new agents should be marketed in a two-step process that would include first the approval of the new drug by the regulatory agencies and second the introduction of a market price based on the medical benefit that the new intervention offers to patients. Introduction of value-based pricing would maintain the sustainability of health care systems and would improve drug development, as it would pressure pharmaceutical companies to become more innovative and avoid the development of compounds with limited benefit. Value-based pricing could also stimulate the funding of research directed to development of new anticancer drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3127-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Characteristics and values of a British military nurse. International implications of War Zone qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Alan; Finnegan, Sara; McKenna, Hugh; McGhee, Stephen; Ricketts, Lynda; McCourt, Kath; Warren, Jem; Thomas, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2014, British military nurses served in Afghanistan caring for both Service personnel and local nationals of all ages. However, there have been few research studies assessing the effectiveness of the military nurses' operational role and no papers naming the core values and characteristics. This paper is from the only qualitative nursing study completed during this period where data was collected in the War Zone. To explore the characteristics and values that are intrinsic to military nurses in undertaking their operational role. A constructivist grounded theory was utilised. The authors designed the interview schedule, and then following a pilot study, conducted and transcribed the discussions. Informed consent and UK Ministry of Defence Research Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Camp Bastion Hospital, Afghanistan, in 2013. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 British Armed Forces nurses. A theoretical model was developed that identifies the intrinsic characteristics and values required to be a military nurse. Nursing care delivered within the operational environment was perceived as outstanding. Nurses consciously detached themselves from any legal processes and treated each casualty as a vulnerable patient, resulting in care, compassion and dignity being provided for all patients, irrespective of their background, beliefs or affiliations. The study findings provide military nurses with a framework for a realistic personal development plan that will allow them to build upon their strengths as well as to identify and ameliorate potential areas of weakness. Placing nurses first, with a model that focusses on the requirements of a good nurse has the potential to lead to better patient care, and improve the quality of the tour for defence nurses. These findings have international implications and have the potential for transferability to any level of military or civilian nursing practice. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by

  5. Potential value of electronic prescribing in health economic and outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Cooke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Catherine E Cooke1, Brian J Isetts2, Thomas E Sullivan3, Maren Fustgaard4, Daniel A Belletti51PosiHealth Inc., Ellicott City, MD, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Systems, University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Women’s Health Center, Danvers, MA, USA; 4Assistant Director for Regional Outcomes Research, 5Associate Director for Regional Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USAAbstract: Improving access and quality while reducing expenditures in the United States health system is expected to be a priority for many years. The use of health information technology (HIT, including electronic prescribing (eRx, is an important initiative in efforts aimed at improving safety and outcomes, increasing quality, and decreasing costs. Data from eRx has been used in studies that document reductions in medication errors, adverse drug events, and pharmacy order-processing time. Evaluating programs and initiatives intended to improve health care can be facilitated through the use of HIT and eRx. eRx data can be used to conduct research to answer questions about the outcomes of health care products, services, and new clinical initiatives with the goal of providing guidance for clinicians and policy makers. Given the recent explosive growth of eRx in the United States, the purpose of this manuscript is to assess the value and suggest enhanced uses and applications of eRx to facilitate the role of the practitioner in contributing to health economics and outcomes research.Keywords: electronic prescribing, outcomes research, health information technology

  6. Societal views and animal welfare science: understanding why the modified cage may fail and other stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-02-01

    The innovations developed by scientists working on animal welfare are often not adopted in practice. In this paper, we argue that one important reason for this failure is that the solutions proposed do not adequately address the societal concerns that motivated the original research. Some solutions also fail because they do not adequately address perceived constraints within the industry. Using examples from our own recent work, we show how research methods from the social sciences can address both of these limitations. For example, those who persist in tail-docking cattle (despite an abundance of evidence showing that the practice has no benefits) often justify their position by citing concern for cow cleanliness. This result informs the nature of new extension efforts directed at farmers that continue to tail dock, suggesting that these efforts will be more effective if they focus on providing producers with methods (of proven efficacy) for keeping cows clean. Work on pain mitigation for dehorning shows that some participants reluctant to provide pain relief believe that the pain from this procedure is short lasting and has little impact on the calf. This result informs the direction of new biological research efforts to understand both the magnitude and duration of any suffering that result from this type of procedure. These, and other examples, illustrate how social science methodologies can document the shared and divergent values of different stakeholders (to ensure that proposed solutions align with mainstream values), beliefs regarding the available evidence (to help target new scientific research that meets the perceived gaps), and barriers in implementing changes (to ease adoption of ideas by addressing these barriers).

  7. The Value of Nursing Care: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Tracey K; Patrician, Patricia A; Loan, Lori A

    2017-10-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of value of nursing care. Value-based health care delivery and reimbursement models are focused on value as a product of quality and cost. Nursing care provides tangible and intangible contributions to patient and organizational outcomes. The nursing profession must be able to proactively and effectively communicate the value of nursing care. Concept analysis. Thirty-five separate sources were chosen from database searches of CINAHL Complete and ABI/INFORM Complete. Key terms utilized for the search were "nursing value" OR "nursing care value" OR "value of nursing". Caron and Bowers' (2000) dimensional analysis method was used as a guide for the project. Dimensions identified from this concept analysis included: (a) economic, (b) relational, and (c) societal. Direct care nurses experience the relational and societal dimensions of the value of nursing care. Patients and/or families experience the relational dimension of value in nursing care. Health care administrators, third-party payers, and nurse researchers interpret value from the economic dimension. Future nursing research should better quantify the economic value of nursing care. Qualitative research which focuses on how patients and families experience the value of nursing care would also contribute to further refinement of this concept. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  9. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Barrett

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i cellular and mesh networks, (ii transportation networks and (iii mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number

  10. Insights into the concept of vitality: associations with participation and societal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, E; van Dongen, J M; Wendel-Vos, G C W; Hildebrandt, V H; Strijk, J E

    2016-04-01

    In healthcare, the focus is currently shifting from someone's disabilities to someone's abilities, which is also evident from the increasing focus on vitality. Vitality (here defined as energy, motivation and resilience) is an often used concept, which also aims at someone's capabilities. However, little is known about vitality yet; in particular about its association with participation and societal costs. Within a cross-sectional design, information regarding vitality, participation and societal costs was collected among 8015 Dutch adults aged 20 years and over. Vitality was measured using the validated Dutch Vitality Questionnaire (Vita-16). Information on economic (i.e. want/able to work, work absenteeism, work performance), societal (i.e. voluntary work, informal care giving) and social participation (i.e. quantity and quality of social contacts) and societal costs (i.e. healthcare and work-related costs) was collected using an internet survey. Significant associations were found between vitality and various economic (i.e.sustainable employability:want to work: β = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.99-1.43,able to work:β = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.79-2.38;work absenteeism: OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.71-0.79;work performance:β = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.46-0.52), societal (i.e.voluntary work, informal care) and social (i.e.quantity and quality of social contacts) participation measures, as well as between vitality and societal costs (i.e.healthcare costs:β = -213.73, 95% CI: €-311.13 to €-107.08),absenteeism costs: β = -338.57, 95% CI: €-465.36 to €-214.14 and presenteeism costs:β = -1293.31, 95% CI: €-1492.69 to €-1088.95). This study showed significant positive associations between vitality and economic, societal and social participation and negative associations between vitality and societal costs. This may stimulate research on interventions enhancing and maintaining vitality and thereby contributing to improved participation and reduced costs. © The Author 2015. Published by

  11. Ecologic Footprints versus Gross Domestic Product: how indicators of societal development appear and operate in public media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    Public communication about societal concerns and challenges revolve to a large extent around different indicators, the prominence and use of which may reveal the status of social values and discourses, including sustainability values and environmental discourses. This paper presents a study of on...

  12. Determination of contamination operational value by routine monitoring in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomao, Edeilson; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Mattos, Maria Fernanda S.S.; Daros, Kellen Adriana Curci

    2008-01-01

    The radioisotopes have a large spectrum of applicability in many areas of science, as in medicine, agriculture and industry in general. In the biological area, the radioisotopes have brought many benefits to study physiological processes in living organisms and in vitro. The most radioisotopes used in biological research are emitters of radiation of low energy, mainly β, and are used as unsealed sources. The manipulation of these radioisotopes generates radioactive wastes and eventually can cause contamination in the areas of handling or even occasionally in areas to which access is not controlled. According to CNEN-NE-3.02 standard is necessary and mandatory the exposure and contamination levels control in the areas of handling of unsealed sources. The goal of the work is to establish how often the monitoring should be done through the survey of the contamination and exposure levels, in areas designed to manipulate 32 P and how this monitoring can contribute to the improvement the conditions of radiological protection. From the twenty eight research laboratories registered by 'Nucleo de Protecao Radiologica' (NPR) were selected four where the activities are not restrict to 32 P biological assays. The levels of contamination and exposure were evaluated using monitors GM and the layout of laboratories containing the points to be tracker defined based on the researchers' routine. At each point three values were obtained to measure the rate of contamination on the surface and exposure rate. The measures were made twice a week before and after the radioisotope manipulation. Based on these data was possible to establish the range from 0,306 to 0,678 Bq.cm -2 as operational average level to the superficial contamination. The average exposure rate measured was 5.16 n C/Kg.h. The results were important to demonstrating to researchers how they can contribute to the improvement of radiological protection conditions. (author)

  13. What Values, Whose Perspective in Social and Emotional Training? A Study on How Ethical Approaches and Values May Be Handled Analytically in Education and Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldenmyr, Sara Irisdotter

    2016-01-01

    This present article takes an interest in the fairly new phenomena of social and emotional training programs in youth education. Prior research has shown that values and norms produced in these types of programs are supporting ethical systems that teachers may not always be aware of. This motivates the development of methods for analyzing these…

  14. Is the Societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2015-01-01

    Problem Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. Method This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003–2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. Results During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. Discussion The societal costs—total, mean, and median costs—of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. Impact on Industry To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector

  15. Is the societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2013-02-01

    Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003-2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. The societal costs-total, mean, and median costs-of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector research by industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. PV value analysis: Progress report on PV-Compact Coordinating Council's consensus research agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, J.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of published and ongoing valuation research indicates that grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) technology is at or close to cost-effectiveness, from the utility or end-user point of view, in an increasing but carefully selected array of distributed utility applications. This conclusion is based on conventional analyses of utility avoided costs (energy, effective load carrying capability, and transmission and distribution costs including line losses) and customer benefits (energy and demand bill savings, tax benefits). It may provide the basis for regulatory review of utility transmission or distribution investments to test prudence or usefulness. The conclusion would be stronger with consideration of the values of risk mitigation, power quality, strategic value to utilities, and satisfaction of customer preference. Further work would therefore be useful in quantifying these factors. The economic conclusions prevail irrespective of the structure of the utility industry. However, the analysis is site-specific so its broad application depends on development of easily operated models and other analytical tools for use in the field and by the regulatory process

  17. Practice of adding value to materials by a neutron irradiation in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Soo Youl; Jun, Byung Jin

    2008-01-01

    Adding more value to materials by a neutron irradiation is one of the utilization areas of research reactors. A neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of Si, a gemstone coloration, and a track etched membrane production are the three important subjects and these are being serviced on a commercial basis. Nevertheless, a further enhancement of the technologies is necessary, and the IAEA/RCA has supported the development and dissemination of the relevant technologies. This article reports on what was achieved during the IAEA/RCA Regional Training Course on the Design and Operation of Neutron Irradiation Facilities which was held in Korea in April 2008 for two weeks. The Course, which was open to the Asian RCA member states, consisted of lectures, presentations from each country, and design and experiment exercises concerning the above three subjects. The lectures covered not only the principles but also the practice in every detail. The experience of Korea on the NTD and those of Indonesia and Thailand on the gemstone coloration drew concentrated attention of the participants. Meanwhile, as one of the exercises the participants designed a device for the NTD or the gemstone irradiation and analyzed its performance from the neutronics point of view. The Course was successful in deepening the understanding on the practice of value adding technologies and also in sharing some ideas for their enhancement

  18. Practice of adding value to materials by a neutron irradiation in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Soo-Youl; Jun, Byung Jin

    2008-01-01

    Adding more value to materials by a neutron irradiation is one of the utilization areas of research reactors. A neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of Si, a gemstone coloration, and a track-etched membrane production are the three important subjects and these are being serviced on a commercial basis. Nevertheless, a further enhancement of the technologies is necessary, and the IAEA/RCA has supported the development and dissemination of the relevant technologies. This article reports on what was achieved during the IAEA/RCA Regional Training Course on the Design and Operation of Neutron Irradiation Facilities which was held in Korea in April 2008 for two weeks. The Course, which was open to the Asian RCA member states, consisted of lectures, presentations from each country, and design and experiment exercises concerning the above three subjects. The lectures covered not only the principles but also the practice in every detail. The experience of Korea on the NTD and those of Indonesia and Thailand on the gemstone coloration drew concentrated attention of the participants. Meanwhile, as one of the exercises the participants designed a device for the NTD or the gemstone irradiation and analyzed its performance from the neutronics point of view. The Course was successful in deepening the understanding on the practice of value-adding technologies and also in sharing some ideas for their enhancement. (author)

  19. Practice of adding value to materials by a neutron irradiation in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Soo Youl; Jun, Byung Jin

    2008-01-01

    Adding value to materials by a neutron irradiation is one of the utilization areas of research reactors. A neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of Si, a gemstone coloration, and a track-etched membrane production are the three important subjects and these are being serviced on a commercial basis. Nevertheless, a further enhancement of the technologies is necessary, and the IAEA/RCA has supported the development and dissemination of the relevant technologies. This article report on what was achieved during the IAEA/RCA regional Training Course on the Design and Operation of Neutron Irradiation Facilities which was held in Korea in April 2008 for two weeks. The Course, which was open to the Asian RCA member states, consisted of lectures, presentations from each country, and design and experiment exercises concerning the above three subjects. The lectures covered not only the principles but also the practice in every detail. The experience of Korea on the NTD and those of indonesia and Thailand on the gemstone coloration drew concentrated attention of the participants. Meanwhile, as one of the exercises the participants designed a device for the NTD or the gemstone irradiation and analyzed its performance from the neutronics point of view. The Course was successful in deepening the understanding on the practice of value-adding technologies and also in sharing some ideas for their enhancement

  20. Food value chain analysis: A review of selected studies for Pakistan and guidelines for further research

    OpenAIRE

    ul Haq, Zahoor

    2012-01-01

    The study of value chains comprises of two key concepts: value and chain. The term value is synonym to “value added†in the Value Chain Analysis (VCA) as it characterizes the incremental value of a resultant product produced from processing of a product. For agricultural products, value addition can also take place through differentiation of a product based on food safety and food functionality. Price of the resultant product shows its incremental value. The term chain refers to a supply c...

  1. Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovden, J.; Rausand, M.; Sergeev, G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today's Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier exclamation point

  2. Employing Earned Value Management in Government Research and Design - Lessons Learned from the Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tom

    2009-01-01

    To effectively manage a project, the project manager must have a plan, understand the current conditions, and be able to take action to correct the course when challenges arise. Research and design projects face technical, schedule, and budget challenges that make it difficult to utilize project management tools developed for projects based on previously demonstrated technologies. Projects developing new technologies by their inherent nature are trying something new and thus have little to no data to support estimates for schedule and cost, let alone the technical outcome. Projects with a vision for the outcome but little confidence in the exact tasks to accomplish in order to achieve the vision incur cost and schedule penalties when conceptual solutions require unexpected iterations or even a reinvention of the plan. This presentation will share the project management methodology and tools developed through trial and error for a NASA research and design project combining industry, academia, and NASA inhouse work in which Earned Value Management principles were employed but adapted for the reality of the government financial system and the reality of challenging technology development. The priorities of the presented methodology are flexibility, accountability, and simplicity to give the manager tools to help deliver to the customer while not using up valuable time and resources on extensive planning and analysis. This presentation will share the methodology, tools, and work through failed and successful examples from the three years of process evolution.

  3. The Value of Information Systems Teaching and Research in the Knowledge Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Hemingway

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Governments and businesses are becoming ever more interested in the production and capitalisation of knowledge, so much so that the 'knowledge economy' is now regarded as the paradigm of economic progress. This has significant implications for teaching and research generally, and for the IS community in particular. This paper provides a brief analysis of general developments in higher education to provide a context for discussing the developments specific to IS. Stakeholder analysis is then used to identify the main responsibilities and pressures placed upon the IS academic community. Using the stakeholder analysis as a set of 'requirements' that the IS academic community must balance, several ways in which IS teaching and research can better contribute value to the various stakeholder groups are identified. Throughout the paper, several 'policy level' recommendations are made that could lead to the IS community being better able to manage the pressures exerted by different stakeholder groups and, consequently, being more able to address a broad range of commercial and social issues.

  4. Patenting and licensing of university research: promoting innovation or undermining academic values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Sigrid

    2011-03-01

    Since the 1980s in the US and the 1990s in Europe, patenting and licensing activities by universities have massively increased. This is strongly encouraged by governments throughout the Western world. Many regard academic patenting as essential to achieve 'knowledge transfer' from academia to industry. This trend has far-reaching consequences for access to the fruits of academic research and so the question arises whether the current policies are indeed promoting innovation or whether they are instead a symptom of a pro-intellectual property (IP) culture which is blind to adverse effects. Addressing this question requires both empirical analysis (how real is the link between academic patenting and licensing and 'development' of academic research by industry?) and normative assessment (which justifications are given for the current policies and to what extent do they threaten important academic values?). After illustrating the major rise of academic patenting and licensing in the US and Europe and commenting on the increasing trend of 'upstream' patenting and the focus on exclusive as opposed to non-exclusive licences, this paper will discuss five negative effects of these trends. Subsequently, the question as to why policymakers seem to ignore these adverse effects will be addressed. Finally, a number of proposals for improving university policies will be made.

  5. Societal acceptance of wind farms: Analysis of four common themes across Australian case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, N.; Ashworth, P.; Devine-Wright, P.

    2013-01-01

    Australia's renewable energy target (RET) seeks to provide 20 per cent of Australia's electricity generation from renewable energy sources by 2020. As wind power is relatively advanced, it was anticipated that wind power will contribute a major component of the early target. However, high levels of societal resistance to wind farms, combined with new regulatory policies, indicate the RET may not be dominated by wind power. This research involved an examination of seven case studies around wind farm deployment. Qualitative interviews were the primary data for the case studies and analysed using methods informed by grounded theory. Despite the diversity of stakeholder views, the qualitative analysis identified strong community support for wind farms but four common themes emerged that influence this societal acceptance of wind farms in Australia: trust, distributional justice, procedural justice and place attachment. Without addressing these factors through integration into policy development and engagement approaches, wind energy is unlikely to provide the early and majority of new renewable energy. Similar international experiences are incorporated in the discussion of the Australian wind industry's societal acceptance. - Highlights: ► Seven case studies of wind farms in Australia are described. ► Acceptance affects whether wind significantly contributes to the Aust. RE target. ► Four themes were identified regarding societal acceptance of Australian wind farms. ► Four themes are trust, distributional and procedural justice, and place attachment. ► International similarities to the Australian experience are provided

  6. Physical, Ecological, and Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert; Baptista, Sandra R.; Quattrochi, Dale; O'Brien, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. The current NCA (http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/) differs in multiple ways from previous U.S. climate assessment efforts, being: (1) more focused on supporting the Nation s activities in adaptation and mitigation and on evaluating the current state of scientific knowledge relative to climate impacts and trends; (2) a long-term, consistent process for evaluation of climate risks and opportunities and providing information to support decision-making processes within regions and sectors; and (3) establishing a permanent assessment capacity both inside and outside of the federal government. As a part of ongoing, long-term assessment activities, the NCA intends to develop an integrated strategic framework and deploy climate-relevant physical, ecological, and societal indicators. The NCA indicators framework is underdevelopment by the NCA Development and Advisory Committee Indicators Working Group and are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The potential questions that could be addressed by these indicators include: How do we know that there is a changing climate and how is it expected to change in the future? Are important climate impacts and opportunities occurring or predicted to occur in the future? Are we adapting successfully? What are the vulnerabilities and resiliencies given a changing climate? Are we preparing adequately for extreme events? It is not expected that the NCA societal indicators would be linked directly to a single decision or portfolio of

  7. High Religiosity and Societal Dysfunction in the United States during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Georges Delamontagne

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides independent empirical evidence that bears upon the truth or falsity of recently formulated hypotheses regarding reciprocal relationships between levels of religiosity and societal dysfunction. Gregory S. Paul's findings, published in the Journal of Religion and Society (2005, Free Inquiry (2008, and Evolutionary Psychology (2009, have demonstrated that high degrees of theism are associated with high degrees of societal dysfunction among the prosperous democracies. Whereas his research employs numerous scatter diagrams and bivariate correlations involving measures of religiosity and societal dysfunction pertaining to 17 nation states, the current study's units of analysis are the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Additionally, the utilization of multiple regression analysis allows the detection of the effects of other potentially relevant explanatory variables, such as educational attainment, income level, and race. The findings are only minimally supportive of Paul's hypotheses regarding the contributions of high religiosity to societal dysfunction and to the effects of societal dysfunction upon religiosity. Simultaneously, the results of correlational and regression analyses attest to the more substantial explanatory power of the social inequality variables of education, income, and race. Accordingly, it is argued that “American Exceptionalism,” when understood as referring to a society manifesting the coexistence of high levels of theism and high levels of societal dysfunction, is best explained by the United States' high degree of social inequality, compared with other modern industrialized democracies.

  8. A societal cost-of-illness study of hemodialysis in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Rana; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Karavetian, Mirey; Salameh, Pascale; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2016-12-01

    Renal failure is a growing public health problem, and is mainly treated by hemodialysis. This study aims to estimate the societal costs of hemodialysis in Lebanon. This was a quantitative, cross-sectional cost-of-illness study conducted alongside the Nutrition Education for Management of Osteodystrophy trial. Costs were assessed with a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach, for the period of June-December 2011. The data of 114 patients recruited from six hospital-based units were collected through a questionnaire measuring healthcare costs, costs to patients and family, and costs in other sectors. Recall data were used for the base-case analysis. Sensitivity analyses employing various sources of resources use and costs were performed. Costs were uprated to 2015US$. Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore the predictors of societal costs. The mean 6-month societal costs were estimated at $9,258.39. The larger part was attributable to healthcare costs (91.7%), while costs to patient and family and costs in other sectors poorly contributed to the total costs (4.2% and 4.1%, respectively). In general, results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Using the maximum value for hospitalization resulted in the biggest difference (+15.5% of the base-case result). Female gender, being widowed/divorced, having hypertension comorbidity, and higher weekly time on dialysis were significantly associated with greater societal costs. Information regarding resource consumption and cost were not readily available. Rather, they were obtained from a variety of sources, with each having its own strengths and limitations. Hemodialysis represents a high societal burden in Lebanon. Using extrapolation, its total annual cost for the Lebanese society is estimated at $61,105,374 and the mean total annual cost ($18,516.7) is 43.70% higher than the gross domestic product per capita forecast for 2015. Measures to reduce the economic burden of hemodialysis should be taken, by promoting

  9. Societal risk approach to safeguards design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.A.; Murphey, W.M.; Sherr, T.S.

    1975-06-01

    There has been much discussion and public debate concerning the effectiveness of the national system of safeguards against malevolent acts involving nuclear materials. Useful dialogue on this subject has been hampered by the lack of well-defined objectives, system parameters and boundary conditions as a framework for communication. This study provides such a framework. Expressing the safeguards objective in terms of societal risk represents a change in focus, rather than intent, from the earlier view of safeguards as a system for protecting nuclear material against theft or diversion. The study defines both the safeguards problem and the safeguards system in terms that can be related to the general safeguards objective. It is axiomatic that the first step to an effective solution is a careful definition of the problem. The significant and immediate value of this study lies in the rigorous definition and systematic organization of recognized elements into a coherent and comprehensive pattern. Although the title specifically addresses design and evaluation, the framework provided by the study will be a useful management tool for safeguards implementation and administration as well. (U.S.)

  10. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  11. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Activities during this quarter focused on integrating the various tasks and elements. During Phase-1, substantial effort was placed on designing and automating the identification of molecular types present in shale oil. The ability to know the molecular composition and to track a given ``target`` species through the initial concentration steps was deemed critically important to the ultimate success of the three-phase project. It has been this molecular tracking ability that clearly distinguishes the JWBA work from prior shale oil research. The major software and hardware tasks are not in place to rapidly perform these analytical efforts. Software improvements are expected as new questions arise. The existence of the major nitrogen and oxygen types in shale oil has been confirmed. Most importantly, the ability to convert higher molecular weight types to lower molecular weight types was preliminarily confirmed in the present quarter. This is significant because it confirms earlier hypothesis that values are found though out the boiling range. Potential yields of extremely high value chemicals, e.g., $1000/bbl of up to 10% by weight of the barrel remain a feasible objective. Market and economic assessment continue to show encouraging results. Markets for specialty and fine chemicals containing a nitrogen atom are expanding both in type and application. Initial discussions with pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries show a strong interest in nitrogen-based compounds. Major progress was made during this quarter in completing agreements with industry for testing of shale oil components for biological activity. Positive results of such testing will add to the previously known applications of shale oil components as pure compounds and concentrates. During this quarter, we will formulate the pilot plant strategy for Phase-11(a).

  12. The role of adult education and learning policy in fostering societal sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-10-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is - and could be - integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on "Societal sustainability", the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept of "sustainability" entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social justice.

  13. Evaluating the Societal Impact of Using Drones to Support Urban Upgrading Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Gevaert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, or drones, have been gaining enormous popularity for many applications including informal settlement upgrading. Although UAVs can be used to efficiently collect highly detailed geospatial information, there are concerns regarding the ethical implications of its usage and the potential misuse of data. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the societal impacts of using UAVs for informal settlement mapping through two case studies in Eastern Africa. We discuss how the geospatial information they provide is beneficial from a technical perspective and analyze how the use of UAVs can be aligned with the values of: participation, empowerment, accountability, transparency, and equity. The local concept of privacy is investigated by asking citizens of the informal settlements to identify objects appearing in UAV images which they consider to be sensitive or private. As such, our research is an explicit example of how to increase citizen participation in the discussion of geospatial data security and privacy issues over urban areas and provides a framework of strategies illustrating how such issues can be addressed.

  14. The role of adult education and learning policy in fostering societal sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Holford, John

    2016-01-01

    The idea of “sustainability” as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to con...... opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social Justice....... to consider how sustainability is – and could be – integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on “Societal sustainability”, the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept...... of “sustainability” entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning...

  15. Potential and Challenges of Web-based Collective Intelligence to Tackle Societal Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Pitrėnaitė-Žilėnienė

    2014-03-01

    tackling societal issues, researches on dynamics of large-scale argumentation in virtual community projects is required. Also, it is important to investigate how results of CI are developed, to observe process and outcomes of consensus search, to follow implementation of CI “products”. However, for such surveys, theoretical background and initial analysis of cases are required. These aspects are covered in the current research.Practical implications – the paper presents the concept and contents of CI genes and genome. Identification of genome of a particular CI platform could help organizers to arrange the performance of the virtual community project in the way that CI is being developed and the results are achieved effectively. The review of CI technologies and presentation of the challenges that are met when attracting crowds to online argumentation could help to envisage possible difficulties in operation of virtual community project and preventively search for solutions to tackle these difficulties.Value – the research is original in the sense that it is oriented to exact dimensions of CI: attraction of crowds to create CI applying social technologies in order to identify collectively the most relevant societal problems and search for solutions to tackle them.Research type: viewpoint.

  16. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  17. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  18. University research reactors in the United States: Their role and value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is primarily addressed to the people who make decisions affecting the levels of future university reactor programs URR: university administrators, department heads, federal policy makers, state and local policy makers, those in industry and government who depend upon a supply of nuclear-trained personnel, and those who are concerned with the future of the many sciences that benefit from the unique capabilities of nuclear-based techniques as well as from the nuclear sciences themselves. The major thrust of this report is to illustrate the scientific and social benefits and contributions associated with well-managed and well-funded university reactor programs. The intent is to help a decision maker gain a perspective and appreciation of the scientific, academic, social, and technical values of URR programs. The report also examines the role of university-like reactors in Europe, where a productive community of researchers is apparently served in an exemplary manner. The committee, assesses the security and safeguard needs at small reactors in a university setting in order to help gain a perspective on the potential hazards and relative risks involved. The last chapter discusses the kind of commitment and support needed if a significant population of URRs is to remain productive. 83 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Values Education as Good Practice Pedagogy: Evidence from Australian Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Terence

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the Australian Government's Values Education Program and, within its context, the "Values Education Good Practice Schools Project" (VEGPSP) Reports and the "Project to Test and Measure the Impact of Values Education on Student Effects and School Ambience," funded federally from 2003 to 2010. Findings…

  20. Integrating local environmental research into K-12 science classrooms and the value of graduate student-educator partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N. D.; Petrik-Finley, R.

    2015-12-01

    Collaboration between researchers and K-12 educators enables an invaluable exchange of teaching philosophies and educational tools. Programs that partner graduate students with K-12 educators serve the dual purpose of training future educators and providing K-12 students with unique opportunities and perspectives. The benefits of this type of partnership include providing students with enhanced educational experiences and positive student-mentor relationships, training STEM graduate students in effective teaching strategies, and providing teachers with a firsthand resource for scientific information and novel educational materials. Many high school students have had little exposure to science beyond the classroom. Frequent interactions with "real-life" scientists can help make science more approachable and is an effective strategy for promoting science as a career. Here I describe my experiences and several lessons designed as a NSK GK-12 fellow. For example, a month-long unit on biogeochemical principles was framed as a crime scene investigation of a fish kill event in Hood Canal, Washington, in which students were given additional pieces of evidence to solve the mystery as they satisfied checkpoints in their understanding of key concepts. The evidence pieces included scientific plots, maps, datasets, and laboratory exercises. A clear benefit of this investigation-style unit is that students were able to learn the material at their individual pace. This structure allowed for a streamlined integration of differentiated materials such as simplified background readings or visual learning aids for struggling students or more detailed news articles and primary literature for more advanced students. Although the NSF GK-12 program has been archived, educators and researchers should pursue new partnerships, leveraging local and state-level STEM outreach programs with the goal of increasing national exposure of the societal benefits of such synergistic activities.

  1. Identification of organization values according to the perception of the employees of the Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupak, Marcia Orrico; Roman, Edson; Perrota, Jose Augusto; Feher, Ana Claudia M.; Magalhaes, Adriana B.V.B.; Massi, Maria Julia Gili; Rogero, Jose Roberto; Maximiano, Antonio Cesar Amaru

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the organizational values, according to the perception of employees of the Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN. The instrument used in this research was the 'Organization Values Questionnaire'. This survey contains a list with 38 values, each followed by a parenthetical explanation that clarifies its meaning. Respondents rated each value on a 6-point scale from, less important (0) to very important (6), in response to the question: How important is each values for the organizational life? This evaluation should be done in two levels of perception: REAL plan, and IDEAL plan. The population investigated was constituent by 1000 employees. The total of 553, i.e. 55.3%, questionnaires were turned back. As result, it was identified on REAL plan, values related to coefficient as EFFICIENCY, EFFICACY and MANAGEMENT. On IDEAL plan, they were related to EMPLOYEE VALORIZATION and INOVATION coefficient. As consequence, the institutional commitment is to form working groups, inside the Strategic Planning Revision, in order to elaborate the Core Values, based on the values identified on this research. (author)

  2. Public opinion, risk to reputation: The essentials of societal corporate governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Malecki

    2012-12-01

    seems necessary for efficient corporate governance. Yet, CSR has given an additional power to social and environmental information which may, because it affects a more important spectrum (stakeholders…, cause a more important prejudice, whereas CRS is an "integral part" of corporate governance. Thus, in France, as pointed out in recital 10 of the policy 2006/46/CE but above all, as pointed out in article 53 of the said Grenelle 1 law (n° 2009-967 of the 3rd August 2009, “the quality of information regarding the way in which companies consider the social and environmental consequences of their activity and the access to this information constitutes essential conditions of good corporate governance”. The SRI funds also attempt to control the factors of reputation risk. Practitioner/Policy Implications: The multiple vehicles of public opinion regarding corporate governance : in fact, CSR, largely consisting in the “reporting” of social and environmental values therefore on “societal communication”, which potentially contains so many possible public opinions to be expressed, may be “additions” to individual opinions. CSR rests on a true discourse which seems, to certain authors, removed from reality: “the reports on corporate social responsibility, summary document between the “say” and “do”, appear as a support of speech which, removed from the real situation, tends first and foremost, to show the “good faith” of organisations. Societal corporate e-governance with the aid of the internet further weakens the concept of societal reputation.

  3. Realizing NASA's Goal of Societal Benefits From Earth Observations in Mesoamerica Through the SERVIR Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, D. M.; Irwin, D.; Sever, T.; Graves, S.

    2006-12-01

    One of the goals of NASA's Applied Sciences Program is to manifest societal benefits from the vast store of Earth Observations through partnerships with public, private and academic organizations. The SERVIR project represents an early success toward this goal. By combining Earth Observations from NASA missions, results from environmental models and decision support tools from its partners the SERVIR project has produced an integrated systems solution that is yielding societal benefits for the region of Mesoamerica. The architecture of the SERVIR system consists of an operational facility in Panama with regional nodes in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize plus a Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC), located in Huntsville, Alabama. The RPC, funded by NASA's Applied Sciences Division, and developed by the Information Technology and Systems Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, produces scientifically strong decision support products and applications. When mature, the products and applications migrate to the operational center in Panama. There, they are available to environmental ministers and decision makers in Mesoamerica. In June 2004, the SERVIR project was contacted by the environmental ministry of El Salvador, which urgently requested remote sensing imagery of the location, direction, and extent of a HAB event off the coast of El Salvador and Guatemala. Using MODIS data the SERVIR team developed a value added product that predicts the location, direction, and extent of HABs. The products are produced twice daily and are used by the El Salvadoran and Guatemalan governments to alert their tourism and fishing industries of potential red tide events. This has enabled these countries to save millions of dollars for their industries as well as improve the health of harvested fish. In the area of short term weather forecasting the SERVIR team, in collaboration with the NASA Short

  4. Getting to the Bottom of the Well: The Value of Qualitative Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative researchers are often compelled to defend their methods and ... research into teaching and learning from a non-social scientific background. ... a) the commonalities between quantitative and qualitative research approaches; b) the ...

  5. THE SISYPHEAN MYTH, NEGATIVE CAPABILITY AND SOCIETAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mycl

    Capability suggest solutions to Camus' Sisyphean problem and its ilk. This paper explores this ... Framed us in jest, and left us now to hazardry? ... and right'; this being one half of a saying meant to create value for a soldier's sacrifice of his ... Keats made an interesting observation and propounded the theory of. 'Negative ...

  6. Research of Influence of Noise Pollution on the Value of the Threshold Current Tangible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanzhina, Olga; Sidorov, Alexander; Zykina, Ekaterina

    2017-12-01

    Stable safety while working on electrical installations can be achieved by following the rules of the electrical safety. Today maximum permissible levels of touch voltage and electric current flow through any part of a person’s body are established by Russian Federation GOST system 12.1.038-82. Unfortunately, recommended by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) maximum allowable amount of electric current and voltage level do not take into account interaction between said electric current and other physical factors; noise, in particular. The influence of sound frequency and its pressure level on body resistance has been proven earlier in thesis by V.V. Katz. Studies of the noise effects on the value of the threshold current tangible have been renewed in laboratories of Life Safety Department in South Ural State University. To obtain reliable results, testing facility that includes anechoic chamber, sources of simulated voltages and noise and a set of recording instruments was designed and built. As a rule, noise influence on electrotechnical personnel varies depending on noise level or/and the duration of its impact. According to modern theories, indirect noise influence on various organs and systems through central nervous system has to be considered. Differential evaluation of noise pollution and its correlation with emerged effects can be obtained with the usage of the dose approach. First of all, there were conducted studies, in which frequency of the applied voltage (f) was to 50 Hz. Voltages and currents that caused sensations before and during 97 dB noise affections were measured. Obtained dependence led to questioning previous researches results of the necessity of reducing the amperage of tripping protection devices. At the same time electrical resistance changes of human body were being studied. According to those researches, no functional dependence between fluctuations in the magnitude of the resistance of human body to electric current flow

  7. Towards a Theory of Societal Co-Evolution: Individualism versus Collectivism

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Kartik; Zhang, Simpson; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Substantial empirical research has shown that the level of individualism vs. collectivism is one of the most critical and important determinants of societal traits, such as economic growth, economic institutions and health conditions. But the exact nature of this impact has thus far not been well understood in an analytical setting. In this work, we develop one of the first theoretical models that analytically studies the impact of individualism-collectivism on the society. We model the growt...

  8. What Value Can Qualitative Research Add to Quantitative Research Design? An Example From an Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark A; Fairbank, Jeremy; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-08-09

    Using an example of qualitative research embedded in a non-surgical feasibility trial, we explore the benefits of including qualitative research in trial design and reflect on epistemological challenges. We interviewed 18 trial participants and used methods of Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Our findings demonstrate that qualitative research can make a valuable contribution by allowing trial stakeholders to see things from alternative perspectives. Specifically, it can help to make specific recommendations for improved trial design, generate questions which contextualize findings, and also explore disease experience beyond the trial. To make the most out of qualitative research embedded in quantitative design it would be useful to (a) agree specific qualitative study aims that underpin research design, (b) understand the impact of differences in epistemological truth claims, (c) provide clear thematic interpretations for trial researchers to utilize, and (d) include qualitative findings that explore experience beyond the trial setting within the impact plan. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition. This

  10. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition. This

  11. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition

  12. Involving burn survivors in agenda setting on burn research: an added value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, J.E.W.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Van Rensen, A.J.M.L.; De Haan, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aim: The role of burn survivors in burn research is usually restricted to being objects of study and beneficiaries of research results, while decision-making on research is traditionally the domain of a small group of experts, mainly scientists. In this article we compare the research

  13. Putting Theory into Theory: Thematic Value of Research in Public Administration Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Stephen; Luke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Research can be a powerful tool informing public administration teaching. This article takes the distinctive approach of exploring its use through the prism of the research itself by considering 10 publications by the article's authors. The existing literature revolves around students learning about the craft of research or research findings. By…

  14. The Value of Qualitative Description in Health Services and Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Health services and policy (HSP) researchers have long used qualitative research methodologies to explore health system issues. However, the appropriateness of one approach, qualitative description, for HSP research is still often overlooked. In this article, I discuss the role that qualitative description can play in HSP research, and argue for its greater acceptance as a valid form of academic scholarship. PMID:28277201

  15. Hofstede, Schwartz, Inglehart and beyond. New directions in empirical global value research

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2015-01-01

    However much we appreciate the enormous scientific contribution by Professor Ronald Inglehart, who initiated the international data collection of the World Values Survey, our re-analysis of the very World Values Survey data [“roll-outs” of the World Values Survey data wvs1981_2008_v20090914.sav] brought us to question Inglehart’s theories, with which he and his associates interpret the mass of the World Values Survey data. Their theoretical approach does not use a sufficiently number of hard-...

  16. Hofstede, Inglehart and beyond. New directions in empirical global value research

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2015-01-01

    However much we appreciate the enormous scientific contribution by Professor Ronald Inglehart, who initiated the international data collection of the World Values Survey, our re-analysis of the very World Values Survey data [“roll-outs” of the World Values Survey data wvs1981_2008_v20090914.sav] brought us to question Inglehart’s theories, with which he and his associates interpret the mass of the World Values Survey data. Their theoretical approach does not use a sufficiently number of hard-...

  17. Preliminary research on amino acid composition and nutritional value of clover proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłyszejko-Stefanowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid composition and nutritional value of 5 clover varieties including 3 Polish ones ('Gloria', 'Hruszowska', 'Skrzeszowicka' and 2 of foreign origin ('Rotra' and 'Violetta' were investigated. No significant differences in the total protein content (19.2–20.0% of dry matter as well as in qualitative amino acid composition were found among the clover varieties under examination. EAA index (Essential amino acid index calculated according to Oser for 'Gloria' and 'Hruszowska' showed the highest nutritional value was – 40. The lowest value of EAA index was found for 'Violetta' cvar. – 32, intermediate values however for Rotra and Skrzeszowicka was 37 and 36.

  18. Creating and justifying research and development value: Scope, scale, skill and social networking of R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Arend J.; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.; Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.; Badoux, Rob A.J.; Olthuis, Gerard P.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a framework for analysing the creation and justification of Research & Development. The 4S framework is developed for analysing the scope, scale, skills and social network aspects of Research & Development value. The framework is based on social system theory, a process

  19. The value of co-creation through Design Science Research in developing a Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, Martha E

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to indicate what value was co-created with various stakeholders when Design Science Research as a methodology was applied, to develop a Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem (DHIE) for South Africa. Design science research...

  20. The Value of Decision Analytical Modeling in Surgical Research: An Example of Laparoscopic Versus Open Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tax, Casper; Govaert, Paulien H. M.; Stommel, Martijn W. J.; Besselink, Marc G. H.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Rovers, Maroeska M.

    2017-01-01

    To illustrate how decision modeling may identify relevant uncertainty and can preclude or identify areas of future research in surgery. To optimize use of research resources, a tool is needed that assists in identifying relevant uncertainties and the added value of reducing these uncertainties. The

  1. Equivalence, commensurability, value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....

  2. Generating material strength standards of aluminum alloys for research reactors. Pt. 1. Yield strength values Sy and tensile strength values Su

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, H.; Miya, K.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum alloys are frequently used as structural materials for research reactors. The material strength standards, however, such as the yield strength values (S y ), the tensile strength values (S u ) and the design fatigue curve -which are needed to use aluminum alloys as structural materials in ''design by analysis'' - for those materials have not been determined yet. Hence, a series of material tests was performed and the results were statistically analyzed with the aim of generating these material strength standards. This paper, the first in a series on material strength standards of aluminum alloys, describes the aspects of the tensile properties of the standards. The draft standards were compared with MITI no. 501 as well as with the ASME codes, and the trend of the available data also was examined. It was revealed that the draft proposal could be adopted as the material strength standards, and that the values of the draft standards at and above 150 C for A6061-T6 and A6063-T6 could be applied only to the reactor operating conditions III and IV. Also the draft standards have already been adopted in the Science and Technology Agency regulatory guide (standards for structural design of nuclear research plants). (orig.)

  3. Designing products with added emotional value : development and application of an approach for research through design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Overbeeke, C.J.; Tax, S.J.E.T.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a design approach is introduced for designing products with added emotional value. First, the approach was established, based on a theoretical framework and a non-verbal instrument to measure emotional responses. Second, the value of the design approach was assessed by applying it to

  4. Business Value Is not only Dollars : Results from Case Study Research on Agile Software Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racheva, Z.; Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Buglione, Luigi; Ali Babar, M.; Vierimaa, Matias; Oivo, Markku

    Business value is a key concept in agile software development. This paper presents results of a case study on how business value and its creation is perceived in the context of agile projects. Our overall conclusion is that the project participants almost never use an explicit and structured

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Spectral Surface Albedo Value-Added Product (VAP) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, S; Gaustad, K; Long, C; Mlawer, E

    2011-07-15

    This document describes the input requirements, output data products, and methodology for the Spectral Surface Albedo (SURFSPECALB) value-added product (VAP). The SURFSPECALB VAP produces a best-estimate near-continuous high spectral resolution albedo data product using measurements from multifilter radiometers (MFRs). The VAP first identifies best estimates for the MFR downwelling and upwelling shortwave irradiance values, and then calculates narrowband spectral albedo from these best-estimate irradiance values. The methodology for finding the best-estimate values is based on a simple process of screening suspect data and backfilling screened and missing data with estimated values when possible. The resulting best-estimate MFR narrowband spectral albedos are used to determine a daily surface type (snow, 100% vegetation, partial vegetation, or 0% vegetation). For non-snow surfaces, a piecewise continuous function is used to estimate a high spectral resolution albedo at 1 min temporal and 10 cm-1 spectral resolution.

  6. What do human factors and ergonomics professionals value in research publications? Re-examining the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Williamson, Ann; Shorrock, Steven T

    2014-01-01

    The research-practice gap is of concern in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) as there is a belief that HF/E research may not be making an impact on practice in the 'real world'. A potential issue is what researchers and practitioners perceive as important in HF/E journal articles as a primary means of conveying research findings to practitioners. This study examined the characteristics that make scientific journal articles appeal to HF/E researchers and practitioners using a web-based survey. HF/E researchers and practitioners were more similar than expected in judgements of important attributes and the selection of articles. Both practitioners and researchers considered practical significance to be more important than theoretical significance, in direct contrast to professionals from a related discipline--psychology. Well-written articles were appreciated across disciplines. The results signal a strong interest in practical applications in HF/E, but a relative lack of focus on development of theories that should be the basis for practical applications.

  7. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  8. [Using value of information analysis in decision making about applied research. The case of genetic screening for hemochromatosis in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, W H; Grosse, S D; Meyer, E; John, J; Palmer, S

    2012-05-01

    Public decision makers face demands to invest in applied research in order to accelerate the adoption of new genetic tests. However, such an investment is profitable only if the results gained from further investigations have a significant impact on health care practice. An upper limit for the value of additional information aimed at improving the basis for reimbursement decisions is given by the expected value of perfect information (EVPI). This study illustrates the significance of the concept of EVPI on the basis of a probabilistic cost-effectiveness model of screening for hereditary hemochromatosis among German men. In the present example, population-based screening can barely be recommended at threshold values of 50,000 or 100,000 Euro per life year gained and also the value of additional research which might cause this decision to be overturned is small: At the mentioned threshold values, the EVPI in the German public health care system was ca. 500,000 and 2,200,000 Euro, respectively. An analysis of EVPI by individual parameters or groups of parameters shows that additional research about adherence to preventive phlebotomy could potentially provide the highest benefit. The potential value of further research also depends on methodological assumptions regarding the decision maker's time horizon as well as on scenarios with an impact on the number of affected patients and the cost-effectiveness of screening.

  9. Do Research Reports in Mainstream Feminist Psychology Journals Reflect Feminist Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Richard T.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the social relations of researchers and research participants in feminist psychology. Argues that the conventions governing how psychologists describe their research highlight certain activities and render others invisible. Discusses how the depersonalized writing style generally employed demonstrates a contradiction between ideals and…

  10. Research on the Value Evaluation of Used Pure Electric Car Based on the Replacement Cost Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, zhengping; Cai, yun; Wang, yidong; Mao, pan

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the value evaluation of the used pure electric car is carried out by the replacement cost method, which fills the blank of the value evaluation of the electric vehicle. The basic principle of using the replacement cost method, combined with the actual cost of pure electric cars, puts forward the calculation method of second-hand electric car into a new rate based on the use of AHP method to construct the weight matrix comprehensive adjustment coefficient of related factors, the improved method of value evaluation system for second-hand car

  11. How do young people in Cambodia perceive the impact of societal attitudes, media and religion on suicidal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin

    2016-03-01

    Young people in low and middle income countries (LMICs) in societal transitions with rapidly changing norms face an increased risk of suicide. This study explores how young people in Cambodia understand the impact on suicidal behaviour from societal attitudes, media and religion. Focus group discussions were held with school students from a suburban area. Thematic analysis was used to interpret the data. Participants perceived the prevailing suicide-stigmatizing societal attitudes, the double-edged media and suicide-ambiguity in Buddhist religion as challenging. Globalization was recognized as contradicting with traditional Cambodian norms and values. Suicide prevention programmes should take into consideration the complex picture of suicide that young people are exposed to. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Societal impacts of information and communications technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Dé

    2016-01-01

    The promise of information and communications technology (ICT) to deliver change is attractive and draws practitioners to experiment and build. Academics and researchers too believe in such benefits but point to certain challenges: changing processes and people to adapt to a new technology, which is invariably an import from a Western nation; the conflicts arising from the changes introduced by ICT, with some groups benefitting over others; and ensuring that the social change that is desired ...

  13. Resistance to consumption and Veganism: A Study about Motivations, Values, and Feelings

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Isabela Perez Campos; Acevedo, Claudia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study resistance to consumption as a recent phenomenon designed to bring about changes in societal values and consumptio habits. Specifically the objective of this paper is to comprehend the way in which anti-consumption behavior relates to Veganism, analyze factors that motivate its practice, and record values and feelings associated with the acceptance of the movement.This study utilized the ethnographic method of collection and analysis of data through pa...

  14. All for one and one for all: The value of grassroots collaboration in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wattar, Bassel H; Tamblyn, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Collaboration in health research is common in current practice. Engaging grassroots clinicians in the evidence synthesis and research process can deliver impactful results and reduce research wastage. The UKARCOG is a group of specialty trainees in obstetrics and gynaecology in the UK aiming to promote women's health research by delivering high-quality impactful research and national audit projects. The collaborative enables trainees to develop essential academic skills and roll out multicentre research projects at high cost-effectiveness. Collective research work can face a number of challenges such as establishing a joint authorship style, gaining institutional support and acquiring funds to boost networking and deliver large scales studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Andy; Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-12-01

    Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years.

  16. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were...... losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty......Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study...

  17. A psycho-societal approach to life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2016-01-01

    Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. I have been...... particularly interested in the relations between the culturally mediated and the sensory/bodily aspects of experience processes because this is the boundary zones of knowledge and seat of the dynamics of learning. My psycho-societal approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain...... other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main...

  18. A First Look at Gender Inequality as a Societal Risk Factor for Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressard, Lindsay A; Swahn, Monica H; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2015-09-01

    One of ten U.S. high school students is a victim of adolescent dating violence (ADV). Understanding ADV risk factors guides prevention efforts; however, research examining community- and societal-level risk factors is scant. Societal gender inequality is a known risk factor for violence against women, but has yet to be explored in relation to ADV. This study aims to determine whether the Gender Inequality Index (GII) correlates with levels of physical and sexual ADV victimization across U.S. states. State-representative prevalence rates of self-reported physical and sexual ADV victimization were obtained from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The state GII includes five indicators: (1) maternal mortality; (2) adolescent birth rate; (3) government representation; (4) educational attainment; and (5) labor force participation. Pearson correlation coefficients determined the association between physical and sexual ADV victimization, the GII, and GII indicators. Analyses were conducted in August 2014. Among U.S. states, the prevalence of physical ADV victimization in 2013 ranged from 7.0% to 14.8%, and the prevalence of sexual ADV victimization ranged from 7.8% to 13.8%. The GII was significantly associated with the state prevalence of female physical ADV victimization (r=0.48, pgender inequality may be a societal-level risk factor for female physical ADV victimization. As ADV prevention strategies are implemented at the state level, further research examining the effect of gender inequality on ADV is needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 48: Valuing information in an interactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration effort has been devoted over the past 30 years to developing methods and means of assessing the value of information. Two approaches - value in exchange and value in use - dominate; however, neither approach enjoys much practical application because validation schema for decision-making is missing. The approaches fail to measure objectively the real costs of acquiring information and the real benefits that information will yield. Moreover, these approaches collectively fail to provide economic justification to build and/or continue to support an information product or service. In addition, the impact of Cyberspace adds a new dimension to the problem. A new paradigm is required to make economic sense in this revolutionary information environment. In previous work, the authors explored the various approaches to measuring the value of information and concluded that, in large measure, these methods were unworkable concepts and constructs. Instead, they proposed several axioms for valuing information. Most particularly they concluded that the 'value of information cannot be measured in the absence of a specific task, objective, or goal.' This paper builds on those axioms and describes under which circumstances information can be measured in objective and actionable terms. This paper also proposes a methodology for undertaking such measures and validating the results.

  20. RESEARCH ON THE BREEDING VALUE ESTIMATION FOR BEEF TRAITS BY A SIMPLIFIED MIXED MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to apply a simplified mixed model BLUP for estimating bulls' breeding value for meat production in terms of weight daily gain and establish their hierarchy, Also, it aimed to compare the bulls' ranging obtained by a simplified BLUP mixed model with their hierarchy set up by contemporary comparison. A sample of 1,705 half sibs steers, offspring of 106 Friesian bulls were used as biological material. Bulls' breeding value varied between + 244.5 g for the best bull and -204.7 g for the bull with the weakest records. A number of 57 bulls ( 53.77% registered positive breeding values. The accuracy of the breeding value estimation varied between 80, the highest precision, in case of the bull number 21 and 53, the lowest precision, in case of the bull number 38. A number of 7 bulls of the total of 57 with a positive breeding value were situated aproximately on the same positions at a difference of 0 to 1 points on the both lists established by BLUP and contemporary comparison. As a conclusion, BLUP could be largely and easily applied in bull evaluation for meat production traits in term of weight daily gain, considered the key parameter during the fattening period and its precision is very high, a guarantee that the bulls' hierarchy is a correct one. If a farmer would chose a high breeding value bull from a catalogue, he could be sure of the improvement of beef production by genetic gain.

  1. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental

  2. Societal risk approach to safeguards design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphey, W.M.; Sherr, T.S.; Bennett, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive rationale for safeguards design and evaluation, and a framework for continuing systematic assessment of the system's effectiveness and efficient allocation of available safeguards resources for balanced protection, were developed. The societal risk approach employed considers the likelihood of successful destructive acts involving nuclear materials or facilities and the magnitude of the effects on society. The safeguards problem is described in terms of events affecting societal risk and adversary actions. Structure of the safeguards system and the evaluation of its adequacy are discussed. Adversary characteristics are also discussed

  3. Value of information and pricing new healthcare interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew R; Eckermann, Simon

    2012-06-01

    Previous application of value-of-information methods to optimal clinical trial design have predominantly taken a societal decision-making perspective, implicitly assuming that healthcare costs are covered through public expenditure and trial research is funded by government or donation-based philanthropic agencies. In this paper, we consider the interaction between interrelated perspectives of a societal decision maker (e.g. the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence [NICE] in the UK) charged with the responsibility for approving new health interventions for reimbursement and the company that holds the patent for a new intervention. We establish optimal decision making from societal and company perspectives, allowing for trade-offs between the value and cost of research and the price of the new intervention. Given the current level of evidence, there exists a maximum (threshold) price acceptable to the decision maker. Submission for approval with prices above this threshold will be refused. Given the current level of evidence and the decision maker's threshold price, there exists a minimum (threshold) price acceptable to the company. If the decision maker's threshold price exceeds the company's, then current evidence is sufficient since any price between the thresholds is acceptable to both. On the other hand, if the decision maker's threshold price is lower than the company's, then no price is acceptable to both and the company's optimal strategy is to commission additional research. The methods are illustrated using a recent example from the literature.

  4. Research on establishing the rank and quotient of functions in product value analysisengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Burz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The constructive conception of a product results from uniting subsystems with basic usage values. These basic usage values make up the functions of the product. The notion of product function is the basic notion that product value analysis/value engineering(VA/VE operates with, and function analysis together with creative thinking constitutes „the oxygen of value engineering”. The present paper defines the notion of rank of a product function, establishes the formula for calculating its value and it reviews some ways of Determining the levels of importance of product functions, with the aim of proposing a new distribution of the importance of these Functions within the total usage value. Establishing the rank of a function can be reduced to the issue of comparing product functions by experts, consumers, team members for VA/VE. Subsequently, the ensuing results are subjected to adequate mathematical operations in order to determin the levels of importance and the quotients of each function within the product ussage value, as well as the distribution of these quotients. Due to the fact that the quota or quotient of a function within the product usage value plays an important role in conceiving and designing products, more precisely, in the economical shaping of functions, the distribution law to which this parametre is subjected is also very important. A critical study of the methods currently used to determine function quotients shows that these methods conduct to a linear distribution of these quotients, and, under these Circumstances, the ratio between the highest level of importance and the lowest level of importance is equal to the number of functions – number that is very high indeed for complex products. On the other hand, it is rightly assumed that there is a considerable number of products for which the functions do not follow a linear distribution. The Zipf distribution or its generalised form, the Pareto

  5. Neuroscience and Values: A Case Study Illustrating Developments in Policy, Training and Research in the UK and Internationally**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, K. W. M

    2011-01-01

    In the current climate of dramatic advances in the neurosciences, it has been widely assumed that the diagnosis of mental disorder is a matter exclusively for value-free science. Starting from a detailed case history, this paper describes how, to the contrary, values come into the diagnosis of mental disorders, directly through the criteria at the heart of psychiatry’s most scientifically grounded classification, the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual). Various possible interpretations of the prominence of values in psychiatric diagnosis are outlined. Drawing on work in the Oxford analytic tradition of philosophy, it is shown that, properly understood, the prominence of psychiatric diagnostic values reflects the necessary engagement of psychiatry with the diversity of individual human values. This interpretation opens up psychiatric diagnostic assessment to the resources of a new skills-based approach to working with complex and conflicting values (also derived from analytic philosophy) called ‘values-based practice.’ Developments in values-based practice in training, policy and research in mental health are briefly outlined. The paper concludes with an indication of how the integration of values-based with evidence-based approaches provides the basis for psychiatric practice in the twenty-first century that is both science-based and person-centred. PMID:21694963

  6. The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Recapitulating how genetic modification technology and its agro-food products aroused strong societal opposition in the European Union, this paper demonstrates how this opposition contributed to shape the European regulatory frame on GM crops. More specifically, it describes how this opposition contributed to a de facto moratorium on the commercialization of new GM crop events in the end of the nineties. From this period onwards, the regulatory frame has been continuously revised in order to slow down further erosion of public and market confidence. Various scientific and technical reforms were made to meet societal concerns relating to the safety of GM crops. In this context, the precautionary principle, environmental post-market monitoring and traceability were adopted as ways to cope with scientific uncertainties. Labeling, traceability, co-existence and public information were installed in an attempt to meet the general public request for more information about GM agro-food products, and the specific demand to respect the consumers' and farmers' freedom of choice. Despite these efforts, today, the explicit role of public participation and/or ethical consultation during authorization procedures is at best minimal. Moreover, no legal room was created to progress to an integral sustainability evaluation during market procedures. It remains to be seen whether the recent policy shift towards greater transparency about value judgments, plural viewpoints and scientific uncertainties will be one step forward in integrating ethical concerns more explicitly in risk analysis. As such, the regulatory frame stands open for further interpretation, reflecting in various degrees a continued interplay with societal concerns relating to GM agro-food products. In this regard, both societal concerns and diversely interpreted regulatory criteria can be inferred as signaling a request - and even a quest - to render more explicit the broader-than-scientific dimension of the actual

  7. Population health intervention research training: the value of public health internships and mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Paradis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Better alignment between academia and public health practice and policies are critical to improve public health actions. Training of future researchers to address complex issues and to conduct transdisciplinary and collaborative research will help improve this alignment. In this paper, we describe the role of internship placements and mentorship for trainees' skills development in population health intervention research and the benefits of embedding research trainees within public health organizations. This qualitative descriptive study assessed the perceptions of the role and benefits of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research training among former doctoral and postdoctoral students, public health mentors, and senior public health managers who participated in the 4P Program, a research training program which bridges academic training and the public health system in Quebec, Canada. Two types of interviews were conducted: telephone semi-structured interviews by an external evaluator and face-to-face trainee "exit" interviews by the Program co-director. Semi-annual evaluation reports from each trainee were also reviewed. Qualitative data were subjected to a thematic analysis. Internships provided trainees with a working knowledge of the public health system and the context in which decisions and public health interventions are implemented. It was an opportunity for trainees to interact with knowledge-user partners and assess the gap between research and practice. Effective mentorship was key to help trainees interpret the public health reality and develop population health intervention research skills. Trainees learned to ask the "how" questions that are critical for in-depth understanding of complex interventions and the conditions under which they can be best implemented. Conditions of success of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research included the alignment of the interests between the trainee, the

  8. How Do People With COPD Value Different Activities? An Adapted Meta-Ethnography of Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Greenfield, Sheila M; Greenfield, Charlotte; Jolly, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term condition where activities of daily living (ADLs) may be very restricted; people with COPD need to prioritize what is important to them. We conducted a meta-ethnography to understand which ADLs are valued and why, systematically searching for articles including experiences of ADLs and organizing themes from the articles into five linked concepts: (a) caring for the body, (b) caring for the personal environment, (c) moving between spaces, (d) interacting with others, and (e) selfhood across time. In addition, we identified three key aspects of personal integrity: effectiveness, connectedness, and control. We found that ADLs were valued if they increased integrity; however, this process was also informed by gendered roles and social values. People whose sense of control depended on effectiveness often found accepting help very difficult to bear; therefore, redefining control as situational and relational may help enjoyment of activities that are possible. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. A Research on The Effects of Marketing Spending on Firm Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Doğan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of “Marketing Expenses”on firm value. The study uses data belonging to 120 firms, which are traded in Borsa Istanbul (BIST in the period of 2009-2012. The independent variables used in the study consist of “Return on Assets” (ROA and “Return on Equity”(ROE, which are accounting based performance indicators. The other is "Tobin's q" ratio which is market-based ratio. The regression and correlation analysis have been employed in empirical analyzes. The result of the conducted analysis showed that the increase in marketing expenses influences value of the firms in a positive way. As a result, organizations should accept the marketing expenses not only as a spending but also an investment as a value added to business

  10. Assessing and Responding to the Risks of Global and Societal Changes in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Interactions and feedbacks between rapidly increasing multiple pressures on water, energy and food security drive social-ecological systems at multiple scales towards critical thresholds in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA Region). The MENA Region is expected to experience significantly above-global-mean changes in climatic conditions and has been designated as one of the global "climate change hot spots" (Giorgi, F., 2006). The MENA region is also characterized by one of the highest rates of population growth on Earth, having seen a 3.7-fold increase in population between 1950 to 2000. The region is expected to continue to see a roughly doubling of its population until 2050 (Population Reference Bureau, 2001). Significant gender inequalities and an extremely high rate of youth unemployment are repercussions of such developments that exacerbate the societal pressures and tensions in the region. In addition, the events of the "Arab Spring", have resulted in major political, economic and societal transitions and have frequently been accompanied by significant armed struggles within and between countries of the MENA Region. These developments and the still ongoing conflicts in parts of the region render this region to one of the global "political, societal and humanitarian hot-spots". Responding to these challenges requires integrated science and a close relationship between policy makers and stakeholders, a need that Future Earth (www.futureearth.org) has been designed to respond to. In order to address the requirements of nation states and local communities, Future Earth has adopted a regional governance structure. This has resulted in the establishment of the Future Earth MENA Regional Center at the Cyprus Institute (FEMRC) in Nicosia, Cyprus, as one of five Regional Centers worldwide. One of the major challenges in establishing a regional Future-Earth-related research agenda lies in a comprehensive assessments of the

  11. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  12. Origin of the Societe des Americanistes, Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Pascal Riviale (1991 produced a two volume dissertation summarizing the work of French scholars involved in anthropology, ethnography, and archaeology in Peru from the beginning of Peruvian independence in 1821 up until World War 1. From the commentary, it is clear that not only does this volume trace individual scholars, and institu­tions involved in archaeologically-related research, but it develops a number of general intellectual themes as well. Riviale has recently (1996 extracted a portion of his dissertation relating to the events leading up to the founding of the Society of Americanists, Paris, in 1895. Because he is focusing in this case on the origin of a specific organiza­tion, he concentrates on exegesis of the institutional antecedents from 1821 onward.

  13. Leaders' Views on the Values of School-Based Research: Contemporary Themes and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Hazel; Burstow, Bob

    2017-01-01

    In 2004, McLaughlin, Black-Hawkins and McIntyre published a literature review that explored the ways in which individual teachers, whole schools and groups of networked schools were engaging in practitioner research and enquiry. In the light of significant changes to the education landscape, the empirical research in this article provides an…

  14. Biomedical Research and the Animal Rights Movement: A Contrast in Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    1993-01-01

    This article explains how animals are used in research in an effort to counteract animal rights literature. Reveals how medical professionals and others trained in scholarship have misquoted the scientific literature to bolster their claims against the utility of animal research. (PR)

  15. Aristotelian Action Research: Its Value for Studying Character Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderse, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    This article explores what it means for teachers to engage in and evaluate students' character education, by examining the connections between action research and Aristotelian virtue ethics. These connections are explored in two ways. Firstly, the article examines what perspective action research has on how moral education, understood in an…

  16. The Unacknowledged Value of Female Academic Labour Power for Male Research Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angervall, Petra; Beach, Dennis; Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Academic work in Sweden's higher education system is changing character. Distinctly different career pathways are emerging, as facilities for developing research careers and capital have become both more restricted and more dependent on external funding. These developments are in focus in the present article. Based on ethnographic research and a…

  17. Teachers and School Research Practices: The Gaps between the Values and Practices of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that improving education processes has become a priority for all governments. There have also been recent calls for the knowledge that is already in existence to be used more effectively to improve these education systems both internationally and nationally. For research evidence to be used more effectively, it is…

  18. Resolving tensions of research utilization: the value of a usability-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Olmos Peñuela, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This is a position paper addressing the debate about the nature of how research is utilised and measured that questions the prevalent practice of measuring terminal use transactions (TUTs) – i.e. patents, spin-outs or license income – for measuring research impact. In so doing, our starting point is

  19. Defining the Value of Future Research to Identify the Preferred Treatment of Meniscal Tear in the Presence of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Losina

    Full Text Available Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM is extensively used to relieve pain in patients with symptomatic meniscal tear (MT and knee osteoarthritis (OA. Recent studies have failed to show the superiority of APM compared to other treatments. We aim to examine whether existing evidence is sufficient to reject use of APM as a cost-effective treatment for MT+OA.We built a patient-level microsimulation using Monte Carlo methods and evaluated three strategies: Physical therapy ('PT' alone; PT followed by APM if subjects continued to experience pain ('Delayed APM'; and 'Immediate APM'. Our subject population was US adults with symptomatic MT and knee OA over a 10 year time horizon. We assessed treatment outcomes using societal costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, incorporating productivity costs as a sensitivity analysis. We also conducted a value-of-information analysis using probabilistic sensitivity analyses.Calculated ICERs were estimated to be $12,900/QALY for Delayed APM as compared to PT and $103,200/QALY for Immediate APM as compared to Delayed APM. In sensitivity analyses, inclusion of time costs made Delayed APM cost-saving as compared to PT. Improving efficacy of Delayed APM led to higher incremental costs and lower incremental effectiveness of Immediate APM in comparison to Delayed APM. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated that PT had 3.0% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay (WTP threshold of $50,000/QALY. Delayed APM was cost effective 57.7% of the time at WTP = $50,000/QALY and 50.2% at WTP = $100,000/QALY. The probability of Immediate APM being cost-effective did not exceed 50% unless WTP exceeded $103,000/QALY.We conclude that current cost-effectiveness evidence does not support unqualified rejection of either Immediate or Delayed APM for the treatment of MT+OA. The amount to which society would be willing to pay for additional information

  20. Estimating the returns to United Kingdom publicly funded musculoskeletal disease research in terms of net value of improved health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Matthew; Montague, Erin; Pollitt, Alexandra; Guthrie, Susan; Hanney, Stephen; Buxton, Martin; Grant, Jonathan

    2018-01-10

    Building on an approach applied to cardiovascular and cancer research, we estimated the economic returns from United Kingdom public- and charitable-funded musculoskeletal disease (MSD) research that arise from the net value of the improved health outcomes in the United Kingdom. To calculate the economic returns from MSD-related research in the United Kingdom, we estimated (1) the public and charitable expenditure on MSD-related research in the United Kingdom between 1970 and 2013; (2) the net monetary benefit (NMB), derived from the health benefit in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) valued in monetary terms (using a base-case value of a QALY of £25,000) minus the cost of delivering that benefit, for a prioritised list of interventions from 1994 to 2013; (3) the proportion of NMB attributable to United Kingdom research; and (4) the elapsed time between research funding and health gain. The data collected from these four key elements were used to estimate the internal rate of return (IRR) from MSD-related research investments on health benefits. We analysed the uncertainties in the IRR estimate using a one-way sensitivity analysis. Expressed in 2013 prices, total expenditure on MSD-related research from 1970 to 2013 was £3.5 billion, and for the period used to estimate the rate of return, 1978-1997, was £1.4 billion. Over the period 1994-2013 the key interventions analysed produced 871,000 QALYs with a NMB of £16 billion, allowing for the net NHS costs resulting from them and valuing a QALY at £25,000. The proportion of benefit attributable to United Kingdom research was 30% and the elapsed time between funding and impact of MSD treatments was 16 years. Our best estimate of the IRR from MSD-related research was 7%, which is similar to the 9% for CVD and 10% for cancer research. Our estimate of the IRR from the net health gain to public and charitable funding of MSD-related research in the United Kingdom is substantial, and justifies the research investments

  1. Overlapping values, mutual prejudices. Empirical research into the ethos of police officers and private security guards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steden, R.; van der Wal, Z.; Lasthuizen, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    What determines professional motivations and values of security operatives: sector or profession? Our article aims to answer this question through a survey study among police officers (n = 405) and private security guards (n = 329) in the Netherlands. Our results show that both groups closely

  2. Value-based investing for government infrastructure : financing Virginia's roads, final research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    One of the reasons that market economies create high standards of living is the efficiency of their capital markets. The main task of capital markets is to channel scarce capital resources into their most highly valued uses. This is a difficult and c...

  3. Demonstrating the value of a social science research program to a natural resource management agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; John F. Dwyer; Deborah S. Carr

    1998-01-01

    With ever tightening resources to address an increased number of diverse and complex issues, it has become common for scientists and managers to be called upon to demonstrate the value of their programs. In the spring of 1995, social scientists at the USDA Forest Service North Central Forest Experiment Station we so called upon. This paper discusses an effort to...

  4. Measurement Error and Bias in Value-Added Models. Research Report. ETS RR-17-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    By aggregating residual gain scores (the differences between each student's current score and a predicted score based on prior performance) for a school or a teacher, value-added models (VAMs) can be used to generate estimates of school or teacher effects. It is known that random errors in the prior scores will introduce bias into predictions of…

  5. Smart City Research : Contextual Conditions, Governance Models, and Public Value Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert J.; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon; Bolívar, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    There are three issues that are crucial to advancing our academic understanding of smart cities: (1) contextual conditions, (2) governance models, and (3) the assessment of public value. A brief review of recent literature and the analysis of the included papers provide support for the assumption

  6. Experience of research of valued-normative sphere of persons that accomplish felonious homicides from selfish motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. О. Оберемко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. The valued-normative sphere of consciousness of criminal’s personality is determined by views, persuasions, valued orientation, internal orientation, that altogether gives an opportunity to set reasons of the criminal behavior’s origin. Recent research and publications analysis. The deficiency of frequent researches of the mercenary killers’ personality, analysis of deformations of the axiological-normative sphere of their consciousness is actual for scientists. The question of axiological-normative sphere of criminal’s consciousness draw attention of many scientists, such as Yu. M. Antonyan, B. M. Golovkin, M.I. Enekeev, G.H. Efremova, K.E. Igoshev, A.R. Ratinov, O.M. Yakovlev. Paper main body. Consideration of personality of mercenary killer showed that one of leading morally-psychological lines of such persons a mercenary orientation comes forward. The aim of the article consists in consideration of criminal group, as forms of realization of mercenary orientation and criminogenic elements of consciousness of mercenary killer. The system of the valued orientations comes forward as an index of valued-normative sphere of personality of mercenary killer. It is considered that the valued orientations are regulator that inferior behavior of man. The presence of the different systems of values in society predetermines a wide choice the man of separate from them, as during the life she becomes the participant of many social relationships with the excellent valued structures. The analysis of the system of the valued orientations of mercenary killers we carried out on the basis of results of authorial empiric research. Investigating the psychological constituent of mercenary killers we paid attention to their emotionally-volitional features. We set that the volitional adjusting mercenary killers had at low level. It is persons that are characterized impulsiveness, mental instability and low level of self-control. Depending upon

  7. Societal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handmer, J.W.; Dovers, S.; Downing, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Institutions in many wealthy industrialised countries are robust and their societies appear to be relatively well insulated against the impacts of climate variability, economic problems elsewhere and so on. However, many countries are not in this position, and there is a growing group of humanity which is not benefiting from the apparent global adaptive trends. Worst case scenarios reinforce the impact of this uneven distribution of adaptive capacity, both between and within countries. Nevertheless, at the broad global scale human societies are strongly adaptive and not threatened by climate change for many decades. At the local level the picture is quite different and the survival of some populations at their present locations is in doubt. In the absence of abatement, the longer term outlook is highly uncertain. Adaptation research needs to begin with an understanding of social and economic vulnerability. It requires a different approach to the traditional IPCC impacts assessment, as human behaviour, institutional capacity and culture are more important than biophysical impacts. This is consistent with the intellectual history of the IPCC which has gradually embraced an increasing range of disciplines. 32 refs

  8. Recreational drugs. Societal and professional issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari-Twadell, P A

    1991-06-01

    Recreational drug use presents a challenge to society and, in particular, the profession of nursing. Recreational drug use must be appreciated for the implications it presents for the episodes of abuse and development of chronic health problems. The effects and recreational use of volatile substances, cannabis, opioids, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, amphetamines, cocaine, psychedelics, and designer drugs as well as alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine must be acknowledged and understood if options for change are to be considered. The resultant cost of recreational drug use as well as health care implications, public safety, and prevention are significant issues society is faced with today. These issues will continue to be significant unless the current posture toward recreational drug use and abuse is addressed. The profession of nursing continues to be faced with the problems associated with recreational drug use not only through caring for clients, but immediately by the effects of recreational drug use on individual professional nurses. To respond effectively, nursing education and nursing research must be challenged to create an emphasis on this focus. Only through this type of multifocal approach will long-term substantial change be affected for the betterment of future generations.

  9. Use of sealants: societal and professional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, P J

    1984-02-01

    At present, sealant use continues at a low level in private practice by dentists and hygienists, and is moderate in community programs although there is high interest in their use in public health settings. Widespread delegation of sealant application to hygienists has not occurred even though the majority of state dental practice acts allow it, and even though practicing hygienists are highly interested in applying sealants. Use in federally sponsored programs is minimal or nonexistent. Information about sealants and adequate clinical experience in their application appear minimal in dental training institutions, and few opportunities have existed for continuing education. Generally, knowledge about sealants among dentists is low; many hold doubtful opinions. Insurance carriers, including commercial, provider, and governmental programs, appear reluctant to reimburse for sealants without purchaser demand and organized dentistry's blessings. Although society emphasizes patient rights to informed consent, few opportunities exist for the public, including group insurance purchasers and union negotiators, to learn about sealant use in conjunction with appropriate fluoride use. Public educational materials are sparse. Manufacturer marketing efforts at present, aimed at providers alone, are at best minimal, with a few exceptions; those targeting the public are nonexistent. Organized dentistry's Council statements may have contributed to a constriction, to date, in the flow of public information about sealants from industry. Lack of communication, or miscommunication, between practitioners and dental scientists has resulted in much misinformation and confusion about the value of sealants and their use. And, the contemporary status of dental manpower and the economy of dental practice in the private sector appear to have provided an infertile environment for acceptance of sealants as a primary preventive technology. In the public sector, interest in sealants is high but

  10. An economic analysis of the value of research and development in the area of fourth generation fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taverdet-Popiolek, N.; Mathonniere, G.

    2010-01-01

    According to forecasts, the uranium market could start to become strained by the middle of the century. It is because of this hypothesis that we are in a position to evaluate the value of public research and development in the area of fourth generation fast reactors. In fact, as opposed to current reactors, fast neutron reactors allow for better use of natural uranium, and they will also be able to play an essential role in a 'sustainable' perspective. However, these technologies only emerge as a result of significant progress and require important investments in research and development. In this article, we try to evaluate the economic value of this research and development, ad analyse the interest in having this innovative technology available to cope with the expected increase in the price of uranium. If this increase in price is an entry criterion of a model, the dissemination of this innovation onto the market at the end of the research and development phase is supposedly a risky variable, conditioned by the the implementation of two probable scenarios (p and l-p respectively): 'the fast reactor is competitive and adopted by the industrialists' or 'it does not fulfill these conditions'. In view of its simplified hypotheses, the model gives the value of research and development according to an a priori estimate of p. It is then possible to judge, from a strictly economical standpoint, the relevance of pursuing a research and development programme or not in 2010, which is the date when the public authorities will have to announce their decision. With the deduced data, and a low estimation of research and development costs, the research and development programme is considered profitable, if the probability of p is above 20 %. This threshold increases with the cost of research and development, reaching close to 70 % in an extreme, unrealistic case, where it would be necessary to fund all the research and development (including the prototype) with public funds

  11. STC synthesis of best practices for determining value of research results : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Transportation research projects are aimed at fostering innovation in different areas, such as : safety, cost savings, quality, efficiency, project delivery, and policy. Transportation agencies and : most notably State Departments of Transportation (...

  12. Realizing the value of Family Business Identity as Corporate Brand Element — A Research Model

    OpenAIRE

    Blombäck, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Recent publications among family business scholars reveal an emerging interest to investigate questions related to marketing communications and brand management. An underlying question for this research is whether, how, and under what circumstances the portrayal of a family business identity influences corporate brand equity. Research in brand management clarifies the importance of learning how consumer behavior is influenced by brand leveraging beyond the core product or company. Such knowle...

  13. The distribution of P-values in medical research articles suggested selective reporting associated with statistical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V; Combescure, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine). The observed distribution of P-values was compared with expected distributions under the null hypothesis (i.e., uniform between 0 and 1) and the alternative hypothesis (strictly decreasing from 0 to 1). P-values were categorized according to conventional levels of statistical significance and in one-percent intervals. Among 4,158 recorded P-values, 26.1% were highly significant (P values values equal to 1, and (3) about twice as many P-values less than 0.05 compared with those more than 0.05. The latter finding was seen in both randomized trials and observational studies, and in most types of analyses, excepting heterogeneity tests and interaction tests. Under plausible assumptions, we estimate that about half of the tested hypotheses were null and the other half were alternative. This analysis suggests that statistical tests published in medical journals are not a random sample of null and alternative hypotheses but that selective reporting is prevalent. In particular, significant results are about twice as likely to be reported as nonsignificant results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Cross-Cultural Study of Gifted Students' Scientific, Societal, and Moral Questions Concerning Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Tirri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number and nature of gifted female and male students' scientific, societal, and moral questions concerning science. The participants (=658 of this study were 16–19-year-old international students from 55 countries and two continents, Asia and Europe. They applied to participate in the Millennium Youth Camp held in 2011 in Finland. The students came from scientifically and mathematically oriented schools, and they had shown an interest towards science through competitions, school success, and their own research. The students were asked to formulate questions they would like to get answers to during the camp. The nature and number of the students' questions were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The results showed that the boys asked more scientific questions than the girls, and the girls asked more societal questions than the boys. The students asked less questions about morality than scientific or societal questions. The most common questions about morality were related to pollution and fresh air, environmental problems, and water protection. The results point to the need for teachers to teach socioscientific issues and discuss moral questions related to science.

  15. Taking a Societal Sector Perspective on Youth Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; London, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific…

  16. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  17. In Defense of Societal Issues as Organizers for School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Offers a defense of societal issues as organizers for school science programs in response to criticisms of this thesis discussed in SE 534 649. Indicates that there appears to be no evidence that using nontraditional topics as organizers will make science more subject to manipulation and perversion. (JN)

  18. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  19. The Influence of Psychological and Societal Factors on Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of psychological and societal factors on students' performance in mathematics at Senior Secondary School Level in. Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. A simple random sampling technique was used to sample three hundred secondary school students who supplied information on the ...

  20. Societal development and the impact of information technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are several theories on societal development, especially concerning issues that are affecting globalization. Those issues include the impact of information technology on developing countries of Africa, the social and cultural schools of thought on globalization of information technology, the defining issues that are ...

  1. Societal perspective on the burden of migraine in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Michel, B. C.; Rutten, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive overview of the societal burden of migraine in The Netherlands. We assessed the direct and indirect costs of this disease, and the health status of patients with migraine. We developed the 'illness and labour' (I&L) questionnaire to collect data on the effect of

  2. Access. Challenge for Change/Societe Nouvelle Number Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Elizabeth, Ed.; Henaut, Dorothy Todd, Ed.

    This issue of Access, the journal issued periodically by Challenge for Change/Societe Nouvelle, contains two groups of articles. The first focuses upon the Skyriver Project, relating how a project was developed which used film and video tape as a means of helping Alaskan communities to assess their own needs and to advocate for themselves the…

  3. Access. Challenge for Change/Societe Nouvelle Number Eleven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Access is a journal published three or four times a year by Challenge for Change/Societe Nouvelle (CCSN). CCSN is an experimental program established by the Government of Canada as a cooperative effort between the National Film Board of Canada and certain of the Government's departments. Its purposes are to improve communications, create greater…

  4. Societal entrepreneurship and its significance for a practical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... First of all, our motivation to focus on society and social ... societal entrepreneurs are particularly focused on network .... hospitality and tourism industry (Orsmond 2008a:195−196; ..... built on previous experience and technical knowledge as ... nevertheless committed to letting their employees share in.

  5. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  6. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an

  7. Development of stock markets, societal norms and legal institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    2000-01-01

    We explain the development of stock markets by both legal and societal determinants and analyze the relevance of both determinants in the Levine-Zervos (1998) cross-sectional growth regressions. We argue that the legal indicators as developed by La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer and Vishny (1998)

  8. Lorenzo Cini, Società civile e democrazia radicale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La nostra collana Methexis ha pubblicato ad accesso aperto il volume di Lorenzo Cini, Società civile e democrazia radicale, Firenze, Firenze University Press, 2012. La versione digitale del testo, in formato PDF, è a disposizione di tutti presso l’archivio elettronico dell'editore.

  9. Influencing governance of a public-private partnership in plant genomics: The societal interface group as a new instrument for public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Lucien; Gremmen, Bart

    2013-08-01

    The Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG) is a Dutch public-private partnership in plant genomics active in potato and tomato research and exploitation. Its Societal Interface Group (SIG) has been developed to inform its communication strategy and governance practice. This new instrument identifies and discusses early signals from society by bringing together people from different societal backgrounds with members of CBSG management. This interactive learning process facilitates the inclusion of public concerns and needs in scientific developments in the field of plant genomics, and simultaneously enables genomics scientists to search for more societal aims, meanings, and starting points for their research agenda. Analysis of the SIG sessions revealed that the input of public expertise is not threatening or irrational, but provides the opportunity to harness the creative potential of future users highly relevant for the development of societal practices in which plant genomics plays a role.

  10. Public Value Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....

  11. Research, values, and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality, and animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship between human and nature. This paper is concerned with the challenges...

  12. COMPETITIVENESS, VALUE CHAIN AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH COMPETITIVIDAD, CADENA DE VALOR E INVESTIGACION CIENTIFICA

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Apolinar Martinez Arroyo; Irma Cristina Espitia Moreno; Marco Alberto Valenzo Jimenez

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of the sources of competitive advantage by cost or differentiation in the avocado value chain of exporting companies located in Uruapan, Michoacán. The analysis is made by assessing the impact of independent variables, dimensions and indicators on the dependent variable. This approach allows us to know or show the source of competitive advantage. That is, to observe the totally competitive advantage, you must know what activity the advantage derives from....

  13. Investigating the Value of Restorative Practice: An Action Research Study of One Boy in a Mixed Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Vicky; Fearon, Colm; Dee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In response to an increasingly high level of exclusion rates for boys within secondary school in the UK, this study seeks to explore the value of restorative practice and justice for changing student behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: As a piece of action research, the authors aimed to look at how methods of restorative practice…

  14. Who I Am: The Meaning of Early Adolescents' Most Valued Activities and Relationships, and Implications for Self-Concept Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Guerin, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Self-concept research in early adolescence typically measures young people's self-perceptions of competence in specific, adult-defined domains. However, studies have rarely explored young people's own views of valued self-concept factors and their meanings. For two major self domains, the active and the social self, this mixed-methods study…

  15. Measuring the Value of Research Data: A Citation Analysis of Oceanographic Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of scientific research is becoming increasingly reliant on publication-based bibliometric indicators, which may result in the devaluation of other scientific activities - such as data curation – that do not necessarily result in the production of scientific publications. This issue may undermine the movement to openly share and cite data sets in scientific publications because researchers are unlikely to devote the effort necessary to curate their research data if they are unlikely to receive credit for doing so. This analysis attempts to demonstrate the bibliometric impact of properly curated and openly accessible data sets by attempting to generate citation counts for three data sets archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center. My findings suggest that all three data sets are highly cited, with estimated citation counts in most cases higher than 99% of all the journal articles published in Oceanography during the same years. I also find that methods of citing and referring to these data sets in scientific publications are highly inconsistent, despite the fact that a formal citation format is suggested for each data set. These findings have important implications for developing a data citation format, encouraging researchers to properly curate their research data, and evaluating the bibliometric impact of individuals and institutions. PMID:24671177

  16. Enhance the Value of a Research Paper: Choosing the Right References and Writing them Accurately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdekar, Sandeep B

    2016-03-01

    References help readers identify and locate sources used for justifying the need for conducting the research study, verify methods employed in the study and for discussing the interpretation of results and implications of the study. It is extremely essential that references are accurate and complete. This article provides suggestions regarding choosing references and writing reference list. References are a list of sources that are selected by authors to represent the best documents concerning the research study.1 They constitute the foundation of any research paper. Although generally written towards the end of the article-writing process, they are nevertheless extremely important. They provide the context for the hypothesis and help justify the need for conducting the research study. Authors use references to inform readers about the techniques used for conducting the study and convince them about the appropriateness of methodology used. References help provide appropriate perspective in which the research findings should be seen and interpreted. This communication will discuss the purpose of citations, how to select quality sources for citing and the importance of accuracy while writing the reference list. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  17. The potential therapeutic value for bereaved relatives participating in research: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Alison; Mayland, Catriona R; Jack, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Conducting research with the bereaved presents an immediate ethical challenge, as they are undoubtedly a vulnerable group, associated with high levels of distress and susceptible to both physical and mental health issues. A comprehensive understanding of the potential therapeutic benefits for bereaved relatives participating in palliative care research is limited, and therefore the ethics of engaging this group remain questionable. This paper describes a secondary analysis of qualitative data collected in the Care of the Dying Evaluation (CODE) project, examining the experiences of patients who died at home. It explores the motivations and potential benefits for bereaved relatives participating in research with reference to the recently developed concepts in bereavement theory. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 15 bereaved relatives and secondary analysis using a content analysis framework was employed to classify the data. The results center around six recurring concepts identified as adaptive in current bereavement theory: an opportunity to share the narrative accounts of the final hours of their relative's life; a search for sense and meaning in loss; an ongoing bond/attachment with the deceased; altruistic motivations; oscillation between loss and restorative orientations; and a sense of resilience. Overall, the participants found that taking part in the research was valuable and that it could be described as offering therapeutic benefits. The need for bereaved relatives to take part in research studies should be encouraged, as they provide an accurate proxy for the patient's experience of end-of-life care while also providing a valuable account of their own perspective as family member and carer. In addition, we highlight the need for ethics committees to be aware of the potential benefits for bereaved relatives participating in research of this kind.

  18. REACTIVATING NIGERIAN NORMS AND VALUES THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    Transformation. Transformation is a complete change in outward appearance of ... incestuous relationship are prohibited in Nigerian society. The .... society is maintained. ..... physical. Our societal norms and values constitute the frame works.

  19. Cost (and Quality and Value) of Information Technology Support in Large Research Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Christopher S.; Antolovic, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Shows how financial and quality measures associated with the Balanced Scorecard (developed by Kaplan and Norton to measure organizational performance) can be applied to information technology (IT) user education and support in large research universities. Focuses on University Information Technology Services that has measured the quality of IT…

  20. Are sciences essential and humanities elective? Disentangling competing claims for humanities’ research public value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos-Penuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Castro-Martinez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption’s construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair

  1. Are Sciences Essential and Humanities Elective? Disentangling Competing Claims for Humanities' Research Public Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption's construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair prejudice: we argue for a prima facie case…

  2. Towards Innovation (Eco)Systems: Enhancing the Public Value of Scientific Research in the Canadian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Hickey, M.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Canadian Arctic has seen an intensification of scientific research designed to foster innovation (i.e., the process of transforming ideas into new products, services, practices or policies). However, innovation remains generally low. This paper argues that before we can

  3. "Spurring You on and Rooting for Each Other"--The Potential Value of Group Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebron, Clair L.; Morris, Dinah J.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored students' experience of collaborating to undertake a neuromusculoskeletal group research project which was conducted in partial fulfilment of their MSc course. A phenomenological approach was adopted to gain insight into participants' experience of learning and working in a group. Six participants who were all…

  4. Meta-analysis, complexity, and heterogeneity: a qualitative interview study of researchers' methodological values and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Theo; Felix, Lambert; Petticrew, Mark; Melendez-Torres, G J; Thomas, James; Thomas, Sian; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Richardson, Michelle

    2016-11-16

    Complex or heterogeneous data pose challenges for systematic review and meta-analysis. In recent years, a number of new methods have been developed to meet these challenges. This qualitative interview study aimed to understand researchers' understanding of complexity and heterogeneity and the factors which may influence the choices researchers make in synthesising complex data. We conducted interviews with a purposive sample of researchers (N = 19) working in systematic review or meta-analysis across a range of disciplines. We analysed data thematically using a framework approach. Participants reported using a broader range of methods and data types in complex reviews than in traditional reviews. A range of techniques are used to explore heterogeneity, but there is some debate about their validity, particularly when applied post hoc. Technical considerations of how to synthesise complex evidence cannot be isolated from questions of the goals and contexts of research. However, decisions about how to analyse data appear to be made in a largely informal way, drawing on tacit expertise, and their relation to these broader questions remains unclear.

  5. The need for synergy and value creation in contemporary vector research and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knols, B.G.J.; Schayk, van I.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary research in the field of medical entomology is hampered by systems thinking, besides work processes and organizational structures that demand focus and inhibit creative and innovative initiatives. This leads to tunnel vision, limited lateral thinking, and forced attention to minutia

  6. The Role and Value of Global Business Research: Perspective of a Business School Dean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this article is two-fold. First, it looks at business research in general, in various countries, as a task that the dean wants to have faculty members pursue, to attain goals such as accreditation and ranking with organizations such as the "AACSB," "Equis," the "Financial Times," and "US News &…

  7. Detecting Low Incidents Effects: The Value of Mixed Methods Research Designs in Low-N Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Newman, Carole; Smith, Shannon; Brown, Russell C.

    2013-01-01

    Many important educational situations such as traumatic brain injury among preschoolers, school gun violence, preadolescent eating disorders, and adolescent suicide happen relatively infrequently. In this article, the authors explain why mixed methods research designs offer more meaningful empirical results than do qualitative or quantitative…

  8. New linked data on research investments: scientific workforce, productivity, and public value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Julia; Owen-Smith, Jason; Rosen, Rebecca; Weinberg, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Longitudinal micro-data derived from transaction level information about wage and vendor payments made by federal grants on multiple U.S. campuses are being developed in a partnership involving researchers, university administrators, representatives of federal agencies, and others. This paper describes the UMETRICS data initiative that has been implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation. The resulting data set reflects an emerging conceptual framework for analyzing the process, products, and impact of research. It grows from and engages the work of a diverse and vibrant community. This paper situates the UMETRICS effort in the context of research evaluation and ongoing data infrastructure efforts in order to highlight its novel and valuable features. Refocusing data construction in this field around individuals, networks, and teams offers dramatic possibilities for data linkage, the evaluation of research investments, and the development of rigorous conceptual and empirical models. Two preliminary analyses of the scientific workforce and network approaches to characterizing scientific teams ground a discussion of future directions and a call for increased community engagement.

  9. University Faculty and the Value of Their Intellectual Property: Comparing IP in Teaching and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the protectionist and access functions of intellectual property for the teaching and research work of university faculty. The degree to which an individual piece of IP is protected or made accessible to others depends in large measure on its market-related characteristics, including costs of production, availability of…

  10. How Elsevier is supporting the value and usefulness of data with Cross-linking and Research Data Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Bethan; Koers, Hylke; Marques, David

    2013-04-01

    Research in the Earth & Planetary Sciences is characterized by a wealth of observational data - ranging from observations by satellites orbiting the Earth, to borehole measurements at the bottom of the ocean, and also includes data from projects like the Rover Curiosity Landing. Thanks to technological advancements, it has become much easier for researchers over the last few decades to gather large volumes of data, analyze, and share with other researchers inside and outside the lab. With data serving such an important role in the way research is carried out, it becomes a crucial task to archive, maintain, organize, and disseminate research data in a dependable and structured manner. Subject-specific data repositories, often driven by the scientific community, are taking an increasingly prominent role in this domain, getting traction amongst researchers as the go-to place to deposit raw research data. At the same time, the scientific article remains an essential resource of scientific information. At Elsevier, we strive to continuously adapt the article format to meet the needs of modern-day researchers. This includes better support for digital content (see, e.g., http://www.elsevier.com/googlemaps), but also bidirectional linking between online articles and data repositories. In this spirit, Elsevier is collaborating with several leading data repositories, such as PANGAEA, IEDA, and NERC, to interlink articles and data for improved visibility and discoverability of both primary research data and research articles. In addition, Elsevier has formed a new group, Research Data Services, with three primary goals: • help increase the sharing and archiving of research data in discipline-specific repositories • help increase the value of shared data, particularly with annotation and provenance metadata and linking discipline-specific datasets together • help create a credit and impact assessment infrastructure to make research data independently important in its own

  11. Maximising value from a United Kingdom Biomedical Research Centre: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V.; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D.; Channon, Keith M.; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    Background Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country’s international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) a...

  12. A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE ON THE LABOUR VALUING IN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Raluca Mazilescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the world economy over the last decades has demonstrated that knowledge is the major source of wealth and can also play an important role in fighting poverty. In a knowledge economy, education, research and development represent the “new currency” by which nations achieve and maintain economic competitiveness. These sectors offer important enabling effects that can contribute to sustainable development of the respective economies. Nevertheless, reaching these broader objectives requires first of all certain corresponding measures such as ensuring optimum labour conditions and stimulating levels of wage earnings, both contributing to the increase of the motivation degree for education, research and development staff and to the attractiveness degree of the respective professions. The purpose of this study is to assess the place of education and research in the wage hierarchy in EU Member States and their relationship with the wages achieved in other fields. The results of our analysis indicate the existence of significant gaps between wages in European countries.

  13. Beyond the Data: Effective Methods for Communicating the Value of Geoscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J. M.; Parker, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The health of Earth Science departments depends critically on effective campus outreach and communication. Where competing narratives across a broad spectrum of intellectual pursuits draws the attention of administrators for resources, geological sciences are positioned, in a unique way, to make a big impact in both public relations within the institution and outward to the community at large. Researchers, by themselves, often make poor advocates for their exciting discoveries, especially when dealing with colleagues who have little or no appreciation for the interdisciplinary nature of Earth Science. Our communication efforts at the University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill have represented the Department of Geological Sciences with spectacular visual content and riveting storytelling. Long-form features, photos, and videos published in science-oriented campus publications (Endeavors), alumni outreach (Carolina Alumni Review) and more general issues (Arts & Sciences magazine) offer glimpses into geophysical research areas such as coastal evolution, active volcanoes, and stratospheric acoustics. A well crafted story can go a long way towards raising the stature of a small department, and increase the exposure of critical environmental issues on campus. This presentation will include the key elements for crafting a compelling geoscience research story, common issues that can arise in science communication, and best practices for utilizing storytelling methods for outreach in both academic and industry settings.

  14. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The first year of this effort was focussed on the following broad objectives: (1) Analyze the molecular types present in shale oil (as a function of molecular weight distribution); (2) Determine the behavior of these molecular types in liquid-liquid extraction; (3) Develop the analytical tools needed to systematize the process development; (4) Survey the markets to assure that these have high value uses for the types found in shale oil; (5) Explore selective process means for extracting/converting shale oil components into concentrates of potentially marketable components; (6) Compile overview of the venture development strategy and begin implementation of that strategy. Each of these tasks has been completed in sufficient detail that we can now focus on filling in the knowledge gaps evident from the overview.

  15. Research report on design allowable values of structural materials for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The present report is composed of following two main parts. i) review and re-evaluation on test results by FCI Sub-committee studies, performed from 1973 to 1976, ii) review on procedures for determining design allowable values of structural materials for LMFBR components. Re-evaluation works have been made on monotonic tensile properties at elevated temperatures, creep and creep rupture properties, creep-fatigue properties (strain rate and tensile strain hold time effects on strain fatigue properties at elevated temperatures) of Types 316 and 304 stainless steel and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel (base and weld metals) produced in Japan. In the first half of the present report, creep-fatigue test results obtained by FCI Sub-committee studies are subjected to re-evaluation by the present P-FCI Sub-committee. Reviews have been made on testing methods on FCI's-creep-fatigue experiments with other test data of the test materials; high temperature monotonic tensile data, creep and creep rupture data, and origin of the test materials. The data of FCI studies are compared with other reference data obtained by several Japanese laboratories. In the latter half of the present report, procedures including ASME's are reviewed for setting design allowable values for LMFBR components on the basis of high temperature strength properties obtained with materials produced in Japan. A creep rupture data of Japanese steels are issued and examined to make proposal for a design allowable stress of S sub(t) through parameter survey. (author)

  16. Science and Societal Partnerships to Address Cumulative Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Lundquist, Carolyn J.; Fisher, Karen T.; Le Heron, Richard; Lewis, Nick I.; Ellis, Joanne I.; Hewitt, Judi E.; Greenaway, Alison J.; Cartner, Katie J.; Burgess-Jones, Tracey C.; Schiel, David R.; Thrush, Simon F.

    2016-01-01

    Funding and priorities for ocean research are not separate from the underlying sociological, economic, and political landscapes that determine values attributed to ecological systems. Here we present a variation on science prioritization exercises, focussing on inter-disciplinary research questions with the objective of shifting broad scale management practices to better address cumulative impacts and multiple users. Marine scientists in New Zealand from a broad range of scientific and social...

  17. Economy and Society: Strategies for a More Equal Distribution of Societal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Hoedl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unequal distribution of societal power is to a large extent responsible for poverty, hunger, the destruction of nature, and inhuman living conditions. From the perspective of its redistribution, we distinguish three basic means of power: The ownership of material and immaterial properties, the kind of organisation and the values according to which properties and their organisation are handled. This framework permits us to identify crucial power structures in less industrialised and industrial countries and within the financial, real productive, political and social subsystems of the society and allows us to sketch strategies for redistribution of societal power: Industrial countries have to reduce their real and financial capital inputs in favour of higher human capital investments and increase their direct investments in less industrialised countries, supported by a Global Marshall Plan. Less industrialised countries need to enhance both their industrial and alternative sectors, establish more democratic structures and human-centered educational systems. By these cooperative strategies the costs of former colonialism can be partly refunded. The main obstacle for such global cooperation is the global financial system, which has to be decentralised towards a multi-currency system, including regional currencies and barter. In the real productive sector, financial governance and capital-oriented hierarchies should be markedly reduced, which will increase creativity and productivity of work, underpinned by an enlarged human-centered education. Redistributing the prevailing power of the financial and productive sector rests considerably on democratic governance, which has to include increasing informal and legitimate interests and prevent plutocratic tendencies. For this, an economic democracy should be evolved where each individual not only has a vote, but also a guaranteed minimum income. Individual security, welfare and well-being are the

  18. Sophisticated lessons from simple organisms: appreciating the value of curiosity-driven research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Duronio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For hundreds of years, biologists have studied accessible organisms such as garden peas, sea urchins collected at low tide, newt eggs, and flies circling rotten fruit. These organisms help us to understand the world around us, attracting and inspiring each new generation of biologists with the promise of mystery and discovery. Time and time again, what we learn from such simple organisms has emphasized our common biological origins by proving to be applicable to more complex organisms, including humans. Yet, biologists are increasingly being tasked with developing applications from the known, rather than being allowed to follow a path to discovery of the as yet unknown. Here, we provide examples of important lessons learned from research using selected non-vertebrate organisms. We argue that, for the purpose of understanding human disease, simple organisms cannot and should not be replaced solely by human cell-based culture systems. Rather, these organisms serve as powerful discovery tools for new knowledge that could subsequently be tested for conservation in human cell-based culture systems. In this way, curiosity-driven biological research in simple organisms has and will continue to pay huge dividends in both the short and long run for improving the human condition.

  19. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups.

  20. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, A; Sutter, G

    2017-01-01

    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. As a biologically well-characterized mutant virus, MVA facilitates fundamental research to elucidate the functions of poxvirus host-interaction factors. As extremely safe viral vectors MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective in various preclinical infection models. Multiple recombinant MVA currently undergo clinical testing for vaccination against human immunodeficiency viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Plasmodium falciparum. The versatility of the MVA vector vaccine platform is readily demonstrated by the swift development of experimental vaccines for immunization against emerging infections such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Recent advances include promising results from the clinical testing of recombinant MVA-producing antigens of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 or Ebola virus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about MVA as a unique strain of vaccinia virus, and discusses the prospects of exploiting this virus as research tool in poxvirus biology or as safe viral vector vaccine to challenge existing and future bottlenecks in vaccinology. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Research on the effect of culture time on the kombucha tea beverage's antiradical capacity and sensory value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kulczyński, Bartosz; Xindi, Yuan; Gumienna, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer containing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are polyphenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components' biological activity.

  2. Areva. 2007 figures economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the 2007 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation; 2 - Financial performance: 2007 results; 3 - Commitment to employees: Stakeholder relations, Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, Workforce, Workforce and training; 4 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 5 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  3. Construct Validity of the Societal Outreach Scale (SOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David S; Denton, Jason; Walk, Matt; Kish, Jennifer; Gorman, Ira

    2018-04-01

    The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has been working toward a vision of increasing professional focus on societal-level health. However, performance of social responsibility and related behaviors by physical therapists remain relatively poorly integrated into practice. Promoting a focus on societal outreach is necessary for all health care professionals to impact the health of their communities. The objective was to document the validity of the 14-item Societal Outreach Scale (SOS) for use with practicing physical therapists. This study used a cross-sectional survey. The SOS was transmitted via email to all therapists who were licensed and practicing in 10 states in the United States that were purposefully selected to assure a broad representation. A sample of 2612 usable responses was received. Factor analysis was applied to assess construct validity of the instrument. Of alternate models, a 3-factor model best demonstrated goodness of fit with the sample data according to conventional indices (standardized root mean squared residual = .03, comparative fit index .96, root mean square error of approximation = .06). The 3 factors measured by the SOS were labeled Societal-Level Health Advocacy, Community Engagement/Social Integration, and Political Engagement. Internal consistency reliability was 0.7 for all factors. The 3-factor SOS demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. Though the sample included a broad representation of physical therapists, this was a single cross-sectional study. Additional confirmatory factor analysis, reliability testing, and word refinement of the tool are warranted. Given the construct validity and reliability of the 3-factor SOS, it is recommended for use as a validated instrument to measure physical therapists' performance of social responsibility and related behaviors.

  4. Innovative and responsible governance of nanotechnology for societal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.; Harthorn, Barbara; Guston, David; Shapira, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Governance of nanotechnology is essential for realizing economic growth and other societal benefits of the new technology, protecting public health and environment, and supporting global collaboration and progress. The article outlines governance principles and methods specific for this emerging field. Advances in the last 10 years, the current status and a vision for the next decade are presented based on an international study with input from over 35 countries.

  5. Access to Information About Stuttering and Societal Knowledge of Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little...

  6. Areva 2006 figures - Economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the 2006 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation, stakeholder relations, local economic development, Financial performance; 2 - Commitment to employees: Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, employees and training; 3 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 4 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  7. The use of analogies in forecasting ecological and societal responses to global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the limitations of general circulation models, researchers use analogies to look at future climatic change and its effects. Analogies used include the greenhouse, the Altithermal period, regional climates and summertime. Analogical reasoning is a prominent part of general circulation modeling of the atmosphere. Analogies are useful for generating hypotheses and improving understanding, but not as forecasts. The use of an analogy to develop specific policies related to global warming is risky. Historical analogies can provide a first approach to ascertaining the level of societal preparedness for the impacts of a global warming. Each analogy provides additional information about the target problem. 63 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. The use of analogies in forecasting ecological and societal responses to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO (USA). Environmental Research and Societal Impacts Group)

    1991-06-01

    Due to the limitations of general circulation models, researchers use analogies to look at future climatic change and its effects. Analogies used include the greenhouse, the Altithermal period, regional climates and summertime. Analogical reasoning is a prominent part of general circulation modeling of the atmosphere. Analogies are useful for generating hypotheses and improving understanding, but not as forecasts. The use of an analogy to develop specific policies related to global warming is risky. Historical analogies can provide a first approach to ascertaining the level of societal preparedness for the impacts of a global warming. Each analogy provides additional information about the target problem. 63 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Evidence-based research on the value of school nurses in an urban school system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, Mary J; Lundeen, Sally P; Murphy, M Kathleen

    2011-02-01

    With the increasing acuity of student health problems, growing rates of poverty among urban families, and widening racial/ethnic health disparities in child and adolescent health indicators, the contributions of school nurses are of increasing interest to policymakers. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of school nurses on promoting a healthy school environment and healthy, resilient learners. A mixed-methods approach was used for this study. Using a cross-sectional design, surveys captured the level of satisfaction that school staff had with the nurse in their school, as well as their perceptions of the impact of the nurse on the efficient management of student health concerns. Using a quasi-experimental design, data from electronic school records were used to compare rates of immunization and completeness of health records in schools with nurses. This study provides evidence that school nurses positively influenced immunization rates, the accuracy of student health records, and management of student health concerns. This research demonstrates that teachers and other staff consider nurse interventions vital to eliminating barriers to student learning and improving overall school health. A cost analysis revealed the estimated annual cost per school for the time staff spent managing health concerns. In an environment of scarce resources, school boards need quality evaluation data to justify hiring and retaining school nurses to support improved school health environments. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  10. SSH & the City. A Network Approach for Tracing the Societal Contribution of the Social Sciences and Humanities for Local Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson-Garcia, N.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Rafols, I.

    2016-07-01

    Current evaluation frameworks in research policy were designed to address: 1) life and natural sciences, 2) global research communities, and; 3) scientific impact. This is problematic, as they do not adapt well to SSH scholarship, to local interests, or to consider broader societal impacts. This paper discusses three different evaluation frameworks and proposes a methodology to operationalize them and capture societal interactions between social sciences and humanities (SSH) researchers and their local context. To capture such interactions, we propose the use of social media and web-link analysis to identify interactions between academics and local stakeholders. We consider that the power of these tools is not so much on understanding their meaning as ‘acts’ to develop impact or visibility metrics whenever a mention to a research article is made, but as proxies for personal interactions. We offer some examples of the expected social networks we aim at developing for two Spanish cities: Granada and Valencia. (Author)

  11. Treatments of Missing Values in Large National Data Affect Conclusions: The Impact of Multiple Imputation on Arthroplasty Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondeck, Nathaniel T; Fu, Michael C; Skrip, Laura A; McLynn, Ryan P; Su, Edwin P; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2018-03-01

    Despite the advantages of large, national datasets, one continuing concern is missing data values. Complete case analysis, where only cases with complete data are analyzed, is commonly used rather than more statistically rigorous approaches such as multiple imputation. This study characterizes the potential selection bias introduced using complete case analysis and compares the results of common regressions using both techniques following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Patients undergoing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty were extracted from the 2005 to 2015 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. As examples, the demographics of patients with and without missing preoperative albumin and hematocrit values were compared. Missing data were then treated with both complete case analysis and multiple imputation (an approach that reproduces the variation and associations that would have been present in a full dataset) and the conclusions of common regressions for adverse outcomes were compared. A total of 6117 patients were included, of which 56.7% were missing at least one value. Younger, female, and healthier patients were more likely to have missing preoperative albumin and hematocrit values. The use of complete case analysis removed 3467 patients from the study in comparison with multiple imputation which included all 6117 patients. The 2 methods of handling missing values led to differing associations of low preoperative laboratory values with commonly studied adverse outcomes. The use of complete case analysis can introduce selection bias and may lead to different conclusions in comparison with the statistically rigorous multiple imputation approach. Joint surgeons should consider the methods of handling missing values when interpreting arthroplasty research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of cancer burden and research spending reveals discrepancies in the distribution of research funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Ashley JR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally, the distribution of research funding for different types of cancer should be equitable with respect to the societal burden each type of cancer imposes. These burdens can be estimated in a variety of ways; “Years of Life Lost” (YLL measures the severity of death in regard to the age it occurs, "Disability-Adjusted Life-Years" (DALY estimates the effects of non-lethal disabilities incurred by disease and economic metrics focus on the losses to tax revenue, productivity or direct medical expenses. We compared research funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI to a variety of burden metrics for the most common types of cancer to identify mismatches between spending and societal burden. Methods Research funding levels were obtained from the NCI website and information for societal health and economic burdens were collected from government databases and published reports. We calculated the funding levels per unit burden for a wide range of different cancers and burden metrics and compared these values to identify discrepancies. Results Our analysis reveals a considerable mismatch between funding levels and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia while other cancers appear underfunded (bladder, esophageal, liver, oral, pancreatic, stomach, and uterine cancers. Conclusions These discrepancies indicate that an improved method of health care research funding allocation should be investigated to better match funding levels to societal burden.

  13. Conspiracy theories as part of history : The role of societal crisis situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, Jan Willem; Douglas, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    In the present contribution, we examine the link between societal crisis situations and belief in conspiracy theories. Contrary to common assumptions, belief in conspiracy theories has been prevalent throughout human history. We first illustrate historical incidents suggesting that societal crisis

  14. Incidence of Artifacts and Deviating Values in Research Data Obtained from an Anesthesia Information Management System in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Anne-Lee J; Pasma, Wietze; van Wolfswinkel, Leo; de Graaff, Jurgen C

    2018-02-01

    Vital parameter data collected in anesthesia information management systems are often used for clinical research. The validity of this type of research is dependent on the number of artifacts. In this prospective observational cohort study, the incidence of artifacts in anesthesia information management system data was investigated in children undergoing anesthesia for noncardiac procedures. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of artifacts among deviating and nondeviating values, among the anesthesia phases, and among different anesthetic techniques. We included 136 anesthetics representing 10,236 min of anesthesia time. The incidence of artifacts was 0.5% for heart rate (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7%), 1.3% for oxygen saturation (1.1 to 1.5%), 7.5% for end-tidal carbon dioxide (6.9 to 8.0%), 5.0% for noninvasive blood pressure (4.0 to 6.0%), and 7.3% for invasive blood pressure (5.9 to 8.8%). The incidence of artifacts among deviating values was 3.1% for heart rate (2.1 to 4.4%), 10.8% for oxygen saturation (7.6 to 14.8%), 14.1% for end-tidal carbon dioxide (13.0 to 15.2%), 14.4% for noninvasive blood pressure (10.3 to 19.4%), and 38.4% for invasive blood pressure (30.3 to 47.1%). Not all values in anesthesia information management systems are valid. The incidence of artifacts stored in the present pediatric anesthesia practice was low for heart rate and oxygen saturation, whereas noninvasive and invasive blood pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide had higher artifact incidences. Deviating values are more often artifacts than values in a normal range, and artifacts are associated with the phase of anesthesia and anesthetic technique. Development of (automatic) data validation systems or solutions to deal with artifacts in data is warranted.

  15. Medical records confidentiality and public health research: two values at stake? An italian survey focus on individual preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilia Toccaceli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a time when Europe is preparing to introduce new regulations on privacy protection, we conducted a survey among 1700 twins enrolled in the Italian Twin Register about the access and use of their medical records for public health research without explicit informed consent. A great majority of respondents would refuse or are doubtful about the access and use of hospital discharge records or clinical data without their explicit consent. Young and female individuals represent the modal profile of these careful people. As information retrieved from medical records is crucial for progressing knowledge, it is important to promote a better understanding of the value of public health research activities among the general population. Furthermore, public opinions are relevant to policy making, and concerns and preferences about privacy and confidentiality in research can contribute to the design of procedures to exploit medical records effectively and customize the protection of individuals’ medical data.

  16. Air Quality Management Using Modern Remote Sensing and Spatial Technologies and Associated Societal Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Uddin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of societal costs related to public health due to the degradation of air quality and the lack of physical activity, both affected by our built environment. The paper further shows road safety as another public health concern. Traffic fatalities are the number one cause of death in the world. Traffic accidents result in huge financial loss to the people involved and the related public health cost is a significant part of the total societal cost. Motor vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural sources emit nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, which are precursors to the formation of ground-level Ozone. High concentration values of ground-level Ozone in hot summer days produce smog and lead to respiratory problems and loss in worker’s productivity. These factors and associated economic costs to society are important in establishing public policy and decision-making for sustainable transportation and development of communities in both industrialized and developing countries. This paper presents new science models for predicting ground-level Ozone and related air quality degradation. The models include predictor variables of daily climatological data, traffic volume and mix, speed, aviation data, and emission inventory of point sources. These models have been implemented in the user friendly AQMAN computer program and used for a case study in Northern Mississippi. Lifecycle benefits from reduced societal costs can be used to implement sustainable transportation policies, enhance investment decision-making, and protect public health and the environment.

  17. Societal objectives as drivers in the search for criteria weights when ranking energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, José L.; Martins, António G.; Jorge, Humberto M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address a ranking problem from a tender mechanism established by the Portuguese energy regulator to promote energy efficiency measures in electricity consumption. Measures candidates to this tender are subjected to previously known assessment rules, and weighted criteria. Our proposal has explicitly taken avoided consumption and cost of saved kWh as decision variables for defining two societal objectives. In order to define ranges for the weights of the criteria and reference performance values, the search for the most suitable sets of weights is done by an evolutionary algorithm. Measures were used that applied for funding in previous tender calls. The results demonstrate that in face of different sets of measures, the range of weights for each criterion may vary significantly. The proposal, besides helping to obtain a more suitable set of criteria weights, can also assist in the very process of formulating the criteria, in view of the regulator’s societal objectives, since it was found that some of the used criteria actually lack the ability to discriminate between candidate measures. After a post-processing analysis, the DM is presented with a set of criteria weights from which he can select the one that better reflects his preferences. - Highlights: ► We address a Portuguese energy efficiency fostering tender mechanism. ► We used a genetic algorithm to search for sets of criteria weights. ► We used societal objectives to guide the selection of energy efficiency measures. ► Flexibility in the weights can help finding the best possible use of public money.

  18. Research on choices of methods of internet of things pricing based on variation of perceived value of service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With the rapid progress of Internet of Things technology, the information service of IoT has got unprecedented development, and plays an increasingly important role in real life. For the increasing demand of information service, the pricing of information service becomes more important. This paper aims to analyze the strategic options and payoff function between information provider and intermediaries based on Stackelberg game. Firstly, we describe information service delivery method based on the Internet of Things specific function. Secondly, we calculate the consumer demand for the information service. Finally, we explain two kinds of strategic options by the game theory, and then discuss the optimal pricing method of information services based on profit maximization.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this objective, Considering the consumer perceived value of Internet of Things Service changing, we establish a Stackelberg model in which the supplier is the leader followed by the middleman. Then, we compare the advantages of using individual pricing with that of bundling pricing.Findings: The results show that whether information providers adopt bundling pricing strategy or individual pricing strategy depends on the cost of perception equipment, if information providers want to adopt individual pricing strategy, the variation of consumers’ perception value of information services must meet certain conditions.Research limitations/implications: the providers make price for the information service, in addition to continuously improve the quality of information service, it also devotes resources to tapping and understanding market information, such as the sensor device price, the variation of perception value of information services and so on, so as to create competitive advantage. This paper is just a preliminary model, it does not take into account the effect of mixed bundling.Originality/value: In this research, a new model for

  19. A matter of accuracy. Nanobiochips in diagnostics and in research: ethical issues as value trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Ronan

    2015-04-01

    The paper deals with the introduction of nanotechnology in biochips. Based on interviews and theoretical reflections, it explores blind spots left by technology assessment and ethical investigations. These have focused on possible consequences of increased diffusability of a diagnostic device, neglecting both the context of research as well as increased accuracy, despite it being a more essential feature of nanobiochip projects. Also, rather than one of many parallel aspects (technical, legal and social) in innovation processes, ethics is considered here as a ubiquitous system of choices between sometimes antagonistic values. Thus, the paper investigates what is at stake when accuracy is balanced with other practical values in different contexts. Dramatic nanotechnological increase of accuracy in biochips can raise ethical issues, since it is at odds with other values such as diffusability and reliability. But those issues will not be as revolutionary as is often claimed: neither in diagnostics, because accuracy of measurements is not accuracy of diagnostics; nor in research, because a boost in measurement accuracy is not sufficient to overcome significance-chasing malpractices. The conclusion extends to methodological recommendations.

  20. Assessment of the Financial and Intellectual Value of a Research Library and its Application at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Melander

    2012-08-01

    Over the last several decades, libraries across the nation have undergone dramatic budget cuts, despite being an important resource for regional and national economic growth and innovation. Numerous studies have attempted to show that libraries increase the intellectual level of users and contribute to the economic growth of communities through surveys and customer service data. Within this study, we have attempted to develop a more analytical method for assessing library performance, using the Idaho National Laboratory Research Library as a sample subject. We have developed a mathematical model to measure the financial value of a library’s material resources as well as its intellectual value to determine if the library is a positive contributor to the wider organization and community it serves.