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Sample records for sociedade mineira colonial

  1. "Segundo a qualidade de suas pessoas e fazenda": estratégias educativas na sociedade mineira colonial "According to their personal qualities and possessions": educational strategies in the Minas Gerais colonial society

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    Thais Nivia de Lima e Fonseca

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa algumas estratégias educativas na Comarca do Rio das Velhas, Capitania de Minas Gerais, no século XVIII, envolvendo diferentes grupos e indivíduos, que buscavam, por meio da educação escolar e não escolar, construir seus espaços de atuação e adequação naquela sociedade.This article analyses some educational strategies in the Rio das Velhas Comarca, Minas Gerais Capitania, in the 18th century, involving different groups and individuals that were seeking, through school and non school education, to build their spaces for working and adapting in that society.

  2. Os grupos dominantes na sociedade colonial: uma análise dos conceitos elite e nobreza

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    Stumpf, Roberta Giannubilo

    2009-01-01

    Os estudos das sociedades coloniais procuram enfatizar sobretudo os aspectos que a singularizam face à sociedade reinol, utilizando, muitas vezes, categorias sociais que nem sempre são pertinentes à compreensão das clivagens sociais na América lusitana. Entendendo que as particularidades coloniais não obstaculizam a apropriação do modelo societário estamental como referência à organização e à hierarquização dos indivíduos no período colonial, este estudo propõe uma reflexão sobre a pertinênci...

  3. Perspectivas historiográficas : mujeres indias en la sociedad colonial hispanoamericana

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    María Teresa Díez Martín

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Un amplio repaso a las últimas corrientes historiográficas sobre las mujeres indígenas en el contexto de las sociedades coloniales hispanoamericanas permite identificar nuevas perspectivas en el estudio de los fenómenos de dominación e integración, así como de resistencia y transgresión en el ámbito de los virreinatos de Nueva España y Perú. En apéndice se ofrece una selecta bibliografía.A wide review of the last trends of the historiography about indian women in the context of the colonial societies of Spanish America permits to identify new perspectives in for the study of such matters as domination and integration, resistence and transgression, both in the viceroyalty of New Spain and Perú. The appendix offers a select bibliography on the subject.

  4. Sociedad

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    Manzano-Vargas, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Ensayo acerca de las dificultades en torno al pensar filosófico: desde dónde brotan el pensamiento y el discurso; parámetros de la definición del pensar filosófico; incidencia del pensamiento y del discurso filosófico en la sociedad; la conversión del pensamiento y el discurso; las modalidades del discurso filosófico. Se incluye la reproducción en blanco y negro de una obra del artista plástico Rubén Méndez.

  5. LESÕES BUCO-FACIAIS APRESENTADAS DURANTE AS "JORNADAS MINEIRAS DE ESMATOLOGIA" ENTRE 1995 A 2006

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    Franco,Bárbara Melo; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Reis,Claudiojanes; Barbosa, Daniella Reis; Junior, Hercílio Martelli

    2016-01-01

    A Sociedade Mineira de Estomatologia é uma entidade científica que congrega as áreas de estomatologia, patologia bucal e áreas afins, dos cursos de odontologia e demais Instituições de serviço que de alguma forma atuam nas áreas citadas, no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Essa sociedade científica foi criada em 7994, e desde então realizou initerruptamente, uma vez ao ano, a Jornada Mineira de Estomatologia que se caracteriza pela apresentação de expressiva e significante amostragem de casos ...

  6. Muerte en los Andes: sociedad colonial y mortalidad en las haciendas andinas (Ecuador, 1743-1857

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    María José Vilalta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La vida cotidiana en las haciendas coloniales implicó la introducción de una forma de administración de poblaciones impuesta sobre la sociedad indígena y regulada por las Leyes de Indias. En la zona norte de los Andes, el concertaje de indios y la abundancia de trabajos en la agricultura y en los obrajes fueron factores de atracción que generaron la tendencia a un crecimiento poblacional de larga duración. Más allá del debate inconcluso sobre la catástrofe demográfica en las Indias, este estudio investiga los perfiles y la incidencia de la mortalidad ordinaria y catastrófica como factor de regulación del crecimiento de la población en una parroquia de hacienda en la etapa final de los tiempos coloniales. La investigación se fundamenta en el vaciado nominal completo de libros de entierros incluidos en series de registros parroquiales. Los datos de la mortalidad analizados se extienden desde pocos años después de la fundación de la parroquia hasta 1857, momento de la supresión del tributo indígena, que se considera como año final de observación a pesar de la continuidad del registro. Las evidencias muestran una realidad marcada por una mortalidad de ciclo demográfico antiguo, dominada por el peso de las condiciones de vida adversas y el trabajo en la hacienda. Además, los datos permiten adentrarse en el universo de las rígidas clasificaciones sociales del mundo colonial.

  7. Desigualdad y racismo. Demografía y sociedad en Cuba a fines de la época colonial

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    Tornero, Pablo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the demographic structure and nature of Cuban society in the late 19th-century on the basis of the census of 1899. He argues that the strongly marked social differentiation in Cuba at the time, the duality in its social order of whites v. blacks, was grounded in the prevailing economic structure of the island and ultimately in the plantation economy. This situation conditioned the integration of the black population in Cuba's civil society in the first years of the new republic.

    Estudio de la estructura demográfica y caracterización de la sociedad cubana de finales del siglo XIX, a partir del censo de 1899. En él se trata de demostrar que la fuerte desigualdad social de la sociedad cubana de fines de la época colonial, la dualidad de su entramado social, blancos y negros, es consecuencia de la estructura económica de la isla que tenía su base en la plantación. Este proceso condicionó la integración de la población de color en la sociedad civil cubana, en los primeros años de la república.

  8. Sociedad civil, política y dominio colonial en Cuba (1878-1895

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    José A. PIQUERAS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo se interesa por la evolución de la sociedad cubana en el período de entreguerras comprendido entre 1878 y 1895 y por el marco político en que pudieron expresarse la diversidad de formas e intereses sociales. Se destaca el desarrollo superior de la sociedad civil en relación a un sistema político que debía asegurar el dominio español. La instauración de ese sistema político, sin embargo, legalizó las expresiones políticas y las situó en un terreno público contribuyendo a poner de relieve las insuficiencias y el carácter opresivo de la dependencia, fomentando con ello la conciencia de discriminación que estuvo en la base de la nación emergente en vísperas de la insurrección de 1895. Palabras Clave: Cuba, política, sociedad civil, nacionalismo, insurrección. ABSTRACT: This article deals with the evolution of Cuban society in the period between wars (1878-1895 and with the political framework in which a variety of social forms and interests were expressed. It focuses on the higher development of civil society in comparison with a political system which had to ensure Spanish control. The establishment of that political system, however, legalized political expression and placed it in the public arena, thus helping to underline the inadequacy and oppressive character of dependence, and to foster the awareness of discrimination which was in the foundations of the emerging nation on the eve of the 1895 insurrection. Key words: Cuba, Politics, Civil Society, Nationalism, Insurrection.

  9. Clima y sociedad en Argentina y Chile durante el periodo colonial

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    Margarita Gascón

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las principales fluctuaciones climáticas globales en algunos territorios, que actualmente pertenecen a las repúblicas de Argentina y de Chile, durante el periodo colonial. Las colonias involucradas son Santiago, en Chile; y Mendoza, Córdoba y Buenos Aires, en Argentina. El periodo colonial inicia con la Pequeña Edad Glacial y sus condiciones de mayor frío y humedad; a mediados del siglo XVII fue notorio el Mínimo de Maunder; y, finalmente, en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, se registró el Remonte Termal, caracterizado por el calor y la sequía. Prestamos atención a El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS en sus diferentes efectos locales. El objetivo principal es enriquecer las interpretaciones del pasado desde finales del siglo XVI hasta principios del siglo XIX, al aportar elementos referidos a la historia del clima. El eje del análisis es que el clima afecta los ambientes y los recursos naturales disponibles, la vida urbana y las rutas, de modo que no puede estar ausente de las diversas explicaciones del pasado colonial.

  10. LA PUREZA Y LA CARNE: EL CUERPO DE LAS MUJERES EN EL IMAGINARIO POLÍTICO DE LA SOCIEDAD COLONIAL

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    ALEJANDRA ARAYA ESPINOZA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La autora incorpora la categoría cuerpo en un ejercicio de profunda reflexión para revisar las características de la dominación occidental, fijando su mirada específicamente en el caso de las mujeres coloniales. El concepto de castidad que surge de esta categoría de análisis —como señala la autora— permite conectar el dilema político de la sociedad colonial con el de las mujeres en él. El principio de la pureza permite elaborar normas que deben proteger al grupo minoritario que intenta legitimar su superioridad ante otros, normas que se endurecen respecto de quienes deben ser el resguardo de esos límites, porque son carnales en esencia: las mujeres.

  11. O CASAMENTO NA SOCIEDADE COLONIAL LUSO-BRASILEIRA: UMA ANÁLISE HISTÓRICO-TEOLÓGICA

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    Riolando Azzi

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O matrimônio constitui um tema ao qual a Igreja dedicou sempre muita atenção. A finalidade deste estudo ó detectar os principais enfoques teológicos utilizados na sociedade colonial luso-brasileira na abordagem desse assunto. É necessário ter presente que esta questão foi vista sob dois prismas diversos: um erudito e outro, popular. A teologia erudita procurou dar enfatizar as referências bíblicas; a religião popular ressaltou a importância da proteção divina através da intercessão dos santos.

  12. Sobre prejuicios, dependencias e integración. El liberto en la sociedad colonial de Santiago de Cuba, 1780-1803

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    José Luis Belmonte Postigo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La figura del liberto ha sido una de los grandes desconocidas en las sociedades afroamericanas caribeñas del periodo colonial dado el vacío historiográfico existente. Buena parte del rol jugado por este sector poblacional estaba determinado por la forma en que obtenía la libertad. En Santiago de Cuba, la mayor parte de estas manumisiones fueron compradas por los propios esclavos, por lo que el grado de dependencia respecto a su antiguo propietario debía ser menor que en aquellas regiones donde la actitud graciosa del propietario dictaba la libertad del esclavo. El liberto, a la hora de integrarse en la sociedad de libres, encontraba una serie de dificultades, que no le impidieron implementar relaciones de dominación sobre la población esclava. Este trabajo pretende realizar una redefinición de las clases propietarias de esclavos por encima de cuestiones raciales

  13. Modelo de desenvolvimento local na Amazônia Pré-Colonial: complexidade cultural e modernidade em sociedades pré-coloniais da Amazônia

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    Edinaldo Pinheiro Nunes Filho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este artigo retrata a cultura material das sociedades complexas pré-coloniais que existiram nos estados do Pará e Amapá e destaca a importância do trabalho interdisciplinar como meio para que as evidências arqueológicas colaborem a se repensar a relação entre as populações humanas e o meio ambiente na Amazônia pré-colonial.  Assim, o artigo trabalha a complexidade cultural como conseqüência de desenvolvimento sustentável.

  14. Fundar, gobernar y rezar: Una aproximación a los vínculos entre sociedad, política y religión en el Jujuy colonial (1656-1776 Fundar, governar e rezar: Uma aproximacão aos vinculos entre a sociedade, politica e religião da Jujuy colonial (1656-1776 To Fund, to Govern and to Pray: An Aproximation to the Links Between Society, Politics and Religion in Colonial Jujuy (1656-1776

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    Dolores Estruch

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone analizar las relaciones entre religión, política y sociedad colonial, explorando la naturaleza de estos vínculos a partir de las prácticas concretas de los miembros de la cofradía del Santísimo Sacramento en el Jujuy colonial. Nos interesa, en particular, hacer foco en el proceso de construcción y legitimación del poder desde una perspectiva que contemple el entrelazamiento entre las dimensiones sociopolíticas y religiosas, propio de estas sociedades.O presente trabalho se propõe analisar as relações entre religião, política y sociedade colonial, explorando (pesquisando a natureza destas ligações (vinculações a partir das praticas concretas dos integrantes da cofraria do Santíssimo Sacramento no Jujuy colonial. Nós estamos interessados, em especial, fazer foco no processo de construção e legitimação do poder desde uma perspectiva que contemple este entrelaçamento entre as dimensões sociopolíticas e religiosas.This article analyzes the links between religion, politics and colonial society, and explores the nature of these relations in the concrete practices of the members of the Santísimo Sacramento brotherhood of colonial Jujuy. We focus on the process of construction and legitimation of power, from a perspective that takes into account the interconnections between the sociopolitical and religious dimensions.

  15. Religión, etnia y sociedad: cofradías de negros en el Panamá colonial

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    Mena García, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analiza una de las manifestaciones religiosas de mayor arraigo en la América colonial de habla española: el de las cofradías, si bien nos centramos en un grupo étnico, el de los negros, y en una región que desde fechas muy tempranas da cabida a una abundante población de color, como es la región centroamericana de Panamá. Las cofradías de negros, a las que, por desgracia, no se ha prestado demasiada atención hasta la fecha, constituyen un interesantísimo fenómeno rel...

  16. Religión, etnia y sociedad: cofradías de negros en el Panamá colonial

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    Mena García, Carmen

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza una de las manifestaciones religiosas de mayor arraigo en la América colonial de habla española: el de las cofradías, si bien nos centramos en un grupo étnico, el de los negros, y en una región que desde fechas muy tempranas da cabida a una abundante población de color, como es la región centroamericana de Panamá. Las cofradías de negros, a las que, por desgracia, no se ha prestado demasiada atención hasta la fecha, constituyen un interesantísimo fenómeno religioso y social, digno de ser estudiado. Como órganos de culto y a la vez instrumentos de sociabilidad étnica, muchas de ellas admitían también entre sus filas a hermanos esclavos, lo que sirvió para mantener los vínculos entre los que ya eran libres y los que todavía seguían sometidos a la esclavitud, entre los que estaban comprometidos con el sistema y los que aún tenían sobradas razones para luchar contra él. Por otro lado, las fiestas patronales fueron la excusa perfecta para expresar por medio de la danza, la música y otras manifestaciones folklóricas, combinadas con elementos rituales cristianos, la alegría, la vitalidad y el sentimiento propio de una raza y de una cultura, a menudo constreñidas en la vida diaria por los severos requerimientos de la esclavitud, produciendo interesantes fenómenos de sincretismo religioso.

  17. Sociedad digital, sociedad dual

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    Gustavo Cimadevilla

    2009-01-01

    Lejos de las luchas obreras y campesinas contra el maquinismo, más cerca de las preocupaciones y debates interminables de los años ochenta del siglo xx, centrados en la revolución microelectrónica y la telemática; pero dentro de una sociedad que procura seducirse y seducirnos por el crecimiento de las tecnologías digitales y los dispositivos inteligentes, es oportuno repasar las caras y contracaras de lo que puede denominarse dualismo digital, un estado de realidad altamente cargado de noveda...

  18. Sociedad digital, sociedad dual

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    Gustavo Cimadevilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lejos de las luchas obreras y campesinas contra el maquinismo, más cerca de las preocupaciones y debates interminables de los años ochenta del siglo xx, centrados en la revolución microelectrónica y la telemática; pero dentro de una sociedad que procura seducirse y seducirnos por el crecimiento de las tecnologías digitales y los dispositivos inteligentes, es oportuno repasar las caras y contracaras de lo que puede denominarse dualismo digital, un estado de realidad altamente cargado de novedades, estadísticas y tendencias que auguran cierto optimismo tecnológico. El trabajo plantea interrogantes y explora líneas de discusión que procuran apartarse de la tecnofobia y la tecnofilia, que han caracterizado a muchos de los debates del campo.

  19. Vida material, religiosidad y sociedad colonial. Espacios, objetos y prácticas de consumo en el colegio jesuita de la ciudad de Antioquia. 1726-1767.

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    Edgardo Pérez Morales.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the history of material life in the Jesuit College of the City of Antioquia, New Kingdom of Granada, during the eighteenth century. By linking urban and rural consumption practices on Jesuit estates with the patterns of everyday life and social hierarchies, this article argues that objects and spaces were consumed and used according to the Catholic religiosity and the political and spiritual hierarchy that characterized the colonial social order. This framework gave meaning to material life, but the limits it imposed on consumption practices could be transgressed in certain circumstances.

  20. Paternalismo, iluminismo y libertad. La vigencia de la Instrucción esclavista de 1789 y su impacto en la sociedad colonial

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    María Eugenia Chaves Maldonado

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1789 the colonial government of Spain emitted a Royal Decree which regulated the handling of slaves in America. This document recognized the humanity of the slaves and required their masters to fulfill a number of duties to assure the protection and conservation of their lives. This reformative rule became the target of harsh criticism on the part of American slavers that finally forced the Spanish Crown to temporally suspend its application. Despite that, the decree was distributed and made known in all the American territories. Its strength as a legal tool was fundamental to the slave freedom movement up until the 19th Century. In this article it is argued, that the effectiveness of the rule in legal practice responded to the long tradition of identity construction of slaves in the West. From the Roman Codes of Common Law, through the Medieval Castilian Codes to the Indian Legal Rules, this discourse opened the way for slaves to affirm their humanity and independence. The master, on the other hand, defined himself in a close relationship to his paternalistic duties towards slaves. Those duties were to condition his control. This historic thickness is present in the reformist rules and allowed its postulates to adapt quickly to the changing circumstances of slavery at the end of the 18th Century.

  1. Sociedades indígenas y encomienda en el Tucumán Colonial. Un análisis comparado de la visita de Luján de Vargas

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    Farberman, Judith

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a panoramic as well as comparative overview of the consequences of the colonial policy on the indigenous societies of the Charca region, through the study of the general visit undertaken by the Charcas Oidor Martínez Luján de Vargas to the encomiendas of Tucuman, between 1693 and 1694. The analysis is focused on such variables as land property, work and tax systems, and the native response to the particularities adopted by the encomienda system in each jurisdiction. Finally, it examines the miscegenation and cultural change contexts that had become visible towards the end of 17th Century

    A través de la visita general que el oidor de Charcas Martínez Luján de Vargas realizará a las encomiendas de la gobernación del Tucumán entre 1693 y 1694, este artículo intenta ofrecer una mirada a la vez panorámica y comparativa de los efectos de la política colonial sobre las sociedades indígenas de la región. Las variables de análisis elegidas para apreciar los diferentes procesos de transformación son la tenencia de la tierra, el sistema de trabajo y tributación y las respuestas nativas frente a las particularidades que el sistema de encomienda adoptó en cada jurisdicción. Finalmente, se exploran los contextos de mestizaje y cambio cultural visibles hacia finales del siglo XVII.

  2. Evaluation of Health Surveillance in the Zona da Mata Mineira: from standards to practice.

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    Donateli, Cíntia Pereira; Avelar, Patrícia Silva; Einloft, Ariadne Barbosa do Nascimento; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Costa, Glauce Dias da

    2017-10-01

    Health Surveillance is of paramount importance when confronted with the current Brazilian epidemiological setting. This study aims to evaluate the level of Health Surveillance in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. This is an evaluative study, and data were collected in the first half of 2016. The research universe consisted of seven municipalities in the Zona da Mata Mineira complex. Municipalities were selected with reference to available operational epidemiological, environmental and sanitary surveillance. The subjects under analysis were the Surveillance coordinators (n = 21), Health Surveillance coordinators (n = 7) and Health secretaries (n = 7). We conducted interviews using a semi-structured and elaborated questionnaire based on the Donabedian triad: Structure, Process and Outcome. A score system was established in order to obtain the classification of performance, realm and sub-realms, in which a score was assigned for each criterion. We used incipient, intermediate or advanced cutoff points to classify the level of Health Surveillance of scores were below 5.99 points, between 6.0 and 7.99 points and between 8 and 10 points, respectively. The level of regional Health Surveillance performance level was classified as an intermediate.

  3. Esmagando a Hydra da discórdia: o enquadramento do pensamento exaltado pela moderação mineira Crushing the Hydra of the discord: the framing of the thought exalted by the mining moderation

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    Wlamir Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Na construção da identidade moderada mineira, fundamental para a confecção de sua hegemonia, foi inestimável a sua delimitação pelos elementos que lhes eram potencialmente perigosos ou que se lhes opunham. Dentre estes destacamos aqui o liberalismo exaltado. O liberalismo exaltado mineiro foi, essencialmente, uma ausência. Para isso, porém, concorreu a pedagogia liberal-moderada, caracterizando-o como violento e irracional, apaixonado, vingativo e ambicioso, em oposição à razão moderada, e veículo de uma revolução sangrenta, envolvendo gente de cor e incautos e ignorantes. Desta forma, interpretando e influenciando a sociedade de abastecimento mineira, os liberais moderados lograram isolar o "vírus exaltado", impondo a sua lógica e exercendo a sua hegemonia.In the construction of the mining moderate identity, basic for its hegemony composition, its delimitation by the elements that were potentially dangerous to it or that were opposed to it was inestimable. Among them we point out the exalted liberalism, which was essentially an absence. This, however, counted on the liberal-moderate pedagogy contribution, which has classified it as violent and irrational, passionate, revengeful and ambitious, in opposition to the moderate reason, and vehicle of a bloody revolution, involving color people, incautious ones and ignorants. Thus, interpreting and influencing the productive mining society, the moderate-liberal ones could isolate the "exalted virus", imposing its logic and exercising its hegemony.

  4. Convenção Batista Mineira: estudo de uma trajetória centenária

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    Jair Souza Leal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo da dissertação de mestradoLEAL, Jair Souza.  Convenção Batista Mineira: estudo de uma trajetória centenária. 2016. Dissertação (Mestrado, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.

  5. Derecho y Sociedad

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    ASOCIACION CIVIL DERECHO Y SOCIEDAD FACULTAD DE DERECHO

    2010-01-01

    Reseña de actividades desarrolladas por la Asociación Civil Derecho y Sociedad, a lo largo de su permanencia-dentro de la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú vinculadas a la sociedad en general, algunas ligadas al campo jurídico, mientras que otras tuvieron un sentido altruista.

  6. Derecho y Sociedad

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    ASOCIACION CIVIL DERECHO Y SOCIEDAD FACULTAD DE DERECHO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de actividades desarrolladas por la Asociación Civil Derecho y Sociedad, a lo largo de su permanencia-dentro de la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú vinculadas a la sociedad en general, algunas ligadas al campo jurídico, mientras que otras tuvieron un sentido altruista.

  7. Barões numa perspectiva reticular: análise de redes sociais, poder e nobreza na Zona da Mata Mineira no segundo Reinado

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    Patrícia Falco Genovez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio aborda a imbricada rede familiar que gravitava ao redor dos barões de Juiz de Fora, Santa Helena e S. J. Nepomuceno, principais acionistas do Conselho Diretor da Estrada de Ferro União Mineira (EFUM. A pesquisa utilizou os pressupostos da Análise de Redes Sociais (ARS, da Genealogia e da Prosopografia. Essa opção resultou numa metodologia que permite levantar, visualizar (sociograma e avaliar os nexos relacionais de um grupo amplo, envolvendo famílias tradicionais da Zona da Mata Mineira.

  8. Notas acerca de los dispositivos de poder en la sociedad colonial-fronteriza, la resistencia y la transculturación de los reche-mapuches del Centro-Sur de Chile (XVI-XVIII

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    Boccara, Guillaume

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The mapuche or Araucanians of South-Center Chile are famous for their ferocious and plurisecular resistance to the Spanish invader. This traditional image of the indomitable, brave and warrior Indian and the vision of the Colony as a permanent period of war have been criticated by the Estudios Fronterizos. This historical movement who emerged in Chile at the beginning of the 1980's proposed a new interpretation of the «encounter» between Spanish and southern indigenous people in order to take into account the pacifical contacts and the frontier relationships. Nevertheless, we will demonstrate that in their will to escape from the warfare paradigm, the Estudios Fronterizos have made another mistake which consists to speak about peace when it seems more appropriate to see transformations into the power devices. What is more, we will understand that their ethnocentrical point of view impeded them to see one of the most important concequence of the conquest: the emergence of a new ethnical group and the construction of a new mapuche identity through a long process of ethnogenesis which changed the reche of the 16th century into the mapuche of the 18th century.

    Los mapuche o araucanos del centro-sur de Chile son célebres por la plurisecular resistencia que opusieron al invasor español en su voluntad de dominar la frontera sur del Tahuantinsuyu. Esta imagen tradicional del indio indómito, valiente y guerrero y de la Colonia como período de guerra permanente ha sido objeto de crítica por parte de los Estudios Fronterizos. Esta corriente historiográfica propuso una nueva visión del «encuentro» hispano-indígena que tomara en cuenta las relaciones fronterizas. Se muestra, sin embargo, que en su afán de escapar al paradigma de la guerra permanente, esta corriente ha caído en otro escollo que consiste en hablar de paz cuando parece más ajustado hablar de cambios en los dispositivos de poder, y asimismo ha dejado

  9. \\'A mineira ruidosa\\' - Cultura popular e brasilidade na obra de Alexina de Magalhães Pinto (1870-1921)

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Guia Carnevali

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo dessa investigação foi analisar de que maneira a cultura popular coletada sob a forma de cantos, contos, provérbios e brincadeiras infantis foi tratada pela folclorista e professora mineira Alexina de Magalhães Pinto (1870-1921), considerada pioneira na aplicação das diversas formas da cultura oral à pedagogia. A intenção ao estudar a folclorista Alexina e suas obras na área do folclore foi verificar de que maneira ela colocava-se como intermediária em relação às práticas populares...

  10. La sociedad participativa

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Díaz Bordenave

    2015-01-01

    El autor presenta dos artículos que se complementan: El primero analiza los factores que hacen a una nueva sociedad participativa. Presenta a la situación actual como la expansión del consumo, la violencia política y social, la deuda externa, la aceleración del deterioro del medio ambiente rural y urbano. Planea el que la comunicación y la participación deben considerarse como partes orgánicas de un proceso: la histórica construcción colectiva de una sociedad participativa centrada en tres he...

  11. TIEMPO Y RITUAL. UNA APROXIMACIÓN AL ANÁLISIS DE LAS REPRESENTACIONES DEL ORDEN EN LA SOCIEDAD COLONIAL(GOBERNACIÓN DEL TUCUMÁN, SIGLOS XVII Y XVIII / Time and ritual. An approach to the analysis of the order representation in colonial Tucumán´s society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Smietniansky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de carácter exploratorio constituye una primera aproximación al análisis de las experiencias y los sentidos del tiempo implicados en las representaciones del orden social, según lo han vivido y significado los vecinos y los funcionarios de gobierno en Indias durante el período colonial. Nos proponemos desarrollar un estudio comparativo de las  instituciones del cabildo y los juicios de residencia, basado en el examen de un conjunto de documentos  de gobierno y justicia relativos a la gobernación del Tucumán durante los siglos XVII y XVIII y organizado a partir de dos interrogantes centrales. Por un lado, interesa abordar cómo se configuraban  y articulaban dos experiencias del tiempo diversas -un tiempo local y cotidiano y, otro tiempo que denominamos regio y ritual-; y por otro lado, exploramos de qué manera el carácter tradicional y formalizado de las prácticas que los cabildantes y los participantes del juicio de residencia desarrollaban en los contextos institucionales, contribuía a construir una representación del orden social figurado de gran estabilidad y anclado en un tiempo de larga duración.Palabras clave: tiempo; ritual; cabildos; juicio de residencia; Tucumán colonialAbstractThis exploratory work constitutes an approach to the analysis of time experiences y meanings that were implies in social order representation according to the lives and perspectives of  the vecinos and government functionaries in Indias during the colonial period. We intend to develop a comparative study of the cabildo and juicio de residencia institutions, based on the exam of a set of government and justice documents relative to the Tucumán province during XVII and XVIII centuries, and organized upon to tow central questions. On one side, we are interested on how two different time experience –a local and ordinary time, and another time that we called regal and ritual- were configured and articulated; and on the other side, we

  12. A materialidade da escola mineira no século XIX (1825-1850

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    Marcilaine Soares Inácio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Esse artigo analisa o processo de configuração da instrução pública em Minas Gerais entre 1825 e 1852 focalizando o arranjo material da escola como estratégia de organização do ensino elementar. O objetivo é mostrar, como a partir das experiências com o método de ensino mútuo produziu-se uma materialidade para a escola elementar. Para isso identificamos e caracterizamos os utensílios e o mobiliário escolar, buscando demonstrar como a introdução de uma série de novidades materiais modificou o ensino. Para o período estudado recorremos aos relatórios dos presidentes da província mineira, a um conjunto de correspondências enviadas a eles por professores e delegados de círculos literários, à matéria Educação Elementar do jornal O Universal, a um compêndio e a uma lista de castigos do ensino mútuo. Palavras-chave: instrução pública em Minas Gerais; história da educação.   Abstract This article aims at analyzing the formation of public teaching in Minas Gerais from 1825 to 1855 focussing at the school material as organizational strategy for elementary education. Our goal is to show how from the experiences involving the mutual teaching method materials for the elementary school we created. We, therefore, employed identified and characterized the both the furniture and school utensils trying to show how the introduction of such tools changed teaching. We employed records used by the province presidents, letters sent to them both by teachers and deputies of literary circles, news from O universo (newspaper, a manual and a list of punishments of mutual teaching. Keywords: public teaching in Minas Gerais; history of education.

  13. Hacia una sociedad hipertextual

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    Mireya Barón Pulido

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo de revisión analiza y relaciona los resultados de varias investigaciones que toman como objeto de estudio los elementos que incursionan en el contexto de la comunicación desde la red: hiperdocumento, macronavegación y micronavegación. Dimensiones y procesos que afectan y transforman los mismos niveles de interacción al interior de las sociedades; hoy día reco- nocidas como sociedades digitales. El lector encontrará referencia a algunos estudios locales e internacionales haciendo referencia a corpus multimediáticos del periodismo y de la publicidad que permiten evidenciar dichos elementos y que sugieren la transformación y, en algunos casos, la construcción de nuevos patrones de interacción social entre lectores y perceptores.

  14. Patriarcado, sociedade e patrimonialismo

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    Neuma Aguiar

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto pesquisamos o significado do conceito de patriarcado no Pensamento Social Brasileiro. Observamos como o sistema de dominação é concebido de forma ampla e que incorpora as dimensões da sexualidade, da reprodução e da relação entre homens e mulheres no contexto de um sistema escravista. Nas sociedades onde o público se destaca do privado, sustentamos que as relações de gênero continuam patriarcais; no âmbito das sociedades patrimoniais, a intimidade entre público e privado também não resultou em uma maior participação política ou econômica das mulheres nessa esfera pela própria origem patriarcal do estamento burocrático no contexto de um patrimonialismo patriarcal.

  15. Tecnociencia y sociedad 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Menéndez, Millán

    2006-01-01

    Se trata de un estudio sociológico, basado en el análisis secundario de documentos, investigaciones cualitativas y encuestas sobre el grado de contacto de los ciudadanos con la ciencia y la tecnología y el grado de conocimiento y percepción que tienen de estas temáticas, en el ámbito de la sociedad española.

  16. La sociedad participativa

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    Juan Díaz Bordenave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor presenta dos artículos que se complementan: El primero analiza los factores que hacen a una nueva sociedad participativa. Presenta a la situación actual como la expansión del consumo, la violencia política y social, la deuda externa, la aceleración del deterioro del medio ambiente rural y urbano. Planea el que la comunicación y la participación deben considerarse como partes orgánicas de un proceso: la histórica construcción colectiva de una sociedad participativa centrada en tres herramientas: la organización de la economía autogestionaria, el papel de la educación y las funciones de la comunicación.El segundo artículo intenta definir el perfil de un comunicador social al servicio de la sociedad, parte fundamental para lograr un mundo más justo.

  17. Leguminosas herbáceas perenes para utilização como coberturas permanentes de solo na Caatinga Mineira Perennial herbaceous legumes used as permanent cover cropping in the Caatinga Mineira

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    Ricardo Borges Teodoro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o comportamento e as potencialidades de leguminosas herbáceas perenes para o uso como cobertura permanente em solos da região da Caatinga Mineira, Médio Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, visando a introdução dessas plantas de cobertura em áreas agrícolas. O experimento foi conduzido de dezembro de 2008 a julho de 2009. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelas leguminosas: cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, calopogônio (Calopogonium mucunoides, amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, soja perene (Glycine wightii, estilosantes (Stylosanthes capitata, Stylosanthes macrocephala e pela testemunha (sem a presença de leguminosa. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: emergência das plântulas; taxa de cobertura do solo; promoção da retenção de umidade e temperatura do solo; capacidade de inibição da vegetação espontânea; potencial de deposição de folhas e de aporte de macronutrientes pela senescência de folhas; produção total de fitomassa seca e acúmulo de macronutrientes na parte aérea. A cobertura plena do solo foi alcançada pelo calopogônio, amendoim forrageiro e cudzu tropical. O calopogônio conferiu maior capacidade de retenção da umidade e inibição das plantas espontâneas. Em todos os tratamentos com leguminosas a temperatura do solo foi inferior à testemunha, a partir dos 120 dias de ciclo. Na região da Caatinga Mineira, as leguminosas perenes calopogônio e cudzu tropical, podem contribuir significativamente para o incremento de nitrogênio, aporte de outros macronutrientes (K, P, Ca e Mg e incremento da matéria orgânica do solo.The study objective was to evaluate the performance and potential of perennial herbaceous legumes for use as permanent soil cover in the Caatinga Mineira region MG, Brazil, for the introduction of these cover crops in agricultural areas. The experimental

  18. Ciencia y sociedad civil

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    Ziman, John

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between scientific knowledge and the societies in which it is produced. After considering the diverse societal roles science has performed in different types of society, the discussion focuses on science’s role in democratic and pluralistic societies. Opposite to the increasing instrumental role knowledge production plays nowadays, for which it has been named «post-academic science» or «technoscience», non instrumental roles of traditional academic research are defended. It is argued that only if academic science keeps its autonomy and integrity from political and corporate interests, it may serve civil society by offering impartial and trustworthy knowledge to balance biases produced by the features of post-academic science.

    En este artículo se analizan las relaciones del conocimiento científico con las sociedades en las que se produce. Tras repasar sus diversas funciones en tipos distintos de sociedades, la discusión se centra en los fines de la ciencia en las sociedades democráticas pluralistas. Frente al cada vez mayor rol instrumental de la ciencia, por el que ha recibido los nombres de «ciencia postacadémica» o «tecnociencia», se defienden los roles no instrumentales tradicionales de la investigación académica clásica. Se argumenta que sólo si la ciencia académica mantiene su autonomía y su integridad frente a intereses políticos o empresariales podrá ser de utilidad al público al ofrecerle conocimiento imparcial y fidedigno frente a los sesgos producidos por la naturaleza propia de la ciencia postacadémica.

  19. de la sociedad actual

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    René Alejandro Jiménez Ornelas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La violencia no es producida aleatoriamente, sino que parte de una cultura de conflictos familiares, sociales, económicos y políticos, y en general, del sistema globalizado que a su vez permea las diferentes formas de vida en la sociedad, donde los estilos de vida de los jóvenes son catalogados como formas de delincuencia. El objetivo de esos estilos de vida, sin embargo, sólo consiste en distanciarse culturalmente de una sociedad que los jóvenes no han fabricado. Víctimas de la discriminación social y excluidos de las decisiones importantes, muchos jóvenes carecen de planes o proyectos de vida, y son considerados incapaces de adaptarse al medio social, por lo cual toman la delincuencia como alternativa de sobrevivencia. El fácil acceso a las drogas, la falta de oportunidades de empleo, salud, educación y espacios para la cultura y el deporte, la desintegración familiar, la impunidad, entre otros factores, componen el contexto en el que nace y crece la juventud mexicana del siglo XXI.

  20. de la sociedad argentina

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    Diego Galeano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre un período de la historia argentina en el cual la "mirada médica", a través de un grupo de prestigiosos intelectuales, se convirtió en una clave de interpretación de la sociedad argentina. El análisis gira en torno a la obra de uno de los médicos higienistas más influyentes, José María Ramos Mejía, deteniéndose especialmente en su libro más famoso: Las multitudes argentinas (1899. La hipótesis principal que recorre el texto es la siguiente: la medicalización de la sociedad, acentuada luego de las epidemias de cólera y fiebre amarilla de mediados del siglo XIX, ofreció a las elites públicas la posibilidad de construir dominios legítimos de intervención estatal. Intromisiones del Estado en la vida privada que, además de ser algo resistidas por la población, entraban en tensión con los principios teóricos del liberalismo que los propios miembros de la elite defendían.

  1. ASPECTOS DE LA VIDA Y SOCIEDAD NOVOHISPANA DEL SIGLO XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Quirós Vicente

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se habla acerca de diversos aspectos de la vida y sociedad en la Nueva España. Se tratan concretamente dos temas que sirven de reflejo de esta la sociedad colonial de principios del siglo XVIII; en primer lugar el de la relación las colonias españolas de ultramar con la corona española, en la época de la Guerra de la Sucesión, y en segundo el de la esclavitud que se desarrolla en este mismo periodo, con el negocio conocido como Paso Medio, con africanos mayormente provenient...

  2. Las sociedades indígenas del territorio santiagueño: apuntes iniciales desde la arqueología y la historia. Período prehispánico tardío y colonial temprano As sociedades indígenas do território de Santiago: notas iniciais desde a arqueologia e a história. Período pré-hispânico tardio e colonial temprano Indigenous Societies in Santiago del Estero: Preliminary Notes from Archeology and History. Late Prehispanic and Early Colonial Periods

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    Judith Farberman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una lectura de las crónicas coloniales del siglo XVI sobre Santiago del Estero a partir de preguntas y resultados de la investigación arqueológica. En particular, se ocupa de los llamados "diaguita", "tonocoté", "lule" y "jurí" confrontando información de diverso origen y deteniéndose en las incongruencias que emergen de tal confrontación, entre ellas, las débiles huellas arqueológicas de "lo diaguita" en Santiago del Estero.Este artigo propõe uma interpretação das crônicas coloniais do século XVI sobre Santiago del Estero, a partir das perguntas e dos resultados da investigação arqueológica. Em particular, trata dos grupos chamados "diaguita", "tonocoté", "lule" e "jurí", confrontando informações sobre suas origens diversas, concentrando-se nas incongruências que emergem de tal confrontação, entre as quais os leves traços arqueológicos do "diaguita" em Santiago del Estero.This article aims to provide an interpretation of 16th Century colonial chronicles of Santiago del Estero Province based on the queries and results of archaeological research. It refers specifically to the so-called "Diaguita", "Tonocoté", "Lule" and "Jurí" groups, focusing on the inconsistencies emerging from the confrontation between diverse textual sources and material evidence such as the weak archeological traces from the "Diaguita culture" in Santiago del Estero.

  3. Acompanhamento e controle financeiro informatizado das Operações de Vendas em Empresa Mineira de material de Construção de Pequeno Porte

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Ramos Silva; Graciela Dias Coelho Jones

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the process of monitoring and computerized financial control of sales operations at a commercial building material. Additionally, it is proposed to adopt the budget planning sales management tool. To this end, we developed a case study on a construction material company small mineira. The study discusses the advantages of the process of monitoring and computerized financial control of sales operations, through the presentation of screens Information S...

  4. A sociedade europeia

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    A preocupação nas sociedades democráticas com a educação cívica e educação para a cidadania insere-se no contexto dos direitos humanos, da responsabilidade e participação nas actividades comunitárias, da tolerância pela diversidade no pluralismo cultural, do reconhecimento da identidade e dos valores humanos. As interpretações da cidadania democrática integram-se num contínuo de concepções que se reflectem na própria democracia. O autor analisa e reflecte sobre quatro pontos essenciais para a...

  5. Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada

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    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

  6. Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada

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    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, aspectos como la responsabilidad limitada; supresión de la llamada doctrina de ultra vires; duración ilimitada; eliminación de la regla, una acción, un voto; remedios al abuso de los derechos; posibilidad de eliminar prohibiciones a los administradores, libertad de establecer restricciones para la transferencia de acciones y la simplificación de los procedimientos de fusión; son inviables bajo nuestra legislación. Sin embargo, la Ley 1258 de 2008, ha incorporado al derecho societario colombiano un nuevo tipo societario híbrido, llamado “Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada”. Esta forma societaria híbrida se basa en un principio básico: garantizar amplia libertad a los empresarios en la estructuración de sus relaciones a través de disposiciones contractuales. La S.A.S. provee a los empresarios significativa flexibilidad contractual, a la vez que preserva beneficios como la limitación de la responsabilidad.

  7. Violencia, Sociedad y Salud

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    Gustavo Malagón Londoño

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Promovida por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, con el auspicio de la Organización de los Estados Americanos y del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, se celebró el pasado mes en Washington, la Primera Conferencia Interamericana sobre Violencia, Sociedad y Salud.

    Quienes tuvimos la oportunidad de asistir como delegados, participamos en un certamen sin precedentes para el cual se dieron cita los representantes de todos los países de América y el Caribe, con la presencia del Director de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, el Secretario de la OEA, el Presidente del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, de la Directora Regional para América Latina y el Caribe del Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, del Director General para América Latina y el Caribe del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, del Secretario del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de los Estados Unidos de América, además de Ministros de Salud, Justicia y del Interior de los países de la región.

    El temario desarrollado no podía ser de mayor importancia y más relievante actualidad. A través de las varias disertaciones muy bien documentadas nos colocamos en la realidad que consume a la mayoría de los países, con el nuestro a la cabeza, de la más cruel violencia, con cifras escalofriantes no sólo por el crecido número de víctimas, sino por los altos costos que ésta está presentando, además de las implicciones de todo orden que en forma bien clara viene significando. En el año de 1993 ocurrieron en América Latina y el Caribe un total de 456.000 muertes violentas, lo que significa 1.250 por día.

    Las lesiones y discapacidades superan los dos millones de casos. En Colombia ocurrieron 174.000 asesinatos en los últimos cuatro años, 30.000 en lo que va corrido del presente año. Las discapacidades y lesiones presumiblemente exceden en el cuatrienio, de un millón y medio.

    En los Estados Unidos

  8. Barões numa perspectiva reticular: análise de redes sociais, poder e nobreza na Zona da Mata Mineira no segundo Reinado

    OpenAIRE

    Genovez, Patrícia Falco

    2011-01-01

    O ensaio aborda a imbricada rede familiar que gravitava ao redor dos barões de Juiz de Fora, Santa Helena e S. J. Nepomuceno, principais acionistas do Conselho Diretor da Estrada de Ferro União Mineira (EFUM). A pesquisa utilizou os pressupostos da Análise de Redes Sociais (ARS), da Genealogia e da Prosopografia. Essa opção resultou numa metodologia que permite levantar, visualizar (sociograma) e avaliar os nexos relacionais de um grupo amplo, envolvendo famílias tradicionais da Zona da Mata ...

  9. Análise comparativa do ciclo de vida de produtos alimentícios industriais e artesanais da culinária mineira

    OpenAIRE

    Elbert Müller Nigri

    2012-01-01

    Embora a maior parcela da demanda por produtos típicos da culinária mineira como o queijo minas e o doce de leite seja suprida pela produção industrial, boa parte dela ainda é composta de produtos artesanais. A produção de doce de leite no Brasil é feita por muitas empresas, desde grandes laticínios até pequenos produtores artesanais e, de acordo com dados do Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio àsMicro e Pequenas Empresas (SEBRAE) em 2008, 40% do volume total de queijos produzidos no Brasil foram sup...

  10. Sociedad política y sociedad civil

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    Vera, José Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    p. 207-224 El dinamismo de la persona construye familias, asociaciones intermedias y finalmente el Estado que permite la emergencia de la sociedad política. Ésta es un todo orgánico ordenado a proveer las condiciones perfectivas del desarrollo humano; previo al cuerpo político, y dándole origen, se encuentra la subjetividad social que construye el entramado relacional de hombres y grupos constituyentes del campo civil. Para su propia vitalidad la sociedad civil genera el Estado y permite e...

  11. Intercâmbios agroecológicos: processos e práticas de construção da agroecologia e da educação do campo na zona da mata mineira

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    Fabrício Vassalli Zanelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Educação do Campo vem se consolidando no Brasil, nas últimas décadas, como um paradigma educacional emancipador, protagonizado pelos povos do campo. Também a agroecologia, nesse período, vem se afirmando enquanto ciência, movimento e prática em defesa do desenvolvimento de uma agricultura ecológica, com a autonomia dos sujeitos que a praticam. Na atualidade da sociedade brasileira, a Educação do Campo e a Agroecologia têm, assim, revelado nítidas convergências. São movimentos, conceitos e práticas que, compartilhando uma concepção de campo, projetam um horizonte de libertação e de transformação social; conferem centralidade ao papel exercido por seus sujeitos sociais; valorizam os conhecimentos e práticas historicamente acumulados e, dessa maneira, contrapõem-se às concepções e ideologias que estigmatizam o campo como lugar de atraso e de ausências. No presente artigo, parte integrante de uma pesquisa sobre a formação de agricultores agroecológicos, buscou-se analisar a experiência dos Intercâmbios Agroecológicos, de maneira a evidenciar alguns limites e potencialidades desta dinâmica de formação em curso na região da Zona da Mata mineira. Na realização desses propósitos, conjugaram-se os procedimentos técnicos de entrevistas semiestruturadas, grupos focais e o método de análise de conteúdo.  Os resultados revelam, entre outros aspectos, a existência de um vigoroso processo de construção e socialização de conhecimentos agroecológicos, que tem fortalecido as dinâmicas sociais dos agricultores e impulsionado o desenvolvimento da Educação do Campo e da Agroecologia na região.

  12. Da arte de conhecer as doenças:o Diagnóstico da Economia Mineira de 1968 e o planejamento do desenvolvimento de Minas Gerais

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    Marcelo Magalhães Godoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema do desenvolvimento regional politicamente orientado ocupa lugar de destaque na História Econômicade Minas Gerais. Desde o início do século XX, e no transcurso das mais importantes etapas da transformação do sistema econômico brasileiro, a superaçãodo subdesenvolvimento e da posição periféricado estado constituiu-se em prioridade para as elites mineiras. Entende-se que é imperativo o estudo do Diagnóstico da Economia Mineira, publicado no ano de 1968, se o objetivo é compreender as vicissitudes da evolução econômica do estado. Com este escrito pretende-se ressaltar o significado deste opulento documento,mormente as longevas filiações institucionais e matrizes teóricas que lhe forneceram legitimidade e o fez consentâneo com o seu tempo. O texto se estrutura em três partes: i descrição e análise do documento;ii breve histórico sobre o desenvolvimentismo em Minas; iii apresentação de quatro estudos acerca de temas do Diagnóstico: transportes, energia elétrica, indústria açucareira e siderurgia

  13. A Inconfidência Mineira e Tiradentes vistos pela imprensa: a vitalização dos mitos (1930-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Nívia de Lima e Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as apropriações, pela imprensa, das representações da Inconfidência Mineira e especialmente de Tiradentes, entre as décadas de 30 e 60 do século XX, quando foi muito intensa a preocupação com a memória do movimento e de seu mais ilustre personagem. A análise da produção jornalística sobre o herói nacional procura identificar os principais elementos constituidores desses textos indicando, por um lado, a vitalidade dos mitos e, por outro, o poder persuasivo das associações estabelecidas entre o sacrifício heróico de Tiradentes e as condutas dos que se colocam como seus herdeiros, buscando no passado a legitimação para as ações do presente.This article shows how Brazilian press appropriates the representations of the Inconfidência Mineira and specially of Tiradentes between the decades of 1930 and 1960. It intends to identify the main elements of these elaborations, such as the vitality of the national hero myth and the persuasive power of the associations between Tiradentes's sacrifice and his modern heirs. The legitimation of present actions is based on past events.

  14. Caracterização micropedológica de alguns solos da Zona da Mata Mineira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. G. A. Nunes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo micromorfológico de oito solos da Zona da Mata Mineira, incluindo um Latossolo Una, dois Podzólicos Vermelho-Escuros, dois Brunizéns Avermelhados, uma Terra Roxa Estruturada, um Vertissolo e um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo câmbico. Após coleta, impregnação, polimerização e preparo de seções finas, estas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica para estudo micropedológico, caracterizando a microestrutura, porosidade, esqueleto, organização do plasma e estruturas associadas, com destaque para a argila iluviada. Em adição, análises em microscópio eletrônico de varredura da superfície de agregados foram realizadas em agregados individualizados. O horizonte B do Latossolo estudado apresenta forte microestrutura com influência de atividade biológica, que tende a coalescer intensamente em profundidade e torna-se apédico no saprolito, separado por cascalheiro de quartzo. Nódulos de hematita em processo de degradação foram observados, indicando o processo atual de goethização dos solos, notadamente no Vertissolo e no Latossolo Una. O estudo micromorfológico evidenciou solos com Bt que apresentaram cerosidade forte em observação macroscópica e não a evidenciaram claramente em microscópio, sendo esse fato mais marcante nos solos mais vermelhos. Solos com Bt mais amarelados mostraram cerosidade fraca no campo, com correspondente detecção de cutãs iluviais em microscopia óptica. O Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo câmbico, com cerosidade fraca e comum no campo, não teve sua presença confirmada em nível microscópico, evidenciando seu caráter câmbico. Esse solo evidencia nódulos de hematita circundados por gibbsita, o que poderia contribuir para explicar a manutenção dos altos teores de óxidos de ferro desses solos. A não-confirmação, ao microscópio, da cerosidade descrita em campo nos solos com Bt indica a necessidade da intensificação de estudos (descrição x micropedologia na tentativa de

  15. Sociedad civil y capital social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández Santillán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento aborda el tema de la democracia desde una perspectiva opuesta al llamado neoinstitucionalismo; es decir, se orienta a analizar los procesos de democratización desde la base de la sociedad civil y, en es pe cial, desde lo que se conoce como el cap i tal so cial. Desde mediados de la década de 1980, el tema de la democracia desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil fue cobrando cada vez mayor relevancia. Esta tendencia se vio reforzada por la caída del Muro de Berlín el 9 de noviembre de 1989, cuando se dijo que el fac tor fun da men tal de la liberación de los países del Este europeo fue, precisamente, la sociedad civil. Lo que aquí se hace es abordar el tema desde una perspectiva teórica que toca lo mismo a los clásicos del pensamiento político como Hegel, Tocqueville, Marx y Gramsci, que a autores contemporáneos como Jean Co hen, An drew Arato, Marc War ren y Axel Honneth. Respecto al tema del cap i tal so cial se aborda particularmente el pensamiento de Rob ert D. Putnam, quien sostiene que la base de la democracia y el desarrollo económico es el fortalecimiento de las redes de confianza en la sociedad civil. Este ensayo es crítico tanto del mencionado neoinstitucionalismo como del comunitarismo y del patrimonialismo.

  16. ¿Sucesiones o Sociedades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Córdoba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Muy a pesar del fenómeno de la diversificación del Derecho, verificable por la expedición cada vez mayor de normas dirigidas a disciplinas jurídicas concretas, y de la duplicidad de códigos de Derecho Privado en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano, uno de los campos en donde se puede observar con mayor énfasis la unidad del sistema y la permanente interrelación de las distintas ramas de la ciencia jurídica es el Derecho de Sociedades en la perspectiva del tema sucesoral. Si bien el Derecho de Sociedades tiene por objeto a la Empresa, éste puede ser utilizado para obtener soluciones que son difíciles o imposibles de lograr aplicando la normativa propia del Derecho de Sucesiones. Así el presente artículo se encarga de establecer y analizar cómo las sociedades, pueden ser utilizadas para el cumplimiento de objetivos siquiera pensados a partir de la regulación sucesoral.

  17. ¿Sucesiones o Sociedades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Córdoba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Muy a pesar del fenómeno de la diversificación del Derecho, verificable por la expedición cada vez mayor de normas dirigidas a disciplinas jurídicas concretas, y de la duplicidad de códigos de Derecho Privado en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano, uno de los campos en donde se puede observar con mayor énfasis la unidad del sistema y la permanente interrelación de las distintas ramas de la ciencia jurídica es el Derecho de Sociedades en la perspectiva del tema sucesoral. Si bien el Derecho de Sociedades tiene por objeto a la Empresa, éste puede ser utilizado para obtener soluciones que son difíciles o imposibles de lograr aplicando la normativa propia del Derecho de Sucesiones. Así el presente artículo se encarga de establecer y analizar cómo las sociedades, pueden ser utilizadas para el cumplimiento de objetivos siquiera pensados a partir de la regulación sucesoral.

  18. On colonial grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, Peter Alexander René van

    1998-01-01

    As a study of the colonial situations of first millennium BC Sardinia, this book is as much an investigation into colonialism as a sociological category, as it explores the specific historical conditions of a particular region. Taking a fresh look at colonialism in Mediterranean archaeology from a

  19. Impacto do monocultivo de café sobre os indicadores biológicos do solo na zona da mata mineira

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes,L. A. P. L.; Dias, L.E.; I. Jucksch; N. F. Barros; KASUYA, C. M.; CORREIA, M. E. F.

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do monocultivo de café em um latossolo, na Zona da Mata mineira, por meio de alterações em indicadores microbiológicos de qualidade do solo. Foram selecionadas quatro áreas: a) cultivo de café (Mundo Novo) durante 22 anos (C22), após uso com pastagem; b) cultivo de café (Catuaí) durante 16 anos (C16), antes mata secundária; c) mata secundária com aproximadamente de 30 anos (M30) e d) mata secundária com 40 anos (M40). Para tanto, amostras compos...

  20. La plebe de Quito a mediados del siglo XVIII: una mirada de la periferia de la sociedad barroca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Terán Najas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el comportamiento de los actores sociales ubicados en la periferia de la sociedad colonial, con el objetivo de desvelar el funcionamiento de las redes de socialización de estos grupos en relación con la estructura jerárquica estamental, cuyo orden giraba en torno a la figura del Rey, marcada por representaciones sociales, políticas y religiosas de la Contrarreforma. El estudio analiza varios juicios relacionados con el comportamiento de los personajes plebeyos de la sociedad colonial quiteña.

  1. Enfermedad mental : familia y sociedad

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    A lo largo de la historia, la enfermedad mental ha tenido consideraciones diferentes. Las personas que las padecían han sido, desde adoradas, hasta perseguidas. Reseñar que a día de hoy, siglo XXI, sigue habiendo una discriminación negativa por parte de la sociedad. La enfermedad mental independientemente del trastorno que el enfermo sufra, (depresión, esquizofrenia, trastorno bipolar) conlleva gran sobrecarga para los familiares por lo que éstos necesitan tener un gran apoyo social y cuidado...

  2. Exploração mineira, memória e resistência: as retóricas ecológicas populares no conflito entre pequenos proprietários rurais e indústria mineira no centro de Portugal Mining, memory and resistance: popular ecological rhetoric in the conflict between small rural landowners and the mining industry in the Portuguese inland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gabriel Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se um conflito entre pequenos proprietários rurais e uma empresa mineira durante a década de 1970 numa aldeia do interior, região ao centro de Portugal. Analisa-se a oposição popular à extração mineira a partir da memória social da destruição dos recursos agrários e da paisagem. A par da conjuntura política dos anos de 1970, explora-se o papel dos elementos ecológicos na estruturação da retórica e ação resistente. O artigo resulta de uma investigação que combina os marcos antropológico e histórico, onde a abordagem etnográfica enlaça a pesquisa documental em arquivos de empresas, estatais e locais.A conflict between small rural landowners and a mining company during the 1970's in a Portuguese inland hamlet is to be analyzed. Local opposition to mining is to be comprehended in the scope of social memory building after the perception of landscape destruction in the past. Besides the political background of the 1970's, ecological elements are explored to understand resistant rhetoric and action. This paper results from an investigation that combines anthropological and historical theories, where the ethnographic approach embraces the documentary research in companies, state and local archives.

  3. Apuntes sobre el urbanismo en Brasil colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Durán Rocca

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El texto que el lector tiene en sus manos pretende hacer una síntesis del proceso de formación del espacio urbano colonial brasilero, ilustrando el trayecto de una práctica espacial de más de tres siglos, derivada de la milenaria tradición urbana portuguesa. A partir del reconocimiento de la dimensión histórico-artística de la arquitectura y los hechos urbanos2, se asume la indisolubilidad entre la sociedad y el espacio que ésta produce y se conceptúa la urbanización como un proceso social.

  4. Culturas orais em sociedades letradas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldi João Wanderley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Na relação entre linguagem e cultura, um aspecto essencial diz respeito às diferentes funções da escrita e às formas de sua apropriação social em sociedades letradas. Tomando como inspiração a forma de um uso específico da escrita pelo povo indígena Jarawara e narrativas de ribeirinhos do rio Madeira do mito amazônico Cobra Norato, são discutidas as diferentes relações entre oralidade e escrita que, atravessadas pelas relações de poder, transformam o alfabeto, de artefato histórico construído para o registro da oralidade, em espaço social de construção de distinções, clivagens e exclusões.

  5. Economia autônoma de escravos nas grandes fazendas cafeeiras do sudeste do Brasil (Zona da Mata mineira -século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elione Silva Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste artigo é apresentar os resultados parciais de uma pesquisa que tem por objetivo reconstituir histórias e memórias de roceiros negros na Zona da Mata mineira (Juiz de Fora e Mar de Espanha -século XIX. No período proposto a região possuía condições físicas para o cultivo do café, então o principal produto de exportação do Brasil, e foi a mais rica de Minas Gerais, sendo responsável por uma produção da rubiácea, em Minas Gerias, que variou de 90% (década de oitenta do oitocentos a 70% (década de vinte do século passado. A principal mão-de-obra utilizada nas lavouras cafeeiras foi a do negro, primeiro na condição de cativo e depois como trabalhador livre predominante. Partindo de relatos de viajantes, fontes cartorárias, processos criminais e variados processos civis (inventários, ações de cobranças de dívidas, processos de divisão e demarcação de terras, despejo, embargo e outros investigo as atividades econômicas de cativos nas roças destinadas por seus senhores para cultivos em domingos e dias santificados e dedicadas ao seu sustento.The focus of this article is to show the partial results from a research which has the purpose to reconstruct stories and memories from rural black workers in Zona da Mata mineira (Juiz de Fora and Mar de Hespanha -XIX century. In this period the region had physical conditions to cultivate coffee, the main Brazilian commodity of exportation and it was the richest of Minas being responsible for a production which varied from 90% (decade of eighties of the XIX century to 70% (decade of twenties of the last century. The main workmanship used in these coffee plantations was the black man, first of all as slave and then as free worker. Considering memories from travelers, documents of register offices, criminal proceedings and array of civil lawsuits (postmortem inventories, charges of debts, suits about division and demarcation of rural properties, I studied the

  6. El Impuesto sobre Sociedades - Tema 6

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Aucejo, Eva

    2008-01-01

    El Impuesto sobre Sociedades: La base imponible. La compensación de bases imponibles negativas. Valoración de ingresos y gastos. Operaciones entre sociedades vinculadas. Período de imposición y devengo del impuesto. La deuda tributaria: Tipos de gravamen, deducciones y bonificaciones. Retenciones y pagos a cuenta.

  7. Sociedades fantasma y Derecho Internacional Privado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carrascosa González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las conocidas como "sociedades fantasma" son una realidad en el escenario de la economía mundial del siglo XXI. Se trata de entes jurídicos constituidos en ciertos Estados, en los que poseen su sede social, pero en los que no realizan actividad económica o societaria alguna. El presente estudio analiza el régimen jurídico de estas sociedades fantasma en Derecho internacional privado europeo y español. Se aborda la cuestión de la determinación de la Ley reguladora de las sociedades fantasma, la reacción legal contra las pseudo-foreign corporations, la libertad de establecimiento de sociedades fantasma en la UE y la responsabilidad patrimonial de estas sociedades y de sus administradores, en especial, cuando se emplean testaferros. Por último, se presta una especial atención a régimen jurídico de la insolvencia internacional de la sociedad fantasma, lo que comporta el análisis del "centro de intereses principales" de la sociedad fantasma como deudor insolvente, así como del traslado internacional de la sede social de la sociedad fantasma

  8. ASPECTOS DE LA VIDA Y SOCIEDAD NOVOHISPANA DEL SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Quirós Vicente

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se habla acerca de diversos aspectos de la vida y sociedad en la Nueva España. Se tratan concretamente dos temas que sirven de reflejo de esta la sociedad colonial de principios del siglo XVIII; en primer lugar el de la relación las colonias españolas de ultramar con la corona española, en la época de la Guerra de la Sucesión, y en segundo el de la esclavitud que se desarrolla en este mismo periodo, con el negocio conocido como Paso Medio, con africanos mayormente provenientes de Angola y La Guinea. El ámbito geográfico se acota a la localidad de San Luís Potosí, en México. Y su desarrollo se basa en dos documentos encontrados en el Archivo Histórico Municipal del San Luís Potosí, en su sección de Alcaldía Mayor.

  9. Specters of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam

    2013-01-01

    organization, we show how an overarching colonial discourse – although not acknowledged – shapes the experience that foreign employees have of work. This leaves foreign workers in an integration dilemma, as they are expected to suppress home-country values and identities in order to become accepted, while...... at the same time they always are bound to fail to become ‘Swedish’ because of the same foreign origins. Although Swedish culture – partly by distancing itself from having a colonial past – has successfully built up an image of openness, we argue that without acknowledging and confronting the role...... that European colonial history has played in the shaping of national identity, Swedish organizations (and organizations in other western countries not assumed to have a colonial history) will not be able to integrate their foreign employees successfully....

  10. Acompanhamento e controle financeiro informatizado das Operações de Vendas em Empresa Mineira de material de Construção de Pequeno Porte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ramos Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the process of monitoring and computerized financial control of sales operations at a commercial building material. Additionally, it is proposed to adopt the budget planning sales management tool. To this end, we developed a case study on a construction material company small mineira. The study discusses the advantages of the process of monitoring and computerized financial control of sales operations, through the presentation of screens Information System used by the company and the options available to users for that process, from customer master until receipt. Considering that the company does not prepare the annual Budget Planning as important management tool, this paper proposes the adoption of the Budget, Sales, and presents the advantages of its implementation. It is understood, however, the importance of extending the implementation of the budget other parts budget. As a result it was found that there are numerous benefits of the Information System for the financial management of sales operations. The Budget Sales presents itself as an alternative to monitoring the implementation and control of sales operations and process of decision making.

  11. Gobernabilidad en la sociedad del conocimiento

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    José A. López Cerezo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta presentación planteo una reflexión sobre un importante condicionante para la gobernabilidad en la actual sociedad del conocimiento: la participación ciudadana en las políticas públicas sobre ciencia y tecnología. Comenzaré con un bosquejo de lo que entiendo genéricamente como “sociedad del conocimiento”. Defenderé los conceptos de sociedad del riesgo y de ciencia reguladora como necesarios para una compresión adecuada del carácter de esa “sociedad” y ese “conocimiento”. En función de este análisis, es posible detectar varios modelos de proyección futura para la sociedad del conocimiento con distintas condiciones de gobernabilidad. Sobre esta base, argumentaré que el nuevo papel del conocimiento en la transformación de la naturaleza y en la dinámica social, así como el creciente protagonismo de la sociedad civil en la vida pública, hace del involucramiento de los agentes sociales en la gestión del cambio científico-tecnológico una condición clave de gobernabilidad en la sociedad del conocimiento.

  12. Petitio principii en la sociedad del conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr??guez Garc??a, Sonia Ester

    2009-01-01

    En el pretendido paso de la "sociedad de la informaci??n" a la "sociedad del conocimiento", se est??n produciendo toda una serie de cambios y exigencias que llevan a la instauraci??n del "capitalismo del conocimiento". As??, bajo el atractivo nombre de "sociedad del conocimiento" se esconde una nueva forma de capitalismo y un cruel mecanismo de retroalimentaci??n: el ser humano es exhortado a mantenerse flexible ante los cambios y a responsabilizarse de su empleabilidad, legitimando de este m...

  13. Las politicas publicas en la sociedad globalizada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomez Lee, Martha Isabel

    2008-01-01

    ..., hacen imprescindible replantear el rol del Estado. El analisis de las politicas publicas es la disciplina que permite adoptar conocimiento sobre la sociedad civil global a partir del analisis de sus actuaciones concretas...

  14. Ideais das crianças mineiras no século XX: mudanças e continuidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Érika

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita, em 1998, a réplica de uma pesquisa realizada entre 1929 e 1944 por Helena Antipoff e em 1993 por Regina Helena de Freitas Campos, com o objetivo de investigar o impacto, nos ideais das crianças de Belo Horizonte, da ênfase que a mídia vem dando ao consumismo na sociedade contemporânea. Um questionário aberto foi aplicado a 307 crianças (151 meninas e 156 meninos da quarta série das escolas públicas e particulares de Belo Horizonte. Os dados referentes aos ideais destas crianças foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, por gênero, e comparados com os dados das pesquisas anteriores. Foi comprovada a hipótese de que os valores transmitidos pela mídia vêm contribuindo para mudanças nos ideais infantis ao longo do século.

  15. Ideais das crianças mineiras no século XX: mudanças e continuidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Lourenço

    Full Text Available Foi feita, em 1998, a réplica de uma pesquisa realizada entre 1929 e 1944 por Helena Antipoff e em 1993 por Regina Helena de Freitas Campos, com o objetivo de investigar o impacto, nos ideais das crianças de Belo Horizonte, da ênfase que a mídia vem dando ao consumismo na sociedade contemporânea. Um questionário aberto foi aplicado a 307 crianças (151 meninas e 156 meninos da quarta série das escolas públicas e particulares de Belo Horizonte. Os dados referentes aos ideais destas crianças foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, por gênero, e comparados com os dados das pesquisas anteriores. Foi comprovada a hipótese de que os valores transmitidos pela mídia vêm contribuindo para mudanças nos ideais infantis ao longo do século.

  16. Colony Collapse Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    In CCD, the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for remaining immature bees and the queen. EPA and USDA are working to understand and resolve this problem.

  17. Impacto das funções desempenhadas pelos gerentes nos resultados da incubadora: survey realizada na rede mineira de inovação The impact of the functions performed by managers in the incubator's results: a Survey accomplished by "Rede Mineira de Inovação"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Magno da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar as relações entre as funções desempenhadas pelo gerente e os resultados obtidos pela incubadora. São considerados como resultados: o tempo que o gerente ocupa cargo de direção, o tempo de existência da incubadora, o número de empresas incubadas, o número de empresas graduadas e a obtenção da certificação ISO 9001. As funções desempenhadas pelos gerentes das incubadoras, baseadas nas funções do Escritório de Gerenciamento de Projetos (PMO, são agrupadas e suas descrições são adaptadas ao contexto das incubadoras de empresas. Um questionário foi elaborado e enviado por e-mail às incubadoras de empresas da Rede Mineira de Inovação. Os dados foram coletados, processados estatisticamente e posteriormente analisados, tendo como resultados principais: as funções consideradas mais importantes para se alcançar os resultados da incubadora - participar do planejamento estratégico das empresas incubadas e distribuir recursos disponíveis entre as empresas incubadas - e a de menor importância para a obtenção dos resultados - monitorar e controlar o desempenho de cada plano de negócio das empresas incubadas.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the functions performed by managers and the results obtained by the incubator. The results considered were the following: the time period for manager's take over, the incubator's existence time period, the number of incubated companies, the number of firms graduated, and the achievement of ISO 9001 certification. The functions performed by managers of incubators are based on the Project Management Office (PMO. These functions are then grouped and their descriptions are adapted to the context of the incubators. A questionnaire was prepared and sent by e-mail to business incubators in the "Rede Mineira de Inovação". The data were collected, processed and analyzed statistically. The main results obtained showed that

  18. Cine y sociedad en David Puttnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, A

    1998-01-01

    Este trabajo trata sobre las relaciones cine y sociedad según las entiende el cineasta británico, David Puttnam, productor de películas tales como Carros de Fuego, Los gritos del silencio y La misión. Además de ser un productor creativo, lo que diferencia a Puttnam de otros productores es su comprensión del cine como un medio de comunicación de masas. En este sentido, Puttnam argumenta que las películas tienen una poderosa influencia en la sociedad, y que por lo tanto el cineasta debe ser res...

  19. Chicha, guarapo y presión fiscal en la sociedad colonial del Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Lucía Mora de Tovar

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reúne dos ensayos sobre el aguardiente y la bebidas embriagantes. Se inscribe en el contexto de la aplicación de medidas administrativas y fiscales impulsadas por la Corona Española, en la Península y en América, durante el siglo XVIII. La necesidad de recursos que le permitieran atender tanto las obligaciones propias de la administración de gobierno como las que se derivaban de las acciones bélicas, estimuló la ejecución de una política de libre comercio en el campo económico y, en el campo político, un mayor control estatal.

  20. Recycling Colonial Cultural Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Troels Degn

    2017-01-01

    Danish art collective Superflex’ project Porcelain Pirates for the Zeeuws Museum in Middelburg, the Netherlands, is a fascinating and complex example of how a museum collection of artefacts from a colonial past may gain critical new meaning by means of cultural production and curatorial strategy...... as a nationally Dutch and regionally Zeelandish dimension. The installation and the television series is based on peculiar historical construction based on the Zeeuws Museem’s collection of porcelain: The Dutch capture of the Portuguese vessel San Jago which set sail from Goa bound for Lisbon in 1601 with one....... This paper provides an analysis of Superflex’ project with special reference to the cultural recycling of artefacts tied up with a sensitive colonial context. The analysis focuses especially on the role of the artefact and the way the project contributes to and challenges regional and national postcolonial...

  1. Sociedad y Salud. Curso 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Callado, Raúl; Fabregat Cabrera, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Sociología de la salud. Determinantes sociales de la salud y la enfermedad. Desigualdades sociales en salud. Las organizaciones como sistemas. Estilos de vida y conductas de salud. Impacto de sociedad de consumo, la ciencia y la tecnología en la salud. Métodos de investigación social aplicados al ámbito de la salud.

  2. Sociedad privada europea : caracterización de una nueva forma de sociedad

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Espinosa, Francisco José

    2010-01-01

    El Consejo Europeo, a 25 de junio de 2008, presentó ante la Comisión la Propuesta de Reglamento de Estatuto de la Sociedad Privada Europea (Societas Privata Europaea) (SPE). Esta nueva forma de sociedad europea (que se añadirá a la AEIE, la SAE y la SCE en el proceso de formación de un propio Derecho Europeo de Sociedades) nace con el propósito explícito de facilitar la actividad de las Pyme’s en el mercado único europeo, Pyme’s que, según la Explicación que precede a la Propuesta SPE, re...

  3. HONEY BEE COLONY PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dražić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pheromones are chemicals produced as liquids by specialised cells or glands and transmitted into the environment as liquids or gases. In contrary to hormones, which are excreted in organism and have effect exclusively on organism that produced them, pheromones are excreted outside organism and effect on different individuals of the same species. Pheromones mediate nearly all aspects of honeybee colony life including social defence, brood care, mating, orientation, foraging and reproduction. Pheromone investigation has high economic importance. With use of pheromones it is possible to manipulate with pest insects on crops or to direct honeybees during pollination on target plants.

  4. O direito dos povos: uma proposta de sociedade bem ordenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica de Farias Mesquita

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto tem como objetivo examinar a visão de John Rawls acerca das sociedades bem ordenadas na obra O Direito dos Povos, bem como o significado destas para o desenvolvimento da proposta de sociedade democrática liberal. Rawls, na primeira parte da obra, que trata sobre a teoria ideal, refere-se à ideia geral de contrato social nas Sociedades dos Povos democráticos liberais. O autor prossegue com a mesma ideia, na segunda parte da obra quando trata da teoria não-ideal, referindo-se aos povos decentes. Uma sociedade dos povos decentes, segundo Rawls, é uma sociedade cujas características são aceitáveis como membro de uma Sociedade dos Povos razoável, embora não seja uma sociedade democrática liberal. Ambas as sociedades, seja ela democrática liberal ou decente, fazem parte de uma sociedade bem ordenada por obedecerem aos critérios estabelecidos pela Sociedade dos Povos. Para a garantia de uma sociedade bem ordenada, Rawls expõe uma série de condições para que esse tipo de sociedade seja possível, uma dessas condições é o modo como essas sociedades se encontram reguladas.

  5. Food and Coloniality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Albán Achinte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author tackles the alimentary dimension of life, as something that goes beyond the simple act of ingesting food to acquire nutrients, to concentrate on the cultural implications of eating. To eat is more than to feed oneself, for eating is never by itself a wholly innocent act; that is, eating is never completely stripped from the social relationships of those gathered around a table.From this perspective, the article examines coloniality in all its forms (of power, of knowledge and of being, and shows their function as mechanisms of both alimentary enunciation and classification, that are responsible of the gastronomic supplantation of produce and food from the New World with the goods and customs that were so dear to European settlers (not forgetting that the influx of products and seasonings went also in the other direction. The colonizing project included thus, besides its religious, political and administrative pretenses, a gastronomical element, to be found in the eagerness of the colonizers to reproduce the alimentary imprint of their homeland in the new found territories, at least as far as the circumstances and the climate allowed it. Among all the facets the production of knowledge can acquire, gastronomy has been poorly studied —not to say completely silenced— in its role as a token of cultural divides, in which a coloniality of flavors and palates has been carried out.

  6. Las sociedades unipersonales en el derecho colombiano

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    Beatriz Helena Gonzáles Correa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis de las características de la sociedad unipersonal, comentando aspectos relacionados con su constitución, la responsabilidad de los socios y de los administradores, las diferencias con el tradicional régimen comercial, las reformas estatutarias, el fallo de la Corte Constitucional en la materia y los desafíos de las nuevas tendencias legislativas.

  7. Construyendo La Democracia En Sociedades Posconflicto. Un ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Con la firma del Acuerdo sobre Fortalecimiento del Poder Civil y Función del Ejército en una Sociedad Democrática el 19 de septiembre de 1996, en la ciudad de México, las partes cubrieron de manera completa la agenda de temas sustantivos y comenzaron a establecer la calendarización de la negociación sobre temas ...

  8. Fotografía y sociedad

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Huck Arias, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Revista de difusión y agitación cultural. Fotografía y Sociedad. El autor nos muestra, la importancia de los aspectos técnicos del oficio -uso de aparatos, químicos, papeles, etc.- en el ejercicio del mismo y en la socialización de un cierto modo de ver, es decir, de un cierto modo de apreciar y asignar valor y significado a las fotografías de estudio

  9. Contabilidad de las sociedades cooperativas: aspectos específicos

    OpenAIRE

    Assis Silvestre, Nayara de

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo trataré en un primer momento de comentar el origen de las sociedades cooperativas, los defensores del cooperativismo, la creación de la Alianza Internacional Cooperativa (ACI) así como los símbolos representativos del cooperativismo, para posteriormente definir las sociedades cooperativas y sus principios, fundamentales para entender el objetivo de las sociedades cooperativas; y las clases de sociedades cooperativas existentes, analizando la relevancia de alguna de ellas co...

  10. ¿Sociedad de conocimientos o culturas de saber?

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Las siguientes páginas presentan una aproximación crítica a la pretensión de comprender la educación a partir de su ajuste a la denominada “sociedad del conocimiento”, “sociedad de la información” o “sociedad del aprendizaje”, categorías todas frecuentemente utilizadas para describir el tipo de producción de la riqueza correspondiente a la sociedad postindustrial.

  11. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  12. de la sociedad de la ubicuidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Octavio Islas-Carmona

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el imaginario de la sociedad de la ubicuidad, en el cual las comunicaciones digitales inciden de forma categórica en el desarrollo y la evolución de los nuevos ambientes comunicativos, las figuras de "emisor" y "receptor", así como los modelos que ayer permitían explicar el proceso comunicativo, hoy exhiben evidentes limitaciones en sus capacidades explicativas. La realidad los ha desbordado. En el desarrollo histórico de los medios de comunicación es posible advertir cómo éstos resienten determinadas remediaciones. Desde la perspectiva de la ecología de medios, Internet -el medio de comunicación inteligente-, admite ser comprendido como lógica extensión del telégrafo. El telégrafo representó la primera exteriorización de nuestro sistema nervioso. El desarrollo de las comunicaciones digitales móviles nos desplaza hacia un nuevo ambiente mediático: la "sociedad de la ubicuidad". De acuerdo con Neil Postman, detrás de toda tecnología subyace una filosofía, y los principios comunicativos de la "sociedad de la ubicuidad": comunicación para todos, en cualquier momento, en cualquier lugar, desplazan consigo la necesidad de producir los dispositivos de comunicaciones digitales móviles idóneos para responder a las exigencias del ambiente comunicativo que supone dicha sociedad. El desarrollo de la web 2.0 admite ser considerado como un auténtico parteaguas histórico en la evolución de Internet; éste impuso importantes cambios tanto en el comportamiento como en los hábitos de consumo cultural de los cibernautas. El cibernauta accedió a la condición de prosumidor. Debemos reconocer a los prosumidores como los actores comunicativos de la sociedad de la ubicuidad. El papel de los prosumidores resultará definitivo en las siguientes remediaciones que experimentará Internet, medio que definitivamente admite ser comprendido como lógica extensión de la inteligencia humana.

  13. A MÍDIA E O MITO: UMA ANÁLISE DO PAPEL DA IMPRENSA MINEIRA NA CONSTRUÇÃO DA TRAJETÓRIA DO ESTUPRADOR DA ZONA SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Prata

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Qual o papel da mídia na construção de um mito? Neste texto, analisase o papel da imprensa mineira na construção da mitificação da figura de Ivan Marques de Oliveira, conhecido como Estuprador da Zona Sul, um homem que aterrorizou a população feminina de Belo Horizonte por cometer estupros e abusos sexuais em série. No artigo, levanta-se a vida e os crimes do Estuprador da Zona Sul, analisam-se as perspectivas teóricas do estupro, avalia-se a violência sexual sob o ponto de vista feminista e, com base nesses argumentos, reflete-se sobre a responsabilidade social da mídia e seu papel na construção dos mitos.

  14. Colonial Bilingual Heritage and Post-Colonial Myths in Cameroon's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines Cameroon's bilingual heritage and describes post-colonial attitudes and tendencies towards language and language use in the country's educational system. The intent is to show that Cameroon's bilingual heritage - a colonial legacy - has led to an unnecessary and chaotic national competition among ...

  15. Colonial state formation without integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexopoulou Giannakitsa, Kleoniki; Juif, Dácil

    2017-01-01

    Samir Amin (1972) divided the African continent into three "macro-regions of colonial influence" with distinct socio-economic systems and labour practices: Africa of the colonial trade or peasant economy, Africa of the concession-owning companies, and Africa of the labour reserves. We argue that

  16. Papilionoideae (Leguminosae arbóreas e lianas na estação de pesquisa, treinamento e educação ambiental (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira Trees and lianes of the papilionoideae (Leguminosae in the research, training and environmental education station (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Martins da Costa Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste em um levantamento florístico das árvores e lianas pertencentes à Papilionoideae da Mata do Paraíso, importante fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Submontana, no Município de Viçosa, Zona da Mata mineira. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada por meio de visitas à área de estudo, no período de julho/2004 a agosto/2005. Foram reconhecidos 12 táxons infra-específicos pertencentes a oito gêneros, sendo Machaerium Pers. (4 spp. e Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. os mais representativos. São apresentados chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações e comentários sobre os táxons analisados. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., espécie vulnerável, e Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endêmica da região, foram encontradas na EPTEA.This work is a floristic survey of trees and lianas of the Papilionoideae in the Mata do Paraíso, an important fragment of Submontane Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, in Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira. The fieldwork was carried out through visits to the studied area, from July/2004 to August/2005. Twelve taxa represented by eight genera were recorded. Machaerium Pers. (4spp. and Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. were the most representatives. Identification keys, descriptions and illustrations are presented for the analyzed taxa. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., vulnerable species and, Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endemic for the region were found at EPTEA.

  17. Notas sobre la sociedad en la (prehistoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GÓMEZ FUENTES

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones sociales responden a la pregunta de cómo se sitúan los hombres en el proceso de la producción si atendemos a quién o quiénes son los propietarios o los poseedores de los útiles. Para el paleolítico —inferior, medio y superior— y aún después, claramente se ve que no se puede hablar de clasese sociales si éstas se definen a partir del concepto de propiedad o de posesión. ¿Qué se entiende por propiedad en la sociedad primitiva? Podríamos definir la propiedad como una posesión reconocida por los miembros de la sociedad, garantizada por las normas de vida de la comunidad, admitidas por tal sociedad y protegida por la costumbre o por la ley. Esta definición para época paleolítica no sirve. Decir que propiedad es una posesión es no intentar resolver el problema, porque tendríamos que preguntarnos inmediatamente qué se entiende por posesión en una época que grosso modo abarca desde 5,5 millones de años al 9000 a. n. e. Si examinamos la definición donde se habla de que la posesión está garantizada por las normas de vida en común y protegida por la costumbre o por la ley ¿cómo podemos investigar la norma, la costumbre o la ley durante el paleolítico inferior, medio o superior?

  18. Buenas ondas de la sociedad civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio López Vigil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La esencia de la radio comunitaria radica en los objetivos sociales por los que luchamos, sostiene el autor. A diferencia de la finalidad lucrativa de las emisoras comerciales, estas radios ponen onda su energía al servicio de la comunidad. La comunicación comunitaria es una vocación social que concibe la comunicación como un medio, la sociedad y su mejoramiento es el fin. En el texto el autor intenta responder a ¿dónde está lo comunitario?

  19. Relaciones entre trabajo social y sociedad

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Aguado, Octavio

    1999-01-01

    Pretendemos poner de manifiesto cómo existe una tntima relación entre la disciplina y ía sociedad en la que se desarrolla. Para ello, hacemos un repaso de ías cuestiones que ilustran esta reíación: la configuración histórica del trabajo social, las relaciones existentes con la política social, la formación académica como espacio donde se producen y reproducen las contradicciones del trabajo socíal y una aproximación a las manitestaciones materíales de/objeto. Creemo...

  20. Música y sociedad: Traslaciones, legitimaciones e identificaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena, Aja Eslava; Ana María, Arango; Michael, Birenbaum Quintero; Deibys, Carrasquilla Baza; Alejandro, Cifuentes Rubiano; Beatriz, Goubert Burgos; Adolfo, González Henríquez; Alejandra, Isaza Velásquez; Carlos, Miñana Blasco; César Alejandro, Montoya Villa; Jorge, Nieves Oviedo; Mauricio, Pardo Rojas; Alejandra, Quintana Martínez; Juan Sebastián, Rojas E; Hugues, Sánchez Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Este libro apunta a impulsar estudios sociomusicales y la participación en la comunidad académica internacional que trabaja estos campos. Temáticas y enfoques de los artículos muestran la multiplicidad de esta investigación sobre música y sociedad. Están investigadores de trayectoria como Carlos Miñana sobre músicas indígenas andinas e historiografía del folclor, o Adolfo González y Jorge Nieves sobre música y cultura popular en la región del Caribe. Profesores que han estado configurando sus...

  1. Empleo temprano en la nueva sociedad

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    Dado que las causas estructurales del desempleo se relacionan con una una nueva sociedad en la que el avance tecnológico ha modificado la estructura del empleo, urgen medidas de flexibilización laboral y de apoyo para educar más a los jóvenes, enfrentando su bajo nivel educativo y la discontinuidad entre la educación secundaria y la educación superior, en el caso de Colombia, puesto que la ocupación laboral también dependerá cada vez más de la productividad del trabajo.

  2. Inflexiones foucaulteanas sobre la sociedad de control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Torres Apablaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se examina la noción de sociedad de control en su potencial hermenéutico de las transformaciones en el diagrama de poder contemporáneo. La ruta de problematización escogida propone una lectura foucaulteana que transita por el gesto crítico de una ontología crítica del presentecentrándose en el diagnóstico que configura aquella noción y su contraste con las formas contemporáneas de gubernamentalidad. Se concluye, que la propuesta de Deleuze y sus receptores se encuentra inacabada, de modo que es necesario vincularla con una escala estratégica de análisis que considere las prácticas neoliberales de gobierno más allá de sus disposiciones técnicas, observando criterios diferenciales de control que determinan las formas contemporáneas de gestión de la vida en nuestras sociedades.

  3. Relaciones de poder en la sociedad patriarcal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarreal Montoya, Ana Lucía

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotidianamente escuchamos y hablamos de relaciones de poder, pero cuando se trata de profundizar en el concepto en realidad es poco lo que se ha estudiado, por lo cual en este artículo se hace una revisión, desde lo macro - vida pública- a lo micro - vida privada -, con el propósito de elaborar una propuesta de cómo se puede entender este concepto. Se analizan varias propuestas, como las planteadas por los teóricos del intercambio, así como la de Clara Coria de que en la sociedad patriarcal las mujeres ejercen el poder oculto, el cual es la otra cara de la moneda del poder legítimo, que ejercen los hombres. Específicamente se trata de abrir un sendero que permita analizar dichas relaciones desde la teoría feminista, de la construcción de una sociedad en la cual las personas, sin importar su sexo/género, tengan la oportunidad de construir su proyecto de vida con libertad, sin prejuicios y estereotipos que les limiten campos de realización.

  4. Sociedad del aprendizaje y tercera edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín REQUEJO OSORIO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde hace tiempo se vienen analizando los fenómenos que acontecen en la denominada «sociedad cognitiva». Particularmente en Europa el tema cobra mayor interés a partir de la publicación: «Enseñary aprender: hacia la sociedad cognitiva».El presente artículo tiene como objetivo básico exponer los rasgos más importantes y las demandas de esta sociedad en relación con el grupo de personas cada vez más numeroso: las personas mayores o también denominadas de la «Tercera Edad».En este contexto se estudian las relaciones entre sociedad cognitiva y fenómeno demográfico que nos muestran un número cada vez más importante de personas mayores. Junto a este hecho sociológico se debate el problema de su formación a partir de los presupuestos de una educación permanente de carácter humanista y democrático frente a la visión neoliberal centrada en la propuesta unilateral del capital humano.Desde esta propuesta educativa se comentan los diversos programas que hoy existen para los mayores haciendo tanto un breve recorrido histórico de las distintas ofertas como un estudio de las más actuales que se realizan por parte de las universidades: universidades de la Tercera Edad, universidades de la Experiencia, «Cuartos Ciclos» universitarios para personas mayores.ABSTRACT: Analysis of the phenomena which occur in the so-called «cognitive society» has been going for a long time in education. Particulary in Europe, the issue of the «cognitive society» has gained interest since the publication of «Enseñar y aprender: hacia la sociedad cognitiva (Teaching and Learning: Aiming at the Cognitivy Society.The main purpose of this paper is to show the most relevant features and demands of this kind of society in relation to a group of people that is steadily growing in number: senior citizens (also named as the «Third Age».Within this context, we having studied the relations between the cognitive society and the demography, it can

  5. INDIGENOUS SPACES IN COLONIAL DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartira Ferraz Barbosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous spaces constituted at the beginning of the colonial period represented a threat to the plans of implantation and development of the Portuguese-Brazilian colonial economy. Although little studied, they were distributed along the coast and inland of the captaincy of Pernambuco as the documents selected for this study point out. It is a question of the analysis of sources about cultures, spaces and indigenous frontiers, subjects that did not receive in-depth interpretations when studying the growth of Portuguese or Dutch colonial space.

  6. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  7. Colonial Figures: Memories of Street Traders in the Colonial and Early Post-colonial Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lynn Gibbings

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores post-colonial memories about street traders among individuals who lived in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies. It argues that these narratives romanticize the relationship between Europeans and indigenous peoples. Street vendors are also used to differentiate between periods within colonial and post-colonial history. The nostalgic representation of interracial contact between Europeans and traders is contrasted with representations of other figures such as the Japanese and the nationalist. A recurring feature of these representations is the ability of Europeans to speak with street traders and imagine what they wanted and needed. The traders are remembered as a social type that transgressed politics and represented the neutrality of the economic sphere as a place for shared communication. The article concludes that the figure of the street vendor contributes to the nostalgic reinvention of the colony but is also used in narratives to differentiate between and mark changes across the colonial and post-colonial periods.

  8. School, society and policy on the island of Reunion. Residual of a French colony to a European outermost region Escuela, sociedad y política en la isla de Reunión. De una colonia francesa residual a una región europea ultraperiférica École, société et politique à l’île de la réunion, d’une colonie française de peuplement à une région européenne ultrapériphérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul LUCAS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analize the evolution of the colonialist French school policy in the island of Reunion, Indic Ocean, with a slave structure from the I Empire. Studies the first official efforts for the people schooling with the contribution of the religious congregations. Their proposal was the cultural assimilation. Later, the French Third Republic encreases secular assimilation policy. Finally, from 1946, the Reunion Island remains one of the first French empire, and begins to be administrative department of France, and remoteness becomes European territory. It concludes by studying the progress made in the first school, secondary and higher education, in the island of Reunion.El artículo explica la evolución producida en la política escolar de la Francia colonial en la isla de Reunión, en el océano Índico, inicialmente de estructura esclavista. Analiza los primeros esfuerzos escolarizadores con la contribución de las congregaciones religiosas, de decidida asimilación cultural. Más tarde, la III República francesa incrementa su política escolar laica y asimiladora. Finalmente, desde 1946, la isla de Reunión, uno de los restos del I Imperio francés, adopta el formato de departamento administrativo de Francia, y la final conversión en territorio europeo ultraperiférico. Concluye con la valoración de las consecuencias que estas decisiones administrativas provocan en su avance escolar primario, secundario y superior.L'article explique l'évolution de la politique scolaire de la France coloniale sur l'île de la Réunion dans l'Océan Indien esclave structure de départ. Analyse escolarizadores premiers efforts avec la contribution des congrégations religieuses, des acculturés déterminée. Plus tard, la Troisième République française augmente sa politique de l'école laïque et l'assimilation. Enfin, depuis 1946, l'île de la Réunion, l'un des vestiges de l'Empire français, prend la forme d'un service administratif de la France

  9. Los socios de los grupos de Sociedades Cooperativas: requisitos, condiciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Gutiérrez Fernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La mayor parte del tratamiento académico y legislativo sobre el cooperativismo se fija, casi siempre, en la sociedad cooperativa. Pero no se presta atención a lo esencial, a lo fundamental de la sociedad cooperativa: el socio. Las sociedades cooperativas son empresas de empresarios en democraciaRecibido: 15.07.2008Aceptado: 02.09.2008

  10. Lo sagrado en las sociedades secularizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Noriega, Santiago

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    La potencia tutelar burocrática asume la custodia de una masa amorfa. Frente a ella ha de afirmarse una sociedad civil a partir de núcleos de ciudadanos activos. El motor de esta ciudadanía es la formación de un núcleo básico de creencias -«lo sagrados-e- que desempeña un papel comparable, en cuanto a capacidad de movilización, al de las viejas religiones. Lo sagrado «laico» o «filosófico» apunta a aquello que el hombre puede considerar perdurable y conferir sentido a su existencia.

  11. Do ato de ensinar numa sociedade administrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON RAMOS-DE-OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Este artigo utiliza conceitos da Teoria Crítica para analisar o ensino como ato formativo. Há um jogo de forças em contínua tensão que caracteriza esta ação humana fundamental em que se destaca a necessidade de, ao mesmo tempo, preservar e modificar. O quadro se torna mais complexo quando inserido na atual sociedade administrada, saturada de informações profusas, fragmentadas e desconexas. Eis o solo em que viceja a Indústria Cultural e um de seus produtos, a semi-formação. Este conjunto de reflexões se impõe a qualquer escola que se pretenda crítica.

  12. Language teaching and graphic colonial.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Yaneth Chaparro Cardozo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study a reflection of the colonial baroque ornamentation from education and graphic blocks; analyzing aspects such as creating maps of the Basilica Church Cathedral Santiago de Tunja. This research tests the interpretation of the drawing and construction of ornamental figures of the native nature of the region in the colonies of the city of Tunja, Boyacá churches. This study of the visual reconstruction of the routes that make a group of children on the reinterpretation of the ...

  13. O ensino jesuítico no período colonial brasileiro: algumas discussões Discussions on jesuit teaching in Brazil during the colonial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Shigunov Neto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende realizar uma análise do ensino jesuítico implementado no período colonial brasileiro e demonstrar que a estrutura escolar fundada pelos padres jesuítas no Brasil era adequada para o momento histórico vivenciado, levando-se em consideração quatro aspectos: os objetivos do Projeto Português para o Brasil; o projeto educacional Jesuítico; a própria estrutura social brasileira da época; e o modelo de homem necessário para a época Colonial. Os jesuítas, com seu Projeto Educacional, e os portugueses que vieram para a colônia brasileira em busca de riquezas, tiveram papel fundamental na formação da estrutura social, administrativa e produtiva da sociedade que estava sendo formada. Partindo do pressuposto de que o fenômeno educacional não é um fenômeno independente e autônomo da realidade social de determinado momento histórico, devemos analisar o projeto jesuítico levando-se em conta o desenvolvimento social e produtivo da época colonial. Assim, pode-se supor que o modelo educacional proposto pelos jesuítas, que pretendia formar um modelo de homem, baseado nos princípios escolásticos, era coerente com as necessidades e aspirações de uma sociedade em formação na primeira fase do período colonial brasileiro.Jesuit teaching in Brazil during the colonial period is analyzed. It may even be proved that the schooling structure established by the Jesuit fathers was extremely adequate for that specific historical period. Four aspects may be taken into account: the aims of the Portuguese Project for Brazil; the Jesuit Educational Project; the Brazilian social structure at that time; and the human model needed for the colonial period. The Jesuits' Educational Project and the Portuguese colonizers that came to the colony in search of wealth have an important role in the formation of the social, administrative and productive structure of a society in constant evolution. Since the educational phenomenon

  14. El subsector empresarial no financiero de la economía social. La fiscalidad de las sociedades cooperativas, sociedades laborales y sociedades agrarias de transformación

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras Roig, Lluís

    2007-01-01

    Tesis: "El subsector empresarial no financiero de la economía social. La fiscalidad de las sociedades cooperativas, sociedades laborales y sociedades agrarias de transformación"El primer capítulo de la tesis lleva por título "El sector de la economía social o tercer sector" y en el se procede a delimitar el sector y a exponer los criterios que permitirán seleccionar y agrupar las entidades que lo componen. Distinguimos el subsector empresarial o de mercado de la economía social y el subsector...

  15. Bases legales para la transformación de Sociedades Civiles en Sociedades Cooperativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El Derecho interno vigente permite abiertamente la transformación de Sociedades Civiles con personalidad jurídica, Asociaciones y Fundaciones, en Cooperativas. Ello está además integrado en las propuestas del Parlamento Europeo en beneficio del empleo, la lucha contra la exclusión en la UE y el mantenimiento del bienestar social en la Unión.Recibido: 11.12.2012Aceptado: 20.04.2013

  16. A pregação no Brasil colonial Preaching in colonial Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Massimi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da oratória sagrada no Brasil do período colonial é um campo heurístico de grande interesse para a história cultural, sendo que os sermões constituíram-se numa importantíssima fonte de transmissão de doutrinas e de modelagem dos comportamentos numa sociedade onde a oralidade era a modalidade principal de difusão dos conhecimentos. O percurso traçado no artigo aponta para evidências claras da importância, da freqüência e do grande alcance das atividades da pregação no contexto do Brasil do século XVI ao século XVIII. Esclarece também as funções assumidas por estas atividades: a catequese, a doutrinação dos ouvintes, a reforma dos costumes abrangente toda a realidade pessoal, social e política dos emissores e dos destinatários.The study of sacred oratory in colonial Brazil is a heuristic field of great interest to cultural history, being that sermons were a very important source of doctrine transmission and of behavior modeling in a society in which speech was the main mode of knowledge diffusion. The course traced in this article points to clear evidence of the importance, frequency, and the broad scope of preaching activities in the context of Brazil in the 16th to 17th century. The article also enlightens the functions taken by these activities: catechism, indoctrination of the listeners, and the reform of customs that approached the personal, social, and political reality of emitters and receivers.

  17. La sociedad filarmónica y el vanguardismo político cultural en Bayamo en el periodo 1840-1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Mario Cobas-Sanz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La primera institución cultural que floreció en Bayamo fue la Sociedad Filarmónica. Esta sociedad enriquecida con las tendencias ideológicas más avanzadas de la época tenía como objetivo primario la difusión de la cultura y la instrucción en sus diversas formas. Sus miembros se consagraron con empeño al cultivo de las letras, la música, el teatro; a impulsar el buen comportamiento ciudadano y el estudio de las causas de los males sociales. La Sociedad Filarmónica se convirtió en un centro de formación patriótica, de repudio al despotismo imperante y en lugar para expresar, a través de las diversas manifestaciones culturales, los sentimientos, aspiraciones y planes para eliminar el sistema colonial español.

  18. Discapacidad y sociedad democrática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Andrés Ospina Ramírez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La eficacia de los derechos y libertades de las personas con discapacidad son pretensiones morales perfectamente compatibles con los anhelos de una sociedad pluralista y democrática. La inclusión de la No-discriminación como elemento de transversalidad dentro de las políticas públicas del Estado pone de relieve la existencia de una aceptación generalizada por parte de la comunidad de la situación de marginalidad a la que han sido sometidos tradicionalmente este colectivo de personas. De ahí la importancia de adoptar medidas de acción afirmativa a fin de promover el disfrute efectivo de los derechos fundamentales. Y es que el tema de la discapacidad no siempre ha hecho parte del discurso de los derechos humanos. Esto explica el por qué en diferentes contextos históricos el uso de métodos y procedimientos degradantes e inhumanos para el tratamiento de la discapacidad no sólo se constituía –y se constituye aún– en una práctica habitual sino que además es un hecho que con el tiempo alcanza a adquirir plena legitimidad. En el mejor de los casos a la personas con discapacidad se les considera “enfermos” y su proyecto de vida sólo tiene sentido en la medida que logren salir de esa situación “de anormalidad”. Incluso hoy en día persiste la idea de que la discapacidad es una cuestión que se circunscribe exclusivamente en el ámbito de la medicina y de la seguridad social (modelo médico-rehabilitador. Sin embargo, en los últimos años ha venido tomando fuerza una nueva forma de abordar esta cuestión y que supone un cambio de paradigma a propósito del esquema tradicional de la discapacidad. A partir de este nuevo enfoque (modelo social de la discapacidad, se concibe que la limitación infundada del ejercicio de los derechos de las personas que poseen alguna deficiencia no se produce por circunstancias “invalidantes” individuales sino que procede de la construcción unidireccional y excluyente de la sociedad. En suma

  19. Discapacidad y sociedad democrática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Andrés Ospina Ramírez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La eficacia de los derechos y libertades de las personas con discapacidad son pretensiones morales perfectamente compatibles con los anhelos de una sociedad pluralista y democrática. La inclusión de la No-discriminación como elemento de transversalidad dentro de las políticas públicas del Estado pone de relieve la existencia de una aceptación generalizada por parte de la comunidad de la situación de marginalidad a la que han sido sometidos tradicionalmente este colectivo de personas. De ahí la importancia de adoptar medidas de acción afirmativa a fin de promover el disfrute efectivo de los derechos fundamentales. Y es que el tema de la discapacidad no siempre ha hecho parte del discurso de los derechos humanos. Esto explica el por qué en diferentes contextos históricos el uso de métodos y procedimientos degradantes e inhumanos para el tratamiento de la discapacidad no sólo se constituía –y se constituye aún– en una práctica habitual sino que además es un hecho que con el tiempo alcanza a adquirir plena legitimidad. En el mejor de los casos a la personas con discapacidad se les considera “enfermos” y su proyecto de vida sólo tiene sentido en la medida que logren salir de esa situación “de anormalidad”. Incluso hoy en día persiste la idea de que la discapacidad es una cuestión que se circunscribe exclusivamente en el ámbito de la medicina y de la seguridad social (modelo médico-rehabilitador. Sin embargo, en los últimos años ha venido tomando fuerza una nueva forma de abordar esta cuestión y que supone un cambio de paradigma a propósito del esquema tradicional de la discapacidad. A partir de este nuevo enfoque (modelo social de la discapacidad, se concibe que la limitación infundada del ejercicio de los derechos de las personas que poseen alguna deficiencia no se produce por circunstancias “invalidantes” individuales sino que procede de la construcción unidireccional y excluyente de la sociedad. En suma

  20. Los traslados de ciudades en América: autorretrato de una sociedad en crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musset, Alain

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the beginning of the XVIth century and the end of the colonial time, tens of cities founded in America by the Spanish conquerors were changed of place. The causes of these transfers were varied and could be combined: unhealthy climate, natural disasters, attacks of Indians or pirates, changes of economic axis... The analisis of this moment of acute crisis emphasizes internal contradictions of the colonial society because the decision of the transfer was not always easy to take, especially when the city had time to grow and root in its territory. Whereas the various lobbies clash to obtain their displacement or their maintenance in the place, apparent solidarity is disappearing in front of deep cleavages which cross a destabilized urban society in search of a new political legitimacy. Even the role of the king is then criticized and the polysemous concept of Fatherland starts to take a new direction for Creoles who estimate themselves injured by the representatives of the Crown.

    Entre el principio del siglo XVI y el final de la época colonial, varias decenas de ciudades fundadas en América por los conquistadores españoles se cambiaron de lugar. Las causas de estos traslados variaban y podían combinarse: clima malsano, desastres naturales, ataques de indios o piratas, cambios de eje económico... El análisis de este momento de crisis aguda valoriza las contradicciones internas de la sociedad colonial ya que la decisión de la mudanza no era siempre fácil de tomar, sobre todo cuando la ciudad había tenido tiempo de desarrollarse y de arraigarse en su territorio. Mientras que los distintos grupos de presión se enfrentaban para obtener su desplazamiento o para mantenerse en el sitio antiguo, las solidaridades de fachada se borraban ante las profundas grietas que cruzaban a una sociedad urbana desestabilizada y en búsqueda de una nueva legitimidad política. Incluso se iba a poner en tela de juicio el papel jugado por el Rey, y

  1. Construyendo la democracia en sociedad posconflicto : Un enfoque ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2007 ... Construyendo la democracia en sociedad posconflicto : Un enfoque comparado entre Guatemala y El Salvador. Couverture du livre Construyendo la democracia en sociedad posconflicto : Un enfoque comparado entre Guatemala y. Auteur(s) : Dinorah Azpuru, Ligia Blanco, Ricardo Córdova Macías, ...

  2. Nivel operacional de la sociedad civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Mendiwelso Bendek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael Walzer (2002 afirma que las organizaciones de la sociedad civil se generan en procesos de auto organización pero que existen algunas organizaciones con mayor capacidad que otras para organizarse y que también es necesario que el estado provea la asistencia que requiere la vida en asociación en donde primero que todo se debe proteger a los más débiles. En este artículo, desde una visión sistémica, se intenta reflexionar sobre las competencias requeridas para un efectivo proceso de auto-organización en la construcción de lo público. Se sostiene que esto hace necesario observar las estructuras que apoyan el aprendizaje y participación ciudadana.Michael Walzer (2002 claims that self-organization underpins the emergence of civil society organizations and that some of these organizations have more opportunities than others to be effective, suggesting that it is necessary for the State to support those associations that operate in weaker contexts. In this paper, from a systemic perspective, the author reflects upon the required competencies to enable effective self-organizing processes in the construction of the public sphere, in particular she advocates the need to observe the emerging organization structures supporting citizens' learning and participation.

  3. Muhammad Ali, um outsider na sociedade americana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Py Mariante Neto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisa a carreira do boxeador Muhammad Ali segundo as formulações sobre as relações de poder em configurações apresentadas por Norbert Elias. O propósito foi compreender como um atleta que foi contra questões tão profundas da sociedade estabelecida obteve sucesso profissional. Tratou-se de um estudo documental, tendo como fonte livros, artigos e reportagens publicadas sobre a trajetória do lutador. Concluiu-se que apesar de Ali ter se posicionado contra padrões estabelecidos de sua época em questões como a religião, o racismo e o patriotismo, a sua habilidade técnica acima da média, o seu poder de autopromoção e a sua capacidade de participar do jogo no contexto configuracional de que fazia parte, lhe deram condições de sobrevivência no mundo do boxe e conseqüente sucesso profissional.

  4. Relacione de poder en la sociedad red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Héctor Fernández-Carrión

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La segunda mitad del siglo XX ha estado caracterizada por a imposición económica de algunas multinacionales, sobre las políticas nacionales de unos países (los menos sobre otros (los más, y la política de dos superpotencias (EEUU y URSS que terminan al inicio de la era digital (1992 en una única (Estados Unidos sobre el resto del mundo. Asimismo, desde el último tercio de siglo veinte la sociedad del conocimiento y la globalización define un nuevo estado mundial cibernético global, en el que destaca la comunicación interpersonal, la propaganda política digital y el comercio por internet "en tiempo real", junto a la decadencia del Estado-nación moderno, caída de los patrones sociales del patriarcado y la emancipación de la mujer, que la caracteriza.

  5. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... and range on the basis of the present material, due to too few and incomparable surveys. Only the Brünnich's guillemot is adequately studied to make conclusions on population trends (Kampp et al. 1994). However, our impressions of trends are given in Tab. 5. Species with decreasing populations are common...... eider, Brünnich's guillemot and Arctic tern, while at least great cormorant and great black-backed gull have shown range expansions and probably also population increases in recent years. The most important areas to breeding colonial seabirds are indicated on Fig. 40. Fig. 41 shows coastlines where...

  6. Language teaching and graphic colonial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Yaneth Chaparro Cardozo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a reflection of the colonial baroque ornamentation from education and graphic blocks; analyzing aspects such as creating maps of the Basilica Church Cathedral Santiago de Tunja. This research tests the interpretation of the drawing and construction of ornamental figures of the native nature of the region in the colonies of the city of Tunja, Boyacá churches. This study of the visual reconstruction of the routes that make a group of children on the reinterpretation of the design in the construction of maps of colonial baroque in the creation and graphic composition. Given the importance of aesthetics in the visual language manuals maples ornaments of the cathedral with a look from the pedagogy and education in studies of iconography Erwin Panofsky in understanding the phenomenon of space. 

  7. Colonialism: nexus for myriad religious contentions in post-colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contact between African Traditional Religion (ATR) and Christianity is inextricably linked to European economic activities that culminated into colonialism. The contact was in fact, between two opposing cultures –African and European. Christianity since its introduction is perceived as an embodiment of Western culture, ...

  8. Colonial and post-colonial aspects of Australian identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Bruce; Donoghue, Jed

    2007-06-01

    Since the 1988 Bicentennial and the 2001 centenary of federation celebrations colonial images have flourished in Australia, highlighting the roles of convicts and free settlers during early colonization. Old sites, such as Port Arthur have been re-invigorated, and in 2004 Tasmanians celebrated the bicentenary of 'white' settlement. However, social scientists have given little attention to the role of colonial and post-colonial figures and myths as aspects of Australian national identity. We seek to address this issue by examining how convicts, free settlers, bushrangers and ANZACs are associated with contemporary identity in Australia. We examine evidence from the 2003 Australian Survey of Social Attitudes and find that historical figures such as the ANZACs and post-World War II immigrants comprise important aspects of national identity. A substantial majority of Australians judged ANZACs to be important, countering recent claims of the 'demise of the digger'. Sporting heroes are also at the core of Australian identity. Colonial figures appear to be far less important, although views on national identity vary according to social location. In particular, left-wing, university educated, younger, postmaterialist Australians view convicts and bushrangers as relatively important, indicating the salience of the larrikin in Australian identity.

  9. Habitus of social security in the lifestyles of rural families: the case of the São Miguel do Anta and Piranga municipalities in Zona da Mata Mineira, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Aparecida Moreira de Barros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The universalization of the right to social security for rural producers and rural workers is a recent victory for Brazilian society. The implementation of this benefit began in the early 1990s. This article aimed to analyze the effects of rural social security on the lifestyle of families with retirees. The research was conducted in two small municipalities with agricultural economies from Zona da Mata Mineira region. The research used cross-sectional data collection procedures by applying a survey with open and closed-ended questions about consumption and living. The research sample was representative of the study population, comprising 117 rural elderly people, 64 from Piranga City and 53 from São Miguel do Anta City. Data obtained were categorized, analyzed and tested using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. The survey results highlighted routine behavior and a predisposition to act based on a long term planning system, supported by the certainty of receiving the pension. Planned and long-term investments became a reality, including home improvement projects and acquisition of durable goods. Concerns about immediate family maintenance gave way to a perspective based on future planning.

  10. BULLYING ESCOLAR: UMA FERIDA ABERTA NA SOCIEDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Rocha Farias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available O bullying escolar ainda é uma forte realidade em nossas instituições de ensino, descaracterizando, por muitas vezes, o real sentido do espaço educa- cional. É uma “ferida” ainda aberta no seio da sociedade, causando dor e preo- cupação, contribuindo, assim, em alguns casos, para o surgimento de doenças psicossomáticas entre as vítimas desse fenômeno, como também a desestabi- lização de tantas famílias que, m esmo de forma indireta, são impactadas por esse tipo de agressão. O presente artigo tem por objetivo informar e apresentar algumas das características do bullying escolar, tal como (teoricamente a forma como agressores e agredidos se comportam diante dessa realidade ainda pre- sente em tantas escolas. Visa ainda o despertar de seus eventuais leitores para o combate a essa prática agressiva no âmbito escolar. Por meio de estudos bi- bliográficos de cunho qualitativo, este artigo foi desenvolvido com embasamento teórico, principalmente nos artigos dos seguintes autores: Antunes e Zuin, Souza e Cunha, Binsfeld e Lisboa, Campos e Jorge. Tal fenômeno precisa ser urgente- mente combatido, tendo como principal “arma” de combate uma educação que vise os valores éticos, contribuindo, assim, para a vivência do bem comum e a boa socialização dos educandos em seu ambiente estudantil.

  11. ENTENDIMENTO E SOCIEDADE NA FILOSOFIA HUMEANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cainan Freitas de Jesus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A interação entre indivíduos depende de uma complexa teia de relações na filosofia de David Hume, que necessitam da maneira como o encadeamento de ideias é feita na mente humana, estando estes assentados sobre os mesmos princípios que fornecem a inclinação do sujeito para asseverar sobre os eventos da matéria. Mais do que ancorar sua teoria da Moral ou da Política sobre os mesmos princípios da crença, a filosofia humeana parece adotar um caminho que se configura por uma via em mão dupla, pois é justamente neste espaço da interação social que o sujeito, ou cada indivíduo de uma sociedade, encontra o alicerce para a fixação da própria crença, aparentemente individual, no fluxo da matéria. Neste sentido, não é apenas a aprendizagem dos costumes que depende da interação social do indivíduo, mas também vemos um grau forte de dependência até mesmo na formação dos termos que são referidos às ideias gerais; sendo importante notar que esta aprendizagem necessita do ponto inicial do reconhecimento do outro para ser efetivada. Desta forma, a nossa pesquisa busca compreender os primeiros fundamentos para esta armação complexa da estrutura cognitiva do sujeito, que precisa tecer para construir os fortes pontos de amarração com o tecido social, fornecendo as linhas de fixação do sujeito com o mundo.

  12. Los deslizamientos en la sociedad costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrigal Mora, Julio

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available El documento hace una reflexión sobre el problema de los deslizamientos en el país. Se explican las causas que lo propicia y las consecuencias para la sociedad. Se establece que su origen puede ser por factores naturales: fuertes pendientes, características del suelo y/o rocas, fuerza de gravedad, aportes extraordinarios de humedad y sismos; o por factores antrópicas: alteración del equilibrio natural por la actividad humana. Entre las consecuencias se encuentran las pérdidas humanas, daños a la infraestructura y a los cultivos. El artículo también se refiere a la aplicación de medidas preventivas y correctivas, así como a la prevención por medio de la planificación de desarrollo en lugares seguros y la mitigación por medio de medidas estructurales. Como conclusión se establece que es necesario como medidas de prevención exista un adecuado aprovechamiento de la tierra y el conocimiento previo de las amenazas y riesgos The document reflects about the problem of the landslides in the country. It explains the causes and the consequences for society. It establishes that the origin could be due to natural factors: steep slopes, soil characteristics and/or rocks, force of gravity, extraordinary humidity and seisms; or anthropic factors: natural balance alteration due to human activity. Among the consequences they mention the loss of human lives, damages to infrastructure and crops. The article also refers to the implementation of preventive and correction measures, as well as prevention through development planning in safe places and mitigation through structural measures. As conclusion, it establishes that it is necessary to establish as preventive measure a correct use of the land and a previous knowledge of threats and risks

  13. Changing Views on Colonial Heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, P.K.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Within the context of a rational study and in order to arrive at a balanced appreciation of nineteenth and twentieth century heritage worldwide, architecture and town planning realized under colonial rule requires special attention. This paper describes the strengths and need for a revised vision of

  14. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  15. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    thrips; ants; butterflies; moths; bats ; and hummingbirds and other birds. 2 Berenbaum, M.R., University of Illinois, Statement before the... vampire mite (Varroa destructor) and the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi), and also colony declines due to the pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.12 Other reasons

  16. The Vine and Olive Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinski, Nan Bowman

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

  17. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  18. La sociedad civil en el proceso de toma de decisiones

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Marín Aranguren

    2006-01-01

    ¿Qué es la sociedad civil? Es la pregunta más recurrente cuando se intentan explicar sus objetivos, alcances, impacto y fines. En este documento se recogen las distintas definiciones que en la teoría política se han dado acerca de la sociedad civil. Luego, se intenta demostrar la necesidad e importancia de las dinámicas efectivas que ejerce la sociedad civil sobre la gestión pública y su incidencia para el engrosamiento del capital social y el...

  19. La Sociedad Prehispánica en las Lenguas Náhuatl y Otomí La Sociedad Prehispánica en las Lenguas Náhuatl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Charles Wright Carr

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Una herramienta para construir una comprensión más profunda de las culturas prehispánicas de Mesoamérica es el análisis de las palabras que usaban para expresar diversos aspectos de su cultura. En el presente trabajo el autor aprovecha los vocabularios del periodo Novohispano Temprano para identificar las voces que usaban los antiguos nahuas y otomíes para expresar conceptos relacionados con sus estructuras sociales. Estos términos son analizados y comparados, con el propósito de entender cómo estos grupos lingüísticos hablaban acerca de su sociedad, y de averiguar el grado de similitud de sus campos semánticos. Los resultados de este análisis indican que ambos grupos compartían, en lo general, una misma manera de concebir las estructuras de su sociedad, desde el núcleo básico de la familia hasta las agrupaciones más complejas, las confederaciones de señoríos. One tool for constructing a deeper understanding of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican cultures is to analyze the words used to express various aspects of those cultures. In this article the author uses early colonial period vocabularies to identify the words used by the pre-Hispanic Nahuas and Otomis to express concepts related to their social structures. These terms are analyzed and compared, in order to understand how these groups spoke about their society, and to determine the degree of similarity between their respective semantic fields. The results of this analysis indicate that both groups conceptualized their social structures in essentially the same way, from the basic family unit to the most complex structures, such as the confederations of kingdoms.

  20. Mujer, sociedad y comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumandá Gamboa de Zelaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La desigualdad ante la ley y en la acción, entre el hombre y la mujer, se registra, como su inicio, en la etapa histórica de la esclavitud, con el surgimiento de la propiedad privada y el establecimiento entre otras Instituciones, la del matrimonio monogámico. El hombre necesitaba estar seguro de la paternidad de sus descendientes a quienes debía legar sus dominios; para lograrlo tenía que poseer una mujer que únicamente lo tuviese a él por esposo. Esa pertenencia de la mujer entre sus otros bienes, el hombre la consagraba no solo con la marca de su apellido adherido al nombre de la esposa sino asignándole un papel específico en la Sociedad: ocuparse de cuestiones domésticas, vigilar y cuidar del crecimiento de los niños, bordar, es decir toda clase de tareas a realizar en casa, dando esta última condición asidero a expresiones como "la señora de la casa" , status que fue consignándose en las normas jurídicas que iban surgiendo conforme el hombre obtenía conquistas para sí, de las cuales quedaba excluida la "Reina del Hogar", membrete bajo el cual se anuncian electrodomésticos en los Medios de Comunicación, en el "Día de la Madre".  Las mujeres que se apartaban de ese esquema, eran consideradas de "mal vivir", "libertinas", etc. Más adelante, con el desarrollo del comercio, que para abrir mercados va rompiendo con tradiciones, modificando costumbres, el sometimiento de la mujer al hombre y la dependencia al hogar, va disminuyendo, en un proceso que se cuenta en siglos. La expansión del comercio influye también en el advenimiento y desarrollo tecnológico de los Medios de Comunicación. Ambas actividades se nutren y se sustentan mutuamente.

  1. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2007-01-07

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies.

  2. Humanizar el mercado: propuestas para la sociedad post-industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Zamagni, S. (Stefano)

    2000-01-01

    Este ensayo se propone dar una contestación a un doble interrogante. Por un lado, qué significa hoy en día humanizar la economía, es decir, ¿es posible concebir una sociedad de mercado en la que los individuos de la sociedad civil, portadores de cultura, puedan perseguir objetivos libremente elegidos? Y por otro, ¿qué vía seguir para que este objetivo se pueda conseguir?

  3. La sociedad de ensueño del turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Arroyo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo proclama el nacimiento de una nueva sociedad denominada la sociedad deensueño. Se presenta como un tema fascinante sobre la demanda futura de bienes y servicios, que predice que la sociedad actual, basada en la información, se convertirá en una sociedad que valora las historias detrás de los productos y servicios. Estas historias se construyen a partir de la necesidad de riqueza emocional, que la riqueza material ha convertido en algo común. La demanda de productos, a su vez aumentará la demanda de contadores de historias imaginativas que artísticamente pueden dirigir las emociones de los consumidores de una diversificada cultura global, donde imaginar, crear, divertir y fascinar puede resultar un duro trabajo para nuestros conceptos actuales. El resultado de la sociedad de ensueño es que los consumidores no compran productos sino estilos de vida e “historias”, experiencias, emociones y elementos que transmiten un sentido o un significado. En el artículo se menciona cómo los negocios de la industria turística se están transformando, y también se habla de los cambios en otros ámbitos de la sociedad como: el lugar de trabajo, la casa, las relaciones entre las personas y las naciones. Este tema es recomendado para el sector académico y empresarial.

  4. La sociedad de ensueño del turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Arroyo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo proclama el nacimiento de una nueva sociedad denominada la sociedad de ensueño. Se presenta como un tema fascinante sobre la demanda futura de bienes y servicios, que predice que la sociedad actual, basada en la información, se convertirá en una sociedad que valora las historias detrás de los productos y servicios. Estas historias se construyen a partir de la necesidad de riqueza emocional, que la riqueza material ha convertido en algo común. La demanda de productos, a su vez aumentará la demanda de contadores de historias imaginativas que artísticamente pueden dirigir las emociones de los consumidores de una diversificada cultura global, donde imaginar, crear, divertir y fascinar puede resultar un duro trabajo para nuestros conceptos actuales. El resultado de la sociedad de ensueño es que los consumidores no compran productos sino estilos de vida e “historias”, experiencias, emociones y elementos que transmiten un sentido o un significado. En el artículo se menciona cómo los negocios de la industria turística se están transformando, y también se habla de los cambios en otros ámbitos de la sociedad como: el lugar de trabajo, la casa, las relaciones entre las personas y las naciones. Este tema es recomendado para el sector académico y empresarial.

  5. African colonial boundaries and nation-building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HDS 10

    Britain, France, Germany, Portugal and Belgium. The aim was to stop the issue from degenerating into open war (Afigbo. 1990:129). One major aspect of Africa's colonial heritage is colonial boundaries. Many colonial boundaries in Africa date back to the Berlin conference of 1884-1885, which climaxed the scramble and ...

  6. Acumulação e translocação de elementos vestigiais em Cistus Ladanifer L. de áreas mineiras da FPI portuguesa Accumulation and translocation of trace elements in Cistus Ladanifer L. from ipb portuguese mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Manuela Abreu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a capacidade de acumulação e translocação de As, Cu, Pb e Zn em populações de Cistus ladanifer L. que colonizam as áreas mineiras de Brancanes, São Domingos, Chança e Caveira (FPI-Portuguesa e duas áreas controlo (Caldeirão, Pomarão. Os solos de São Domingos e Caveira apresentaram elevadas concentrações totais de As, Cu e Pb. As áreas mineiras de Brancanes e Chança podem ser consideradas em processo de atenuação natural relativamente ao impacto gerado pela actividade mineira que cessou há cerca de um século. As plantas são acumuladoras de Zn (excepto as de Caveira. O Pb na parte aérea das plantas das áreas controlo e São Domingos excede as concentrações consideradas fitotóxicas. A concentração de elementos vestigiais nas plantas é inferior ao máximo tolerável para animais domésticos. Esta espécie pode ser usada na fitoestabilização de outras áreas mineiras, pois as concentrações totais no solo não influenciaram o comportamento das diferentes populações.The accumulation and translocation of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in different Cistus ladanifer L. populations colonizing mine areas of Brancanes, São Domingos, Chança and Caveira (Portuguese Iberian Pyrite Belt and two control areas (Caldeirão and Pomarão was evaluated. Soils from São Domingos and Caveira presented the greatest total concentrations of As, Cu and Pb. Brancanes and Chança mine areas might be considered in natural attenuation processes relatively to the past mining activity that cessed about one century ago. Plants are, except those from Caveira mine area, Zn accumulators. The concentration of Pb in plants (aerial part from the control and São Domingos areas are within the range considered phytotoxic. Trace elements concentrations in plants are below the domestic animal toxicity limits. Cistus ladanifer might be used in phytostabilization programs of other mine areas as trace elements concentrations in soils did not influence the

  7. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical agriculture (1919–1938). We adopt the Dimson–March–Staunton method to compute real geometric annual average rates of return and assess our estimates in an international comparative perspective. We find...

  8. Da sociedade de sociedades à insularidade do estado entre medievo e idade moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Grossi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo exploraras descontinuidades entre os universos medievale moderno, enfocando, para tanto, as diferentesformas de a dimensão jurídica relacionar-secom a dimensão política e social, que, sobre basesantropológicas profundamente distintas (primeirocomunitária e, depois, individualista, identificama contraposição entre a “sociedade de sociedades”de origem medieval, e a insularidade doEstado, caracteristicamente moderna.This article has by purpose to explorethe discontinuities between the middle-aged andmodern universes, focusing, so for, the differentways to the juridical dimension to relate with thepolitical and social dimension, that, overanthropological bases deeply distint (firstcommunitarian and then individualist, identify thecounterposition between the “society of societies”from middle-aged source,and the State insularity,characteristicly modern.

  9. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  10. Indigenous Customs and Colonial Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaf Kottakkunnummal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the contesting articulations of gender, family, and religion in colonial South India. The article discusses the encounter between matrilineal customs and the Anglo-Muhammadan law in the site of Mappila Muslim matrilineal practices in colonial Malabar, of the Madras Presidency during c. 1910-1928. Young male members of the joint family used the language that matriliny is un-Islamic, and passed laws in the Legislative Assembly to demand that joint family property requires to be inherited in the patrilineal line. Three legislations were passed during the period of 1910-1940 to bring Muslim families in accordance with the ideal notions of familial organization existed in that period. The ideal notions were set up by the precepts of the Anglo-Muhammadan law, the orientalist knowledge of Islam, ideologies of colonial modernity, and dreams of caste and religious reform movements among the people of Malabar, and other neighboring states, Cochin and Travancore. In response to that, there was a re-articulation of customs and familial practices by using legal provisions available in the Islamic law, and an effort for justifying the practices to avoid the ruin of matriliny. Subsequently, the matrilineal Mappilas of Malabar retained matrilineal customs rather intact, though the gender relations and religious practices were re-articulated in the idioms of patriarchy and textuality.

  11. Multi-elemental analysis of colonial and post-colonial Nigerian coins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-elemental analysis of colonial and post-colonial Nigerian coins by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry. ... A non-destructive physical method of ion beam analysis; PIXE was employed to investigate elemental properties of colonial and post-colonial Nigerian coins. The weights of the coins varied ...

  12. Os Impactos da Adoção de Metodologias Ativas no Desempenho dos Discentes do Curso de Ciências Contábeis de Instituição de Ensino Superior Mineira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero José Oliveira Guerra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma reformulação na educação tem sido discutida pela comunidade científica com a finalidade de atender a novos objetivos nos processos de aprendizagem. É um desafio para as universidades modificarem o seu papel social, agregando novas metodologias de ensino nos seus programas de graduação para se inserirem neste contexto atual. A motivação deste estudo é verificar se a adoção de metodologias ativas de ensino no curso de Ciências Contábeis de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior privada, situada na região da Zona da Mata mineira, contribuiu para o desempenho dos seus discentes, sendo caracterizada como desempenho, nesta pesquisa, a melhoria das notas dos estudantes. As metodologias ativas, atendendo a essa reformulação educacional, estão preocupadas em formar um estudante crítico, capaz de atuar no mercado atual, sujeito a constantes mudanças. O período de estudo compreende os anos entre 2011 e 2014. Buscou-se responder à seguinte questão: Há impacto no desempenho dos discentes do curso de Ciências Contábeis após a implantação de metodologias ativas na IES pesquisada? Para testar a hipótese proposta, utilizou-se o teste de médias T student e métodos de regressão. Os dados analisados foram coletados a partir de documentos cedidos pelos colaboradores da instituição. Os resultados mostram que há evidências de que a utilização das metodologias ativas no curso de Ciências Contábeis contribuíram para o desempenho dos estudantes no período estudado.

  13. Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'Er, Avraham

    2011-03-01

    As a result of stress due to nutrient limitation or antibiotics, competing individual bacteria within a single colony may lyse sibling cells to release nutrients (cannibalism) or DNA (fratricide). However, we have recently shown that competition is not limited to individuals, but can occur at the colony level [A. Be'er et al., PNAS 106, 428 (2009); A. Be'er et al., PNAS 107, 6258 (2010).] In response to the presence of an encroaching sibling colony, Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacteria secrete a lethal protein, lysing cells at the interface between the colonies. Analysis of the proteins secreted by these competing sibling colonies, combined with a mathematical model, shows how colonies maintain their growth by self-regulating the secretion of two proteins: subtilisin (a well-known growth promoter), and Slf (a previously unknown protein, which is lethal). The results also explain why a single colony is not inhibited by its own secretions.

  14. Reseña del Libro Conflicto, Sociedad y Estado Colonial en el Resguardo de Chiquiza, 1756- 1801

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    Omar Huertas Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta obra hace parte de la Colección Prometeo de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, de la Universidad de los Andes, la cual se constituyó con el propósito de estimular la producción intelectual de los graduados de sus Maestrías, dando a conocer sus tesis de grado.

  15. Por trás do discurso socialmente responsável da siderurgia mineira Behind the Social Responsibility Speech of Minas Gerais' Siderurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Aureliano Monteiro de Andrade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A Responsabilidade Social Corporativa (RSC é um tema relevante e recentemente tem estimulado vários debates científicos, enfocando as vantagens que apresenta aos negócios em geral e à sociedade. Num esforço para explorar processos organizacionais de RSC, o principal objetivo do presente estudo é analisar o balanço social de empresas brasileiras. O framework da análise embasa-se no conteúdo publicado do instrumento (balanço social ao longo de de 2 anos. As unidades de análise são duas grandes empresas do setor siderúrgico de Minas Gerais. Usamos análise de conteúdo e de fotografias (BAUER, 2004; BARDIN, 2004 para atingir os objetivos da pesquisa. Para dar suporte à análise de conteúdo, usamos a pirâmide de Carroll (1991 como abordagem teórica. Os resultados mostram que apesar do discurso das empresas focar-se principalmente em razões éticas para investir em RSC, a motivação real é reforço da marca e do posicionamento corporativo.The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is a relevant theme and recently it has stimulated lot of scientific debates, focusing on its advantages to business in general and to society. In an effort to explore CSR processes within companies, the main purpose of this study is to analyze the Brazilian Corporate Social Balance. The framework of analysis is based on published contents of the instrument (Corporate Social Balance, for the period of two years. The units analyzed are two large enterprises in the steel sector in Minas Gerais State. We used content and photographic analysis (BAUER, 2007; BARDIN, 2004 to attain the research objectives. To support the content analysis, we used Carroll's Pyramid of Social Responsibility theory (1991 as our theoretical approach. The results show that although companies' discourse focuses mainly on ethical reasons for investing in CSR, the actual motivation is the brand reinforcement and positioning.

  16. Salud y enfermedad en Tunja y su Provincia durante el período colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Porras Collantes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La salud pública es provincia del bienestar social, de la asistencia pública, que las modernas sociedades han integrado a la planificación urbana. Las condiciones físicas del sitio en que Tunja fue fundada, empero, entrabaron la planificación urbana colonial de la urbe y fueron óbice insalvable que conspiró contra su sanidad pública. En efecto, las necesidades tácticas de la guerra de conquista fueron causa determinante para que se fundara a Tunja en un sitio por demás inconveniente para una ciudad, como apropiado para un castro militar.

  17. Affective Politics and Colonial Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Andersen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the spatial entanglement of colonial heritage struggles through a study of the Rhodes Must Fall student movement at the University of Cape Town and the University of Oxford. We explore affective politics and the role heritage can play in the landscape of body politics. We aim...... to shed light over why statues still matter and we argue that affective politics – defined as politics that engage bodies immediately – is due to site-specific actions capable of going viral but likewise to non-photogenic scenes with indexical power. The decolonizing activism of the RMF movement mobilizes...... what we call an affective politics using bodies as main tool....

  18. The logic of hypersocial colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2012-01-01

    It is no wonder that we are transfixed with fascination when we stand in the midst of an ocean of flowing ants within a single extensive society of one of the invasive species. Normal terms do not fit anymore: this is not just a colony, but a “supercolony.” The iconic supercolonial species...... is the Argentine ant, infamous as a pest and now very well studied, all the way from having its genome sequenced to its global distribution mapped. As the Argentine ant can be the key to understanding other supercolonial and/or invasive ants, it is very timely that Moffett's review (2012) focuses on how we...

  19. DA DOMINAÇÃO COLONIAL À COLONIALIDADE DO SABER: EFEITOS DO DETERMINISMO ECOLÓGICO DUAL NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Almeida Loiola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estabelece reflexões acerca dos efeitos do determinismo ecológico dual sobre a formação social brasileira. Realizada a partir de fontes bibliográficas, a pesquisa funda-se no olhar crítico do pensamento pós-colonial, na semiosis colonial e na perspectiva da interação sociedade-natureza da historia ambiental, a fim de desconstruir os signos de dominação disseminados na representação dual da natureza no Brasil. Desde o período colonial a representação de natureza ocorreu numa perspectiva dual: paraíso provedor de riquezas, e/ou fator limitante à sociedade; ambas representações tributárias do determinismo ecológico, fundado, sobretudo, na ideia aristotélica dos trópicos como fator limitante às sociedades e na Teoria do degeneracionismo. Esse dualismo originou-se a partir da visão utilitarista e externalizada da relação sociedade-natureza, durante o processo de dominação colonial. Influenciou a construção do “ser brasileiro”, já que as identidades do povo brasileiro estiveram associadas a noção de selvagem, florestas, meio ecológico e riquezas naturais, operando no modo como o brasileiro se vê, e é visto. Os resultados expõem que, se antes os signos da dominação colonial travestidos de “destino ecológico” eram externos, no presente encontram-se internalizados na mídia, literatura, ciência e na política, oferecendo barreira mental para a identificação das potencialidades e limites do meio ecológico, bem como o desenvolvimento de uma sociedade com elevada sustentabilidade.

  20. De la sociedad de trabajo a la sociedad tecnológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ENRIQUE RODRÍGUEZ IBÁÑEZ

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available En la sociedad actual, caracterizada por la revolución tecnoproductiva (el crecimiento y la difusión acelerados de industrias de alta tecnología, como, por ejemplo, el tratamiento de la información, las comunicaciones avanzadas, y la biotecnología y por un cambio en la mentalidad del "estado de bienestar" en lo que concierne a las preocupaciones por la calidad de vida y la intimidad, es recomendable que los valores tradicionales rígidos con respecto al trabajo, sean reestructurados según los nuevos criterios sociales y económicos. Los problemas sociales actuales - por ejemplo, el alto desempleo y las injusticias sociales entre aquéllos incluidos en la jerarquía de la alta tecnología y aquéllos que son excluidos a causa de unas habilidades y una educación obsoletas - se podrían mejorar por medio de una mayor preocupación por el capital humano, la desburocratización, y a través de iniciativas sociales. Se detallan las estrategias específicas para tales cambios, como por ejemplo aquellas propuestas por A. Gorz ("El que no trabaje, comerá", Letra Internacional, 1986, 3.

  1. Sociedad civil / sociedad informacional: redes sociales basadas en tic en argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Finquelievich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al estudio sobre las redes sociales sustentadas por Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TICs, en relación con el proceso de apropiación social de las TICs como instrumentos de comunicación y organización social para el desarrollo local. Definimos este desarrollo como el empoderamiento de organizaciones intermedias y de base, movimientos y movilizaciones populares y, en general, de entidades y organizaciones comprometidas con el apoyo popular a nivel local, y sus interacciones con otros actores sociales, como el sector público, el privado y el académico, para el progreso económico y social de la comunidad en su conjunto. A fin de ilustrar las consecuencias y desarrollos de esta perspectiva, se estudia la evolución del uso de TIC en las organizaciones de la sociedad civil en Argentina y específicamente, aquellas con sede en la ciudad de Buenos Aires.

  2. La educación en la sociedad del conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Paur, Alicia Beatriz; Rosanigo, Zulema Beatriz; Bramati, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo analizamos el impacto de las TICs en la sociedad y en la educación, resaltando la importancia de adoptar una postura crítica frente a la cantidad de información que nos llega a través de las nuevas tecnologías. La educación es el eje vertebral y director que nos permitirá avanzar desde la llamada sociedad de la información hacia una sociedad del conocimiento más justa y democrática; de ahí que la formación permanente y el logro de la independencia cognoscitiva debieran est...

  3. Libertad, igualdad y propiedad en la sociedad capitalista

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz San Juán, César

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se aborda la crítica marxiana de las ideas de libertad e igualdad de la sociedad capitalista, así como la relación de las mismas con el concepto de propiedad que rige en esta forma de sociedad. Se muestra cómo dichas ideas se derivan de la esfera de la circulación del sistema capitalista, no encontrándose presentes como tales en la esfera de la producción. Se trata de poner de manifiesto que sólo con la escisión en clases que está a la base de la moderna sociedad burguesa y l...

  4. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  5. Hombres de mar. Caciques de la Costa ecuatoriana en los inicios de la Época Colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Glave

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available e analiza cómo se constituyó el sistema económico colonial en la actual Costa ecuatoriana. Evidencia las formas sociales y económicas precoloniales y su articulación con la economía colonial. En esta zona geográfica, donde circulaban mercancías, personas y noticias entre la metrópoli y el virreinato, la producción y circulación de todos los bienes tuvo como piedra angular a las decaídas sociedades indígenas. Las fuentes utilizadas ofrecen rastros de la práctica de los señores étnicos, piezas esenciales para la implantación colonial.

  6. Desde el “Desarrollo Sustentable” hacia sociedades sustentables

    OpenAIRE

    Elizalde, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El presente ensayo sostiene que aunque el concepto de desarrollo sustentable cada quien lo usa desde su particular interés y visión de mundo, a lo menos ha permitido introducir un criterio para juzgar las instituciones y las prácticas vigentes de las sociedades modernas, y puede ayudarnos a transitar hacia una nueva cosmovisión. Presenta luego el "Desarrollo a Escala Humana" y propone una sociedad sustentable o ecológica, como una utopía realizable. Cet article affirme que si chacun emploi...

  7. El derecho, la cultura y la sociedad: realidades reflejas

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Diz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo da cuenta de una serie de reflexiones muy personales que toman como punto de partida la íntima, estrecha e indisociable relación entre la sociedad, su cultura y el derecho. Se presentan cuestiones actuales que el jurista ha de plantearse en términos generales, sin adscripción a temáticas concretas, en cuanto a la concepción actual del derecho, su influencia social, el deseable modelo jurídico que pueda responden a las expectativas de lo que la sociedad necesita y en ...

  8. La relación administrador-sociedad

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Fernando Sabogal Bernal

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se aborda el tema de la naturaleza jurídica de la relación administrador – sociedad con el fin de dar una mayor claridad sobre el cuerpo de normas y principios jurídicos que definen la posición, facultades y poderes de los administradores de sociedades. En la primera parte se hace una síntesis de las principales doctrinas que explican esta relación en el derecho continental europeo y angloamericano; en la segunda se organizan y concretizan las diferentes soluciones al problema...

  9. El conflicto societario en las sociedades de familia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Pinto Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se identifican las principales causas del conflicto societario en las sociedades de familia, específicamente las que tienen su origen en asuntos patrimoniales, de poder, de gestión, de gobierno y en las relaciones de afecto y de filiación entre sus asociados. Así mismo se exponen algunos instrumentos jurídicos que aporten solución al conflicto vistos desde la estructura y el funcionamiento de las sociedades, entre estos: los protocolos de familia, los acuerdos entre accionistas y las prácticas de buen gobierno corporativo.

  10. Economia da cibercultura: Ciber-consumo na sociedade do risco

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Pedro José de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Consumo em comunidades virtuais e sociedade do risco (risk society). Consumo e media cross-over: Cibercultura do consumo; Estatísticas dos mercados e consumo globais; Padronização e personalização; Fição ciberpunk; Os novos consumidores. Risco: Vigilância e marketing online; Subvertisements; Motores de busca personalizados; Jogos online; Second Life e Linden Dollar; Sociedade de risco: Ulrich Beck; Espaço cibernético; Riscos diretos e indiretos; Riscos técnico e humano.

  11. IMPACTO DE LAS CATÁSTROFES NATURALES EN SOCIEDADES COLONIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gascón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo resaltamos la relación entre la dinámica de una sociedad y los cambios operados por catástrofes masivas, tanto en lo material como en la economía, la política y las ideas y valores religiosos. Examinamos casos coloniales, como la erupción del volcán Villarrica (1640 en el sur de Chile y otros terremotos destructivos del siglo XVII. Adoptaremos una perspectiva comparativa para mostrar cómo las catástrofes modifican las condiciones locales y provocan cambios en la vida de las sociedades coloniales.

  12. `Boy!': The Hinge of Colonial Double Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Menke

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The French colonial enterprise in Africa enforced racial segregation, yet encouraged Africans to assimilate the French language, culture, and religion. The essay questions these contradictory policies through readings of Ferdinand Oyono's novels. It argues that a figure that embodies undecidability—the colonial servant known as the "boy"—is the locus of the denaturalization of the identities that were simultaneously institutionalized and denied by the Manichaean colonial world.

  13. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. ...

  14. A idéia de progresso no processo de institucinalização nacional das ciências no Brasil: a sociedade auxiliadora da indústria nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertol Domingues, Heloisa María

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The first Scientific institutions in Brasil created during the colonial period, defended the value of the thought that identified Enlightenment with Science. We would like to point out the roll played in the construction of the Nacional State by the Sociedade Auxiliadora da Industria Nacional, created after the independency, in 1825, although working officially since 1827.

    [pt] No Brasil, as primeiras instituções científicas que foram criadas ainda no tempo colonial, foram sociedades científicas, que professavam os valores daquele pensamento que identificava as luzes com as ciências. Gostaria de destacar aqui o Auxiliadora da Indusria Nacional, criada logo após a independê, em 1825 e funcionando oficialmente desde 1827.

  15. Antinomias y paradojas de la sociedad civil global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cruz Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Qué podemos entender por sociedad civil global y cuáles son sus implicaciones sobre el ejercicio del poder a nivel mundial? El presente trabajo examina este problema. Primero, analiza las antinomias del concepto de sociedad civil global desde una perspectiva analítica. Segundo, estudia sus contenidos normativos en relación con la democratización y el poder a escala global. Existen tres antinomias cuando se trata de precisar el concepto de sociedad civil global como categoría analítica: no puede concebirse por referencia a un Estado o comunidad política global, pues este es inexistente; no se erige en un ámbito de civilidad que excluya la violencia; y no es posible definirla desde una perspectiva objetiva, porque la disputa por su significado hace parte de sí misma. En términos normativos, existe una paradoja pues la sociedad civil global no representa ciudadanos o intereses generales sino cuerpos con intereses particulares vinculados a la necesidad de gobierno o gobernanza global. Sin embargo, ha generado un cambio en las concepciones y las condiciones de ejercicio del poder en el escenario global, que potencialmente contribuye a la democratización de la política mundial.

  16. Consideraciones sobre el Capital de las Sociedades Cooperativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Gutiérrez del Alamo y Mahou

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el tratamiento del capital en las sociedades cooperativas. Pero basta adentrarse en él para darse cuenta de que es amplio y extenso, tanto por el propio concepto que lo sustenta —el capital—, como por la diversidad de enfoques que puede tener su tratamiento: jurídico, económico, contable,...

  17. Combinaciones de negocios: fusiones y adquisiciones entre sociedades

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Areizaga, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    Este Trabajo Fin de Grado es un proyecto original de investigación-consultoría dónde se trataran de cerca. las fusiones y adquisiciones entre sociedades españolas en general, operaciones empresariales que se incluyen en las combinaciones de negocios.

  18. La sociedad civil en el proceso de toma de decisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Marín Aranguren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available ¿Qué es la sociedad civil? Es la pregunta más recurrente cuando se intentan explicar sus objetivos, alcances, impacto y fines. En este documento se recogen las distintas definiciones que en la teoría política se han dado acerca de la sociedad civil. Luego, se intenta demostrar la necesidad e importancia de las dinámicas efectivas que ejerce la sociedad civil sobre la gestión pública y su incidencia para el engrosamiento del capital social y el desarrollo democrático. Finalmente se propone que, posteriormente, desde la academia, se hagan análisis más precisos alrededor de las organizaciones no gubernamentales con posibles temas aún no investigados en Colombia como por ejemplo: la responsabilidad y la democratización; la tercerización de la sociedad civil, los pros y contras del marketing social, las ventajas y desventajas al hablar de ciudadanía corporativa, entre otros problemas que involucran a este actor.

  19. La sociedad civil en el proceso de toma de decisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Marín Aranguren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Qué es la sociedad civil? Es la pregunta más recurrente cuando se intentan explicar sus objetivos, alcances, impacto y fines. En este documento se recogen las distintas definiciones que en la teoría política se han dado acerca de la sociedad civil. Luego, se intenta demostrar la necesidad e importancia de las dinámicas efectivas que ejerce la sociedad civil sobre la gestión pública y su incidencia para el engrosamiento del capital social y el desarrollo democrático. Finalmente se propone que, posteriormente, desde la academia, se hagan análisis más precisos alrededor de las organizaciones no gubernamentales con posibles temas aún no investigados en Colombia como por ejemplo: la responsabilidad y la democratización; la tercerización de la sociedad civil, los pros y contras del marketing social, las ventajas y desventajas al hablar de ciudadanía corporativa, entre otros problemas que involucran a este actor

  20. Sociedade e Sustentabilidade: qual o lugar do conhecimento?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Baumgarten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aporta algumas considerações histórico-teóricas sobre as relações entre sociedade, conhecimento e sustentabilidade, buscando as intersecções desse debate com a problemática do desenvolvimento no mundo contemporâneo. A seguir são apresentados os artigos que integram o dossiê Sociedade, Conhecimentos e Sustentabilidade. Esses artigos têm em comum o enlace entre sociedade, ciência e sustentabilidade, ora trazendo controvérsias teóricas e colocando em discussão o próprio fazer científico e sua crítica, ora apresentando a temática da produção científica sobre sustentabilidade, observando arranjos conceituais, abordagens das interfaces entre humanos e não humanos, hibridismos, disciplinaridade e interdisciplinaridade. As tecnologias da informação e suas aplicações e repercussões sociais também estão presentes nas análises apresentadas, que abordam, de um lado, interações mediadas pela internet e sua capacidade para a criação de apoio social e, de outro lado, o aumento de desigualdades sociais no acesso a bens e a recursos característicos de uma sociedade com uso mais intensificado de tecnologias de informação e comunicação.

  1. LADRONES! DELINCUENCIA, SOCIEDAD Y CULTURA EN CHILE, 1870-1920.

    OpenAIRE

    PALMA ALVARADO, DANIEL

    2007-01-01

    Entre los problemas que en las últimas décadas han motivado los más intensos debates en hi sociedad chilena se cuenta, sin lugar a dudas, el fenómeno de la delincuencia. Cotidianamente se informa en los noticiarios y la prensa sobre determinadas acciones 365p.

  2. A responsabilidade social de siderúrgicas mineiras e a percepção de suas comunidades de entorno The social responsability of steel companies from Minas Gerais State (Brazil and the perception of their surrounding communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Aureliano Monteiro de Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou as percepções que comunidades de três grandes siderúrgicas mineiras têm sobre a responsabilidade social dessas organizações, assim com a relação disso com o valor da marca (VM. O estudo se baseou na Pirâmide de responsabilidade social de Carroll (1991 e foi feito a partir de um método tipo Survey. Foi estruturado um questionário com afirmações do tipo Likert que procurou avaliar como as comunidades percebem as organizações do ponto de vista dos vários aspectos da responsabilidade social corporativa, de acordo com o modelo de Carroll (1991, assim como qual a percepção de marca que essas pessoas têm dessas corporações e a relação desses fatores. Os resultados foram analisados por meio de métodos estatísticos multivariados e demonstram que as empresas têm alto VM entre suas comunidades de entorno e que isso é construído principalmente em função de uma percepção positiva das dimensões éticas e filantrópicas.The main purpose of this paper was to evaluate the perception of three surrounding communities of large steel companies from the State of Minas Gerais about the social responsibility of these corporations, as well as the relationship between this perception and the brand value view (BV. The study used the framework "Pyramid of Social Responsibility", proposed by Carroll (1991. It was a quantitative survey research with Likert-type questions, which aimed to assess how the communities perceive the various aspects of the social responsibility of these organizations and the perception of their brand value, as well as the relationship between these factors. The results, which were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, showed that the analyzed companies have high quality brand values, mainly due to a positive perception of their ethical and philanthropic dimensions.

  3. Ser marrano em Minas Colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Novinsky

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseado em 57 Processos inéditos de marranos (cristãos-novos, conversos presos em Minas Gerais no século XVIII, este artigo procura mostrar seu papel na Idade de Ouro do Brasil. 64% deles eram mercadores e 23% eram mineiros. Pertenciam à classe média e raros eram os magnatas. Nenhum dele esteve envolvido no tráfico negreiro. Acusados do crime de judaísmo e de pertencerem a sociedades secretas, representaram 42% dos brasileiros condenados à morte. Ser marrano entre os portugueses no Brasil mais um sentimento e uma visão de mundo do que uma prática religiosa.Based on 57 unknown trials of marranos (new christians, conversos arrested by the Inquisition in Minas Gerais in the XVIII the century, this article shows their role in shapping the history of Minas Gerais. 64% of them were merchants na 23% were miners. Most of them belonged to a middle class and rare were those whit great fortunes. No one of them were engaged in slave trade. Acused of judaism and of participating in secret society the marranos of Minas represented 42% of the Brazilian burned at the stake. Being a marrano in Minas Gerais was not always being a crypto-new. Marranism in Brasil was a feeling and a approach to life.

  4. Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on legal reasoning and legal epistemology within the African context. It examines the system of legal justice in post-colonial Africa and submits that because of the colonial legacy, post-colonial African legal reasoning is methodologically founded on empiricism and positivism. It avers that despite its merit ...

  5. Telephone Operators' Resistance to British Colonial Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to write the history of yet another form of resistance to colonial rule in British Africa with a focus on telephone operators in the erstwhile Cameroons Province. The pith and kernel of the paper therefore is to show how telephone operators resisted the colonial administration. This typology of resistance is yet to ...

  6. Print, Newspapers and Audiences in Colonial Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke

    2011-01-01

    in newspapers. They depended on voluntary and political associations and anti-colonial struggles in Kenya and on links to nationalists in India and the passive resistance movement in South Africa. They sidestepped the European-dominated print culture and created an anti-colonial counter-voice. Editors insisted...

  7. Colonialism in Modern America: The Appalachian Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen Matthews, Ed.; And Others

    The essays in this book illustrate a conceptual model for analyzing the social and economic problems of the Appalachian region. The model is variously called Colonialism, Internal Colonialism, Exploitation, or External Oppression. It highlights the process through which dominant outside industrial interests establish control, exploit the region,…

  8. Genetic Analysis of Termite Colonies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Arango; D.A. Marschalek; F. Green III; K.F. Raffa; M.E. Berres

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document current areas of subterranean termite activity in Wisconsin and to evaluate genetic characteristics of these northern, peripheral colonies. Here, amplified fragment-length polymorphism was used to characterize levels of inbreeding, expected heterozygosity, and percent polymorphism within colonies as well as genetic structure...

  9. Deporte y modernidad: caso Colombia. Del deporte en sociedad a la deportivización de la sociedad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Leonardo Quitián Roldán

    2012-01-01

    .... Sin embargo, su difusión desde la metrópoli victoriana y la apropiación de los principios morales que encarnaba en cada sociedad merece un escrutinio detallado, considerando escenarios de lucha, como su popularización...

  10. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dainat

    Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  11. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  12. Form and metabolic scaling in colonial animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Hanna; Humphries, Stuart; Okamura, Beth

    2014-03-01

    Benthic colonial organisms exhibit a wide variation in size and shape and provide excellent model systems for testing the predictions of models that describe the scaling of metabolic rate with organism size. We tested the hypothesis that colony form will influence metabolic scaling and its derivatives by characterising metabolic and propagule production rates in three species of freshwater bryozoans that vary in morphology and module organisation and which demonstrate two- and three-dimensional growth forms. The results were evaluated with respect to predictions from two models for metabolic scaling. Isometric metabolic scaling in two-dimensional colonies supported predictions of a model based on dynamic energy budget theory (DEB) and not those of a model based on fractally branching supply networks. This metabolic isometry appears to be achieved by equivalent energy budgets of edge and central modules, in one species (Cristatella mucedo) via linear growth and in a second species (Lophopus crystallinus) by colony fission. Allometric scaling characterised colonies of a three-dimensional species (Fredericella sultana), also providing support for the DEB model. Isometric scaling of propagule production rates for C. mucedo and F. sultana suggests that the number of propagules produced in colonies increases in direct proportion with the number of modules within colonies. Feeding currents generated by bryozoans function in both food capture and respiration, thus linking metabolic scaling with dynamics of self-shading and resource capture. Metabolic rates fundamentally dictate organismal performance (e.g. growth, reproduction) and, as we show here, are linked with colony form. Metabolic profiles and associated variation in colony form should therefore influence the outcome of biotic interactions in habitats dominated by colonial animals and may drive patterns of macroevolution.

  13. Growth of bacteria in 3-d colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxian; Mugler, Andrew; Kim, Justin; Jeong, Ha Jun; Levin, Bruce R; Nemenman, Ilya

    2017-07-01

    The dynamics of growth of bacterial populations has been extensively studied for planktonic cells in well-agitated liquid culture, in which all cells have equal access to nutrients. In the real world, bacteria are more likely to live in physically structured habitats as colonies, within which individual cells vary in their access to nutrients. The dynamics of bacterial growth in such conditions is poorly understood, and, unlike that for liquid culture, there is not a standard broadly used mathematical model for bacterial populations growing in colonies in three dimensions (3-d). By extending the classic Monod model of resource-limited population growth to allow for spatial heterogeneity in the bacterial access to nutrients, we develop a 3-d model of colonies, in which bacteria consume diffusing nutrients in their vicinity. By following the changes in density of E. coli in liquid and embedded in glucose-limited soft agar, we evaluate the fit of this model to experimental data. The model accounts for the experimentally observed presence of a sub-exponential, diffusion-limited growth regime in colonies, which is absent in liquid cultures. The model predicts and our experiments confirm that, as a consequence of inter-colony competition for the diffusing nutrients and of cell death, there is a non-monotonic relationship between total number of colonies within the habitat and the total number of individual cells in all of these colonies. This combined theoretical-experimental study reveals that, within 3-d colonies, E. coli cells are loosely packed, and colonies produce about 2.5 times as many cells as the liquid culture from the same amount of nutrients. We verify that this is because cells in liquid culture are larger than in colonies. Our model provides a baseline description of bacterial growth in 3-d, deviations from which can be used to identify phenotypic heterogeneities and inter-cellular interactions that further contribute to the structure of bacterial

  14. Growth of bacteria in 3-d colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxian Shao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of growth of bacterial populations has been extensively studied for planktonic cells in well-agitated liquid culture, in which all cells have equal access to nutrients. In the real world, bacteria are more likely to live in physically structured habitats as colonies, within which individual cells vary in their access to nutrients. The dynamics of bacterial growth in such conditions is poorly understood, and, unlike that for liquid culture, there is not a standard broadly used mathematical model for bacterial populations growing in colonies in three dimensions (3-d. By extending the classic Monod model of resource-limited population growth to allow for spatial heterogeneity in the bacterial access to nutrients, we develop a 3-d model of colonies, in which bacteria consume diffusing nutrients in their vicinity. By following the changes in density of E. coli in liquid and embedded in glucose-limited soft agar, we evaluate the fit of this model to experimental data. The model accounts for the experimentally observed presence of a sub-exponential, diffusion-limited growth regime in colonies, which is absent in liquid cultures. The model predicts and our experiments confirm that, as a consequence of inter-colony competition for the diffusing nutrients and of cell death, there is a non-monotonic relationship between total number of colonies within the habitat and the total number of individual cells in all of these colonies. This combined theoretical-experimental study reveals that, within 3-d colonies, E. coli cells are loosely packed, and colonies produce about 2.5 times as many cells as the liquid culture from the same amount of nutrients. We verify that this is because cells in liquid culture are larger than in colonies. Our model provides a baseline description of bacterial growth in 3-d, deviations from which can be used to identify phenotypic heterogeneities and inter-cellular interactions that further contribute to the structure of

  15. Swarming dynamics in bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hepeng; Be'Er, Avraham; Smith, Rachel; Florin, E.-L.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2009-11-01

    Swarming is a widespread phenomenon observed in both biological and non-biological systems. Large mammal herds, fish schools, and bird flocks are among the most spectacular examples. Many theoretical and numerical efforts have been made to unveil the general principles of the phenomenon, but systematic experimental studies have been very limited. We determine the characteristic velocity, length, and time scales for bacterial motion in swarming colonies of Paenibacillus dendritiformis growing on semi-solid agar substrates. The bacteria swim within a thin fluid layer, and they form long-lived jets and vortices. These coherent structures lead to anisotropy in velocity spatial correlations and to a two-step relaxation in velocity temporal correlations. The mean squared displacement of passive tracers exhibits a short-time regime with nearly ballistic transport and a diffusive long-time regime. We find that various definitions of the correlation length all lead to length scales that are, surprisingly, essentially independent of the mean bacterial speed, while the correlation time is linearly proportional to the ratio of the correlation length to the mean speed.

  16. la relación universidad-sociedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman K. Denzin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se refiere a un vínculo particular entre la universidad y la sociedad: el vínculo del complejo metodología/problemas sociales/ políticas públicas con la posibilidad de cambio con justicia social, en donde el resultado de los debates académico-metodológicos en relación con la investigación cualitativa y cuantitativa, tiene consecuencias en la formulación de políticas y en la distribución de los recursos locales, nacionales y planetarios. Se propone que es necesario el diálogo y colaboración entre paradigmas y comunidades académicas y que no hacerlo conducirá a explicaciones, políticas y prácticas acerca de problemas de la sociedad, cada vez más autoritarias.

  17. A sociedade internacional em Francisco Suárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Emílio Vauthier Borges de Macedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto analisa a noção de sociedade internacional em Francisco Suárez. Porque a vontade constitui elemento essencial do seu conceito de Direito, alguns autores criticaram Suárez por ver nele o precursor do positivismo voluntarista dos teóricos de Direito Internacional do século XIX. Mas isso é um equívoco. A sociedade internacional suareziana é mais do que a mera vontade dos Estados, pois se baseia num conceito bastante transcendente: a Caridade. Assim, procura refutar-se uma concepção difundida, mas imerecida do teólogo espanhol. O artigo empregou o método de abordagem indutivo, e as suas fontes primárias foram as obras de Suárez, e as secundárias as dos seus comentaristas.

  18. Migraciones internacionales y cambio social en las sociedades modernas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguemati Wabgou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se propone develar las complejidades de las relaciones que mantienen los flujos migratorios contemporáneos con las sociedades de acogida, teniendo en cuenta las transformaciones sociales, culturales —identitarias—, políticas y económicas que se ponen en marcha; esto es, el papel que juegan los inmigrantes en el surgimiento de cambios sociales. Por un lado, analiza estas migraciones como factores de cambio social y, por otro, a los(as inmigrantes como agentes de este cambio; lo que conlleva retos y desafíos para la sociedad de destino. En definitiva, busca aprehender cómo las migraciones se revelan como una de las formas más concretas de las movilidades humanas que originan impulsos de cambio social en este mundo que está permanente en movimiento.

  19. como valor añadido de toda la sociedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Viviente Solé

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo ofrece una sinopsis o visión global de la organización y planificación de la difusión cultural universitaria entendida como valor añadido, es decir, como incremento del saber, no sólo de profesores y alumnos, sino de toda la sociedad. Se defiende una difusión cultural en la sociedad de la comunicación basada, precisamente, en el incremento de la comunicación y en sus efectos formativos en el entorno social. Para ello se analiza la situación y se propone un modelo dinámico y abierto de Universidad, del que se ofrece una panorámica general respecto a la organización y planificación de la difusión cultural, junto con algunos ejemplos

  20. La relación administrador-sociedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Sabogal Bernal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda el tema de la naturaleza jurídica de la relación administrador – sociedad con el fin de dar una mayor claridad sobre el cuerpo de normas y principios jurídicos que definen la posición, facultades y poderes de los administradores de sociedades. En la primera parte se hace una síntesis de las principales doctrinas que explican esta relación en el derecho continental europeo y angloamericano; en la segunda se organizan y concretizan las diferentes soluciones al problema por parte de la legislación, la jurisprudencia y la doctrina nacional colombiana; y finalmente, en la tercera se propone una aproximación interpretativa propia del autor, intentando conciliar las posiciones extranjeras y nacionales de conformidad con la jurisprudencia y la legislación colombianas.

  1. A ÉTICA NA SOCIEDADE DE CONSUMO

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Fernando Henrique

    2014-01-01

    O presente artigo busca trazer à baila a problemática da existência ou não da etica na sociedade de consumo. Para tanto, será feita uma digressão histórica do modernismo ao pós-modernismo, bem como será traçado, de modo detalhado, a evolução da sociedade de consumo, desde a revolução industrial aos dias atuais, tendo por escopo os estudos realizados pelo filósofo francês Gilles Lipovetski. Traçado este panorama, será estudada a figura do consumismo e hiperconsumismo, bem como seu papel e rele...

  2. La relación administrador-sociedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Sabogal Bernal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda el tema de la naturaleza jurídica de la relación administrador – sociedad con el fin de dar una mayor claridad sobre el cuerpo de normas y principios jurídicos que definen la posición, facultades y poderes de los administradores de sociedades. En la primera parte se hace una síntesis de las principales doctrinas que explican esta relación en el derecho continental europeo y angloamericano; en la segunda se organizan y concretizan las diferentes soluciones al problema por parte de la legislación, la jurisprudencia y la doctrina nacional colombiana; y finalmente, en la tercera se propone una aproximación interpretativa propia del autor, intentando conciliar las posiciones extranjeras y nacionales de conformidad con la jurisprudencia y la legislación colombianas.

  3. La infancia en riesgo social desde la sociedad del bienestar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ángeles BALSELLS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo plantea la necesidad de redefinir el concepto de infancia en situación de riesgo social, dado que las avanzadas sociedades del bienestar están siendo escenario de nuevos fenómenos sociales que provocan a su vez la aparición de nuevos colectivos infanto-juveniles en riesgo. Se conoce el maltrato infantil familiar como una causa clara del riesgo social pero, ¿existen otras situaciones, fuera de la familia, que provocan la aparición de poblaciones infantiles en situación de riesgo social?, ¿se puede hablar de infancia en situación de riesgo social cuando no existen maltratos o negligencia en la familia? En definitiva, ¿las sociedades desarrolladas y avanzadas son el escenario de nuevos grupos de riesgo social? Estos son los interrogantes que pretende responder el presente artículo.

  4. Management y sociedad en la obra de Peter Drucker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Rodríguez, Carlos Jesus

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to highlight, from a critical perspective, the sociological aspects in the works by the famous management guru Peter Drucker. Therefore, it is proposed a discourse analysis which makes reference to the evolution of his thought, especially in two issues. Firstly, there is a focus on the changes in the relationship between corporation and society, which highlight how the author has moved from a organicist perspective of society to a denial of the social itself in his last works. Secondly, there is an analysis of the vision of the current society as a post-capitalist society, in which the State plays a minor role and knowledge reveals itself as the key socially differential factor.El presente artículo intenta hacer hincapié en los aspectos sociológicos de la obra del famoso gurú de la gestión empresarial Peter Drucker desde una perspectiva crítica. Para ello, se propone un análisis del discurso que hace referencia a la evolución de su pensamiento, concretamente en dos cuestiones. En primer lugar, se presta atención a los cambios en la relación entre empresa y sociedad, que muestran cómo el autor ha pasado de una perspectiva organicista de la sociedad a negar lo social en sus últimos trabajos. En segundo lugar, se analiza la visión que presenta de la sociedad actual como una sociedad postcapitalista, en la que el Estado tiene un papel menor y donde el conocimiento es el elemento socialmente diferenciador.

  5. Colony Foundation in an Oceanic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munilla, Ignacio; Genovart, Meritxell; Paiva, Vitor H.; Velando, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Seabirds are colonial vertebrates that despite their great potential for long-range dispersal and colonization are reluctant to establish in novel locations, often recruiting close to their natal colony. The foundation of colonies is therefore a rare event in most seabird species and little is known about the colonization process in this group. The Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a pelagic seabird that has recently established three new colonies in Galicia (NE Atlantic) thus expanding its distribution range 500 km northwards. This study aimed to describe the establishment and early progress of the new Galician populations and to determine the genetic and morphometric characteristics of the individuals participating in these foundation events. Using 10 microsatellite loci, we tested the predictions supported by different seabird colonization models. Possibly three groups of non-breeders, adding up to around 200 birds, started visiting the Galician colonies in the mid 2000’s and some of them eventually laid eggs and reproduced, thus establishing new breeding colonies. The Galician populations showed a high genetic diversity and a frequency of private alleles similar to or even higher than some of the large historical populations. Most individuals were assigned to several Atlantic populations and a few (if any) to Mediterranean colonies. Our study suggests that a large and admixed population is settling in Galicia, in agreement with predictions from island metapopulation models of colonization. Multiple source colonies imply that some birds colonizing Galicia were dispersing from very distant colonies (> 1500 km). Long-distance colonizations undertaken by relatively large and admixed groups of colonizers can help to explain the low levels of genetic structure over vast areas that are characteristic of most oceanic seabird species. PMID:26909694

  6. Responsabilidade Social Empresarial (RSE: compromisso com a sociedade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Hastenreiter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Em tempos de crises - ambiental e financeira - o mundo se encontra em busca de saídas que possam solucionar questões difíceis e ao mesmo tempo necessárias. Como explorar os recursos naturais de forma sustentável? Qual a implicação da empresa com a sociedade? O compromisso ético das empresas com a sociedade, considerando-a como um de seus stakeholders é tema de grandes debates, pois projetos e práticas sociais advindas de empresas devem ser pautados pela espontaneidade e não através de uma obrigação legal. Este texto trata da questão através do esclarecimento sobre a Responsabilidade Social Empresarial (RSE como suporte para que as empresas possam se adaptar a este novo cenário político-econômico. Esse movimento deve ser pautado pela ética e pelo compromisso social da empresa com a sociedade, considerando que a existência e sobrevivência das empresas na atualidade se relacionam com os seus propósitos sociais.

  7. Comunidades virtuais gerando identidades na sociedade em rede

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    Cynthia Harumy Watanabe Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A revolução tecnológica concentrada nas Tecnologias da Informação e da Comunicação (TICs, que possibilita a conexão mundial via redes de computadores, promove alterações significativas na base material da sociedade, ao estabelecer uma interdependência global entre os países e modificar as relações entre economia, Estado-nação e sociedade.  O uso crescente de redes como a Internet resultou na criação de um novo tipo de organização social, a sociedade em rede, que permite a formação de comunidades virtuais, grupos humanos constituídos pela identificação de interesses comuns.  Neste artigo, elaborado a partir de revisão teórica, abordaremos a formação dessas comunidades como uma estratégia do indivíduo para adquirir uma nova identidade, uma vez que as identidades culturais estão se fragmentando em conseqüência do processo de globalização, que é inerente à modernidade.

  8. Evolutional Ant Colony Method Using PSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Nobuto; Aiyoshi, Eitarou

    The ant colony method is one of heuristic methods capable of solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP), in which a good tour is generated by the artificial ant's probabilistic behavior. However, the generated tour length depends on the parameter describing the ant's behavior, and the best parameters corresponding to the problem to be solved is unknown. In this technical note, the evolutional strategy is presented to find the best parameter of the ant colony by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the parameter space. Numerical simulations for benchmarks demonstrate effectiveness of the evolutional ant colony method.

  9. Identificação e isolamento de bactérias envolvidas na formação de drenagem ácida mineira na região de Jacobina (Bahia) e o seu uso na biolixiviação de cobre

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Luiz Eduardo Lacerda de

    2013-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans é uma das bactérias catalizadoras da reação de oxidação que leva à formação drenagem ácida mineira (DAM). Devido à capacidade oxidativa e lixiviante deste micro-organismo, a indústria passou a usá-lo na extração de minerais, por biolixiviação, com vantagens em relação aos métodos convencionais em alguns casos. A Bahia tem uma expressiva produção mineral, no entanto poucos são os relatos sobre a investigação sistemática de aspectos microbiológicos envolvidos na D...

  10. A economia colonial do Grão-Pará: uma avaliação crítica (1720-1822 The colonial economy of Grão-Pará: a critical evaluation (1720-1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base em exaustivo trabalho de reconstituição de séries que se estendem de 1720 a 1822, o artigo objetiva contribuir para a construção de perspectivas da economia colonial amazônica que enfatizem o contexto global - a capacidade demonstrada de se afirmar como subsistema do Império Colonial Português no contexto do mercado mundial. Ao discutir essa capacidade, avalia a evolução das condições fundamentais de escala e eficiência, entendendo-as como determinadas pelas condições locais de operação do projeto colonial. Tais condições, caracterizadas pelos fundamentos naturais únicos do bioma amazônico, são avaliadas na referência das mudanças institucionais que marcam, vigorosamente, no tempo, a trajetória da economia e sociedade regionais.Based on work of restoration of time series of some important economic variables that extend from 1720 to 1822, the paper aims to contribute to a vision of the Amazonian colonial economy that emphasizes the global context - it means a demonstrated ability to assert itself as sub-system of the Portuguese Colonial Empire in the context of world market. In discussing this capacity, the article evaluates the evolution of fundamental conditions of efficiency of the colony, considering them as determined by the peculiar features that assumed the local operation of the colonial project in Grão-Pará. These conditions, strongly characterized by the uniqueness of the natural foundations of the Amazonian biome, are evaluated in reference to the institutional changes that mark in time the trajectory of the regional economy and society.

  11. Los caminos hacia una sociedad de la informacion en America Latina y el Caribe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    ... hada una sociedad de la informacion en America Latina y el Caribe. El segundo paso consiste en formular una estrategia para la sociedad de la informacion. A medida que la sociedad mundial de la informacion se acerca a la madurez, se ha hecho evidente que la cuestion para los paises en desarrollo no es "conectarse o no conectarse", sino mas bien u "c...

  12. Estructura de la cultura en las sociedades industriales

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    ÁNGEL DE LA IGLESIA GÓMEZ

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un ensayo sociohistórico en donde se explora el significado del trabajo, la economía de la cooperación social, la mente prometeica, el advenimiento de la razón y la era de la producción mecanizada. Se distinguen dos tipos de sociedades industriales mecanizadas: las neocapitalistas y las socialistas de estado. La cultura se define como un sistema de acción social, la cual deriva de un sistema de conocimiento que media en la relación dialéctica entre el individuo y la sociedad. Se sostiene que en las sociedades preindustriales, las creencias relativas a las condiciones básicas de existencia preceden a las ideas, mientras que en las sociedades industriales las ideas devienen primordiales, adquiriendo relativa independencia con respecto a las creencias. Dicho proceso se ha contemplado asimismo como el tránsito de la ignorancia, la irracionalidad y la superstición a un sistema racional y empírico, cambio que viene marcado por importantes transformaciones socioculturales. La crisis que en las sociedades modernas afecta a la familia, la iglesia y la universidad sería así consecuencia de la "inversión de la estructura cultural" que implica el proceso aludido. Los movimientos contraculturales anarquistas o románticos serían pues manifestaciones de una bifurcación cultural que trataría de establecer las creencias de épocas previas. La situación resultante es pues de anomia, en la cual los grupos y los movimientos sociales afrontan las incertidumbres que empañan códigos y normas morales. Mientras que exista bifurcación cultural, la situación de anomia permanece irresuelta. Sólo una reintegración de ideas y creencias podría reestablecer el equilibrio entre corrientes culturales.

  13. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  14. Glendale Colony and Harvey Farms NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031819, Glendale Colony, Inc., and Harvey Farms, Inc. are authorized to discharge and must operate their facilities in accordance with provisions set forth herein.Indian Country on the Blackfeet Reserva

  15. Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, R. Scott; Tarpy, David R.; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees. PMID:22927991

  16. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scott Cornman

    Full Text Available Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.

  17. Institutional Development and Colonial Heritage within Brazil*

    OpenAIRE

    Naritomi, Joana; Soares, Rodrigo Reis; Assunção, Juliano J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of local institutions and distribution of political power within a constant 'macro-institutional' setting. We show that characteristics of Brazilian municipalities related to institutional quality and distribution of political power are partly inherited from the colonial histories experienced by different areas of the country. Municipalities with origins tracing back to the sugar-cane colonial cycle – characterized by a polarized and oligarchic socioeconom...

  18. Pattern Formation in a Bacterial Colony Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bacterial colony model. Based on the stability analysis, we derive the conditions for Hopf and Turing bifurcations. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by parameters in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibit a diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, holes and stripes pattern replication, which show that the bacterial colony model is useful in revealing the spatial predation dynamics in the real world.

  19. ColonyArea: an ImageJ plugin to automatically quantify colony formation in clonogenic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán

    Full Text Available The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin "ColonyArea", which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS on human glioblastoma cells (T98G. The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists.

  20. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Parsons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society

  1. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim B. Parsons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.

  2. Sociedad del conocimiento y persona con discapacidad: Enfoque ético

    OpenAIRE

    Etxeberria, X.

    2003-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la ética en la sociedad del conocimiento, esto es, los retos que la sociedad así calificada plantea a la ética y las exigencias que la ética plantea a esa sociedad. Para lograr este objetivo, en la primera parte se exponen una serie de cuestiones éticas generales en torno a la sociedad del conocimiento y seguidamente se descenderá a cuestiones específicas que conexionen dicha sociedad, desde el punto de vista ético, con las personas con discapacidad.

  3. Sociedad civil: una concepción radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo García Marzá

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos presentar un concepto de sociedad civil desde una perspectiva crítica, una perspectiva que pueda dar razón del potencial de cambio y transformación social que encierra este ámbito de la interacción social. Con este fin, se adentra en primer lugar en la difícil relación entre democracia y sociedad civil, analizándola desde el paso de las democracias participativas a las democracias deliberativas. El carácter global de la sociedad civil y los problemas de realización práctica nos conducen, en segundo lugar, a la discusión de la propuesta de autores como J. Habermas y M. Kaldor, destacando las insuficiencias de sus respectivos enfoques. A continuación, y en discusión con los trabajos de J. Keane, se presenta una propuesta de definición y fundamentación del concepto de sociedad civil apoyado en una hermenéutica crítica, capaz de justificar su núcleo moral como ética de la sociedad civil y, al mismo tiempo, de sus posibilidades reales de aplicación. Por último, se propone el concepto de recursos morales para reconstruir las características básicas que definen a los recursos propios de la sociedad civil.The objective of this paper is to present a concept of civil society from a critical perspective that can explain the potential for change and social transformation encompassed within this sphere of social interaction. To this end, we first explore the difficult relationship between democracy and civil society, through an analysis of the shift from participative to deliberative democracy. The global character of civil society and the problems of its practical achievement lead us, in a second stage, to discuss proposals from authors such as J. Habermas and M. Kaldor, and to uncover the inadequacies of their respective approaches. This is followed by a proposal, arising from debate on the works of J. Keane, in which the concept of civil society is defined and grounded

  4. Sociedad civil: una interpretación y una trayectoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Díaz, Víctor

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El lector me permitirá quizá que le explique de entrada el propósito y el alcance de este brevísimo ensayo, anticipándole los temas de las tres partes que lo componen. Primero, explico lo que quiero decir con la expresión «sociedad civil». Con este fin, describo un tipo o carácter ideal de sociedad civil, en torno al cual he organizado un esquema conceptual que utilizo desde hace años en un amplio programa de investigación en ciencia social; y esbozo las líneas de demarcación entre mi uso de esa expresión y otros usos que se han hecho y se hacen tic ella. Segundo, reelaboro el proceso por el que comencé a utilizar este concepto a mediados de los años setenta. Se trata de un esbozo de reconstrucción, hipotético y fragmentario, del contexto de descubrimiento de aquel esquema conceptual. Es un flash back que me lleva de los primeros sesenta (podría haberme llevado más atrás a mi libro Estado, burocracia y sociedad civil, que escribí en 1976 (Pérez- Díaz, 1978. Tercero, tomo nota de los cambios en mi posición a lo largo de estos años, y me interrogo sobre algunos de los problemas que me han llevado de la concepción de 1976 a la que expongo en La primacía de la sociedad civil de 1993 (Pérez- Díaz, 1993, y en mis trabajos ulteriores, donde hay un desplazamiento sistemático del énfasis de mi trabajo desde lo que Hamo (en la Primada «sociedad civil sensu stricto» hacia la «sociedad civil sensu lato». La explicación podría radicar en la necesidad de revisar, ampliar y formalizar el esquema «acomodándolo»: uno, al proceso en curso de mis trabajos de investigación empírica, y a la importancia creciente en esos trabajos de los temas de autoridad pública, esfera pública y política pública; dos, al horizonte histórico del whithcring away del totalitarismo comunista; y tres, a mi interés creciente en los temas de tradición, instituciones y retórica. Aunque los

  5. O dispositivo de gozo na sociedade do controle

    OpenAIRE

    Danziato,Leonardo José Barreira

    2010-01-01

    A partir das proposições de Foucault sobre uma mudança de dispositivos na modernidade, saindo de um "dispositivo de aliança" para um "dispositivo da sexualidade", e levando em conta, ainda, as considerações de Deleuze sobre a contemporânea "sociedade do controle", o autor realiza uma leitura psicanalítica dessas transformações nos processos de subjetivação modernos e contemporâneos, propondo a regência de um novo dispositivo na atualidade, que denomina de "dispositivo de gozo". Argumenta em f...

  6. Responsabilidad de directores de sociedades en Estados Unidos. Aspectos procesales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor José Miguens

    2015-01-01

    El objeto de este artículo es describir este régimen en su totalidad y realizar un juicio crítico de las normas que rigen las acciones procesales de la responsabilidad de los directores de sociedades comerciales en el derecho societario en Estados Unidos. La metodología utilizada en este trabajo responde a la sistemática de los autores norteamericanos citados, que se caracteriza por centrarse en los aspectos prácticos, la solución de problemas particulares y el comentario crítico de la jurisprudencia aplicable a la cuestión.

  7. de la sociedad civil en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aranda Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar algunos de los principales rasgos que presenta la reflexividad de las redes sociales en México, y su importancia en la autoconstrucción de la sociedad civil. Se ofrece una revisión de las principales orientaciones teóricas sobre redes sociales en el país, así como un esquema en el que se plantean tres tipos de reflexividad: autoconsciente, autorreferente y constitutiva, como vías específicas para la diferenciación del caso de estudio.

  8. De la accion comunicativa a la sociedad democratica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Félix Ángulo Rasco

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Defendendo uma ética da comunicação como condição da construção de uma sociedade democrática de indivíduos emancipados, o texto traz uma reflexão sobre os fundamentos da ética comunicativa de Habermas, a partir da distinção entre dois campos de desenvolvimento discursivo: o discurso teórico e o discurso prático.

  9. A influência da cultura Otaku na sociedade ocidental

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Com este artigo pretende-se contar a história e o impacto da cultura otaku (cultura pop japonesa) na sociedade ocidental, com principal ênfase nas relações Japão-Estados Unidos da América e ainda com uma pequena ênfase no efeito desta subcultura em Portugal. Durante o artigo abordar-se-ão temas históricos e actuais sobre o que levou ao desenvolvimento desta subcultura, como a história Japonesa, o desenvolvimento pós-guerra do Japão, a influência americana no anime japonês e posterior influênc...

  10. Universidad, sociedad y conocimiento: reflexiones para el debate

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Lamarra, Norberto

    2014-01-01

    El artículo presenta algunas reflexiones sobre la relación actual entre universidad, sociedad y políticas del conocimiento en Latinoamérica. Para ello, parte de considerar la situación pasada y presente de la educación superior en la región pero a la vez plantea sus interrogantes mirando hacia el futuro de los niños y jóvenes que hoy transitan las aulas de los sistemas educativos. Se consideran 4 ejes de análisis: "la Universidad que América Latina hubiese tenido", "la Universidad que tenemos...

  11. Conquest, Colonial Education and Cultural Uprootedness in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is disagreement between colonial and post-colonial Africanist historiography over the impact of colonial education on ... However, the latter are not quite agreeable to this position as they argue that colonial education had more negative effects than positive effects. Notwithstanding the benefits of Western education to ...

  12. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10...

  13. Mining and society in Coahuila. Mineria y sociedad en Coahuila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canales Santos, A.

    1991-09-15

    The best studies on mining in the Republic of Mexico show that mining played a very important role in setting in motion the economic development and expansion of colonial Mexico. Very little is known about this industry in the state of Coahuila, however, with regard to its history and economy and how it interacted with the economy of the new Spanish America. This makes Coahuila a suitable region on which to carry out a study. 24 refs.

  14. A UNIVERSIDADE E A "SOCIEDADE DA INFORMAÇÃO" LA UNIVERSIDAD Y LA "SOCIEDAD DE LA INFORMACIÓNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nélida González de Gómez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Podemos dizer que a Sociedade da Informação ocupa o lugar e assume as expectativas que outrora eram projetadas na Modernidade. Para Habermas, o entendimento do presente passa por pensar no avançar desde e além da modernidade parcial, não já como superada (como quando se fala da pós-modernidade, nem como uma ficção a ser simplesmente negada (como quando se afirma que jamais fomos modernos. Trata-se de pensar, com esses pontos de partida, se estamos hoje a buscar soluções vicariantes ao déficit sistêmico daquela modernidade incompleta, ou se, superando uma modernização periférica ou tardia, empreendemos caminhos auto-reflexivos e inovadores para definir e construir novas configurações do conhecimento, da comunicação e da informação. Como resposta às demandas das quais a Sociedade da Informação é ao mesmo tempo sintoma, apelação e desafio, as Universidades do Brasil e da América Latina tem em suas mãos o poder e a dívida de nutrir as variáveis epistêmicas de processos e práticas auto-reflexivos, gerando novas formas de um diálogo polifônico entre as esferas quase-públicas das Ciências, as plurais redes das tradições locais e os dilemas universais, que colocam hoje um novo cosmopolitismo informacional à luz de um repensar geral do devir da humanidade. Palavras-chave Sociedade da informação; Universidade; Bibliotecas universitárias Resumen Podemos decir que la sociedad de la información ocupa el lugar y asume las expectativas que ya fueran proyectadas sobre la Modernidad. Para Habermas, entender el presente es pensar en avanzar desde y mas allá de una modernidad parcial, ni superada(como cuando se habla de la pós-modernidad, ni puramente una ficción a se negada (diciendo que nunca fuimos modernos. Se piensa, con esos puntos de partida, si hoy buscamos soluciones vicarias del déficit sistémico de aquella modernidad incompleta, o si, superando una modernización periférica o tardía, iniciamos caminos

  15. Colony formation in the cyanobacterium Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Li, Ming; Reynolds, Colin S

    2018-02-22

    Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones. Unicellular Microcystis spp. can be induced to form colonies by adjusting biotic and abiotic factors in laboratory. Colony formation by cell division has been induced by zooplankton filtrate, high Pb 2+ concentration, the presence of another cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), heterotrophic bacteria, and by low temperature and light intensity. Colony formation by cell adhesion can be induced by zooplankton grazing, high Ca 2+ concentration, and microcystins. We hypothesise that single cells of all Microcystis morphospecies initially form colonies with a similar morphology to those found in the early spring. These colonies gradually change their morphology to that of M. ichthyoblabe, M. wesenbergii and M. aeruginosa with changing environmental conditions. Colony formation provides Microcystis with many ecological advantages, including adaption to varying light, sustained growth under poor nutrient supply, protection from chemical stressors and protection from grazing. These benefits represent passive tactics responding to environmental stress. Microcystis colonies form at the cost of decreased specific growth rates compared with a unicellular habit. Large colony size allows Microcystis to attain rapid floating velocities (maximum recorded for a single colony, ∼ 10.08 m h -1 ) that enable them to develop and maintain a large biomass near the surface of eutrophic lakes, where they may shade

  16. Colonial Army Formats in Africa and Post-Colonial Military Coups:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSOS USER

    military forces in colonial and early post-colonial Nigeria establish a legacy of coups in the armed forces in the post-independence era?10 The units of analysis are the coup events.11. In each case, inferences were drawn from the nationality and religious affiliation of coup plotters and participants, their motives, and the.

  17. Colonialism, customary law and the post-colonial state in Africa: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonialism became a fact of life in many African countries. An effect of colonialism especially in the former British colonized countries was the transplantation of the British legal system, which led to recognition of both systems and the gradual relegation of the indigenous system otherwise called customary law. The use and ...

  18. Grazer-induced colony formation in Scenedesmus: are there costs to being colonial?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.; Van Donk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Grazer-induced colony formation in the common green alga Scenedesmus acutus may be interpreted as an anti-grazer defense. Costs are to be expected because otherwise the protected colonial morph would be the norm. Analysis of growth rates, light harvesting in terms of photosystem II (PSII) efficiency

  19. Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Methods and Principal Findings Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. Conclusions/Significance This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted. PMID:19649264

  20. Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.

    2017-08-01

    Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the “repressilator” network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.

  1. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  2. DOCUMENTO: ¿QUÉ ESCUELA PARA CUÁL SOCIEDAD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández Gracía

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Recuperando una crucial pregunta de Humberto Maturana para contextualizar problemáticamente la presente reflexión, abordaremos entonces algunos aspectos globales de la gran discusión que gira hoy día alrededor de las complejas relaciones entre la Escuela y la Sociedad, y lo haremos limitándonos solamente, en el corto espacio de este artículo, a señalar algunos de los que percibimos como hilos matrices de la trama de factores, dinámicas y elementos que entretejen esta relación. Nuestras naciones hispanoamericanas, y la colombiana en particular, fueron configuradas, en sus prácticas, en sus instituciones y en sus imaginarios conceptuales y valorativos de un modo paradójico: fueron, fuimos y quisiera adelantar, en parte seguimos siendo— sociedades al tiempo rígidamente escindidas y profusamente intervinculadas. Los espacios, los tiempos, las dinámicas, con sus prácticas sus discursos y los discursos sobre los discursos, los sujetos, se construyeron a partir de un principio de catalogación excluyente: ordenar han sido igual entre nosotros a estratificar; y estratificar ha sido idéntico, históricamente, a excluir.

  3. Hume, Smith e as etapas da sociedade comercial

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    Rogério Arthmar

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo trata das concepções de David Hume e de Adam Smith sobre o ressurgimento da sociedade comercial na Europa após o feudalismo. Parte-se de breve exposição dos princípios filosóficos de Hume a fim de se apresentar suas teses referentes ao assunto na obra History of England. Mostra-se como ele associa o movimento parlamentar pela liberdade na Inglaterra com o progresso do comércio ocasionado pelo consumo de luxo da nobreza. Posteriormente, revisa-se a posição de Smith sobre os obstáculos à riqueza, bem como sua explicação para a decadência das civilizações grega e romana. Evidencia-se ainda como a interpretação smithiana do advento da sociedade comercial moderna apoia-se na versão antecipada por Hume. Por fim, destacam-se as implicações do conflito central entre predação e produção presente nas teorias do desenvolvimento de longo prazo da humanidade elaboradas por ambos os autores.

  4. El FSLN y el FMLN ante la sociedad civil centroamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Salazar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Centroamérica tiene dos protagonistas en el año 2001, el FSLN en Nicaragua y el FMLN en El Salvador, ambas fuerzas políticas se encuentran en proceso de rearticulación y agrupamiento para competir en los procesos electorales que se acercan. En Nicaragua, las cartas de presentación del sandinismo son la conciliación discursiva, aunque prevalece la ortodoxia militante; por otro lado, en El Salvador la tendencia ortodoxa se asoma y arrincona a los gradualistas, dejando un amplio margen para que el partido Arena nuevamente se despliegue con facilidad, mientras los efemelianos se disputan cuotas de poder al interior del partido. Hay un protagonista oculto —a través de la organización comunitaria, cursos de capacitación política, talleres de cultura política y ejercicio de control cívico sobre los funcionarios y representantes de la sociedad en los asuntos públicos—: la sociedad civil salvadoreña, que actúa ya sea al lado de los partidos políticos, al margen de ellos o en una esfera de interfase.

  5. Sociedad y naturaleza en la mitología Muisca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Correa Rubio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Analizando la mitología de los muiscas ilustraré cómo se trata de un discurso que puede guiar el comportamiento social porque esta constituido por un conjunto de abstracciones que, en el lenguaje simbólico, expresan el conocimiento de la sociedad sobre sus propias relaciones y de estas con la naturaleza. El análisis evidencia cómo el sol y la luna eran los símbolos dominantes no sólo por su importancia en el ordenamiento del tiempo y espacio del universo y, en consecuencia, en las tareas cotidianas, sino cómo su comportamiento pretendía ser explicado a semejanza de la estabilidad y variabilidad de las relaciones sociales. Argumentaré que esta analogía entre el comportamiento de los astros y las gentes constituye un operador lógico en el que descansa la simbología. Los mitos no son, pues, fantasía, ni en ellos «todo puede suceder». Son construcciones culturales que expresan en un discurso codificado, conocimientos de la experiencia que la sociedad debe seguir para garantizar su propia reproducción social.

  6. LA PAZ Y LA TRANSFORMACIÓN DE LA SOCIEDAD

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    Luis Jorge Garay S

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta ponencia desarrolla dos problemas. 1 La crisis profunda de la viabilidad de la sociedad colombiana solo pueden superarse si se genera un nuevo pacto social donde los agentes sociales se comprometan en un conjunto de valores e instituciones que den vía al progreso y a una sociedad democrática y equitativa. 2 Un tratamiento solamente represivo del problema de la producción y tráfico de las drogas ilícitas, tal como se presenta en el Plan Colombia, está destinado a agravar los problemas. Es necesario una estrategia integral que garantice una responsabilidad compartida entre los distintos países y sus elites.Two problems are developed in this paper: 1- The deep crisis of the viability of the Colombian society can only be overcome if there is a new social pact where social agents are cornmitted to a ensemble of values and institutions that makes way to progress and to a democratic and equitable society. 2- The application of only a repressive treatment to the problem of the production and traffic of illegal drugs, as it happens in the Plan Colombia (Colombian Plan, is due to make the problems worst. It is necessary comprehensive strategy that guarantees a shared responsibility between the different countries and their elite.

  7. Educación compleja: Indisciplinar la sociedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Maldonado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de investigación es eminentemente crítico y propositivo. Se plantea aquí la tesis de una educación modo complejo, la cual consiste, específicamente, en una indisciplinarización del conocimiento, de la sociedad y de las instituciones. Se aportan, por consiguiente, los argumentos que hacen posible comprender esta tesis. En primer lugar, se muestra qué y cómo la historia de Occidente ha sido la historia de la disciplinarización de la sociedad. Sobre esta base, el segundo argumento establece lo que puede ser considerado como el estado del arte de la indisciplinariedad. Seguidamente, se justifica por qué razón tiene sentido afirmar aquí la indisciplinarización del conocimiento. El cuarto argumento se concentra entonces en una educación modo complejo (que es mucho mejor que hablar de una educación compleja. Al final se extraen algunas conclusiones.

  8. Raízes e estruturas da sociedade brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Natividade de Campos Medeiros

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer e refletir as raízes e estruturas da sociedade brasileira, na visão de dois grandes pensadores: Sérgio Buarque de Holanda com Raízes do Brasil e Gilberto Freyre com Casa-Grande & Senzala. Holanda dividiu o Brasil em duas fases a primeira da colonização portuguesa e a segunda uma critica ao Estado Novo. Freyre mostra a organização social, política e econômica da época da colonização e desenvolve seus estudos ao final da década de 1920, época em que o ambiente intelectual brasileiro está sob a força do modernismo. Conclui-se que o pensamento de Holanda e Freyre se assemelha em alguns aspectos e diverge em outros.   Sociologia de Freyre; Sociologia de Holanda; Raízes da sociedade brasileira

  9. La educación comparada en una sociedad global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis García Garrido

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Intenta el autor ofrecer un cuadro de referencia de 10 que va a suponer, para la educacion comparada en cuanto disciplina cientifica y academica, el advenimiento del siglo XXI y, con él,el de una sociedad humana globalizada. Se refiere en concreto a los nuevos desafios presentes ya hoy, particularmente los derivados de la globalizacion económica, cultural y social, asi como a los nuevos recursos con que puede y podra contarse, sobre todo los relativos a la tecnologia de la comunicación. Exarnina, a modo de ejemplo, dos enfoques metodológicos defendidos recientemente como especialmente adecuados a las necesidades del momento, estableciendo sus pros y contras. Y finaliza con una llamada de atención hacia la necesidad de que la educacion comparada, en la sociedad giobalizada del siglo XXI, profundice sus planteamientos epistemológicos por la via de una mayor ret1exion histórica, cultural y filosofica de los sistemas educacionales

  10. INDICADORES CUALITATIVOS DE LA SOCIEDAD DE LA INFORMACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Echeverría

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La sociedad de la información (SI requiere un espacio para desarrollarse: el espacio electrónico, generado por las tecnologías de la información y de las comunicaciones (TIC. Si concebimos ese espacio sólo como un mercado informacional (acceso y contenidos, los indicadores que miden el desarrollo de la SI serán cuantitativos y tendrán un claro sesgo mercantilista. En cambio, si promovemos una sociedad civil de la información, tendremos que usar indicadores cualitativos que midan el desarrollo de la vida civil en el espacio electrónico y las capacidades de la ciudadanía por ser activa en él. Como ejemplo, se analiza críticamente el plan europeo e-Learning y los indicadores utilizados por la Unión Europea, centrados en la conexión a internet y el uso de las tecnologías multimedia. Partiendo de que la educación debe desarrollar ante todo las capacidades de acción en el espacio electrónico, se proponen indicadores cualitativos para la educación asistida por las TIC. Estos planteamientos pueden generalizarse a otras actividades sociales en el espacio electrónico.

  11. Deporte y modernidad: caso colombia. del deporte en sociedad a la deportivización de la sociedad

    OpenAIRE

    Quitián Roldán, David Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    El deporte es, quizá, la expresión más potente de la modernidad: surge con la industrialización y la urbanización, teniendo como epicentro los clubes londinenses. Sin embargo, su difusión desde la metrópoli victoriana y la apropiación de los principios morales que encarnaba en cada sociedad merece un escrutinio detallado, considerando escenarios de lucha, como su popularización a través de expresiones como el fútbol y el ciclismo. El presente artículo pretende realizar un recorrido analítico ...

  12. Ciencia, tecnología y sociedad. Influencia de la sociedad en las ideas previas de los alumnos. Quimifobia

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-García, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Química es todo, son las reacciones que se producen en la naturaleza, son las transformaciones que el ser humano realiza en los elementos que nos rodean, incluso el propio ser humano está compuesto de reacciones químicas y moléculas. Históricamente la química ha estado asociada a la evolución del ser humano, de forma que mejoras en la calidad de vida o avances en las diferentes civilizaciones, han estado precedidos por un descubrimiento químico. Pero desde la sociedad actual parece estar s...

  13. Las relaciones Universidad/Sociedad en Cantabria (1925-1989). Distanclamiento y actitud de la sociedad regional

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ochoa, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Las relaciones entre la Universidad y la Sociedad constituyen uno de los temas de mayor actualidad en España dentro del ámbito de la educación superior. El interés puesto por los especialistas y los sectores implicados en el estudio de esta cuestión está directamente relacionado con el reciente proceso de reforma de la enseñanza superior española, que no sólo ha supuesto la acomodación de la Universidad a las pautas del Estado democrático instaurado en 1978, sino que ha intendado poner remedi...

  14. Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains based on position distribution model of ant colony foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiang; Dai, Yuntao; Gao, Jinyu

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Production scheduling with ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernigovskiy, A. S.; Kapulin, D. V.; Noskova, E. E.; Yamskikh, T. N.; Tsarev, R. Yu

    2017-10-01

    The optimum solution of the production scheduling problem for manufacturing processes at an enterprise is crucial as it allows one to obtain the required amount of production within a specified time frame. Optimum production schedule can be found using a variety of optimization algorithms or scheduling algorithms. Ant colony optimization is one of well-known techniques to solve the global multi-objective optimization problem. In the article, the authors present a solution of the production scheduling problem by means of an ant colony optimization algorithm. A case study of the algorithm efficiency estimated against some others production scheduling algorithms is presented. Advantages of the ant colony optimization algorithm and its beneficial effect on the manufacturing process are provided.

  16. La empresa familiar y su organización en forma de sociedad mercantil, con especial referencia a la sociedad de responsabilidad limitada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angustias Díaz Gómez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, tras unas consideraciones generales sobre la Empresa Familiar, analizamos, en primer lugar, los tipos sociales mercantiles que puede adoptar en España la Sociedad Familiar, haciendo un repaso de las formas sociales típicas reconocidas por el legislador, reflexionando sobre sus ventajas e inconvenientes. En segundo lugar, nos centramos en el estudio del régimen jurídico de las dos Sociedades Capitalistas más representativas, la Sociedad Anónima y la Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada, analizando sus rasgos comunes, todo ello con el fin de dilucidar cuál se adapta mejor a las particularidades de la Sociedad Familiar. En tercer lugar, considerando que la Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada es la forma jurídica de creación de Sociedades Familiares más utilizada, se le dedica especial atención, destacando las divergencias fundamentales de regulación entre esta sociedad y la Sociedad Anónima. Asimismo se estudia la Sociedad Limitada Nueva Empresa, como subtipo de la Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada. Como conclusión, se trata de arrojar luz sobre la elección preferente de la Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada como forma jurídica de constitución de la Sociedad Familiar y, al mismo tiempo, de examinar, desde una perspectiva crítica, la normativa que le resulta aplicable.In this work, after a few general considerations on the Family enterprise, we analyze, first, the types of mercantile companies that the Familiar Company can adopt in Spain, doing a revision of the social typical forms recognized by the legislator, thinking about his advantages and disadvantages. Secondly, we centre on the study of the juridical regime of both most representative Capitalist Companies, the public limited liability company and the Private limited company, analyzing his common features, all this in order to explain which one adapts better to the particularities of the Familiar Company. Thirdly, considering that the Private limited

  17. Arte da Performance e Guerra Colonial Portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    UID/FIL/00183/2013 Este artigo propõe-se refletir sobre as relações entre a arte da performance portuguesa e a guerra colonial portuguesa. A simultaneidade no tempo histórico, entre os anos de 1960-1970, levaria a crer que, tal como aconteceu com as temáticas da Ditadura/Revolução, a guerra colonial pudesse ter sido abordada pela performance desenvolvida em Portugal. Contudo, paradoxalmente, se até recentemente não havia registos de nenhuma obra de arte da performance portuguesa desse perí...

  18. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  19. El barroco por dentro y por fuera: redes de devoción en Lima colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Langdeau Cussen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El barroco latinoamericano se concibe generalmente como una época en la que una sociedad heterogénea se reunía en tomo a rituales públicos que manifestaban las ideologías políticas y religiosas de un monarca distante. La dimensión pública se impone de manera tan nítida en las crónicas del siglo XVII y principios del XVIII que nos lleva a pensar que, tal como Philippe Aries observó para la Edad Media en Europa, lo público y lo privado no siempre se distinguían en las ciudades coloniales. Allí, el individuo estaba inserto en solidaridades colectivas, y si bien la casa colonial no era un lugar accesible a cualquiera, distaba mucho de ser un refugio de la mirada de los demás.

  20. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce de Figueiró Santos

    Full Text Available Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB. Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  1. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  2. El capital social en las sociedades cooperativas. Las Normas sobre los aspectos contables de las sociedades cooperativas a la luz de los principios cooperativos

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Gómez Aparicio

    2003-01-01

    Los principios cooperativos tienen un alto contenido económico y marcan particularidades en la estructura financiera y en la generación y reparto del excedente. La diferencia concreta en España entre sociedades cooperativas y de capitales procede de la diferente normativa y las distintas leyes que han influido en el régimen económico de estas sociedades. La aparición de las Normas sobre los aspectos contables de las sociedades cooperativas tienen incidencia directa sobre régimen económico ...

  3. El control entre las sociedades y la constitución del grupo la protección de los socios externos en los grupos de sociedades

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Gijón Machuca, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    Se estudian los grupos de sociedades desde un punto de vista jurídico, en cuanto que el desarrollo de los grupos implican un cambio notable en el funcionamiento de las sociedades que los integran, lo que debe ser tenido en cuenta por los legisladores para establecer las correspondientes consecuencias jurídicas. El trabajo se divide en tres partes bien diferenciadas. La primera de ellas tiene por objeto el régimen jurídico aplicable a los grupos de sociedades, y se desarrolla en los capítulos...

  4. Colombia: ¿una sociedad trágica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Romero Rey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El texto forma parte de una reflexión sobre las especificidades de las ideas de tragedia y lo trágico dentro del conflicto colombiano contemporáneo. A partir de los elementos esenciales del teatro griego asociados al género y a la dimensión de la fatalidad, el presente texto establece relaciones entre los referentes de los mitos antiguos y sus equivalencias en una sociedad específica de América Latina. Los personajes de la tragedia griega se convierten en una suerte de metáforas vivas que continúan interrogando al hombre más allá de los límites de su tiempo.

  5. Métrica para la sociedad del conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Torres Citraro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Estamos viviendo una de las mayores revoluciones en la historia de la humanidad, en la que el conocimiento es y será la variable destinada a diferenciar entre los países que ocupan posiciones de liderazgo y aquellos que van a la zaga. Estamos viviendo la fase de transición de la Era Industrial hacia la Sociedad del Conocimiento. Conocer a esos países líderes, según lo señalan las clasificaciones y rankings de organismos multilaterales y del sector privado, es una necesidad para los planificadores y autoridades del mundo en vías de desarrollo, dado que ofrecen experiencias exitosas que pueden permitir mejorar la calidad de vida de nuestros pueblos en un período más breve. Estudiarlas y adaptarlas es un imperativo para sobrevivir.

  6. DERECHOS HUMANOS, SOCIEDAD DE LA INFORMACIÓN Y SOCIEDAD DE RIESGO DIREITOS HUMANOS, SOCIEDADE DA INFORMAÇÃO E SOCIEDADE DE RISCO HUMAN RIGHTS, INFORMATION SOCIETY AND RISK SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lucrecia Rovaletti

    Full Text Available La irrupción de la informática obliga a replantear el derecho a la intimidad, dada la organización de grandes bancos de datos de carácter personal. Debe añadirse además que la posibilidad del entrecruzamiento de la información contenida en los mismos puede facilitar el control y la manipulación de información sensible. Estas nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC, en continuo desarrollo, se han expandido también a los distintos dominios de salud, incidiendo en todos los actores, tanto usuarios como profesionales, poderes públicos y organismos de seguridad social. Dada la particular estigmatización que conlleva el complejo VIH/SIDA, es preciso exigir severas restricciones en el acceso a estos bancos, pero también normativas internacionales acordes, para que con la "sociedad de la información" no se agudice aún más la "sociedad de riesgo".A irrupção da informática obriga a reconsiderar o direito à intimidade, dada a organização de grandes bancos de dados de caráter pessoal. Deve-se acrescentar, ademais, que a possibilidade do entrecruzamento da informação contida nestes bancos pode facilitar o controle e a manipulação de informação sensível. Estas novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC, em contínuo desenvolvimento, têm se expandido também aos diferentes domínios da saúde, incidindo em todos os atores, seja de usuários e profissionais, poderes públicos e organismos de segurança social. Dada a particular estigmatização que implica o complexo HIV/AIDS, é preciso exigir severas restrições no acesso a estes bancos, ademais de normativas internacionais acordes, para que a "sociedade da informação" não agudize ainda mais a "sociedade de risco".Online bursting obliges to rethink the right to privacy, given the organization of huge databases of personal character. Furthermore, it must be added that the possibility of intercrossing information content may facilitate the control

  7. LA PARTICIPACION EN LA SOCIEDAD COMO BASE DEL DESARROLLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Múnera López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A explicação dela participação na sociedade como a base para o desenvolvimento é o resultado dum processo longo de pesquisa, que no âmbito da teoria fundamentada, tem chegado a aspetos essenciais de ordem conceitual e metodológica, que sustentam o desenvolvimento e a participação. Assim, este artigo apresenta o desenvolvimento desde uma perspectiva resignificada, entendida como uma construção sociocultural múltipla, histórica e territorialmente determinada. De acordo com tal renovação teórica, se apresenta uma forma tipológica de participação, chamada "participação sinérgica", como uma opção plausível para impactar positivamente o desenvolvimento.

  8. de Internet para el acceso a la Sociedad Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ugas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo que se presenta a continuación tiene como objetivo analizar el nivel de la brecha digital con relación a la difusión de las Tecnologías del Internet utilizadas para el acceso a la Sociedad Red en el Municipio Maracaibo. A través de una revisión bibliográfica se establecieron los principales conceptos y parámetros vinculados a la Difusión Tecnológica, la Brecha Digital y la Sociedad Red. Se realizó una encuesta en el Municipio Maracaibo del Estado Zulia en Venezuela. Para una población constituida por 1.372.724 de habitantes se utilizó una muestra de 277 sujetos aleatoria estratificada. Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado y semi-cerrado. Se concluyó que en los niveles de difusión, sólo el 34.3% de la muestra tenían acceso a Internet y el 65.7%carecían de esta tecnología. Existe una Brecha Digital en la difusión de las tecnologías, donde la característica sociodemográficas de los usuarios de Internet, mayormente, son: niños y jóvenes, del sexo femenino, con niveles de estudio superior, de ocupación principalmente estudiantes y pertenecientes a la clase social C. el acceso se concentra en habitantes de parroquias urbanas de la zona ESTE de Maracaibo. Se recomienda impulsar la universalización del acceso a Internet, incentivar el desarrollo de contenidos nacionales en Internet, fomentar el desarrollo de las habilidades informacionales y establecer un sistema de indicadores de las TICs para Venezuela.

  9. In the post-colonial waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    ready for sovereignty. It explores a number of European overseas countries and territories. More specifically, it focuses on French dependencies in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and North Atlantic Greenland constitutionally connected to Denmark. The immediate aim of anti-colonial struggles was to make...

  10. In the Post-Colonial Waiting Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    ready for sovereignty. It explores a number of European overseas countries and territories. More specifically, it focuses on French dependencies in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and North Atlantic Greenland constitutionally connected to Denmark. The immediate aim of anti-colonial struggles was to make...

  11. 128 COLONIALISM: NEXUS FOR MYRIAD RELIGIOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this regard, Mercado writers that,. The missionary version of Christianity accepted by Africans (under colonial rule) can be described as hypocritical because many African Christians still patronizes ATR, especially, in times of emergency. This means that the influence of ATR is still strong especially in moment of crisis.

  12. Creole Jews: Negotiating Community in Colonial Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Vink (Wieke)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study explores the ways in which a colonial domain affected identification processes among the Jews who had forged a Jewish community in Suriname since the mid seventeenth century. The history of the Surinamese Jews involves conflict, struggle and exclusion, but also cultural

  13. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  14. 178 MULTIPLE COLONIALISM IN WESTERN SAHARA Macharia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the French did when they claimed that Algeria was a province of France. Morocco exploited the prevailing international climate to advance its colonialistic proclivities at a time when territorial colonialism had become anathema internationally. That climate made the big powers, whether communistic or capitalistic, appear to ...

  15. Asexual propagation and regeneration in colonial ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürn, Ulrich; Rendulic, Snjezana; Tiozzo, Stefano; Lauzon, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    Regeneration is widely distributed among the metazoans. However, clear differences exist as to the degree of regenerative capacity: some phyla can only replace missing body parts, whereas others can generate entirely new individuals. Ascidians are animals that possess a remarkable regenerative plasticity and exhibit a great diversity of mechanisms for asexual propagation and survival. They are marine invertebrate members of the subphylum Tunicata and represent modern-day descendants of the chordate ancestor; in their tadpole stage they exhibit a chordate body plan that is resorbed during metamorphosis. Solitary species grow into an adult that can reach several centimeters in length, whereas colonial species grow by asexual propagation, creating a colony of genetically identical individuals. In this review, we present an overview of the biology of colonial ascidians as a paradigm for study in stem cell and regenerative biology. Focusing on botryllid ascidians, we introduce the potential roles played by multipotent epithelia and multipotent/pluripotent stem cells as source of asexual propagation and regenerative plasticity in the different budding mechanisms, and consider the putative mechanism of body repatterning in a non-embryonic scenario. We also discuss the involvement of intra-colony homeostatic processes in regulating budding potential, and the functional link between allorecognition, chimerism, and regenerative potential.

  16. German Colonialism and the Cameroonian Chieftaincy Institution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German Colonialism and the Cameroonian Chieftaincy Institution, 1884-1916: The Politics of Convenience, Tyranny and Hegemony. ... Lagos Historical Review ... It demonstrates that notwithstanding the treatment meted out to chiefs by the German colonialists, African traditional rulers exploited their positions within the ...

  17. Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimring, Lev

    2012-02-01

    The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

  18. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  19. A Bicentennial Without a Puerto Rican Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Piri

    1975-01-01

    The United States revolution of 1776 is said to lose validity in light of Puerto Rico's colonial situation under American rule. The plight of the Puerto Rican people is compared to that of the Euro-American settlers under the thumb-screw of British imperialism. (Author/AM)

  20. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  1. Consideraciones sobre la naturaleza contractual y comercial de las sociedades en el derecho colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oviedo Albán

    2011-01-01

    calificarlas como civiles o comerciales. A partir de las reformas legislativas correspondientes se sostiene que en la actualidad resulta más preciso referirse al negocio jurídico societario que al contrato de sociedad, toda vez que se admite la conformación de sociedades unipersonales. Igualmente, se muestran los criterios a los que se alude en Colombia para calificar como mercantiles a las sociedades, mostrando el camino por el que ha transitado el régimen societario de este país, desde el Código de 1971 hasta la Ley 1258 de 2008 sobre sociedad por acciones simplificada.

  2. Arte em Herbert Marcuse: formação e resistência à sociedade unidimensional

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Juliana de Castro; Ribeiro,Daviane Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho é resultado de uma pesquisa teórica que teve como objetivo analisar a contribuição de Herbert Marcuse, autor da teoria crítica da sociedade, para pensar a relação entre arte, sujeito e formação para a resistência à sociedade unidimensional. Foram estudados os seguintes textos escritos entre 1941 e 1977: Razão e revolução (1941/1978), Eros e civilização (1955/1969), Ideologia da sociedade industrial: o homem unidimensional (1964/1973), Ideias sobre uma teoria crítica da sociedade...

  3. Direito das sociedades comerciais (capítulo I): sumários desenvolvidos das aulas de Direito para a Economia e Gestão

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Miguel; Silva, Eva Sónia Moreira da

    2013-01-01

    1. Noções fundamentais 1.1. A sociedade como ato e como entidade 1.2. Os elementos essenciais do conceito de sociedade 1.3. Os requisitos de comercialidade das sociedades. As sociedades civis, as sociedades civis sob forma comercial e as sociedades comerciais 2. O princípio da tipicidade das sociedades comerciais. Tipos de sociedades comerciais (em especial as sociedades por quotas e anónimas) e suas características fundamentais 3. O processo de constituição das sociedades 3...

  4. Deporte y modernidad: caso Colombia. Del deporte en sociedad a la deportivización de la sociedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leonardo Quitián Roldán

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El deporte es, quizá, la expresión más potente de la modernidad: surge con la industrialización y la urbanización, teniendo como epicentro los clubes londinenses. Sin embargo, su difusión desde la metrópoli victoriana y la apropiación de los principios morales que encarnaba en cada sociedad merece un escrutinio detallado, considerando escenarios de lucha, como su popularización a través de expresiones como el fútbol y el ciclismo. El presente artículo pretende realizar un recorrido analítico y panorámico desde la consolidación moderna del deporte en Inglaterra hasta su florecimiento social en Colombia, valiéndose para ello de recortes conceptuales con respecto al propio desarrollo de la mentada “modernidad” en nuestro país.

  5. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  6. Contribuição de Cistus Ladanifer L. e Cistus Salviifolius L. na recuperação de áreas mineiras da faixa piritosa ibérica Contribution of Cistus Ladanifer L. and Cistus Salviifolius for environmental rehabilitation of mine areas from iberian pyrite belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objectivo avaliar o potencial de utilização conjunta de Cistus ladanifer e Cistus salviifolius na recuperação ambiental de áreas mineiras abandonadas da Faixa Piritosa Ibérica. Os solos de São Domingos são muito heterogéneos, devido aos materiais que lhes deram origem, apresentando concentrações totais (mg kg-1 elevadas de As (1940-3030, Cu (210-237 e Pb (5280-9210. Contudo, a fracção disponível é, geralmente, baixa variando consoante as características dos solos. O comportamento face aos elementos vestigiais variou com a espécie: C. salviifolius apresentou maiores concentrações de As, Cu e Zn relativamente ao C. ladanifer, contudo para o Pb observou-se o contrário. As plantas de C. ladanifer e C. salviifolius são uma boa aposta para a recuperação ambiental de áreas mineiras da Faixa Piritosa Ibérica pois, apresentam excelente capacidade para colonizar áreas degradadas, grande tolerância a elevadas concentrações de elementos vestigiais no solo, adaptando-se bem a solos nutricionalmente pobres.The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of combined use of Cistus ladanifer and Cistus salviifolius for environmental rehabilitation of abandoned mine areas from Iberian Pyrite Belt. Soils from São Domingos mine area are heterogeneous, due to different characteristics of the original materials, and showed high total concentrations of trace elements (1940-3030 mg As kg-1; 210-237 mg Cu kg-1; 5280-9210 mg Pb kg-1. Available fractions of trace elements presented, in general, small concentrations which vary with soils characteristics. Cistus salviifolius presented larger concentrations of As, Cu and Zn than C. ladanifer, however the former species showed the smallest Pb concentration. Both Cistus plants have an excellent capacity for colonization of these degraded areas and are well adapted to contaminated soils with low nutrient contents. It is apparent that these plants can be used for

  7. Ireland – a test case of Post-colonialism / Post colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murray

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This review attempts to set the stage for post-colonial theorising, in the light of alternative representations of ‘whiteness’, on issues of gender, race and language within the discourse of equality. In this paper Ireland and the Irish provide a backdrop against which the nature and impact of colonialism on the colonised and the coloniser are explored. Many challenging questions emerge about the ideological basis of post colonial theory, not least when traditional paradigms of racism, as conveyed by the black / white dichotomy, are examined: Ireland presents a context, it is argued, where subjugation is of white on white. Linked to this is the language of the coloniser, a powerful hegemonic force which, in some situations, has been nurtured by the colonised and later developed into a text which is unique, producing a new literature which, it is asserted, truly invokes the ‘post colonial’. Abstract: Post-colonialism – essentially a critique of colonialism, is characterised by a process of disengagement from the colonial epoch and has taken many forms. In this article a set of phenomena are examined that have become inscribed in the cultures of the colonised with a view to identifying alternative cultural origins and dispositions recovered in this post-colonial era. Ireland and the Irish provide the background context of this exploration into perspectives generated by the peripheral or post-colonial nations. Globalisation, too, has had a role to play in the increasing de-territorialisation of communities as a result of cross-frontier mobility, increased intra-community mobility and new communication technologies. A critical reflection on the process of disengagement leads the author to conclude that we must come to recognise new cultural forms which are accepting of a heterogeneous and inclusive society: one which is not characterised by difference.

  8. Growth pattern of the surface of fungus Aspergillus colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-05-01

    Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.

  9. Colonial Conflicts in Contemporary Northern Ghana: A Historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Conflicts in Contemporary Northern Ghana: A Historical Prognosis of the British Colonial Factor in the Nawuri-Gonja and Mamprusi-Kusasi Conflicts. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  10. A ATOMIZAÇÃO DO SENTIDO DE SOCIEDADE CIVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Tavares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Na atualidade, os paladinos das políticas neoliberais passaram a entender que as lutas sociais de hoje são o reflexo de uma sociedade erigida por uma multiplicidade de vozes e pluralismo de posições. Essa é uma concepção advinda do pensamento pós-moderno, que junto a sua particular maneira de interpretar a realidade traz na narrativa do fim da civilização ocidental e de seus valores dominantes, o fio condutor para se traçar uma nova perspectiva de compreensão e atualização da realidade social. É diante desse contexto que situamos o objeto de pesquisa aqui adotado: a sociedade civil e sua interpretação pós-moderna. As lutas populares e as contestações sociais são indicadores de uma condição estabelecida pelo capital, que é a da contradição classista, e nesse processo o ato da luta política só pode se transformar em unidade transformadora à medida que deriva de um movimento em direção à consciência de classe. Desse modo, um dos principais objetivos aqui dimensionados situa-se em tentar compreender como a diversidade, ou ainda, a identidade, ambas rotuladas pela leitura pós-moderna como fragmentárias e individualistas, podem se transformar em uma identidade totalizadora, a de classe, quando movida pela força motriz de superação do capital. Com o processo de globalização, ou ainda, mundialização do capital, como prefere Chesnais (1996, houve um considerável agravamento das condições de vida da população mundial, o que produziu como reflexo imediato uma serie de transformações econômicas e políticas. E nesse bojo, o pensamento pós-moderno surge como instrumento de (reorganização e interpretação do “novo” momento vivido pelo capitalismo mundial e por sua forma de desenvolvimento, estando no centro dessa reorientação interpretativa a negação da centralidade do trabalho e do conceito de classes. É neste ínterim que se busca justificar a validade e a necessidade de uma reflexão te

  11. Violencia, Sociedad y Salud. Foro del 11 de Mayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Academia Nacional de Medicina

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción

    La Academia Nacional de Medicina, consciente de su alta responsabilidad social y del deber moral que tiene, como máximo organismo asesor del Gobierno en lo relacionado con la salud, consideró necesario e inaplazable promover un estudio a fondo sobre el problema de la violencia en Colombia, ante el notable recrudecimiento de este preocupante flagelo, que la coloca entre los países más violentos del mundo, y frente a las circunstancias manifiestas de progresiva agresividad que afecta a la familia, al individuo, al funcionario público, a la autoridad, y que ha convertido al delincuente común, al guerrillero y al narcotraficante en crueles destructores de la tranquilidad ciudadana.

    Las graves implicaciones de la violencia sobre la salud del individuo y de la comunidad, no sólo desde el punto de vista psicológico y físico, sino de las consecuencias notables sobre los pre-supuestos del sector y sobre el desarrollo y la economía nacionales, además de la mala imagen internacional, exigen una acción frontal contra este flagelo, de todos los estamentos gubernamentales y privados y los esfuerzos decisivos de la universidad, de las organizaciones gremiales y científicas, en una palabra de todos los conglomerados representativos, entre los cuales la Academia juega papel de liderazgo.

    Organismos Internacionales, liderados por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, convocaron a fines del año pasado a representantes de los países Americanos para tratar el tema de la violencia y sus implicaciones sobre la sociedad, en particular sobre la salud. En la importante Conferencia Interamericana celebrada en Washington, revisaron a profundidad aspectos como el de la violencia como problema de salud pública, la democracia sin violencia, la cultura de paz para el siglo XXI, la economía política de la no violencia, la construcción de las relaciones sociales no violentas.

    La trascendental reuni

  12. LAS DIMENSIONES DEL OCIO EN LAS SOCIEDADES RURALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rebollo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

     

    RESUMEN

    El presente artículo es un análisis sobre el Ocio en la sociedad rural. El medio rural se ha estudiado desde el punto de vista económico, político y social y sin duda ha despertado un gran interés. Numerosos son los problemas que arrastran estas sociedades a lo largo de la historia. Problemas que han dado lugar a una situación de subdesarrollo y marginalidad. Hoy día indicadores de desarrollo y calidad de vida de una población pueden ser las actividades de ocio realizadas. El nivel de práctica deportiva y el empleo del tiempo libre como actividades de ocio son fenómenos que despiertan gran interés desde el mundo académico. En esta investigación se evalúa estos parámetros y se da información sobre las necesidades de sus habitantes en materia de tiempo libre, actividades de ocio y de forma concreta actividades deportivas.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Ocio, Tiempo libre, Deporte, Rural.

     

    ABSTRACT

    The present article is an analysis of leisure in rural society. Rural areas have been studied from economic, political and social points of view and without a doubt there is heightened interest in these areas. Numerous problems have plagued these societies throughout history, and consequently led to underdevelopment and marginality. Nowadays leisure activities indicate development and quality of life in given populations. The level of sport practice and the use of the free time to do leisure activities are phenomena that interest the academic world. This investigation evaluated these parameters and information on the necessities of its inhabitants in the matter of free time, leisure activities and specifically sport activities.
    KEY WORDS: Leisure, free Time, Sport, Rural.

  13. Competencias docentes para enfrentar la sociedad del conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajaira del Carmen Oviedo G.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los avances científicos y la nueva economía global gestan la necesidad de adquirir nuevas competencias, en particular personales y profesionales, en los futuros ciudadanos y ciudadanas. Ante ello, es urgente la formación de actitudes, conocimientos y habilidades en el docente para afrontar exigencias y requerimientos de una sociedad del conocimiento que otorga un valor distinto a la información más allá de la mera transmisión. Esta reflexión de naturaleza documental hace un aporte a las instituciones formadoras del docente en este siglo XXI, ante el apremio de hacer frente a nuevos retos; asimismo, es viable como una alternativa al requisito de diseñar un perfil complejo que parta de la construcción, manejo y difusión de saberes y haceres vinculados al uso de las TIC. Desde este ámbito, el propósito es generar una visión holística de las perspectivas que constituyen la formación de este profesional (constructiva, reflexiva y humana para dar respuesta a los requerimientos de una sociedad que se transforma en todos los órdenes y, por ende, demanda nuevas formas de pensamiento para manejar el cúmulo de información a la cual está expuesta; implica el manejo y posicionamiento de estrategias y herramientas para mediar entre la tecnología y el estudiante. Estos aportes brindarán espacios para generar aproximaciones a un perfil del docente venezolano desde una dimensión ética, participativa, comprometida y consustanciada con su quehacer pedagógico mediado por las TIC. Se requiere una formación en las dimensiones del ser y el convivir, en las cuales la formación de principios como autonomía, libertad, respeto, responsabilidad, tolerancia, equidad, compromiso y solidaridad con sus pares, sean considerados rasgos fundamentales. Dejar de lado al profesional de la docencia desde concepciones mecanicistas, para entenderlo a partir de una visión integradora.

  14. TÉCNICA, AMBIENTE Y SOCIEDAD DEL RIESGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÓMEZ G LUIS JAIR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available En la Modernidad, el hombre pasa de sentirse sojuzgado por la naturaleza a sentirse dominador de ella, para lo cual se erige el «racionalismo», consustancial al desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica modernas, como la expresión más destacada del «progreso»; pero además, unida a esta característica del hombre moderno, surge el «individuo» que reclama la libertad individual y establece la competencia entre individuos. En el entorno social de esa época, se configura el Estado- Nación y con él, la Economía Política y la propiedad privada, que toman la forma de Capitalismo, cuyo objetivo central es la acumulación individual. Esta nueva forma de ordenamiento social favorece el crecimiento poblacional - en el año 1500, hay 500 millones de habitantes; en el 2000,6000 millones -; el desarrollo industrial que implica demandas crecientes de energía fósil principalmente; un intenso comercio que estimula el intercambio entre regiones y, en consecuencia, el transporte a distancia que requiere también altos consumos energéticos. La industria y el comercio hacen surgir la ciudad moderna con todas sus exigencias: una explotación intensiva de recursos naturales que conduce a una recarga de tos ciclos naturales y una desmesurada recarga de los sumideros para descargar Ice deseches sólidos, líquidos y gaseosos, lo que provoca un preocupante deterioro ecológico que condujo a una «crisis civilizatoria» que se configura en la llamada «sociedad del riesgo». Este impresionante deterioro reclama un replanteamiento de la forma analítica de la ciencia para adoptar una visión sistémica que coloque en el centro a la complejidad de la naturaleza como manera de pensar la manera de compensar el malogrado equilibrio operativo de la biosfera y de la relación sociedad/naturaleza. Se hace también necesario incorporar a los grupos sociales afectados a construir con los técnicos las soluciones más viables, es lo que hemos denominado la t

  15. Sociedad, Familia y Educación. Tema 3 (curso 2012-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Merma-Molina, Gladys; Peiró i Gregòri, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Migraciones, diversidad cultural y educación. Características de las sociedades actuales. Los retos educativos en las sociedades multiculturales. La educación democrática e intercultural. Educación e igualdad de derechos y oportunidades. El problema de la exclusión educativa y social.

  16. EL BUEN GOBIERNO CORPORATIVO EN LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS/GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raquel PUENTES POYATOS; María del Mar VELASCO GÁMEZ; Juan VILAR HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo trata de mostrar cómo el buen gobierno de las sociedades se ha de dirigir hacia un modelo de gobierno corporativo stakeholders, donde las sociedades cooperativas pueden servir de referencia en la medida que este modelo...

  17. Does genetic diversity hinder parasite evolution in social insect colonies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Polyandry is often difficult to explain because benefits of the behaviour have proved elusive. In social insects, polyandry increases the genetic diversity of workers within a colony and this has been suggested to improve the resistance of the colony to disease. Here we examine the possible impact...... hinder the ability of parasites to adapt while cycling within social insect colonies....

  18. Juvenile colonies of the genus Pyrostremma Garstang, 1929 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1974-01-01

    Four remarkable dome-shaped, apparently juvenile colonies, belonging to the genus Pyrostremma Garstang, 1929, are described from the Bermuda area. Comparison with juvenile colonies of P.agassizi (Ritter & Byxbee, 1905), and with larger colonies, fragments and loose zooids of P.agassizi and

  19. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I postulate that forced migration in modern Africa is largely explained by factors deeply rooted in colonial legacies and the globalization process. For example, among the colonial historical factors someone may identify land alienation that still fuels conflicts in Zimbabwe, the colonial military doctrine based on ...

  20. Kif Tebbi, the colonial archive, between sedimentation and connective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes Kif Tebbi, a colonial novel by Luciano Zuccoli, in theoretical and interpretative perspective of the colonial archive. The aim is to problematize and deconstruct the colonial discourse of this writing from the cultural memories' point of view. In particular, the article will discuss two different forms of memory: the sedimentation and connective memory.

  1. A Post-Colonial Reading of Affirmative Action in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puamau, Priscilla Qolisaya

    2001-01-01

    Presents a post-colonial reading of affirmative action (AA) policies in Fiji, arguing that AA was a deliberate response by various predominantly indigenous Fijian post-colonial governments to counter the effects of a discriminatory colonial history that produced significant educational and employment inequality. Analyzes the mixed outcomes of AA…

  2. Military labour mobilisation in colonial Lesotho during World War II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1940, Great Britain's wartime exploitation of the human and material resources of its colonial empire was extended to colonial Lesotho (then known as Basutoland). The aim of this article, therefore, is to trace the four-year military labour mobilisation process in that colony, with special attention to the timing, number and ...

  3. Colonial and Post-Independence Agricultural Policies in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to colonial administration, agriculture was very highly regarded because it assured the people of supply of food; stimulated a degree of urbanization and ... paper assesses the various colonial and post-colonial agricultural policies in Eastern Nigeria up to 1980, with a view to showing their impact on rural development.

  4. Colonial land policies in Lagos | Davies | Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land policies in colonial Lagos were variegated. They alternated between freehold at inception of colonialism in 1861, and customary tenure at the beginning of the twentieth century and later coalesced into a combination of both. The variegated nature of the colonial government's land policies created a lot of confusion in ...

  5. Regulaciones de la vida urbana colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Núñez Sánchez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza ciertas normas dictadas por la Corona con el propósito de regular la vida urbana a lo largo del período colonial. El artículo centra su estudio en algunas disposiciones que buscaban refrenar el desorden público y mantener el orden y las normas del "buen vivir". Bajo esta perspectiva, se analizan algunas prácticas culturales que se apartaban de estas regulaciones, entre las que se incluyeron los albazos y carnavales. Muchas de estas manifestaciones fueron percibidas por el poder colonial como muestras de primitivismo latente. No obstante, el juego de carnaval, entre otras prácticas, se mantuvo reacio a acatar estas regulaciones.

  6. In the post-colonial waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates this puzzle of choosing non-sovereignty in a postcolonial setting. Historically, the question of freedom from imperial hegemony has been linked to how Western colonialism involved keeping the colonized in ‘the waiting room of history’ by insisting that they were not yet...... ready for sovereignty. It explores a number of European overseas countries and territories. More specifically, it focuses on French dependencies in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and North Atlantic Greenland constitutionally connected to Denmark. The immediate aim of anti-colonial struggles was to make...... acknowledge. A number of overseas territories take alternative routes to agency; not by resisting the norm of sovereignty - but by creatively articulating it beyond its claim to represent an 'either/or' distinction. The chapter demonstrates that territories not formally decolonized may very well perform...

  7. Designing communicating colonies of biomimetic microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmakov, German V.; Yashin, Victor V.; Levitan, Steven P.; Balazs, Anna C.

    2010-01-01

    Using computational modeling, we design colonies of biomimetic microcapsules that exploit chemical mechanisms to communicate and alter their local environment. As a result, these synthetic objects can self-organize into various autonomously moving structures and exhibit ant-like tracking behavior. In the simulations, signaling microcapsules release agonist particles, whereas target microcapsules release antagonist particles and the permeabilities of both capsule types depend on the local part...

  8. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  9. Ant colony optimization and stochastic gradient descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Dorigo, Marco

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we study the relationship between the two techniques known as ant colony optimization (ACO) and stochastic gradient descent. More precisely, we show that some empirical ACO algorithms approximate stochastic gradient descent in the space of pheromones, and we propose an implementation of stochastic gradient descent that belongs to the family of ACO algorithms. We then use this insight to explore the mutual contributions of the two techniques.

  10. Labour and Health in Colonial Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Vellore Arthi; James Fenske

    2013-01-01

    We examine the determinants of time allocation and child labour in a year-long panel of time-use data from colonial Nigeria. Using quantitative and ethnographic approaches, we show that health shocks imposed time costs on individuals. Whether individuals could recruit substitutes depended on social standing, urgency of work, and type of illness. Child labour did not systematically respond to temporary parental illness, but could replace a permanently disabled adult. Child labour was coordinat...

  11. Historiography and Museography in the Colonial Museum of Bogotá (1999-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García Roldan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la última década restauradores, artistas e investiga - dores en varias áreas de las ciencias sociales han trabajado co - lectivamente en la reconstrucción de los espacios de exhibición del Museo Colonial de Bogotá, y han convertido este lugar en una suerte de laboratorio de indagación sobre la cultura y la sociedad colonial en la Nueva Granada y en América. Cuando se recorren las diferentes salas del museo que fueron abiertas al público entre 2005 y 2012, es evidente cómo diferentes perspec - tivas historiográficas han influenciado la labor curatorial trans - formando la manera como las piezas se clasifican y exhiben. Así, es posible hacer un recorrido que va desde la iconografía hasta la antropología de la imagen, o también rastrear las tensiones que existen entre la historia social, la historia cultural y los es - tudios poscoloniales. Estos contrastes producen un interesante fenómeno: transformar el espacio de exhibición en un espacio de pensamiento. Partiendo de tal afirmación, esta conferencia tiene dos propósitos: el primero, consiste en presentar las diferentes perspectivas historiográficas que han influenciado la curaduría del museo durante los últimos años. El segundo, busca caracte - rizar la labor curatorial como un medio eficaz para criticar los diferentes tipos de discursos sobre el arte y la cultura colonial escritos en Colombia durante las últimas décadas.

  12. Las ciencias de la comunicación en la "Sociedad de la información"

    OpenAIRE

    Moragas Spà, Miquel de

    1997-01-01

    El uso de expresiones como «sociedad de la información» -en su día «sociedad de masas» o «sociedad industrial» presentan el inconveniente de facilitar el equívoco de que la sociedad moderna es una sociedad homogénea, cuando de lo que realmente se trata es de un conjunto de sociedades diversas, con múltiples diferencias y desequilibrios, especialmente en sus sistemas de información

  13. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper chamber. Authentication of honey from the standpoint of the presence of sugar syrup is very complex, because there is no single method by which honey adulteration can be reliably confirmed. Feeding the colonies in spring should result in stronger colonies and hence the collection of more honey in the brood chambers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this has effects also on honey authenticity, and to discover a simple method for detection of honey adulteration. The colonies were fed with candy paste that had added yeast and blue dye, to provide markers for detection of honey adulteration. The strength of the colonies and quantity of honey in the brood chambers were monitored. The results of the analysis of stable isotope and activity of foreign enzymes were compared with the results of yeast quantity and colour of the honey (absorbance, L*, a*, b* parameters. Detection of yeast in the honey samples and presence of colour as a consequence of added dye appear to be appropriate methods to follow honey adulteration, and further studies are ongoing.

  14. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  15. Desarrollo de Competencias Investigadoras en la Sociedad Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La labor de investigación científica y tecnológica en el siglo XXI requiere del desarrollo de competencias multidisciplinares que van más allá de los conocimientos disciplinares específicos o de las bases metodológicas. El investigador en la sociedad del conocimiento necesita utilizar eficazmente herramientas que le permitan relacionarse con colegas en el mismo campo del conocimiento, recurrir a bases bibliográficas y journals específicos, acceder a bases de datos investigaciones y journals relevantes y actualizados, y en la muchos casos trabajar en conjunto con colegas que pueden estar a miles de kilómetros de distancia. El presente trabajo presenta el Programa de Formación Virtual de Investigadores de la Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, en Argentina, como modelo de desarrollo de esas competencias a través de una red de campus virtuales que incluye 32 nodos y una red de servicios que estimulan la generación proyectos inclusivosde innovación productiva.

  16. Democracia y sociedad de la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverría Ezponda, Javier

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Not Available

    Las nuevas tecnologías de la información y las telecomunicaciones (NTIT están suscitando profundos cambios en las sociedades avanzadas y plantean dilemas estratégicos a los países en vías de desarrollo. La rápida difusión de la red Internet es uno de los fenómenos más destacados de la década final del siglo XX, pero la transformación proviene de otras muchas tecnologías: informática, bases de datos, teléfonos móviles, satélites de telecomunicaciones, televisión digital, realidad virtual, tecnologías multimedia, etc. En conjunto, las redes telemáticas están modificando profundamente la guerra, las finanzas, la organización y actividades empresariales, el trabajo, el comercio, la administración, la enseñanza, la medicina, el ocio, el arte y la cultura. Por ello cabe afirmar que las NTIT están posibilitando un profundo cambio, que afecta a casi todas las actividades sociales, incluida la vida cotidiana. En esta conferencia me ocuparé de su influencia sobre la política y la democracia.

  17. Simulación al la sociedad servicio de colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Garavito Herrera

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las diversas aplicaciones tecnológicas diseñadas para incrementar la "calidad de vida" de los colombianos, han incluido diversos procedimientos que han puesto en riesgo no sólo la vida sino también el medio para sustentarla. Ahora bien, si hablamos de la sociedad, la complejidad es aún mayor, ya que el tejido social que se ha creado por siglos y se recrea diariamente entre los seres humanos y su entorno es complejo. Por eso se requiere el diseño de herramientas que desde la ingeniería busquen crear "laboratorios de ensayos" que no sólo permitan determinar el impacto de políticas sino, además, optimizar el uso de los recursos. Así como en diferentes industrias existe la posibilidad de construir plantas piloto, laboratorios de pruebas, ensayos o maquetas, que permiten experimentar con diferentes materiales o procedimientos, asímismo existen, aunque aún no muy difundidas en nuestro país, herramientas que de alguna manera nos hacen posible modelar estas interacciones entre seres humanos y su ambiente.

  18. Sociedad y posibilidades tecnológicas emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaparro Mendivelso Jeffer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación ”NTIC” están generando cambios trascendentales en la sociedad y el territorio. Se están imbricando diferencialmente en todas las actividades de la vida humana, mediando desde los flujos económicos globales hasta las relaciones personales individuales. Paralelamente se están propiciando profundas alteraciones en términos de la concepción del mundo y del lugar, de lo material y lo inmaterial, de lo real y lo virtual, de lo utópico y lo imaginario, de lo orgánico y lo artificial. Emergen nociones y conceptos diversos perocomplementarios que van desde la idea de ciberespacio hasta la de Internet como un "actante" con propiedades emergentes inquietantes, pasando por la inteligencia colectiva en red y los cyborg como nuevo estadio del devenir humano. Las implicaciones derivadas de las NTIC se perfilan como una línea interesante "y poco exploradas" de trabajo e investigación en geografía ya que, evidentemente, losprocesos y las dinámicas socioterritoriales cada vez se median más por lo digital.

  19. Racionalidad limitada en la sociedad del riesgo mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Augusto Laca Arocena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante muchas décadas se ha pretendido que la teoría económica de la elección racional es la teoría general del comportamiento humano de la que carecen las ciencias sociales. Este artículo señala algunas de sus limitaciones. La psicología cognitiva describe los sesgos cognitivos de las personas cuando evalúan la información y eligen entre opciones, los cuales ponen en cuestión la idea de que la mente humana está programada para obrar según los supuestos de la elección racional. Por otra parte, el aumento de los riesgos económicos, ecológicos y geopolíticos en esta época de globalización ha llevado a acuñar el término “sociedad del riesgo mundial”. El tema de los límites de nuestra racionalidad en la toma de decisiones cobra preocupante actualidad por la necesidad de afrontar esos riesgos globales crecientes.

  20. Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chunsheng Hou; Hadassah Rivkin; Yossi Slabezki; Nor Chejanovsky

    2014-01-01

    The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and ...

  1. A institucionalização da disciplina História da Educação na Escola Normal mineira na primeira metade do século XX = Institutionalization of the subject of History of Education in the Normal School of Minas Gerais in the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães, Rosângela M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo trata da apresentação dos resultados de investigação sobre o surgimento, a constituição e a institucionalização da História da Educação como disciplina escolar em cursos de formação de professores. Nesse caso, examina-se o processo de introdução da disciplina nos cursos normais mineiros, a partir do Decreto 8162, de 20 de janeiro de 1928, e de seus regulamentos, instituídos durante o governo de Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de Andrada, que, à época, fora secretariado por Francisco Campos. Esse processo de institucionalização da disciplina ocorreu em meio a um contexto de reformas educacionais em Minas Gerais, que também estavam por acontecer em outros estados brasileiros, sob a influência significativa dos princípios escolanovistas e da forma tomada pela formação de professores, em especial, na Europa e nos Estados Unidos. As fontes utilizadas incluem a legislação educacional mineira do período e a bibliografia de referência existente

  2. Rapid behavioral maturation accelerates failure of stressed honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clint J.; Myerscough, Mary R.; Barron, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Many complex factors have been linked to the recent marked increase in honey bee colony failure, including pests and pathogens, agrochemicals, and nutritional stressors. It remains unclear, however, why colonies frequently react to stressors by losing almost their entire adult bee population in a short time, resulting in a colony population collapse. Here we examine the social dynamics underlying such dramatic colony failure. Bees respond to many stressors by foraging earlier in life. We manipulated the demography of experimental colonies to induce precocious foraging in bees and used radio tag tracking to examine the consequences of precocious foraging for their performance. Precocious foragers completed far fewer foraging trips in their life, and had a higher risk of death in their first flights. We constructed a demographic model to explore how this individual reaction of bees to stress might impact colony performance. In the model, when forager death rates were chronically elevated, an increasingly younger forager force caused a positive feedback that dramatically accelerated terminal population decline in the colony. This resulted in a breakdown in division of labor and loss of the adult population, leaving only brood, food, and few adults in the hive. This study explains the social processes that drive rapid depopulation of a colony, and we explore possible strategies to prevent colony failure. Understanding the process of colony failure helps identify the most effective strategies to improve colony resilience. PMID:25675508

  3. Engaging With Colonial Archives: Reflections Of An End-User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Olukoju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Official and/or public archives were a byproduct of colonial rule in Africa. (Archives are a byproduct of administrative governance everywhere. Given the density and diversity of colonial archival records, historians have tended to rely on them for the study of the colonial period. Publications on the use of archives have not captured the perspective of end-users, who often face peculiar challenges in the use of colonial and metropolitan archives. This paper provides an end-user perspective on colonial archives in Nigeria and the United Kingdom. It highlights the challenges of data collection and prospects of optimal use of archival source material. The discussion is of general application to users of colonial archives especially in the former British colonies in Africa.

  4. Urbanismo colonial temprano en la República Argentina: Aportes desde la arqueología Early Colonial Urbanism in Republica Argentina: Archaeological Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Igareta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, la arqueología argentina ha centrado su interés en el análisis de problemáticas relativas a las sociedades que habitaron el territorio en tiempos prehispánicos; solo en menor medida y más tardíamente, sitios y problemáticas históricas atrajeron la atención de los investigadores. Un tema en particular, el del surgimiento y estructuración de ciudades durante el período colonial, resultó poco abordado por los arqueólogos, pese al intensivo análisis y construcción de modelos interpretativos desarrollados desde otras disciplinas históricas. Investigaciones arqueológicas recientes han dado cuenta del gran potencial informativo de un conjunto de centros urbanos hasta ahora dejados de lado: las ciudades creadas y destruidas durante el siglo XVI, cuya morfología claramente se alejó del modelo clásico de regularidad propuesto pero que influyó en la posterior estructuración del sistema urbano.Argentine archaeology traditionally has been focused on the analysis of prehistoric societies; just recently and in a smaller proportion historical problems and sites captured their attention. Urban development during the colonial period was a subject little boarded by the archaeologists, despite the intensive analysis other historical disciplines dedicated to the theme. Recent archaeological investigations evidenced the great informative potential of cities created and destroyed during the century XVI, whose morphology clearly diverged from the classic regular model and had significant influence in the later structuring of the urban system.

  5. SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS DE BANCA ALTERNATIVA/COOPERATIVES OF ALTERNATIVE BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José CABALEIRO CASAL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se evidencia en España una reorientación solidaria de una parte de la oferta de servicios financieros, que prioriza el compromiso social de su actividad sin descuidar, por ello, la viabilidad económica. Este modelo de hacer banca se identifica bajo la denominación genérica de banca alternativa, ética, social o solidaria y constituye un planteamiento bancario distinto del enfoque tradicional. Este trabajo pretende destacar la idoneidad de la sociedad cooperativa para el desarrollo de banca alternativa. Su naturaleza jurídica y sus normas de funcionamiento permiten potenciar la utilidad social de la actividad bancaria. La dualidad de sus socios elimina eslabones de la cadena de intermediación y destina los recursos propios a la financiación de proyectos socialmente responsables, en un camino en el que la economía financiera y la economía real avanzan muy próximos./Currently in Spain we are witnessing an ethical reorientation of a part of the offer of financial services which gives priority to the social commitment without losing economic viability. This banking model known as alternative banking also known as ethical, social or sustainable banking is distinct from traditional banking. This work wishes to highlight the ideal conditions of cooperatives for the development of alternative banking. Its legal nature and its functional regulations enhance the social utility of the banking activity. The double condition of the partners eliminates intermediaries and allocates directly equity towards financing socially responsible projects, in a way that the financial economy and the real economy advance together.

  6. Colaboración educativa en la sociedad del conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Martín Gutiérrez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El mundo globalizado en el estamos inmersos plantea retos y exigencias a los centros educativos. La participación y la colaboración surgen como desafíos cada vez más acuciantes en la sociedad actual, y el futuro de la educación pública está orientado a la implicación de los centros educativos en sus comunidades socioculturales. En la Ley Orgánica de Educación (LOE, 2006 se habla de la participación como principio constitucional y la necesidad de colaborar y trabajar en equipo de manera interna y externa al centro. Ante estos supuestos teóricos, planteamos la necesidad de conocer las relaciones de colaboración que los centros educativos de secundaria mantienen con el entorno y si para ello cuentan con el apoyo de las tecnologías. Entre los resultados y conclusiones de este estudio, podemos destacar que las relaciones más habituales son las efectuadas con otros centros educativos y con las instituciones locales. Para establecerlas, más de la mitad de los docentes andaluces de secundaria no cuentan con las tecnologías, aunque más de 60% estarían interesados en encontrarse inmersos en redes educativas, profesionales y sociales. Los resultados reflejan que debemos potenciar las redes y comunidades virtuales como puentes para crear relaciones de colaboración, estables y fuertes, que promuevan mejoras y cambios significativos en los centros educativos.

  7. Intraspecific Variation among Social Insect Colonies: Persistent Regional and Colony-Level Differences in Fire Ant Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Bockoven

    Full Text Available Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.

  8. Globalization in the post - colonial world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new interpretation of globalization within the boundaries of the author’s concept of soft globalization, which exploits a normatively attractive alternative to the concept of the Empire. It is argued here that the conditions of development of contemporary post - colonial world communities do not require any unification in the form of the Empire, but instead the creation of a non repressive mechanism of social regulation - the implementation of a form of soft globalization, a globalization with a mental form are expedient here. Historically, globalization occurred in a strict material(i.e. economical and military form that prompted the conditions for the evolution of civilization as the Empire: a case in which the development of the world occurs under the power of a single dominating state. Imperialistic politics leads to colonial politics formation. The history of the phenomena of civilization shows many instances of Empire globalization. Globalization in the Empire form was already observed at the time of the Roman Empire. At this time processes of development inside the Empire were manifestations of globalization in its highest cultural shape. But ancient Rome was also a social and political experiment that acquired the attributes of a purely material globalization in the end, and historically brought about the irreversible crash of the Roman Empire itself. Contemporary fluctuations referring to the process of globalization can be registered in the US’s attempts of material domination inside this or that existing case of civilization, which causes colonialism appearance. The main idea stressed in the paper is that only a mental globalization could succeed in the end.

  9. Partidos políticos y sociedad civil en Venezuela: historia de amor y odio

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen B. Fernández

    2001-01-01

    La sociedad civil venezolana tiene su origen en movimientos sociales urbanos aparecidos a inicios de la década de 1970 como contrapeso a las actividades gubernamentales. Esta sociedad civil, bien prestigiada dentro de la sociedad, habría logrado asentar en la opinión pública ciertas prédicas antipartido, que fueron luego utilizadas por el actual presidente Hugo Chávez Frías como arma para lograr la extinción de los partidos políticos. El caso venezolano puede lla...

  10. El ahorro fiscal de las cooperativas en el impuesto sobre Sociedades en España

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Blasco, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El objeto de este artículo es medir el ahorro fiscal que procede del Impuesto sobre Sociedades de las cooperativas en España para el período 1999-2009. La metodología utilizada ha sido un estudio longitudinal en el cual se ha analizado la recaudación total en España por tipos impositivos. Se ha analizado el Impuesto sobre Sociedades en general y posteriormente el Tipo Impositivo Efectivo (TIE) de las Sociedades Cooperativas. Los resultados más importantes son la constatación de diferenc...

  11. Modelos matemáticos de la sociedad y aplicaciones. Grupos en la red social

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio de la Peña; Nelia Tello

    2013-01-01

    Consideramos la estructura de las redes sociales S correspondientes a sociedades primitivas donde cada individuo pertenece a un clan. El número de clanes y el tamaño de la sociedad se pueden acotar en función del número de Perron r(S), asociado a la matriz de adyacencia de la red, que a su vez es menor que el número de Dunbar de la sociedad, esto es, r(S) = D(S). El número de Perron r(S) es una medida de la complejidad de la red S. We consider the structure of social networks corresponding...

  12. Hackers en el contexto de la Sociedad de la Información

    OpenAIRE

    Lizama Mendoza, Jorge Alberto

    2005-01-01

    En la presente investigación se evalúa el impacto tecnológico, social y comunicacional que las acciones de los hackers poseen en el contexto de la sociedad de la información. Hasta ahora, se trata de un tema escasamente tratado por los estudios sociales, los que si bien han abordado el fenómeno que implica el cambio sociedad, lo han hecho privilegiando las transformaciones a nivel general que la economía, la política o la sociedad han experimentado. En este caso el objetivo es analizar a los ...

  13. Comunicação e culturas regionais e a sociedade digital no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Fagundes Haussen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A globalização da economia e a evolução tecnológica têm provocado significativas alterações na sociedade. As fronteiras geográficas são atravessadas por referentes virtuais que incidem diretamente sobre acomunicação e a cultura. Este artigo propõe-se, assim, a analisar o fenômeno, procurando identificar a sua influência sobre a sociedade brasileira, sua cultura e identidade. Estuda, também, a inserção do País na sociedade digital.

  14. El modelo de gobierno corporativo de una sociedad depende de su estructura legal -Diferencias entre sociedades anónimas y/o limitadas-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Prada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento tiene como finalidad comprobar que a pesar de existir unos temas comunes a analizar en el gobierno corporativo de cualquier compañía, el mismo dependerá de su estructura legal societaria, entendiendo por esta las diferentes clases de sociedades que existen en Colombia. De acuerdo con los resultados financieros obtenidos y la identificación de las dos sociedades predominantes en la mayoría de los niveles financieros a los que hace referencia el documento, se hacen unas recomendaciones sobre los principios y medidas que pueden ser tomados como referencia al momento de crear un modelo de gobierno corporativo acorde con la realidad y necesidades de las sociedades anónimas y las limitadas.

  15. Durkheim y Saint-Simon: La construcción del ideario de la sociedad del trabajo y las nuevas paradojas de las sociedades tardo-modernas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Durán Vázquez

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como principal objetivo interrogarse sobre el sentido que poseen las actuales representaciones del trabajo en el contexto del escenario productivo de las sociedades de mercado tardo-modernas. El análisis que aquí se propone interpreta dichas representaciones en relación con la obra de Émile Durkheim y Claude Henri de Saint-Simon, por ser dos de los principales autores que más han contribuido a forjar el ideario de las sociedades del trabajo, como un intento de actualización de la estructura simbólica de estas sociedades, con el fin de que continúe manteniendo toda su carga integradora y legitimadora en relación con las nuevas realidades productivas y laborales.

  16. Colonial Subjectification: Foucault, Christianity and Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Petterson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foucault’s concept of pastoral power is envisioned as a technique of power developed from the medieval period and carried through into modern political rationalities. As such, it is an old power technique – which originated in Christian institutions – in a new political shape, which he coined governmentality. This article uses Foucault’s genealogy of pastoral power and governmentality to discuss the intersection of domination and technology of self in the Greenlandic colonial context and to bring out the central role of religion in Foucault’s conceptualisation of governmentality.

  17. Studying Colonialism in Spanish History Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    The interwoven dynamics underpinning national identity and collective memory have received growing interest from different disciplines in light of an increasingly globalized and multicultural world. In this context, history textbooks play an important role inasmuch as the introduction of history...... in Africa and when Spain was going through a transition process towards democracy), and the current period (Spain being a consolidated democracy and a growing multicultural society). In this historical comparative analysis the focus will be, beside on colonialism in general from mid-19th century until...

  18. Intercellular Genomics of Subsurface Microbial Colonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortoleva, Peter [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Tuncay, Kagan [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gannon, Dennis [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Meile, Christof [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2007-02-14

    This report summarizes progress in the second year of this project. The objective is to develop methods and software to predict the spatial configuration, properties and temporal evolution of microbial colonies in the subsurface. To accomplish this, we integrate models of intracellular processes, cell-host medium exchange and reaction-transport dynamics on the colony scale. At the conclusion of the project, we aim to have the foundations of a predictive mathematical model and software that captures the three scales of these systems – the intracellular, pore, and colony wide spatial scales. In the second year of the project, we refined our transcriptional regulatory network discovery (TRND) approach that utilizes gene expression data along with phylogenic similarity and gene ontology analyses and applied it successfully to E.coli, human B cells, and Geobacter sulfurreducens. We have developed a new Web interface, GeoGen, which is tailored to the reconstruction of microbial TRNs and solely focuses on Geobacter as one of DOE’s high priority microbes. Our developments are designed such that the frameworks for the TRND and GeoGen can readily be used for other microbes of interest to the DOE. In the context of modeling a single bacterium, we are actively pursuing both steady-state and kinetic approaches. The steady-state approach is based on a flux balance that uses maximizing biomass growth rate as its objective, subjected to various biochemical constraints, for the optimal values of reaction rates and uptake/release of metabolites. For the kinetic approach, we use Karyote, a rigorous cell model developed by us for an earlier DOE grant and the DARPA BioSPICE Project. We are also investigating the interplay between bacterial colonies and environment at both pore and macroscopic scales. The pore scale models use detailed representations for realistic porous media accounting for the distribution of grain size whereas the macroscopic models employ the Darcy-type flow

  19. Combined Final Report for Colony II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.

    2013-10-23

    (This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

  20. a Missing Link? - Mesoscale Distributions of Colonial Phaeocystis Antarctica and its Ghost Colonies in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.; McGillicuddy, D. J., Jr.; Olson, E.; Sosik, H. M.; Peacock, E.

    2016-02-01

    It is well established that the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is a dominant member of the Ross Sea phytoplankton, contributing more than half of the annual production. Its broad spatial distribution has been documented by ship sampling, but its mesoscale variations are poorly known. In the PRISM (Processes Regulating Iron Supply at the Mesoscale) project in 2011, we deployed a Video Plankton Recorder (VPR) for 24 h between selected locations that had been identified by satellite images to have eddy-like features. As P. antarctica colonies are far larger than the VPR's camera resolution (2 mm vs. 40 µm), we were able to quantify colonial contributions to total fluorescence and particulate organic carbon, resolving distances of a few kms and depths of ca. 1 m. Within these surveys, we found unusual forms of colonies, which we subsequently deemed "ghost colonies"; that is, colonies that have largely lost their cells and have collapsed. While ghost colonies generally were located deeper in the water column than intact colonies, not all surface Phaeocystis blooms were associated with ghost colonies. For example, in one survey ghost colonies and intact colonial forms were present throughout the water column, but with distributions separated by depth; while in another survey, their distributions appeared to be spatially distinct in the horizontal. We hypothesize that ghost colonies are formed upon extreme micronutrient stress, which causes colonies to sink and cells to be liberated from colonies. Considerable mesoscale variability was noted in P. antarctica distributions and was related to oceanographic features. The mesoscale variations in both P. antarctica and its ghost colonies potentially have significant impacts on vertical fluxes and biogeochemical cycles in the Ross Sea.

  1. CHRISTIANITY AND COLONIALISM IN SOME ENGLISH SHORT STORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Iskarna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colonial and postcolonial studies are often linked to the power domination of the West upon the East in the way that the East economically, politically, and socially oppressed. Colonialism is often associated with three elements, the explorers dealing with geographical information, missionaries approaching the local people culturally, and the colonial administrators ruling the colony. Gold, glory, and gospel are the European’s concern. However, in representing the relation between Christianity and colonialism there is critical dialectic amongst historians, anthropologists, Christian missions, or cultural critics. Some propose that Christianity is considered to be the religious arm of colonialism. Others state that Christianity is spread without any secular interest as it is a great commandment of Jesus Christ. A few believe that Christianity give critical resistance against colonialism. The relation between Christianity and colonialism cannot be simplified as being neutral, in complicity, or in opposition. So, it is worth-discussing to understand how European writers construct the relation between Christianity and colonialism in their literary work. How Christianity is constructed and how Christianity is related to colonialism will be discussed in this paper. Using postcolonial paradigm, two English short stories will be analyzed in that way. They are Rudyard Kipling’s “Lispeth” and Doris Lessing’s “No Witchcraft for Sale”.

  2. Colony age, neighborhood density and reproductive potential in harvester ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Diane; Gordon, Deborah M

    1999-05-01

    At about age 5 years, colonies of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, begin to produce winged, sexual forms (alates) that mate in large annual aggregations. We examined how colony age and neighborhood density affect the numbers, body mass, and body fat of alates produced by 172 colonies ranging in age from 4 to 17 years. Over one-third (36%) of all colonies produced no alates. Failure to reproduce was independent of colony age. Of those colonies that did produce alates, older colonies produced more alates than younger colonies. Older colonies produced lighter female alates (in dry mass), but the total biomass of additional alates produced by older colonies far outweighed the reduced allocation to female alate body mass. Body fat content was much higher in female alates (36.0% on average) than in males (3.7% on average). Alate body fat content was not related to colony age. The fitness of female alates may be related to their fresh body mass; that of females captured after mating and reared in the laboratory was positively correlated with egg-laying rate, although not with the total number of eggs in the first brood. Neighborhood density was not related to alate number, mass, or fat content, in contrast to the results of a 1995 study at the site, in which alate numbers were negatively related to neighborhood density. Thus the influence of crowding on reproductive output appears to vary from year to year, perhaps in response to variation in rainfall and food supply. Alate output by individual colonies was correlated among years. These results suggest that a few, older colonies dominate the pool of reproductives year after year.

  3. Effect of fluid motion on colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis aeruginosa, generally occurring in large colonies under natural conditions, mainly exists as single cells in laboratory cultures. The mechanisms involved in colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa and their roles in algal blooms remain unknown. In this study, based on previous research findings that fluid motion may stimulate the colony formation in green algae, culture experiments were conducted under axenic conditions in a circular water chamber where the flow rate, temperature, light, and nutrients were controlled. The number of cells of Microcystis aeruginosa, the number of cells per colony, and the colonial characteristics in various growth phases were observed and measured. The results indicated that the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa, which was not observed under stagnant conditions, was evident when there was fluid motion, with the number of cells per largest colony reaching 120 and the proportion of the number of cells in colonial form to the total number of cells and the mean number of cells per colony reaching their peak values at a flow rate of 35 cm/s. Based on the analysis of colony formation process, fluid motion stimulates the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa in the lag growth phase, while flushes and disaggregates the colonies in the exponential growth phase. The stimulation effect in the lag growth phase may be attributable to the involvement of fluid motion in a series of physiological processes, including the uptake of trace elements and the synthesis and secretion of polysaccharides. In addition, the experimental groups exhibiting typical colonial characteristics in the lag growth phase were found to have higher cell biomass in the later phase.

  4. Colonial Army Formats in Africa and Post-Colonial Military Coups:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSOS USER

    Since time immemorial, societies, states and state builders have been challenged and transformed by the need and quest for military manpower.1. European states relied on conscript armies to 'pacify' and retain colonies in parts of the non-European world. These facts underscore the meticulous attention paid by the British ...

  5. Colony formation and colony size do not reflect the onset of replicative senescence in human fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, Andrea B.; Maier, Ilko L.; Van Heemst, Diana; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Replicative senescence of human fibroblasts in vitro has been used as a model for in vivo aging. The onset of replicative senescence varies between several months to years. A colony formation assay, critically dependent on growth speed, can be performed within weeks, and has been reported being an

  6. Designing communicating colonies of biomimetic microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakov, German V; Yashin, Victor V; Levitan, Steven P; Balazs, Anna C

    2010-07-13

    Using computational modeling, we design colonies of biomimetic microcapsules that exploit chemical mechanisms to communicate and alter their local environment. As a result, these synthetic objects can self-organize into various autonomously moving structures and exhibit ant-like tracking behavior. In the simulations, signaling microcapsules release agonist particles, whereas target microcapsules release antagonist particles and the permeabilities of both capsule types depend on the local particle concentration in the surrounding solution. Additionally, the released nanoscopic particles can bind to the underlying substrate and thereby create adhesion gradients that propel the microcapsules to move. Hydrodynamic interactions and the feedback mechanism provided by the dissolved particles are both necessary to achieve the collective dynamics exhibited by these colonies. Our model provides a platform for integrating both the spatial and temporal behavior of assemblies of "artificial cells," and allows us to design a rich variety of structures capable of exhibiting complex, cooperative behavior. Due to the cell-like attributes of polymeric microcapsules and polymersomes, material systems are available for realizing our predictions.

  7. Physicians of colonial India (1757-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of British rule from 1757 to 1900 is marked by major sociopolitical changes and scientific breakthroughs that impacted medical systems, institutions, and practitioners in India. In addition, historians have debated whether the colonial regime used Western medicine as a tool to expand and legitimize its rule. This paper reviews the secondary literature on this subject with emphasis on the individual physicians. During this period, the practice of "Doctory" or Western medicine gained momentum in India, buoyed with the support of the British as well as Western-educated Indians. Many Indians were trained in Western medicine and employed by the administration as "native doctors" in the subordinate medical service, and the superior medical service by and large comprised Europeans. The colonial regime gradually withdrew most of its patronage to the indigenous systems of medicine. The practitioners of these systems, the vaidyas and the hakims, suffered significant loss of prestige against Western medicine′s claims of being a more rational "superior" system of medicine. Some of them became purists and defended and promoted their systems, while others adopted the methods and ideas of Western medicine into their education and practice. European doctors now rarely interacted with practitioners of Indian systems, but seriously pursued research into medicinal plants and tropical diseases. There is no mention of specialist physicians in this period, and all physicians and surgeons were generalists. Folk practitioners continued to be popular among the masses.

  8. Los retos del proceso de socializacion en los sistemas educativos de las sociedades modernas avanzadas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez-Agote, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    La crisis de la modernidad se manifiesta con gran crudeza en los sistemas educativos de las sociedades avanzadas, que proyectan sobre aquellos mas contradicciones y paradojas de las que pueden superar...

  9. El concurso de acreedores desde la óptica de la sociedad familiar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pablo Arraiza Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    El concurso de acreedores constituye una institución mixta de derecho mercantil y procesal que tiene por objeto la salvaguarda del patrimonio social o masa con la finalidad de permitir a los acreedores de una sociedad en...

  10. El activismo de los inversionistas institucionales en el gobierno de las grandes sociedades

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    Carlos Ernesto Arcudia Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento del gobierno corporativo ha propuesto una serie de medidas que buscan resolver los problemas de separación entre el control y la gestión de las sociedades anónimas -los problemas de agencia. En este trabajo analizamos el activismo de los inversionistas institucionales como medio de control a la administración de sociedades de capital disperso. Los inversionistas institucionales en Estados Unidos han actuado por vía extraorgánica y por vía orgánica para controlar la gestión de las grandes sociedades de ese país. Si bien este activismo es una posible solución, la estructura de capital de las grandes sociedades anónimas mexicanas y los intereses de los inversores institucionales hacen un tanto difícil su actuación en nuestro país.

  11. La diversidad de culturas como originalidad y riqueza de la sociedad europea

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    María José NAVARRO PERALES

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La escuela es una institución social que tiene por finalidad asegurar la supervivencia de la sociedad. La sociedad transmite a través de la escuela su cultura para educar a las nuevas generaciones. La cultura es el conjunto de normas, valores, costumbres y usos que sirven para identificar a una sociedad. La sociedad demanda una escuela que transmita esa cultura y ésta lo hace a través de un tipo determinado de currículo.ABSTRACT: The school as a social Institution has the purpose of guaranteeins the survival of society. A society's culture is transmitled by means of the school to educate new generations. Culture conprises the group of rules, values, customs ad uses that identify a society. Society asks that schools transmit that culture and the school transmits it by means of a certain kind of curriculum.

  12. O conhecimento e as tecnologias na sociedade da informação

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Alzira Karla Araújo da; Correia, Anna Elizabeth Galvão Coutinho; Lima, Izabel França de

    2010-01-01

    Artículo de reflexión en torno a la sociedad de la información, la sociedad del conocimiento, el paradigma de la cibercultura y el papel de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en el progreso social. Se resaltan los factores de inclusión y exclusión sociales que se producen en la sociedad de la información, y se señalan las acciones, intenciones y necesidades que le son propias. La reflexión contribuye a caracterizar la sociedad de la información en tanto busca e...

  13. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.

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    Philip N Trathan

    Full Text Available In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W, in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952. When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005 that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009 highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.

  14. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trathan, Philip N; Fretwell, Peter T; Stonehouse, Bernard

    2011-02-28

    In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.

  15. “Curas, Dones y Sodomitas”: Sexual Moral Discourses and Illicit Sexualities among Priests in Colonial Mexico

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    De Los Reyes, Guillermo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the Church, the Inquisition, and the Crown controlled and shaped colonial subjects, especially in terms of sexuality. It also looks at the interaction of social class and race and the way in which colonial subjects dealt with these social institutions. This essay seeks to shed light on the history of sexuality in New Spain, through an analysis of sodomy cases involving clergymen and these cases’ impact in colonial institutions. An examination of sodomy can increase one’s understanding of related sexuality and gender issues and, as the archival research done for this investigation has shown, may help clarify seemingly unrelated issues regarding social class and ethnicity.

    En el presente artículo se analiza la manera en que la Iglesia, la Inquisición y la Corona controlaban y redefinían a los sujetos coloniales particularmente en lo que respecta a la sexualidad. De la misma manera, se examina la interacción de clase social y raza y la forma en que dichos sujetos bregaban con las instituciones sociales reguladoras. Este ensayo pretende contribuir al estudio de la historia de la sexualidad en la Nueva España, realizando un análisis de casos de sodomía que involucraron a clérigos y el impacto de dichos casos en las instituciones coloniales. Se propone que el estudio de los procesos de sodomía contribuye al estudio de sexualidad y género de la época en cuestión y a su vez, como se muestra en esta investigación, puede ayudar a aclarar aspectos relacionadas con clase social y etnicidad. Por lo tanto, este artículo investiga cómo estos elementos se superponen en la sociedad colonial mexicana.

  16. Crisis empresarial al interior de un grupo de sociedades – Responsabilidad-

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    Camilo Enrique Cubillos Garzón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo describiremos: Qué es un Grupo de Sociedades; Cuál es la relación entre el Grupo Empresarial con el Derecho de Sociedades, el Mercado y la Economía; y finalmente, Cuál es la responsabilidad dentro de un Grupo Empresarial en situación de crisis llevada a cabo por un gestor oculto.

  17. Cocktail-party effect in king penguin colonies

    OpenAIRE

    T. Aubin; Jouventin, P.

    1998-01-01

    The king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, breeds without a nest in colonies of several thousands of birds. To be fed, the chick must recognize the parents in a particularly noisy environment using only vocal cues. The call an adult makes when seeking the chick is emitted at a high amplitude level. Nevertheless, it is transmitted in a colonial context involving the noise generated by the colony and the screening effect of the bodies, both factors reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. In additio...

  18. Colony patterning and collective hyphal growth of filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu

    2002-11-01

    Colony morphology of wild and mutant strains of Aspergillus nidulans at various nutrient and agar levels was investigated. Two types of colony patterning were found for these strains. One type produced uniform colonies at all nutrient and agar levels tested, and the other exhibited morphological change into disordered ramified colonies at low nutrient levels. Both types showed highly condensed compact colonies at high nutrient levels on low agar media that was highly diffusive. Disordered colonies were found to develop with low hyphal extension rates at low nutrient levels. To understand basic pattern selection rules, a colony model with three parameters, i.e., the initial nutrient level and the step length of nutrient random walk as the external parameters, and the frequency of nutrient uptake as an internal parameter, was constructed. At low nutrient levels, with decreasing nutrient uptake frequency under diffusive conditions, the model colony exhibited onsets of disordered ramification. Further, in the growth process of A. nidulans, reduction of hyphal extension rate due to a population effect of hyphae was found when hyphae form three-dimensional dense colonies, as compared to the case in which hyphal growth was restricted into two-dimensional space. A hyphal population effect was introduced in the colony model. Thickening of colony periphery due to the population effect became distinctive as the nutrient diffusion effect was raised at high nutrient levels with low hyphal growth rate. It was considered that colony patterning and onset of disorder were strongly governed by the combination of nutrient diffusion and hyphal growth rate.

  19. La sociedad del conocimiento: inclusión o exclusión

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    Herminia Moreno Ríos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En la historia de todas las sociedades, el conocimiento ha sido monopolizado por una élite, que lo utiliza para conservar el poder, se crearon limitantes para excluir a la masa de los saberes relevantes que otorgan la supremacía a unos y confinan a la mayoría a un trabajo físico o menos remunerado. En la actualidad surge el término Sociedad del Conocimiento para designar a nuestra sociedad, denominación que pareciera poner al alcance de todos tan preciado saber, con este trabajo pretendemos analizar si este beneficio es para todos, o es una forma disfrazada para continuar excluyendo y marginando a una gran parte de la sociedad, ya que la realidad muestra solo a una humanidad que tiene mayor acceso a la información, por la tecnología de la comunicación y el Internet, pero esa información aún debe transformarse en conocimiento utilitario, lo que en realidad existe es una sociedad de la información, que realmente no asegura que se pueda compartir con todos, los beneficios que brinda el conocimiento conductor de las sociedades, únicamente ofrece los saberes necesarios para competir en un mundo globalizado en donde cada individuo, según sus capacidades y competencias, debe encontrar su lugar.

  20. O papel das mulheres na sociedade: diferentes formas de submissão

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    Cleiciane Back

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o papel das mulheres na sociedade. Tem como objetivo mostrar as mudanças no papel da mulher na sociedade ao longo do tempo. Atualmente as mulheres estão ocupando espaço em todos os setores da sociedade, mas há muito a conquistar. Os autores que subsidiam o trabalho são Maria de Fátima Silva Porto, Nísia Floresta Brasileira Augusta, Alain Touraine e Susan K. Besse, mostrando-nos a trajetória histórica das mulheres, movimentos de luta e conquistas. Acreditamos que as mulheres hoje em dia ainda são dominadas porque se sentem como se estivessem aquém do que a sociedade espera sobre elas, buscando atender às expectativas dos outros e não do que espera de si mesma. Com essa discussão esperamos que as mulheres comecem a rever seu papel dentro da sociedade.Palavras-chave: mulheres; cultura; sociedade; dominante; dominado.

  1. Vida material, religiosidad y sociedad colonial. Espacios, objetos y practicas de consumo en el colegio jesuita de la ciudad de Antioquia. 1726-1767

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez Morales, Edgardo

    2009-01-01

    .... Al vincular las practicas de consumo que tomaban lugar en las propiedades urbanas y rurales de los jesuitas con los ritmos de la vida cotidiana y las jerarquias sociales, se argumenta que los objetos...

  2. Jogando boliche no Bronx: os interstícios incivis entre a sociedade civil e a sociedade política

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    Whitehead Laurence

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Depois de contrastar o caráter universal e inclusivo das noções democráticas de cidadania política (dentro de uma certa jurisdição com o caráter exclusivo que necessariamente marca a sociedade civil, o artigo sustenta que os interstícios entre aquelas duas formas favorecerão a produção de múltiplas variantes de "incivilidade". A categoria dos cidadãos "incivis" é definida como a daqueles que gozam de direitos políticos mas não são constrangidos pelas normas da sociedade civil: indivíduos e grupos anti-sociais cuja forma mais comum é encontrada no termo "máfia". O artigo enfoca, então, o fato de que o maior risco para a sociedade civil não se origina do estatismo invasivo ou da tradição, mas da "falta de segurança, da rudeza, da arbitrariedade e até mesmo do canibalismo social" que se tem associado com parte significativa das sociedades liberalizadas depois de processos de transição.

  3. Neonicotinoid pesticides can reduce honeybee colony genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Gauthier, Laurent; Straub, Lars; Moritz, Robin F. A.; Neumann, Peter; Williams, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa. Furthermore, their worker offspring were genotyped with DNA microsatellites to determine the number of matings and the genotypic composition of the colony. Colonies providing the male mating partners were also inferred. Both neonicotinoid and control queens mated with drones originating from the same drone source colonies, and stored similar number of spermatozoa. However, queens reared in colonies exposed to both neonicotinoids experienced fewer matings. This resulted in a reduction of the genetic diversity in their colonies (i.e. higher intracolonial relatedness). As decreased genetic diversity among worker bees is known to negatively affect colony vitality, neonicotinoids may have a cryptic effect on colony health by reducing the mating frequency of queens. PMID:29059234

  4. Improved Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm and Its Performance Study

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    Wei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering analysis is used in many disciplines and applications; it is an important tool that descriptively identifies homogeneous groups of objects based on attribute values. The ant colony clustering algorithm is a swarm-intelligent method used for clustering problems that is inspired by the behavior of ant colonies that cluster their corpses and sort their larvae. A new abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm using a data combination mechanism is proposed to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the ant colony clustering algorithm. The abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm is used to cluster benchmark problems, and its performance is compared with the ant colony clustering algorithm and other methods used in existing literature. Based on similar computational difficulties and complexities, the results show that the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm produces results that are not only more accurate but also more efficiently determined than the ant colony clustering algorithm and the other methods. Thus, the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm can be used for efficient multivariate data clustering.

  5. Varroa-virus interaction in collapsing honey bee colonies.

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    Roy M Francis

    Full Text Available Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies, pyrethroid (9 colonies and untreated (3 colonies. Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin.

  6. Improved Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm and Its Performance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Clustering analysis is used in many disciplines and applications; it is an important tool that descriptively identifies homogeneous groups of objects based on attribute values. The ant colony clustering algorithm is a swarm-intelligent method used for clustering problems that is inspired by the behavior of ant colonies that cluster their corpses and sort their larvae. A new abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm using a data combination mechanism is proposed to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the ant colony clustering algorithm. The abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm is used to cluster benchmark problems, and its performance is compared with the ant colony clustering algorithm and other methods used in existing literature. Based on similar computational difficulties and complexities, the results show that the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm produces results that are not only more accurate but also more efficiently determined than the ant colony clustering algorithm and the other methods. Thus, the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm can be used for efficient multivariate data clustering.

  7. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior.

  8. La “Coppa Italia” delle Colonie Libere in Svizzera

    OpenAIRE

    Ricciardi, Toni

    2016-01-01

    On June 25, 1961, at the municipal stadium “Kleine Allmend” in Frauenfeld, the final of the first edition of the Italian Cup (Coppa Italia) – organized by the Federazione delle Colonie Libere Italiane in Svizzera – was played. The Colonie Libere represents an unicum – an exception – within the long and widespread tradition of migrant associationism. The first Colony arose from the mid-1920s thanks to the work of those who flee from fascism; after 1943 more than a hundred Colonies were opened ...

  9. Surto de varíola bovina causada pelo vírus Vaccinia na região da Zona da Mata Mineira Outbreak of exantemal disease caused by Vaccinia virus in human and cattle in Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.I.P. Lobato

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um surto de doença exantemática, caracterizada como varíola bovina, acometendo bovinos e seres humanos na Zona da Mata Mineira. Setenta e duas propriedades, distribuídas em 20 municípios localizados na região, foram visitadas para se levantar os aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos da doença. Detectaram-se 1020 vacas doentes durante a investigação, quando houve queda na produção do leite associada a infecções bacterianas secundárias. Casos humanos foram registrados em 83% das propriedades visitadas. Espécimes clínicos e amostras de soro foram coletados dos animais doentes ou convalescentes. O diagnóstico de laboratório mostrou o envolvimento de um ortopoxvírus, precisamente o Vaccinia virus como agente etiológico do surto.It was investigated an outbreak of exantemal disease in human and cattle in Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais's State, Brazil. Seventy two farms located in 20 counties locating in this region were visited and disease pattern was studied. 1020 cows got sick in the visited herds and in 83% of them human cases occurred together with disease in animals. Drop in milk production and secondary infection were frequently observed. The disease occurred mainly from may to September. Serum and scars from sick and convalescent animals were collected and laboratory diagnostic showed that an orthopoxvirus, more precisely vaccinia virus was involved in the outbreak.

  10. Significado e Percepção de Eutanásia Sob a Óptica de Acadêmicos de Medicina de Uma Cidade Sul Mineira / Significance and Perception of Euthanasia under the Vision of Medical Students in a City in the South of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Aparecida dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar o significado e a percepção de eutanásia para os acadêmicos de medicina de uma cidade sul mineira. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, qualitativa e transversal. Como método de estudo, foi utilizado o Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo que tem como base a Teoria das Representações Sociais. Resultados: Mostraram que as ideias centrais “Provocar a morte” e “Sou contra” foram de maior prevalência para os acadêmicos de medicina. Conclusão: Depreende-se que é preciso incentivar os profissionais de saúde e acadêmicos a fazerem novas pesquisas sobre o assunto e oferecer subsídios às instituições de saúde para elaborarem junto a Comissão de Ética maneiras de tratar assuntos sobre a eutanásia e os cuidados com os pacientes no final da vida. Objective: Identify the meaning and sense of euthanasia to medical students in a city in the South of Minas Gerais. Materials and Methods: It is a exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and cross-sectional research. As a study method it was used the Discourse of the Collective Subject which is based in the Social Representations Theory. Results: demonstrated that the central ideas “To cause the death” and “I’m against” were the most prevalent among the medical students. Conclusion: It may be concluded that it is necessary to encourage health-care professionals and students to make new researches about this subject and offer subsidies to health facilities in onder to develop, with the ethics committee, ways to deal with topics about euthanasia and care of the terminal patients.

  11. Concepts for an export oriented lunar colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kent L.

    1990-12-01

    A model of a lunar domestic economy is presented which consists of 12 sectors, trading 21 goods and services. Material flow for operations and investments are balanced to minimize shortages and surpluses. Prices are formed by targeting a 15-35% return on assets for industry and a 15% after expenses income for labour. From this data, accounting statements, a 14 × 14 cash flow input/output matrix (consisting of 11 industrial sectors, labour, foreign trade and finance), and macroeconomic analyses are prepared which illuminate the most important links in the lunar economy. From this model conclusions are drawn regarding the matter of how best to lay the basis for sustainable colony growth and prosperity.

  12. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

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    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  13. A política dos homens de cor no tempo da Independência

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    Ubiratan Castro de Araújo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O AUTOR analisa o movimento político pelo qual homens negros e pobres manifestaram o seu descontentamento contra a monarquia portuguesa e contra a sociedade escravista na Bahia, em 1798. O regionalismo baiano inspirou a exaltação deste movimento, batizado então de Inconfidência Baiana, mais radical nos propósitos de independência do Brasil e mais republicano do que a Inconfidência Mineira porque portador dos anseios das classes subordinadas do Brasil colonial.THE AUTHOR analyzes the political movement through which poor, black men manifested their discontent with the Portuguese monarchy and the proslavery society of Bahia in 1798. The regionalism of Bahia contributed to the exalted status of this movement, known then as Inconfidência Baiana [Insurrection of Bahia], which was more radical in advocating the independence of Brazil and more republican than the Inconfidência Mineira [Insurrection of Minas] because it embodied the yearnings of colonial Brazil's subordinate classes.

  14. Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

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    Chunsheng Hou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.

  15. Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2014-01-01

    The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions. PMID:24800677

  16. La ciudad y la corte como espacios de poder en Hispanoamérica. La plata colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridikhina, Eugenia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article demostrates how the City of La Plata, headquarters of the Audiencia and the Archbishopric, became defined as the Provincial Court, the centre of courtesan life, and the ceremonial centre of the monarchy. Public ceremonies and etiquette served as an instrument for royal domination represented in the social hierarchy, which defined and limited the social mobility of protagonists in colonial society. Ruling class acceptance of norms of conduct identical to Royal Court, and a similar social hierarchy with similar norms allowed for the functioning of the competitive and antagonistic worlds of Charca´s society.

    Este artículo pretende demostrar que la ciudad de La Plata, sede de la Audiencia y Arzobispado se definió como la Corte provincial, el centro de vida cortesana y el escenario ceremonial de la monarquía. Las ceremonias públicas y etiquetas que se realizaban en este espacio del poder servían como un instrumento de dominio real, representaban y reforzaban la jerarquía social, marcando el lugar que sus protagonistas tenían en sociedad colonial. La aceptación por las clases dirigentes de pautas de conducta y sociabilidad idénticas a los de la Corte Real, y de un modelo similar de diferenciación jerárquica, con sus normas y reglas hacía que funcionara el mundo competitivo y antagónico de la sociedad charqueña.

  17. Ant Colonies Do Not Trade-Off Reproduction against Maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris H Kramer

    Full Text Available The question on how individuals allocate resources into maintenance and reproduction is one of the central questions in life history theory. Yet, resource allocation into maintenance on the organismic level can only be measured indirectly. This is different in a social insect colony, a "superorganism" where workers represent the soma and the queen the germ line of the colony. Here, we investigate whether trade-offs exist between maintenance and reproduction on two levels of biological organization, queens and colonies, by following single-queen colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior throughout the entire lifespan of the queen. Our results show that maintenance and reproduction are positively correlated on the colony level, and we confirm results of an earlier study that found no trade-off on the individual (queen level. We attribute this unexpected outcome to the existence of a positive feedback loop where investment into maintenance (workers increases the rate of resource acquisition under laboratory conditions. Even though food was provided ad libitum, variation in productivity among the colonies suggests that resources can only be utilized and invested into additional maintenance and reproduction by the colony if enough workers are available. The resulting relationship between per-capita and colony productivity in our study fits well with other studies conducted in the field, where decreasing per-capita productivity and the leveling off of colony productivity have been linked to density dependent effects due to competition among colonies. This suggests that the absence of trade-offs in our laboratory study might also be prevalent under natural conditions, leading to a positive association of maintenance, (= growth and reproduction. In this respect, insect colonies resemble indeterminate growing organisms.

  18. Between Past and Present: The Sociopsychological Constructs of Colonialism, Coloniality and Postcolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicic, Ana; Berardi, Filomena

    2018-03-01

    If one of the major aspirations of postcolonial theory is to re-establish a balance in the relationship between the (former) colonizer and the colonized by engaging the voices of the "subaltern", and on the other hand to illuminate how power relations of the present are embedded in history (Mills 2007), we argue that important theoretical insights might inform research by anchoring post-colonial theory within a sociopsychological framework. While there is a growing corpus of sociopsychological research articles focusing on how major geopolitical events and historical processes bear on people's lives, we aim to investigate the theoretical potential of postcolonial theory within the disciplines aiming at a sociopsychological approach. By focusing on the social dynamics of power imbalances, post-colonial theory finds its operational meaning: the feelings stemming from actions committed in the past are indeed crucial in determining reparatory attitudes and policies towards members of former colonized groups. Firstly, drawing from the sociopsychological scientific production related to consequences of colonial past, seen in recent years as a growing research interest in the field, we will explore patterns and trends through a thematic analysis of literature. Social Psychology as well as adjacent disciplines can greatly benefit from this theoretical fertilization, especially in the way post-colonial ideologies relate to the symbolic promotion versus exclusion of indigenous culture (Sengupta et al., International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 506-517, 2012). Furthermore, by comparing and contrasting the ideological cosmologies relating to this particular topic, this study aims to establish the state of knowledge in the field, to identify how research methods and thematic fields are paired, to find "gaps" and create spaces for research that become integrative of postcolonial theory. While focusing on academic production, we also hope to contribute to develop

  19. Generation of mutation hotspots in ageing bacterial colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekowska, Agnieszka; Wendel, Sofie; Nørholm, Morten

    How do ageing bacterial colonies generate adaptive mutants? Over a period of two months, we isolated on ageing colonies outgrowing mutants able to use a new carbon source, and sequenced their genomes. This allowed us to uncover exquisite details on the molecular mechanism behind their adaptation:...

  20. Discover for Yourself: An Optimal Control Model in Insect Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the enlightening path of self-discovery afforded to the teacher of undergraduate mathematics. This is demonstrated as we find and develop background material on an application of optimal control theory to model the evolutionary strategy of an insect colony to produce the maximum number of queen or reproducer insects in the colony at…

  1. Estimating 3-dimensional colony surface area of field corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colony surface area is a critical descriptor for biological and physical attributes of reef-building (scleractinian, stony) corals. The three-dimensional (3D) size and structure of corals are directly related to many ecosystem values and functions. Most methods to estimate colony...

  2. Idiocy and the Law in Colonial New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Parnel

    2001-01-01

    A review of laws and records of the courts of colonial New England indicates early laws of Massachusetts extended certain rights to idiots: they authorized the transfer of property, exonerated idiots who committed capital crimes, and extended relief to impoverished idiots. The relationship between colonial laws and present legislation is examined.…

  3. How did Europe Rule Africa? Dialectics of Colonialism and African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of how Europe ruled Africa relates to the crucial issues of settlernative identity as constructions of colonialism as well as political consciousness formation and development among the colonized as well as the colonizers. Because colonialism operated ambiguously throughout its life to the extent of hiding its ...

  4. Colonial Military Intelligence in the Zulu Rebellion, 1906 | Thompson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Zulu Rebellion of 1906, the Natal Militia defeated the Zulu rebels without British imperial forces having to intervene in the conflict. The colonial forces were well adapted to the local circumstances, but in one important respect they drew heavily on imperial experience, namely military field intelligence. Colonial military ...

  5. Embodying colonial photography: remembering violence in Tabee Toean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about bodily interactions with photographs. Taking an interview with a veteran from the Dutch colonial army filmed for the documentary Tabee Toean (1995) as its case study, it focuses on the ways in which this man frames these images of colonial warfare through three types of bodily

  6. The Efficiency of the Assay for Haemopietic Colony Forming Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahiri, S.K.; Keizer, H.J.; Putten, L.M.v. (L. M. van)

    1970-01-01

    textabstractThe quantitative efficiency of the spleen colony assay in mice is discussed in the light of recent findings on the kinetics of colony forming cells. Arguments are presented showing that the f factor, the 2 hr CFU recovery fraction in the spleen, markedly over‐estimates the assay

  7. Breeding site selection by colonial waterbirds given various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of active colonial waterbird nests at a series of four small constructed wetlands in Cape Town was counted monthly from 1999 to 2008. In total 491 pairs belonging to 11 waterbird species were involved. Between 1997 and 2004 a number of different artificial structures were used to attract colonial waterbirds to ...

  8. Regionally coherent trends in colonies of African penguins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1987 to 2005, numbers of African penguins Spheniscus demersus breeding in South Africa's Western Cape Province increased by about 50%. Numbers decreased at the four northernmost colonies in the region: Lambert's Bay and the three colonies in Saldanha Bay, although at Jutten Island the decrease is inferred ...

  9. Factors influencing growth of the African penguin colony at Boulders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on growth of the Boulders colony of African penguins Spheniscus demersus from inception in 1985 to the present. More than 900 pairs now breed there. Growth of the colony slowed in 1995 and 1996 and reversed in 1998, coinciding with periods of low abundance of Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis off ...

  10. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  11. Readers and Writers in Colonial Natal (1843–1910) | Christison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this essay is to present a broad outline of ways in which literary or imaginative texts were circulated and consumed in Natal Colony in the years 1843–1910. It shows how, at least initially, the majority of these texts originated abroad, but how increasingly colonials began to supply their own literary ...

  12. The colonial 'civilizing process' in Dutch Formosa 1624-1662

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, Hsin-hui

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of the colonial ‘civilizing process’ in Dutch Formosa (Present-day Taiwan) between 1624 and 1662. Drawing inspiration from Norbert Elias, this study stresses on ‘the colonial “civilizing process” ’ which is applied to the inexorable process of retreat from the era of ‘Aboriginal

  13. Post-Colonial Practice in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Purple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fact that colonialism has come and gone in Africa, does not mean that it has taken along with it all the draconian effects it has on the continent of Africa. Therefore, African writers in order for them to get out of a gridlock situation that colonialism has placed on the continent of Africa, have decided to look for means and ...

  14. Resisting the Coloniality of English: A Research Review of Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Funie

    2017-01-01

    The colonial legacy of English instruction has become especially relevant within the field of TESOL. While it is promising that increasing attention is being paid to the issue of colonialism and its historical and contemporary impact on the teaching of English, educators might be left without a clear sense of how to traverse the precarious path of…

  15. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated colony counter. 866.2170 Section 866.2170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony...

  17. Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Government and NGOs are promoting beekeeping as a tool for poverty alleviation in Ethiopia. This increased promotion is creating increasing demand for bee colonies in the Northern part of the country such as Tigray region. Thus, colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region. This research ...

  18. 'Mill's Liberal Project and Defence of Colonialism from a Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aims to show that Mill's views on colonial rule were largely informed by his principle of liberty which, in turn, was based on his qualitative utilitarianism. The driving force behind his colonialism, as with his work in general, was his unwavering belief in the importance of human progress and development. Mill never believed ...

  19. 'Administering the Medicine': Progressive Education, Colonialism, and the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Joost

    2001-01-01

    Draws comparisons between the Australian education directors, Frank Tate and Jacques Henry Abendanon. Discusses educational reform issues based on racial contexts and social, political, and cultural aspects in the British colony of Victoria and the Dutch colony of Java. Concludes that, though their politcal contexts are different, their views are…

  20. Cormorants as visitors in the Vorsø colony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Vinas, Marta Mas; Gregersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Like other seabirds Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis are known to prospect in potential breeding colonies during their first years of life before they settle to breed. Based on daily resightings of colour-ringed cormorants in the old Vorsø colony we examined the difference between na...

  1. Colonial Modernity and the African Worldview: Theorising and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Gramscian concept of hegemony and Jean and John Comaroff's concept of cultural and colonial encounters are used to assist in teasing out deeper meaning in the encounter between the Ndebele and the early Christian missionaries prior to inscription of settler colonialism in the area lying between the Limpopo and ...

  2. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882 | Kotze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The colonial government expected unrealistic strategic results from the colonial armed forces. Military reforms were mostly reactive and too little was done too late. The Molteno as well as the Sprigg ministry eventually paid the highest political price for the failure of their respective defence schemes not least of which was the ...

  3. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  4. Colonial conquest in central Madagascar : who resisted what?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.; Abbink, G.J.; Bruijn, M.E. de.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    A rising against French colonial rule in central Madagascar (1895-1898) appeared in the 1970s as a good example of resistance to colonialism, sparked by France's occupation of Madagascar. Like many similar episodes in other parts of Africa, it was a history that appeared, in the light of later

  5. Decolonial, post-colonial, post-apartheid - reflections on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The waves of student protest in South Africa in 2015 – 2016 reflect the failure of an ANC government to deconstruct the country's deeply embedded colonial legacy, both in ideas and in its myriad practical manifestations. The writer uncovers the effects of layers of colonial hegemony from its early onset to the present and ...

  6. Memory contested, locality transformed : representing Japanese colonial 'heritage' in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiang, Min-Chin

    2012-01-01

    In the search for a Taiwanese identity rooted in the land of Taiwan the Japanese colonial past plays an ambiguous role. The Japanese colonial sites became a constituent part of the new identity and cultural narrative of Taiwan in the 1990s and 2000s, when a memory boom was experienced in Taiwan

  7. The Sociocultural Significance of Court Institutions in Colonial Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Vostrikov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the sociocultural significance of courts in colonial Virginia. Virginia was agrarian “tobacco” colony, where the settlements of urban type did not get proper development. In this connection, court days were very important occasions for social gatherings, when colonists not only might participate in court hearings, but became involved in various social interactions such as news exchange, business transactions, cockfighting, horse racing and attending taverns. If not found in rare towns court buildings weresituated at road junctions and other convenient places to be more easily accessible for inhabitants of the colony. The author also provides a glimpse into the issues of law and order, crime and punishment as well as the general state of the colonial system of justice. During the colonial period the differences between judicial, executive and legislative branches of government were not distinct yet and the institution of the county court had immense importance as it combined all the three types of power on a local level. The court of oyer and terminer dealt with criminal offences. The General court in Williamsburg, the colonial capital, was the main court in Virginia which considered the most crucial cases. The colonial legal system was initially based on English traditions and precedents but it was constantly modified largely due to the singularities of the colony such as abundance of free land and chattel slavery.

  8. Nigeria's Fiscal Deficits: A History of its Colonial Foundations, 1899 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper shows that deficit financing of public expenditure by the Nigerian government is however not a recent issue and that it can be traced to the formative years of Nigeria's public finance in the colonial period. The paper however argues that unlike the current practice, deficit financing was driven more in the colonial ...

  9. Colony differences in termiticide transfer studies, a role for behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2010-01-01

    Donor-recipient termiticide transfer laboratory tests were performed by using destructive sampling with two delayed-action non-repellent (DANR) termiticides against each of three colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Two of the three colonies showed no response to indoxacarb, but all three showed a response to chlorantraniliprole. These results indicate that...

  10. The Colonial Situation: Complicities and Distinctions from the Surrealist Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pablo Gómez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, taking as baseline the thought of Aimé Césaire and Franz Fanon —keeping in mind the closeness of the Negritude movement with surrealism—, we propose to approach the modernity/coloniality problem, appealing to the denominated surrealist image of beauty. In the first part the colonial situation is approached, in the second the colonial situation from the logic of surrealist image, and in the third the possibility of a decolonial universal or pluriversal is raised. In general terms, exploring the existent link between the “surrealist image” and the colonial structure of modernity —that generates the denominated colonial situation—, we aspire to approach what could be a decolonial aesthetic that, as general problem, will be tackled in later works.

  11. Movimiento estudiantil, sociedad civil, democracia y gobernabilidad en Venezuela: 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egda Ortiz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo explicar la relación entre movimiento estudiantil, sociedad civil, democracia y gobernabilidad en Venezuela. Se adelanta una revisión conceptual y teórica respecto a los aspectos mencionados para el período seleccionado. La gobernabilidad para este período se explica al encontrarse una interrelación histórica entre democracia, movimiento estudiantil y sociedad civil venezolana. La democracia es la construcción de consensos y mayorías políticas para realizarlos. PNUD-OEA (2010. En el caso venezolano, los distintos actores políticos y sociales que conforman la sociedad civil han expresado la defensa de los valores democráticos desde las dictaduras del siglo pasado hasta la actualidad. Son las sociedades civiles las que amplían el espacio público de los derechos y de la conciencia social sobre éstos. Grzybowski (2004. Se concluye que la construcción democrática requiere de la participación de distintos actores políticos y sociales que intercambien valores, procesos e ideas en el seno de la sociedad civil venezolana; y en este proceso complejo de la última década el movimiento estudiantil y los ciudadanos en general han destacado en el rescate de la gobernabilidad y la democracia en el país.

  12. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J Bromenshenk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV (Iridoviridae associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1 bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2 bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3 bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey

  13. Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.; Wick, Charles H.; Stanford, Michael F.; Zulich, Alan W.; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Deshpande, Samir V.; McCubbin, Patrick E.; Seccomb, Robert A.; Welch, Phillip M.; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R.; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Bilimoria, Shan L.; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006–2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. Conclusions/Significance These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses

  14. [Japan's Oriental medicine policy in colonial Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yunjae

    2008-06-01

    During its colonization of Korea, the Japanese Empire used the Western medicine as a tool for advertising its advanced culture. However, the medical workforce available in Korea was insufficient. The Rule for Uisaeng (Oriental medicine practitioner) was an ordinance decreed in 1913 with a purpose of supplementing the medical workforce. As the Oriental medicine practitioners became official medical workforce, the Japanese Empire could mobilize them in a hygienic administration such as prevention of epidemics. The Uisaengs also tried to adapt themselves to the colonial environment by studying Western medicines. However, the distrust of the Japanese Empire in Oriental medicine continued until 1920s. Manchurian Incident in 1931 brought a change. As the relationship with China aggravated, the provision of medical herb became unstable and the Japanese Empire began to encourage using Oriental medical herb following the Movement for Improving Rural Region Economy. An attempt of the Japanese Empire to utilize the medical herb resulted in a plan to make the Oriental medical herb officinal. The goal was to organize and standardize the Oriental medical herb through a research by the Medical Herb Investigation Committee. However, the medical herb on the table was the one verified by the Western medicine. That is, it was not a traditional medical herb that uses the original theory of Oriental medicine. There was a minority opinion arguing that they should study the Oriental medicine itself. However, that argument was also based on the theory and principles of the Western medicine. Even though an attempt to make full use of Uisaengs expanded as the war continued, the major medical workforce that the Japanese Empire relied on was those trained in Western medicine. In other words, the Japanese Empire did not give a full credit to the Oriental medicine during the colonial era. During the colonization, Japanese Empire used Oriental medicine under the nominal reason of lack of medical

  15. Collective Memories of Portuguese Colonial Action in Africa: Representations of the Colonial Past among Mozambicans and Portuguese Youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Feijó

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Social representations of the colonization and decolonization processes among young people from a former European colonial power (Portugal and from an African ex-colony (Mozambique were investigated through surveys using open- and closed-ended questions about national history, focusing on the identity functions of collective memories. Hegemonic and contested representations were found of the most prominent events related to Portuguese colonization of Mozambique, arousing a range of collective emotions. A central place is occupied by memories of the Colonial War, which ended with the Carnation Revolution in Portugal and the subsequent independence of the Portuguese African colonies. Overall, the depiction of colonialism was more negative for Mozambican than for Portuguese participants. The violent effects of colonial action were very salient in Mozambican memories, which stressed the most oppressive aspects of the colonial period, associated with slave trade and brutal repression. On the Portuguese side, the idealization of the voyages of discovery persisted, obscuring the most violent effects of colonial expansion. However, collective memories of colonization of former colonizer and former colonized do not simply stand opposed. Both Mozambican and Portuguese participants reported ambivalent feelings towards the colonization process.

  16. For the youth : juvenile delinquency, colonial civil society and the late colonial state in the Netherlands Indies, 1872-1942

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Annelieke

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation project focuses on forced re-education policies for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands Indies (now Indonesia) and uses this topic to show the interaction between a 'modernizing' Dutch colonial state and the growth of a colonial civil society, between approximately 1872 and

  17. Una herencia conflictiva: El imaginario religioso colonial y la construcción de identidades nacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Cebrelli

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estos apuntes, elaborados desde los estudios literarios y culturales latinoamericanistas, proponen una reflexión sobre la formación de las identidades nacionales en Argentina y en Perú. Con tal fin, se realiza una lectura sociocrítica y contrastiva de dos comentarios del proceso por herejía al fue sometida Angela Carranza por el Santo Oficio de Lima a finales del siglo XVII, escritos casi dos centurias más tarde por Juan María Gutiérrez y por Ricardo Palma, respectivamente. La perspectiva metodológica elegida posibilita la aprehensión de algunos de los mecanismos mediante los cuales cada sociedad reelabora su pasado colonial y funda un patrimonio nacional con rasgos distintivos. Asimismo, pone en evidencia que la nación resulta un artificio geopolítico construido sobre regiones ?vividas? que la exceden desde el punto de vista temporal y que, más allá de los modelos culturales en boga, las memorias locales constituyen un anclaje identitario imposible de eludir.

  18. "Bases legales para la transformación de Sociedades Civiles en Sociedades Cooperativas" (Legal bases for the transformation of Civil Societies into Cooperative Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gadea Soler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Derecho interno vigente permite abiertamente la transformaciónde Sociedades Civiles con personalidad jurídica, Asociaciones y Fundaciones,en Cooperativas. Ello está además integrado en las propuestas del ParlamentoEuropeo en beneficio del empleo, la lucha contra la exclusión en la UEy el mantenimiento del bienestar social en la Unión.

  19. Artificial bee colony in neuro - Symbolic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd; Sathasivam, Saratha; Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf

    2017-08-01

    Swarm intelligence is a research area that models the population of the swarm based on natural computation. Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a swarm based metaheuristic algorithm introduced by Karaboga to optimize numerical problem. Pattern-SAT is a pattern reconstruction paradigm that utilized 2SAT logical rule in representing the behavior of the desired pattern. The information of the desired pattern in terms of 2SAT logic is embedded to Hopfield neural network (HNN-P2SAT) and the desired pattern is reconstructed during the retrieval phase. Since the performance of HNN-P2SAT in Pattern-SAT deteriorates when the number of 2SAT clause increased, newly improved ABC is used to reduce the computation burden during the learning phase of HNN-P2SAT (HNN-P2SATABC). The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of Pattern-SAT produced by ABC incorporated with HNN-P2SAT and compare it with conventional standalone HNN. The comparison is examined by using Microsoft Visual Basic C++ 2013 software. The detailed comparison in doing Pattern-SAT is discussed based on global Pattern-SAT, ratio of activated clauses and computation time. The result obtained from computer simulation indicates the beneficial features of HNN-P2SATABC in doing Pattern-SAT. This finding is expected to result in a significant implication on the choice of searching method used to do Pattern-SAT.

  20. Ant Colony Optimisation for Backward Production Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Pereira dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of a production scheduling system is to assign tasks (orders or jobs to resources and sequence them as efficiently and economically (optimised as possible. Achieving this goal is a difficult task in complex environment where capacity is usually limited. In these scenarios, finding an optimal solution—if possible—demands a large amount of computer time. For this reason, in many cases, a good solution that is quickly found is preferred. In such situations, the use of metaheuristics is an appropriate strategy. In these last two decades, some out-of-the-shelf systems have been developed using such techniques. This paper presents and analyses the development of a shop-floor scheduling system that uses ant colony optimisation (ACO in a backward scheduling problem in a manufacturing scenario with single-stage processing, parallel resources, and flexible routings. This scenario was found in a large food industry where the corresponding author worked as consultant for more than a year. This work demonstrates the applicability of this artificial intelligence technique. In fact, ACO proved to be as efficient as branch-and-bound, however, executing much faster.

  1. Was Fundamental Education Another Form Of Colonialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A description of the work of Pedro Tamesis Orata provides an opportunity to investigate the conflicts that can occur when educators seek to reduce poverty while trying to respect indigenous cultures. A native of the Philippines, Orata completed his doctoral studies at the Ohio State University in 1927. During US President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, he accepted the position of school principal for the US Bureau of Indian Affairs. After World War II, he directed the spread of fundamental education through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In his final years, he returned to the Philippines where he began a movement to spread what were called self-help high schools. In these activities, Orata taught people to follow John Dewey's five steps of thinking while working to improve their standards of living. In the 1970s, educators, such as Paulo Freire, complained that problem-solving methods, similar to those Orata favored, reinforced the oppressive aspects of formerly colonial societies. While Freire may have been overly critical, conflicts among cultural orientations appear to be unavoidable. The hope behind this investigation is that the difficulties can be reduced when people understand the different forces that persist.

  2. El contrato ciencia /sociedad y la atención integral a la infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Amar Amar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el inicio del tercer milenio se evidencia la importancia estratégica que está cobrando el conocimiento y la capacidad de generarlo y usarlo como medio para mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas. Este factor ha originado un contrato ciencia/sociedad, ejemplificado por la relación entre las universidades de investigación, como responsables de generar conocimiento, y el Estado, como representante de la sociedad. Este artículo presenta una nueva alternativa de investigación, una modalidad transdisciplinaria que, en el marco del contrato ciencia/sociedad, le asigna mayor participación a la comunidad como principal agente beneficiario. Particularmente se describe el programa de Hogares Comunales del Niño, que aborda la problemática de la infancia desde la perspectiva de la nueva modalidad de investigación.

  3. La sociedad civil global como agente decisorio en política internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Marín Aranguren

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta ubicar el nacimiento de la sociedad civil global y la identifica como actor del sistema internacional. Luego, mediante una serie de actuaciones en escenarios internacionales, muestra cómo ha planteado exitosas alternativas de solución a problemáticas que le son propias. Así mismo, revela algunas de las estrategias que la sociedad civil global ha desarrollado para influir en la toma de decisiones, y la manera como ha interactuado con los otros actores del sistema. Finalmente, señala algunas actuaciones locales que han requerido redes globales, y muestra cómo este tejido convierte a la sociedad civil global en un agente decisorio de política internacional.

  4. "Água como tema ciência-tecnologia-sociedade-ambiente na perspectiva da ecopedagogia"

    OpenAIRE

    Luz, Tiago Souza da

    2015-01-01

    O movimento Ciência-Tecnologia-SociedadeAmbiente no ensino de ciências tem a característica de rever a concepção de Ciência, de Tecnologia e suas influências na sociedade, abrangendo também as questões ambientais. A ecopedagogia é um movimento que se baseia na pedagogia freireana, na teoria da complexidade e no holismo, e apresenta uma nova visão de sociedade, que busca a sustentabilidade com a formação de cidadãos planetários. Neste contexto, o objetivo desta dissertação é analisar sequência...

  5. Modelos matemáticos de la sociedad y aplicaciones. Grupos en la red social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio de la Peña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Consideramos la estructura de las redes sociales S correspondientes a sociedades primitivas donde cada individuo pertenece a un clan y todos los clanes se relacionan entre sí. El número de clanes y el tamaño de la sociedad se pueden acotar en función del número de Perron r(S, asociado a la matriz de adyacencia de la red, que a su vez es menor que el número de Dunbar de la sociedad, esto es, r(S ≤ D(S. El número de Perron r(S es una medida de la complejidad de la red S.

  6. O conhecimento e as tecnologias na sociedade da informação

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    Alzira Karla Araújo da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artículo de reflexión en torno a la sociedad de la información, la sociedad del conocimiento, el paradigma de la cibercultura y el papel de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en el progreso social. Se resaltan los factores de inclusión y exclusión sociales que se producen en la sociedad de la información, y se señalan las acciones, intenciones y necesidades que le son propias. La reflexión contribuye a caracterizar la sociedad de la información en tanto busca entenderla desde perspectivas sociales, culturales, económicas y de búsqueda de la ciudadanía. En especial, se analizan los nuevos entornos originados por la revolución tecnológica y su impacto en la información y el conocimiento en un mundo globalizado. Se reconoce que la educación es uno de los pilares de construcción de esa sociedad y se pone como ejemplo el caso de Brasil, donde hay un círculo virtuoso de avances en el uso intensivo de las tecnologias informativas en las escuelas y en la enseñanza superior, gracias a la creación de nuevos espacios públicos, políticas educacionales y el desarrollo tecnológico. Se concluye que la inclusión y democratización de la información son inseparables y determinates para la consolidación de la sociedad de la información.

  7. En torno a la génesis de la sociedad mundial: Innovaciones y mecanismos

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    Rudolf Stichweh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende entregar una brevísima respuesta histórica y aclaratoria a la pregunta: ¿cuándo comienza la historia de la sociedad mundial? La teoría del sistema mundial (Wallerstein y la teoría de sistemas (Luhmann coinciden en situar los orígenes de la sociedad mundial en los procesos de diferenciación característicos de los siglos XV y XVI en Europa. La teoría de la sociedad mundial es la teoría del sistema social que emerge de esta coyuntura. A partir de lo anterior, este texto busca desarrollar dos argumentos. En primer lugar, se exponen tres innovaciones estructurales, que tienen especial relevancia en la génesis de la sociedad mundial: 1. Diferenciación funcional; 2. Organizaciones (especialmente empresas multinacionales y organismos no gubernamentales; 3. Tecnologías comunicativas. Esta es una lista abierta de innovaciones estructurales que se mantiene abierta a la inclusión de otras innovaciones (redes, mercados, comunidades epistemológicas, etc.. En segundo lugar, nuestro argumento sobre las innovaciones estructurales es respaldado por tres mecanismos o mecanismos procesuales a los cuales se debe la dinámica de la sociedad mundial: 1. Difusión global de pautas institucionales; 2. Interdependencia global; 3. Descentralización de los sistemas funcionales. Gracias al desarrollo de esta perspectiva explicativa resulta claro que no parecen haber argumentos convincentes para observar a la sociedad mundial como un sistema caracterizado por patrones estructurales y culturales homogéneos.

  8. Ecological conditions favoring budding in colonial organisms under environmental disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Nakamaru

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a topic of great interest in ecology. Many organisms adopt one of two distinct dispersal tactics at reproduction: the production of small offspring that can disperse over long distances (such as seeds and spawned eggs, or budding. The latter is observed in some colonial organisms, such as clonal plants, corals and ants, in which (superorganisms split their body into components of relatively large size that disperse to a short distance. Contrary to the common dispersal viewpoint, short-dispersal colonial organisms often flourish even in environments with frequent disturbances. In this paper, we investigate the conditions that favor budding over long-distance dispersal of small offspring, focusing on the life history of the colony growth and the colony division ratio. These conditions are the relatively high mortality of very small colonies, logistic growth, the ability of dispersers to peacefully seek and settle unoccupied spaces, and small spatial scale of environmental disturbance. If these conditions hold, budding is advantageous even when environmental disturbance is frequent. These results suggest that the demography or life history of the colony underlies the behaviors of the colonial organisms.

  9. Morphodynamics of a growing microbial colony driven by cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pushpita; Levine, Herbert

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial cells can often self-organize into multicellular structures with complex spatiotemporal morphology. In this work, we study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a growing microbial colony in the presence of cell death. We present an individual-based model of nonmotile bacterial cells which grow and proliferate by consuming diffusing nutrients on a semisolid two-dimensional surface. The colony spreads by growth forces and sliding motility of cells and undergoes cell death followed by subsequent disintegration of the dead cells in the medium. We model cell death by considering two possible situations: In one of the cases, cell death occurs in response to the limitation of local nutrients, while the other case corresponds to an active death process, known as apoptotic or programmed cell death. We demonstrate how the colony morphology is influenced by the presence of cell death. Our results show that cell death facilitates transitions from roughly circular to highly branched structures at the periphery of an expanding colony. Interestingly, our results also reveal that for the colonies which are growing in higher initial nutrient concentrations, cell death occurs much earlier compared to the colonies which are growing in lower initial nutrient concentrations. This work provides new insights into the branched patterning of growing bacterial colonies as a consequence of complex interplay among the biochemical and mechanical effects.

  10. La calidad y salud del suelo influyen sobre la naturaleza y la sociedad

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    Hernán Burbano Orjuela

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available La preservación del suelo resulta prioritaria para todos los sectores de la sociedad, porque su deterioro repercute adversamente sobre otros componentes de la naturaleza y sobre los grupos sociales que necesitan del suelo. Por eso, es importante mantener la calidad y salud del suelo, para que la sociedad pueda garantizar su seguridad alimentaria y disfrutar de los servicios ecosistémicos que presta este recurso natural. En este artículo se revisan los conceptos centrales que buscan explicar las relaciones del suelo con la naturaleza y con las personas.

  11. La descomposici??n del orden religioso en las sociedades modernas seg??n Ren?? Girard

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Fern??ndez, Agust??n

    2015-01-01

    Sacrificios, ritos, mitos, preceptos y valores religiosos han sido durante milenios factores decisivos en culturas de todo el mundo, promocionando la estabilidad y la supervivencia de las sociedades humanas. ??Cu??les ser??an las consecuencias de la crisis del orden religioso como elemento de cohesi??n social en las sociedades modernas? ??C??mo y por qu?? se habr??a producido? ??Cu??l ser??a su efecto en la existencia individual y en las relaciones sociales e interpersonales? ??Por qu?? resul...

  12. Publicidad, pantallas y juventud : miradas hacia la educomunicación en la sociedad del entretenimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Borrero Ojuelos, Rocío Belén

    2016-01-01

    Los medios de comunicación están continuamente transformándose para competir por las audiencias, según las exigencias de los nuevos contextos digitales que proliferan en la actualidad. Denominada por Pérez-Tornero (2008) como la “sociedad multipantallas” nos encontramos frente a una sociedad mediática donde las pantallas están en expansión y el tiempo que pasan los usuarios en ellas va en aumento. En el nuevo entorno digital, los canales y vías para que los jóvenes encuentren ...

  13. La delincuencia juvenil: fenómeno de la sociedad actual

    OpenAIRE

    René Alejandro Jiménez Ornelas

    2005-01-01

    La violencia no es producida aleatoriamente, sino que parte de una cultura de conflictos familiares, sociales, económicos y políticos, y en general, del sistema globalizado que a su vez permea las diferentes formas de vida en la sociedad, donde los estilos de vida de los jóvenes son catalogados como formas de delincuencia. El objetivo de esos estilos de vida, sin embargo, sólo consiste en distanciarse culturalmente de una sociedad que los jóvenes no han fabricado. Víctimas de la d...

  14. La composición del consejo de administración en la sociedad cotizada

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique, Fernández-Sordo Llaneza

    2012-01-01

    La composición del Consejo de Administración de las sociedades cotizadas responde a unas normas específicas que la diferencian del resto de sociedades mercantiles de capital por la amplitud de su masa accionarial, su significación económica y por los diferentes grupos de interés presentes en la compañía. Por ello, confluyen normas de carácter imperativo con otras de Derecho blando a través de las diferentes recomendaciones del Gobierno Corporativo. En este TFM, se analizan los principios del ...

  15. Consideraciones sobre la naturaleza contractual y comercial de las sociedades en el derecho colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Oviedo Albán

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo, el autor plantea algunas consideraciones en relación con el debate doctrinal presentado en Colombia en relación con la naturaleza contractual de las sociedades y los criterios a los que debe acudirse para calificarlas como civiles o comerciales. A partir de las reformas legislativas correspondientes se sostiene que en la actualidad resulta más preciso referirse al negocio jurídico societario que al contrato de sociedad, toda vez que se admite la conformación de socie...

  16. Formas y significados del vestido en una sociedad posmoderna: el caso de San Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Moncada, Mariella; Campos, Melissa Regina

    2010-01-01

    Entre las formas de cultura creadas por el ser humano en sociedad está el modo de vestir, y, a pesar de que necesidades funcionales del vestido varían de una sociedad o región a otra al encontrarse presente en todas y cada una de ellas, esto lo vuelve un hecho universal. Ciertamente, la vestimenta surge con la básica finalidad de dar respuesta a la necesidad de abrigo. Y si el uso de la vestimenta es universal, lo que la hace diferente en cada grupo humano es el desarrollo independiente de su...

  17. Una sociedad mejor, John Kenneth Galbraith : Barcelona, Crítica, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Griffo, Susana

    1998-01-01

    En Una sociedad mejor, publicado en inglés a fines de 1995, el profesor Galbraith trata de perfilar una sociedad buena, no perfecta sino factible. No utópica o ideal sino posible y capaz de conciliar la libertad con el bienestar, en un mundo donde ambos principios parecen excluyentes. Así, a lo largo de 186 páginas procura aportar inicios de solución para los problemas del desempleo, la educación, el enriquecimiento a costa de los demás, la emigración, el poder militar, la pobreza, la distrib...

  18. El impacto del uso de las tecnologías sobre la sociedad Argelina

    OpenAIRE

    Taieb, Faiza; Zoubiri, Asma

    2015-01-01

    El tema de nuestra investigación es la influencia o el impacto de los medios de comunicación sobre la sociedad argelina En la sociedad actual en la que vivimos no podemos afirmar que la educación de Nuestros menores se encuentre localizada de manera exclusiva en la escuela, ya que los Medios de Comunicación que nos rodean, entre los cuales podemos incluir al cine, la televisión, el teléfono móvil, Internet, la prensa, etc., influyen de manera significativa en la formación de...

  19. Oportunidades y desarrollo en las sociedades científicas estudiantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Mondragón-Cardona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación en investigación desde el pregrado como competencia básica y parte fundamental de la educación médica continua y la formación integral, ha sido el punto de encuentro para las diferentes sociedades científicas de estudiantes de medicina de Latinoamérica, convirtiéndose así en el fundamento de la Federación Latinoamericana de Sociedades Científicas de Estudiantes de Medicina FELSOCEM

  20. Las metamorfosis de la sociedad actual: comentarios sobre los tres libros de Byung-Chul Han

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco García Triviño

    2016-01-01

    Resumen La dificultad de leer lo actual entraña saber tomar la distancia suficiente para reconocer los cambios que se están viviendo. Estos tres libros  afrontan este reto con agilidad. Una destreza narrativa y una gran  capacidad para construir teorías, inquieta y hace preguntarse sobre lo que está sucediendo. Cada libro arranca con una hipótesis que describe el cambio que sufre la sociedad. En la primera hipótesis el autor se plantea cómo la sociedad  actual ya no teme lo extraño, si...

  1. La violencia en una sociedad rural. Córdoba 1900-1930

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Ruiz, Raúl

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se analizan los rasgos característicos de violencia en una sociedad rural como la cordobesa durante el primer tercio del siglo XX. Para ello se analizan los tipos de delitos cometidos, su distribución territorial y su frecuencia numérica. El objetivo que perseguíamos era describir y cuantificar los tipos delictivos que aquella sociedad producía y sobre dicha información comprender la realidad histórica del territorio cordobés durante el reinado de Alfonso XIII. Para la descrip...

  2. Oportunidades y desarrollo en las sociedades científicas estudiantiles

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Mondragón-Cardona; Carlos Eduardo Jiménez-Canizales; Verónica Alzate-Carvajal

    2013-01-01

    La formación en investigación desde el pregrado como competencia básica y parte fundamental de la educación médica continua y la formación integral, ha sido el punto de encuentro para las diferentes sociedades científicas de estudiantes de medicina de Latinoamérica, convirtiéndose así en el fundamento de la Federación Latinoamericana de Sociedades Científicas de Estudiantes de Medicina FELSOCEM

  3. La representación social de las familias diversas: Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia

    OpenAIRE

    María de Jesús González Pérez

    2007-01-01

    La familia es un pilar fundamental que se relaciona determinantemente con las demás estructuras de un sistema social; en el caso de nuestra sociedad, esta institución se encuentra en el más alto rango del orden moral, sancionando desde una perspectiva heterosexista la presencia de nuevas familias que alteran el modelo tradicional, por lo que la Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia reforma al Código Civil del Distrito Federal, y trae consigo la posibilidad de resguardar jurídica e institucionalmen...

  4. Impacto de las catástrofes naturales en sociedades coloniales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gascón

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo resaltamos la relación entre la dinámica de una sociedad y los cambios operados por catástrofes masivas, tanto en lo material como en la economía, la política y las ideas y valores religiosos. Examinamos casos coloniales, como la erupción del volcán Villarrica (1640 en el sur de Chile y otros terremotos destructivos del siglo XVII. Adoptaremos una perspectiva comparativa para mostrar cómo las catástrofes modifican las condiciones locales y provocan cambios en la vida de las sociedades coloniales.

  5. Educación mediática en la sociedad actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa García Ruíz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La influencia de los medios de comunicación en la sociedad actual conlleva un cambio de actitud por parte de todos los ciudadanos, instituciones y organismos. De este modo, emana una incesante búsqueda de recursos, propuestas, investigaciones, iniciativas innovadoras y estrategias, relacionadas con la alfabetización mediática, que garantice la participación activa y responsable de la ciudadanía en la sociedad de las múltiples pantallas, como un derecho básico.

  6. La gerencia pública en la sociedad post-industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Guerrero

    2005-01-01

    Hoy en día la sociedad postindustrial se manifiesta en cinco dimensiones: un sector económico; una distribución ocupacional; la centralidad del conocimiento teórico; una orientación del futuro con base en el control de la tecnología y una hechura de decisiones orientadas por la nueva tecnología intelectual. De ahí nace la motivación del presente trabajo, el cual consiste en analizar la gerencia pública en la sociedad postindustrial, a través del análisis documental. Así, en conson...

  7. RICE IN COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL SOUTHEAST ASIA: A FOOD REGIME ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Pradadimara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the ways in which rice, as a global commodity, has been produced and sold in various regions in Southeast Asia from the colonial era to the present days. This paper employs a food regime analysis first introduced by Harriet Friedmann (1982 and later developed together with Philip McMichael (1989 to look at the global political economy of rice. In this paper, it will be shown how various colonial and post colonial states in Southeast Asia (including Thailand who was never formally colonized through their policies have practically divided the region where Burma (now Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam in the mainland have become major rice producer and exporter, while Indonesia, Malaya (now Malaysia, and the Philippines in the archipelagic Southeast Asia have become major rice importers although at the same time producers and exporters of other agro-commodities (coffee, sugar, rubber.Keywords: rice history, food regime, Southeast Asia Artikel ini menelusuri cara di mana padi sebagai komoditas dunia diproduksi dan dijual di beberapa daerah di Asia Tenggara mulai zaman kolonial sampai sekarang. Artikel ini menggunakan analisis “food regime” yang pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Harrier Friedman (1982 dan kemudian dikembangkan bersama oleh Philip (1989 untuk mengetahui politik ekonomi global dari padi. Dalam artikel ini, akan dilihat mengenai bagaimana negara kolonial dan pasca-kolonial yanb berbeda di Asia Tenggara (termasuk Thailand yang tidak pernah dijajah sebelumnya melalui kebiakannya, yang hampir membagi wilayahnya, di mana Burma (Myanmar, Thailand, dan Vietnam telah menjadi produsen dan eksportir utama terbesar, sedangkan Indonesia dan Malaya (Malaysia dan Filipina di Asia Tenggara telah menjadi produsen dan eksportir komoditas pertanian lain (kopi, gula, karet dalam waktu yang bersamaan.Kata kunci: sejarah beras, food regime, Asia Tenggara. 

  8. A Sociedade Portuguesa de Estudos Históricos no contexto historiográfico nacional: 1911-1928

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Ricardo Pinto de Carvalho Paulo de

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, História (Moderna e Comtemporânea), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, 2012 O nosso estudo incide sobre uma sociedade de historiadores que surgiu nos primórdios da I República em Portugal, com o nome inicial de Sociedade Nacional de História (1911), posteriormente Sociedade Portuguesa de Estudos Históricos (1914). O suporte cronológico adoptado centrou-se no período de existência da sociedade, ou seja, entre 1911-28. A SPEH congregou um conjunto significativo...

  9. La sociedad informatizada,apuntes para una patología de la técnica

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Vacas, Fernando

    1991-01-01

    A tenor de los criterios de desarrollo socioeconómico vigentes, formar parte de una sociedad de la información es un privilegio. Tengo entendido que, a finales de los años sesenta, Bell y otros sociólogos y economistas acuñaron el término sociedad de la información o sociedad postindustrial. Drucker, reconocido gurú del management, utilizó en un libro de 1969 el concepto de sociedad del conocimiento(knowledge society).

  10. System design of a near-self-supporting lunar colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. R.; Huang, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Concepts for expanding a 12-man lunar surface base to a more permanent colony of about 180 persons are studied. Guidelines for the colony design are that the colony must perform a useful function, and that design should maximize use of lunar materials and minimize requirements of resupply from the earth. The first use of lunar materials should be for oxygen production, to achieve which large electrical or thermal power inputs are necessary. Some of the efforts which should be directed toward food and plant growth are considered, and those factors from life support and waste control which bear further study are examined. Aspects of power generation, mining, and construction are discussed.

  11. 'Goodwill Ambassador': the Legacy of Dutch Colonial Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Jansen Hendriks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article looks back at the films commissioned and produced by the Dutch governments about their colony in teh East-Indies between 1912 and 1962. The main focus is on the newsreels and documentaries about the colonial war between the Netherlands and Indonesia  from 1945 to 1949. The article reviews these films and the re-use of their footage in later television programs. The programs often look back at the colonial war in ways that go beyond the purpose of the original films and the article aims to show the methods that are used to do this.

  12. Mathematical Modeling the Geometric Regularity in Proteus Mirabilis Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Yi; Minsu Kim Collaboration

    Proteus Mirabilis colony exhibits striking spatiotemporal regularity, with concentric ring patterns with alternative high and low bacteria density in space, and periodicity for repetition process of growth and swarm in time. We present a simple mathematical model to explain the spatiotemporal regularity of P. Mirabilis colonies. We study a one-dimensional system. Using a reaction-diffusion model with thresholds in cell density and nutrient concentration, we recreated periodic growth and spread patterns, suggesting that the nutrient constraint and cell density regulation might be sufficient to explain the spatiotemporal periodicity in P. Mirabilis colonies. We further verify this result using a cell based model.

  13. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Ozge Tozkar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World’s most important centers of apiculture, harboring 5 subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. 60 megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp., neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae, Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, Apis filamentous virus and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus, Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly. We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  14. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö.; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9–10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

  15. Honey Bee Colonies Remote Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gil-Lebrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bees are very important for terrestrial ecosystems and, above all, for the subsistence of many crops, due to their ability to pollinate flowers. Currently, the honey bee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD. The reasons for CCD are not fully known, and as a result, it is essential to obtain all possible information on the environmental conditions surrounding the beehives. On the other hand, it is important to carry out such information gathering as non-intrusively as possible to avoid modifying the bees’ work conditions and to obtain more reliable data. We designed a wireless-sensor networks meet these requirements. We designed a remote monitoring system (called WBee based on a hierarchical three-level model formed by the wireless node, a local data server, and a cloud data server. WBee is a low-cost, fully scalable, easily deployable system with regard to the number and types of sensors and the number of hives and their geographical distribution. WBee saves the data in each of the levels if there are failures in communication. In addition, the nodes include a backup battery, which allows for further data acquisition and storage in the event of a power outage. Unlike other systems that monitor a single point of a hive, the system we present monitors and stores the temperature and relative humidity of the beehive in three different spots. Additionally, the hive is continuously weighed on a weighing scale. Real-time weight measurement is an innovation in wireless beehive—monitoring systems. We designed an adaptation board to facilitate the connection of the sensors to the node. Through the Internet, researchers and beekeepers can access the cloud data server to find out the condition of their hives in real time.

  16. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and leukemogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Lobo de Figueiredo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available THE granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF plays an important role in normal granulopoiesis. Its functions are mediated by specific receptors on the surface of responsive cells and, upon ligand binding, several cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases are activated. The cytoplasmic region proximal to the membrane of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSF-R transduces proliferative and survival signals, whereas the distal carboxy-terminal region transduces maturation signals and suppresses the receptor's proliferative signals. Mutations in the G-CSF-R gene resulting in truncation of the carboxy-terminal region have been detected in a subset of patients with severe congenital neutropenia who developed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML. In addition, the AML1-ETO fusion protein, expressed in leukemic cells harboring the t(8;21, disrupt the physiological function of transcription factors such as C/EBPα and C/EBPε, which in turn deregulate G-CSF-R expression. The resulting high levels of G-CSF-R and G-CSF-dependent cell proliferation may be associated with pathogenesis of AML with t(8;21. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that G-CSF may act as a co-stimulus augmenting the response of PML-RARα acute promyelocytic leukemia cells to all-trans-retinoic acid treatment. Finally, in the PLZF-RARα acute promyelocytic leukemia transgenic model, G-CSF deficiency suppressed leukemia development. Altogether, these data suggest that the G-CSF signaling pathway may play a role in leukemogenesis.

  17. Eutectic colony formation: A stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plapp, Mathis [Physics Department and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Karma, Alain [Physics Department and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Experiments have widely shown that a steady-state lamellar eutectic solidification front is destabilized on a scale much larger than the lamellar spacing by the rejection of a dilute ternary impurity and forms two-phase cells commonly referred to as ''eutectic colonies.'' We extend the stability analysis of Datye and Langer [V. Datye and J. S. Langer, Phys. Rev. B 24, 4155 (1981)] for a binary eutectic to include the effect of a ternary impurity. We find that the expressions for the critical onset velocity and morphological instability wavelength are analogous to those for the classic Mullins-Sekerka instability of a monophase planar interface, albeit with an effective surface tension that depends on the geometry of the lamellar interface and, nontrivially, on interlamellar diffusion. A qualitatively new aspect of this instability is the occurrence of oscillatory modes due to the interplay between the destabilizing effect of the ternary impurity and the dynamical feedback of the local change in lamellar spacing on the front motion. In a transient regime, these modes lead to the formation of large scale oscillatory microstructures for which there is recent experimental evidence in a transparent organic system. Moreover, it is shown that the eutectic front dynamics on a scale larger than the lamellar spacing can be formulated as an effective monophase interface free boundary problem with a modified Gibbs-Thomson condition that is coupled to a slow evolution equation for the lamellar spacing. This formulation provides additional physical insights into the nature of the instability and a simple means to calculate an approximate stability spectrum. Finally, we investigate the influence of the ternary impurity on a short wavelength oscillatory instability that is already present at off-eutectic compositions in binary eutectics. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  18. Transits of Venus and Colonial India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Rajesh

    2012-09-01

    Astronomical expeditions during the colonial period had a political and national significance also. Measuring the earth and mapping the sky were activities worthy of powerful and power- seeking nations. Such was the sanctity of global astronomical activity that many other agendas could be hidden under it. An early astronomy-related expedition turned out to be extremely beneficial, to botany. The expedition sent by the French Government in 1735 to South America under the leadership of Charles Marie de la Condamine (1701--1774) ostensibly for the measurement of an arc of the meridian at Quito in Ecuador surreptitiously collected data that enabled Linnaeus to describe the genus cinchona in 1742. When the pair of transits of Venus occurred in 1761 and 1769, France and England were engaged in a bitter rivalry for control of India. The observation of the transits became a part of the rivalry. A telescope presented by the British to a South Indian King as a decorative toy was borrowed back for actual use. Scientifically the transit observations were a wash out, but the exercise introduced Europe to details of living Indian tradition of eclipse calculations. More significantly, it led to the institutionalization of modern astronomy in India under the auspices of the English East India Company (1787). The transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 were important not so much for the study of the events as for initiating systematic photography of the Sun. By this, Britain owned most of the world's sunshine, and was expected to help European solar physicists get data from its vast Empire on a regular basis. This and the then genuinely held belief that a study of the sun would help predict failure of monsoons led to the institutionalization of solar physics studies in India (1899). Of course, when the solar physicists learnt that solar activity did not quite determine rainfall in India, they forgot to inform the Government.

  19. Public Heath in Colonial and Post-Colonial Ghana: Lesson-Drawing for The Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health in twenty-first century Ghana is mired with several issues ranging from the inadequacy of public health facilities, improper settlement planning, insanitary conditions, and the inadequacy of laws and their implementation. This situation compared to the colonial era is a direct contradiction. Development in the pre-colonial era to the colonial era sought to make the prevention of diseases a priority in the colonial administration. This was begun with the establishment of the health branch in 1909 as a response to the bubonic plague that was fast spreading in the colony. From here public health policies and strategies were enacted to help the diseases prevention cause. Various public health boards, the medical research institute or the laboratory branch, the waste management department, the use of preventive medicine and maintenance of good settlement planning and sanitation were public health measures in the colonial era. This research seeks to analyse the public health system in the colonial era so as to draw basic lessons for twenty-first century Ghana. Archival data and other secondary sources are reviewed and analysed to help draw these lessons. Richard Rose’s lesson-drawing approach was used to draw the lessons.

  20. From Sarmiento to Martí and Hostos: Extricating the Nation from Coloniality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ward

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines constructions of  race, nation and mestizaje in work of Domingo  Faustino Sarmiento, José Martí and Eugenio  Maria de Hostos. The first championed the prevailing nineteenth-century view that humanity  was being debilitated by a constant battle between  civilization and barbarism while the two Antilleans questioned it in their search for a society  liberated from coloniality. Martí denied the notion  of privilege based on Europeanness, proclaiming  that whites, blacks, indigenous and mixed-race  peoples could all claim equal rights under natural  law. Hostos agreed with Martí but took his recommendation one step further by proposing race  mixing, with all ethnic groups equally forming a  new society. Therefore Martí’s negation of racial  differences becomes with Hostos a quest for a  society that would eventually become homogeneous through miscegenation. The study concludes  that there is a timelessness inherent to Martí and  Hostos’s work that still speaks to us today in the  midst of a new awareness of ethnicity’s impact on  society. Resumen:De Sarmiento a Martí y Hostos: Rescatando al país de la colonialidadEl presente artículo examina las construcciones de  raza, nación y mestizaje en las obras de Domingo  Faustino Sarmiento, José Martí y Eugenio María de  Hostos. El primero defendía la construcción deci monónica de que la humanidad había sido debilitada por una constante batalla entre civilización y  barbarie mientras los dos antillanos la cuestionaban  en su búsqueda de una sociedad libre de la colonialidad. Martí niega la noción de privilegio basado en  lo europeo y proclama que los blancos, negros,  indígenas y personas de raza mezclada podrían  reclamar la igualdad de derechos bajo leyes naturales. Hostos estuvo de acuerdo con Martí pero llevó  su recomendación un paso más allá, proponiendo  que la mezcla de razas, con todos los grupos

  1. Hindu Responses to Darwinism: Assimilation and Rejection in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie Brown, C.

    2010-06-01

    Hindu responses to Darwinism, like Christian, have run the gamut from outright rejection to fairly robust but limited accommodations of the Darwinian perspective. Despite certain features of Hindu thought such as the enormous time-scales of traditional cosmogonies that may suggest considerable affinity with modern notions of organic evolution, more often than not traditional assumptions have worked against deep engagement with Darwinism, allowing only for superficial assimilation at best. Three fundamental factors have affected Hindu responses to Darwinism: the great diversity within the tradition spanning evolutionist and creationist perspectives, the encounter with Darwinism in the late nineteenth century as part of an alien culture, and the fact that this encounter occurred within a colonial context. This essay explores the complex interactions of these three factors, beginning with the diversity within the ancient and classical cosmological traditions, followed by consideration of colonial developments and the emergence of four representative Hindu approaches to Darwinism: Modern Vedic Evolutionism, Anthropic Vedic Evolutionism, Reactionary Vedic Evolutionism, and Modern Vedic Creationism. The essay concludes by discussing various epistemological issues in the attempts of modern Hindu apologists to legitimize Vedic world views. These issues include the appeal to modern science to confirm traditional ideals and values, while simultaneously subordinating scientific method to spiritual means of knowledge, or rejecting scientific methodology with its inbuilt skepticism entirely.

  2. Pre‐colonial and colonial forest culture in the Presidency of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Ghosal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Indian forest based culture has a long history. Until the British colonial rule (1757 -1947, Indian forest has been controlled and used by several monarchies. The features of forest based livelihoods were also quite different from one period to another. Before Muslim period, Indian forest used to be considered as an important source of resource, but exploitation was quite less compared to total forest cover. People used to admire native forest for the role it used to play. However, during Muslim and early British period (East India Company period, 1757 – 1857 forest was considered only as the source of timber. To produce farmland a considerable amount of forest cover was also destroyed. After the handover of the colonial power (1857, the British government realised the importance of forests for revenue generation and implemented several rules and regulations to control the ‘illicit’ timber felling. This forest management strategy was followed even after independence (1947 until the JFM system was implemented.

  3. Comportamento de Cistus Ladanifer L. e Cistus Monspeliensis L. face aos elementos vestigiais em solos na área mineira do Chança Cistus Ladanifer L. and Cistus Monspeliensis L. behaviour in Chança mine soils contaminated with trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Fernandes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a acumulação e translocação de elementos vestigiais em duas espécies de plantas espontâneas na área mineira do Chança, Cistus ladanifer L. e Cistus monspeliensis L., e caracterizaram-se os solos da área da rizosfera. Os solos apresentaram diferenças no conteúdo em arsénio, cobre, crómio, manganês, vanádio e zinco e alguns elementos atingiram valores totais (mg kg-1 de: 151 (As; 320 (Cr; 926 (Cu; 1010 (Mn; 235 (V. As concentrações em crómio, manganês e vanádio são diferentes na raiz das duas espécies. Na parte aérea, apenas a concentração de manganês e de níquel é semelhante. As espécies mostraram comportamento acumulador relativamente ao manganês, com excepção do C. monspeliensis numa das zonas de amostragem. Para a maioria dos elementos vestigiais, o C. monspeliensis possui maior capacidade de translocação (raiz-parte aérea do que o C. ladanifer. Os coeficientes de translocação do crómio, manganês, níquel e zinco são superiores a 1,5 nas duas espécies.Trace elements accumulation and translocation in two spontaneous plants of genus Cistus, Cistus ladanifer L. and Cistus monspeliensis L., growing in the Chança mine area, were compared. Samples of plants and soils from rizosphere were collected and characterized. Soil samples showed different total content of arsenic, chromium, copper, manganese, vanadium and zinc, and some of the trace elements had the following total values (mg kg-1: 151 (As; 320 (Cr; 926 (Cu; 1010 (Mn; 235 (V. The concentrations of chromium, manganese and vanadium in roots were different between species. In the shoots, only manganese and nickel concentrations were similar. The two species were manganese accumulators, with C. mon-speliensis exception in one of the sampled areas. Cistus monspeliensis showed the largest translocation capacity of trace elements from roots to shoots. Both species presented the translocation coefficient of chromium, manganese, nickel and zinc

  4. Comparação de correctivos aplicados a um solo de uma área mineira contaminado com arsénio e seu efeito no crescimento de plantas Comparison of amendments applied to an arsenic contaminated soil from a mining area and their effect on plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Madeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de correctivos (óxido de ferro, Fe; matéria orgânica, MO; fosfato de cálcio, PCa, aplicados a um solo da área mineira de Penedono contaminado com As, no crescimento de tomateiro e salsa. Usa­ram-se, como controlos, este solo sem cor­rectivos e um solo não contaminado. Duran­te o crescimento mediu-se a altura das plan­tas, comprimento foliar e teor relativo de clorofila. Na colheita final determinaram-se os pesos frescos e secos. Os correctivos influenciaram a disponibi­lidade de As no solo, relativamente ao ori­ginal: Fe manteve-a enquanto MO e PCa a aumentaram. Ambas as espécies foram afec­tadas pelo arsénio, porém a resposta aos tra­tamentos foi diferente. A altura, compri­mento dos folíolos, teor de clorofila, peso seco e número de frutos dos tomateiros foi significativamente superior em MO do que em Fe e controlo. O correctivo MO apresen­tou resultados promissores relativamente ao crescimento e produtividade do tomateiro. Contudo, o PCa (12 g kg-1 foi o melhor cor­rectivo para o crescimento da salsa.Three amendments (iron oxides, Fe; or­ganic matter, MO; calcium phosphate, PCa were applied to a naturally contaminated soil with arsenic and their effect on the growth of tomato plants and Italian parsley was studied. The results indicate differences associated with the availability of arsenic in the soil in the presence of amendments: Fe had no influence on arsenic availability compared with the unamended soil, while MO and PCa increased the availability of arsenic. Though both plant species have been affected by arsenic toxicity, the re­sponse to treatments relatively to plant growth was different. Tomato plants pre­sented greater growth in terms of height, leaf length, relative chlorophyll content, dry weight and fruit production when MO was used as amendment. By the contrary, the Italian parsley presented the best growth when PCa (12 g kg-1 was added to the con­taminated soil.

  5. Distribuição do urânio nas várias fases-suporte em solos da área mineira da Cunha Baixa (Portugal Uranium distribution in the solid phases of soils from Cunha Baixa mining site (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Neves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A extracção de elementos radioactivos, como o urânio, a partir das suas mineralizações leva à dispersão de contaminantes químicos e radiológicos para a água superficial/subterrânea e para o solo das áreas envolventes. Para avaliar a distribuição do urânio por diferentes fases orgânicas e inorgânicas, em solos da área mineira de Cunha Baixa submeteram-se várias amostras a extracção química parcial, em modo paralelo, com o objectivo de conhecer o risco ambiental que representam. No horizonte superficial dos solos estudados, o urânio com concentrações totais entre 9,8362 mg/kg, encontra-se preferencialmente ligado aos óxidos de ferro não cristalinos (17-59% do total de U, que é uma das fases que representa menor risco ambiental. Para além da água de rega contaminada (>100 µg U/L, o complexo de troca dos solos mais ácidos (pH The present study concerns the application of partial chemical extraction, in a parallel procedure, to evaluate the uranium distribution in different solid phases constituents of the soils in the vicinity of Cunha Baixa mining area in order to assess its environmental risk. In the surface horizon of the soils, uranium that reached total concentrations between 9.8 to 362 mg/kg was preferential bound to non-crystalline iron oxides. These phases represent a small environmental risk. The contaminated irrigation water (>100 µg U/L and the exchangeable complex of the acidic soils (pH <5, are important sources for the available fraction of uranium for crops (up to 30% of total U. The transference of uranium into the soil-water-plant system could be a factor of risk for Cunha Baixa population through the ingestion of vegetal foodstuffs, due to its possible uranium bioaccumulation capacity.

  6. EAARL Bare Earth Topography-Colonial National Historical Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Colonial National Historical Park were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  7. Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions.

  8. Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions. PMID:25089052

  9. Ant colony optimization-based firewall anomaly mitigation engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penmatsa, Ravi Kiran Varma; Vatsavayi, Valli Kumari; Samayamantula, Srinivas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    ... to the organization’s framed security policy. This study proposes an ant colony optimization (ACO)-based anomaly resolution and reordering of firewall rules called ACO-based firewall anomaly mitigation engine...

  10. The Indian Empire and its Colonial Practices in South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aryal, Yubraj

    2017-01-01

    .... The article examines Indian Empire's colonialism toward the weaker, smaller nations along its border and the Bharatiya ideology at the heart of the repressive empire, which is taken to represent...

  11. The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , political or environmental development can take place in Africa until African masses demand for good governance and engage in ideology-based social revolution in ending the reins of corrupt leadership. Keywords: post-colonialism, politics, ...

  12. The Tropenmuseum and the Colonial Heritage : Position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legêne, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Policy document outlining the Tropenmuseum's intention to work on the colonial past as an essential aspect of its contemporary policies. Author: Susan Legêne, at the time head of the Curatorial Department of the tropenmuseum.

  13. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Assenova

    Full Text Available European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  14. Paz, conflicto y sociedad civil en América latina y el Caribe | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Instituto de la Salud, Medio Ambiente, Economia y Sociedad (ISALUD) a organisé, en 2004 et 2005, deux ateliers régionaux pour discuter de l'utilité et de l&... Voir davantageParticipation sociale à la santé au sein du ...

  15. Mitos y realidades en torno al concepto “sociedad de la información”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solano

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La noción o preconcepto de “sociedad de la información” está actualmente muy de moda y se repite hasta el cansancio tanto en los discursos como en las conversaciones cotidianas, a tal punto que ha devenido en parte del sentido común prevaleciente, por lo cual es susceptible de ser objeto de la prescripción del distinguido historiador francés Pierre Vilar que transcribimos en el epígrafe del presente trabajo. Otro tanto ocurre con su sucedáneo “sociedad del conocimiento” o “sociedad basada en el conocimiento”, preconcepto de recambio que, recientemente, pareciera estar sustituyendo al primero, posiblemente en vista de una conciencia creciente respecto de las limitaciones del concepto de información. En el presente trabajo nos vamos a concentrar en la noción de “sociedad de la información” partiendo de que las observaciones que se le hagan son, en general, igualmente aplicables a los conceptos alternativos previamente mencionados, aunque conscientes de que se deben hacer las modificaciones correspondientes en vista de las diferenciasentre los conceptos de “información” y “conocimiento”.

  16. EL BUEN GOBIERNO CORPORATIVO EN LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS/GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel PUENTES POYATOS

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de mostrar cómo el buen gobierno de las sociedades se ha de dirigir hacia un modelo de gobierno corporativo stakeholders, donde las sociedades cooperativas pueden servir de referencia en la medida que este modelo de gobierno corporativo es intrínseco a su razón de ser. Pondremos de manifiesto, cómo los Códigos de buen gobierno publicados hasta el momento en España no se ajustan a este enfoque stakeholders y no son de aplicación plena a sociedades no mercantiles, como las sociedades cooperativas./This article aims to show how the governance of societies has been directed toward a model of corporate governance stakeholders, where cooperative societies can serve as a reference to the extent that this model of corporate governance is intrinsic to its purpose. I will be shown how the codes of good governance published so far in Spain are not in line with this approach and stakeholders are not fully applied to non-market societies, such as cooperative societies.

  17. O problema da desigualdade social na teoria da sociedade de Niklas Luhmann

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    Roberto Dutra Torres Junior

    Full Text Available A teoria da sociedade de Niklas Luhmann é frequentemente acusada de conservadorismo, visto que negligencia a relevância das estruturas de desigualdade na sociedade moderna. Este artigo propõe uma leitura alternativa dessa teoria, a qual implica uma reconsideração do papel das estruturas de desigualdade para a reprodução dos sistemas sociais. O argumento principal é que as estruturas de desigualdade orientam o modo pelo qual os sistemas sociais selecionam os indivíduos para suas operações. Ao mesmo tempo, é feita uma defesa da tese luhmanniana sobre o primado da diferenciação funcional, pois, enquanto as estruturas de desigualdade podem variar, assumindo formas contingentes, cuja transformação não representa a transformação da sociedade, a diferenciação funcional, ao contrário, representa a própria identidade da sociedade, permanecendo como uma dimensão invariável e necessária nos horizontes de sentido da modernidade.

  18. Las metamorfosis de la sociedad actual: comentarios sobre los tres libros de Byung-Chul Han

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García Triviño

    2016-05-01

    Cada libro arranca con una hipótesis que describe el cambio que sufre la sociedad. En la primera hipótesis el autor se plantea cómo la sociedad  actual ya no teme lo extraño, sino que sufre patologías neuronales. Las  depresiones son algunos efectos de una sociedad consumida por la  búsqueda del alto rendimiento y su fe en poder hacer todo lo que se plantee. La segunda hipótesis presenta a una sociedad inmersa en un  mundo digital que erróneamente le hace creer que tiene más valor que el  real. Y la tercera hipótesis afronta las dificultades que supondría llevar al  límite las consecuencias de la transparencia. Un valor que puede acabar por convertirse en un tipo de vigilancia continua donde todos pueden ser  observadores y observados. Estas tres hipótesis se afrontan siempre desde la negatividad, entendida como un valor activo y necesario. Sin embargo, también resulta muy extrema y poco propositiva. La  negatividad, aunque creíble desde muchos puntos, parece insuficiente  para un mundo digital sin límites. El cual ya no se puede rechazar sino  descubrir, desde la intranquilidad, en sus potencialidades reales.

  19. Arte em Herbert Marcuse: formação e resistência à sociedade unidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Castro Chaves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é resultado de uma pesquisa teórica que teve como objetivo analisar a contribuição de Herbert Marcuse, autor da teoria crítica da sociedade, para pensar a relação entre arte, sujeito e formação para a resistência à sociedade unidimensional. Foram estudados os seguintes textos escritos entre 1941 e 1977: Razão e revolução (1941/1978, Eros e civilização (1955/1969, Ideologia da sociedade industrial: o homem unidimensional (1964/1973, Ideias sobre uma teoria crítica da sociedade (1969/1981 e A dimensão estética (1977/1999. Para Marcuse, a arte é política, apresenta universalidade, alteridade, transcendência, forma estética e negação e confirmação da realidade. A arte é objetivação e não trabalho alienado, ela realiza a sublimação e provoca sensibilidade, diferenciando-se da mercadoria que se apropria da cultura, fazendo-a esvaziar-se em seu sentido. Ao analisar a arte, esse autor contribuiu para uma psicologia social crítica que revela a arte como mediação psicossocial para um sujeito não adaptado.

  20. La fiscalidad de las cooperativas ante el nuevo Impuesto sobre Sociedades. Propuestas para una reforma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Montero Simó

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La Ley 27/2014, del Impuesto sobre Sociedades ha introducido medidas como la reducción del tipo de gravamen general, la modificación del porcentaje de participación del socio en la sociedad para determinar el perímetro de vinculación, las reducciones por destinar resultados a fondo de capitalización o a fondo de nivelación, entre otras, que demandan una adaptación del régimen fiscal de las cooperativas al nuevo Impuesto sobre Sociedades. A lo que se unen las reformas operadas en las leyes cooperativas desde 1990. En el presente artículo se realiza una revisión de los mencionados cambios y se proponen posibles reformas al régimen fiscal vigente, atendiendo a su contenido esencial, el relativo al Impuesto sobre Sociedades.Recibido: 31.05.2016Aceptado: 05.09.2016

  1. Colonial Copyright and the Photographic Image: Canada in the Frame

    OpenAIRE

    Hatfield, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Under Colonial Copyright Law, the British Museum Library acquired a substantial collection of Canadian photographs between 1895 and 1924, taken by a variety ofamateurs and professionals across Canada. Due to the agency of individual photographers, the requirements of copyright legislation and the accumulating principleof the archive, the Collection displays multiple geographies and invites variousinterpretations. Chapter 1 discusses the development of Colonial Copyright Law and its ...

  2. Colonial iron in context: the Trianon slave shackle from Mauritius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seetah, Krish; Birch, Thomas; Calaon, Diego

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, part of a ‘slave shackle’ was recovered from archaeological investigations at Trianon, an indentured labourer site on Mauritius dated from the beginning of the nineteenth century. This paper presents the results of a metallurgical assessment of the artefact, thought to represent colonial...... ironwork, a category that has hitherto remained understudied. The results are incorporated into the wider archaeological and historical evidence from Trianon, highlighting the value of studying colonial ironwork in context....

  3. Microbiome of Trichodesmium Colonies from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    OpenAIRE

    Mary R. Gradoville; Byron C Crump; Letelier, Ricardo M.; Church, Matthew J; White, Angelicque E.

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium, often found in colonial form, provide an important source of new nitrogen to tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Colonies are composed of several clades of Trichodesmium in association with a diverse community of bacterial and eukaryotic epibionts. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing, carbon (C) and dinitrogen (N2) fixation assays, and metagenomics to describe the diversity and functional potentia...

  4. Factors of honeybee colony performances on sunflower at apiary scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An observatory of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera, consisting of at least 200 colonies, divided into 10 apiaries of 20 colonies, was monitored for three years on sunflower honeyflow (2015–2017. The purpose of this observatory is to understand which factors control colony performance during sunflower honeyflow in south-western France. From the temporal dynamics of weight gain, statistical analysis reveals a hierarchy of factors. First, variability in apiary scale performance is an image of the effect of resource variability. But, in addition to this primordial factor, two other factors contribute very significantly to performance. On the one hand, the amount of capped brood and the number of bees at the time of the installation of the apiary: these two elements testify to the vitality of the colony. The second remarkable factor is the Varroa load, which strongly penalizes performance beyond a certain threshold. The negative effect of the Varroa load on the colony performance is minimized in case of abondant sunflower honey flow.

  5. Communication, Regulation and Control during Complex Patterning of Bacterial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Shochet, Ofer; Tenenbaum, Adam; Cohen, Inon; Czirók, Andras; Vicsek, Tamás.

    We present a study of interfacial pattern formation during growth of bacterial colonies. Growth of bacterial colony bears similarities to but presents an inherent additional level of complexity compared to non-living systems. In the former case, the building blocks themselves are living systems each with its own autonomous self-interest and internal degrees of freedom. At the same time, efficient adaptation of the colony to adverse growth conditions requires self-organization on all levels — which can be achieved only via cooperative behavior of the bacteria. To do so, the bacteria have developed sophisticated communication channels on all levels. Here we present a non-local communicating walkers model to study the effect of local bacterium-bacterium interaction and communication via chemotaxis signaling. We demonstrate how communication enables the colony to develop complex patterns in response to adverse growth conditions. Efficient response of the colony requires self-organization on all levels, which can be achieved only via cooperative behavior of the bacteria. It can be viewed as the action of an interplay between the micro-level (the individual bacterium) and the o-level (the colony) in the determination of the emerging pattern. Some qualitative features of the complex morphologies can be accounted for by invoking ideas from pattern formation in non-living systems together with a simplified model of chemotactic "feedback."

  6. Sociedade civil, entre o político-estatal e o universo gerencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Marco Aurélio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como parâmetro o conceito de sociedade civil elaborado pelo marxista italiano Antonio Gramsci, este artigo pretende dialogar criticamente com as demais idéias de sociedade civil que hoje buscam se afirmar no panorama político e cultural. Seu principal argumento é que, nas últimas décadas, transitou-se de uma idéia de sociedade civil como campo predominantemente político-estatal, palco de lutas democráticas e novas hegemonias, para uma imagem que converte a sociedade civil ou em recurso gerencial ­ um arranjo societal destinado a viabilizar tipos específicos de políticas públicas ­, ou em fator de reconstrução ética e dialógica da vida social. Por um lado, a incorporação da idéia de participação à linguagem do planejamento fez com que a sociedade civil se deslocasse de seu campo principal (o da organização de novas hegemonias e se convertesse num espaço de cooperação e gestão da crise. Por outro, a expansão do ativismo social, num quadro de crise da política, do Estado e da democracia representativa, impulsionou a busca de um novo "lugar", a partir do qual fosse possível estabelecer e disseminar novas postulações éticas e novos procedimentos coletivos. De uma fase em que o marxismo preponderava nas discussões e deixava sua marca, ingressou-se numa fase em que a perspectiva liberal, afirmada de modo ortodoxo ou nuançada, prevalece e opera como referência principal.

  7. Multiple queens in founding colonies of the neotropical ant Pachycondyla striata Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M S; Vilela, E F; Azevedo, D O; Hora, R R

    2011-01-01

    In social insects, the typical mode of colony foundation occurs when a single queen is inseminated by a male and establishes a new colony, although we can find interspecific and intraspecific variations in queen number and queen-mating frequencies in a single colony. This study aimed to verify the queen number in Pachycondyla striata (Smith) colonies and to evaluate the level of aggressiveness among workers. We collected 14 colonies of P. striata. The behaviors of individuals from five multiple-queen colonies maintained in laboratory were studied by the method of scan sampling. In order to evaluate aggressiveness, dyadic encounters among heterocolonial and homocolonial workers were performed. The results showed that colonies of P. striata can have two or more mated queens (polygynous colonies) besides to monogynous ones (colony containing one queen). Because in polygynous colonies the number of workers was relatively low, such colonies could represent colonies in the foundation phase that characterize a pleometrosis state. In fact, ovarian development analysis from queens showed that the number of queens in the colonies seemed to be unstable. Despite a few cases of oophagy (egg cannibalism), social hierarchy among queens is unclear in comparison to other Pachycondyla species. In addition, aggressiveness increased with distance among nests. Nearby colonies (less than 1 m apart) showed a low level of aggressiveness, suggesting the presence of polydomy, that is, a unique colony can occupy multiple nests. Polygyny associated to polydomy in founding colonies may confer benefits on growth and dispersion of colonies in the studied environments.

  8. Effects of queen ages on Varroa (Varroa destructor infestation level in honey bee (Apis mellifera caucasica colonies and colony performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Özkök

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of queen age on varroa population levels in hives and performance of honey bee (A. mellifera caucasica colonies. Levels of varroa infestation and performances of the colonies which had 0, 1- and 2-year-old queens were compared in mild climate conditions. Varroa numbers on adults and drone brood, number of frames covered with bees and brood areas were determined every month between 10 May and 10 October 2004. Overall average (± S.E. % infestation levels of varroa were found to be 5.96 ± 1.42, 11.58 ± 1.46 and 15.87 ± 1.39% on adult bees and 21.55 ± 1.43, 31.96 ± 1.44 and 37.55 ± 1.45% in drone brood cells for 0, 1- and 2-year-old queen colonies, respectively. The colonies which had 0, 1- and 2-year-old queens produced 2673.58 ± 39.69, 2711.75 ± 39.68, and 1815.08 ± 39.70 cm2 overall average (± S.E. sealed brood and 10.35 ± 0.24, 10.43 ± 0.26 and 7.51 ± 0.21 numbers of frame adult bees, respectively. Honey harvested from 0, 1- and 2-year-old queen colonies averaged 21.60 ± 5.25, 22.20 ± 6.55, and 14.70 ± 2.50 kg/colony, respectively. The colonies headed by young queens had a lower level of varroa infestation, a greater brood area, longer worker bee population and greater honey yield in comparison to colonies headed by old queens.

  9. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. El declive de un convento o el fin de un modelo de relaciones Iglesia, política y sociedad en Nueva Granada, 1820-1863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiilliam Elvis Plata Quezada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Los años que van entre la Guerra de Independencia (1810-1819 y mediados del siglo XIX,  corresponden a un período de grave crisis y declive de las comunidades y órdenes  religiosas establecidas en el país. Tal crisis fue alentada al promoverse nuevas estructuras  de corte moderno en las relaciones político–religiosas, que provocó asimismo la desarticulación interna de las órdenes religiosas existentes en la época. En este artículo, basado en fuentes primarias, se analizarán los principales elementos que constituyeron dicha crisis, a través del estudio de caso de la Orden Dominicana, siguiendo la hipótesis de  que todo ello no representaba otra cosa que la rápida disolución del hasta entonces exitoso modelo de alianza entre los conventos y las élites criollas a través de vínculos corporativos y clientelistas, los cuales habían constituido la base del sistema de cristiandad colonial. Tras esta disolución quedó latente la necesidad de configurar un nuevo modelo de relaciones entre  Iglesia, sociedad y Estado, que se va a gestar a partir de la Regeneración (1885-1900.

  11. Variation in Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages among coral colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stat, Michael; Bird, Christopher E; Pochon, Xavier; Chasqui, Luis; Chauka, Leonard J; Concepcion, Gregory T; Logan, Dan; Takabayashi, Misaki; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2011-01-05

    Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are fundamentally important to the biology of scleractinian corals, as well as to a variety of other marine organisms. The genus Symbiodinium is genetically and functionally diverse and the taxonomic nature of the union between Symbiodinium and corals is implicated as a key trait determining the environmental tolerance of the symbiosis. Surprisingly, the question of how Symbiodinium diversity partitions within a species across spatial scales of meters to kilometers has received little attention, but is important to understanding the intrinsic biological scope of a given coral population and adaptations to the local environment. Here we address this gap by describing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages recovered from colonies of the reef building coral Montipora capitata sampled across Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. A total of 52 corals were sampled in a nested design of Coral Colony(Site(Region)) reflecting spatial scales of meters to kilometers. A diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences was recovered with the majority of variance partitioning at the level of the Coral Colony. To confirm this result, the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence diversity in six M. capitata colonies were analyzed in much greater depth with 35 to 55 clones per colony. The ITS2 sequences and quantitative composition recovered from these colonies varied significantly, indicating that each coral hosted a different assemblage of Symbiodinium. The diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages retrieved from individual colonies of M. capitata here highlights the problems inherent in interpreting multi-copy and intra-genomically variable molecular markers, and serves as a context for discussing the utility and biological relevance of assigning species names based on Symbiodinium ITS2 genotyping.

  12. Elites em perspectiva: uma discussão sobre hierarquias, composição da riqueza e consolidação dos grupos hegemônicos em São João del Rei = Elites in perspective: a discussion about hierarchies, composition of wealth and consolidation of hegemonic groups in São João del Rei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo, Keila Cecília de

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa aspectos econômicos da elite colonial mineira a partir de meados do século XVIII, mediante a investigação empírica da sociedade de São João Del Rei. O comércio em São João assumiu um papel central na liquidez da economia regional, permitindo a formação de grupos hegemônicos no século XIX. Mas há ainda muitas dúvidas sobre quem era essa elite no século XVIII. Com base em pesquisa prosopográfica que reconstrói os caminhos dos homens arrolados por Domingos Nunes Vieira como os mais ricos da capitania de Minas Gerais no ano de 1756, percebemos que a elite mineira que se formou no século XVIII diferia dos padrões mais gerais para a caracterização de grupos hegemônicos em outras regiões do Brasil, no mesmo período

  13. A review of the Pteropus rufus (É. Geoffroy, 1803) colonies within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found that only two colonies now support an increased number of bats compared with a decade ago, whilst a further two colonies have been either displaced or disturbed and could no longer be found. A single colony appears to have declined significantly whereas a further three colonies appear to have remained static.

  14. Spread of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs is associated with colony spatial characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.L.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.; Frey, C.M.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and causes widespread colony losses and individual mortality rates >95%. We investigated colony spatial characteristics that may influence inter-colony transmission of plague at 3 prairie dog colony complexes in the Great Plains. The 4 spatial characteristics we considered include: colony size, Euclidean distance to nearest neighboring colony, colony proximity index, and distance to nearest drainage (dispersal) corridor. We used multi-state mark-recapture models to determine the relationship between these colony characteristics and probability of plague transmission among prairie dog colonies. Annual mapping of colonies and mark-recapture analyses of disease dynamics in natural colonies led to 4 main results: 1) plague outbreaks exhibited high spatial and temporal variation, 2) the site of initiation of epizootic plague may have substantially influenced the subsequent inter-colony spread of plague, 3) the long-term effect of plague on individual colonies differed among sites because of how individuals and colonies were distributed, and 4) colony spatial characteristics were related to the probability of infection at all sites although the relative importance and direction of relationships varied among sites. Our findings suggest that conventional prairie dog conservation management strategies, including promoting large, highly connected colonies, may need to be altered in the presence of plague. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Nest-site limitations and colony development in tree-nesting Great Cormorants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieco, F.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of nesting site availability on colony size were investigated in a Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) colony on dead trees in north-East Italy. Trees have collapsed and colony structure has changed in recent years. After a steady increase in size, the breeding colony decreased

  16. Social interactions in the central nest of Coptotermes formosanus juvenile colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated to determine the social interactions among all individuals near the central nest of a colony. The behavioral repertoire of whole colonies of subterranean termites has yet to be identified because of their cryptic nests. Colonies w...

  17. La proto-industria azucarera: Recio pilar en el desarrollo del imperio colonial en América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Juárez Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación susodicha a través de las observaciones realizadas al documento denominado Cuaderno curioso y práctica de purgadores, nos permite conocer a profundidad, la organización social interna y la estructura industrial, así como el estado que guardaba la tecnología en un ingenio del período colonial novohispano; así como las diferentes calificaciones y especialidades que tenía la fuerza de trabajo desde las plantaciones azucareras al batey. Resulta interesante por ejemplo los estereotipos que los hacendados aplican a los indígenas tanto de su belleza o fealdad como los juicios que emiten de la importancia de su mano de obra. Al respecto, resulta interesante la concepción que poseen las asesores de la monarquía española para con la población nativa, a la cual consideran como una fuente de ingresos y una vía de ahorro considerable beneficios logrados sin la necesidad de que se les proporcionase las "luces" de la cultura europea. El análisis referido, también nos abre vetas de estudio en torno a la situación de la mujer; habida cuenta de que tanto la legislación como la educación escolástica hegemónica no la consideraban un sujeto independiente sino un objeto, el cual para su desenvolvimiento en sociedad dependía absolutamente del hombre.Palabras Clave: Ingenio; Tecnología; Indígenas; Colonia; Caña. The proto-sugar industry in the development of colonial rule in America AbstractThe present research allows us to understand at length the social and industrial structure; the technological state of the art at a sugar mill of the novohispano colonial period and the different qualifications and specializations of the workforce from the plantation to the batey. The stereotypes landowners attributed to the indigenous population, in extremes of beauty or ugliness, as well as their regard of indigenous labor, are of special interest. The advisors of the Spanish monarchy regard the native population as source of income and

  18. Food preparation in colonial America. A Bicentennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, M

    1976-07-01

    Both regional and national influences have pervaded America's culinary arts from colonial times until the present. In the South, for instance, indigenous foods, such as sweet potatoes--as well as an abundance of fruits and fowl--were commonly served. In the North, maple sirup was a New England product, as was codfish. Throughout the colonies, corn was easily grown and became a staple. Immigrants from the Old World brought their recipes to meld or adapt to conditions they met here. Recounted also is the unfolding of an American cuisine, especially in the southern colonies as it evolved from European food preparation practices. Cooking was done in great fireplaces, with equipment designed to fit. Meat was generally boiled or stewed in pots hung in the fireplace, although it might be slow-roasted on a hand-turned spit. Hot breads, the hallmark of southern cooking, date from colonial days. In the Noth, the Dutch farmer's wife developed real skill in using flour from home-grown wheat and rye, creating pancakes, waffles, doughnuts, crullers, and so on. After the first hard winter, food in New England became more plentiful. Boston brown bread was made from corn, wheat, or rye and probably sweetened with maple sirup. Imports of coffee, tea, and spices from the Orient and fruit from the tropics were later added to the cuisine. Colonial Americans understood well the art of food preparation and appreciated the taste of well prepared, well seasoned dishes.

  19. Creating Central Sulawesi. Mission Intervention, Colonialism and ‘Multiculturality’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Coté

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating Central Sulawesi: Mission Intervention, Colonialism and ‘Multiculturality’Central Sulawesi provides an example of how, under colonialism, non-state bodies contributed to the creation of new political identities in the Indonesian archipelago, and how the modern Indonesian state came to be based on these. Arguably, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the region was poised to be incorporated into the structure of one or other of the existing powerful Central and Southern Sulawesi political entities. As such, as just another ‘region’ in the sprawling archipelagic colony subjected to standard colonial policy, it should have been readily incorporated into the Indonesian state, albeit through the ‘Sulawesi Permesta’. Instead, in seeking to establish what one writer has described as a ‘volkskerk’ [people’s church], the ‘Poso mission’ established with colonial support by the Nederlandsche Zendinggenootschap [Netherlands Missionary Society] in 1892, was instrumental in defining new religious, cultural and linguistic boundaries. These acted to effectively isolate the Pamona people from adjacent Christian communities established by other missionary endeavours; from their Islamic neighbours and, arguably, from the ‘nation’. As elsewhere in the archipelago, the subsequent process of this region’s reintegration has formed part of the difficult postcolonial legacy inherited by the Indonesian nation.

  20. Combating Varroa destructor in Honeybee Colonies Using Flumethrin or Fluvalinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gregorc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mite mortality in two apiaries, one with 32 and the other with 15 honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica colonies, was recorded prior to and after flumethrin or fluvalinate treatments and after a control, oxalic-acid application. During the 42- and 51-day pre-treatment periods, the average daily natural mite drop was 0.04 (± 0.04 and 2.82 (± 2.19, respectively, which represents 1.09% (± 1.06 and 3.84% (± 3.04 of the total number of mites found during the experiment. The flumethrin or fluvalinate applications resulted in an average mite mortality at the two apiaries of 214.46 (± 260.02 and 4,098.64 (± 2,508.31. The treatments resulted in a 19.11% (± 14.62 and a 39.28% (± 10.47 reduction in the number of mites in slightly infested colonies and 94.30% (± 4.26 and 96.24% (± 3.14 in highly infested colonies. The difference in treatment efficacy between both apiaries was significant (P < 0.001 and indicates that fluvalinate and flumethrin are highly efficacious in dealing with highly infested honeybee colonies with sealed brood. The importance of effective mite control in colonies with a high level of natural mite mortality is discussed in this study.