WorldWideScience

Sample records for social welfare implications

  1. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  2. Two-Sided Matching Agents for Electronic Employment Market Design: Social Welfare Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, William

    2002-01-01

    ... employment market designs. Using a quasi-price measure for comparison and examining social welfare as a basis for assessing market-design alternatives, we provide novel insight into the balance required between technologically...

  3. Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of child welfare systems: implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J

    2012-09-01

    The study: (1) provides the first assessment of the a priori measurement model and psychometric properties of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measurement system in a US nationwide probability sample of child welfare systems; (2) illustrates the use of the OSC in constructing norm-based organizational culture and climate profiles for child welfare systems; and (3) estimates the association of child welfare system-level organizational culture and climate profiles with individual caseworker-level job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The study applies confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hierarchical linear models (HLM) analysis to a US nationwide sample of 1,740 caseworkers from 81 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing (NSCAW II). The participating child welfare systems were selected using a national probability procedure reflecting the number of children served by child welfare systems nationwide. The a priori OSC measurement model is confirmed in this nationwide sample of child welfare systems. In addition, caseworker responses to the OSC scales generate acceptable to high scale reliabilities, moderate to high within-system agreement, and significant between-system differences. Caseworkers in the child welfare systems with the best organizational culture and climate profiles report higher levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Organizational climates characterized by high engagement and functionality, and organizational cultures characterized by low rigidity are associated with the most positive work attitudes. The OSC is the first valid and reliable measure of organizational culture and climate with US national norms for child welfare systems. The OSC provides a useful measure of Organizational Social Context for child welfare service improvement and implementation research efforts which include a focus on child welfare system culture and climate. Copyright © 2012

  4. Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of Child Welfare Systems: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study: (1) provides the first assessment of the a "priori" measurement model and psychometric properties of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measurement system in a US nationwide probability sample of child welfare systems; (2) illustrates the use of the OSC in constructing norm-based organizational culture and climate…

  5. Studying fish social behavior and cognition: implications for fish welfare and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within vertebrates teleost fish are the most diverse and plastic taxa in terms of social behavior. With over 29,000 species described so far, one can find all different types of social organization, mating systems and parental care types. Moreover, it is relatively common to find variation of these characters within closely related species, which makes them suitable for comparative studies on the evolution of social behavior (e.g. variation in mating systems and parental care type in African cichlids. Fish are also champions of social plasticity, as can be illustrated by the flexible patterns of sexual expression, as in the case of protrandrous and protogynous sex-change, simultaneous hermaphroditism and intra-sexual variation in the form of discrete alternative male phenotypes. Complex cognitive abilities used in social interactions have also evolved in fish, such as individual recognition, transitive inference and social learning. Therefore, teleosts offer unique opportunities to study both the evolution and the function of social behavior and cognition. In this talk I will summarize the work that our lab has been doing to establish zebrafish as a model organism for the study of social behavior and cognition and I will illustrate how knowledge on this are can be applied to fish welfare and to conservation issues.

  6. Social Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Koen

    of China’s economic growth, the long and midterm sustainability of its economic development model and the implications thereof for social stability and political legitimacy. An immediate priority has been to formulate and implement a response to mitigate the disruptive effects of the transition to a market...

  7. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...

  8. The economics of social housing : implications for welfare, consumption, and labor market composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, M.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first part considers social housing from a microeconomic perspective and looks at the self-selection into social housing, as well as at how this influences consumption patterns, household mobility within and from the social housing sector, and the wage

  9. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  10. Social welfare and restorative justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Darrell

    2009-01-01

    "This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice." [author's abstract

  11. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    Many Jordanians perceive formal politics in Jordan as illegitimate, corrupt and authoritarian. Thus, when searching for agents of change and reform, we have to look beyond the formal political system. In this regard, recent years have seen an increasing interest in civil society. However, this in...... the organisations' positions on a number of concepts often associated with "democratisation", namely women's rights, participation and pluralism, paying particular attention to the role of Islam......., this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...... and financial assistance to the poor. This brief asks whether these organisations can be considered potential agents of democratic change or rather as preservers of the status quo. Moreover, do they employ Islam as a means of control or empowerment? Attempting to answer these questions, the brief discusses...

  12. What Works in Education and Social Welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    -up professional strategy. It is subsequently reworked and launched into education and social welfare in moves that largely bypass professionals to serve policy-maker and market needs to enable evidence-based choices among public services. From this perspective, the author argues that education and social welfare...

  13. Nash social welfare in multiagent resource allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, S.; Endriss, U.; David, E.; Gerding, E.; Sarne, D.; Shehory, O.

    2010-01-01

    We study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and fairness

  14. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare.

  15. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the...

  16. On economic inequality and social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begović Boris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explore the relations between economic inequality and social welfare staring from the assumption that causality goes from economic inequality to social welfare. Standard methodological framework of economic science was enhanced with interpersonal function of individual welfare so the effects of economic inequality of the level of social welfare can be considered. It was demonstrated that there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion and that differences in the preferences among people should be empirical considered for more insights. The analysis of the consequences of economic inequality to economic growth, i.e. dynamics of social welfare, demonstrated that there are numerous mechanisms of causality with the countervailing effects. The most important mechanism by which inequality speeds-up economic growth is based on the increased saving and invents rates, and the most important mechanism by which it slows-down growth is based on decreasing investments in human capital. Accordingly, there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion also in this case. Nonetheless, modern growth theory has demonstrated that that the most dangerous economic growth is inequality of the treatment of economic agents, i.e. discrimination and exclusion, as that kind of inequality creates substantial allocative inefficiency.

  17. Social Welfare and the Market Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joel I.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study that questions whether private enterprise can maintain quality while reducing costs of providing social welfare services. Reviews three aspects of privatization: (1) competitive markets; (2) rationality; and (3) cost reduction. Concludes by questioning a central claim of economic theory: that free markets and private firms are…

  18. Social Welfare in Rural Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucksmith, Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Literature review on social exclusion and disadvantage in rural Europe suggests that rural poverty arises from unemployment, low wages, and, most significantly, inadequate income in old age. Discusses difficulties in identifying rural incidence of exclusion and disadvantage, as well as the need for such research in light of major ongoing social…

  19. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research.......  The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply...... to rescue the ageing populations in Western Europe. Though the modern welfare state seems in strong need of reform within a globalized world, it nevertheless enjoys strong support among voters in its present form. Thus, an empirical puzzle exists. Given the existing institutional set-up of the modern...

  20. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...

  1. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  2. Active Social Policy meets Welfare Professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Active social policy is an example of New Public Management, which contains a set of policy tools directly affecting the various professions working in the welfare sector (Harrits & Møller 2011). The legitimization of the policy is based in a need to strengthen control with public expenditures...... capacities and the doctor’s specialized focus on physical deviations. As such, the paper is an empirically informed contribution to understanding what happens when new forms of New Public Management meet front-line workers such as social workers and doctors who use both rules and professional norms...... and to restore public support for redistributive social benefits such as early retirement pension. Yet, New Public Management and professional norms are typically seen as two distinct rationalities, as reflected in the conflicting aims of the political system (retrenchment) and the ‘street-level bureaucrats...

  3. Social capital, houshold welfare, and poverty in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan

    1999-01-01

    The author empirically estimates how social capital affects household welfare and poverty in Indonesia. His focus: household memberships in local associations, an aspect of social capital especially relevant to daily household decisions that affect welfare and consumption. The data suggest that households with higher social capital spend more per capita. They also have more assets, more savings, and better access to credit. To estimate how social capital contributes to household welfare, the ...

  4. Social Polarisation and the Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove Valborg

    look at Aarhus in the light of these theories and studies of other cities. We present some preliminary results of a study based on public registered data covering income, capital, occupation, social services, types of dwellings, localisation etc. in the municipality of Aarhus. On the one hand we paint...... a preliminary picture of Aarhus looking at the distribution of poverty and wealth showing some indicators towards inequality. Furthermore we discuss central theories, concepts and measured indicators......Globalisation and the information society tend - according to leading theories - to increase social polarisation and create dual cities. Studies have shown that the tendencies are more complicated in several of the European cities and the welfare state seems to have an impact on the development. We...

  5. Social Justice and Multiculturalism: Persistent Tensions in the History of US Social Welfare and Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reisch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Social justice has been a central normative component of U.S. social welfare and social work for over a century, although the meaning and implications of the term have often been ambiguous. A major source of this ambiguity lies in the conflict between universalist views of social justice and those which focus on achieving justice for specific groups. This conflict has been masked by several long-standing assumptions about the relationship between social justice and multiculturalism – assumptions which have been challenged by recent developments. The assumption that the pursuit of social justice requires the creation of a more egalitarian society has been challenged by the new political-economic realities of globalization. The assumption that the maintenance of individual rights complements the pursuit of social equality has been challenged by racially-based attacks on social welfare benefits and civil rights. Most significantly, the assumption that a socially just society is one in which different groups share a compatible vision of social justice has been challenged by the realities of multiculturalism. This paper explores the evolution of four themes regarding the relationship between social justice and multiculturalism during the past century and discusses their implications for the contemporary demographic and cultural context of the U.S. These themes are: the relationship of cultural diversity to the nation’s values and goals; the contradiction between coerced cultural assimilation and coerced physical and social segregation; the relationship between individual and group identity and rights; and the linkage between “Americanization” and the equal application of justice.

  6. How Welfare Regimes Generate and Erode Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2007-01-01

    in the USA and other liberal welfare regimes, while social capital is stable in the so-called social democratic and conservative welfare regimes. The second puzzle is why the group of social democratic regimes have extremely high levels of social trust. It is argued that both puzzles have to do......Comparative studies of social capital, operationalised as social trust between citizens, have revealed two major puzzles. The first puzzle has to do with the decline in social trust in the USA, which fuelled considerable debate about social capital. The question is why social capital erodes...... with the presence or absence of a poor and culturally distinct underclass. The social democratic welfare regimes hinder – while the liberal welfare regime generate – such underclass phenomena....

  7. Social Welfare and the Psychology of Food Sharing: Short-Term Hunger Increases Support for Social Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene; Jensen, Niels Holm

    2014-01-01

    Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short-term flu......—we consistently find that hungry individuals act in a greedier manner but describe themselves as more cooperative and express greater support for social welfare.......Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short......-term fluctuations in hunger. Using theories in evolutionary psychology, we predict that hungry individuals will be greedier and take more resources from others while also attempting to induce others to share by signaling cooperative intentions and expressing support for sharing, including evolutionarily novel forms...

  8. Report on the relationship between welfare, education and social entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H. Thomas R.; Hafen, Niklas; Rakar, Fredrik

    levels. The focus is on establishing to what extent education and welfare influence the development of social entrepreneurship, social innovation and social enterprises. In this context, welfare and education are understood to be amongst the most relevant areas for any government in that it strongly......In this report, we aim to shed light on how far and to what extent the national and regional governments – more specifically the welfare regime and the education system – have come in terms of developing supporting ecosystems for social enterprises, to strengthen efforts at national and regional...

  9. 45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 605.52... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the...

  10. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the basis of handicap: (1...

  11. Small prey species' behaviour and welfare: implications for veterinary professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, E Anne

    2017-08-01

    People have obligations to ensure the welfare of animals under their care. Offences under the UK Animal Welfare Act are acts, or failures of action, causing unnecessary suffering. Veterinary professionals need to be able to provide current, scientifically based prophylactic advice, and respect the limits of their expertise. The ethical concept of a life worth living and the Five Freedoms are core to welfare. Behaviour is a central component, both influencing and influenced by physical health. Owners frequently misunderstand the behaviour of small prey mammals and how to meet their needs. This review provides insight into the physical-social (external) and the cognitive-emotional (internal) environments of small prey mammals, contextualised within an evolutionary perspective. This is extrapolated to captivity and practical suggestions given for meeting behavioural freedoms and enhancing client understanding and enjoyment of their animals, thereby improving welfare. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Evolution of cooperation driven by social-welfare-based migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ye, Hang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Individuals' migration behavior may play a significant role in the evolution of cooperation. In reality, individuals' migration behavior may depend on their perceptions of social welfare. To study the relationship between social-welfare-based migration and the evolution of cooperation, we consider an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) in which an individual's migration depends on social welfare but not on the individual's own payoff. By introducing three important social welfare functions (SWFs) that are commonly studied in social science, we find that social-welfare-based migration can promote cooperation under a wide range of parameter values. In addition, these three SWFs have different effects on cooperation, especially through the different spatial patterns formed by migration. Because the relative efficiency of the three SWFs will change if the parameter values are changed, we cannot determine which SWF is optimal for supporting cooperation. We also show that memory capacity, which is needed to evaluate individual welfare, may affect cooperation levels in opposite directions under different SWFs. Our work should be helpful for understanding the evolution of human cooperation and bridging the chasm between studies of social preferences and studies of social cooperation.

  13. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  14. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; Ipema, Bert

    2014-03-17

    It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

  15. Selecting Social Indicators to Forecast Child Welfare Caseload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghubar D. Sharma

    2008-12-01

    identified social indicators that were statistically associated with the risk factors. After measuring the statistical association between social indictors with child welfare caseload, this study develops regression models to select and narrow down a list of social indicators with the highest predictability.

  16. Social work and research in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and North-Western Europe more generally, there are other countries where the public spend on welfare is relatively high. The contributors to this book explore and exemplify ways in which social work and research are distinctive for advanced welfare states. This involves exploring their connection......The aim of this book is to exemplify the ways in which social work and research develop in ‘advanced’ welfare states - countries where public spending is relatively high as a proportion of GNP. While such countries have traditionally been associated with Scandinavian countries in particular...... to professional identities, histories and welfare systems, their associations with academic, theoretical and cultural traditions of collaboration between academic and social work practice, and the distinctive links with community, national policy, governmentality and agency, with respect to forms of knowledge...

  17. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...

  18. The Future of Social Work in Child Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn McCroskey

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Child welfare has been a volatile and dynamic field of social work practice where policy and practice are continually shaped by attitudes, perceptions and expectations. New developments likely to shift the current balance in the field of child welfare over the next quarter century include: focus on results and performance measures, focus on child and family well-being, and increasing attention to evidence based practice.

  19. Perceptions of Social Responsibility of Prominent Animal Welfare Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Morgan, Carissa J; Croney, Candace C

    2018-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is an increasingly important component of consumer expectations of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The extent to which prominent animal welfare or protection organizations may influence people's perceptions of food industry CSR may be related to an organization's perceived social responsibility. Data from an online survey of 300 U.S. residents were used to explore relationships between demographics/lifestyle choices and perceptions of prominent animal welfare organizations (using best-worst scaling methodology). Overall, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was perceived to be the most socially responsible organization analyzed, followed by the Humane Society of the United States and the American Humane Association (AHA). Results suggest that the perceived social responsibility of animal protection organizations in this study was not strongly linked to personally (financially) supporting them, with 2 exceptions: the perceptions of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and AHA. Improved understanding of the perception of animal welfare or protection organizations can inform decision making by organizations interested in furthering animal welfare causes.

  20. The Puzzle of the Scandinavian Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    The Scandinavian welfare model is a puzzle to economists: It works economically, even though free-riding should prevail with its explosive cocktail of high taxation and high social benefits. One overlooked solution to the puzzle could be the unique stock of social trust present in Scandinavia. Here......, the four Scandinavian countries (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland) form the top three with scores above 60 percent social trust on a ranking that covers 94 countries from all over the world....

  1. Social welfare as small-scale help: evolutionary psychology and the deservingness heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang

    2012-01-01

    Public opinion concerning social welfare is largely driven by perceptions of recipient deservingness. Extant research has argued that this heuristic is learned from a variety of cultural, institutional, and ideological sources. The present article provides evidence supporting a different view: that the deservingness heuristic is rooted in psychological categories that evolved over the course of human evolution to regulate small-scale exchanges of help. To test predictions made on the basis of this view, a method designed to measure social categorization is embedded in nationally representative surveys conducted in different countries. Across the national- and individual-level differences that extant research has used to explain the heuristic, people categorize welfare recipients on the basis of whether they are lazy or unlucky. This mode of categorization furthermore induces people to think about large-scale welfare politics as its presumed ancestral equivalent: small-scale help giving. The general implications for research on heuristics are discussed.

  2. Next Generations of Road Pricing: Social Welfare Enhancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid M. Rouhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a broad overview of road pricing from a social welfare perspective. I first examine two common objectives of road pricing: congestion management and profit making. My goal is to provide a guideline explaining how to promote a social-welfare-enhancing road pricing scheme. To this end, we should: (i consider and improve public transportation systems by providing more environment-friendly transport options; (ii include tolling profits in our welfare analysis (as opposed to what economists suggest since residents are the real owners of roads not users, and since some users are from outside the region and so might not be excluded from analysis; and (iii search for a holistic approach that takes into account system-wide impacts, disutility to users who change their travel behavior (i.e., switch to public transportation, shift their travel, or do not travel at all, and the impacts on land use, employment, and residents.

  3. Companion animal welfare and possible implications on the human-pet relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of pets (dogs and cats in particular in human society has changed in recent years. Nowadays pets are an integral part of the human family and this aspect has many social and emotional implications. For their positive effects on human health, pets are also employed in some special and therapeutic activities known by the generic term of “Pet Therapy”. In these programmes the animal becomes an integral part of the therapeutic plan in order to induce some physical, social, emotional, and cognitive improvements in human patients. However, the close bond between companion animals and man is not always the herald of beneficial effects. Sometimes the welfare of pets may be compromised by distress due to many factors, mostly related to the environment and to management by humans. Both behavioural and physiological variables may be analysed in order to evaluate welfare level in pets. Reduced welfare may be indicated by the onset of some behavioural problems, which have usually a multifactorial aetiology, related both to the genetic individual basis and environmental factors. Physiological variables which may be analysed in order to evaluate pet welfare include hormone levels, mainly related to the HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal- axis and to the immune systems activations. Behavioural problems may also lead to the relinquishment of pets to shelters. Animals housed in rescue shelters cannot display their ethogram and show behavioural and physiological signs of distress. Thus it is very important to improve the human-pet relationship both by educating owners and reducing the number of stray animals, in accordance with the indications of the European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals stated at Strasbourg in 1987, mainly as regards pet breeding and welfare. Humans have to realise that adopting pets implies the responsibility to care for their health and welfare, avoiding undue stress in the living environment and improving the

  4. Trust, Social Capital and the Scandinavian Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    personality is characterized both by cooperation in everyday life and the numerous ‘hard-riders’ who make extraordinary contributions. Applying Bourdieuconomics, the authors focus on contemporary case studies to explain how social capital and trust are used to counteract free-riding and enable the flight...... of the Scandinavian welfare state ‘bumblebee’....

  5. Default options and social welfare : Opt in versus opt out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    We offer a social-welfare comparison of the two most prominent default options – opt in and opt out – using a two-period model of localized competition. We demonstrate that when consumers stick to the default option, the prevailing default policy shapes firms' ability to collect and use customer

  6. The Survival of the Nordic Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2010-01-01

    Why does free riding not escalate in the universal Nordic welfare state? How is it possible to maintain such a cooperative equilibrium where most people tend to cooperate? Our model suggests that the "missing link" is the accumulated stock of cooperation norms in terms of social trust. Arguably...

  7. Promoting the developmental social welfare approach in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was prompted by the on - going discourse on the appropriateness of existing social welfare delivery mechanisms in the Third World which, over time, have tended to be informed by the modernization approach. The prevailing view, particularly among academics and practitioners in Africa, is essentially that the ...

  8. Social trust among recipients of voluntary welfare in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Saltkjel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of social capital, including social trust, has in recent decades been acknowledged by many scholars across different disciplines as a key resource. This has led to many studies and scientific articles investigating this topic. Few studies, however, have focused upon social trust within marginalised groups. This study is based upon data gathered from one of the larger research projects investigating the vulnerable recipients of voluntary welfare assistance in Norway. The aim of the study is to investigate the level of social trust in a sample of 80 recipients of welfare assistance within two large voluntary welfare organisations in the capital city of Oslo, Norway. In particular, the study will explore whether and to what degree the level of social trust can be explained by conditions experienced while growing up and as an adult. Results indicate that adult life experiences, such as drug abuse and life satisfaction are the most important explanatory variables. However problems experienced while growing-up seems to be indirectly related to social trust. The results of the study highlight the significance of acknowledging processes of marginalisation in socially vulnerable groups, such as drug users and children experiencing problems growing up.

  9. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression...... and evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...

  10. 22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, welfare, social, and other services..., Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, social and other services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the basis of...

  11. Social Welfare in Algorithmic Mechanism Design Without Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris

    Social choice theory is concerned with collective decision making under different, possibly contrasting opinions and has been part of the core of society since ancient times. The goal is to implement some socially desired objective while at the same time accounting for the fact that people will act...... strategically, in order to manipulate the outcomes in their favor. In this thesis, we consider the well-known objective of social welfare, i.e. the sum of individual utilities as the social objective and following the agenda of algorithmic mechanism design, we study how well our objectives can be approximated...

  12. MICROCREDIT, MICROENTERPRISES AND SOCIAL WELFARE OF THE RURAL POOR IN NORTH-EASTERN TRINIDAD: AN EVALUATION OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Esnard-Flavius

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between microcredit, microenterprises, and the social welfare of the rural poor in north-eastern Trinidad. Guided by the main propositions of social capital theory, the researchers held 45 semi-structured interviews with active participants/clients within a case study research design. The data showed that access to microcredit through Helping Others Prosper Economically (HOPE positively affected their microenterprises and social welfare, though marginally. Findings also revealed that fragmented social relations within the network, conflict, distrust, and the loose structure of the program limited the impact of their access to microcredit on social welfare as well as the financial potential of the lending organisation, that is, HOPE. It is the contention of this paper, therefore, that such questionable social relations dynamics 'hijack' the promise of collective social networks as exercised through goodwill and resource building. Implications of this study and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Political participation in European welfare states: Does social investment matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, Paul; Nguyen, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The role of the welfare state has expanded beyond passive assistance and decommodificaton. In many countries, social investment policies now actively encourage (re)integration into the labour market. While the effectiveness of these policies is debated, we know even less about their broader social...... and political effects. In this contribution, we explore the impact of social investment policies on one key aspect of social life: political participation. Combining insights from social psychology with institutional analysis, we investigate the impact of three social investment policies (early childhood...... education, secondary education, active labour market policies) on two disadvantaged groups: young individuals from low-skill backgrounds; and single parents. Combining the European Social Survey with data on social investment, we find that these risk groups have reduced political efficacy and political...

  14. Social Welfare Trends in Western Societies: privatisation and the challenge to Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert, Neil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses several key features of the changing landscape of modern welfare states, the major the social forces driving this change, and how change is pertinent to the future of social work practice. The social forces driving change include structural factors such as the demographic transition and globalisation of the economy, as well as sociopolitical variables that involve an understanding of the unanticipated effects of social policies and the increased value attributed to the private sector. The central characteristics of change include a shift in policies away from the protection of labor and toward the promotion of work and the increasing use of the private sector for the production and delivery of social services. The privatisation of social welfare and its implications for social work practice are examined in the light of the challenges in negotiating service contracts.Este artículo analiza varios aspectos claves de la evolución del panorama de los estados de bienestar modernos, las principales fuerzas sociales que impulsan este cambio, y cómo el cambio es pertinente para el futuro de la práctica del Trabajo Social. Las fuerzas sociales que impulsan el cambio son factores estructurales tales como la transición demográfica y la globalización de la economía, así como variables socio-políticas que implican una comprensión de los efectos no previstos de las políticas sociales y el aumento del valor atribuido al sector privado. Las características centrales del cambio incluyen una modificación de las políticas, que se desplazan desde la protección del trabajo hacia la promoción del trabajo, y el uso cada vez mayor del sector privado en la producción y prestación de servicios sociales. La privatización de la seguridad social y sus implicaciones para la práctica del trabajo social se examinan a la luz de los retos en la negociación de la contratación de servicios.

  15. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to

  16. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  17. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhisong; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-11-20

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  18. Social Welfare Implications of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Byungtae; Menon, Nirup M.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet plays a critical role in informing individuals about society, politics, business, and the environment. So much so that it has been said that the digital divide makes the segment of society on the ''right side'' of the divide (the digitally endowed group) better off and that on the ''wrong side'' (the digitally challenged group) worse…

  19. Green net national product for the sustainability and social welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of green national accounting and, emphasizes on social welfare and sustainable accounting. Weitzman provides a foundation for net national product as the stationary equivalent of a wealth maximizing path when there is a constant interest rate and no exogenous technological progress. An attempt has been taken here to make the relationship with different incomes and green net national product, under no exogenous technological progress and a constant utility disco...

  20. Social Justice for Crossover Youth: The Intersection of the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivoski, Karen M; Goodkind, Sara; Shook, Jeffrey J

    2017-10-01

    Social workers are critical to promoting racial and social justice. "Crossover youth," a term used to describe youths who have contact with both the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, are an especially vulnerable but often overlooked population with whom social workers engage. A disproportionate number of crossover youth are African American. Empirical research on crossover youth is growing, but such scholarship rarely engages with a human rights and social justice perspective. African American children and youths have a distinct place within the history and current context of the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. These systems have historically excluded them or treated them differently; now, African American youths are overrepresented in each of them, and evidence suggests they are more likely to cross over. The purpose of this article is to describe the historical and current context of crossover youth, with a particular focus on African American youths, to provide the foundation for a discussion of what social workers can do to promote racial and social justice for crossover youth, including specific implications for practice and policy, as well as broader implications for human and civil rights. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  1. The Evolution of Social Welfare and Social Work in Nigeria | Irele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the evolution of social welfare and social work in Nigeria. It traced the historical trajectory of social work from the missionary period through the colonial period to the present day. The paper gave a vivid picture of how individuals who were philanthropists contributed to the evolution of social work and ...

  2. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-02-21

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  3. Waqf as a Tool for Rendering Social Welfare Services in the Social Entrepreneurship Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmudul Alam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Islamic entrepreneurship centers on ensuring community well-being as the priority, which is one of the important objectives (Maqasid of the Islamic Shari’ah. Historically, waqf played a significant role in the Islamic economic system, particularly in rendering exemplary welfare services in the areas of healthcare, education, social welfare, environmental, and other community-based programs. However, only a few success stories in recent history have institutionally utilized the properties of waqf under proper management to achieve its substantial objectives. This study uses the literature review as basis to analyze the reasons behind the successful utilization of waqf as an effective tool to ensure social welfare services in the past, as well as how this model can be replicated by considering current contexts. This study will assist Islamic valuecentric entrepreneurs, regulatory authorities, investors, and researchers to gain an overall insight into the potentials of waqf as a tool for rendering commendable social welfare services.

  4. Social Welfare in One-Sided Matching Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christodoulou, George; Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Frederiksen, Søren Kristoffer Stiil

    2016-01-01

    We study the Price of Anarchy of mechanisms for the fundamental problem of social welfare maximization in one-sided matching settings, when agents have general cardinal preferences over a finite set of items. We consider both the complete and incomplete information settings and show that the two...... most well-studied mechanisms in literature, Probabilistic Serial and Random Priority have a Price of Anarchy of $O(\\sqrt{n})$. We complement our results with a lower bound of $\\Omega(\\sqrt{n})$ on the Price of Anarchy of \\emph{all} mechanisms. As a result, we conclude that these mechanisms are optimal....

  5. Effect of Electronic Monitoring on Social Welfare Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2014-01-01

    Research Summary We studied the effect on unemployment social welfare dependence of serving a sentence under elec-tronic monitoring rather than in prison, using Danish registry data and two policy shifts that extended the use of electronic monitoring in Denmark. We found electronic monitoring...... to experiences from other contexts. The experiences from Denmark are clear: Electronic monitoring is less harmful than imprisonment to the life course out-comes of offenders. Since electronic monitoring could also very well be less costly for the corrections administrations than imprisonment, efforts to extend...... the use of electronic monitoring in the United States could be accelerated....

  6. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to

  7. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutherford, K.M.D; Baxter, E.M.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig breeders and producers, and may have implications for pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) welfare. This paper reviews the scientific evidence on biological factors affecting sow and piglet welfare in relation to large litter size. It is concluded that, i...

  8. The Social Workers Challenges on Community Welfare in Ungogo Community, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adekunle Aliyu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of social workers in a community cannot be overemphasised by any mean, for the life span of any community depends on the quality of the social workers. The aim of this work is to affirm the roles of social workers in helping the community welfare.  Qualitative research design was adopted for the work. Data collected with the Interview Schedule for Officials of the Federal Road Safety Corps and Interview Guide for selected group of people. This was administered to 30 respondents, which comprises both male and female in the Ungogo community. The purpose of the study was to examine the roles of social workers, in line with improved standards of living, sustained economic development and expansion of trade and economic relations in the community; enhanced levels of international competitiveness in the areas of community welfare, organization for increased productivity of people in the community. It common knowledge every individual strife to be the best when receive the necessary or adequate encouragement. To these extents, such a person bears some responsibilities even if passively so as a member. The implication of this work is to contribute to social change by informing social worker on their challenges and responsibilities ahead of them in the community.

  9. Use of Social Welfare Programs and the Disintegration of the Black Nuclear Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, K. Sue

    1984-01-01

    Social welfare programs contribute to Black women's decisions to terminate their marriages by modifying existing beliefs and values, giving rise to a perception of welfare as a more viable alternative to marital relationships. But welfare is insufficient to enable the maintenance of Black women's preseparation standard of living. (RDN)

  10. "Does e-Commerce Always Increase Social Welfare in the Long Run?"

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji Nakayama; Kiyohiko G. Nishimura

    2002-01-01

    We examine the effect of electronic commerce ("e-commerce") on social welfare, in the framework of conventional spatial competition models. We consider the case where both conventional and electronic retailers coexist in equilibrium. We show that e-commerce does not necessarily increase social welfare in the long run. In particular, when electronic retailers have clear cost advantage over conventional retailers, then the advent of e-commerce is shown to reduce social welfare.

  11. 13 Assessment of Social Welfare Services of Sufferers of Leprosy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    focus group discussion, Social welfare, sufferers of. Leprosy. Introduction ... concerns of interdisciplinary professionals in the area of health and social services management, for such professionals work in social welfare services where they can help ... This is causing the state Government and well meaning citizens a lot of.

  12. How Tight is Too Tight? A Look at Welfare Implications of Distortionary Policies in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Gemayel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since independence in 1991, Uzbekistan has pursued a gradual approach to the transition from planned to market economy. This approach relied heavily on trade controls, directed credit, and large public investments. In addition, a number of financial sector measures were instituted that distorted resource allocation and increased transaction costs. As a result, while possibly preventing the contraction of output in the early 1990s, these policies led to disappointing economic outcomes and social conditions later on. The paper reviews the underlying distortions and presents survey-based evidence to support their existence and their detrimental impact on economic activity. Looking forward, the paper - using a representative agent framework to model existing financial sector distortions - offers some guidance regarding the likely implications of eliminating these distortions on key aggregate variables. It suggests that the elimination of these distortions will be welfare enhancing and will lead to higher levels of investment and capital stock.

  13. Rural households’ social capital and welfare: A case study of Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd James Segun Baiyegunhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a household or nations production system, social capital has been recognized as an input having major implications for project design as well as policy development. Using a structured questionnaire, household level data was obtained from a representative sample of 300 rural households in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. This study employed the conventional household economic behaviour model under constrained utility maximisation to examine the effect of social capital on the welfare of household, testing the hypothesis that the possession of social capital improves household welfare. The result shows that social capital endowments have a statistically significant positive effect on household welfare, in addition to the some household’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study concluded that, access to social capital among other factors, is very crucial for improved rural household welfare and poverty reduction. It is therefore important for government to have knowledge of existing social groups and networks as this will improve the effectiveness of the present strategies aimed at reducing poverty.

  14. Effects of carbon tax on social welfare: A case study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zi-yue; Nie, Pu-yan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon tax on the production link may lead to the rise of social welfare. • Oligopoly model of energy sector expands the optimal model of carbon tax. • The impact of carbon taxes is stable under different social redistribution demand. - Abstract: Almost all countries around the world concern about the emission of greenhouse gas. The most widely used model of carbon tax is based on complete competition model of energy market, which, however, cannot completely reflect the real condition. This article establishes a social optimal welfare model that based on oligopoly competition of energy department. According to the model, the article calculates the substitution elasticity of factors in China’s energy sectors, non-energy department and consumption preference in domestic energy and non-energy commodities. Based on the social optimal welfare model, the effect on social welfare caused by carbon taxes in different links is further evaluated. The results show that a certain amount of carbon tax in the production link raises the social welfare, while in consumption and redistribution links lowers the social welfare. Specifically, the absolute value of marginal social welfare in the redistribution link is larger. Moreover, the values of the three types of carbon taxes vary under different redistribution demands though the variation trends of tax in the same link are similar. As a result, a small amount of carbon tax on the production link contributes to the growth of social welfare.

  15. How enrichment affects exploration trade-offs in rats: implications for welfare and well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becca Franks

    Full Text Available We propose that a comparative approach to well-being could be the key to understanding 'the good life.' Inspired by current theories of human well-being and animal welfare, we designed a novel test of exploration behavior. Environmentally and socially enriched Long-Evans female rats (N = 60 were trained in four simultaneously presented arms of an eight-arm radial-maze. They learned to expect successes in two arms and failures in the other two. After training, 20 animals remained in enriched housing (enrichment-maintenance while 40 animals were re-housed in standard, isolated conditions (enrichment-removal. Two weeks later, all animals were re-tested in the maze, initially with access to the four familiar arms only. In the final minute, they also had access to the unfamiliar ambiguous-arms. Though both groups showed significant interest in the ambiguous-arms (P.3. Thus, we show not only that rats will abandon known rewards and incur risk in order to explore, indicating that exploration is valuable in its own right, but also that individuals with (vs. without enriched housing conditions are more likely to engage in such exploratory behavior. This novel test contributes to the body of knowledge examining the importance of exploration in humans and other animals; implications for animal welfare and human well-being are discussed.

  16. Corporate social responsibility investment and social objectives : An examination on social welfare investment of chinese state owned enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bo, H.; Li, T.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    We apply the theory of corporate social responsibility to analyse social welfare investment undertaken by Chinese State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). We present a simple theoretical model to illustrate how the presence of social objectives in the firm's objective function changes its investment

  17. The social service divide: service availability and accessibility in rural versus urban counties and impact on child welfare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Kathleen; Stone, Warren

    2008-01-01

    An empirical study of 75 counties in a state found that social services are more available and accessible in urban versus rural counties, signaling a need for public policy addressing service allocation. The study also found a relationship between the accessibility of intensive family preservation services and reentry into foster care, a child welfare outcome. Implications for achieving outcomes affecting safety, permanence, and well-being of children are discussed.

  18. The welfare implications of using exotic tortoises as ecological replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Christine J; Zuël, Nicolas; Tatayah, Vikash; Jones, Carl G; Griffiths, Owen; Harris, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Ecological replacement involves the introduction of non-native species to habitats beyond their historical range, a factor identified as increasing the risk of failure for translocations. Yet the effectiveness and success of ecological replacement rely in part on the ability of translocatees to adapt, survive and potentially reproduce in a novel environment. We discuss the welfare aspects of translocating captive-reared non-native tortoises, Aldabrachelys gigantea and Astrochelys radiata, to two offshore Mauritian islands, and the costs and success of the projects to date. Because tortoises are long-lived, late-maturing reptiles, we assessed the progress of the translocation by monitoring the survival, health, growth, and breeding by the founders. Between 2000 and 2011, a total of 26 A. gigantea were introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, and in 2007 twelve sexually immature A. gigantea and twelve male A. radiata were introduced to Round Island, Mauritius. Annual mortality rates were low, with most animals either maintaining or gaining weight. A minimum of 529 hatchlings were produced on Ile aux Aigrettes in 11 years; there was no potential for breeding on Round Island. Project costs were low. We attribute the success of these introductions to the tortoises' generalist diet, habitat requirements, and innate behaviour. Feasibility analyses for ecological replacement and assisted colonisation projects should consider the candidate species' welfare during translocation and in its recipient environment. Our study provides a useful model for how this should be done. In addition to serving as ecological replacements for extinct Mauritian tortoises, we found that releasing small numbers of captive-reared A. gigantea and A. radiata is cost-effective and successful in the short term. The ability to release small numbers of animals is a particularly important attribute for ecological replacement projects since it reduces the potential risk and controversy associated with

  19. The welfare implications of using exotic tortoises as ecological replacements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J Griffiths

    Full Text Available Ecological replacement involves the introduction of non-native species to habitats beyond their historical range, a factor identified as increasing the risk of failure for translocations. Yet the effectiveness and success of ecological replacement rely in part on the ability of translocatees to adapt, survive and potentially reproduce in a novel environment. We discuss the welfare aspects of translocating captive-reared non-native tortoises, Aldabrachelys gigantea and Astrochelys radiata, to two offshore Mauritian islands, and the costs and success of the projects to date.Because tortoises are long-lived, late-maturing reptiles, we assessed the progress of the translocation by monitoring the survival, health, growth, and breeding by the founders. Between 2000 and 2011, a total of 26 A. gigantea were introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, and in 2007 twelve sexually immature A. gigantea and twelve male A. radiata were introduced to Round Island, Mauritius. Annual mortality rates were low, with most animals either maintaining or gaining weight. A minimum of 529 hatchlings were produced on Ile aux Aigrettes in 11 years; there was no potential for breeding on Round Island. Project costs were low. We attribute the success of these introductions to the tortoises' generalist diet, habitat requirements, and innate behaviour.Feasibility analyses for ecological replacement and assisted colonisation projects should consider the candidate species' welfare during translocation and in its recipient environment. Our study provides a useful model for how this should be done. In addition to serving as ecological replacements for extinct Mauritian tortoises, we found that releasing small numbers of captive-reared A. gigantea and A. radiata is cost-effective and successful in the short term. The ability to release small numbers of animals is a particularly important attribute for ecological replacement projects since it reduces the potential risk and controversy

  20. Examining social work with children and youth in welfare service organizations observed as hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes de Oca, Lis Klovning Hansen

    This paper seeks to explore social work as it can be observed in the welfare service organizations of Danish municipalities, specifically within the context of social work concerned with the protection of the child at risk. The paper uses the systems theory of Niklas Luh-mann to elaborate...... within the welfare system of child protection can be said to emerge into a different form than (maybe) other welfare services. The explorative curiosity rises from recognition of the economic systems expansion and dominant semantics within social services, specifically child protection and how social...... workers may and may not refer to this as potential conflict using semantics of conflict. Welfare technologies as for instance the law stipulated “child conversation”, budget control and action plans form the preliminary basis of the decision-making process of a social intervention regarding a child...

  1. The Survival and Welfare Implications of Altruism when Preferences are Endogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper is a contribution to the economic literature studying altruism. In a simple evolutionary model of endogenous preferences we show that individuals with altruistic preferences can survive. We also analyze the material welfare implications of altruism. Policies that promote altruism in th...

  2. Company welfare and social work ethics: a space for social work? : A discussion based on cases from Norway and Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Ryen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with company welfare and social work ethics. If social work is concerned with welfare and distributional issues, we would assume company welfare to be an issue of great relevance to social workers, so why do we not come across any social workers in our fieldwork? This calls for the simple question “where do social workers work?” or rather “how come social workers do not work in private companies?” We explore into the combination of social work and private companies with special reference to social work ethics to discuss private companies as a job arena for social workers. We argue that in a sector aiming at profit, social workers may trigger off employees enthusiasm, but employer scepticism. However, by avoiding a less stereotyped notion of private companies, company welfare and social work we claim that certain social work ethical principles would be of joint interest to the involved, but more so in certain contexts than in others.The article consists of six sections. After the introduction, we take a closer look at company welfare followed by a section on social work where we focus on ethical principles and work arenas for social workers. In section four we present our data from some private companies in Norway and Tanzania as a point of departure to our discussion in section five on private companies as a potential job arena for social workers. The complexity of company welfare does not call for simple answers. In the conclusions, section six, we therefore argue that the ethical principles of social work make it an interesting and relevant competence in managing company welfare, though not unproblematic in the homeland of profit. However, contextual complexity invites contextual responses.

  3. Long-Term Implications of Welfare Reform for the Development of Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Fomby, Paula; Ribar, David C.; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2011-01-01

    We draw upon the 3-wave longitudinal dataset called Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study to examine the long-term implications for adolescents and young adults (N=783) of mothers’ welfare receipt and labor force participation from 1999 to 2005. In general, changes in mothers’ work and welfare patterns were not associated with deterioration or improvement in youth development (ages 16 to 20 years at wave 3). The few significant associations suggested that youth whose mothers increased employment (net of welfare participation) were more likely to show declines in serious behavior problems and delinquency compared to youth whose mothers were unemployed or employed part-time during the study period. Welfare roll exits (controlling for employment experiences) were unrelated to adolescent and young adult outcomes. Mothers’ employment transitions were linked to improvements in household income and mothers’ self esteem in addition to reductions in financial strain and their own illegal activities. However, these associations did not explain the relation between maternal employment and youths’ improved behavior. These results do not support the predictions of either the supporters or the opponents of welfare reform, an outcome we discuss. PMID:21966077

  4. Double-sided auction mechanism design in electricity based on maximizing social welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electricity double-sided auction mechanism should control market power and enhance the social welfare of the electricity market. Based on this goal, the paper designs a new double-sided auction mechanism. In the new mechanism, the social welfare contribution of each participant plays a pivotal role, because this contribution is the critical factor in market clearing, payment settling, and transaction matching rules. In particular, each winner of the auction can gain transfer payments according to his contribution to social welfare in the electricity market, and this gives the mechanism the ability to control the market power of some participants. At the same time, this mechanism ensures that the market organizer balances his budget. We then conduct a theoretical and empirical analysis based on the Spanish electricity market. Both of the results show that compared to the uniform-pricing mechanism, the new mechanism can reduce market power of participants and enhance the social welfare of the electricity market.

  5. Welfare, social justice, and equality in educational settings in the Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lappalainen, Sirpa; Odenbring, Ylva; Steen-Olsen, Tove Herborg

    2013-01-01

    © Universitetsforlaget 2013. This is the authors' accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. The final publication is available at https://www.idunn.no/np/2013/04/welfare_social_justice_and_equality_in_educational_settin

  6. Social Welfare Centers Protect Outpatients with Mood Disorders from Risk of Hospital Admission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Tae Han

    Full Text Available South Korea faces difficulties in the management of mental disorders, and those difficulties are expected to gradually worsen. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between social welfare centers and hospital admission after outpatient treatment for mood disorders.We used data from the National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort 2002-2013, which included all medical claims filed for the 50,160 patients who were newly diagnosed with a mood disorder among the 1,025,340 individuals in a nationally representative sample. We performed a logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equation (GEE models to examine the relationship between social welfare centers and hospital admission after outpatient treatment for mood disorders (ICD-10: F3.There was a 3.9% admission rate among a total of 99,533 person-years. Outpatients who lived in regions with more social welfare centers were less likely to be admitted to a hospital (per increase of five social welfare centers per 100,000 people; OR: 0.958; 95% CI: 0.919-0.999. Social welfare centers had an especially strong protective effect on patients with relatively mild mood disorders and those who were vulnerable to medical expenditures.Considering the protective role of social welfare centers in managing patients with mood disorders, health-policy makers need to consider strategies for activating mental healthcare.

  7. Review of the social and environmental factors affecting the behavior and welfare of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, J; Watanabe, T T N; Ferrante, V; Estevez, I

    2013-06-01

    In modern rearing systems, turkey producers often face economic losses due to increased aggression, feather pecking, cannibalism, leg disorders, or injuries among birds, which are also significant welfare issues. The main underlying causes appear to relate to rapid growth, flock size, density, poor environmental complexity, or lighting, which may be deficient in providing the birds with an adequate physical or social environment. To date, there is little information regarding the effect of these factors on turkey welfare. This knowledge is, however, essential to ensure the welfare of turkeys and to improve their quality of life, but may also be beneficial to industry, allowing better bird performance, improved carcass quality, and reduced mortality and condemnations. This paper reviews the available scientific literature related to the behavior of turkeys as influenced by the physical and social environment that may be relevant to advances toward turkey production systems that take welfare into consideration. We addressed the effects that factors such as density, group size, space availability, maturation, lightning, feeding, and transport may have over parameters that may be relevant to ensure welfare of turkeys. Available scientific studies were based in experimental environments and identified individual factors corresponding to particular welfare problems. Most of the studies aimed at finding optimal levels of rearing conditions that allow avoiding or decreasing most severe welfare issues. This paper discusses the importance of these factors for development of production environments that would be better suited from a welfare and economic point of view.

  8. Previdência social rural e gênero Rural Social Welfare and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Brumer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta uma análise das principais transformações da previdência social rural no Brasil, que culminaram com a inclusão das mulheres trabalhadoras rurais como beneficiárias (direito à aposentadoria por idade e salário-maternidade na legislação aprovada pelo Congresso Nacional em 1988. Paralelamente, faz-se um exame do papel do Estado e da sociedade civil na evolução da legislação relativa à previdência social rural, procurando-se evidenciar seu caráter de "doação" por parte do Estado ou da "conquista" polos próprios trabalhadores(as. Finalmente, são examinados alguns impactos da implantação da previdência social rural no Sul do Brasil, ressaltando-se seu papel na diminuição da pobreza rural e da desigualdade na distribuição da renda, assim como sua importância material e simbólica na mudança de relações de gênero no meio rural.The work analyzes the main transformations in the rural Social Welfare in Brazil. The outcome of these transformations has been the inclusion of rural hard-working women in the welfare system as of the legislation approved by the National Congress in 1988. Rural-work women in Brazil have become entitled to the benefits of paid maternity leave and retirement accordant to a legal age limit. Concurrently, the article examines the role played by the State and the civil society in the unfolding of the legislation related to rural Social Welfare, in an attempt of exposing its character of either a "donation" given by the State or the workers' own "conquest". Finally, the author queries the impact of rural Social Welfare implementation in the South of Brazil, emphasizing its achievements in the decrease of rural poverty and unequal income distribution, as well as its material and symbolic importance in the gender relationship shift in rural areas.

  9. Conflito social e welfare state: Estado e desenvolvimento social no Brasil Social conflict and welfare state: state and social development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Guedes Gomes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta que no Brasil a luta de classes não alcançou dimensões profundas que pudesse engendrar a constituição do welfare state. Ao contrário, o Estado, sobretudo sua forma mais moderna, capitalista, que emergiu a partir da década de 1930, sempre se antecipou aos movimentos sociais que representassem ameaças de rupturas. De forma repressiva, o Estado brasileiro desde o Império dissipou os conflitos com o objetivo de manter uma certa harmonia em favor do processo de expansão e reprodução capitalista e a integração dos espaços regionais. O artigo, portanto, é uma tentativa, prematura, de entender o processo de constituição dos sistemas de seguridade social, analisando as experiências de alguns países e suas respectivas características, com isso confrontando alguns estudos e realizando comparações com a dinâmica da luta de classes no Brasil e a função do Estado nesse processo.This article defends the theory that the class struggle in Brazil has not been able to engender the formation of a welfare state. On the contrary, the nation which emerged in the 1930s - above all in its more modern capitalistic form - has always prevented social movements that could pose any threat of a rupture. Since when it was a monarchy, Brazil has dealt with its conflicts in a repressive fashion, with the goal of maintaining a certain harmony in the interest of the expansion and the propagation of capitalism as well as regional integration. This text, therefore, is an attempt, albeit premature, to understand the process involving the formation of the social security system in Brazil, by analyzing the experiences of a number of countries and their respective characteristics, thus examining a few studies and making comparisons with the class struggle dynamic in Brazil and the role of the State in this process.

  10. Disclosure Regulation in Duopoly Markets: Proprietary Costs and Social Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  11. Disclosure regulation in duopoly markets : Proprietary costs and social welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  12. Social Welfare Policy in an Information Age: New Vision or More of the Same?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. McNutt

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available As we move into the 21st Century, the social policy enterprise stands as the nexus between technological, political and social forces that will undermine the base that contemporary programs and policies depend upon. Assumptions about work and the workforce, the nature of governance and the role of technology will radically change. If our social welfare system is to remain relevant, changes will be needed. This paper explores these changing systems and examines how they will influence the current system. It will also speculate on the types of changes that will be necessary if social welfare is to remain relevant to the society of the future.

  13. Social policies and activation in the Scandinavian welfare model: the case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    countries been able to reconcile social objectives with a high employment level? It is argued that the Scandinavian welfare model has a strong employment focus both because it is an important element in social policy based on social inclusion, but also because a collective welfare arrangement is only...... financially viable if (private) employment is sufficiently high. To ensure this, the social safety net includes a number of employment conditionalities (active labour market policies/workfare) to balance income protection with an employment focus. These policies are discussed using Denmark as an example...

  14. Strategies of social welfare users: a relational readi ng concerning power relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the analysis of power relations within the operation of social welfare policy, based on a case study conducted in Londrina, Paraná. Our analysis adopts a relational perspective on the confi guration of power among the beneficiaries of the policy and the social workers responsible for implementing state actions to fi ght poverty. Basically what we found were areas of dissonance between conceptions and perceptions of users and social workers, so that an unreadable universe is created for users on social welfare and, thus, possible ways to consolidate the transfer of income are blocked as a right to citizenship. We focus on actions related to the transfer of income because of its relevance to the Brazilian social welfare today.

  15. Introduction: The Failure and Future of the Welfare State in Post-socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Polese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates on the post-socialist welfare state evolved in two main directions. While some scholars have maintained that they would eventually converge with Western European patterns, some others have pointed at the need of a more ‘particularist’ approach, seeking to demonstrate that post-socialist states might follow a different and non-traditional path, individually or as a region in terms of welfare provision. Our current work is an attempt to contribute to the debate on the direction of post-socialist welfare state adaptation by engaging with corruption and welfare state/public sector failure in post-socialist spaces. In particular, emphasis is put on the tactics and strategies used by public workers and citizens to cope with incomplete and inadequate public social welfare provision. Rooted in different disciplinary schools, and making use of diverse methodological and theoretical approaches, the papers of this special issue provide further evidence to rechart the relationship between the public welfare sector, citizens and the current economic transition, a commonality that allows us to point at alternatives to the capitalist model that for some time has been seen as the only option. In line with our previous works, in this special issue we explore the possibility that informality and formality are complementary or that informality may ‘replace’ formal processes and structures. In other words, where the welfare state does not penetrate, welfare might be spread also through informal channels and it might redefine the very dynamics underpinning of a society.

  16. TOWARDS THE RECONCEPTUALISATION OF SOCIAL WELFARE IN SOUTH AFRICA: AN ANALYSIS OF RECENT POLICY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyers, Mike

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 20 years have elapsed since the heady days of South Africa’s first democratic elections and the publication of the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP, the document that was intended to chart the country’s future development (ANC, 1994:1. It was soon followed by the White Paper for Social Welfare, which would help “realise the relevant objectives” of the RDP through the use of developmental social welfare (MWPD, 1997:5,68. Developmental social work would constitute the profession’s specific contribution to the developmental approach and, ultimately, to practice (Patel, 2005:206-210.

  17. Denmark: Welfare Society, Social Justice and the Role of Career Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    11 in 10 years. This presentation considers what social justice means for educational and vocational guidance in Denmark. It covers the development in the Danish career guidance system for young people and show how the service has become more targeted towards marginalised youth. Finally different......Denmark: Welfare Society, Social Justice and the Role of Career Guidance Dr. Rie Thomsen, Aarhus University in Copenhagen, Denmark Denmark is a welfare state in Scandinavia and amongst the most equal countries in the world but it has dropped from being the most equal country in the world to number...... targeting strategies and modes of delivery are discussed in relation to social justice....

  18. Is Christian Religious Conservatism Compatible with the Liberal Social Welfare State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, John R.; Fandetti, Donald; Cole, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the rise of Christian religious conservatism and explores whether the theological views of the conservative Christian movement are compatible with the liberal social welfare state. The authors conclude that the driving force behind social change should remain with the state, even though faith-based initiatives can provide…

  19. Factors in the Decision to Leave: Retaining Social Workers with MSWs in Public Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantrai, Krishna

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 7 social workers with master's in social work (MSW) degrees who had left public child welfare and 20 who decided to stay. Found two factors that distinguished groups: inflexibility in job assignment and poor relationship with immediate supervisor. Academic preparation for this type of practice was not decisive factor. (Author/NB)

  20. Preparing Social Work Students for Rural Child Welfare Practice: Emerging Curriculum Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebschleger, Joanne; Norris, Debra; Pierce, Barbara; Pond, Debora L.; Cummings, Cristy

    2015-01-01

    Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master…

  1. The social value of mortality risk reduction: VSL versus the social welfare function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Matthew D; Hammitt, James K; Treich, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    We examine how different welfarist frameworks evaluate the social value of mortality risk reduction. These frameworks include classical, distributively unweighted cost-benefit analysis--i.e., the "value per statistical life" (VSL) approach-and various social welfare functions (SWFs). The SWFs are either utilitarian or prioritarian, applied to policy choice under risk in either an "ex post" or "ex ante" manner. We examine the conditions on individual utility and on the SWF under which these frameworks display sensitivity to wealth and to baseline risk. Moreover, we discuss whether these frameworks satisfy related properties that have received some attention in the literature, namely equal value of risk reduction, preference for risk equity, and catastrophe aversion. We show that the particular manner in which VSL ranks risk-reduction measures is not necessarily shared by other welfarist frameworks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Words matter: implications of semantics and imagery in framing animal-welfare issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, Candace C

    2010-01-01

    As criticisms of contemporary farm-animal production escalate, scholars have begun to scrutinize the imagery and linguistic techniques used to frame animal issues and their implications. Pro-animal rights groups typically present animal use as unnecessary, oppressive, and exploitive and adopt themes of compassion and protection to engage the public. In contrast, anti-animal rights groups represent animal use as necessary for human benefit and often situate animal and human interests as being incompatible. Overly simplistic, polarized representations of animal issues therefore emerge. Several analyses, however, have indicated that the discourse on farm-animal production fails to either make a compelling ethical argument for animal agriculture or address the ethical concerns raised by animal-rights activists. Proponents of animal agriculture are argued to consistently misrepresent animal production practices and portray animals as inanimate objects, reflecting lack of genuine concern for animal suffering or welfare. Thus far, the veterinary community has escaped this level of scrutiny. However, veterinarians are often viewed as being connected to animal agriculture. As veterinarians strive to assume leadership in animal welfare, it is useful for the profession to recognize that, as is the case for members of the animal sciences and industries, some aspects of its discourse may contradict its professed values and beliefs about animal care and welfare. Analysis of this discourse affords the opportunity to more effectively engage with the public on animal-welfare issues and to develop a compelling narrative of the role of animals in an increasingly urban society.

  3. Welfare reform and women's health: review of the literature and implications for state policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Campo, P; Rojas-Smith, L

    1998-01-01

    In August 1996, the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (P.L. 104-193) was signed into law, ending a 60-year federal entitlement guaranteeing families some basic level of assistance during periods of economic hardship. Several components of this new legislation have the potential to impact upon the health and well-being of women and children. We summarize studies examining the relationship between welfare participation and physical and mental well-being of women and what is known about the effects of poverty on health; the patterns of employment among welfare participants and the health consequences of low-wage work on women; domestic violence among welfare recipients; the potential health consequences of the provisions of the new Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program for women's and adolescent health; and the consequences of the new TANF provisions for the health and well-being of immigrant women. We discuss the implications for policy makers in monitoring and minimizing the negative impact of welfare reforms on women's health and well-being.

  4. Religiosity and social welfare: competing influences of cultural conservatism and prosocial value orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Soto, Christopher J; Cohen, Adam B; Miller, Dale T

    2011-08-01

    This research examines the hypothesis that religiosity has two competing psychological influences on the social welfare attitudes of contemporary Americans. On the one hand, religiosity promotes a culturally based conservative identity, which in turn promotes opposition to federal social welfare provision. On the other hand, religiosity promotes a prosocial value orientation, which in turn promotes support of federal social welfare provision. Across two national samples (Ns = 1,513 and 320) and one sample of business employees (N = 710), reliable support for this competing pathways model was obtained. We argue that research testing influences of nonpolitical individual differences on political preferences should consider the possibility of competing influences that are rooted in a combination of personality processes and contextual-discursive surroundings. © 2011 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Does Deregulation of Quality Standards in Telecomunications Improve Social Welfare? A Methodological Note Does Deregulation of Quality Standards in Telecomunications Improve Social Welfare? A Methodological Note

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Morandé

    1990-01-01

    Does Deregulation of Quality Standards in Telecomunications Improve Social Welfare? A Methodological Note One of the main reasons behind the bit difference observed in the per capita number of telephones between develope and developing countries is the high capital cost -a scarce resource in LDC's- of expanding telecommunications infrastructure. A reasonable question to raise in this context is the extent to which that high capital cost of investment could be diminished if international quali...

  6. Social implications of deinstitutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P

    1980-10-01

    Attacks on custodialism offered the hope of more humane treatment approaches. Mental health planners thought that the costs of state hospital care could be reduced by discharging patients into the community. For state governments, this involved a shift of costs and responsibility to the federal government. This shift was accompanied by an increase in cost-effective planning at both state and federal levels. Cost-effective planning uses corporate-style standardization techniques to provide precise, measured types of treatment to certain categories of patients. Such planning is primarily oriented to balanced ledgers of the government budget, rather than meeting specific human needs. The shift in costs also increases profits in the private sector. This is most noticeable in the nursing and boarding home industry where entrepreneurs derive large returns from a newly custodialism mainly funded by government reimbursements. The institutional overuse of psychiatric drugs is continued in community programs. Cost-effective approaches also involve firing mental health staff and increasing the workload of those remaining. Community mental health centers and state hospital deinstitutionalization programs have largely failed to meet most of their promises such as noninstitutional treatment, more humane care, prevention, and rehabilitation. These failures have produced the beginning of a delegitimation of the new mental health approaches. This delegitimation is also used as part of more general attacks on social services so prevalent in this period of economic crisis. This reinforces the reliance on cost-effective plans which do not benefit clients. It also poses the danger of increasing the number of persons classified as psychological misfit among the marginal underclass. Even though this is an unintended effect, it can then be used to deflect onto these victims popular resentment against big business and the government. Further, the growth of such a misfit group, along with

  7. Empowering Non-Formal Education Policy on Life Skills and Its Implications on People Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Alifuddin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The non-formal education policy in responding to the life skills needs of learners has been anticipated by the issuance of some products of legal regulations concerning the non-formal education. Life skills education was explicitly mentioned in legislation, but its implementation has not been in line with the expectations. In practice, many training institutions were only responsible for the output without even trying to channel or hire the students after graduation. The curriculum developed referred to the national standard curriculum by adding local content. Welfare could be easily obtained because the alumni got jobs after completing their skill training. Thus, the life skills education developed was able to give positive implications, especially for the welfare of its alumni and their families

  8. Assessing parent education programs for families involved with child welfare services: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle; Stone, Susan; Lou, Christine; Ling, Jennifer; Claassen, Jennette; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Parent education programs may be offered or mandated at various stages of the child welfare services continuum. However, little is known regarding their efficacy in addressing the parenting problems that bring families to the attention of child welfare services. This article synthesizes outcome data generated from 58 parenting programs with families determined to be at-risk of child maltreatment and/or abusive or neglectful. It places parent education programs within the broader context of research on effective parenting as well as the leading etiological models of child maltreatment to assess the evaluations of these programs with regard to methodological rigor as well as theoretical salience. Practical and theoretical implications are presented along with recommendations for future research.

  9. Union Bargaining in an Oligopoly Market with Cournot-Bertrand Competition: Welfare and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schroeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the welfare effect of union activity in a relatively new oligopoly model, the Cournot-Bertrand model, where one firm competes in output (a la Cournot and the other firm competes in price (a la Bertrand. The Nash equilibrium prices, outputs, and profits are quite diverse in this model, with the competitive advantage going to the Cournot-type competitor. A comparison of the results from the Cournot-Bertrand model with those found in the traditional Cournot and Bertrand models reveals that firms and the union have a different preference ordering over labor market bargaining. These differences help explain why the empirical evidence does not support any one model of union bargaining. We also examine the welfare and policy implications of union activity in a Cournot-Bertrand setting.

  10. Housing and Child Welfare: Emerging Evidence and Implications for Scaling up Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J; Farrell, Anne F; Marcal, Katherine E; Chung, Saras; Hovmand, Peter S

    2017-09-01

    Inadequate housing threatens family stability in communities across the United States. This study reviews emerging evidence on housing interventions in the context of scale-up for the child welfare system. In child welfare, scale-up refers to the extent to which fully implemented interventions sustainably alleviate family separations associated with housing instability. It incorporates multiple aspects beyond traditional measures of effectiveness including costs, potential reach, local capacities for implementation, and fit within broader social services. The framework further encompasses everyday circumstances faced by service providers, program administrators, and policymakers who allocate resources under conditions of scarcity and uncertainty. The review of current housing interventions reveals a number of systemic constraints for scale-up in child welfare. Reliance on rental assistance programs limits capacity to address demand, while current practices that target the most vulnerable families may inadvertently diminish effectiveness of the intervention and increase overall demand. Alternative approaches that focus on homelessness prevention and early intervention must be tested in conjunction with community initiatives to increase accessibility of affordable housing. By examining system performance over time, the scalability framework provides an opportunity for more efficient coordination of housing services within and outside of the child welfare system. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  11. Shame on you the stigma of social welfare benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiros, Mónica

    2018-01-01

    We examine the drivers of stigma of social protection benefits in Portugal by exploring how individual socio-economic characteristics relate to levels of personal stigma (thinking that social benefits are for people that are different than me) and to levels of stigmatization (believing that the society thinks less of individuals that receive social benefits). We conducted a survey on stigma perceptions targeting residents of the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon. We find that age, being employed, a...

  12. The advantages and disadvantages of different social welfare strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L H

    1994-01-01

    The following was delivered by the author to the High Level American Meeting of Experts on The Challenges of Social Reform and New Administrative and Financial Management Techniques. The meeting, which took place September 5-7, 1994, in Mar del Plata, Argentina, was sponsored by the International Social Security Association at the invitation of the Argentine Secretariat for Social Security in collaboration with the ISSA Member Organizations of that country.

  13. Inter-Basin Water Transfer Green Supply Chain Equilibrium and Coordination under Social Welfare Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisong Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The inter-basin water transfer (IBWT projects have quasi-public-welfare characteristics, whose operations should take into account the water green level (WGL and social welfare maximization (SWM. This paper explores the interactions between multiple stakeholders of an IBWT green supply chain through the game-theoretic and coordination research approaches considering the government’s subsidy to the WGL improvement under the SWM. The study and its findings complement the IBWT literature in the area of the green supply chain and social welfare maximization modeling. The analytical modeling results with and without considering the SWM are compared. A numerical analysis for a hypothetical IBWT green supply chain is conducted to draw strategic insights from this study. The research results indicate that (1 If the SWM is not considered, coordination strategy could effectively improve the operations performances of the IBWT supply chain and its members, the consumers’ surplus, and the social welfare when compared with the equilibrium strategy; (2 If the SWM is considered, the IBWT green supply chain and its members have a strong intention to adopt the equilibrium strategy to gain more profits, while the government has a strong intention to encourage the IBWT green supply chain and its members to adopt the coordination strategy to maximize social welfare with a smaller public subsidy; (3 The government’s subsidy policy should be designed and provided to encourage the IBWT green supply chain and its members to improve WGL and pursue the SWM, and a subsidy threshold policy can be designed to maximize social welfare with a lower subsidy budget: only when the IBWT green supply chain and its members adopt the coordination strategy can they get a subsidy from the government.

  14. Social Spending and Aggregate Welfare in Developing and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel

    Notwithstanding the unprecedented attention devoted to reducing poverty and fostering human development via scaling up social sector spending, there is surprisingly little rigorous empirical work on the question of whether social spending is effective in achieving these goals. This paper examines...

  15. Institutional Transition from Welfare Enterprise to Social Enterprise: the Localization of Legislation and Policy in Chinese Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaomeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare enterprises, which are intended to create jobs for disabled people, are the core component of China's welfare system. As the economic environment and regulations change, China's welfare enterprises, which cannot take effective measures from within and emerge strong in market competition, are stuck in a bottleneck where further development is difficult. Welfare enterprises have hit the ceiling in their development for lacking sustainable sources of capital and capabilities of capital operation, inefficient management model and uncompetitive products and services. To reverse the trend of decline and grow into strong market players, the transformation from welfare enterprise to social enterprise, embracing the features of enterprise and social objectives, as an alternative is of crucial importance. As a new hybrid economic form, social enterprise combines the efficiency of businesses and the public-good nature of welfare enterprises, representing win-win cooperation among the government, society, and business sector. Such development is an institutional transformation which boosts competitiveness and tackles tough issues welfare enterprises are facing. Shifting from welfare enterprises to social enterprises means an institutional transition, during the process of which international experience in legislation shall be learned and localized. This paper analyzes the development history of welfare enterprises by taking a comprehensive look at the salient points of existing laws, policies promulgated throughout history, implementation and performance, major problems etc. so as to explore the institutional transition from welfare enterprises to social enterprises, revealing possible legal and policy problems and making suggestions.

  16. Women, Families and Social Welfare in Spain from the 18th Century to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gracia Cárcamo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a contribution to the debate on the development of Social Welfare in Southern Europe. Emphasis is placed on factors such as educational formation of women for their task of responsibility for welfare and care within the families; this made possible improvements in Public Health. We note the relevance of women in the charitable activities of the public sphere grew paradoxically through reactionary movements. Emphasis is placed on the importance of women in Social Welfare during the Catholic Revival as receivers of charity (in Christian trade unions, in catholic mutual aid societies…, as intermediaries for poor families (facing priests, nuns and charitable ladies, as assistants (teachers in religious schools and nurses in hospitals and as leaders (Catholic ladies. There was an increase during the Francoist dictatorship in the participation of women in the reception, intermediation and offer of charity (in groups closer to fascism and in Catholic organisations.

  17. WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF TIMBERLAND OWNERSHIP CHANGES IN THE U.S. TIMBER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many forest product firms in the U.S. either divested their timberlands to timber investment management organizations (TIMOs and conservation organizations or converted their corporate structures from C corporations to real estate investment trusts (REITs. All landowners sold smaller timberland tracts for nonforestry uses. Reduced timber supplies from conservation organizations and timberland loss to other nonforestry uses have consequences on producer and consumer surpluses in the U.S. timber markets. Equilibrium displacement model has been employed to evaluate the welfare changes in U.S. timber markets attributed to timberland ownership changes. Net reduction of timber supply contributed to the reduction of social surplus by $43 million in 2006. Compared to the $33 billion plus U.S. timber markets, this welfare reduction was small. Overall, this article explains the shifts of economic surpluses among producers and net surplus reduction for the society attributed to timberland ownership changes in the United States.

  18. Stakeholder relationships and social welfare: a behavioral theory of contributions to joint value creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Stoelhorst, J.W.

    Firms play a crucial role in furthering social welfare through their ability to foster stakeholders’ contributions to joint value creation, i.e., value creation that involves a public-good dilemma due to high task and outcome interdependence - leading to what economists have labeled the ‘team

  19. Measures of Consumer Satisfaction in Social Welfare and Behavioral Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark W.; Wu, Shiyou

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the origins, conceptual bases, psychometric properties, and limitations of consumer satisfaction measures in social welfare and behavioral health. Based on a systematic review of research reports published between 2003 and 2013, we identify 58 consumer satisfaction measures. On average, these measures have acceptable…

  20. A just distribution of burdens? : Attitudes toward the social distribution of taxes in 26 welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosma, F.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Whether people believe that tax burdens are fairly distributed is an important condition for welfare state legitimacy. This article examines how people evaluate this distribution of tax burdens in their country by using latent cluster analysis. We use 2006 International Social Survey Program data

  1. Islamic Charities and Social Activism: Welfare, Dakwah and Politics in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latief, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how the notions of benevolent acts, welfare issues and social justice are conceived by Indonesian Muslims, and investigates the multiplicity of roles played by Islamic charitable associations. Such associations, which have multiplied rapidly in the past two decades, were

  2. Islam, civil society and social work; Muslim voluntary welfare associations in Jordan between patronage and empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, E.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the religious discourse and the social work practices of Muslim voluntary welfare associations in Jordan on the basis of civil society theory. The need to react to western political, economic as well as cultural hegemony gave rise to relatively dogmatic and fundamentalist

  3. Social Welfare Control in Mobile Crowdsensing Using Zero-Determinant Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qin; Wang, Shengling; Bie, Rongfang; Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2017-05-03

    As a promising paradigm, mobile crowdsensing exerts the potential of widespread sensors embedded in mobile devices. The greedy nature of workers brings the problem of low-quality sensing data, which poses threats to the overall performance of a crowdsensing system. Existing works often tackle this problem with additional function components. In this paper, we systematically formulate the problem into a crowdsensing interaction process between a requestor and a worker, which can be modeled by two types of iterated games with different strategy spaces. Considering that the low-quality data submitted by the workers can reduce the requestor's payoff and further decrease the global income, we turn to controlling the social welfare in the games. To that aim, we take advantage of zero-determinant strategy, based on which we propose two social welfare control mechanisms under both game models. Specifically, we consider the requestor as the controller of the games and, with proper parameter settings for the to-be-adopted zero-determinant strategy, social welfare can be optimized to the desired level no matter what strategy the worker adopts. Simulation results demonstrate that the requestor can achieve the maximized social welfare and keep it stable by using our proposed mechanisms.

  4. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Stella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million, free-roaming (70 million, research (13,000, and shelter (2-3 million cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats’ needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  5. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Croney, Candace C

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats ( Felis silvestris catus ) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  6. Impact of Retirements and Pensions on the Social Welfare of the Households from Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo da Costa Reis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main arguments for the existence of public social security systems relates to their potential use as income distribution and welfare policy tools. In this vein, several studies have sought to evaluate the effects of social security benefits on poverty and inequality. However, the evidence obtained from Brazilian studies regarding the effects of social security remains inconclusive, and studies evaluating the impact of social security on social welfare indices are scarce. The objective of this paper is to measure the impact of retirement and pensions provided by social security programs on the welfare level of households in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological approach is based on propensity score matching, and microdata from the National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD, 2009 are used. The results demonstrate that income from retirement and pensions represents an important portion of beneficiary households' income, especially lower-income beneficiary households. The results suggest that social security has a positive effect on the incomes, access to knowledge and living conditions of the households analyzed. The impact of retirement and pensions on households in low-income groups (Classes D and E tends to be more significant relative to the impact on middle class households (Class C.

  7. Globalizing Social Welfare and Labor Markets in East and Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...... and workers negotiate for the promotion of national development and the creation of a civil society which might minimize the adverse effects of globalization! This paper explores the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor markets and social welfare in East and Southeast Asia. It draws upon recent...... debates in the framework of comparative political economy over the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor market regulation and social welfare adjustment. The focus is on the radical change of work arrangements with an accompanying loss of the social relevance of the work place and of labour...

  8. Imported palm oil for biofuels in the EU: Profitability, greenhouse gas emissions and social welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikkonen, Liisa; Ollikainen, Markku; Lankoski, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the social desirability of renewable diesel production from imported palm oil in the EU when greenhouse gas emissions are taken into account. Using a partial market equilibrium model, we also study the sectoral social welfare effects of a biofuel policy consisting of a blend mandate in a small EU country (Finland), when palm oil based diesel is used to meet the mandated quota for biofuels. We develop a market equilibrium model for three cases: i) no biofuel policy, ii) biofuel policy consisting of socially optimal emission-based biofuel tax credit and iii) actual EU biofuel policy. Our results for the EU biofuel market, Southeast Asia and Finland show very little evidence that a large scale use of imported palm oil in diesel production in the EU can be justified by lower greenhouse gas emission costs. Cuts in emission costs may justify extensive production only if low or negative land-use change emissions result from oil palm cultivation and if the estimated per unit social costs of emissions are high. In contrast, the actual biofuel policies in the EU encourage the production of palm oil based diesel. Our results indicate that the sectoral social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland may be negative and that if emissions decrease under actual biofuel policy, the emission abatement costs can be high regardless of the land use change emissions. - Highlights: • We study the social desirability of renewable diesel production from palm oil in EU. • We also study sectoral social welfare impacts of actual biofuel policy in Finland. • Life cycle GHG emission costs of diesels are included in the economic analysis. • Extensive use of palm oil diesel in EU is difficult to justify by climate benefits. • The social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland can be negative

  9. Welfare locale e innovazione sociale: una buona pratica dal terzo settore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Golino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The local welfare -among other possibilities- effectively enhances the contribution of volunteering and nonprofit. On the local level we can identify the third sector institutions or companies operating on the market with which to make agreements to carry out activities of new welfare and social innovation, i.e. new ideas (products, services and models to meet social needs, improve the quality of human life and well-being, and create new relationships and social inclusion. The paper describes a good practice to social innovation performed by volunteers of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Research Foundation and Care John Paul II of Campobasso. The social innovation initiative in the health field, by developing new forms of co-operation between public actors of the third sector, shows that the actors are able to develop appropriate responses and affordable to different social needs in the area and to mobilize resources for this purpose and private skills, pro- ducing value for society as a whole in a perspective of innovative welfare.

  10. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  11. Moral Bioenhancement for Social Welfare: Are Civic Institutions Ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Shook

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive assessments of moral enhancement too often isolate intuitive notions about its benefits apart from the relevance of surrounding society or civic institutions. If moral bioenhancement should benefit both oneself and others, it cannot be conducted apart from the enhancement of local social conditions, or the preparedness of civic institutions. Neither of those considerations has been adequately incorporated into typical neuroethical assessments of ambitious plans for moral bioenhancement. Enhancing a person to be far less aggressive and violent than an average person, what we label as “civil enhancement,” seems to be quite moral, yet its real-world social consequences are hardly predictable. A hypothetical case about how the criminal justice system would treat an offender who already received civil enhancement serves to illustrate how civic institutions are unprepared for moral enhancement.

  12. The Social Service between Values and Welfare Policies (Il Servizio Sociale tra Valori e Politiche di Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D'Atri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Main values of social work guide and select the everyday work of professional social worker, within institutional and non-institutional contexts, for people and with people facing different conditions of fragility and poverty, acting more innovative intervention strategies that respond to the real needs of the individual, the family system and, in general terms, the local community. In such a perspective, SIA (Support for Active Inclusion is a measure of poverty alleviation which provides for economic benefits to families in poor economic situations. To enjoy this benefit, the applicant's family will have to attend a personalized social and employing activation project, through a pact between services and families, aimed to overcoming poverty and gradually regaining autonomy. Sunto I valori che sono alla base del servizio sociale guidano e orientano il lavoro dell’assistente sociale che quotidianamente opera, all’interno di contesti sia istituzionali che non istituzionali, con le persone e per le persone per il superamento delle situazioni di fragilità e povertà, mettendo in atto strategie d’intervento sempre più innovative e rispondenti ai reali bisogni dell’individuo, del sistema familiare e, in termini più generali, della comunità locale. In quest’ottica il SIA (sostegno per l’inclusione attiva è una misura di contrasto alla povertà che prevede l’erogazione di un beneficio economico alle famiglie in condizioni economiche disagiate. Per godere di questo beneficio, il nucleo familiare del richiedente dovrà aderire ad un progetto personalizzato di attivazione sociale e lavorativa, tramite un patto tra servizi e famiglie, teso al superamento della condizione di povertà e alla  riconquista graduale dell’autonomia. Parole chiave: Valori, Servizio Sociale, Povertà, Famiglia, Progetto

  13. ‘Liking and Sharing’ the stigmatization of poverty and social welfare: Representations of poverty and welfare through Internet memes on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Dobson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet memes play an important role in the reproduction, reinforcement and circulation of social stereotypes, including about those who live in poverty. Due to the vast reach and increasing popularity of various social media platforms, these memes can reach a potentially enormous audience; when an image goes ‘viral,’ its claims are made more powerful every time it is shared or reposted. In this paper we investigate the relationship between Internet memes and stereotypes about poverty by examining a set of memes that make claims about one particular aspect of poverty in North America – receipt of social assistance in the form of welfare cheques, medical coverage and food.

  14. Housing property and welfare state change: Social investment and asset-based welfare as compatible social policy approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.; Ronald, R.

    2015-01-01

    Structural economic and family-demographic shifts, as well as socio-economic integration processes at the EU level have led to profound transformations of the established social policy models in Europe in the past two decades. Notwithstanding the considerable variations across nations and regime

  15. Fiscally Unsustainable Social Welfare, Untenable Housing Solutions and the Mortgage Default Ratio in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyisani Vuyisani Moss

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on social welfare system and governance of housingmarkets from an end-user perspective. The article critically analyses the wayin which social welfare has correlated to unsustainable development and createdself entitlement behaviours and attitudes in the South African low incomehousing market.  The phenomenon wasdemonstrable by empirical research whose findings confirmed an existence of anassociation between a fully subsidized social housing model (as underpinned bySouth Africa’s social welfare and propensity to default on mortgages.  The study found that the risk of default byhomeowners in the low income housing market in South Africa is influenced bygovernment’s housing grant model. In other words, the research established thatthe principle of servicing a mortgaged starter property (that is almost similarto a government free house by both structure and design is not universallyaccepted by homeowners of these mortgaged houses.  The unintended consequences are that thesystem has created indefinite expectations that potentially could; (i erodethe country’s balance sheet; (ii add to non-payment behaviour; (iii pressurizethe economic and credit systems; (iv propagate entitlement attitudes andmindsets; (v create social instability and (v widened the country’s balanceof payment deficits.

  16. Social welfare effects of educational labour market programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    A number of papers (e.g. Besley and Coate (1992, 1995)) have considered the optimality of ALMP-programmes and especially the deterrence effect, i.e. the feature that participation in ALMP-programmes implies a disutility comparable to disutility for ordinary work. The papers consider the relative...... levels of benefit rates in ALMP-programmes and in ‘passive’ public income support. In this paper, we focus on ALMP-programmes with a positive outcome, namely education programmes that raise participants’ level of productivity. A’ priori it appears difficult to say whether a positive outcome is a motive...... for subsidizing ALMP-programmes relative to passive support, or whether individuals’ self-interest reduces the need to support such programmes. Hence we discuss the relative benefit rates in optimal of social policy. The optimal benefit rate in education programmes turns out to be higher or lower than the passive...

  17. Health and social welfare of expatriates in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Gollogly, James G

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of the Vietnam War and increasing tourism to Asia, there has been ongoing reverse migration of Westerners to Southeast Asia. Some, but not all, have pensions and modest assets. Some acquire a locals spouse and raise a second family. Many of those who arrived early are now aging rapidly and are depleting their financial resources. Health problems become socio/economic threats. None of the Asian target countries that attract reverse migrants have adequate health care and social safety nets that are available to them. The usual health care safety nets expected in western countries do not cover their nationals in a foreign country. This essay discusses these problems as seen from the perspective of two practicing physicians in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the inte......Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context...... and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law...... aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...

  19. Danish and Norwegian hospital social workers’ cross-institutional work amidst inter-sectoral restructuring of health and social welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg Nielsen, Ulla; Harsløf, Ivan; Feiring, Marte

    2017-01-01

    , they report increasing difficulties in ‘making their way through’ the state-municipal bureaucracy. However, by drawing on the formal health knowledge derived from medical settings and the symbolic capital it bestows on them, they often manage to negotiate the work-and-welfare services, thereby transforming......-makers have instituted economic incentives to both individuals and the health and welfare organisations who handle them. Through an institutional logics approach, this paper explores how hospital social workers in these countries are experiencing these changes. The ‘social’ part of post-treatment care...

  20. Does social policy moderate the impact of unemployment on health? A multilevel analysis of 23 welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid Shahidi, Faraz; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Muntaner, Carles

    2016-12-01

    The magnitude of observable health inequalities between the unemployed and their employed counterparts differs considerably across countries. Few attempts have been made to test theoretical explanations for this cross-national variation. Moreover, existing studies suffer from important theoretical and methodological limitations. This study addresses these limitations and investigates whether differences in the generosity of social protection policies and in public attitudes towards those policies explain why unemployment-related health inequalities are steeper in some societies than in others. Multilevel logistic modelling was used to link contextual-level variables on social protection policies and public attitudes in 23 European countries to individual-level data on self-rated health from the 2012 wave of the European Social Survey. The magnitude of inequalities in self-rated health between the unemployed and their employed counterparts varies significantly across countries as a function of cross-national differences in the level of social protection awarded to the unemployed and the level of public support for the welfare state. The results provide empirical support for the claim that governments can play a more active role in mitigating unemployment-related health inequalities by expanding the generosity and scope of social protection policies. Whether such an expansion of social protection will take place in the current climate of fiscal austerity is a political question whose implications merit the attention of population health scholars. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Animal welfare at the group level: more than the sum of individual welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, F; Putman, R J

    2014-03-01

    Currently assessment and management of animal welfare are based on the supposition that welfare status is something experienced identically by each individual animal when exposed to the same conditions. However, many authors argue that individual welfare cannot be seen as an 'objective' state, but is based on the animal's own self-perception; such perception might vary significantly between individuals which appear to be exposed to exactly the same challenges. We argue that this has two implications: (1) actual perceived welfare status of individuals in a population may vary over a wide range even under identical environmental conditions; (2) animals that appear to an external observer to be in better or poorer welfare condition may all in fact perceive their own individual status as the same. This would imply that optimum welfare of a social group might be achieved in situations where individual group members differ markedly in apparent welfare status and perceive their own welfare as being optimal under differing circumstances. Welfare phenotypes may also vary along a continuum between self-regarding and other-regarding behaviour; a variety of situations exist where (social) individuals appear to invest in the welfare of other individuals instead of maximising their own welfare; in such a case it is necessary to re-evaluate individual welfare within the context of a social group and recognise that there may be consequences for the welfare of individuals, of decisions made at the group level or by other group members.

  2. Managing corporate identities of non-profit organisations in the social welfare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Holtzhausen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Present-day South Africa is characterised by many societal and developmental issues, such as HIV awareness and prevention, child-headed households, environmental protection, poverty alleviation, violence and victim aid. However, it is widely acknowledged that government alone cannot address these issues effectively. The role of non-profit organisations (NPOs in addressing social and development issues is increasingly emphasised. NPOs work at grass-roots level and they can therefore, on the whole, identify societal vulnerabilities and risks earlier than the government sector. However, due to the economic recession, NPOs operate in a competitive environment where an increasing number of NPOs rely on a small number of donors and other resources. NPOs should therefore differentiate themselves from the competition in order to obtain public legitimacy and funding. Corporate identity management is important for NPOs to fulfil their role in social welfare and thus contribute to disaster risk reduction. The exploratory nature of this study dictates a qualitative research approach. Semi-structured interviews with management of five NPOs in the social welfare sector were conducted in order to provide an answer to the study’s research question: ‘To what extent do NPOs in the social welfare sector practise corporate identity management, in order to prevent and address social welfare risks?’ The research found that NPOs do not realise the full potential of managing their corporate identities. NPOs therefore do not take advantage of a strong and distinct corporate identity which would allow them to ensure their ability to assess, address, reduce and/or alleviate vulnerabilities and disaster risks.

  3. Norwegian public health policy: revitalization of the social democratic welfare state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Norway is part of the so-called social democratic welfare state model, which is characterized by its emphasis on solidarity and redistribution among social groups. The concepts of upstream and downstream policy measures may be useful to characterize different approaches to public health policies: upstream measures would be structural measures, in line with the social democratic welfare state model, while downstream measures would be more targeted at individuals or groups at some sort of risk. The aim of this article is to analyze national policies in Norway and how these may be characterized in terms of upstream and downstream factors. Health promotion and public health policies have been high on the Norwegian political agenda for two decades. However, the national policy emphasis has shifted between strategies aimed at individuals and structural strategies--that is, between downstream and upstream measures. Until 2003, policies included mainly downstream measures, but since then a policy shift has taken place and current policy includes an emphasis on upstream measures. This policy was strengthened after a left-wing coalition came into government in 2005. It may be argued that the present policy represents a revitalization of universal and structural measures, in line with the social democratic welfare state model.

  4. Exploring the work/ welfare relationship

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The impact of current transformations in European labor markets social policy and employment patterns on women gender relations motherhood and family: implications for social work and social care (Editorial) We are delighted to introduce this exciting Special Edition for the Swiss Journal of Social Work. This special guest edited issue will interrogate a particular problem of the impact of the shifting axis on family gender relations and gendered impacts of welfare reform and change. In the c...

  5. Perceptions of Administrative and Supervisory Support in Public Child Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M. Westbrook

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Child Welfare Organizational Culture Inventory (CWOCI in a public child welfare agency, perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees with social work degrees (BSW and MSW were compared to perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees without social work degrees. Child welfare employees with social work degrees reported lower administrative and supervisory support than employees without social work degrees. Implications for social work educators, public child welfare administrators and supervisors, and future research are presented.

  6. Türkiye’de Sosyal Yardım Uygulamaları(Social Welfare Practices In Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp ZENGİN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social welfare contains goods and cash aids made by the state to meet the needs of the poor people. Social security system programmes have a major role in preventing poverty and injustice in income distribution in a society as well as in ensuring social peace. Parallel to the changes and developments in Turkey and in the world, needs of the poor have also varied. Applied social aid programmes are considered as one of the last measures to fill the gaps of social security systems. To fulfil these different needs many measures were taken, various legal regulations were acted and many new organizations were established. The subject of this study is to explore historical developments of the state’s social welfare practices at national and local level and their current situation. Injustices in income distribution are considered among the possible factors of deteriorating social peace. Social welfare, at this point, serves as a functional safety measure.

  7. National and international social implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zablocki, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    Every new technology since slash-and-burn has required new social institutions to go along with it, and nuclear technology is no exception. There is, therefore, a need to go beyond decisionmaking among alternative peaceful proliferation schemes. There is a need also to look at the needs for new national and/or transnational institutions that will have to accompany any proliferations in area. There are five social implications that bear on the need to develop new social institutions. First is the issue of Great Power relations, in an era of nuclear proliferation. Second is the conflict between nationalism and internationalism. The third is the issue of the military and diplomatic strategies of small nations, particularly small nations on the threshold of nuclear capacity, and the question of military versus civilian rule in those nations. Fourth, and possibly the most important is the role of multinational corporations in nuclear regulation, and fifth, the question of secrecy and how that bears on power values of primacy in democratic states

  8. [Researches on health and welfare promotion based on an approach of social medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2004-07-01

    This article was derived from my memorial talk given when receiving the prize of the Japanese Society for Hygiene at their academic congress. The reader could review my research on health and welfare promotion made by introducing new conceptual health policy based on the approach of social medicine. Through my experience in different research work, the importance of social factors in the etiology of health during childhood, adulthood and old age was discussed. In addition, it was revealed that social factors not only influence the population's health status but also constitute the context within which organized efforts can be made to promote health. For the elderly, the annual health check, stroke patient registration, and insurance for care and spousal bereavement; for adults, the Karoshi and occupational health; and for children, air pollution-atopy predisposition and lifestyles were highlighted as social medicine-related issues. The research on mostly longitudinal population studies showed that health status, including the life expectancy and the prevalence of disability and chronic disorders, are related to one's marital status, social support, psychosocial working conditions and environmental factors as well as to lifestyles such as physical activity and hours of work and sleep at entry. More attention should be directed to independent factors' effects on health, separate from those of adverse health habits and bio-medical situations, under the health and welfare promotion strategy.

  9. Why Did Austrian Business Oppose Welfare Cuts? How the Organization of Interests Shapes Business Attitudes Toward Social Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Paster, T.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, business interests became protagonists of welfare retrenchment in many countries. In contrast, Austria’s national business organization, the WKÖ (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich), defended welfare programs and social partnership against government initiatives to dismantle them. Drawing on interviews and media reports, this article analyzes the reasons for this deviation, focusing on reforms in two fields: (a) public pensions and (b) social insurance administration. The article...

  10. Tradeable emission permits regulations in the presence of imperfectly competitive product markets. Welfare implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartzetakis, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyse the interaction of a competitive market for emission permits with an oligopolistic product market. It is well known that a competitive permits market achieves the cost minimizing distribution of abatement effort among the polluting firms for a given reduction in emissions. However, when the product market is oligopolistic, it may redistribute production inefficiently among firms. It has been suggested that this inefficiency can outweigh the gains obtained from using emission permits instead of command and control. Although this argument is clearly correct under full information, it is shown in the present paper that it reverses under incomplete information. In particular, it is shown that when tradeable emission permits are specified according to the standard textbook example, they yield higher social welfare than the command and control regulation. 1 fig., 2 appendices, 11 refs

  11. Social development in cities and the impact of the Nordic welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove Valborg; Rasinkangas, Jarkko

    The ongoing globalisation and urbanisation in most Western societies points at the cities and urban regions as especially interesting in order to discover new trends in the societal development and the welfare regimes ability to deal with these trends. In the literature about social polarisation...... it is mostly the so called global cities - and further capital cities - which are in focus of the analysis {{81 Sassen,Saskia 2001; 366 Sassen, Saskia 2000; 85 Castells,Manuel 1991; 86 Mollenkopf,John Hull 1991; 57 Marcuse,Peter 2000; 94 Hamnett,Chris 2003; 409 Andersen,Hans Thor 2005; 410 Wessel, Terje; 411...... Vaattovaara, Mari and Matti Kortteinen 2003}}. Following central thesis of trends in the distributional and spatial development in cities and discussions about the role of the welfare regime, we shall compare two middle sized cities in two Nordic countries: Aarhus, Denmark (approx 300.000 inhabitants...

  12. 'Child poverty in Denmark: Balancing adult work discipline and child welfare in social work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørup, Iben; Petersen, Stina Krogh; Jacobsen, Betina

    to take up work as well as an increased conditionality which stresses the individuals willingness to participate in activation to work in order to receive benefits. Many of the reforms also increase the threat of sanctions if the individual is not making sufficient effort to look for work or improve his...... this leads to a practice, where the social work and the initiatives aiming to reduce child vulnerability focus on the factors within the child’s immediate environment such as the relation between child and parent, and thirdly it leads to a practice where the often conflicting goals of the active labour......Abstract Active welfare state reforms have been implemented all over Europe. Though the specific design of active welfare state reforms vary between the countries the majority of the reforms include elements of benefit reductions in an attempt to make work pay and increase the individual incentive...

  13. To be new in Child Welfare Agency – A study of Social Worker’s perspectives on challenges, coping strategies and support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moncada, Isabel Amelia Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    European Master in Social Work with Families and Children Social work education in Sweden has been characterized to provide general information about social work practice. With a new degree, social workers are able to find suitable jobs offer in many areas related to welfare services. With the increasing of work demands of Child Welfare agencies, newly qualified social workers are hired to provide services to families and children. Over the last years, Child Welfare agencies had been criti...

  14. Transforming public welfare institutions through social innovation and action research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The article will present how action research may contribute to social innovation and empowerment in public welfare and cultural institutions (nursing homes and libraries) in a manner that supports the interests of marginalised citizens and local communities, and creates opportunities for positive...... change. First, we introduce the concepts of empowerment, action research and social innovation along with the roots of these concepts in critical social theory. Secondly, two case studies are presented to analyse two different methodological variants of action research in two different contexts...... space” for reflection and creation of concrete suggestions of social innovation in elder care. The second case is about the transformation of a public library into a community centre. In this case, the aim was to break down barriers between citizens and public institutions in a deprived, multicultural...

  15. Tactical and operational decisions for operating room planning: efficiency and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, Angela; Tànfani, Elena

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the impact on welfare implications of a 0-1 linear programming model to solve the Operating Room (OR) planning problem, taking a patient perspective. In particular, given a General Surgery Department made up of different surgical sub-specialties sharing a given number of OR block times, the model determines, during a given planning period, the allocation of those blocks to surgical sub-specialties, i.e. the so called Master Surgical Schedule Problem (MSSP), together with the subsets of elective patients to be operated on in each block time, i.e. the so called Surgical Case Assignment Problem (SCAP). The innovation of the model is two-fold. The first is that OR allocation is "optimal" if the available OR blocks are scheduled simultaneously to the proper subspecialty, at the proper time to the proper patient. The second is defining what "proper" means and include that in the objective function. In our approach what is important is not number of patients who can be treated in a given period but how much welfare loss, due to clinical deterioration or other negative consequences related to excessive waiting, can be prevented. In other words we assume a societal perspective in that we focus on "outcome" (health improving or preventing from worsening) rather than on "output" (delivered procedures). The model can be used both to develop weekly OR planning with given resources (operational decision), and to perform "what if" scenario analysis regarding how to increase the amount of OR time available for the entire department (tactical decision). The model performance is verified by applying it to a real scenario, the elective admissions of the General Surgery Department of the San Martino University Hospital in Genova (Italy). Despite the complexity of this NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, computational results indicate that the model can solve all test problems within 600 s and an average optimality tolerance of less than 0.01%.

  16. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  17. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  18. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  19. Gender Implications of UK Welfare Reform and Government Equality Duties: Evidence from Qualitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Bennett

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK coalition government is bound by equality duties to have regard to the impact of its policies on various groups, including women. This article investigates how far this legislative commitment is influencing debates about current welfare reforms, especially plans for ‘universal credit’ (a new means-tested benefit. The authors draw on findings from recent studies of within-household distribution from a gender perspective, including their own qualitative research. A major aim of this research was to facilitate more nuanced analysis of the effects of welfare reforms in terms of gender roles and relationships within the household. This article therefore examines how far findings from qualitative studies, in conjunction with the key principles they develop for assessing the gender impact of welfare reforms, can be used to examine ‘universal credit’; and to what extent these influenced the UK government’s proposals and analysis in the light of its commitment to equality duties. Los derechos de igualdad obligan al gobierno de coalición del Reino Unido a tener en cuenta el impacto de sus políticas sobre varios grupos, incluidas las mujeres. En este artículo se investiga hasta qué punto este compromiso legislativo está influyendo en los debates sobre las reformas de bienestar actuales, especialmente los planes de “crédito universal” (un nuevo beneficio de ingreso. Los autores se basan en los resultados de estudios recientes sobre la distribución dentro de los hogares desde una perspectiva de género, incluida su propia investigación cualitativa. Un objetivo principal de esta investigación era el de facilitar un análisis más matizado de los efectos de las reformas de bienestar en términos de roles y relaciones de género dentro del hogar. Por tanto, este artículo examina hasta qué punto los resultados de estudios cualitativos, en relación con los principios fundamentales que se desarrollan para evaluar el impacto de g

  20. Social welfare and legal constraints associated with work among breast and prostate cancer survivors: experiences from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda; Timmons, Aileen

    2011-12-01

    Around 40% of cancer survivors are of working age. We investigated employment outcomes among survivors in Ireland where sick leave and sick pay are at the employers' discretion and the law affords no protection against dismissal following extended absence. A questionnaire was mailed to 1,373 survivors, identified from the National Cancer Registry, 6-24 months post-diagnosis. The analysis included breast and prostate cancer respondents who were working at diagnosis. Factors associated with work continuation post-diagnosis and work resumption after cancer-related absence were identified using logistic regression. The response rate was 54%. Three hundred forty-six respondents were working at diagnosis (breast cancer = 246; prostate cancer = 100). Sixty-two (18%) continued working post-diagnosis. Factors significantly associated with work continuation were: self-employment, prostate cancer, lower pre-diagnosis household income, and not having surgery. Two hundred eighty-four took time off work post-diagnosis; of these, 51 (18%) had left the workforce, 187 (66%) had resumed working, and 46 (16%) planned to resume working. Factors significantly associated with work resumption were: tertiary education, not having chemotherapy, receiving sick pay, and not having a medical card (which provides free access to public health services). Among those who resumed working, the median absence was 30.1 weeks (inter-quartile range = 12.9-51.6). The length of absence varied significantly by socio-demographic, financial, medical, and job- and social welfare-related factors. Median working hours pre- and post-diagnosis differed significantly (pre-diagnosis = 38/week; post-diagnosis = 30/week; p<0.001). The high level of workforce departure and associations between self-employment, sick pay and medical cards, and employment outcomes suggest that social welfare and legal provisions are important determinants of the survivors' workforce participation. IMPLICATIONS FOR

  1. Companion animal welfare and possible implications on the human-pet relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Verga; Manuela Michelazzi

    2010-01-01

    The role of pets (dogs and cats in particular) in human society has changed in recent years. Nowadays pets are an integral part of the human family and this aspect has many social and emotional implications. For their positive effects on human health, pets are also employed in some special and therapeutic activities known by the generic term of “Pet Therapy”. In these programmes the animal becomes an integral part of the therapeutic plan in order to induce some physical, social, e...

  2. Effect of Leadership Styles, Social Capital, and Social Entrepreneurship on Organizational Effectiveness of Social Welfare Organization in Malaysia: Data Screening and Preliminary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Ng Chun; Wan, Chong Yen; Sharif, Mohmad Yazam

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of screening, editing and preparation of initial data before any further multivariate analysis of the study concerning effect of leadership styles, social capital and social entrepreneurship on organizational effectiveness of social welfare organization in Malaysia. It is vital to conduct data screening to identify any potential violation of the basic assumptions related to the application of multivariate techniques. Moreover, initial data e...

  3. The discourse of elite vs. people in a social welfare society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    Denmark is known as a social welfare society with a very high degree of social trust and an even higher ranking in happiness ratings. Nevertheless the classic populist topos of ‘elite’ versus ‘people’ has entered public Danish discourse in recent years. This paper explores how and where the notion...... of ‘the elite’ has emerged and attempts to establish its meaning and the rhetorical work its used to perform. In particular, I examine a recently published book by a Social Democractic member of the Danish Parliament bearing a title that translates to: “The Tyranni of the Educated – How the Creative Class...... Creates Inequality and Undermines the World’s Best Society”. I then discuss examples of public discourse that seeks to challenge the notion of the elite and its negative connotations and discuss their prospects of succeeding in this endeavor in a summarizing theoretization of rhetoric’s potential...

  4. Role of social workers to support single mothers: A case study of welfare receivers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The women who lose their partners normally face tremendous challenges among their parents and in society. Women may lose their husbands for different reasons such as divorce, drug addiction, violence and migration. They may often look to build a new life very quickly but will find out that society does not treat them, properly. It is more difficult to find job and even a job opportunity does not provide sufficient pay. In this paper, we study the impact of different affecting parameters on empowering single mothers such as audacity, social responsibility, trouble shooting, flexibility, stress tolerance, etc. We choose 200 single mothers who receive welfare from the government of Iran and distribute a questionnaire among them based on four different questions associated with social, economical, feeling and empowering. The results indicate that audacity and social responsibility are the most important items while being optimistic, independent and flexibility are counted as having the least impact on empowering single mothers.

  5. The welfare state, pensions, privatization: the case of Social Security in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Boff, R B

    1997-01-01

    In all high-income nations, the welfare state is under challenge, with particular concern voiced about the burden of retirement pensions on the public fisc and on younger workers. The strongest drive against social insurance is taking place in the United States, which has less of it than other nations and appears to be in the best position to meet future entitlement claims. In this article, the author examines the liabilities that the U.S. Social Security system is likely to incur over the next 35 years and finds that there is little danger that the system will fall into insolvency. Privatizing Social Security is not necessary to assure the integrity of future pension benefits. Furthermore, the cost-benefit ratio of privatization appears to be unfavorable, as borne out by the mandatory private pension plan in effect in Chile. Some wealthy nations will face greater demographic strains than the United States, but all need to retain the welfare state as a foundation for future changes in the world of work.

  6. Welfare migration? Free movement of EU citizens and access to social benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Blauberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the political impact of the European Court of Justice’s (ECJ case law concerning the free movement of EU citizens and their cross-border access to social benefits. Public debates about ‘welfare migration’ or ‘social tourism’ often fluctuate between populist hysteria and outright denial, but they obscure the real political and legal issues at stake: that ECJ jurisprudence incrementally broadens EU citizens’ opportunities to claim social benefits abroad while narrowing member states’ scope to regulate and restrict access to national welfare systems. We argue that legal uncertainty challenges national administrations in terms of workload and rule-of-law standards, while domestic legislative reforms increasingly shift the burden of legal uncertainty to EU migrants by raising evidentiary requirements and threatening economically inactive EU citizens with expulsion. We illustrate this argument first with a brief overview of the EU’s legal framework, highlighting the ambiguity of core concepts from the Court’s case law, and then with empirical evidence from the UK, Germany and Austria, analyzing similar domestic responses to the ECJ’s jurisprudence. We conclude that EU citizenship law, while promising to build the union from below on the basis of equal legal entitlements, may, in fact, risk rousing further nationalism and decrease solidarity across the union.

  7. Optimal Stabilization of Social Welfare under Small Variation of Operating Condition with Bifurcation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sandip; De, Abhinandan

    2016-12-01

    A social welfare optimization technique has been proposed in this paper with a developed state space based model and bifurcation analysis to offer substantial stability margin even in most inadvertent states of power system networks. The restoration of the power market dynamic price equilibrium has been negotiated in this paper, by forming Jacobian of the sensitivity matrix to regulate the state variables for the standardization of the quality of solution in worst possible contingencies of the network and even with co-option of intermittent renewable energy sources. The model has been tested in IEEE 30 bus system and illustrious particle swarm optimization has assisted the fusion of the proposed model and methodology.

  8. Communication patterns within a group of shelter dogs and implications for their welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petak, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Keeping shelter dogs in groups provides them with a more socially and physically enriched environment, but eventually it may cause them stress. Understanding dogs' communication could help shelter staff recognize and prevent undesirable communicative patterns and encourage desirable ones. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine communication patterns in a group of dogs in a shelter. The observed dogs were engaged in different classes of dyadic and group interactions. Certain dogs were frequently initiators of dyadic interactions, and different dogs were the recipients. The predominant form of dyadic interactions was a neutral one, and aggressive behavior was rarely observed. The tendency of certain dogs to interact continuously may represent a nuisance for less social individuals. All of the dogs participated in 3 defined classes of group interactions. At the group level, the dogs frequently interact vocally or olfactorily. A major welfare problem may be very vocal dogs because their vocalizations are noisy and broadcast far-reaching signals. The frequency of some group interactions was reduced by the amount of time the dogs had in the shelter.

  9. Welfare versus market access : the implications of tariff structure for tariff reform

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Anderson; J. Peter Neary

    2004-01-01

    We show that the effects of tariff changes on welfare and import volume can be fully characterised by their effects on the generalised mean and variance of the tariff distribution. Using these tools, we derive new results for welfare- and market-access-improving tariff changes, which imply two "cones of liberalisation" in price space. Because welfare is negatively but import volume positively related to the generalised variance, the cones do not intersect, which poses a dilemma for trad...

  10. Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of microdose clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Chieko

    2011-06-19

    A "microdose clinical trial" (microdosing) is one kind of early phase exploratory clinical trial, administering the compound at doses estimated to have no pharmacological or toxicological effects, aimed at screening candidates for further clinical development. This article's objective is to clarify the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of such an exploratory minimum-risk human trial. The definition and non-clinical study requirements for microdosing have been harmonized among the European Union (EU), United States (US), and Japan. Being conducted according to these regulations, microdosing seems to be ethically well justified in terms of respect for persons, beneficence, justice, human dignity, and animal welfare. Three big projects have been demonstrating the predictability of therapeutic dose pharmacokinetics from microdosing. The article offers suggestions as how microdosing can become a more useful and socially accepted strategy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The implications of a feelings-based approach to fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huntingford, Felicity; Adams, Colin; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2007-01-01

    on this topic, Arlinghaus et al. (2007) explore the question of fish welfare in the particular context of recreational angling, by means of a critique of a review of fish welfare in general written by ourselves (Huntingford et al. 2006). We entirely agree with the desirability of debate on this topic...... and recognize a number of valuable qualities in the commentary by Arlinghaus et al. However, we argue that the critique has some serious flaws. In the first place, by rejecting a feelings-based approach to welfare, it fails to address the aspect of welfare that is at the heart of much legitimate public concern...

  12. Social Constructionism and Ethics: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Jeffrey T.; Rudes, James

    2008-01-01

    Social constructionism is set forth as an epistemological framework from which to establish an ethical base for the field of counseling. The development of the social constructionist movement in counseling is described. Implications of a social constructionist position are considered in relation to ethics. A case example is provided to illustrate…

  13. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  14. The politics of social policy: welfare expansion in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tillin, Louise; Duckett, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This introductory essay reviews the scholarship on the politics of social policy, and shows the contribution of the special issue to explaining expanded welfare commitments in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in the twenty first century. Much literature on welfare expansion in lower- and middle income contexts views it primarily as a policy corrective to the economic dislocations produced by global economic integration. This special issue focuses on the political factors that are critica...

  15. Federalism and social justice: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhorst, Donald M

    2002-07-01

    Federalism is a system of government that divides power between two or more levels of government. During the current conservative political climate in the United States, power has shifted increasingly from the federal government to states, a move that has implications for the achievement of social justice. Consequently, it is now necessary for social workers to engage in political activity at the state and local levels, in addition to the federal level, to promote social justice. Implications for social work policy practice, research, and education for advancing social justice within the federal system of government are explored.

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY LAW OF HYBRID POWER STATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widowati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the Implementation of Energy Law of Hybrid Power Station for Social Welfare in Pantai Baru. The problem formulations are the management and utilization of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru and implementation of energy law of hybrid power station for social welfare in the fields of economy and information in Pantai Baru. Based on data analysis it is concluded that the management of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru is performed collaboratively between government and the society. The existence of hybrid power station in pantai baru has positive impacts in economy and information. Penelitian ini meneliti Pelaksanaan Hukum Energi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hibrid untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat di Bidang Ekonomi dan Informasi di Pantai Baru. Masalah yang diteliti adalah bentuk pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid di Pantai Baru dan pelaksanaan hukum energi pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid untuk kesejahteraan rakyat di bidang ekonomi dan informasi di Pantai Baru. Berdasarkan analisis data dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengelolaan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru dilakukan secara kolaboratif, antara pemerintah dengan masyarakat. Kehadiran pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru telah memberikan dampak positif di bidang ekonomi dan informasi.

  17. Küreselleşme Kıskacındaki Refah Devletinde Sosyal Refah Harcamaları = Social Welfare Spending in the Welfare State During the Latest Globalization Upsurge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Uğur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, employment was expanded, social rights were improved and the idea of welfare state was firmly established during the 1945 - 1975 period, so called “the golden years of the welfare state”. After the 1973 in conjunction with the first and second oil shocks, the economic, political and social pillars of the welfare state have started to evolve rapidly.Recently there have been continuous debates on the boundaries of the welfare state. What should be the state’s role? Does welfare state face fiscal crisis? Are there any socio - economic limits of the improvement of welfare state and financing need of redistribution level? In this study, we evaluate above - mentioned issues within the context of the latest rise on the globalization.

  18. Constructing Family from a Social Work Perspective in Child Welfare: A Juggling Act at Best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Johner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The transformative reality of diverse Canadian families is outpacing national and provincial statutes and policies. Social workers in child welfare agencies are faced with the complex task of making decisions about families while working within the confines of national/provincial statutes and social policies, as well as within agency structures. They attempt to balance the rights of diverse Canadian families and still protect children at risk of harm with the principle of the ‘best interest of the child’. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the construction of ‘family’ and decisions about family life in protection services from the perspective of professional social workers in the prairie region of Canada. Social workers from several urban communities were invited to participate in focus groups. During the focus group discussions, themes of social worker’s nuanced and somewhat fluid understandings of family did not always converge with current legal and professional notions of families. Study findings suggest that social workers’ construction of family and the decisions they make about family life involve three primary themes: ‘acceptance of diverse understandings of family’; ‘safety and the best interest of the child’, and ‘professional discretionary decisions’This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

  19. The Intersectionality of Religion and Social Welfare: Historical Development of Richmond’s Nonprofit Health and Human Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ellen Netting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the intersectionality of religion and social welfare in Richmond, Virginia requires going back to the beginning of the Virginia colony. In the crucible of the colony, the religious and social welfare functions of a parish community were one and the same. However, after the Revolutionary War it was just a matter of time before the entire system was disassembled. The process of disentanglement of church and state created an identity crisis in Virginia. In the late 1700s, the emergence of charitable efforts began with leading men of Richmond who tried to address the temporary needs of travelers, followed by groups of women who discovered new roles they could play through charitable works. The new “system” became a potpourri of societies, congregations, associations, and county units attempting to provide for the social welfare of the populous. The intersectionality of religion and social welfare continued as a diverse landscape of small and large organizations and congregations performing the social welfare functions in Richmond and throughout the Commonwealth emerged. Today, to attempt to separate the church from the state in this conglomerate of agencies is neither possible nor desirable. However, understanding its’ historical complexity is essential if one is to engage in contemporary practice within Richmond’s health and human service system.

  20. Reconfiguring the social and solidarity economy in a Danish/Nordic welfare context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Andersen, Linda Lundgaard

    2018-01-01

    -ture but are important examples of pluralism in a Danish welfare context (Andersen, 2015). Roskilde Festival and Skovgård Hotel share a number of features that place them as interesting agents of solidarity economy. They both display a differentiated activity portfolio of business; public and civil character......When looking at definitions and understandings of the social and solidarity economy, one issue stands out as particularly significant. The issue of how it links to organizational (micro and meso level dimensions) and societal specificities. Whereas social enterprise also in the EMES ideal typical...... version (Borzaga & Defourny, 2001) is only indirectly linked to a Polanyian framework (Gardin, 2006), the notion of solidarity economy can hardly be understood at an elaborate level without reference to the Polanyian framework of plurality. Accordingly, in this paper we will first highlight the difference...

  1. A Team of Instructors' Use of Social Presence, Teaching Presence, and Attitudinal Dissonance Strategies: An Animal Behaviour and Welfare MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Watson, William R.; Janakiraman, Shamila; Richardson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This case study examined a team of instructors' use of social presence, teaching presence, and attitudinal dissonance in a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) on Animal Behaviour and Welfare (ABW), designed to facilitate attitudinal learning. The study reviewed a team of six instructors' use of social presence and teaching presence by applying the…

  2. European feelings of deprivation amidst the financial crisis : Effects of welfare state effort and informal social relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    As European governments have embraced the credo of austerity, the perennial discussion whether welfare states erode the quality of social networks has taken on a more prominent position on political and social science research agendas. While non-believers of this so-called ‘crowding out’ thesis

  3. New Social Risks and Welfare State Reforms in Norway and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  4. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Clinical Trends of a Mindfulness-Informed Child Welfare Intervention: Implications for Trauma-Focused Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress and early life trauma have been linked to child maltreatment and parental substance misuse. These issues often co-occur, yet few child welfare services target their shared underlying causes in a single intervention. Teaching mindfulness-informed strategies to substance-misusing families in the child welfare system may be one promising trauma-informed approach. As part of a larger pilot study testing the initial efficacy of a mindfulness-informed intervention for parents in public child welfare, this study explored the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical trends of the intervention using weekly reports of stress, coping, and mindfulness. Findings show support for the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention as well as positive responses to the intervention on measures of stress and mindfulness. However, the impact of the intervention varied with regard to improving weekly coping among participants. Implications for the integration of mindfulness into child welfare practice as a trauma-informed approach are discussed.

  5. Issues of Formation and Use of Financial Resources of the Social Welfare System (Case Study of the Komi Republic

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    Valentina Valentinovna Tikhomirova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the social welfare system in the Komi Republic and in the Russian Federation on the whole is undergoing gradual reforming, the main goals of which are as follows: improving the quality of life; supporting the poor and vulnerable segments of the population; mitigating possible negative consequences of reforms; improving pension provision; further improvement of targeted social assistance; streamlining social benefits; development of the social services market. In this regard, the study of methodological basis for the formation and use of financial resources of the social welfare system becomes more and more important. The goal of this work is to develop theoretical and methodical approaches to the improvement of financial mechanism for the social welfare system in the region. The paper considers the formation and use of financial resources for social protection of population in the Republic of Komi. The author reveals specifics of formation of budgets of all levels and the powers of federal and regional authorities in the field of mutual responsibility. The paper shows the imbalance of financial resources and obligations at all levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. Scientific novelty of the work consists in the fact that it defines social protection as a financial category that provides redistribution of financial resources emerging in the process of formation of centralized and decentralized financial resources, through a set of forms and types of social protection aimed to ensure its targeted provision. On the basis of the national accounts system, which in terms of methodology focuses on a single international standard, the author develops a structure of forms and types of social protection, which are the basis of its financial mechanism: state social guarantees and minimum social standards; social benefits (social insurance and social assistance benefits; and social services. The paper considers main directions

  6. Parent’s Mentally Retarded Child Psycho-Social Problems Covered by Welfare Centers Khorramabad 2013

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    Farideh Malekshahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background :Mentally retarded child, the family put in a lot of trouble that most of the parents felt. Therefore, understanding and correct identification of problems and related factors are essential to help and support them. Therefore, this study cross sectional analytical descriptive carried out to determine parent’s mentally retarded  child psycho-social problems under covering welfare centers Khorramabad 2013. Materials and Methods: In this study samples were collected from parents of all mental retarded children. The data collection tools were including demographic questionnaires, mental and social problems. 144 questionnaires were completed by every parent. Validity and reliability were got by content validity and were gathered of data in the one stage and data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results: The results showed that all parent had psycho-social problems, but the mothers of the large number of roles in the family had an average of more mother’s emotional and social problems1/46±0/55, 1/54±0/69 and father’s 1/43±0/74, 1/36±0/55. There was significant relationship between parental education and disable child gender. Discussion: The effect of disability on parents depends on their potency and capacity. It seems to reduce of parents of children with mental retarded, they need to services and full support.

  7. The Diverse Impacts of the Neo-liberal Social Policies on Children’s Welfare and Social Work with Young People: The Finnish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impacts of globalization, neo-liberal social policies and the Finnish economic recession of the 1990s on children's and young people's welfare. It summarises some of the impacts of Finnish social policies on the everyday lives of families with children and highlights some of the features of the recent and current debates surrounding youth delinquency and the societal reactions to young generations. All this contributes to a contradictory and conflicting societal context which challenges experts in the field of child welfare social work experts to operate - as expected - at the right moment, legally and effectively. Instead of being overly-defensive for the ‘good old’ ways of practicing social work with children, the authors invite social work scholars and practitioners to reconceptualise both the concept of children's citizenship and its position both in child welfare theory and practice in the context of children's global rights.

  8. Social welfare in one-sided matchings: Random priority and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Frederiksen, Søren Kristoffer Stiil; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of approximate social welfare maximization (without money) in one-sided matching problems when agents have unrestricted cardinal preferences over a finite set of items. Random priority is a very well-known truthful-in-expectation mechanism for the problem. We prove...... that the approximation ratio of random priority is Theta(n^{-1/2}) while no truthful-in-expectation mechanism can achieve an approximation ratio better than O(n^{-1/2}), where n is the number of agents and items. Furthermore, we prove that the approximation ratio of all ordinal (not necessarily truthful......-in-expectation) mechanisms is upper bounded by O(n^{-1/2}), indicating that random priority is asymptotically the best truthful-in-expectation mechanism and the best ordinal mechanism for the problem....

  9. Social Welfare in East and West – A Tranquilizer for Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Policies in Southeast Asia (Thailand and Indonesia in particular, but also Malaysia and the Philippines) in a comparative perspective with the East Asian experience (Japan, Korea and Taiwan - excl. labor), and the Scandinavian experience with corporatism (incl. labor). Are there lessons to be lea......Policies in Southeast Asia (Thailand and Indonesia in particular, but also Malaysia and the Philippines) in a comparative perspective with the East Asian experience (Japan, Korea and Taiwan - excl. labor), and the Scandinavian experience with corporatism (incl. labor). Are there lessons...... definite conclusions or policy prescriptions. As a matter of fact, in terms of social welfare, equity and labor market policies the pre-crisis model of East Asia might offer lessons for the West and vice versa. Mutual learning and dialogue must be the key for future understanding and cooperation....

  10. Telehealth: Implications for Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dawn; Clancy, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The use of modern information technology to deliver health services to remote locations presents both opportunities and problems for social workers. This article examines how communication technology such as e-mail and video conferencing affect social work practice. Issues are raised about the ethical, legal, and client relationship…

  11. Partnership in mental health and child welfare: social work responses to children living with parental mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprised just under thirty percent of all new child protection applications brought to the Court and referred to alternative dispute resolution, during the first half of 1998. This paper reports on the study findings, which are drawn from a descriptive survey of 228 Pre-Hearing Conferences. A data collection schedule was completed for each case, gathering information about the child welfare concerns, the parents' problems, including mental health problems, and the contribution by mental health professionals to resolving child welfare concerns. The study found that the lack of involvement by mental health social workers in the child protection system meant the Children's Court was given little appreciation of either a child's emotional or a parent's mental health functioning. The lack of effective cooperation between the adult mental health and child protection services also meant decisions made about these children were made without full information about the needs and the likely outcomes for these children and their parents. This lack of interagency cooperation between mental health social work and child welfare also emerged in the findings of the Icarus project, a cross-national project, led by Brunel University, in England. This project compared the views and responses of mental health and child welfare social workers to the dependent children of mentally ill parents, when there were child protection concerns. It is proposed that adult mental health social workers involve themselves in the assessment of, and interventions in, child welfare cases when appropriate, and share essential information about

  12. Collaboration, Knowledge and Innovation toward a Welfare Society: The Case of the Board of Social Farming in Valdera (Tuscany), Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Through an analysis of a social farming (SF) case study, this article investigates how collaboration and knowledge co-creation between different actors can support the process of rural transition in order to stimulate innovation in the welfare system using agricultural resources. Methodology: We used the "Antecedent-Process-Outcome…

  13. Limits of the Brazilian social welfare policy in view of social demands of users with acute leukemia: reflections of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fonseca Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the limits of Social Welfare in view of the social demands of users with acute leukemia. Treatment of this disease is characterized by its high complexity, exposing the patient to a series of clinical requirements. Such treatment condition produces greater demands when users are inserted in a context permeated by social issues. Thus, centrality of social policies is found as an essential resource for ensuring effective treatment of these users. However, considering the focus and fragmentation of social policies, a retraction of social rights is observed.

  14. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig II: management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, E.M.; Rutherford, K.M.D.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    routinely exceeds the ability of individual sows to successfully rear all the piglets (ie viable piglets outnumber functional teats). Such interventions include: tooth reduction; split suckling; cross-fostering; use of nurse sow systems and early weaning, including split weaning; and use of artificial...... rearing systems. These practices raise welfare questions for both the piglets and sow and are described and discussed in this review. In addition, possible management approaches which might mitigate health and welfare issues associated with large litters are identified. These include early intervention...

  15. The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

    2000-11-01

    This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

  16. How to manage flexible nuclear power plants in a deregulated electricity market from the point of view of social welfare?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykidi, Maria; Gourdel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Flexible nuclear power plants can adjust their electricity production to the predicted evolution of demand. Under certain conditions, flexible operation is necessary to ensure the stability of the electricity system. However, despite the potential advantages of nuclear energy including the flexibility of nuclear reactors, the social acceptance of nuclear has reduced after the Fukushima accident, leading some countries to reduce or even phase out nuclear (e.g. Germany). So, a question that arises is how flexible nuclear power plants have to be operated in order to maximize social welfare. The French nuclear fleet gives an illustration of flexible management while social acceptance of nuclear is questioned; this was reflected in the new French Energy Transition law. Theoretically and numerically, we found that the production behavior that maximizes social welfare is characterized by a constant thermal production and a totally flexible nuclear production given sufficient nuclear capacity. - Highlights: • We determine the management of flexible nuclear plants to maximize social welfare. • We model the nuclear fuel stock as a “reservoir” of energy. • Social optimum is given by a totally flexible management of the nuclear production. • The level of thermal production of the optimal solution is always constant. • We need to invest in nuclear energy to ensure social optimum within our model

  17. Psychological, social and welfare interventions for psychological health and well-being of torture survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimisha; Kellezi, Blerina; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2014-11-11

    Torture is widespread, with potentially broad and long-lasting impact across physical, psychological, social and other areas of life. Its complex and diverse effects interact with ethnicity, gender, and refugee experience. Health and welfare agencies offer varied rehabilitation services, from conventional mental health treatment to eclectic or needs-based interventions. This review is needed because relatively little outcome research has been done in this field, and no previous systematic review has been conducted. Resources are scarce, and the challenges of providing services can be considerable. To assess beneficial and adverse effects of psychological, social and welfare interventions for torture survivors, and to compare these effects with those reported by active and inactive controls. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through a search of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS), the Open System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenSIGLE), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and Published International Literature On Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) all years to 11 April 2013; searches of Cochrane resources, international trial registries and the main biomedical databases were updated on 20 June 2014. We also searched the Online Library of Dignity (Danish Institute against Torture), reference lists of reviews and included studies and the most frequently cited journals, up to April 2013 but not repeated for 2014. Investigators were contacted to provide updates or details as necessary. Full publications of RCTs or quasi-RCTs of psychological, social or welfare interventions for survivors of

  18. Manufacturing Decisions and Government Subsidies for Electric Vehicles in China: A Maximal Social Welfare Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to address challenges in the sustainable development of transportation, economy, and environment, governments of China and conventional automobile manufacturers are extremely concerned about the development of the electric vehicle (EV manufacturing industry and market. However, owing to the limitations of EVs and the government economic policies on decreasing subsidies in China, many manufacturers are worried about entering the EV market. Given the low consumer preference for EVs, using a leader-follower Stackelberg game model, we investigate the impact of government a subsidy on the optimal production and pricing decisions of an auto manufacturer who could produce both EVs and conventional vehicles. We characterize whether/under what conditions the manufacturer’s decision to offer EV products under government subsidy, whilst increasing its profits (a win-win situation. On the policy side, we delineate how government a subsidy can be set to realize the inherent economic, environmental, and social benefits of EV production (the triple win of EV production. We further investigate the impact of EV manufacturing- and society-related factors on the balance among manufacturer profits, environmental impact and social welfare. This study also finds that the adoption of EVs is not bound to be beneficial for the environment.

  19. The Laywell project: welfare implications of changes in production systems for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Fiks, T.G.C.M.; Bessei, W.; Elson, H.A.; Guémené, D.; Kjaer, J.B.; Maria Levrino, G.A.; Nicol, C.J.; Tauson, R.K.; Weeks, C.A.; Weerd, v.d. H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The conditions under which laying hens are kept remain a major animal welfare concern. It is one of the most intensive forms of animal production and the number of animals involved is very high. Widespread public debate has stimulated the call for more animal friendly, alternative systems to barren

  20. Physiological responses to low atmospheric pressure stunning and the implications for welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckeegan, D.E.F.; Sandercock, D.A.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS), poultry are rendered unconscious before slaughter by gradually reducing oxygen tension in the atmosphere to achieve a progressive anoxia. The effects of LAPS are not instantaneous, so there are legitimate welfare concerns around the experience of birds

  1. An analysis of the welfare and distributive implications of factors influencing household electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordán, Desiderio; Río, Pablo del; Peñasco, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The deep economic crisis and the sharp rise in electricity prices have reduced electricity demand by Spanish households. This paper aims to analyse the responsiveness of household electricity demand and the welfare effects related to both factors in the 2006–2012 period by applying a demand model estimated with the quantile regression method. The results show that the electricity consumption of medium-high income households is particularly responsive to price increases, whereas that of medium-low income households is more responsive to changes in income. The retail electricity price increases and the economic crisis have led to lower and steeper U-shape price elasticities of demand and higher and steeper N-shape income elasticities of demand. The joint impact of those two factors on the welfare of lower-income households is higher in relative terms (i.e., as a share of household income) than for other income groups. These results suggest that the economic crisis and increases in retail electricity prices have had detrimental welfare effects, especially on the lower-income segment of the population. They should be considered when financing climate and energy policies through the electricity bill and provide a rationale to take such support, which pushes the retail electricity price upwards, out of the electricity bill. - Highlights: • Impact of the economic crisis and higher electricity prices on electricity demand. • Analysis of the welfare effects. • Lower and steeper U-shape price elasticities of demand. • Higher and steeper N-shape income elasticities of demand. • Welfare of lower-income households more negatively affected.

  2. Caseworkers’ discretions of eligibility to social insurance in Denmark and Sweden – signs of Neoliberalism in Scandinavian welfare states?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stensöta, Helena

    It has been argued that the Scandinavian welfare states have been resilient to trends of globalization and fiscal crises, and that the global pressure of neoliberalism has led to a partial retrenchment rather than a restructuring during last decades. This conclusion is, however, drawn without...... closer attention to the problem of implementation and the fact that many welfare state programs receive their ultimate content through street level contact between citizens and street-level bureaucrats. In this article, we address the question of whether there is an impact of neoliberal trends...... in Scandinavian social policies when paying attention to the everyday work of street level bureaucrats or whether the universal welfare regime ’protects’ against a neoliberal impact. Comparing conclusions on SLBs’ discretionary styles in sickness-benefits casework from two separate studies situated...

  3. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  4. Making the Indian Child Welfare Act Work: Missing Social and Governmental Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sink, David

    1982-01-01

    The Indian Child Welfare Act places responsibility for implementing Indian welfare legislation onto Indian tribes themselves, rather than on the government bureaucracy. Successful implementation poses challenges concerning the establishment of comprehensive tribal courts, in view of sociocultural and environmental factors that have affected the…

  5. Welfare implications of the renewable fuel standard with an integrated tax-subsidy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolrud, Tristan D.; Galinato, Gregmar I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper derives the optimal integrated tax-subsidy policy where one input is taxed and revenues are used to subsidize the use of a substitute input to reduce greenhouse gas emissions given the existing policies under the Renewable Fuel Standard policies. We measure the welfare effects and impact on cellulosic ethanol production after implementing the tax-subsidy policy using a general equilibrium model. A revenue-neutral integrated tax-subsidy scheme leads to a small positive tax rate for crude oil and a large positive subsidy for cellulosic ethanol because the former has a larger emissions coefficient than the latter. The overall welfare effects of an integrated tax subsidy scheme are less than a 1% increase for the economy but the growth in the cellulosic ethanol industry could range from 28% to 238% because the revenues from taxing crude oil are directly used to subsidize cellulosic ethanol production. - Highlights: • We derive an integrated tax-subsidy interacting with the Renewable Fuel Standard. • The policy is revenue-neutral. • Policy results in a small crude oil tax and a large cellulosic ethanol subsidy. • Simulations indicate a welfare-increasing optimal policy. • Growth in the cellulosic ethanol industry ranges from 28% to 238%.

  6. Modelling severe Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in conscious pigs: are implications for animal welfare justified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Helle G; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    A porcine model of haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus sepsis has previously been established in our research group. In these studies, pigs developed severe sepsis including liver dysfunction during a 48 h study period. As pigs were awake during the study, animal welfare was challenged by the sev......A porcine model of haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus sepsis has previously been established in our research group. In these studies, pigs developed severe sepsis including liver dysfunction during a 48 h study period. As pigs were awake during the study, animal welfare was challenged....... Prior to euthanasia, a galactose elimination capacity test was performed to assess liver function. Pigs were euthanised 48 h post inoculation for necropsy and histopathological evaluation. While infusion times of 6.66 min, and higher, did not induce liver dysfunction (n = 3), the infusion time of 3......, according to humane endpoints. A usable balance between scientific purpose and animal welfare could not be achieved, and we therefore find it hard to justify further use of this conscious porcine sepsis model. In order to make a model of translational relevance for human sepsis, we suggest that future model...

  7. Construction Costs Assessment of Structural Systems for Low-Rise and Social Welfare Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the costs related to the construction of low-rise, low-cost and social welfare housing was carried out. The study included three of the most commonly used structural systems for low-rise housing in Latin America, such as the traditional system of confined masonry walls, concrete walls conventionally reinforced with welded-wire meshes and concrete walls reinforced with steel fiber. The cost comparison was carried out by budgets analysis, which were performed based on construction quantities, unit prices and particular items for each structural system. It was found in the study that, from an economic point of view, the systems of concrete walls reinforced with welded-wire meshes or steel fibers are more advantageous than confined masonry systems. In addition, the integral comparison of the three structural systems demonstrates that the industrialized system of steel fiber reinforced concrete walls allows obtaining greater advantages of cleaning and sustainability, faster construction, lower cost and a more attractive scenario for builders investing in such projects.

  8. A systematic review of the health, social and financial impacts of welfare rights advice delivered in healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howel Denise

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic variations in health, including variations in health according to wealth and income, have been widely reported. A potential method of improving the health of the most deprived groups is to increase their income. State funded welfare programmes of financial benefits and benefits in kind are common in developed countries. However, there is evidence of widespread under claiming of welfare benefits by those eligible for them. One method of exploring the health effects of income supplementation is, therefore, to measure the health effects of welfare benefit maximisation programmes. We conducted a systematic review of the health, social and financial impacts of welfare rights advice delivered in healthcare settings. Methods Published and unpublished literature was accessed through searches of electronic databases, websites and an internet search engine; hand searches of journals; suggestions from experts; and reference lists of relevant publications. Data on the intervention delivered, evaluation performed, and outcome data on health, social and economic measures were abstracted and assessed by pairs of independent reviewers. Results are reported in narrative form. Results 55 studies were included in the review. Only seven studies included a comparison or control group. There was evidence that welfare rights advice delivered in healthcare settings results in financial benefits. There was little evidence that the advice resulted in measurable health or social benefits. This is primarily due to lack of good quality evidence, rather than evidence of an absence of effect. Conclusion There are good theoretical reasons why income supplementation should improve health, but currently little evidence of adequate robustness and quality to indicate that the impact goes beyond increasing income.

  9. Street-Level Strategies of Child Welfare Social Workers in Flanders: The Use of Electronic Client Records in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Jasper; Declercq, Anja; Hermans, Koen

    2016-07-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in child welfare services has increased significantly during the last decades, and so have the possibilities to process health data. Parton (2009) states that this evolution has led to a shift in the nature of social work itself: from 'the social' to 'the informational'. It is claimed that social workers primarily are becoming information processors concerned with the gathering, sharing and monitoring of information, instead of being focused on the relational dimensions of their work. However, social workers have considerable discretion concerning the way they use ICT. In this paper, we investigate (i) the street-level strategies social workers develop regarding ICT and (ii) how these relate to a narrative social work approach. To illustrate this, an evaluation of Charlotte was conducted, a client registration system that is used by social workers in child welfare services in Flanders, Belgium. Based on fifteen interviews, we find that social workers develop various strategies regarding Charlotte to preserve a relational and narrative work approach. These strategies not only result in a gap between ICT policy and the execution of that policy in practice, but also decrease the extent to which accountability can be realised via registration data.

  10. 'I'm So Stressed!': A Longitudinal Model of Stress, Burnout and Engagement among Social Workers in Child Welfare Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dnika J; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work-family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work-family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement.

  11. Material deprivation or minimal education? Social class and crime in an egalitarian welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Jukka; Paananen, Reija; Merikukka, Marko; Aaltonen, Mikko; Gissler, Mika

    2013-09-01

    Research on social class and crime is dominated by perspectives that assume socioeconomic disadvantage to exert causal influence on offending. As an alternative approach, the present study examined hypotheses derived from a social selection perspective which treats intergenerational continuity in antisocial propensity as the primary source of socioeconomic differences in criminal activity. Under this theory, individual characteristics of the parents influence their personal socioeconomic attainment as well as the behavioral traits they pass on to their children. Consistent with both of these perspectives, longitudinal data tracking Finnish males born in 1987 (n=21,513) showed strong negative associations between family socioeconomic status (SES) and offspring rates of criminal offending. In critical support for the selection perspective: (1) these association were linear rather than discrete, (2) parents' educational attainment accounted for most of the association between the occupational measure of family SES and crime, and (3) measures of offspring criminal propensity mediated a substantial share of these effects. Adolescent educational marginalization emerged as the key factor linking childhood socioeconomic status to the risk of criminal offending in emerging adulthood. We discuss the implications of this finding for social influence and social selection models of explanation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Justice on the line? A comparison of telephone and face-to-face \\ud advice in social welfare legal aid

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact on legal advice of the major shift to telephone-only services in social welfare legal aid, which took place in April 2013. An empirical study comparing telephone and face-to-face advice reveals that face-to-face contact has considerable advantages in the advice interview. Based on interviews and observations with housing law clients, their lawyers and advisers, the findings of this qualitative study demonstrate that clients and lawyers often find it easier t...

  13. Demand side management in a day-ahead wholesale market: A comparison of industrial & social welfare approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Bo; Farid, Amro M.; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare two demand side management in a day-ahead electricity wholesale market. • We develop and reconcile social welfare & industrial DSM mathematical models. • We show the industrial netload has an additional forecast quantity of baseline. • We analytically and numerically show the model equivalence with accurate baseline. • We numerically demonstrate the baseline errors lead to higher and costlier dispatch. - Abstract: The intermittent nature of renewable energy has been discussed in the context of the operational challenges that it brings to electrical grid reliability. Demand side management (DSM) with its ability to allow customers to adjust electricity consumption in response to market signals has often been recognized as an efficient way to mitigate the variable effects of renewable energy as well as to increase system efficiency and reduce system costs. However, the academic & industrial literature have taken divergent approaches to DSM implementation. While the popular approach among academia adopts a social welfare maximization formulation, the industrial practice compensates customers according to their load reduction from a predefined electricity consumption baseline that would have occurred without DSM. This paper rigorously compares these two different approaches in a day-ahead wholesale market context analytically and in a test case using the same system configuration and mathematical formalism. The comparison of the two models showed that a proper reconciliation of the two models might make them mitigate the stochastic netload in fundamentally the same way, but only under very specific conditions which are rarely met in practice. While the social welfare model uses a stochastic net load composed of two terms, the industrial DSM model uses a stochastic net load composed of three terms including the additional baseline term. DSM participants are likely to manipulate the baseline in order to receive greater financial

  14. Not all mice are equal: welfare implications of behavioural habituation profiles in four 129 mouse substrains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetty Boleij

    Full Text Available Safeguarding the welfare of animals is an important aim when defining housing and management standards in animal based, experimental research. While such standards are usually defined per animal species, it is known that considerable differences between laboratory mouse strains exist, for example with regard to their emotional traits. Following earlier experiments, in which we found that 129P3 mice show a lack of habituation of anxiety related behaviour after repeated exposure to an initially novel environment (non-adaptive profile, we here investigated four other 129 inbred mouse substrains (129S2/SvPas, 129S2/SvHsd (exp 1; 129P2 and 129X1 (exp 2 on habituation of anxiety related behaviour. Male mice of each strain were repeatedly placed in the modified hole board test, measuring anxiety-related behaviour, exploratory and locomotor behaviour. The results reveal that all four substrains show a lack of habituation behaviour throughout the period of testing. Although not in all of the substrains a possible confounding effect of general activity can be excluded, our findings suggest that the genetic background of the 129 substrains may increase their vulnerability to cope with environmental challenges, such as exposure to novelty. This vulnerability might negatively affect the welfare of these mice under standard laboratory conditions when compared with other strains. Based on our findings we suggest to consider (substrain-specific guidelines and protocols, taking the (substrain-specific adaptive capabilities into account.

  15. Welfare Implications of Alternative Monetary Policy Rules: A New Keynesian DSGE Model for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yağcıbaşı Özge Filiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been extensive research on the conduct of monetary policy in small open economies that are subject to inflation and output fluctuations. Policymakers should decide whether to implement strict inflation targeting or to respond to the changes in output fluctuations while conducting monetary policy rule. This study aims to examine the response of alternative monetary policy rules to Turkish economy by means of a DSGE model that is subject to demand and technology shocks. The New Keynesian model we used is borrowed from Gali (2015 and calibrated for the Turkish economy. Welfare effects of alternative Taylor rules are evaluated under different specifications of central bank loss function. One of the main findings of this paper is that in the case of a technology shock, strict inflation targeting rules provide the minimum welfare loss under all loss function configurations. On the contrary, the losses are weakened if the monetary authority responds to output fluctuations in the presence of a demand shock. Finally, there exists a trade-off between the volatility of output and inflation in case of a technology shock, while the volatility of both variables moves in the same direction in response to a demand shock.

  16. EVOLUTIONARY ASPECTS OF THE WELFARE OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND THEIR MOTIVATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica PRISACARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of rural population incomes, their evolution, and changes in their structure that occurred in the period 2006-2012. It was performed a comparative analysis of the ratio between the available income per capita and subsistence minimum in rural and urban areas, and based on this, it was highlighted the gap between the welfare of urban and rural population. The result of the study proved that despite positive tendencies in reducing rural poverty, rural population income is still very low, without reaching the subsistence minimum. This fact, along with other negative aspects (reduced share of income from employment, increased share of social allowances and remittances leads to the decrease of the motivational effects of work payment and income from agricultural activity. Thus, it is obvious, that along with government social programs, to have more effective state actions targeted to business development in rural areas and hence creating new workplaces.

  17. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes univ...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped....

  18. The influence of visitor interaction on the behavior of captive crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus) and implications for welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H; McGregor, P K; Farmer, H L A; Baker, K R

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that zoo visitors can have positive, negative, and neutral impacts on captive primate welfare; however, research investigating the implications of visitor-animal feeding experiences is extremely limited. In the UK, a large proportion of BIAZA zoos that house lemur species offer visitor interaction experiences (16 out of 33). This study investigated the impact on the behavior of a family group of crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus) housed at Newquay Zoo, UK of visitors, accompanied by a keeper, entering the enclosure to feed the lemurs. Behavior was observed under four conditions: (i) during visitor feed; (ii) 30 min post-visitor feed; (iii) during a keeper feed; and (iv) 30 min post-keeper feed. Keeper feeds were conducted by keepers only, on the day after visitor feeds. The lemur group spent significantly less time performing aggressive behavior and was also significantly more interactive with keepers during visitor feeds compared with keeper-only feeds. There was no significant difference in behaviors performed immediately after interacting with visitors. Over the study period, there was a tendency for interactions with visitors to increase, and for interactions with keepers during visitor feeds to decrease. After a 28-day interval without visitor interaction, the lemurs' interaction with visitors had returned to the level recorded at the start of the study. In conclusion, visitor interaction did not compromise the welfare of the study subjects in either the short- or long-term, while an increase in visitor interactions over time has interesting implications for the enrichment properties of, or habituation to, unfamiliar humans. Zoo Biol. 35:222-227, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Physiological responses to low atmospheric pressure stunning and the implications for welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, D E F; Sandercock, D A; Gerritzen, M A

    2013-04-01

    In low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS), poultry are rendered unconscious before slaughter by gradually reducing oxygen tension in the atmosphere to achieve a progressive anoxia. The effects of LAPS are not instantaneous, so there are legitimate welfare concerns around the experience of birds before loss of consciousness. Using self-contained telemetry logging units, high-quality continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (EKG) recordings were obtained from 28 broiler chickens during exposure to LAPS in a commercial poultry processing plant. Application of LAPS was associated with changes in the EEG pattern in the form of increases in total power, decreases in mean frequency, and in particular, increases in slow-wave (delta) activity, indicating a gradual loss of consciousness. Increased delta wave activity was seen within 10 s of LAPS onset and consistently thereafter, peaking at 30 s into LAPS at which point the EEG signal shared characteristics with that of birds in a surgical plane of anesthesia. During LAPS, heart rate consistently decreased, with more pronounced bradycardia and arrhythmia observed after 30 s. No heart rate increases were observed in the period when the birds were potentially conscious. After an initial quiescent period, brief body movements (presumed to be ataxia/loss of posture) were seen on average at 39 s into the LAPS process. Later (after 120 s on average), artifacts related to clonic (wing flapping) and tonic (muscle spasms) convulsions were observed in the EKG recordings. Based on EEG analysis and body movement responses, a conservative estimate of time to loss of consciousness is approximately 40 s. The lack of behavioral responses indicating aversion or escape and absence of heart rate elevation in the conscious period strongly suggest that birds do not find LAPS induction distressing. Collectively, the results suggest that LAPS is a humane approach that has the potential to improve the welfare of poultry at

  20. Moral Foundations of Welfare Attitudes: The Role of Moral Intuition and Reasoning in Pursuing Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findor Andrej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article interconnects the research on welfare attitudes and welfare chauvinism with moral psychology in order to develop an interdisciplinary analytical approach designed for studying attitudes to welfare policies and potentially overcoming the divisions prevalent in many European democracies. It introduces Moral Foundations Theory (MFT - an empirical approach to analysing intuitions, reasoning, and emotions constituting moral judgment - and outlines its understanding of competing versions of fairness and distributive justice. The potential contributions of MFT are exemplified on a case study situated in contemporary Slovakia which deals with two conflicting conceptions of fairness, as equity and as equality, embodied in the diverging attitudes towards an amendment to the Act on the Assistance in Material Need (2013. The article argues that MFT and related research programmes are irreplaceable components in an interdisciplinary study of the plurality of welfare policy attitudes. It also highlights the transformative potential of MFT and related research programmes in devising interventions aimed at changing (political attitudes to welfare and reducing their polarisation.

  1. Neo-Marxian social class inequalities in the mental well-being of employed men and women: the role of European welfare regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Deborah; Palència, Laia; Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    The relation between "neo-Marxian" social class (NMSC) and health in the working population has received considerable attention in public health research. However, less is known about the distribution of mental well-being according to NMSC in a European context. The objectives of this study are (i) to analyse the association of mental well-being and NMSC among employees in Europe (using a welfare regime typology), (ii) to investigate whether the relation between NMSC and mental well-being is the same in women compared to men within each welfare regime, and (iii) to examine within each welfare regime the role of the gender division of labour and job quality as potential mediating factors in explaining this association. Data from the European Social Survey Round 5 (2010) were analysed. Mental well-being was assessed by the WHO Well-being Index. Social class was measured through E.O. Wright's social class scheme. Models separated by sex were generated using Poisson regression with a robust error variance. The associations were presented as prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Women reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in State corporatist/family support and Southern welfare regimes. Men reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in all but the Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. Gender inequalities were more marked and widespread in Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. In all welfare regimes job quality (partly) explained NMSC inequalities in mental well-being for men, the role of the gender division of labour was unclear. This study showed that the relationship between NMSC and mental well-being among employees differs by gender and welfare regimes. It confirms the importance of NMSC and welfare regimes to explain gender and social class inequalities in mental well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A multifunctional social economy offer to the Danish welfare state? The case of Farming for Health in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike

    2010-01-01

    agriculture nor inside the fourth sector meet the practices of Farming for Health in Denmark. In addition it concludes that if Farming for Health should be an offer for the Danish welfare state then cooperation between for example bottom-up initiatives supported by the LEADER program and actors from......Social Farming and Farming for Health are both internationally accepted names for farms that in addition to their agricultural production offer social, medical care or educational services. Such services could for example be related to rehabilitation / reintegration of socially disadvantaged people...... to promote integration of minorities, to special education of maladjusted school pupils and to physical or mental therapeutic rehabilitation. In Europe there has in recent years been an increasing focus on this linkage between farming and social / health activities as an initiative that encourages relations...

  3. Evaluation of world's largest social welfare scheme: An assessment using non-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet

    2016-08-01

    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the world's largest social welfare scheme in India for the poverty alleviation through rural employment generation. This paper aims to evaluate and rank the performance of the states in India under MGNREGA scheme. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to calculate the overall technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies of states in India. The sample data is drawn from the annual official reports published by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Based on three selected input parameters (expenditure indicators) and five output parameters (employment generation indicators), I apply both input and output oriented DEA models to estimate how well the states utilize their resources and generate outputs during the financial year 2013-14. The relative performance evaluation has been made under the assumption of constant returns and also under variable returns to scale to assess the impact of scale on performance. The results indicate that the main source of inefficiency is both technical and managerial practices adopted. 11 states are overall technically efficient and operate at the optimum scale whereas 18 states are pure technical or managerially efficient. It has been found that for some states it necessary to alter scheme size to perform at par with the best performing states. For inefficient states optimal input and output targets along with the resource savings and output gains are calculated. Analysis shows that if all inefficient states operate at optimal input and output levels, on an average 17.89% of total expenditure and a total amount of $780million could have been saved in a single year. Most of the inefficient states perform poorly when it comes to the participation of women and disadvantaged sections (SC&ST) in the scheme. In order to catch up with the performance of best performing states, inefficient states on an average need to enhance

  4. Challenges to parenting in a new culture: Implications for child and family welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewig, Kerry; Arney, Fiona; Salveron, Mary

    2010-08-01

    Increasing numbers of families arriving through Australia's humanitarian settlement scheme are coming into contact with Australian child protection systems. A large number of these families come from African and Middle Eastern countries and have common experiences of trauma, dislocation, loss and many are victims of genocide, war, and torture. Pre-migration experiences together with the considerable challenges of settling into a new country can significantly affect family well-being and parenting practices. It is therefore important that child and family welfare service planners are well informed about how best to support refugee families using culturally competent family intervention and community development practices. This paper draws on the findings of a research project designed to examine why recently arrived families from refugee backgrounds are presenting in the South Australian child protection system and to identify culturally appropriate strategies for intervention. The paper presents findings from the project that relate to (1) refugee parents', community members' and child protection practitioners' perspectives on the challenges to being a refugee parent in Australia and (2) strategies and resources relevant to prevention and early intervention in refugee families before statutory child protection intervention becomes necessary. Copyright (c)2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  6. When social security fails to provide emotional security: single parent households and the contractual welfare state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkens, E.; Verplanke, L.

    2013-01-01

    The provision of services in the contractual welfare state is conditional. If one wants to receive a service, one has to comply with the demands of the provider. If one fails to do so, the organisation threatens to terminate its services, and indeed often does so. There are, however, people who

  7. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    Sound is the primary sensory modality for dolphins, yet policies mitigating anthropogenic sound exposure are limited in wild populations and even fewer noise policies or guidelines have been developed for governing dolphin welfare under human care. Concerns have been raised that dolphins under human care live in facilities that are too noisy, or are too acoustically sterile. However, these claims have not been evaluated to characterize facility soundscapes, and further, how they compare to wild soundscapes. The soundscape of a wild dolphin habitat off the coast of Quintana, Roo, Mexico was characterized based on Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) recordings over one year. Snapping shrimp were persistent and broadband, following a diel pattern. Fish sound production was pulsed and prominent in low frequencies (100 -- 1000 Hz), and abiotic surface wave action contributed to noise in higher frequencies (15 -- 28 kHz). Boat motors were the main anthropogenic sound source. While sporadic, boat motors were responsible for large spikes in the noise, sometimes exceeding the ambient noise (in the absence of a boat) by 20 dB root-mean-squared sound pressure level, and potentially higher at closer distances. Boat motor sounds can potentially mask cues and communication sounds of dolphins. The soundscapes of four acoustically distinct outdoor dolphin facilities in Quintana Roo, Mexico were also characterized based on PAM, and findings compared with one another and with the measurements from the wild dolphin habitat. Recordings were made for at least 24 hours to encompass the range of daily activities. The four facilities differed in non-dolphin species present (biological sounds), bathymetry complexity, and method of water circulation. It was hypothesized that the greater the biological and physical differences of a pool from the ocean habitat, the greater the acoustic differences would be from the natural environment. Spectral analysis and audio playback revealed that the site

  8. Challenges to recruit and retain American Indian and Alaskan Natives into social work programs: the impact on the child welfare workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Suzanne L; Day, Angelique; Gogliotti, Lucas J; Pung, Justin J

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of professionally trained American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) social workers available to provide services including child welfare services to tribal communities. This study used a mixed-model survey design to examine the perceptions of 47 AI/AN BSW and MSW students enrolled in social work programs across the to determine the challenges associated with recruitment and retention. The findings are supported in the literature. Findings indicate that social work academic programs have not made substantial gains in the recruitment and retention of AI/AN students over several decades. Students identified the following seven major barriers to successful recruitment and retention: (1) a lack of AI/AN professors; (2) a shortage of field placement agencies that serve AI/AN clients; (3) conflicts between students' academic obligations and responsibilities to their families and tribal communities; (4) students' feelings of cultural isolation; (5) the need for AI/AN role models and mentors; (6) a lack of understanding by universities of cultural customs and traditional values; and (7) racism. Implications for policy and practice are offered.

  9. Do generation firms in restructured electricity markets have incentives to support social-welfare-improving transmission investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauma, Enzo E.; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the incentives that generation firms have in restructured electricity markets for supporting long-term transmission investments. In particular, we study whether generation firms, which arguably play a dominant role in the restructured electricity markets, have the incentives to fund or support incremental social-welfare-improving transmission investments. We examine this question in a two-node network and explore how such incentives are affected by the ownership of financial transmission rights (FTRs) by generation firms. In the analyzed two-node network, we show both (1) that the net exporter generation firm has the correct incentives to increase the transmission capacity incrementally up to a certain level and (2) that, although a policy that allocates FTRs to the net exporter generation firm can be desirable from a social point of view, such a policy would dilute the net-importer-generation-firm's incentives to support transmission expansion. Moreover, if all FTRs were allocated or auctioned off to the net exporter generation firm, then it is possible to increase both consumer surplus and social welfare while keeping the net exporter generation firm revenue neutral. (author)

  10. The situation of social welfare and child protection for vulnerable street-involved children in Tanzania : where is the gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Daddy Omari

    2013-01-01

    Master in International Social Welfare and Health Policy The main objective of this study is to give a holistic analysis of the current situation experiences of street involved children in Tanzania whereas its population today is about 44.9 million inhabitants and children account for over 50 per cent of the population (NBS 2012; Mkombozi 2012. NBS: The Nation Bureau of Statistics (2012). http://www.nbs.go.tz/). The study is less focused on getting the actual numbers of street involved chi...

  11. Sustainability of recurrent expenditure on public social welfare programmes: expenditure analysis of the free maternal care programme of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankrah Odame, Emmanuel; Akweongo, Patricia; Yankah, Ben; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Agyepong, Irene

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability of public social welfare programmes has long been of concern in development circles. An important aspect of sustainability is the ability to sustain the recurrent financial costs of programmes. A free maternal care programme (FMCP) was launched under the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2008 with a start-up grant from the British Government. This article examines claims expenditure under the programme and the implications for the financial sustainability of the programme, and the lessons for donor and public financing of social welfare programmes. Records of reimbursement claims for services and medicines by women benefitting from the policy in participating facilities in one sub-metropolis in Ghana were analysed to gain an understanding of the expenditure on this programme at facility level. National level financial inflow and outflow (expenditure) data of the NHIS, related to implementation of this policy for 2008 and 2009, were reviewed to put the facility-based data in the national perspective. A total of US$936 450.94 was spent in 2009 by the scheme on FMCP in the sub-metropolis. The NHIS expenditure on the programme for the entire country in 2009 was US$49.25 million, exceeding the British grant of US$10.00 million given for that year. Subsequently, the programme has been entirely financed by the National Health Insurance Fund. The rapidly increasing, recurrent demands on this fund from the maternal delivery exemption programme-without a commensurate growth on the amounts generated annually-is an increasing threat to the sustainability of the fund. Provision of donor start-up funding for programmes with high recurrent expenditures, under the expectation that government will take over and sustain the programme, must be accompanied by clear long-term analysis and planning as to how government will sustain the programme.

  12. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  13. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  14. Child welfare services and social media : childhood, being and becoming in a digital society

    OpenAIRE

    Björktomta, Siv-Britt; Aarum Hansen, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    In the internet arena, children have more space for action. Accordingly, their use of social media challenges the public services. Children´s navigating social media landscapes is an example of a change that calls for new research into the following questions: What do social workers think about contacting children via social media? Can social media be used as a tool in case assessment? And can the internet enable social workers to reach children in difficult life situations? Navigating Kn...

  15. In the shadow of the welfare society ill-health and symptoms, psychological exposure and lifestyle habits among social security recipients: a national survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren Eva-Carin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden social security is a means-tested financial allowance. The Social Services Act states that an individual is entitled to financial support when his/her needs are not met in any other way. The aim of the present study was to analyse the prevalence and impact of various illness factors and symptoms in social security recipients compared to non-recipients in a welfare state, in this case Sweden. Methods A simple random sample of 20 100 individuals was selected from a national survey that covered all individuals in the 18–84 year age group in Sweden. A postal survey was thereafter conducted. Multiple logistic regression was employed as a statistical test. Odds ratio (OR and a 95% confidence interval (CI was used. Results Social security recipients were found to have a significantly higher risk in most of the studied variables. Reduced psychological wellbeing measured by means of the GHQ12 was significantly higher in this group compared to the rest of the population (OR 1.41 CI 1.03–1.94 and their lack of trust was greater (OR 1.96, CI 1.45–2.66. They reported more sleep disturbances (OR 2.16, CI 1.58–2.94 and suffered from anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.28–2.36. Their dental health was worse (OR 2.44, CI 1.82–3.28 and they had more pain in their hands and legs (OR 1.57, CI 1.16–2.12. Social security recipients were more often humiliated (OR 1.79, CI 1.31–2.44 and exposed to threat (OR 1.69, CI 1.09–2.61. They were less physically active (OR 1.56, CI 1.17–2.08, had a poorer diet (OR 1.95, CI 1.45–2.63 and were more often smokers (OR 3.20, CI 2.37–4.33. Implication The challenge for the welfare state consists of recognising the significance of both structural and lifestyle factors as a means of reducing the health gap.

  16. Comparing the Nordic and South Korean Models: Labour-Market Regulation and Social Welfare in Times of Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2012-01-01

    The first part of the paper briefly describes the causes and impacts of the US induced financial crisis cum “Great Depression”. The second part discusses the status of the various models of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export-driven product......The first part of the paper briefly describes the causes and impacts of the US induced financial crisis cum “Great Depression”. The second part discusses the status of the various models of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export......-driven production model of growth, with weak safety nets, adopted by East Asian countries in contrast to the export-oriented Nordic social welfare model. The third section documents the impact of the crisis on the economies, and discusses core examples of state intervention in the socio-economic sectors...... such as labor markets and social welfare in the Nordic as well as Korean contexts. The final section discusses some tentative conclusions about the resilience of the Nordic and ROK models and their potential for recovery....

  17. Social Welfare Improvement by TCSC using Real Code Based Genetic Algorithm in Double-Sided Auction Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASOUM, M. A. S.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA to maximize total system social welfare and alleviate congestion by best placement and sizing of TCSC device, in a double-sided auction market. To introduce more accurate modeling, the valve loading effects is incorporated to the conventional quadratic smooth generator cost curves. By adding the valve point effect, the model presents nondifferentiable and nonconvex regions that challenge most gradient-based optimization algorithms. In addition, quadratic consumer benefit functions integrated in the objective function to guarantee that locational marginal prices charged at the demand buses is less than or equal to DisCos benefit, earned by selling that power to retail customers. The proposed approach makes use of the genetic algorithm to optimal schedule GenCos, DisCos and TCSC location and size, while the Newton-Raphson algorithm minimizes the mismatch of the power flow equations. Simulation results on the modified IEEE 14-bus and 30-bus test systems (with/without line flow constraints, before and after the compensation are used to examine the impact of TCSC on the total system social welfare improvement. Several cases are considered to test and validate the consistency of detecting best solutions. Simulation results are compared to solutions obtained by sequential quadratic programming (SQP approaches.

  18. [Assessment of social networks between developmental physicians and welfare facilities/specialists for children with intellectual disabilities in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Masumi; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kaga, Makiko

    2004-05-01

    The social networks between Japanese child neurologists and welfare facilities/specialists for children with mental retardation (MR) were assessed. A total of 113 physicians answered our mail-in questionnaire. Most of the doctors had various connections with nursery homes for children with MR or severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) and with public health centers, and often collaborated with teachers of schools and kindergartens. On the other hand, most physicians had little relation with residential and vocational facilities for adults with MR, and with specialists in residential or community care. There was a statistical correlation between the number of facilities or collaborated specialists and the number of persons seen by each physician; however, the physicians' experience and affiliations had no relation. In view of 'social participation', physicians who usually see children with developmental disorders can play an important role in decision making of their life-style with their families.

  19. Modern Social Support Structures: Online Social Networks and their Implications for Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Chakradhar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.

  20. Maltreatment, family environment, and social risk factors: Determinants of the child welfare to juvenile justice transition among maltreated children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Sarah; Prince, Dana; Connell, Christian M; Caron, Colleen M; Kaufman, Joy S; Tebes, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    This study prospectively examines the transition from the child welfare system into the juvenile justice system among 10,850 maltreated children and adolescents and explores how patterns of risks, including severity and chronicity of maltreatment, adverse family environment, and social risk factors, affect service systems transition. Almost three percent of maltreated children and adolescents had their first juvenile justice adjudication within an average of approximately six years of their initial child protective services investigation (CPS). Social risk factors, including a child's age at index CPS investigation (older), gender (boys), and race/ethnicity (Black and Hispanic) significantly predicted the risk of transition into the juvenile justice system. Recurrence of maltreatment and experiencing at least one incident of neglect over the course of the study period also increased the risk of transition into the juvenile justice system. However, subtypes of maltreatment, including physical, sexual, and other types of abuse did not significantly predict the risk of juvenile justice system transition. Finally, family environment characterized by poverty also significantly increased the risk of juvenile justice system transition. These findings have important implications for developing and tailoring services for maltreated children, particularly those at-risk for transitioning into the juvenile justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Co-Morbidity, Mortality, Quality of Life and the Healthcare/Welfare/Social Costs of Disordered Sleep: A Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio; Lanteri, Paola; Durando, Paolo; Magnavita, Nicola; Sannita, Walter G

    2016-08-18

    Sleep disorders are frequent (18%-23%) and constitute a major risk factor for psychiatric, cardiovascular, metabolic or hormonal co-morbidity and mortality. Low social status or income, unemployment, life events such as divorce, negative lifestyle habits, and professional requirements (e.g., shift work) are often associated with sleep problems. Sleep disorders affect the quality of life and impair both professional and non-professional activities. Excessive daytime drowsiness resulting from sleep disorders impairs efficiency and safety at work or on the road, and increases the risk of accidents. Poor sleep (either professional or voluntary) has detrimental effects comparable to those of major sleep disorders, but is often neglected. The high incidence and direct/indirect healthcare and welfare costs of sleep disorders and poor sleep currently constitute a major medical problem. Investigation, monitoring and strategies are needed in order to prevent/reduce the effects of these disorders.

  2. Co-Morbidity, Mortality, Quality of Life and the Healthcare/Welfare/Social Costs of Disordered Sleep: A Rapid Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Garbarino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders are frequent (18%–23% and constitute a major risk factor for psychiatric, cardiovascular, metabolic or hormonal co-morbidity and mortality. Low social status or income, unemployment, life events such as divorce, negative lifestyle habits, and professional requirements (e.g., shift work are often associated with sleep problems. Sleep disorders affect the quality of life and impair both professional and non-professional activities. Excessive daytime drowsiness resulting from sleep disorders impairs efficiency and safety at work or on the road, and increases the risk of accidents. Poor sleep (either professional or voluntary has detrimental effects comparable to those of major sleep disorders, but is often neglected. The high incidence and direct/indirect healthcare and welfare costs of sleep disorders and poor sleep currently constitute a major medical problem. Investigation, monitoring and strategies are needed in order to prevent/reduce the effects of these disorders.

  3. The weakest link in welfare state legitimacy : European perceptions of moral and administrative failure in the targeting of social benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosma, F.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of welfare attitude research, generally studies examining critical attitudes toward the welfare state are rather limited. However, the existing studies find that people are most negative about the mis-targeting of welfare benefits – that is, people are particularly critical of the high

  4. Can the type of organisational structure affect individual well-being in health and social welfare occupations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.

  5. Interplay between change in social problems and change in the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Valborg

    The development of social polarisation – in the light of the concept of inequality and politics to combat inequality. A relational perspective on inequality and poverty......The development of social polarisation – in the light of the concept of inequality and politics to combat inequality. A relational perspective on inequality and poverty...

  6. Social Welfare and Harmony in East Asia and the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide a critical assessment and a comparative perspective on social policies in East Asia and the Nordic region. Are there lessons to be learned from the models of social provisioning ensuring decent, secure and harmonious lives for all citizens - particular...

  7. Emigração e desenvolvimento da previdência social em Portugal Emigration and the development of social welfare in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Pereira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a política social do final dos anos 60 e inícios dos anos 70. Demonstra que o alargamento da previdência social corresponde a uma tentativa de ajustamento do governo face à emigração que se iniciou no fim da década de 50. Este alargamento resultou também da acção no seio do Estado de uma corrente de altos funcionários inspirados pela doutrina social da Igreja renovada pelo Vaticano II, da inserção de alguns agentes administrativos nas comunidades epistémicas internacionais ligadas às políticas sociais e de uma tentativa de legitimação do poder de Marcelo Caetano.This article analyses social policy in the 1960s and early 1970s. It shows that the expansion of the social welfare system was an attempt by the government to adapt to the emigration which began in the late 1950s. Other factors behind the expansion of the system were measures taken within the government by a group of senior officials who were inspired by the new life given to the Church's social doctrines arising from Vatican II, the membership of some administrative officials in international communities of experts on social policy, and the attempt to legitimize the Marcelo Caetano regime.

  8. WOMEN IN THE PATRIARCHAL WELFARE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshi Thoradeniya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the implications of the state performing a welfare function for an extended period of time in relation to the social contract between women citizens and the state. It argues that a prolonged status of ‘welfare provider’ ascribes certain patriarchal attributes to the state, which in turn reduces the position of the citizens, especially women, to a mere ‘beneficiary’ level. With the use of two specific policy documents relating to public health – Well Woman Clinic (WWC programme launched in 1996, and the Population and Reproductive Health (PRH policy designed in 1998 – it shows that in the absence of a rights based approach to public health, women have become mere beneficiaries, as opposed to active citizens, of the prolonged welfare State of Sri Lanka. This relationship has deterred women citizens from exercising the right to demand their needs from the State.

  9. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing evidence on welfare dependence among immigrants in Denmark and to produce new evidence with focus on the most recent years. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a broad descriptive/analytical approach with multivariate...... estimation on the impact on welfare dependence from individual background factors. Findings – The main finding is the importance of aggregate low unemployment for immigrants to assimilate out of welfare dependence. Fairly small effects are reported from policy changes intending to influence the economic...... policy programs and to extend the analysis to cover the period including the financial crisis years. Social implications – The paper has a potential to influence public attitudes in this area and to inform further public policy regarding benefit programs. Originality/value – The main new result...

  10. Assessment of housing density, space allocation and social hierarchy of laboratory rats on behavioural measures of welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Timothy Hugh; George, Rebecca Peta; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Whittaker, Alexandra Louise

    2017-01-01

    Minimum space allowances for laboratory rats are legislated based on weight and stocking rates, with the understanding that increased housing density encourages crowding stress. However, there is little evidence for these recommendations, especially when considering positive welfare outcomes. This study consisted of two experiments which investigated the effects of housing density (rats per cage), space allocation (surface area per rat) and social rank (dominance hierarchy) on the ability to perform simple behavioural tests. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n = 64) were allocated to either high-density (n = 8) or low-density (n = 8) cages. The second experiment investigated the effects of surface area. SD rats (n = 40) were housed in dyads in either the large (n = 10) or small (n = 10) cage. In both experiments, animals were tested on a judgment bias paradigm, with their responses to an ambiguous stimulus being ascribed as optimistic or pessimistic. Animals were also tested on open-field, novel-object recognition and social-interaction tests. Recordings were taken from 1700-2100h daily for rat observation and social rank establishment. Dominant animals responded with significantly more optimistic decisions compared to subordinates for both the housing density (psocial affiliative behaviours in the social-interaction test, and spent more time in the centre of the open-field test for both experiments. No significance was detected between housing density or space allocation treatments. These findings suggest that social rank is a significantly greater modifier of affective state than either housing density or space allocation. This finding has not yet been reported and suggests that future drafts of housing guidelines should consider animal social status in addition to floor space requirements.

  11. The Missing Main Effect of Welfare State Regimes: A Replication of ‘Social Policy Responsiveness in Developed Democracies’ by Brooks and Manza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Breznau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a replication of Brooks and Manza's "Social Policy Responsiveness in Developed Democracies" published in 2006 in the American Sociological Review. The article finds that Brooks and Manza utilized an interaction term but excluded the main effect of one of the interacted variables. This model specification has specific implications: statistically, that the omitted main effect variable has no correlation with the residual error term from their regression; theoretically speaking, this means that all unobserved historical, cultural, and other characteristics that distinguish liberal democratic welfare regimes from others can be accounted for with a handful of quantitative measures. Using replicated data, this article finds that the Brooks and Manza models fail these assumptions. A sensitivity analysis using more than 800 regressions with different configurations of variables confirms this. In 99.5 percent of the cases, addition of the main effect removes Brooks and Manza's empirical findings completely. A theoretical discussion illuminates why these findings are not surprising. This article provides a reminder that models and theories are coterminous, each implied by the other.

  12. A blueprint for social security reform: a report by the National Council of Welfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    This report is a first response to the discussion paper entitled, 'Improving Social Security in Canada' which was tabled in Parliament on October 5, 1994 by the Minister of Human Resources Development...

  13. The Role of Social Welfare Counselling in the Eradication of Sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    about to be engaged, and also for counselling in social, religious, health and ... chances of children inheriting sickle cell disease where both parents are carriers can be ..... parents, relevant community interest groups and the media, where.

  14. Care to Share? Social innovation through low-budget, high impact welfare technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asboe, Mark; Grönvall, Erik; Lassen, Henry Michael

    2011-01-01

    of social activities, thus creating situations where a number of elderly people experience loneliness. This paper presents ongoing work that focuses on developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for nursing homes that brings together professional care activities and family initiated care. We...... a successful implementation of more costly technologies. We present a concept named Care to Share? that seeks to bring together professional and family initiated care and that assists in the articulation work of social activities in a nursing home....

  15. Managerial accounting of social welfare of the company’s employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Levytska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern management system actualizes the need for monitoring the performance evaluation of social programs, particularly in terms of personalized costs of conservation, restoration and rational use of labor resources. Social responsibility of business – is a concept that encourages business entities to consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of performance on consumers, stakeholders, employees, communities and the environment. Therefore, the baseline corporate social responsibility (CSR should be integrated for entities controlled not only by public authorities, but also by the public. The source of information for enterprises is the only integrated system of economic accounting, including accounting, internal, statistical and tax accounting subsystem of business transactions. The integrated accounting system has indicators in the context of each sub-account, describing the status and use of labor resources. Given the purpose of the social component and the methodological and organizational features of this subsystem we can define managerial accounting as a reflection of economic activity within the economic and organizational measures, conservation, and workforce development of the enterprise based on ecological and economic providing for their implementation. Established, that reporting forms are not ready to disclose the performance of CSR in the context of the results of their activities. Topical is the issue of forming social reporting. The above mentioned will establish control by the state, owners, labor collective of compliance with the state policy of social support workers, early subjects accumulate funds for such payments.

  16. Assessment of housing density, space allocation and social hierarchy of laboratory rats on behavioural measures of welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rebecca Peta; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Whittaker, Alexandra Louise

    2017-01-01

    Minimum space allowances for laboratory rats are legislated based on weight and stocking rates, with the understanding that increased housing density encourages crowding stress. However, there is little evidence for these recommendations, especially when considering positive welfare outcomes. This study consisted of two experiments which investigated the effects of housing density (rats per cage), space allocation (surface area per rat) and social rank (dominance hierarchy) on the ability to perform simple behavioural tests. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n = 64) were allocated to either high-density (n = 8) or low-density (n = 8) cages. The second experiment investigated the effects of surface area. SD rats (n = 40) were housed in dyads in either the large (n = 10) or small (n = 10) cage. In both experiments, animals were tested on a judgment bias paradigm, with their responses to an ambiguous stimulus being ascribed as optimistic or pessimistic. Animals were also tested on open-field, novel-object recognition and social-interaction tests. Recordings were taken from 1700-2100h daily for rat observation and social rank establishment. Dominant animals responded with significantly more optimistic decisions compared to subordinates for both the housing density (ptest, and spent more time in the centre of the open-field test for both experiments. No significance was detected between housing density or space allocation treatments. These findings suggest that social rank is a significantly greater modifier of affective state than either housing density or space allocation. This finding has not yet been reported and suggests that future drafts of housing guidelines should consider animal social status in addition to floor space requirements. PMID:28926644

  17. Does a 'non-committed' government always generate lower social welfare than its 'committed' counterpart? Strategic trade policy when consumer surplus matters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2011), s. 533-556 ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : government commitment * social welfare * optimal tariffs and export subsidies Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.028, year: 2011

  18. Retrenched Welfare Regimes Still Lessen Social Class Inequalities in Health: A Longitudinal Analysis of the 2003-2010 EU-SILC in 23 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Davis, O; McIsaack, K; Kokkinen, L; Shankardass, K; O'Campo, P

    2017-07-01

    This article builds on recent work that has explored how welfare regimes moderate social class inequalities in health. It extends research to date by using longitudinal data from the EU-SILC (2003-2010) and examines how the relationship between social class and self-reported health and chronic conditions varies across 23 countries, which are split into five welfare regimes (Nordic, Anglo-Saxon, Eastern, Southern, and Continental). Our analysis finds that health across all classes was only worse in Eastern Europe (compared with the Nordic countries). In contrast, we find evidence that the social class gradient in both measures of health was significantly wider in the Anglo-Saxon and Southern regimes. We suggest that this evidence supports the notion that welfare regimes continue to explain differences in health according to social class location. We therefore argue that although downward pressures from globalization and neoliberalism have blurred welfare regime typologies, the Nordic model may continue to have an important mediating effect on class-based inequalities in health.

  19. Good Enough Support? Exploring the Attitudes, Knowledge and Experiences of Practitioners in Social Services and Child Welfare Working with Mothers with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadová, Iva; Bernoldová, Jana; Adamcíková, Zdenka; Klusácek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the attitudes, knowledge and experiences of practitioners in social services and child welfare working with mothers with intellectual disability. Method: The authors used a national survey, which was completed by 329 participants. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were generated, and the associations…

  20. National Study of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Workers, Work, and Organizational Contexts. Research Report No. 1: Overview Study of the Dynamics of Worker Job Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Rehabilitation Service (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The goals of this study were to review what is known about worker job mobility in the social welfare and rehabilitation services fields, to organize this knowledge, and to suggest improvements in career design and employee management in these fields. To supplement the review of research and theoretical literature, two sets of personal interviews…

  1. Predictors of Social and Educational Mobility in Mexican Recipients of a Governmental Welfare Program: A Psychosocial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Palomar-Lever

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the factors predicting social and educational mobility in persons living in extreme poverty in Mexico by analyzing a broad set of personal, familial, educational and social variables. A total of 913 adults were interviewed, 65.2 percent of whom were women, with an average age of 43.71 years. A regression analysis has identified depression, religiosity, locus of control, verbal skills, social support, and age as predictors of intra-generational social mobility, while parents’ educational attainment and parenting style as well as individuals’ intelligence, school grades, time spent on homework, and age predicted inter-generational educational mobility. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for this segment of the population.

  2. Social construction of disability and its potential impacts to welfare practice in Vietnamese contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kham V

    2014-01-01

    From the survey responses and the policy analysis, the initial findings on this paper present some aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on disability which are presented as following: Firstly, there is a significant changes in legal documents and social policies related to disability in Vietnam, especially from 2006, in terms of its name and contents for improving the life of PWD with inclusive approach, however the meaning of disability is not clear in policies. Secondly, the understanding on disability is mainly based on medical/individual model which focuses on the disability's causes in words of health or individual problem rather than viewing the social causes in aspects of the social barriers and restriction, in addition almost policies focus on the problems of PWD rather than the social aspects. Thirdly, social attitude toward disability and PWD seems to be very empathetic, however it is less regard to CWD's ability as well as there are more attitudes on charity giving and supporting than helping them to be independent in their life. Finally, in spite of positive knowledge and attitudes on disability, there is still limitation on practical activities towards CWD/PWD from society in daily life.

  3. Implications of ecological and social characteristics to community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of ecological and social characteristics to community livelihoods in the coastal ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... This will further address conflicts over resource uses that may arise due to livelihood ...

  4. Implications of social judgement theory for persuasive advertising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of social judgement theory for persuasive advertising campaigns. ... The way the consumers perceive an advertising campaign will, therefore, determine how they will respond to the advertisement. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. The Significance of Social Welfare Attitudes in Young People’s Entrepreneurial Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Rantanen

    2015-05-01

    According to main recommendation, influencing young people’s confidence in their abilities and skills is more important than trying to influence general attitudes about entrepreneurship. Thus, entrepreneurship education has a key role in supporting young people’s entrepreneurship. National differences in intentions and in appreciation of entrepreneurship can be explained by societal and historical factors. Entrepreneurial intention is typically explained by psychological, economic, and cultural factors, and by social capital. Study results show that social political factors are also important in explaining entrepreneurial intentions.

  6. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism or Four?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Deborah; Castles, Francis

    1991-01-01

    This paper is developed in response to Gosta Esping-Andersen's study, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1990), in which he categorizes welfare capitalism as Liberal, Conservative, and Social Democratic. The authors argue that there also exists radical welfare capitalism which describes Australia's welfare state.

  7. Influence of TCSC on social welfare and spot price - A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based algorithm has been suggested to find optimal location and setting of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) to maximize Social Benefit (SB), considering its installation cost in competitive electricity market. PSO has simultaneously optimized generators' ...

  8. Understanding the Social Exclusion and Stalled Welfare of Citizens with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redley, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the UK's recent history of promoting the social inclusion and equality of men and women with learning disabilities they remain a significantly disadvantaged group. Compared with their non-disabled peers they are more likely to be unemployed, less likely to own their own homes and are at a significantly greater risk of physical and mental…

  9. Paradoxical implications of personal social media use for work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Rice, R.E.

    2017-01-01

    New information and communication technologies can have paradoxical implications: they may be liberating and constraining at the same time. This field study examines the direct implications of personal social media use for work on employees’ autonomy and work pressure, and the indirect effects on

  10. Challenges and Strategies in Social Work and Social Welfare PhD Education: Helping Candidates Jump through the Dissertation Hoops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Roni

    2015-01-01

    A major task of social work doctoral programs is preparing the next generation of researchers and educators in the profession. To develop competence in generating new knowledge relevant to social work practice and disseminating it to future practitioners, doctoral candidates need to master a broad and complicated set of theoretical, empirical, and…

  11. Rescaling Welfare Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad Thorgaard, Camilla; Vinter, Henrik

    The report is a contribution to the research project ”Rescaling of Social Welfare Policies: a comparative study on the path towards multilevel governance in Europe”, which is coordinated by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research. The report is a background paper for the projec...

  12. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  13. Comparing and contrasting poverty reduction performance of social welfare programs across jurisdictions in Canada using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): an exploratory study of the era of devolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim N; Fan, Lida

    2010-11-01

    In the mid-1990s, the responsibilities to design, implement, and evaluate social welfare programs were transferred from federal to local jurisdictions in many countries of North America and Europe through devolution processes. Devolution has caused the need for a technique to measure and compare the performances of social welfare programs across multiple jurisdictions. This paper utilizes Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for a comparison of poverty reduction performances of jurisdictional social welfare programs across Canadian provinces. From the theoretical perspective, findings of this paper demonstrates that DEA is a promising method to evaluate, compare, and benchmark poverty reduction performance across multiple jurisdictions using multiple inputs and outputs. This paper demonstrates that DEA generates easy to comprehend composite rankings of provincial performances, identifies appropriate benchmarks for each inefficient province, and estimates sources and amounts of improvement needed to make the provinces efficient. From a practical perspective the empirical results presented in this paper indicate that Newfoundland, Prince Edwards Island, and Alberta achieve better efficiency in poverty reduction than other provinces. Policy makers and social administrators of the ineffective provinces across Canada may find benefit in selecting one of the effective provinces as a benchmark for improving their own performance based on similar size and structure of population, size of the budget for social programs, and traditions with administering particular types of social programs. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of life-skills Training on Social Anxiety Symptoms and Stress Coping Methods in Teens in Families Support with Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hassanvand Amouzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of life-skills training on social anxiety symptoms and stress coping methods in teens with social anxiety that are supported by welfare department. The research method was semi-empirical with two group's pretest-posttest design. The subjects of this study were socially anxious teens in families supported by welfare organization in Darreh shahr town. So, after first administration of Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, 30 persons with highest scores were selected and randomly assigned in to an experimental group (15 persons and a control group (15 persons. The experimental group received “life-skills” training through thirteen two hour sessions twice a week. During this period no intervention was given to the control group. The instrument for this study, social phobia inventory Conver and etal (2000 (SPIN and parker & ender questionnaire of coping with stress (1991 were administered at the pretest and post-test stage to all participations. The result of multiple covariance analysis indicated that “life-skills” training significantly decreased the amount of social anxiety, emotion-based coping and evasion-based coping and so significant increase in the scores of problem-based coping in the experimental group as compared the control group (p=0.0001. The result of the study revealed that “life-skills” training could be used as a useful intervention for teens in families that are supported by welfare organization.

  15. Conditional cash transfers and social welfare. A look into two Latin American case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Delclaux Gaytán de Ayala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the role of conditional cash transfers (CCT in improving social indicators during the past decade in Brazil and Peru. Barely two decades after the appearance of the first programmes, CCTs – cash transfers to families living in poverty or extreme poverty conditioned to school attendance and compulsory medical visits for children – are now one of the main policy tools in the fight against poverty in dozens of developing countries. More specifically, this paper examines the link between the CCT programme in each of these two countries – the giant Bolsa Familia in Brazil, the pioneer and largest program of this type in the world, and Juntos in Peru, smaller in terms of size and relevance, but practically identical in its design – and the evolution of social indicators relative to poverty, education and health.

  16. Tolerant indirect reciprocity can boost social welfare through solidarity with unconditional cooperators in private monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Isamu; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-08-29

    Indirect reciprocity is an important mechanism for resolving social dilemmas. Previous studies explore several types of assessment rules that are evolutionarily stable for keeping cooperation regimes. However, little is known about the effects of private information on social systems. Most indirect reciprocity studies assume public monitoring in which individuals share a single assessment for each individual. Here, we consider a private monitoring system that loosens such an unnatural assumption. We explore the stable norms in the private system using an individual-based simulation. We have three main findings. First, narrow and unstable cooperation: cooperation in private monitoring becomes unstable and the restricted norms cannot maintain cooperative regimes while they can in public monitoring. Second, stable coexistence of discriminators and unconditional cooperators: under private monitoring, unconditional cooperation can play a role in keeping a high level of cooperation in tolerant norm situations. Finally, Pareto improvement: private monitoring can achieve a higher cooperation rate than does public monitoring.

  17. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  18. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  19. A social pedagogy approach to residential care: balancing education and placement in the development of an innovative child welfare residential program in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras; Groskleg, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the exploration and development of a residential program of the child welfare authority of Renfrew County in Ontario, Canada. Recognizing that virtually its entire population of youth in care was failing to achieve positive outcomes in education, Renfrew County Family and Children Services embarked on a program development process that included many unique elements within the Ontario child welfare context. This process introduced the theoretical framework of social pedagogy to the provision of residential care, and it replaced the idea of psychotherapy as the primary agent of change for youth with the concept of living and learning. The result is a template for the Ottawa River Academy, a living and learning program for youth in care that exemplifies the possibilities embedded in creative thought, attention to research and evidence, and a preparedness to transcend traditional assumptions with respect to service designs and business models for residential care in child welfare.

  20. Changing organisational routines in doctoral education: an intervention to infuse social justice into a social welfare curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro, Valerie B.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one effort to infuse a social justice framework into a social work doctoral education programme in a prominent research university of the United States. The “Social Justice in Doctoral Education” (SJDE Project identified Social Justice Learning Objectives (SJLOs in the categories of scholarship, teaching, and service. Doctoral students were surveyed in 2010 to determine the extent to which the SJLOs were being systematically facilitated by their doctoral programme. The forms that guide and shape the milestones of doctoral education at that institution were revised in 2011 in an attempt to create new opportunities for social justice learning. A second survey of doctoral students in 2013 resulted in two findings. First, doctoral students reported using the SJLOs to guide their education. Second, a pre/post comparison of student perceptions indicated an increase in opportunities for social justice learning through doctoral education. This case study provides preliminary support for the modification of organisational routines to expand social justice education in social work.En este artículo se describe el esfuerzo para infundir un marco de justicia social en un programa doctoral de trabajo social dentro de una universidad prominente de investigación de los Estados Unidos. El proyecto de investigación “Justicia Social en la Educación Doctoral” (SJDE identificó los Objetivos de Aprendizaje de la Justicia Social (SJLOs en una serie de categorías de la investigación científica, como la enseñanza y el servicio. Los estudiantes de doctorado respondieron a una encuesta en 2010 para determinar el grado en el que los SJLOs se facilitaban sistemáticamente en el programa de doctorado. En 2011 se revisaron los formularios que guían y dan forma a los hitos de la educación doctoral en esa institución, en un intento de crear nuevas oportunidades para la justicia social de aprendizaje. En 2013, una encuesta seguimiento a

  1. The Customer Isn't Always Right—Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Tom P.; Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Baker, Sandra E.; D'Cruze, Neil C.; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Tourism accounts for 9% of global GDP and comprises 1.1 billion tourist arrivals per annum. Visits to wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs) may account for 20–40% of global tourism, but no studies have audited the diversity of WTAs and their impacts on the conservation status and welfare of subject animals. We scored these impacts for 24 types of WTA, visited by 3.6–6 million tourists per year, and compared our scores to tourists’ feedback on TripAdvisor. Six WTA types (impacting 1,500–13,000 individual animals) had net positive conservation/welfare impacts, but 14 (120,000–340,000 individuals) had negative conservation impacts and 18 (230,000–550,000 individuals) had negative welfare impacts. Despite these figures only 7.8% of all tourist feedback on these WTAs was negative due to conservation/welfare concerns. We demonstrate that WTAs have substantial negative effects that are unrecognised by the majority of tourists, suggesting an urgent need for tourist education and regulation of WTAs worldwide. PMID:26489092

  2. The Customer Isn't Always Right-Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom P Moorhouse

    Full Text Available Tourism accounts for 9% of global GDP and comprises 1.1 billion tourist arrivals per annum. Visits to wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs may account for 20-40% of global tourism, but no studies have audited the diversity of WTAs and their impacts on the conservation status and welfare of subject animals. We scored these impacts for 24 types of WTA, visited by 3.6-6 million tourists per year, and compared our scores to tourists' feedback on TripAdvisor. Six WTA types (impacting 1,500-13,000 individual animals had net positive conservation/welfare impacts, but 14 (120,000-340,000 individuals had negative conservation impacts and 18 (230,000-550,000 individuals had negative welfare impacts. Despite these figures only 7.8% of all tourist feedback on these WTAs was negative due to conservation/welfare concerns. We demonstrate that WTAs have substantial negative effects that are unrecognised by the majority of tourists, suggesting an urgent need for tourist education and regulation of WTAs worldwide.

  3. The Customer Isn't Always Right-Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Dahlsjö, Cecilia A L; Baker, Sandra E; D'Cruze, Neil C; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    Tourism accounts for 9% of global GDP and comprises 1.1 billion tourist arrivals per annum. Visits to wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs) may account for 20-40% of global tourism, but no studies have audited the diversity of WTAs and their impacts on the conservation status and welfare of subject animals. We scored these impacts for 24 types of WTA, visited by 3.6-6 million tourists per year, and compared our scores to tourists' feedback on TripAdvisor. Six WTA types (impacting 1,500-13,000 individual animals) had net positive conservation/welfare impacts, but 14 (120,000-340,000 individuals) had negative conservation impacts and 18 (230,000-550,000 individuals) had negative welfare impacts. Despite these figures only 7.8% of all tourist feedback on these WTAs was negative due to conservation/welfare concerns. We demonstrate that WTAs have substantial negative effects that are unrecognised by the majority of tourists, suggesting an urgent need for tourist education and regulation of WTAs worldwide.

  4. Meeting heterogeneity in consumer demand for animal welfare: A reflection on existing knowledge and implications for the meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The legitimacy of the dominant intensive meat production system with respect to the issue of animal welfare is increasingly being questioned by stakeholders across the meat supply chain. The current meat supply is highly undifferentiated, catering only for the extremes of morality concerns (i.e.,

  5. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A.; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H.; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We studied different EU production standards and initiatives to determine whether there is still room or not for further animal welfare improvement, and which should be the best way to achieve it. Many of the adopted measures in these standards and initiatives are scientifically supported, but other aspects that are equally important for animal welfare are not included in any of them. Animal welfare improvement should consider, for each country, those aspects actually benefiting animals, but also the social expectations within each country. Economic constraints might explain the gap between what society demands, and what farm animals actually need. Abstract Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what

  6. Welfare's Children. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Michael

    States with family cap public assistance policies deny or reduce additional welfare benefits to mothers who conceive and give birth to additional children while they are receiving aid. By 1999, 22 states had family cap policies in place. This paper reports estimates of the number and cost implications of infants conceived by mothers receiving…

  7. Regional action plan handling of social welfare problem in nganjuk regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, IM; Utami, WS; Setyawan, KG

    2018-01-01

    Local action plans are expected to ensure a social protection for vulnerable and disadvantaged groups or PMKS. The method used in this research is by primary survey and secondary survey. The condition of the people who still belong to PMKS requires the state to come to the community to solve the problems faced. Stakeholders should be involved to handle PMKS. The activities presented should also receive periodic monitoring and evaluation so that there is progress reporting at any time. Implementable poverty reduction strategies and policies are social protection strategies, opportunity expansion strategies, resource capacity building strategies, community empowerment strategies and partnership strategies. The flow of PMKS is the validation and updating of data, the fulfillment of the basic needs of the PMKS family, the development of PMKS human resources, the improvement of the quality of life for poor families, the institutions of poverty alleviation stakeholders and the unemployed at the base level. The Regional Action Plan (RAP) is prepared as a reference in the context of carrying out PMKS mitigation which is expected to serve as a guide for managers and program implementers with relevant agencies that are conducted jointly and continuously for the period of time specified.

  8. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists' Perceptions of Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A M

    2013-08-14

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts' assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways' design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  9. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or ‘empower’ citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea......In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... that power takes many different shapes, and that different approaches to power may be necessary in the diverse contexts where citizens encounter welfare professionals, the book demonstrates how significant social theorists, spanning from Goffman to Foucault, can be used for inquiries into these encounters...

  10. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or 'empower' citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea......In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... that power takes many different shapes, and that different approaches to power may be necessary in the diverse contexts where citizens encounter welfare professionals, the book demonstrates how significant social theorists, spanning from Goffman to Foucault, can be used for inquiries into these encounters...

  11. Sistem Supply Chain Crude-Palm-Oil Indonesia dengan Mempertimbangkan Aspek Economical Revenue, Social Welfare dan Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Harto Widodo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude-Palm-Oil (CPO is an agro-industrial commodity which has a strategic value to be developed for Indonesian economy and social welfare. Production and export of Indonesian CPO increase progressively in the view years so that CPO is one of the pre-eminent products of Indonesia. On the other hand, however, they could give two negative impacts. First, a less CPO supply for domestic market as a result of export growing. Second, a worse environment as an effect of the opening new palm plantations. We, therefore, construct and simulate the system model for analyzing the relationships between the components and for describing their behaviour within the supply chain of CPO by using a dynamic model. The result shows that in the next 30 years, the revenue of Indonesian CPO industries tends to increase. The biggest revenue will be achieved in the year 23rd. The maximum addition of plantation employees is in the year 7th as well as in the year 17th. Deforestation would be the highest in the year 7th and 17th in which 2008 as a basic year.

  12. The Social Welfare of Soldiers' Families in Yenisei Province (1914–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya M. Dolidovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors examine the question of the types, scale, efficiency of public aid and social support of soldiers' families in Yenisei province during the First World War. Particular attention is paid to the activities of cities and urban guardianship organizations that have paid to families of the mobilized amount exceeding the amount of state benefits. It is shown that in the rural guardianship organizations did not have more money. They failed to organize labor help with the agricultural work. Soldiers' families reduced tillage, many of them wanted to move to the provincial center. Siberian city were not a major commercial and industrial centers, their budgets have been modest. Siberia had no zemstvo institutions, therefore, the city suffered heavy costs for the solution of many other problems caused by wartime (the organization of assistance to refugees and the injured, the fight against the high cost and lack of, the development of cooperatives, and others, they were making regular payments for all-Russian charitable societies. The flow of donations to urban guardianship and charitable organizations has decreased dramatically in 1916, and the number in need has increased significantly, the municipal government began to curtail payments to soldiers' families. The discontent of the soldiers' wives resulted in the pogroms of malls and attacks against members of municipal self-government bodies of Minusinsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kansk in 1916–1917.

  13. Portrayals of canine obesity in English-language newspapers and in leading veterinary journals, 2000-2009: implications for animal welfare organizations and veterinarians as public educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Rock, Melanie; Toews, Lorraine; Teows, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    In industrialized societies, more than 1 in 3 dogs and people currently qualify as overweight or obese. Experts in public health expect both these figures to rise. Although clinical treatment remains important, so are public perceptions and social norms. This article presents a thematic analysis of English-language mass media coverage on canine obesity from 2000 through 2009 and compares these results with a thematic analysis of articles on canine obesity in leading veterinary journals during the same time period. Drawing on Giddens's theory of structuration, this study identified articles that emphasized individual agency, environmental structure, or both as contributors to canine obesity. Comparisons with weight-related health problems in human populations were virtually absent from the veterinary sample. Although such comparisons were almost always present in the media sample, quotations from veterinarians and other spokespeople for the welfare of nonhuman animals emphasized the agency of individual caregivers (owners) over structural influences. Now that weight gain and obesity have been established as a pressing animal welfare problem, these results suggest a need for research and for interventions, such as media advocacy, that emphasize intersections between animal-owner agency, socioenvironmental determinants, and connections between animal welfare and human health.

  14. Quality of life in people aged 65+ in Europe: associated factors and models of social welfare-analysis of data from the SHARE project (Wave 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Sala, Josep L; Portellano-Ortiz, Cristina; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2017-04-01

    To analyse the clinical, sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors that influence perceived quality of life (QoL) in a community sample of 33,241 people aged 65+ and to examine the relationship with models of social welfare in Europe. This was a cross-sectional study of data from Wave 5 (2013) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The instruments used in the present study were as follows: sociodemographic data, CASP-12 (QoL), EURO-D (depression), indicators of life expectancy and suicide (WHO), and economic indicators (World Bank). Statistical analysis included bivariate and multilevel analyses. In the multilevel analysis, greater satisfaction in life, less depression, sufficient income, better subjective health, physical activity, an absence of functional impairment, younger age and participation in activities were associated with better QoL in all countries. More education was only associated with higher QoL in Eastern European and Mediterranean countries, and only in the latter was caring for grandchildren also related to better QoL. Socioeconomic indicators were better and QoL scores higher (mean = 38.5 ± 5.8) in countries that had a social democratic (Nordic cluster) or corporatist model (Continental cluster) of social welfare, as compared to Eastern European and Mediterranean countries, which were characterized by poorer socioeconomic conditions, more limited social welfare provision and lower QoL scores (mean = 33.5 ± 6.4). Perceived quality-of-life scores are consistent with the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of participants, as well as with the socioeconomic indicators and models of social welfare of the countries in which they live.

  15. Multi-objective optimal reactive power dispatch to maximize power system social welfare in the presence of generalized unified power flow controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chintalapudi Venkata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel non-linear optimization problem is formulated to maximize the social welfare in restructured environment with generalized unified power flow controller (GUPFC. This paper presents a methodology to optimally allocate the reactive power by minimizing voltage deviation at load buses and total transmission power losses so as to maximize the social welfare. The conventional active power generation cost function is modified by combining costs of reactive power generated by the generators, shunt capacitors and total power losses to it. The formulated objectives are optimized individually and simultaneously as multi-objective optimization problem, while satisfying equality, in-equality, practical and device operational constraints. A new optimization method, based on two stage initialization and random distribution processes is proposed to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach on IEEE-30 bus system, and the detailed analysis is carried out.

  16. Social Welfare implications of demand response programs in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Neenan, Bernard F.

    2003-08-01

    The price volatility exhibited by wholesale electricity markets has stymied the movement to restructure the industry, and may derail it altogether. Market designers argue that prices are superior to regulation for directing long-term investments to the proper location and function, and that price volatility is a natural manifestation of a robustly competitive market. However, episodes of prices that soar to previously unimaginable heights try customers' patience and cause policy makers to reconsider if the prize is worth the consequences.

  17. Neo-Marxian social class inequalities in the mental well-being of employed men and women: the role of European welfare regimes

    OpenAIRE

    De Moortel, Deborah; Palència, Laia; Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The relation between "neo-Marxian" social class (NMSC) and health in the working population has received considerable attention in public health research. However, less is known about the distribution of mental well-being according to NMSC in a European context. The objectives of this study are (i) to analyse the association of mental well-being and NMSC among employees in Europe (using a welfare regime typology), (ii) to investigate whether the relation between NMSC and mental well-being is ...

  18. Bienestar social y aculturación psicológica en estudiantes universitarios migrantes (Social welfare and psychological acculturation in migrant college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mariel Sosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar las estrategias de aculturación psicológica y la percepción de bienestar social en estudiantes universitarios migrantes. El estudio es de tipo descriptivo de diferencias de grupos, de diseño transversal. La muestra es no probabilística intencional, compuesta por 214 estudiantes universitarios, migrantes externos e internos, de ambos sexos, con edades entre 18 y 35 años, residentes en la ciudad de Buenos Aires. En los resultados se aprecia el predominio en las estrategias de aculturación de integración y separación, y niveles medios de bienestar social. Asimismo, los estudiantes migrantes externos muestran predominio en estrategias de asimilación e integración y los estudiantes internos en estrategias de separación, tanto en el ámbito público como privado. ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to analyze the psychological acculturation strategies and social welfare perception in migrant college students. It is a descriptive group differences study with transversal design based on a convenience sample composed by 214 migrants (inner and external students of both genders aged between 18 and 35 years who live in the city of Buenos Aires. Results show that integration and separation prevail as acculturation strategies, and intermediate levels of social well being. Also, external migrant students show higher prevalence of assimilation and integration strategies and inner migrant students show higher prevalence of separation acculturation strategies, in both in the public and private spheres.

  19. World energy tendencies: social and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichs, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    The current world energy situation is the result of the combination of diverse economic, political, technological, social and environmental tendencies that conform a crisis panorama for the high price of the hydrocarbons and especially in the petroleum. Under the current conditions the necessity of a global energy restructuring is imposed that changes the current patterns of generation and energy consumption significantly

  20. The implicit contract: implications for health social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoyd, Judith L M

    2010-05-01

    Identifying common patient dynamics is useful for developing social work practice sensitivity in health social work. This article draws on findings from a study of women who terminated desired pregnancies because of fetal anomalies and identifies dynamics that may be applicable to many health settings. Data suggest that women have expectations that submission to medical care, particularly high-tech medical care, should ensure a positive outcome--in this case a healthy baby. Analysis of data reveals the presence of an implicit contract that the women hold with the medical system,"Mother Nature," or society. The analysis carries an implication that health social work should help patients develop realistic expectations about health care. The presence of implicit contracts may have further implications for liability and litigation. Social work roles and interventions are addressed.

  1. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance...

  2. The role of associative and non-associative learning in the training of horses and implications for the welfare (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Baragli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Horses were domesticated 6000 years ago and since then different types of approaches have been developed to enhance the horse's wellbeing and the human-horse relationship. Even though horse training is an increasingly important research area and many articles have been published on the subject, equitation is still the sport with the highest rate of human injuries, and a significant percentage of horses are sold or slaughtered due to behavioral problems. One explanation for this data is that the human-horse relationship is complex and the communication between humans and horses has not yet been accurately developed. Thus, this review addresses correct horse training based on scientific knowledge in animal learning and psychology. Specifically, it starts from the basic communication between humans and horses and then focuses on associative and non-associative learning, with many practical outcomes in horse management from the ground and under saddle. Finally, it highlights the common mistakes in the use of negative reinforcement, as well as all the implications that improper training could have on horse welfare. Increased levels of competence in horse training could be useful for equine technicians, owners, breeders, veterinarians, and scientists, in order to safeguard horse welfare, and also to reduce the number of human injuries and economic loss for civil society and the public health system.

  3. The role of associative and non-associative learning in the training of horses and implications for the welfare (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragli, Paolo; Padalino, Barbara; Telatin, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Horses were domesticated 6000 years ago and since then different types of approaches have been developed to enhance the horse's wellbeing and the human-horse relationship. Even though horse training is an increasingly important research area and many articles have been published on the subject, equitation is still the sport with the highest rate of human injuries, and a significant percentage of horses are sold or slaughtered due to behavioral problems. One explanation for this data is that the human-horse relationship is complex and the communication between humans and horses has not yet been accurately developed. Thus, this review addresses correct horse training based on scientific knowledge in animal learning and psychology. Specifically, it starts from the basic communication between humans and horses and then focuses on associative and non-associative learning, with many practical outcomes in horse management from the ground and under saddle. Finally, it highlights the common mistakes in the use of negative reinforcement, as well as all the implications that improper training could have on horse welfare. Increased levels of competence in horse training could be useful for equine technicians, owners, breeders, veterinarians, and scientists, in order to safeguard horse welfare, and also to reduce the number of human injuries and economic loss for civil society and the public health system.

  4. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    not destroyed but rather accumulated in the following centuries up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. Focusing on the case of Denmark, our tentative argument is that social trust was not destroyed through five subsequent phases of state building but rather enhanced. Long-run political...... stability arguably allows such a self-reinforcing process over time between institutions and social trust....

  5. Xenophobia and its implications for social order in Africa | Lanre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also highlights the philosophical implications of this societal bifurcation, particularly to the human community. Seeking a plausible way of addressing this challenge, the paper concludes by emphasizing the relevance of the value of tolerance in curbing xenophobia. Keywords: Xenophobia, Social discrimination, ...

  6. Teacher Job Dissatisfaction: Implications for Teacher Sustainability and Social Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Chinedu I.; Mtyuda, Pamela N.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers play a key role in the social transformation agenda. This agentic position of the teacher implicates an agenda for sustainability programmes that position them for this complex responsibility. A qualitative case study research design was employed to obtain the perspectives of teachers on job dissatisfaction. The researchers followed a…

  7. Neo-Conservatives as Social Darwinists: Implications for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Peter; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compares the Social Darwinism of the 1890s with neo-conservatism of the 1980s. Discusses the ideologies of fair play versus fair shares, the theory of supply-side economics, and the implications of neo-conservatism for higher education. Argues that neo-conservatism is altering radically our conceptions of democracy, equality, and freedom. (KH)

  8. Welfare Lobby Groups responding to Globalisation: A Comparison of the Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS and the UK Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed a period of intense economic globalisation. The growing significance of international trade, investment, production and financial flows appears to be curtailing the autonomy of individual nation states. In particular, globalisation appears to be encouraging, if not demanding, a decline in social spending and standards. However, many authors believe that this thesis ignores the continued impact of national political and ideological pressures and lobby groups on policy outcomes. In particular, it has been argued that national welfare consumer and provider groups remain influential defenders of the welfare state. For example, US aged care groups are considered to be particularly effective defenders of social security pensions. According to this argument, governments engaged in welfare retrenchment may experience considerable electoral backlash (Pierson 1996; Mishra 1999. Yet, it is also noted that governments can take action to reduce the impact of such groups by reducing their funding, and their access to policy-making and consultation processes. These actions are then justified on the basis of removing potential obstacles to economic competitiveness (Pierson 1994; Melville 1999.

  9. Stereotypes and welfare attitudes: a panel survey of how ‘poor Carina’ and ‘lazy Robert’ affected attitudes towards social assistance in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Fage Hedegaard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the impact of a predominantly negative debate about social assistance on public and individual support for the social benefit? Over the course of a year the public debate about social assistance flared up twice in Denmark. The debates drew on classic stereotypes of the social assistance recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance, in a comparison of attitudes before and after the debates. The small overall impact on public opinion, however, hid a polarization of attitudes on the individual level. This shows that there was not a uniform reaction to welfare debates, but that people tend to seek out a version of reality that is consistent with their values and self-interest. The article thus shows that people when faced with public debates on welfare policies will seek to confirm their personal biases and this limits the possibility for overall changes in public support. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";}

  10. Students' Participation in Social Networking Sites: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dhrubodhi; Clark, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Social work students have few guidelines to help them evaluate the implication of their posted information on Internet-based social networking sites (SNSs). There is a national trend among employers of human services to cross-check publicly available online information on applicants. Based on data from a survey of 105 baccalaureate and master's…

  11. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

     The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Hence...... this article seeks to investigate the reasons underlying this apparent anomaly so that future policies in Scandinavia nd Europe may be tailored to suit the needs of female entrepreneurs. We are addressing this through the analytical lens of a gender regime model which shows that hierarchical gender patterns...... have proven remarkably resilient and that social context matters. The results of the analysis shows that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate   entrepreneurship and that in order to overcome the obstacles female entrepreneurs 'babystrap'....

  12. NATURAL AND SOCIAL STATUS. HISTORICAL AND LEGAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of philosophy and the history of legal doctrines mention and analyze the differences, often categorical, between the existence of man in his natural status and on the other hand, his existence in social status. The doctrine of the social contract is the mainstream of the thought that analyzes the existential status of man in the social environment and the natural environment by arguing, according to the author and the philosophical conception, the historical, social and juridical particularities of the natural status and social status. In our study we support the compatibility between the two existential forms of man, we identify the existential categories in which these can be defined, and emphasize the implications of these categories in realization of the act of justice.

  13. Social capital and health – implications for health promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social capital, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a ‘cookbook’ on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts. PMID:21311607

  14. Social capital and health--implications for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Malin

    2011-02-08

    This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled 'Social capital, health and community action - implications for health promotion.' The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a 'cookbook' on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts. © 2011 Malin Eriksson.

  15. Social capital and health – implications for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Eriksson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social capital, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a ‘cookbook’ on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts.This article has been commented on by Catherine Campbell. Please follow this link http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/view/5964 – to read her Commentary.

  16. Multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence as a predictor of medical and social welfare benefits in young adulthood: The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, C; Straume, B; Kvernmo, S

    2017-11-01

    Pain in adolescence is associated with mental health problems, the main reason for work disability in young adults. This study explores the relationship between multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence and later medical (sickness and medical rehabilitation benefits) and social welfare benefits, adjusted for sociodemographic, adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems. Data were obtained by linkage between the National Insurance Registry (2003-11) and the Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study, a school-based survey in North Norway (2003-05), accepted by 3987 fifteen- to sixteen-year-olds (68% of the total population). The start of the follow-up time was July 1st of the corresponding year the participants responded to the health study. Musculoskeletal pain was measured by the number of musculoskeletal pain sites. We found a positive linear relationship between adolescent musculoskeletal pain sites and the occurrence of medical and social welfare benefits in young adulthood (p ≤ 0.001). Adolescent musculoskeletal pain was a significant predictor of sickness (p adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems. The most important adolescent psychosocial predictors were externalizing problems, less parental involvement and adverse life events. Adolescent multisite musculoskeletal pain was found to be an important predictor of later sickness and social welfare benefit receipt from adolescence to young adulthood. Adolescents with multisite musculoskeletal pain are at substantially increased risk of health and social difficulties into young adulthood. Identification and interventions for these adolescent problems could alleviate this risk and be a sound socioeconomic investment. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  17. Laboratory rhesus macaque social housing and social changes: Implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Darcy L; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Vandeleest, Jessica; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John

    2017-01-01

    Macaque species, specifically rhesus (Macaca mulatta), are the most common nonhuman primates (NHPs) used in biomedical research due to their suitability as a model of high priority diseases (e.g., HIV, obesity, cognitive aging), cost effective breeding and housing compared to most other NHPs, and close evolutionary relationship to humans. With this close evolutionary relationship, however, is a shared adaptation for a socially stimulating environment, without which both their welfare and suitability as a research model are compromised. While outdoor social group housing provides the best approximation of a social environment that matches the macaque behavioral biology in the wild, this is not always possible at all facilities, where animals may be housed indoors in small groups, in pairs, or alone. Further, animals may experience many housing changes in their lifetime depending on project needs, changes in social status, management needs, or health concerns. Here, we review the evidence for the physiological and health effects of social housing changes and the potential impacts on research outcomes for studies using macaques, particularly rhesus. We situate our review in the context of increasing regulatory pressure for research facilities to both house NHPs socially and mitigate trauma from social aggression. To meet these regulatory requirements and further refine the macaque model for research, significant advances must be made in our understanding and management of rhesus macaque social housing, particularly pair-housing since it is the most common social housing configuration for macaques while on research projects. Because most NHPs are adapted for sociality, a social context is likely important for improving repeatability, reproducibility, and external validity of primate biomedical research. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22528, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Social cohesion and social capital: Possible implications for the common good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Cloete

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the article is to identify the possible implications of social cohesion and social capital for the common good. In order to reach this overarching aim the following structure will be utilised. The first part explores the conceptual understanding of socialcohesion and social capital in order to establish how these concepts are related and how they could possibly inform each other. The contextual nature of social cohesion and social capital is briefly reflected upon, with specific reference to the South African context. The contribution of religious capital in the formation of social capital is explored in the last section of the article. The article could be viewed as mainly conceptual and explorative in nature in order to draw some conclusions about the common good of social capital and social cohesion.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article contributes to the interdisciplinary discourse on social cohesion with specific reference to the role of congregations. It provides a critical reflection on the role of congregations with regard to bonding and bridging social capital. The contextual nature of social cohesion is also addressed with specific reference to South Africa.

  19. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  20. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as policy and strategy for social work action in child welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international agreements. An earlier analysis for understanding the CRC is reviewed and replaced with one that uses a policy analysis model. This new model provides a basis for uniform child welfare policy and strategy throughout the nation. Although NASW has been supportive, it has not actively studied the consequences of implementation of the CRC, nor has it incorporated the CRC into its policy statements as a fundamental tenet. This article recommends that the NASW use the CRC as a basis for all child welfare policy statements and reference the CRS in future articles on child welfare issues. It also urges social workers to become politically active on behalf of the CRC to achieve ratification. Finally, it recommends a national committee to not only coordinate efforts toward ratification, but also oversee implementation of the CRC once it is ratified.

  1. Social capital: theory, evidence, and implications for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxel, Patrick L; Heilmann, Anja; Aida, Jun; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, there has been increasing application of the concept of social capital in various fields of public health, including oral health. However, social capital is a contested concept with debates on its definition, measurement, and application. This study provides an overview of the concept of social capital, highlights the various pathways linking social capital to health, and discusses the potential implication of this concept for health policy. An extensive and diverse international literature has examined the relationship between social capital and a range of general health outcomes across the life course. A more limited but expanding literature has also demonstrated the potential influence of social capital on oral health. Much of the evidence in relation to oral health is limited by methodological shortcomings mainly related to the measurement of social capital, cross-sectional study designs, and inadequate controls for confounding factors. Further research using stronger methodological designs should explore the role of social capital in oral health and assess its potential application in the development of oral health improvement interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The social construction of illness: key insights and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Peter; Barker, Kristin K

    2010-01-01

    The social construction of illness is a major research perspective in medical sociology. This article traces the roots of this perspective and presents three overarching constructionist findings. First, some illnesses are particularly embedded with cultural meaning--which is not directly derived from the nature of the condition--that shapes how society responds to those afflicted and influences the experience of that illness. Second, all illnesses are socially constructed at the experiential level, based on how individuals come to understand and live with their illness. Third, medical knowledge about illness and disease is not necessarily given by nature but is constructed and developed by claims-makers and interested parties. We address central policy implications of each of these findings and discuss fruitful directions for policy-relevant research in a social constructionist tradition. Social constructionism provides an important counterpoint to medicine's largely deterministic approaches to disease and illness, and it can help us broaden policy deliberations and decisions.

  3. Child welfare worker characteristics and job satisfaction: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P; Lloyd, E Christopher; Christ, Sharon L; Chapman, Mimi V; Dickinson, Nancy S

    2008-07-01

    The education, recruitment, training, and retention of a quality child welfare workforce is critical to the successful implementation of public policy and programs for the nation's most vulnerable children. Yet, national information about child welfare workers has never been collected. The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being is a study of children who are investigated for child maltreatment that also offers information about the child welfare workers (unweighted N = 1,729) who serve them in 36 states and 92 counties. These cases represent the national population of child welfare workers, estimated at more than 50,000, serving children approximately 12 months after a case was opened. Child welfare workers having any graduate or social work degree in a nonurban setting were more satisfied than their peers. Regression results indicate that worker satisfaction is associated with quality of supervision and urban setting but does not have a clearly independent relationship with having a degree in social work. Practice implications are discussed.

  4. Recruiting and retaining child welfare workers: is preparing social work students enough for sustained commitment to the field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Anita P; Antle, Becky; Sullivan, Dana J; Huebner, Ruth; Fox, Steve; Hall, Jon Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Graduates of specialized BSW child welfare education programs are more likely to be retained after two years of service in the agency, but many leave at the four year mark. Two studies explored possible reasons for departure at this time. The first study found that graduates of specialized child welfare programs were significantly more likely to engage in best practices in nine areas than workers from other fields. Thus, frustration with practice skill was ruled out as a cause. The second qualitative study found that poor supervision, lack of coworker support, and organizational stress among other variables prompted these high-functioning workers to leave the agency. Suggestions for innovative interventions to enhance retention at this critical juncture are included.

  5. Imaging professionals' views of social media and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Jennifer E; DiGiacinto, Dora D; Hargraves, Kensi

    2014-01-01

    To help radiation sciences students and professionals understand the implications of and best practices for personal postings on social media Web sites. The authors conducted a survey to capture radiologic science professionals' opinions regarding trends related to using social media for employment, as well as for their personal use. The majority of imaging professionals are mindful of their privacy settings and believe their activity on social media sites reflects on them professionally. Participants in this study noted they maintain high privacy settings. In spite of this, both supervisors and nonsupervisors in this study held opinions about the use of social media in employment decisions that are inconsistent with what can occur in the workplace. Survey respondents did not believe there should be employment sanctions for behaviors that routinely are sanctioned in the workplace. An important message that has emerged from this research is that employees should not only adhere to the strictest privacy settings on their personal social media sites, but they also should be judicious in what they choose to share, with the understanding that nothing posted online is truly private. Supervisors and nonsupervisors should become familiar with their institutional policies regarding the use of social media in the workplace, and supervisors specifically should ensure that they follow institutional policy regarding the use of social media in employment decisions.

  6. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  7. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holdgate

    Full Text Available Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33 and Asian (n = 23 elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  8. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Matthew R; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Lance J; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  9. Policy Contexts of Social Work in Britain: the wider implications of 'New' Labour and the 'New Legal Regime'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Several commentators have expressed disappointment with New Labour's apparent adherence to the policy frameworks of the previous Conservative administrations. The employment orientation of its welfare programmes, the contradictory nature of the social exclusion initiatives, and the continuing obsession with public sector marketisation, inspections, audits, standards and so on, have all come under critical scrutiny (c.f., Blyth 2001; Jordan 2001; Orme 2001. This paper suggests that in order to understand the socio-economic and political contexts affecting social work we need to examine the relationship between New Labour's modernisation project and its insertion within an architecture of global governance. In particular, membership of the European Union (EU, International Monetary Fund (IMF and World Trade Organisation (WTO set the parameters for domestic policy in important ways. Whilst much has been written about the economic dimensions of 'globalisation' in relation to social work rather less has been noted about the ways in which domestic policy agenda are driven by multilateral governance objectives. This policy dimension is important in trying to respond to various changes affecting social work as a professional activity. What is possible, what is encouraged, how things might be done, is tightly bounded by the policy frameworks governing practice and affected by those governing the lives of service users. It is unhelpful to see policy formulation in purely national terms as the UK is inserted into a network governance structure, a regulatory framework where decisions are made by many countries and organisations and agencies. Together, they are producing a 'new legal regime', characterised by a marked neo-liberal policy agenda. This paper aims to demonstrate the relationship of New Labour's modernisation programme to these new forms of legality by examining two main policy areas and the welfare implications they are enmeshed in. The first is

  10. Zero-based budgeting: implications for social services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, G L

    1977-01-01

    It is now fact that there is a commitment to the implementation of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) at the federal level. In all likelihood, the adoption of the zero-based approach will have unique implications for the administration and administrators of social service agencies. The following article explores the impetus behind budgetary reform, with a primary focus on the current appeal of ZBB. The author strongly suggests that there are similarities between the now passé Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System and ZBB that permit inferences about any implementation difficulties that ZBB may experience. It is further suggested that ZBB will present social workers with situations and opportunities that will severely challenge many on their current approaches to social service administration.

  11. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfar......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare...

  12. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social....... The restructuring of mature Western welfare states thus accounts for changing patterns of political behaviour as a consequence of policy feedback....

  13. Social Work Implication on Care and Vulnerability of Older People in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Work Implication on Care and Vulnerability of Older People in Tanzania. ... as the national ageing policy, health policy, national social security policy, ... The social workers were found at the district headquarters but also in few numbers.

  14. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  15. Pricing environmental externalities in the power sector. Ethical limits and implications for social choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderholm, Patrik; Sundqvist, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, a series of valuation studies have made attempts at estimating the external environmental costs of various power generation sources. The purposes of this paper are: (a) to explore some of the ethical limits of the economic valuation of environmental impacts; and (b) to analyze what the implications are of these limits for the social choice between different electric power sources. Environmental valuation based on welfare economic theory builds on restrictive behavioral foundations and can only partly model moral values, although such values are an essential part of people's preference towards the environment. In addition, public preferences are seldom exogenously given as is commonly assumed in economic theory, but are instead formed in public discourse. For this reason, the range of electricity externalities where economic valuation (and thus cost-benefit analysis) should be applied is likely to be narrower than often assumed. After analyzing the scope, methodology and the results of the so-called ExternE project, the paper concludes that many power generation externalities are either inherently 'new' or inherently 'complex'. In these cases, the initial challenge lies not in 'discovering' private preferences, but in specifying the conditions for public discourse over common ways of understanding what the pertinent issues are about. This implies that research on the environmental externalities of power generation must, in addition to refining the theory and the applications of existing non-market valuation techniques, also address the instruments and content of political and moral debate

  16. Neural correlates of conventional and harm/welfare-based moral decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Zhao, Hui; Leong, Kelly Kimiko; Smetana, Judith G; Nucci, Larry P; Blair, R James R

    2017-12-01

    The degree to which social norms are processed by a unitary system or dissociable systems remains debated. Much research on children's social-cognitive judgments has supported the distinction between "moral" (harm/welfare-based) and "conventional" norms. However, the extent to which these norms are processed by dissociable neural systems remains unclear. To address this issue, 23 healthy participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they rated the wrongness of harm/welfare-based and conventional transgressions and neutral vignettes. Activation significantly greater than the neutral vignette baseline was observed in regions implicated in decision-making regions including rostral/ventral medial frontal, anterior insula and dorsomedial frontal cortices when evaluating both harm/welfare-based and social-conventional transgressions. Greater activation when rating harm/welfare-based relative to social-conventional transgressions was seen through much of ACC and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Greater activation was observed in superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus, left PCC, and temporal-parietal junction when rating social-conventional transgressions relative to harm/welfare-based transgressions. These data suggest that decisions regarding the wrongness of actions, irrespective of whether they involve care/harm-based or conventional transgressions, recruit regions generally implicated in affect-based decision-making. However, there is neural differentiation between harm/welfare-based and conventional transgressions. This may reflect the particular importance of processing the intent of transgressors of conventional norms and perhaps the greater emotional content or salience of harm/welfare-based transgressions.

  17. Collapsing Worlds and Varieties of welfare capitalism: In search of a new political economy of welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Waltraud Schelkle

    2012-01-01

    The study of welfare capitalism is concerned with a founding question of political economy, namely how capitalism and democracy can be combined. Ever since the publication of Esping-Andersen’s Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in 1990, the answer was sought in identifying ideal types of welfare states that support a class compromise. The Varieties of (Welfare) Capitalism literature is increasingly used as a complementary theory of production systems although its rationale for social policies...

  18. Social contacts of older people in 27 European Countries : The role of welfare spending and economic inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwardt, Lea; Peter, S; Praeg, Patrick; Steverink, Nardi

    Social contacts of older people have consistently been associated with good health and longevity. The extent of individual social contacts, however, varies considerably between countries. We study why countries differ in amounts of social contacts of older adults. Using theory on income inequality

  19. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    . Research limitations/implications – In this study willingness to pay is measured using a hypothetical choice experiment. Values people express as citizens, however, may not accurately predict true consumer behaviour. This is generally referred to as “citizen-consumer duality” and may have affected...... about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... the results. Practical implications – The study shows that there is a national market for welfare-assured fish products, but education initiatives focusing on fish farming and fish welfare issues would further influence the attitudes and purchasing habits of Norwegian consumers. Originality/value – Although...

  20. Ethical and social implications of biometric identification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordini, Emilio; Petrini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the social and ethical aspects of biometrics, using mainly a historical approach. A description is provided as regards the origins and development of the word. Reference is made to the various ways in which it has been interpreted, sometimes very different one from another, and finally to the meaning currently attached to it. The most relevant ethical and social implications are highlighted by giving a brief overview of the contents of the main institutional documents produced both on an international and domestic level in the various countries. The analyses contained in these reports also bring to the fore the main challenges which society shall have to deal with, in the near future and on a long-term basis, as a consequence of the extremely rapid diffusion of those technologies which use biometric data request.

  1. Youth and adults, citizenship and democracy. Implications for Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Aquín

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The reflections expressed in this article are the product of a study about the Force of the Values of Citizenship in Córdoba Society, conducted between the years 1998 and 2003, by professors-researchers of the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina. The article first looks at the relationship between Social Work and citizenship. It reviews studies about youth, recognizing that the process of the constitution of citizenship essentially develops during adolescence and early adulthood. Given the importance of the events in Argentina in December 2001, it incorporates a comparative analysis between the practices and representations of youth and adults about democracy and the expressions of collective action that characterize this context. Methodological factors are sketched and some results concerning the tensions between citizenship and democracy are discussed, to analyze the implications for Social Work.

  2. Family Change and Implications for Family Solidarity and Social Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanera, Zenaida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishSocial cohesion can be viewed in terms of common projects and networks of social relations that characterize families, communities and society. In the past decades, the basis for family cohesion has shifted from organic to mechanical or from breadwinner to collaborative model. As in many Western countries, data on family change in Canada point to a greater flexibility in the entry and exit from relationships, a delay in the timing of family events, and a diversity of family forms. After looking at changes in families and in the family setting of individuals, the paper considers both intra-family cohesion and families as basis for social cohesion. Implications are raised for adults, children and publicp olicy.FrenchLa cohésion sociale peut se voir à travers les projets communs et les réseaux desrelations sociales qui caractérisent les familles, les communautés et les sociétés.La base de cohésion familiale est passée d’organique à mécanique, pour utiliserles termes de Durkheim, ou vers un modèle de collaboration plutôt qu’unepartage asymétrique de tâches. Comme dans d’autres sociétés orientales, lafamille au Canada est devenue plus flexible par rapport aux entrées et sortiesd’unions, il y a un délais dans les événements familiaux, et une variété deformes de familles. Après un regard sur les changements dans les familles etdans la situation familiale des individus, nous considérons la cohésion intrafamilialeet la famille comme base de cohésion sociale. Nous discutons desimpacts sur les adultes, les enfants et la politique publique.

  3. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... housing is understood, regulated and subsidized, and, in turn, how housing regimes respond to the general challenges to the national welfare states. The paper presents a historical institutionalist approach to understanding the diversity of regime responses in the modern era characterized by increasing...... marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...

  4. The Potential to Forgo Social Welfare Gains through Over reliance on Cost Effectiveness/Cost Utility Analyses in the Evidence Base for Public Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.R.; Patel, N.

    2010-01-01

    Economic evaluations of clinical treatments most commonly take the form of cost effectiveness or cost utility analyses. This is appropriate since the main sometimes the only benefit of such interventions is increased health. The majority of economic evaluations in public health, however, have also been assessed using these techniques when arguably cost benefit analyses would in many cases have been more appropriate, given its ability to take account of non health benefits as well. An examination of the non health benefits from a sample of studies featured in a recent review of economic evaluations in public health illustrates how over focusing on cost effectiveness/cost utility analyses may lead to forgoing potential social welfare gains from programmes in public health. Prior to evaluation, programmes should be considered in terms of the potential importance of non health benefits and where these are considerable would be better evaluated by more inclusive economic evaluation techniques.

  5. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument...... promotion intensities are socially excessive. Moreover, the welfare implications are determined by the two opposite effects of price advertising: (1) the informing and therefore welfare-improving effect, and (2) the welfare-harming effect that higher transportation costs incur when promotions are used....... Using a spatial model that accounts for consumer shopping behavior and retailer pricing behavior, I structurally estimate consumer demand and the marginal costs of promotion, following the discrete choice literature and moment inequality approach. The simulation results numerically show that the private...

  6. Neo-liberalism, the 'Third Way' or What? Recent Social Democratic Welfare Policies in Denmark and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, C.J. van; Green-Pedersen, C.; Hemerijck, A.

    2001-01-01

    After the wave of conservative or neo-liberal governments in Europe in the 1980s, social democratic parties are back in government in most European countries. At the same time, with the 'third way' as its catch phrase, European social democracy seems to have regained the ideological upper hand. The

  7. The Family and Child Welfare System in Poland: Family Assistantship as a New Solution in Social Work with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciczkowska-Giedziun, Malgorzata; Zmyslowska, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Poland is a post-communist country rooted in the idea of a nanny state. Although the state is still highly involved in social policy, the social and constitutional transformation that began in 1989 led to many changes which in turn influenced the functioning of an individual and family life. Numerous reforms have gradually changed the shape of the…

  8. Transformations of the Danish Field of Welfare Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jan Thorhauge

    2017-01-01

    a set of welfare professions, each of which provides a specific subset of welfare benefits, or services. These professionals - agents of the Danish field of welfare work – make up the population of the analysis: teachers, social workers, occupational therapists, social educators, nurses, librarians...

  9. Social media: implications for everyday life, politics and human agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jansson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the current saturation of digital devices in contemporary society, the boundaries between humans and machines have become increasingly blurred. This digitalization of everyday life both obscures and reminds us of the fact that identity, agency and power cannot be attributed to the individual or the machine alone: rather, they are the outcome of interactions and negotiations within a network of actors. Social media, such as Facebook, blogs, Twitter and YouTube, show clearly that the ‘meaning’ or ‘effect’ of digital technologies is formed through the practices in which they are used and the social relations and institutions that develop around them. This article presents views expressed during a panel discussion on the implications of social media for everyday life, politics and human agency at the Aboagora Symposium, held on 14th August 2013. The panel was organized as a dialogue between the participants and the discussion was structured around three questions, presented below. The participants in the panel were; Professor André Jansson (Karlstad University, Professor Susanna Paasonen (University of Turku and adjunct Professor Johanna Sumiala (University of Helsinki. The panel was chaired by Professor Mia Lövheim (Uppsala University.

  10. Family welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  11. Pilotstudie naar welzijnsaspecten van kammen dubben bij hanen van legrassen = Pilot study welfare implications of dubbing combs of cockerels of Leghorn parent stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Gunnink, H.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    In a small pilot experiment the impact of comb dubbing on male chicks has been investigated. No effect on behaviour, growth and feed intake was recorded, suggesting that dubbing has no major effect on welfare of the chicks.

  12. Social reciprocity and health: new scientific evidence and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2005-11-01

    The work contract is based on the norm of social reciprocity where appropriate rewards are provided for efforts and achievements at work. The effort-reward imbalance model of work stress maintains that contractual non-reciprocity in terms of high efforts spent and low rewards received is frequent if people have no alternative choice in the labour market, if they are exposed to heavy competition or if they are intrinsically motivated to engage in excessive work-related commitment. According to the model, long-term exposure to effort-reward imbalance increases the risk of stress-related disorders. An overview of results from prospective epidemiological investigations testing the model is given. Overall, people who experience failed reciprocity at work are twice as likely to suffer from incident cardiovascular disease, depression or alcohol dependence compared to those who are not exposed. Associations are stronger for men than for women. Policy implications of findings for improved worksite health promotion are discussed.

  13. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    . The authors' impressive analysis of causal factors, including political elites' strategic use of social policy, makes the book an original and important contribution to the comparative welfare state literature.'- Professor Linda J. Cook, Brown University“ 'This edited volume is extraordinarily good...... factors such as micro-causal mechanisms, ideas, discourses, path departures, power politics, and elite strategies. This book includes contributions from leading international Experts such as Claus Offe, Robert Kaufman, Stefan Haggard, Tomasz Inglot, and Mitchell Orenstein, to examine welfare in specific...... countries and across social policy domains. By providing a broad overview based on a theoretical foundation and drawing on recent empirical evidence, Post-Communist Welfare Pathways offers a comprehensive, state-of-the-art account of the progress that has been made since 1989, and the main challenges...

  14. LEVEL SOCIAL SELF CONCEPT AND IMPLICATION IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Kartika Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teenager consider themselves based on the perception others and one of the element which affecting the maturation in self concept is how the assessment and social environment revenue toward it self .This study purpose to describe the self concept of teens and the implications in guidance and counseling .The research type descriptive quantitative methods. The Research was done to teenagers of simple  orphanage in  bengkulu with a population about 103 teenagers .The total of the  research about 82 survey youth to the sample used purposive sampling techniqul  instrument was used  the closed of  scale likert model  with validity 0.873 , reliability ( 0,931 self concept .The findings of this research shows that: ( 1 self concept as of teens tend to be low category. (2  implications finding for service counseling guidance the basic of arranging the guidance counseling program service which can formed  and improved the self concept of teens positively.

  15. Effect of a nine-month web- and app-based workplace intervention to promote healthy lifestyle and weight loss for employees in the social welfare and health care sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Nina Charlotte; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    Su-life") on employees in the social welfare and health care sector in Denmark. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was carried out as a workplace intervention. The tool was designed to help users make healthy lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercise more, and quit smoking. A team competition between...

  16. Social class, gender, and time use: implications for the social determinants of body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; Godley, Jenny; MacNairn, Ian A S

    2009-12-01

    The social gradient in body weight (for example, obesity) departs from the social gradient in other health outcomes. Innovative approaches are needed to understand the observed patterns. This study examines time-use patterns by indicators of socio-economic position, and considers the implications of variations in time use for the social gradient in weight reported in other studies. The data are from respondents aged 25 to 64 to Canada's 1986 and 2005 General Social Surveys, which focused on time use. Participation in various activities was examined by sex, and by personal income and education, stratified by sex, in both years. Higher-income men and women were more likely than those of lower income to spend time in paid work, commuting and eating out, and less likely to spend time sleeping. Men and women with higher education were more likely than those with lower education to spend time in physical activity (2005 only) and reading. These time-use patterns plausibly contribute to the social gradient in obesity reported in other Canadian studies. The findings suggest that there is value in looking beyond a narrow range of health behaviours toward broader measures of daily routines to gain insight into the social determinants of weight and health.

  17. Welfare Cuts and Insecurity under the Rule of Austerity: the Impact of the Crisis on Portuguese Social Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hespanha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available TThis paper discusses the impact of austerity on social services in Portugal. The highly complex process of changes to public services launched by anti-crisis programmes needs to be analysed from different perspectives. On the supply side, the impacts are associated with reducing expenditure in social areas in different ways: reducing benefits by axing services, cutting staff costs, dismissing public sector workers and centralizing procurement; privatizing public management; blind cuts to the current expenses budget. On the demand side, the impacts are associated with reductions to the disposable income of families by cutting entitlements to healthcare, education, housing, social security and other benefits, cutting public sector pay, taxing pensions, and introducing or increasing restrictions on access to public services. Este artículo analiza el impacto de la austeridad en los servicios sociales de Portugal. El proceso de cambio en las políticas públicas tan complejo que se produjo como consecuencia de los programas anti-crisis requieren un análisis desde diferentes perspectivas. En el lado de la oferta, los impactos se asocian con la reducción del gasto social de diferentes formas: reduciendo beneficios por el recorte en servicios, recortando los costes de personal, despidiendo a trabajadores del sector público y centralizando las adquisiciones; privatizando la gestión pública; recortes ocultos en el presupuesto de gastos vigente. En el lado de la demanda, los impactos se asocian con la reducción de la renta de las familias mediante la reducción de derechos sanitarios, educación, vivienda, seguridad social y otros beneficios, recortando los salarios del sector público, gravando las pensiones e introduciendo o aumentando las restricciones en el acceso a servicios públicos. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2683350

  18. Welfare State Changes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    . The conclusion of this article is that income inequality has been steadily increasing in Danish society; while in Portugal, despite improvements in many social domains (healthcare, poverty alleviation, unemployment protection), problems of inequality remain deeply embedded in the country’s social......It is well known that welfare states ensure a certain level of social protection affecting levels of well-being and the extent of inequalities in society. Changes within crucial domains of social policy, such as education, health, or social protection, have, therefore, a major effect upon...

  19. Global impact of a climate treaty if the Human Development Index replaces GDP as a welfare proxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Jeroen; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the implications of shifting the narrative of climate policy evaluation from one of costs/benefits or economic growth to a message of improving social welfare. Focusing on the costs of mitigation and the associated impacts on gross domestic product (GDP) may translate into a

  20. Someone to Lean on: Assessment and Implications of Social Surrogate Use in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Coplan, Robert J.; Matheson, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    A social surrogate is a person who helps a shy individual deal with the stresses of a social situation. Previous research has only investigated social surrogate use in adults. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a new self-report measure of social surrogacy in middle childhood and to explore the implications of this…

  1. Social desirability bias in personality testing: Implications for astronaut selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, Gro M.; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert. L.; Gravdal, Lene

    2005-07-01

    The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD may be a negative predictor for performance under stress.

  2. Percepciones sobre las consecuencias sociales del estado del bienestar y su futuro (Perceptions on the social consequences and the future of welfare state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Tortosa, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las actitudes ciudadanas ante el estado del bienestar van a ser en el futuro motivo de gran interés debido a los proyectos de reforma que se prevee realizar. Los valores y los intereses personales son el conjunto de factores que influyen decisivamente en la opinión de los ciudadanos. Este trabajo pretende dilucidar en que medida los valores representados por la idea de igualdad, de autoridad y de mérito, la posición política y la percepción de los efectos del estado del bienestar permiten determinar la opinión de los individuos sobre la situación futura del sistema de pensiones.Abstract: Citizens’ attitudes to the welfare state will be in the future of great interest because of the draft reform envisaged. The values and interests personal are all factors that strongly influence in the opinion of citizens. This paper seeks to ascertain to what extent values represented by the idea of equality, authority and merit, political position and perceptions of the effects of state welfare for determining the views of individuals on the future status of the pension system.

  3. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  4. The role of welfare state principles and generosity in social policy programmes for public health: an international comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Olle; Yngwe, Monica Aberg; Stjärne, Maria Kölegård

    2008-01-01

    . METHODS: Infant mortality rates and old-age excess mortality rates were analysed in relation to social policy characteristics and generosity. We did pooled cross-sectional time-series analyses of 18 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries during the period 1970...

  5. Accounting for risk aversion, income distribution, and social welfare in cost-benefit analysis for flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kind, Jarl; Botzen, W.J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297620584; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Most cost-benefit analysis (CBA) textbooks and guidelines recognize the objective of CBAs to improve social welfare—a function of well-being of all individuals, conceptualized by utility. However, today's common practice to value flood risk management benefits as the reduction of the expected annual

  6. European welfare states in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerijck, A.C.; Dräbing, V.; Vis, B.; Nelson, M.L.; Soentken, M.F.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this working paper, we assess to what extent European welfare states have moved in the direction of social investment in terms of spending and how well they are performing socio-economically, for instance in terms of unemployment, poverty-reduction and work-family life reconciliation. Moreover,

  7. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world’s highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare...

  8. Men's Mental Health: Social Determinants and Implications for Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, William; Carmichael, Victoria; Whitley, Rob

    2018-01-01

    Numerous scholars have stated that there is a silent crisis in men's mental health. In this article, we aim to provide an overview of core issues in the field of men's mental health, including a discussion of key social determinants as well as implications for mental health services. Firstly, we review the basic epidemiology of mental disorders with a high incidence and prevalence in men, including suicide and substance use disorder. Secondly, we examine controversies around the low reported rates of depression in men, discussing possible measurement and reporting biases. Thirdly, we explore common risk factors and social determinants that may explain higher rates of certain mental health outcomes in men. This includes a discussion of 1) occupational and employment issues; 2) family issues and divorce; 3) adverse childhood experience; and 4) other life transitions, notably parenthood. Fourthly, we document and analyze low rates of mental health service utilization in men. This includes a consideration of the role of dominant notions of masculinity (such as stubbornness and self-reliance) in deterring service utilization. Fifthly, we note that some discourse on the role of masculinity contains much "victim blaming," often adopting a reproachful deficit-based model. We argue that this can deflect attention away from social determinants as well as issues within the mental health system, such as claims that it is "feminized" and unresponsive to men's needs. We conclude by calling for a multipronged public health-inspired approach to improve men's mental health, involving concerted action at the individual, health services, and societal levels.

  9. Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2009-07-22

    Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.

  10. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  11. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern.

  12. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  13. Social and Economic Implications of Noncommunicable diseases in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs have become a major public health problem in India accounting for 62% of the total burden of foregone DALYs and 53% of total deaths. In this paper, we review the social and economic impact of NCDs in India. We outline this impact at household, health system and the macroeconomic level. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs figure at the top among the leading ten causes of adult (25-69 years deaths in India. The effects of NCDs are inequitable with evidence of reversal in social gradient of risk factors and greater financial implications for the poorer households in India. Out-of-pocket expenditure associated with the acute and long-term effects of NCDs is high resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for the households. Study in India showed that about 25% of families with a member with CVD and 50% with cancer experience catastrophic expenditure and 10% and 25%, respectively, are driven to poverty. The odds of incurring catastrophic hospitalization expenditure were nearly 160% higher with cancer than the odds of incurring catastrophic spending when hospitalization was due to a communicable disease. These high numbers also pose significant challenge for the health system for providing treatment, care and support. The proportion of hospitalizations and outpatient consultations as a result of NCDs rose from 32% to 40% and 22% to 35%, respectively, within a decade from 1995 to 2004. In macroeconomic term, most of the estimates suggest that the NCDs in India account for an economic burden in the range of 5-10% of GDP, which is significant and slowing down GDP thus hampering development. While India is simultaneously experiencing several disease burdens due to old and new infections, nutritional deficiencies, chronic diseases, and injuries, individual interventions for clinical care are unlikely to be affordable on a large scale. While it is clear that "treating our way out" of the NCDs may not be the efficient way, it has

  14. Welfare improving barter in imperfect competition

    OpenAIRE

    CRESTI, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers a rationale for the development of the barter industry in industrialized economies. It argues that, in a context of imperfect competition, barter represents a profitable and efficient system of exchange. Thanks to barter, even if already at the optimum, a monopolist can still reduce the production costs and thus increase profits. Moreover, by adopting a barter strategy, he also improves social welfare, as he raises total output and decreases market price. Social welfare impr...

  15. Influence of social media on Ghanaian youths: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore, highlights the nature of social media, uses of social media in Ghana, theoretical framework on social interactions and influence of social media on Ghanaian youths. It also identifies various ways by which counsellors could intervene to assist youths to make effective use of social media and avoid the ...

  16. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  17. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  18. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active......This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  19. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  20. Young Chinese children's beliefs about the implications of subtypes of social withdrawal: A first look at social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J; Sang, Biao; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Cheng, Chen

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine young Chinese children's beliefs about the implications of different subtypes of social withdrawal (e.g., shyness, unsociability), including for the first time, social avoidance. Participants were 133 children in kindergarten (n = 58, Mage  = 70.85 months) and grade 1 (n = 75, Mage  = 83.49 months). Children were presented with vignettes describing hypothetical peers displaying shy, unsociable, avoidant, and socially competent behaviours and were then asked a series of questions to assess their beliefs about the implications of these different behaviours. Young children made distinctions between social withdrawal subtypes in terms of underlying motivations and emotions. Children also appeared to hold differential beliefs about the implications of different forms of social withdrawal: Of note, they anticipated that socially avoidant peers would experience the most negative outcomes. These findings provide some of the first evidence to suggest that social avoidance represents a distinct form of social withdrawal among young Chinese children. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of distinguishing between different subtypes of social withdrawal in Chinese culture. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The impacts of regulation via the allowed rate of return constraint on social welfare, input choices, and level of output in the privately-owned electric utilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phongam, S.

    1990-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of change in price elasticity of demand for electricity on social welfare, allowed rate of return, and marginal revenue product of each input used to produce electricity. Price elasticities of demand for electricity in residential, commercial, and industrial sectors are compared as well as total demand in 1987. Also compared are these price elasticities between 1982 and 1987. Several conclusions are: (1) There is an overcapitalization in privately-owned electric utilities because at the chosen level of output, marginal revenue product of capital is less than its price. (2) Elastic demand for electricity will improve values of social welfare and marginal revenue product of inputs. (3) Tightening allowed rate of return will increase the amount of capital and labor usages, but decrease fuel, output, and social welfare. (4) Both residential and industrial demand for electricity are elastic, but commercial demand is inelastic. (5) By making comparison of price elasticity of demand between 1982 and 1987, it shows that price elasticity of demand for electricity in residential, industrial, and total demand are increasing. However, for the commercial sector, the price elasticity is decreasing somewhat

  2. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

  3. Welfare Effects of Higher Energy and Food Prices in Botswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a social accounting matrix (SAM) multiplier framework, the paper examines the welfare effects of higher ... Key Words: Social Accounting Matrix; Multiplier analysis; Welfare; Botswana ..... After all, the principal ... Financial Services. 0.90.

  4. An epidemiological analysis of equine welfare data from regulatory inspections by the official competent authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, P L; Hultgren, J; Frössling, J; Emanuelson, U; Keeling, L J

    2017-07-01

    Determining welfare status in a population is the first step in efforts to improve welfare. The primary objective of this study was to explore a new epidemiological approach for analysis of data from official competent authorities that pertain to compliance with animal welfare legislation. We reviewed data already routinely collected as part of Swedish official animal welfare inspections for 2010-13, using a checklist containing 45 checkpoints (CPs). These covered animal-, resource- and management-based measures of equine welfare. The animal-based CPs were measures that directly related to the animal and included social contact, body condition, hoof condition and cleanliness. Non-compliance with one or more of the animal-based CPs was used as a binary outcome of poor equine welfare; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the exact binomial distribution. Associations were determined using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for clustering on premises. Resource- and management-based CPs (model inputs) were reduced by principal component analysis. Other input factors included premises characteristics (e.g. size, location) and inspection characteristics (e.g. type of inspection). There were 30 053 premises with horses from 21 counties registered by the Swedish Board of Agriculture. In total 13 321 inspections of premises were conducted at 28.4% (n=8532) of all registered premises. For random inspections, the premises-prevalence of poor equine welfare was 9.5% (95% CI 7.5, 11.9). Factors associated with poor equine welfare were non-compliance with requirements for supervision, care or feeding of horses, facility design, personnel, stable hygiene, pasture and exercise area maintenance, as well as the owner not being notified of the inspection, a previous complaint or deficiency, spring compared with autumn, and not operating as a professional equine business. Horses at premises compliant with stabling and shelter requirements had significantly better

  5. Psicologia e a produção do cuidado no campo do bem-estar social Psychology and production of care in the area of social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Macedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se propõe discutir concepções e práticas de cuidado de psicólogos que atuam no campo das políticas sociais, especificamente no âmbito da Saúde (SUS e Assistência Social (SUAS e suas interfaces com os modos de governo e gestão da vida produzidos no contexto biopolítico contemporâneo. O estudo foi realizado em 05 localidades que contam simultaneamente em seu território com Unidades Básicas de Saúde/UBS e Centros de Referência da Assistência Social/CRAS. Acompanhamos o cotidiano e a rotina dos psicólogos que atuam nesses serviços a partir da observação participante e realização de entrevistas. Identificamos que os modos de cuidado produzidos nesses campos pelos profissionais da psicologia indicam tanto uma adesão a um ideal de produzir sujeitos autônomos, produtivos, saudáveis e conscientes dos seus direitos, logo se configurando como práticas normativas, quanto expressam tentativas de ruptura com o estabelecido.The purpose of this study is to discuss the care conceptions and practices of psychologists that work in the area of social policy, specifically in health (Unified Health System and in social assistance (Unified Social Assistance System, and its interfaces with the modes of government and life management produced in the contemporary bio-political context. The study was accomplished in five localities that have in their territories Basic Health Units and Referral Centers for Social Assistance. Using participant observation and interviews, we accompanied the daily routine of the psychologists that work in these services. We identified that these professionals produced modes of care that indicate an adherence to the ideal production of subjects that are autonomous, productive and healthful, and that are aware of their rights, thereby constituting normative practices that express attempts at rupturing with the establishment.

  6. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  7. A history of animal welfare science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made.

  8. Homeless People’s Transition from the Hidden World of Socialism to the Quasi-Welfare Social Safety of Contemporary Hungary: Evidence from Szeged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGY, Terézia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary, homelessness has reappeared in the 1990s as a kind of social problem and also as a phenomenon. The intention of this study is to show how homelessness has become visible to society and why the problem was perceived so late, despite the fact that homeless people were part of the socialist society, even if in a latent way. Fieldwork was carried out in Szeged, a city in southern Hungary after 2002. During the research, I have participated in the everyday lives of homeless groups as an observer; I have conducted interviews and examined the social networks, problems and possibilities of the homeless. In this study, I show that the Hungarian circumstances, politics and structural changes were different from their Western counterparts, since Hungary took a different path. This trajectory infl uences the fate of those who become homeless. Even so, twenty years aft er the end of socialism, a number of parallels with the West, and with the United States in particular, can be discerned.

  9. Assessment and Implications of Social Avoidance in Chinese Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Biao; Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J.; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Feng, Xingyi

    2018-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to (a) develop and validate a new self-report measure of social avoidance for use among early adolescents in mainland China and (b) explore the links between subtypes of social withdrawal (i.e., shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance) and indices of socio-emotional difficulties in this cultural context.…

  10. A Social Constructionist Approach to Disability: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the specific viewpoint of the disability rights social movement of people with physical disabilities to other conditions such as intellectual disabilities,…

  11. Implications of Common Core State Standards on the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William B., III.

    2014-01-01

    Social studies teachers have often been on the outside looking in during much of the era billed as the standards-based educational reform (SBER), but with the adoption and implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), social studies teachers seem to have been invited back inside. Yet, how will the standards impact social studies…

  12. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  13. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  14. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P; Bazzi, Angela R; Allen, Heidi L; Martinson, Melissa L; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L

    2017-12-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health.

  15. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R.; Allen, Heidi L.; Martinson, Melissa L.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health. PMID:29236535

  16. Interoception and Autonomic Correlates during Social Interactions. Implications for Anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ambrosecchia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the bodily-self in Restrictive Anorexia, focusing on two basic aspects related to the bodily self: autonomic strategies in social behavior, in which others' social desirability features, and social cues (e.g., gaze are modulated, and interoception (i.e., the sensitivity to stimuli originating inside the body. Furthermore, since previous studies carried out on healthy individuals found that interoception seems to contribute to the autonomic regulation of social behavior, as measured by Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA, we aimed to explore this link in anorexia patients, whose ability to perceive their bodily signal seems to be impaired. To this purpose, we compared a group of anorexia patients (ANg; restrictive type with a group of Healthy Controls (HCg for RSA responses during both a resting state and a social proxemics task, for their explicit judgments of comfort in social distances during a behavioral proxemics task, and for their Interoceptive Accuracy (IA. The results showed that ANg displayed significantly lower social disposition and a flattened autonomic reactivity during the proxemics task, irrespective of the presence of others' socially desirable features or social cues. Moreover, unlike HCg, the autonomic arousal of ANg did not guide behavioral judgments of social distances. Finally, IA was strictly related to social disposition in both groups, but with opposite trends in ANg. We conclude that autonomic imbalance and its altered relationship with interoception might have a crucial role in anorexia disturbances.

  17. Interpersonal subtypes in social phobia: diagnostic and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interpersonal assessment may provide a clinically useful way to identify subtypes of social phobia. In this study, we examined evidence for interpersonal subtypes in a sample of 77 socially phobic outpatients. A cluster analysis based on the dimensions of dominance and love on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) found 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially phobic patients. These subtypes did not differ on pretreatment global symptom severity as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) or diagnostic comorbidity but did exhibit differential responses to outpatient psychotherapy. Overall, friendly-submissive social phobia patients had significantly lower scores on measures of social anxiety and significantly higher scores on measures of well-being and satisfaction at posttreatment than cold-submissive social phobia patients. We discuss the results in terms of interpersonal theory and the clinical relevance of assessment of interpersonal functioning prior to beginning psychotherapy with socially phobic patients.

  18. Social media processes in disasters: Implications of emergent technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Dhiraj; Gross, Alexander J

    2017-03-01

    This article seeks to extend social science scholarship on social media technology use during disruptive events. Though social media's role in times of crisis has been previously studied, much of this work tends to focus on first-responders and relief organizations. However, social media use during disasters tends to be decentralized and this organizational structure can promote different types of messages to top-down information systems. Using 142,786 geo-tagged tweets collected before and after Hurricane Sandy's US landfall as a case study, this article seeks to explore shifts in social media behavior during disruptive events and highlights that though Sandy disrupted routine life within Twitter, users responded to the disaster by employing humor, sharing photos, and checking into locations. We conclude that social media use during disruptive events is complex and understanding these nuanced behaviors is important across the social sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  20. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  1. Bienestar Social, Económico y Ambiental para las Presentes y Futuras Generaciones Social, Economic and Environmental Welfare for Present and Future Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Fernández; Mirella Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar la diferencia entre desarrollo sostenible y sustentable, aclarando cual describe el desarrollo humano social, económico y ambiental, respetando al ambiente. Es un trabajo de reflexión documentada que arroja en sus hallazgos el uso del término "sustainable" en la literatura Inglesa conforme al informe Brundtland. Su traducción al castellano como sostenible, la incorrecta traducción al castellano por sustentable y el concepto Latinoamericano de los térmi...

  2. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  3. Does self-regulation of advertisement length improve consumer welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Matsubae, Taisuke; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, TV platforms regulate themselves as to the length of the advertisements they air. Using modified Hotelling models, we investigate whether such self-regulation improves consumer and social welfare or not. When all consumers choose a single TV program (the utility functions of consumers satisfy the standard 'full-coverage' condition), self-regulation always reduces consumer welfare. It improves social welfare only if the advertisement revenue of each platform is not small and the cost...

  4. Bring Back Our Girls, Social Mobilization: Implications for Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutokunbo, Adekalu Samuel; Suandi, Turiman; Cephas, Oluwaseyitan Rotimi; Abu-Samah, Irza Hanie

    2015-01-01

    Social mobilization is a proactive measure for community development that salvages the society from destruction and disaster. From sociological perspective, this paper discusses the concept of social mobilization and its implications for cross-cultural research. To do this, the study uses the "Bring Back Our Girls" Global Campaign, as…

  5. Privacy implications of location and contextual data on the social web

    OpenAIRE

    Zafeiropoulou, Aristea-Maria; Millard, David; Webber, Craig; O'Hara, Kieron

    2011-01-01

    Location-based applications have recently begun to emerge on the Social Web. After their appearance numerous concerns with regards to location privacy have been provoked. However, these privacy concerns seem to have effects beyond location, as other contextual information can be inferred through location information. This research addresses these implications, which keep on growing on the Social Web.

  6. Social Learning Conceptualization for Substance Abuse: Implications for Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Giovazolias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Substance misuse and abuse among adolescents and young adults, especially students, remain a significant public health issue, often associated with serious academic, psychological and health problems. Theoretical models of social behaviour emphasize the importance of peer behaviour as a modelling or normative influence. The processes by which social influence factors contribute to substance misuse behaviour have been described in models derived from the social learning paradigm, including both socio-environmental (e.g. social modelling, perceived norms and coping skills and cognitive variables (e.g. self-efficacy, outcome expectancies. However, this growing body of the literature often reveals contradictory findings regarding the precise mechanisms of processes by which social and cognitive variables may influence substance misuse in youth populations. This review critically examines the literature on different forms of peer influence and accordingly provides suggestions for intervention strategies that take into consideration the relevant research findings on social learning constructs.

  7. IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY DISCLOSURE ON GLOBAL PRODUCTION NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bo; Dan Shen; Jin Jun Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss effectiveness of social responsibility disclosure in promoting global production network. Through a critical review on the theoretical development from supply chain to global production network, the global supply chain management of Apple Inc., as a case, is investigated, with focus on corporate and NGOs’ social disclosure on the environmental and labor rights' issues of its suppliers in China. The paper concludes that effectiveness of corporate social disclosure on...

  8. Spontaneous inferences on social media and their implications for ambient awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Levordashka, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Ambient awareness refers to the idea that social media users gain awareness of their online networks, while sifting through the stream of social updates spontaneously, without deliberate effort or intention. Since online networks are large and diverse, an efficient process like ambient awareness has important implications for how people can manage to maintain and profit from them (Donath, 2007; Resnick, 2001). Despite its growing popularity in social media research, ambient awareness had...

  9. Chronic Pain - Perceptions, Limitations and Implications. A Social Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Monteiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain (CP is a complex phenomenon that affects the lives of individuals at the level of well-being, family relationships and social and professional life, causing biological and psychosocial changes, and in most cases, suffering. CPis associated with physical, professional and social limitations, and compromises quality of life (QOL provoking insecurity which results in considerable social and material losses. In this context a multidimensional pain assessment is fundamental in order to find a swift and appropriate response to the needs of each individual. The evaluation should take into account psychological and social factors in addition to physical factors. pain (CP is a complex phenomenon that affects the lives of individuals at the level of well-being, family relationships and social and professional life, causing biological and psychosocial changes, and in most cases, suffering. CPis associated with physical, professional and social limitations, and compromises quality of life (QOL provoking insecurity which results in considerable social and material losses. In this context a multidimensional pain assessment is fundamental in order to find a swift and appropriate response to the needs of each individual. The evaluation should take into account psychological and social factors in addition to physical factors. The authors of this paper reinforce the idea that any evaluation and / or intervention that is made in people with CP must always take into account the internal and external factors of the environment in which the individual belongs, and which influence how they perceive and assess their pain

  10. The Implicit Contract: Implications for Health Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoyd, Judith L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying common patient dynamics is useful for developing social work practice sensitivity in health social work. This article draws on findings from a study of women who terminated desired pregnancies because of fetal anomalies and identifies dynamics that may be applicable to many health settings. Data suggest that women have expectations…

  11. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  12. Social Constructionism and Ludology: Implications for the Study of Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montola, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This article combines the paradigm of social constructionism with the developing field of ludology. As games are intersubjective meaning-making activities, their study requires understanding of the nature of social constructions, and how such constructions are produced and interpreted: The formalist nature of ludological core concepts such as game…

  13. Acceptance of biotechnology and social-cultural implications in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    take pride in what they eat. A proposal is made to set biotechnology research agenda in the context of social choices; social scientific coalition of biotechnology with endogenous development pathways' as opposed to 'exogenous biotechnology research'. Also there is the need for adequate capacity building of the existing ...

  14. Parent Social Networks and Parent Responsibility: Implications for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Katherine A.; Adams, Curt M.

    2014-01-01

    Family-school partnerships are difficult to initiate and sustain in ways that actually promote student learning, especially in high-poverty communities. This quantitative study was designed to better understand how social forces shape parent responsibility in education. Based on social cognitive theory as the conceptual framework, the…

  15. EXPLORING AN EMERGING FIELD: THE IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk KIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to advance the empirical understanding of global social entrepreneurship. Specifically, this paper aims to provide a new social entrepreneurship model, particularly on a global scale, introducing and examining two distinctive cases: Ashoka and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC. The ‘hybrid value chain’ suggested by Ashoka demonstrates that how business organizations and citizen-sector organizations can help each other in developing partnerships for various markets and communities in the world, addressing a variety of social needs. Presenting the ‘holistic approach to development,’ BRAC has been transferring its sustainable model, based on insights from Bangladesh but adapted to the local contexts of the countries, to several countries by creating prospects for the most disadvantaged people to overcome extreme poverty. This paper contributes to the current literature by highlighting how entrepreneurial efforts can create opportunities and launch ventures to satisfy social needs, balancing economic and social imperatives, on a global scale.

  16. Blurred Lines: Ethical Implications of Social Media for Behavior Analysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Patrick N; Miller, Megan M; Olive, Melissa L; Kelly, Amanda N

    2017-03-01

    Social networking has a long list of advantages: it enables access to a large group of people that would otherwise not be geographically convenient or possible to connect with; it reaches several different generations, particularly younger ones, which are not typically involved in discussion of current events; and these sites allow a cost effective, immediate, and interactive way to engage with others. With the vast number of individuals who use social media sites as a way to connect with others, it may not be possible to completely abstain from discussions and interactions on social media that pertain to our professional practice. This is all the more reason that behavior analysts attend to the contingencies specific to these tools. This paper discusses potential ethical situations that may arise and offers a review of the Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB) guidelines pertaining to social networking, as well as provides suggestions for avoiding or resolving potential violations relating to online social behavior.

  17. The social implications of using drones for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbrook, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, or 'drones', appear to offer a flexible, accurate and affordable solution to some of the technical challenges of nature conservation monitoring and law enforcement. However, little attention has been given to their possible social impacts. In this paper, I review the possible social impacts of using drones for conservation, including on safety, privacy, psychological wellbeing, data security and the wider understanding of conservation problems. I argue that negative social impacts are probable under some circumstances and should be of concern for conservation for two reasons: (1) because conservation should follow good ethical practice; and (2) because negative social impacts could undermine conservation effectiveness in the long term. The paper concludes with a call for empirical research to establish whether the identified social risks of drones occur in reality and how they could be mitigated, and for self-regulation of drone use by the conservation sector to ensure good ethical practice and minimise the risk of unintended consequences.

  18. Household Inequality, Welfare, and the Setting of Trade Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); H. Rojas-Romagosa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze general equilibrium relationships between trade policy and the household distribution of income, decomposing social welfare into real income level and variance components through Gini and Atkinson indexes. We embed these inequality-adjusted social welfare functions in a

  19. The Ideology of Welfare Reform: Deconstructing Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Frederick B.

    1996-01-01

    Critiques recent welfare reform proposals and recommends social work practices that humanize Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The critique deconstructs the labels "dependent,""addict," and "illegitimate" as they are applied to AFDC mothers and explores the reproduction of stigma through social work…

  20. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  1. Social capital and health: implications for public health and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1998-11-01

    Public health and its "basic science", epidemiology, have become colonised by the individualistic ethic of medicine and economics. Despite a history in public health dating back to John Snow that underlined the importance of social systems for health, an imbalance has developed in the attention given to generating "social capital" compared to such things as modification of individual's risk factors. In an illustrative analysis comparing the potential of six progressively less individualised and more community-focused interventions to prevent deaths from heart disease, social support and measures to increase social cohesion faired well against more individual medical care approaches. In the face of such evidence public health professionals and epidemiologists have an ethical and strategic decision concerning the relative effort they give to increasing social cohesion in communities vs expanding access for individuals to traditional public health programs. Practitioners' relative efforts will be influenced by the kind of research that is being produced by epidemiologists and by the political climate of acceptability for voluntary individual "treatment" approaches vs universal policies to build "social capital". For epidemiologists to further our emerging understanding of the link between social capital and health they must confront issues in measurement, study design and analysis. For public health advocates to sensitise the political environment to the potential dividend from building social capital, they must confront the values that focus on individual-level causal models rather than models of social structure (dis)integration. The evolution of explanations for inequalities in health is used to illustrate the nature of the change in values.

  2. Social and ethical implications of psychiatric classification for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classification of Diseases, currently 10th edition, it is timely to consider the wider societal implications of evolving psychiatric classification, especially within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The author reviewed developments in psychiatric classification, especially the move from categorical to dimensional ...

  3. Evaluating the social and cultural implications of the internet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Since the Internet's breakthrough as a mass medium, it has become a topic of discussion because of its implications for society. At one extreme, one finds those who only see great benefits and consider the Internet a tool for freedom, commerce, connectivity, and other societal benefits. At the other

  4. Social Work Education and Global Issues: Implications for Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Beverly L.

    2011-01-01

    If social workers are to become more effectively involved in international organizations and global issues, the international dimension of social work education must be strengthened. Educational programs for social workers around the world give only limited attention to social issues that extend beyond national boundaries. Schools of social work…

  5. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  6. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...

  7. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  8. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  9. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  10. Market Behavior in the Welfare State:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; christensen, bjarke

    2018-01-01

    The “consumerist citizen” is a type of citizen who develops his or her public and political commitments on the basis of market-like principles. For this citizen the important thing is the possibility to make individual choices in public contexts. In this article the implications of the consumerist...... of the consumerist citizen, and finally we suggest its implications for the welfare state. The dissemination of consumerist identity represents a serious change in the relationship between citizens and the welfare state. The rise of a public acting on the basis of market-logic is a serious change taking place...... in relation to citizenship. Regardless of whether this development is perceived as positive or negative, it will inevitably influence the ways in which the public sector is perceived. The rise of the consumerist citizen can be seen as a factor erosive of the basic solidary principles of the welfare state...

  11. Will Welfare Reform Hurt Low-Skilled Workers? Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchautegui, Maria E.

    The entry of working welfare mothers into the labor market will have an impact on the wages and employment of low-skilled workers. This impact was examined through a labor market analysis of available statistical data about the U.S. population and employment patterns. The characteristics of workers likely to enter the labor market because of…

  12. Polio in Pakistan: Social constraints and travel implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Asim; Mehmood, Sajid; Rehman, Muhammad Ateeq Ur; Younas, Asma; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Malik, Muhamamd Faheem; Hyder, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Pakistan has faced failure despite being implemented successfully. Polio cases were successfully reduced by 99% until 2005. However, thereafter, new polio cases were registered, which continue to rise annually. This repeat polio outbreak has placed the country on watch by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to travelers, and Hajj and Umrah pilgrims. The present report reviews the published literature for determining the social constraints to the polio eradication initiative in Pakistan. Religion, politics, awareness, insecurity, inequity, governance, and social responsibility have been identified as key social factors in the failure of any vaccination campaign. Possible interventions have been proposed, which include effectively using modern mass media and educating vaccinators on the social and cultural background of the target community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Democracy and social justice: Implications for school leadership in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jwan

    Inclusion of democratic school leadership principles in teacher training programmes and an inculcation of .... appreciate the social, cultural and political role of schooling as follows: ...... democratic organizational landscape. Educational.

  14. Ethical Issues in Integrated Health Care: Implications for Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Frederic G

    2018-05-01

    Integrated health care has come of age. What began modestly in the 1930s has evolved into a mature model of health care that is quickly becoming the standard of care. Social workers are now employed in a wide range of comprehensive integrated health care organizations. Some of these settings were designed as integrated health care delivery systems from their beginning. Others evolved over time, some incorporating behavioral health into existing primary care centers and others incorporating primary care into existing behavioral health agencies. In all of these contexts, social workers are encountering complex, sometimes unprecedented, ethical challenges. This article identifies and discusses ethical issues facing social workers in integrated health care settings, especially related to informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, boundaries, dual relationships, and conflicts of interest. The author includes practical resources that social workers can use to develop state-of-the-art ethics policies and protocols.

  15. Democracy, ethics and social justice: Implications for secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were interviewed to explore their perspectives on democratic school leadership and establish the ... Inclusion of democratic school leadership principles in teacher training ... Keywords: democracy; ethics; leadership practices; social justice ...

  16. Web of Deception: Social Media and Implications for Military Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    additional deception and OPSEC concerns. 35 Beyond just the open source intelligence ( OSINT ) that can be collected by other entities, there is also a...witting participants, in an effort to mislead or confuse the enemy. Just as the United States would be monitoring social media for OSINT , the...deception. Exploiting adversary use of social media OSINT through DISO is another lower threat avenue to examine as a starting point. As previously

  17. The social implications of using drones for biodiversity conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Sandbrook, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, or ?drones?, appear to offer a flexible, accurate and affordable solution to some of the technical challenges of nature conservation monitoring and law enforcement. However, little attention has been given to their possible social impacts. In this paper, I review the possible social impacts of using drones for conservation, including on safety, privacy, psychological wellbeing, data security and the wider understanding of conservation problems. I argue that negative ...

  18. Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

    An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

  19. Obesity as a Socially Defined Disease: Philosophical Considerations and Implications for Policy and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2016-03-01

    Obesity has generated significant worries amongst health policy makers and has obtained increased attention in health care. Obesity is unanimously defined as a disease in the health care and health policy literature. However, there are pragmatic and not principled reasons for this. This warrants an analysis of obesity according to standard conceptions of disease in the literature of philosophy of medicine. According to theories and definitions of disease referring to (abnormal functioning of) internal processes, obesity is not a disease. Obesity undoubtedly can result in disease, making it a risk factor for disease, but not a disease per se. According to several social conceptions of disease, however, obesity clearly is a disease. Obesity can conflict with aesthetic, moral, or other social norms. Making obesity a "social disease" may very well be a wise health policy, assuring and improving population health, especially if we address the social determinants of obesity, such as the food supply and marketing system. However, applying biomedical solutions to social problems may also have severe side effects. It can result in medicalization and enhance stigmatization and discrimination of persons based on appearance or behavior. Approaching social problems with biomedical means may also serve commercial and professionals' interests more than the health and welfare of individuals; it may make quick fix medical solutions halt more sustainable structural solutions. This urges health insurers, health care professionals, and health policy makers to be cautious. Especially if we want to help and respect persons that we classify and treat as obese.

  20. Labor, Welfare and Coping with the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export-driven production model of growth, with weak safety nets, adopted by East Asian countries in contrast to the export-oriented Nordic social welfare model. The third section documents the impact of the crisis...... are the weaknesses? What are the human costs and collateral damage in the context of new types of regulation of labor markets and social welfare in the broadest sense and what are the differences and similarities between the models in general specifically with regard to crisis management? The approach guiding...... on the economies, and discusses core examples of state intervention in the socio-economic sectors such as labor markets and social welfare in the Nordic as well as Korean contexts. The final section discusses some tentative conclusions about the resilience of the Nordic and ROK models and their potential...

  1. Social and economic implications of the installation of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivetti, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the Italian experience with the evaluation, control, and containment of the social and economic impacts of nuclear power plant installations. Social and economic impact is defined as a set of causal relationships, direct and indirect, which are established between a nuclear plant and a surrounding territory. A nuclear plant imposes certain permanent restrictions in the use of the surrounding territory. The utilization of particularly dangerous substances requires that the plants be sited at a due distance from large urban centers and industrial areas. Therefore they are located in rural areas where the social and economic equilibria are less stable and more easily subjected to disturbances from outside factors. Essential services which must be provided for nonresident workers during the construction phase result in massive impacts which are compensated by the inflow of economic resources into the community. Social tension is also a likely consequence of importing workers into a community. There are disruptive effects induced by the high salaries paid to the construction workers such as local inflation. During the operating phase, the impacts will be smaller in proportion to the construction phase. Examples of social and economic impacts of nuclear plants in Italy are cited

  2. Social workers and workplace bullying: perceptions, responses and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This non-experimental, cross-sectional study examined social workers' perceptions of bullying work relationships and their ability to construct effective coping responses to perceived workplace bullying. Quantitative data were gathered through the use of a mailed questionnaire, and qualitative data resulted from semi-structured individual interviews. The quantitative sample consisted of 111 social workers from the metropolitan, Washington, DC area, who were employed in organizations. Two self-identified targets of bullying participated in the interviews. Nearly three of five social workers (58%) in the sample reported being the targets of demeaning, rude, and hostile workplace interactions more than once in the previous year. Targets were more likely to work in government agencies/military and mental health outpatient organizations (19% and 18% respectively). More than a third of targets (35%) held a direct service role (clinical/direct practice), whereas almost a third (29%) identified their role as administration or management. The findings from this study suggest that workplace bullying may be a problem for social workers and that the social work profession may need to develop tools and guidelines to help practitioners identify, confront and extinguish these behaviors.

  3. Disability and the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A higher proportion of working- age persons receive disability assistance in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands than in other European countries. Whereas current research emphasizes the connection between disability assistance and rates of labor force exit, to date there has been no exploration of how welfare state context influences individual self-reported disability. Using nationally representative data from 15 countries (n = 88, 478, I find that residents of generous welfare states are significantly more likely to report a disability net of self-reported health, sociodemographic, and labor force characteristics and, notably, that this association extends to younger and more educated workers. I argue that welfare state context may directly shape what it means to be disabled, which may have consequences for evaluations of welfare state performance and social exclusion.

  4. THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY - LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The equality in human rights and obligations, the equality of citizens before the law are fundamental categories of the theories on social democracy but also conditions of the lawful state, without which constitutional democracy cannot be conceived. In Romanian Constitution, this principle is consecrated in the form of equality of the citizens before the law and public authorities. There are also particular aspects of this principle consecrated in the Constitution. The constitutional principle of equality requires that equal treatment be applied to equal situations. This social and legal reality implies numerous interferences between the principle of equality and other constitutional principles. In this study, by using theoretical and jurisprudential arguments, we intend to demonstrate that, in relation to contemporary social reality, equality, as a constitutional principle, is a particular aspect of the principle of proportionality. The latter one expresses in essence the ideas of: fairness, justice, reasonableness and fair appropriateness of state decisions to the facts and legitimate aims proposed.

  5. Same-Gender Marriage: Implications for Social Work Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fasbinder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notably, in 2013, Maryland, Rhode Island, Delaware, and Minnesota became the 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th states, respectively, to legalize same-gender marriage. Without legal recognition or social support from the larger society, the majority of same-gender partnerships in the U.S. are denied privileges and rights that are considered basic for heterosexual marriages. This manuscript draws from a national cross section of published survey data from 1996 to 2013 reporting Americans’ attitudes regarding same-gender marriage and civil unions. Social work practitioners have broad opportunity to apply their skills to the critical needs facing same-gender partners. After an overview of the legal status of same-gender marriages and their accompanying social and policy issues, recommendations are provided that include identification of specific needs for premarital counseling of same-gender partners and ensuring sensitivity to the myriad challenges they face.

  6. A multidirectional communication model: implications for social marketing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L

    2009-04-01

    The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change.

  7. Controle social no Sistema Único de Assistência Social: propostas, concepções e desafios = Social control in the Social Welfare Unique System: proposals, conceptions and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Vini Rabassa da

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Constituição Federal de 1988, ao propor a criação de espaços de participação popular, buscou garantir a construção de políticas sociais públicas que atendam aos interesses da população e ao exercício do controle social. Este artigo apresenta reflexões acerca do controle social, na Política de Assistência Social, afirmando que este deve ser compreendido como um eixo que deve mover desde a sua construção, passando pela execução, e se expressando de forma mais objetiva na fiscalização e avaliação, que permanentemente devem acompanhar todas as ações, garantindo a participação da sociedade civil e, em especial, dos usuários da política, evitando, assim, que o Sistema Único de Assistência Social – SUAS – se materialize em um novo sistema que conserva a velha marca da subalternidade dos usuários dos serviços sócio-assistenciais

  8. Social Learning Theory in the Age of Social Media: Implications for Educational Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Following the research of Albert Bandura, the advent of social media has changed the platform for social interaction and human experience. Educators have a unique opportunity to apply the concepts of Bandura's Social Learning Theory toward enhanced student engagement and learning in a social media context. This article synthesizes current research…

  9. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  10. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  11. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  12. Darwin and Darwinism: the (alleged) social implications of the origin of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, H Allen

    2009-11-01

    Most scientific theories, even revolutionary ones, change the practice of a particular science but have few consequences for culture or society at large. But Darwinism, it has often been said, is different in this respect. Since the publication of The Origin of Species, many have claimed that Darwinism has a number of profound social implications. Here, I briefly consider three of these: the economic, the political, and the religious. I suggest that, for the most part, these supposed implications have been misconstrued or exaggerated. Indeed, it is reasonably clear that the chain of implication sometimes primarily ran in the opposite direction-from, for instance, economics and political theory to Darwinism.

  13. Unit 1203: The Social and Psychological Implications of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    Designed as a synthesis of concepts familiar to students having studied the earlier Minnesota Project English units or as an introduction for other students, this unit for grade 12 treats the role of language in the social and psychological development of man. Alternative introductions to the unit are provided: one concentrating on definitions of…

  14. The Social Media Affinity Scale: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlich, R. Nicholas; Browning, Leigh; Westermann, Lori

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, males and females have demonstrated fairly equal amounts of internet usage, but females have demonstrated higher usage of social media sites. These observed differences served as the impetus for the current study. A survey was conducted in early 2010 among college students to assess whether differences still occur between males…

  15. Farm Diversification into Tourism--Implications for Social Identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandth, Berit; Haugen, Marit S.

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with how diversification and transformation of farming into tourism may influence the social identity of farmers. Based on a study of 19 farms run by couples engaged with agritourism, it shows how the development of tourism on the farms can be understood in a perspective of repeasantization; and how the couples draw on their…

  16. Social Health Insurance in Nigeria: Policy Implications in A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social health insurance was introduced in Nigeria in 1999 and had since been restricted to workers in the formal public sector. There are plans for scaling up to include rural populations in a foreseeable future. Information on willingness to participate and pay a premium in the programme by rural populations is dearth.

  17. Social capital dimensions and its implications on poverty status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of social capital dimensions on poverty status of rural farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204) rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data ...

  18. social desirability bias and possible implications for HIV-prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluations of the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of HIV prevention interventions rely on self-reported sexual behaviour data. The accuracy of such data has sometimes been questioned. The absence of a so-called objective measure of sexual behaviour complicates this. Social desirability bias (SDB) is a key factor ...

  19. Design implications for a community-based social recipe system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, V.; Yalvac, F.; Funk, M.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Marcenaro, L.

    2014-01-01

    We introduced the concept of a community-based social recipe system which suggests recipes to groups of users based on available ingredients from these users (i.e. who can be from the same household or different households). In this paper we discuss the relevance and desirability of such a system

  20. Implications of the Social Web Environment for User Story Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancott, Terrill; Kamthan, Pankaj; Shahmir, Nazlie

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, user stories have emerged in academia, as well as industry, as a notable approach for expressing user requirements of interactive software systems that are developed using agile methodologies. There are social aspects inherent to software development, in general, and user stories, in particular. This paper presents directions and…

  1. Social Class and Belonging: Implications for Graduate Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrove, Joan M.; Stewart, Abigail J.; Curtin, Nicola L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role that social class background plays in graduate students' career goals. Class background was significantly related to the extent to which students struggled financially in graduate school, which related to their sense of belonging in graduate school. Sense of belonging related to academic self-concept, which predicted students'…

  2. System justification: A motivational process with implications for social conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jost, J. T.; Liviatan, I.; van der Toorn, J.; Ledgerwood, A.; Mandisodza, A.; Nosek, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    According to system justification theory, people are motivated to defend and legitimize the social systems that affect them. In this chapter, we review 15 years of theory and empirical research demonstrating the motivational underpinnings of system justification processes. We begin by explaining why

  3. Extension Implications Of The Social And Economic Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The social and economic characteristics of the human resources in the baking industry in south-eastern Nigeria were studied. The human resources used for the study were the managers, supervisors and factory floor workers. The study was done using an enterprise level interview schedule in Onitsha, Owerri, Aba and ...

  4. LGB Youth's Perceptions of Social Support: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiperman, Sarah; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Howard, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth may endure adverse experiences related to their sexual orientation and gender identity/expression. While social supports are commonly described as protective factors, few researchers have investigated this phenomenon for LGBT youth. The current study used thematic coding to analyze…

  5. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  6. Welfare Commonsense, Poverty Porn and Doxosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Tracey Jensen

    2014-01-01

    This article critically examine how Benefits Street – and the broader genre of poverty porn television – functions to embed new forms of ‘commonsense’ about welfare and worklessness. It argues that such television content and commentary crowds out critical perspectives with what Pierre Bourdieu (1999) called ‘doxa', making the social world appear self-evident and requiring no interpretation, and creating new forms of neoliberal commonsense around welfare and social security. The art...

  7. Welfarism versus 'free enterprise': considerations of power and justice in the Philippine healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Peter A

    2003-10-01

    The just distribution of benefits and burdens of healthcare, at least in the contemporary Philippine context, is an issue that gravitates towards two opposing doctrines of welfarism and 'free enterprise.' Supported largely by popular opinion, welfarism maintains that social welfare and healthcare are primarily the responsibility of the government. Free enterprise (FE) doctrine, on the other hand, maintains that social welfare is basically a market function and that healthcare should be a private industry that operates under competitive conditions with minimal government control. I will examine the ethical implications of these two doctrines as they inform healthcare programmes by business and government, namely: (a) the Devolution of Health Services and (b) the Philippine Health Maintenance Organization (HMO). I will argue that these doctrines and the health programmes they inform are deficient in following respects: (1) equitable access to healthcare, (2) individual needs for premium healthcare, (3) optimal utilisation of health resources, and (4) the equitable assignment of burdens that healthcare entails. These respects, as considerations of justice, are consistent with an operational definition of 'power' proposed here as 'access to and control of resources.'

  8. Social implications of children's smartphone addiction: The role of support networks and social engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Jennifer

    2018-06-05

    Background and aims Most studies have regarded smartphone addiction as a condition stemming from individuals' psychological issues, so research has rarely examined it in relation to a lack of social resources and its social impacts. However, this study reinterprets smartphone addiction as a social problem stemming from a lack of offline social networks and resulting in a decline of social engagement. Methods This study drew on a survey of 2,000 children in Korea consisting of 991 males and 1,009 females with an average age of 12 years old. Using the STATA 14 structural equation modeling program, this study examined the relationships between children's lack of social networks, smartphone addiction, and social engagement. Results Social network variables, such as formal organizational membership, quality of relationship with parents, size of the peer group, and peer support, decrease smartphone addiction. Simply having good relationships and reciprocal feelings with peers do not have any influence on the smartphone addiction. The more the children become addicted to smartphones, the less they participate in social engagement. Discussion and conclusions This study provides a new understanding of smartphone addiction by focusing on its social aspects, augmenting prior studies that have addressed psychological factors. Findings suggest that children's lack of social networks may inhibit comfortable social interactions and feelings of support in the offline environment, which can heighten their desire to escape to smartphones. These children, unlike non-addicts, may not take advantage of the media to enrich their social lives and increase their level of social engagement.

  9. The Social Cost Of Electricity. Scenarios and Policy Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.; Bigano, A.; Porchia, R.

    2010-01-01

    This book reports and rationalizes the state-of-the-art concerning the social costs of electricity generation. Social costs are assessed by adding to the private generation costs, the external costs associated with damages to human health, the environment, crops, materials, and those related to the consequences of climate change. The authors consider the evolution of these costs up to 2030 for major electricity generating technologies and, using these estimates, evaluate policy options for external cost internalization, providing quantitative scenarios by country and primary fuel for 2010, 2020 and 2030. While mainly focusing on European countries, the book also examines the situation in key emerging economies such as China, India, Brazil and Turkey. With an analysis of the policies for external costs internalization, this book will appeal to energy policymakers, research institutions focusing on energy, environmental and energy NGOs and trade associations, as well as energy companies.

  10. Environmental Sustainability based on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Scandinavian countries have some traditions of equity and social welfare, which are essential for reaching a truly environmentally sustainable society. But for the highly polluting Denmark, this would require a dramatic change in the political visions. Maintaining...... the present low birth rate is one condition necessary, environmentally better technology is another, and finally a saturation with material consumption, which is required. The latter is in line with people's quest for more leisure time rather than more consumption, but unfortunately counteracted by government...

  11. Regional social legitimacy of entrepreneurship: Implications for entrepreneurial intention and start-up behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kibler, Ewald; Kautonen, Teemu; Fink, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Regional social legitimacy of entrepreneurship: implications for entrepreneurial intention and start-up behaviour, Regional Studies. A new understanding of the role of regional culture in the emergence of business start-up behaviour is developed. The focal construct is regional social legitimacy: the perception of the desirability and appropriateness of entrepreneurship in a region. The econometric analysis utilizes a combination of bespoke longitudinal survey data from 65 regions in Austria ...

  12. Macroeconomic Implications of Changes in Social Security Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bagis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish social insurance system has been feverishly debated for years, particularly through its burden on the economy. The most recent reform is an attempt to neutralize the deterioration within the social security system and its effects on the economy. After the recent reform, ‘the way that retirement benefits are calculated’ is changed unfavorably for workers and the minimum age for retirement is increased. In particular, for an agent with 25 years of social security tax payments, the replacement rate is down from 65 percent to 50 percent. On the other hand, retirement age is up from 60 to 65. The aim of this paper is to investigate the macroeconomic effects of these changes using an OLG model. The author’s findings indicate that labor supply, output and capital stock increase when changes above are applied to the benchmark economy calibrated to the Turkish economy data in 2005. A critical change with the current reform is that the marginal benefit of working has become uniform over ages. In a simulation exercise, the marginal retirement benefit in the benchmark economy is changed to be uniform over ages while keeping the size of social security system unchanged. As a result, the benefit of retiring at a later period increases. However, uniform distribution of the marginal benefits itself decreases both the capital stock and output of the economy. Increasing the retirement age, on the other hand, has positive effects on the economy since agents obtain retirement benefits for fewer years and at an older age. Age increase has substantial positive effects on the labor supply, the capital stock, and the output.

  13. Globalization of international migration: Social challenges and policy implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Aleshkovski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the XX century, the humankind witnessed the insurmountable and irreversible power of globalization processes, which influence all spheres of social life and establish a global system of interdependency between countries and nations. Globalization within impetuous changes in global political, social and economic systems has determined dramatic shifts in the international migration processes that lead to the new stage of migration history. In nowadays globalized world, international migration has become a reality for almost all corners of the globe. The author considers features of the recent trends of international migration: the unprecedented growth of the international migration flows; the widening geography of international migration that involves nearly all countries of the world; qualitative changes in the structure of international migration flows; the key role of economic migration; the permanent growth and structural intricateness of irregular migration; the increasing scale and geographical widening of forced migration; the growing importance of international migration for the demographic development of the world, countries of both origin and destination. All these trends combined prove that the international migration patterns have become more complex. The author analyzes the legal framework of the international migration processes, and gives recommendations on the ways to improve the control and regulation of migration processes. Specific issues related to the social challenges of international migration are also discussed in the article.

  14. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    on public services, and install economic incentives for the behaviour of private households. The paper then digs into the proposals of the commission that are broadly grouped into five policy target areas con-cerning (1) the ageing of the population, (2) the incentives for labour market participation, (3......The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission......) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work...

  15. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market...... access and consumer welfare will always be weakly compatible, in the sense that reforms based on each objective have the same signed effect on the other objective. For strong compatibility, whereby both objectives increase as a result of a locally optimal tariff reform, we derive both a necessary...

  16. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare

  17. An evaluation of health benefit modification in Taft-Hartley health and welfare funds: implications for encouraging tobacco-cessation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au-Yeung, Caroline M; Weisman, Susan R; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Forster, Jean L; Skoog, Rodney; Luneburg, Wade; Hesse, Bernie

    2010-12-01

    An estimated one fifth of all U.S. adult smokers receive health benefits through insurance plans administered by Taft-Hartley Health and Welfare Funds. Most funds do not offer comprehensive tobacco-cessation services to fund participants despite evidence that doing so would be cost effective and save lives. This paper examines the decision-making processes of Minnesota-based fund trustees and advisors to identify factors that influence decisions about modifications to benefits. Formative data about the process by which funds make health benefit modifications were collected in 2007-2008 from 25 in-depth key informant interviews with fund trustees and a cross-section of fund advisors, including administrators, attorneys, and healthcare business consultants. Analyses were performed using a general inductive approach to identify conceptual themes, employing qualitative data analysis software. The most commonly cited factors influencing trustees' decisions about health plan benefit modifications-including modifications regarding tobacco-cessation benefits-were benefit costs, participants' demand for services, and safeguarding participants' health. Barriers included information gaps, concerns about participants' response, and difficulty projecting benefit utilization and success. Advisors wielded considerable influence in decision-making processes. Trustees relied on a small pool of business, legal, and administrative advisors to provide guidance and recommendations about possible health plan benefit modifications. Providing advisors with evidence-based information and resources about benefit design, cost/return-on-investment (ROI), effectiveness, and promotion may be an effective means to influence funds to provide comprehensive tobacco-cessation benefits. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  19. Welfare and self care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Using the case of early childcare institutions in contemporary Denmark, the aim of the article is to show that welfare entails visions of living that are made manifest through the requirements of everyday institutional practices. The main argument is that welfare institutions are designed not onl...... their enculturation. Therefore, studying the collective investments in children, for example by paying attention to the institutional arrangements set up for them, offers insight into dominant cultural priorities and hoped-for outcomes....

  20. Receiving social support online: implications for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M; Dorman, S M

    2001-12-01

    Online support groups are expanding as the general public becomes more comfortable using computer-mediated communication technology. These support groups have certain benefits for users who may not be able to or do not have the desire to attend face-to-face sessions. Online support groups also present challenges when compared to traditional face-to-face group communication. Communication difficulties may arise resulting from lack of visual and aural cues found in traditional face-to-face communication. Online support groups have emerged within health care as a result of the need individuals have to know more about health conditions they are confronting. The proliferation of these online communities may provide an opportunity for health educators to reach target populations with specific messages. This paper reviews the development of health-related online support groups, examines research conducted within these communities, compares their utility with traditional support groups and discusses the implications of these groups for health education.

  1. State Definitions of Social Work Practice: Implications for our Professional Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katharine; Fogel, Sondra; Plitt Donaldson, Linda; Erickson, Christina

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, the social work profession has been concerned with describing the unique and specific characteristics that define its core functions in society; however, the profession has yet to agree to a single definition of social work. In the absence of a unifying definition, 51 different statutory definitions of social work have been created by each state and the District of Columbia. Using qualitative methods, each statutory definition of social work was analyzed to gain an understanding of how social work is defined and understood across the United States. Findings indicate that 57% of the statutory language blend the full range of micro to macro social work practice skills into their definition. However, even within these and those remaining, there are vast differences in definitions. Implications for state licensing laws, are considered, along with how this impacts education, the work force, and professional identity.

  2. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  3. Social media policies: Implications for contemporary notions of corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stohl, C.; Etter, M.; Banghart, S.; Woo, D.

    Three global developments situate the context of this investigation: the increasing use of social media by organizations and their employees, the burgeoning presence of social media policies, and the heightened focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this study the intersection of these

  4. Impact of adolescent social experiences on behavior and neural circuits implicated in mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Andrew R; McCormick, Cheryl M; Pellis, Sergio M; Lukkes, Jodi L

    2017-05-01

    Negative social experiences during adolescence are central features for several stress-related mental illnesses. Social play fighting behavior in rats peaks during early adolescence and is essential for the final maturation of brain and behavior. Manipulation of the rat adolescent social experience alters many neurobehavioral measurements implicated in anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. In this review, we will highlight the importance of social play and the use of three separate social stress models (isolation-rearing, social defeat, and social instability stress) to disrupt the acquisition of this adaptive behavior. Social stress during adolescence leads to the development of anxiety and depressive behavior as well as escalated drug use in adulthood. Furthermore, sex- and age-dependent effects on the hormonal stress response following adolescent social stress are also observed. Finally, manipulation of the social experience during adolescence alters stress-related neural circuits and monoaminergic systems. Overall, positive social experiences among age-matched conspecifics during rat adolescence are critical for healthy neurobehavioral maturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of the economic and social implications of the avian flu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the debut incursion of the avian influenza virus into Nigeria in January 2006, severe outbreaks occurred in a number of poultry farms leading to widespread fears and a lot of apprehension. The objectives of the study were to assess, document and highlight the economic and social implications of the disease ...

  6. assessment of the economic and social implications of the avian flu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2006-01-22

    Jan 22, 2006 ... KEYWORDS: Assessment, Economic, Social Implications, Avian Flu, Nigerian Poultry. INTRODUCTION. Avian flu is a highly infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease of man, poultry and other birds caused by the avian influenza type A virus, Emmanuel et.al. (2006). The avian influenza virus belongs to ...

  7. The Use of Postcolonial Theory in Social Studies Education Some Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada, Najwan Lleeb

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I explain the basic tenets of postcolonial theory and its possible implications for teaching social studies and global issues in American high schools. The use of this theory is becoming increasingly significant, given the growing Islamophobia and Orientalism in the United States, the ongoing uprisings in the Middle East, and the…

  8. Commercial Social Media and the Erosion of the Commons: Implications for Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Recent scholarship challenges the celebratory discourse surrounding Web 2.0. This paper engages with this scholarship to examine critically the implications of academic libraries' presence within commercially owned social media spaces. It considers the apparent contradiction between work to promote the principles of open access and the idea of the…

  9. The Futures Wheel: A method for exploring the implications of social-ecological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.N. Bengston

    2015-01-01

    Change in social-ecological systems often produces a cascade of unanticipated consequences. Natural resource professionals and other stakeholders need to understand the possible implications of cascading change to prepare for it. The Futures Wheel is a "smart group" method that uses a structured brainstorming process to uncover and evaluate multiple levels of...

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Related to AIDS among Prisoners: Implications for Social Work Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman; Olivero, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 33 male and 5 female prisoners examined their knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission modes, current sexual behavior and safe sex practices, and sources of AIDS information and degree of trust in these sources. Discusses implications for social work practices and development of AIDS education for prisoners. (SV)

  11. Sociological, Postmodern, and New Realism Perspectives in Social Constructionism: Implications for Literacy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G.

    2001-01-01

    Offers an historical definition of social constructionism, a review of its conceptual bases, and an exploration of its epistemological implications. Describes a history comprised of three paradigmatically distinct waves: a sociological, a postmodern, and an emerging third wave grounded in new realism or neonaturalism. Suggests potential uses of…

  12. College Students' Experiences with Anonymous Social Media: Implications for Campus Racial Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Amanda; Thomas, Jaymi; Smith, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to gather undergraduate students' perceptions of anonymous racist messages found on Yik Yak and to better understand the implications of anonymous platforms on campus racial climate. Given the limited research surrounding students' use of anonymous social media platforms, as well as the predominant…

  13. Social cost pricing of fossil fuels used in the production of electricity: implications to biomass feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillivan, K.D.; English, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate full social pricing for fossil fuels and the subsequent effect on biomass quantities in the state of Tennessee. The first step is to estimate the full social costs and then to estimate the effects of their internalization. Other objectives are (1) investigate whether or not market imperfections exist, (2) if they exist, how should full social cost pricing be estimated, (3) what other barriers help fossil fuels stay economically attractive and prevent biomass from competing, (4) estimating the demand for biomass, and (5) given this demand for biomass, what are the implications for farmers and producers in Tennessee. (author)

  14. PUBLIC SECTOR - CONCEPTUAL ELEMENTS, IMPLICATIONS IN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The public economy, branch of economic science analyses the state, as economic actor; its field of research interacts with investigations of other areas of economic science (monetary, international trade, market organization etc.. The state has experienced various stages of manifestation of its role in the economy, against the changes in society, which led to either an increase in its intervention, to regulate market phenomena, the recovery of economic activity in times of crisis, or to its decline against the modernization of the economies of industrialized countries, the increase of the role of entrepreneurs, technological progress. Thus, the development of economic science, changes in economic area, the emergence of capitalism, of industrialization in the nineteenth century, especially the second half, outlined a new role towards state intervention in economic life; in the context of new economic developments of the last decades of the twentieth century, the interventionist role of the state has diminished, the state giving up certain activities, in return for initiating other actions (privatization, reducing state monopoly, deregulation.nThe paper presents conceptual elements referring to public sector, peculiarities that distinguish it from the private sector, as well as issues about the state implication in the economic life, in different periods of evolution of society.

  15. Mitochondrial transfer: Ethical legal and social implications in assisted reproduction

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    Alexandra Reznichenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases resulting from mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA are inherited by all offspring through the maternal lineage. Multiple organs, which require high cellular energy production, are severely affected. Currently, no preventative treatments are available, with most patients experiencing a poor quality of life or death in childhood. With developments in mitochondrial transfer techniques, hope for preventing transmission of mutated mtDNA onto offspring is emerging. However, many ethical issues have been raised in the health and public sectors regarding these novel treatment options, which involve transfer of nuclear material into donated oocytes with healthy mitochondria, or introduction of healthy donor mitochondria into affected oocytes. Several methods have been explored – blastomere, ooplasmic, pronuclear and spindle transfer. The two latter techniques seem to be the most viable thus far. The primary ethical concerns of these novel technologies are related to (a the alteration of germ line genetics and (b the dilemma of children inheriting DNA material from three instead of two parents. In contrast to the widely accepted practice of gene therapy, where only the DNA of the treated individual is affected, the techniques in question involve introduction of foreign mtDNA into the germ line that will be inherited by all children in downstream generations. Mitochondrial transfer has also been closely associated with reproductive cloning, which is regulated differently worldwide. It has also been suggested that mtDNA transfer will cause psychosocial problems for children born from these techniques, as they might experience an identity crisis. Undeniably, three gametes are needed to produce a healthy embryo in this scenario. However, the child will inherit all nuclear DNA from the intending parents, while only inheriting mtDNA from the donor. It is imperative to consider both social and scientific values when introducing new healthcare

  16. Levels of Social Sharing and Clinical Implications for Severe Social Withdrawal in Patients with Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Pellecchia, Giovanni; Moroni, Fabio; Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Semerari, Antonio; Procacci, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Social sharing capacities have attracted attention from a number of fields of social cognition and have been variously defined and analyzed in numerous studies. Social sharing consists in the subjective awareness that aspects of the self's experience are held in common with other individuals. The definition of social sharing must take a variety of elements into consideration: the motivational element, the contents of the social sharing experience, the emotional responses it evokes, the behavioral outcomes, and finally, the circumstances and the skills which enable social sharing. The primary objective of this study is to explore some of the diverse forms of human social sharing and to classify them according to levels of complexity. We identify four different types of social sharing, categorized according to the nature of the content being shared and the complexity of the mindreading skills required. The second objective of this study is to consider possible applications of this graded model of social sharing experience in clinical settings. Specifically, this model may support the development of graded, focused clinical interventions for patients with personality disorders characterized by severe social withdrawal.

  17. Levels of Social Sharing and Clinical Implications for Severe Social Withdrawal in Patients with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Colle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social sharing capacities have attracted attention from a number of fields of social cognition and have been variously defined and analyzed in numerous studies. Social sharing consists in the subjective awareness that aspects of the self’s experience are held in common with other individuals. The definition of social sharing must take a variety of elements into consideration: the motivational element, the contents of the social sharing experience, the emotional responses it evokes, the behavioral outcomes, and finally, the circumstances and the skills which enable social sharing. The primary objective of this study is to explore some of the diverse forms of human social sharing and to classify them according to levels of complexity. We identify four different types of social sharing, categorized according to the nature of the content being shared and the complexity of the mindreading skills required. The second objective of this study is to consider possible applications of this graded model of social sharing experience in clinical settings. Specifically, this model may support the development of graded, focused clinical interventions for patients with personality disorders characterized by severe social withdrawal.

  18. Socially just publishing: implications for geographers and their journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Batterbury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been a range of protests against the high journal subscription costs, and author processing charges (APCs levied for publishing in the more prestigious and commercially run journals that are favoured by geographers. But open protests across the sector like the ‘Academic Spring’ of 2012, and challenges to commercial copyright agreements, have been fragmented and less than successful. I renew the argument for ‘socially just’ publishing in geography. For geographers this is not limited to choosing alternative publication venues. It also involves a considerable effort by senior faculty members that are assessing hiring and promotion cases, to read and assess scholarship independently of its place of publication, and to reward the efforts of colleagues that offer their work as a public good. Criteria other than the citation index and prestige of a journal need to be foregrounded. Geographers can also be publishers, and I offer my experience editing the free online Journal of Political Ecology.

  19. Social constructivism and its implications for critical media studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available While media critics maintain that war coverage has a strong bias toward promoting conflict escalation, their opponents claim that the concept of distorted reality cannot be upheld. What seems to be a media-political dispute results from an epistemological issue that tangles the very roots of cultural studies in general: the question of whether the social construction of reality implies the arbitrariness of opinions. The present paper discusses this proposition from a constructivist point of view and shows that it is based on an inadequate and logically incorrect understanding of truth and reality, and on a lack of differentiation between facts and meanings, between truth and beliefs and between objective and subjective realities. Defining a third path between cultural imperialism and a naïve understanding of cultural relativism, the paper finally discusses the methodological basis on which media criticism can build.

  20. Surgical Consultation as Social Process: Implications for Shared Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Arriaga, Alexander F; Murthy, Sushila; Raper, Steven E; Schwartz, J Sanford; Barg, Frances K; Fleisher, Lee A

    2017-12-12

    This qualitative study examines surgical consultation as a social process and assesses its alignment with assumptions of the shared decision-making (SDM) model. SDM stresses the importance of patient preferences and rigorous discussion of therapeutic risks/benefits based on these preferences. However, empirical studies have highlighted discrepancies between SDM and realities of surgical decision making. Qualitative research can inform understanding of the decision-making process and allow for granular assessment of the nature and causes of these discrepancies. We observed consultations between 3 general surgeons and 45 patients considering undergoing 1 of 2 preference-sensitive elective operations: (1) hernia repair, or (2) cholecystectomy. These patients and surgeons also participated in semi-structured interviews. By the time of the consultation, patients and surgeons were predisposed toward certain decisions by preceding events occurring elsewhere. During the visit, surgeons had differential ability to arbitrate surgical intervention and construct the severity of patients' conditions. These upstream dynamics frequently displaced the centrality of the risk/benefit-based consent discussion. The influence of events preceding consultation suggests that decision-making models should account for broader spatiotemporal spans. Given surgeons' authority to define patients' conditions and control service provision, SDM may be premised on an overestimation of patients' power to alter the course of decision making once in a specialist's office. Considering the subordinate role of the risk/benefit discussion in many surgical decisions, it will be important to study if and how the social process of decision making is altered by SDM-oriented decision aids that foreground this discussion.