Bernardo, Ana; Esteban, María; Fernández, Estrella; Cervero, Antonio; Tuero, Ellián; Solano, Paula
Dropping out of university has serious consequences not only for the student who drops out but also for the institution and society as a whole. Although this phenomenon has been widely studied, there is a need for broader knowledge of the context in which it occurs. Yet research on the subject often focuses on variables that, although they affect drop-out rates, lie beyond a university's control. This makes it hard to come up with effective preventive measures. That is why a northern Spanish university has undertaken a ex post facto holistic research study on 1,311 freshmen (2008/9, 2009/10, and 2010/11 cohorts). The study falls within the framework of the ALFA-GUIA European Project and focuses on those drop-out factors where there is scope for taking remedial measures. This research explored the possible relationship of degree drop-out and different categories of variables: variables related to the educational stage prior to university entry (path to entry university and main reason for degree choice), variables related to integration and coexistence at university (social integration, academic integration, relationships with teachers/peers and value of the living environment) financial status and performance during university studies (in terms of compliance with the program, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and class attendance). Descriptive, correlational and variance analyses were conducted to discover which of these variables really distinguish those students who drop-out from their peers who complete their studies. Results highlight the influence of vocation as main reason for degree choice, path to university entry, financial independency, social and academic adaptation, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and program compliance in the studied phenomenon.
Ana B. Bernardo
Full Text Available Dropping out of university has serious consequences not only for the student who drops out but also for the institution and society as a whole. Although this phenomenon has been widely studied, there is a need for broader knowledge of the context in which it occurs. Yet research on the subject often focuses on variables that, although they affect drop-out rates, lie beyond a university's control. This makes it hard to come up with effective preventive measures. That is why a northern Spanish university has undertaken a ex post facto holistic research study on 1,311 freshmen (2008/9, 2009/10 and 2010/11 cohorts. The study falls within the framework of the ALFA-GUIA European Project and focuses on those drop-out factors where there is scope for taking remedial measures. This research explored the possible relationship of degree dropout and different categories of variables: variables related to the educational stage prior to university entry (path to entry university and main reason for degree choice, variables related to integration and coexistence at university (social integration, academic integration, relationships with teachers/ peers and value of the living environment financial status and performance during university studies (in terms ofcompliance with the program, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and class attendance. Descriptive, correlational and variance analyses were conducted to discover which of these variables really distinguish those students who drop out from their peers who complete their studies. Results highlight the influence of vocation as main reason for degree choice, path to university entry, financial independency, social and academic adaptation, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and program compliance in the studied phenomenon.
Orgiles, Mireia; Johnson, Blair T.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.
Introduction: According to previous studies, when parents divorce it may increase the vulnerability of children to develop personal problems, such as lowering academic performance. This research examines the academic performance of Spanish children with divorced parents and its relation to academic self-concept and social anxiety. Method: The…
Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan
This study investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in two groups: biological science and engineering (S/E) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive variables (math/science academic self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations), along with the influence of ethnic variables (ethnic identity, other-group orientation) and perceptions of campus climate to their math/science interests and goal commitment to earn an S/E degree. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model provided good overall fit to the data, revealing significant relationships from outcome expectations to interests and to goals. Paths from academic self-efficacy to S/E goals and from interests to S/E goals varied for students in engineering and biological science. For both groups, other-group orientation was positively related to self-efficacy and support was found for an efficacy-mediated relationship between perceived campus climate and goals. Theoretical and practical implications of the study's findings are considered as well as future research directions.
Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Pieterse, Efrat
Academic social-networking sites (ASNS) such as Academia.edu and ResearchGate are becoming very popular among academics. These sites allow uploading academic articles, abstracts, and links to published articles; track demand for published articles, and engage in professional interaction. This study investigates the nature of the use and the…
This causal-comparative study was carried out to investigate the influence of environmental variables on pupils' academic performance in primary science in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study namely: environmental ...
Teachers' classroom management variables and students' academic achievement in French in Cross River State, Nigeria. JU Emeh, CA Agbor. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Humanities Vol. 4(1&2) 2005: 25-27. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...
Jéssica Ribeiro Rangel
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the use of social networks influences on the academic performance of students in the undergraduate program in accounting. Data were collected from 322 students of the course of a federal University of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The regression results show that the variables "gender", "motivation" and "classification in the University entrance examination" are significant in explaining students' academic performance measured by the Grade Point Average (GPA. The results show that the performance of male students is lower than that of female students at the level of 5%. Also was identified that the greater the student's motivation level, the greater your academic performance (at the level of 1 percent. Finally, it was observed that the best ranked students in the University entrance examination, the higher their academic performance. However, none of the variables relating to the use of social networks ("familiarity with technological resources", "hours", "Internet hours on social networks" and "use of social networks to study" presented relation with academic performance. In other words, these results show that the use of social networks does not have positive or negative impacts directly on academic performance. We can conclude for the sample analyzed, that use of social networks during the academic period does not influence significantly the performance of the students. However, you can verify that the motivation is directly related to the academic performance of the Accounting student with regard to perception of motivation, to familiarity with technological resources and the use of applications.
Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª
This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…
Doleck, Tenzin; Lajoie, Susanne
The ubiquitous use of social networking sites by students and the potential impacts of such use on academic performance are of both theoretical and practical importance. Hence, this paper addresses the question: how does the use of social networking sites influence academic performance? The present review synthesizes the empirical findings of the…
Recent research has explored the complex, situated process by which students from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds become socialized into academic discourses and practices. As part of a multiple case study involving seven international students, this study provides an in-depth analysis of the academic discourse socialization…
Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.
Meghan P. McCormick
Full Text Available Social-emotional learning (SEL programs have demonstrated positive effects on children’s social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes, as well as classroom climate. Some programs also theorize that program impacts on children’s outcomes will be partially explained by improvements in classroom social processes, namely classroom emotional support and organization. Yet there is little empirical evidence for this hypothesis. Using data from the evaluation of the SEL program INSIGHTS, this article tests whether assignment to INSIGHTS improved low-income kindergarten and first grade students’ math and reading achievement by first enhancing classroom emotional support and organization. Multilevel regression analyses, instrumental variables estimation, and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW were used to conduct quantitative analyses. Across methods, the impact of INSIGHTS on math and reading achievement in first grade was partially explained by gains in both classroom emotional support and organization. The IPTW method revealed that the program impact on reading achievement in first grade was partially explained through an improvement in classroom organization. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Arturo Barraza Macías
Full Text Available This research was raised four objectives: a to establish the profile of stress descriptive review of the higher education students, b identify areas that cause more stress on the students of higher education when presenting a review c distinguish socio-demographic variables and situational which provide significant differences in stress examination of students in higher education d determining the relationship between stress examination and the number of subjects disapproved of the students in higher education. It is based on the model theoretically systemic cognoscitivism academic stress which is derived from the slope of transaccionalista Research Program Person-environment. To achieve these goals, a study was conducted transectional not experimental and correlational through the implementation of the Inventory Stress Test to 343 students, of the Preparatory Lomas of the city of Durango, in the state of Durango, Mexico. Its main results allow establishing a descriptive profile of stress examination of students in higher education, as well as confirm the modulatory effect of the variables and gender semester and the positive correlation between stress and the number of examination subject disapproved.
Scott E. Wilks
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.
Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.
Full Text Available ResearchGate (RG is one of the most popular academic social media platforms currently available to scientists. Allowing scientists, researchers and academics (SRAs to network through the creation of a free account. RG provides a virtually unlimited ability for SRAs to share research, contact each other through an integrated platform and share ideas. In recent times, projects have been increasing in scope and visibility, fortifying the RG network status. This paper examines some of the project-related features at RG and points out, within a wider examination of RG and other SRA-oriented academic social media platforms, the existing benefits and risks. The results of this work will allow SRAs to manage and invest their time in a better way.
Anttila, Henrika; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Piertarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina
School is a central arena for a wide amount of emotions. Previous research on academic emotions has, however, mainly focused on achievement, engagement and teaching, situated in classroom. The social embeddedness, as well as different learning environments of school, continue to be neglected in the research literature. Our study focuses on…
Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Du, Helen S.
This is an exploratory study investigating the use of social networking tools in academic libraries, examining the extent of their use, library staff's perceptions of their usefulness and challenges, and factors influencing decisions to use or not to use such tools. Invitations to participate in a web-based survey were sent to 140 university…
This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic ... parents in the immediate daily aspect of education ... This study employed the descriptive .... on cognitive development. Journal of.
Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina
In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…
This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State: A basis for counselling and programme planning. The study adopted the descriptive survey method. It made use of two research questions and ...
Ebrahim, Nader Ale
Researchers needs to remove many traditional obstacles to disseminate and outreach their research outputs. Academic social networking allows you to connect with other researchers in your field, share your publications, and get feedback on your non-peer-reviewed work. The academic social networking, making your work more widely discoverable and easily available. The two best known academic social networking are ResearchGate and Academia.edu. These sites offer an instant technique to monitor wh...
Giacalone, Valarie A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an academic service learning project on ninth-grade students' science achievement and attitudes. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was used with four classes of one teacher in a rural school. The treatment was an Energy Fair service project. Two treatment classes that were chosen by random assignment (n = 58) were compared to two control classes (n = 64), who performed an alternative assignment. The Energy Fair was conducted for the elementary school students and on a limited basis for fellow students (peers). The academic effect was measured by a teacher-designed end-of-unit ecology test, with a subset of the questions on energy use. Psychological effects were measured by a self-esteem questionnaire, which measured both self-esteem and the satisfaction felt about one's self-esteem. Social effects were measured by three semantic differentials, one each for "adults," "peers," and "elementary students." The teacher was interviewed regarding her observations about the project. Written reflections from both the treatment and control groups were coded and analyzed. Pretest results were divided into thirds of high, medium, and low for all variables to search for the possibility of an attribute-treatment interaction. Analysis of covariance was used to reduce the possibility of pretest bias, to test for significant effects, and to test for a level by treatment interaction. Although the posttest means favored the experimental group, no statistically significant difference was found for academic results. No significant effect was found for either of the psychological measures. No change was found for the social results regarding "adults." A statistically significant effect was found for social results in the categories of "elementary students" and "peers." No statistically significant level by treatment interaction was found. Further research on the effects of academic service learning projects is needed at
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.
We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…
Roso-Bas, Fátima; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; García-Buades, Esther
The dropout of university studies is a main concern in many countries, also for Health Sciences degrees. The reviews on dropout in all university degrees as well as nursing generally show multidimensional causes with factors related both to institutional and students' characteristics. Regarding the personal variables of students, researchers have focused on financial, family and personality features. Far less attention has been devoted to emotional variables. This study aims to explore whether individual variables of the emotional domain such as perceived emotional intelligence, dispositional optimism/pessimism and depressive rumination are related and/or can predict students' intention to dropout and academic performance. Using a cross-correlational approach, data were obtained from a sample of 144 nursing students. Students with a pessimistic disposition revealed a greater tendency to drop out. The remaining variables correlated significantly with pessimism but had no predictive value on dropout. Our results suggest that students with low levels of emotional clarity and repair and high depressive rumination have pessimistic expectations, so they are more likely to leave studies. No significant results were found in relation to academic performance. We conclude with an identification of strategies to increase retention and academic success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Puar, Surjit Singh
The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…
Fisher, Kim W.; Shogren, Karrie A.
This study examined adolescents' social capital, through social network analyses (i.e., ego network analyses), in two high schools where students were placed into academic tracks adopted by the schools and shaped by disability status (i.e., general education, co-taught, segregated special education classrooms). The impact of academic tracks, as…
Rosário, Pedro; Costa, Marta; Núñez, José Carlos; González-Pienda, Julio; Solano, Paula; Valle, Antonio
Procrastination is a common behavior, mainly in school settings. Only a few studies have analyzed the associations of academic procrastination with students' personal and family variables. In the present work, we analyzed the impact of socio-personal variables (e.g., parents' education, number of siblings, school grade level, and underachievement) on students' academic procrastination profiles. Two independent samples of 580 and 809 seventh to ninth graders, students attending the last three years of Portuguese Compulsory Education, have been taken. The findings, similar in both studies, reveal that procrastination decreases when the parents' education is higher, but it increases along with the number of siblings, the grade level, and the underachievement. The results are discussed in view of the findings of previous research. The implications for educational practice are also analyzed.
Many researchers link social capital theory to education and commonly use examples from the field of education to examine social capital theory. Accordingly, they accept that reflections and contributions of social capital can be observed in the field of education. This paper examines social capital's effects on academic success in education. In…
Full Text Available The study conducted to examine the relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht. The research is descriptive correlational. The target population includes all female students studying in Rasht in 2015. By random cluster sampling method and based on the variables, 180 subjects selected. In this study, to collect data, psychological adjustment and social support, academic self-concept and academic achievement questionnaire are used. To test the hypothesis of this research, the parametric statistical Pearson correlation and regression tests are used. Moreover, all statistical operations were analyzed by using SPSS software. The research results showed that the correlation values between psychological adjustment and social support with academic self-concept and academic achievement of high school female students is statistically significant ( 01/0 > p.
Liem, Gregory Arief D
Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Owens, Jayanti; Massey, Douglas S.
Stereotype threat theory has gained experimental and survey-based support in helping explain the academic underperformance of minority students at selective colleges and universities. Stereotype threat theory states that minority students underperform because of pressures created by negative stereotypes about their racial group. Past survey-based studies, however, are characterized by methodological inefficiencies and potential biases: key theoretical constructs have only been measured using summed indicators and predicted relationships modeled using ordinary least squares. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshman, this study overcomes previous methodological shortcomings by developing a latent construct model of stereotype threat. Theoretical constructs and equations are estimated simultaneously from multiple indicators, yielding a more reliable, valid, and parsimonious test of key propositions. Findings additionally support the view that social stigma can indeed have strong negative effects on the academic performance of pejoratively stereotyped racial-minority group members, not only in laboratory settings, but also in the real world. PMID:23950616
Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena
Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college.
Garriott, Patton O; Hudyma, Aaron; Keene, Chesleigh; Santiago, Dana
The present study tested Lent's (2004) social-cognitive model of normative well-being in a sample (N = 414) of first- and non-first-generation college students. A model depicting relationships between: positive affect, environmental supports, college self-efficacy, college outcome expectations, academic progress, academic satisfaction, and life satisfaction was examined using structural equation modeling. The moderating roles of perceived importance of attending college and intrinsic goal motivation were also explored. Results suggested the hypothesized model provided an adequate fit to the data while hypothesized relationships in the model were partially supported. Environmental supports predicted college self-efficacy, college outcome expectations, and academic satisfaction. Furthermore, college self-efficacy predicted academic progress while college outcome expectations predicted academic satisfaction. Academic satisfaction, but not academic progress predicted life satisfaction. The structural model explained 44% of the variance in academic progress, 56% of the variance in academic satisfaction, and 28% of the variance in life satisfaction. Mediation analyses indicated several significant indirect effects between variables in the model while moderation analyses revealed a 3-way interaction between academic satisfaction, intrinsic motivation for attending college, and first-generation college student status on life satisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of applying the normative model of well-being to promote first- and non-first-generation college students' academic and life satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Stankovska, Gordana; Angelkovska, Slagana; Grncarovska, Svetlana Pandiloska
The world is extensively changed by Social Networks Sites (SNSs) on the Internet. A large number of children and adolescents in the world have access to the internet and are exposed to the internet at a very early age. Most of them use the Social Networks Sites with the purpose of exchanging academic activities and developing a social network all…
Ciampa, Mark; Thrasher, Evelyn H.; Revels, Mark A.
The aim of this research was to elicit student perceptions and practices regarding the use of social media in the academic setting. More specifically, the objectives of this study were to (1) assess student perceptions of technology use in an academic setting and to rank their preferences; (2) determine which resources and communication options…
Alessandra Salina Brandão
Full Text Available Abstract: Not completing the undergraduate course in the time expected in the curricula can put the universities and students at a disadvantage, with a delay to enter the labor market. The aim was to identify predictors of graduation, considering social skills, mental health, initial academic performance and socio-demographic and academic characteristics. In total, 287 students participated, of both genders and fromthe humanities, exact and biological areas, who answered the instruments: Social Skills, Behaviors and Context Assessment Questionnaire for University Students, Short version of the Social Phobia Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Predictors were: female, humanities area and average or above-average initial academic performance. The social skills and mental health differentiated the groups in the univariate analyses. This data suggests a need for attention to academic performance in the initial stages of the course, and preventive measures for male students of the exact and biological areas.
Mouri Dey; Ali Arshad Chowdhury
The number of social networking services (SNSs) users in Bangladesh is increasing at an accelerating rate. There are many who argue that SNS usage is destroying the students’ future by diminishing their academic engagement. The authors aim to investigate whether there is any relationship between students’ academic performance and their SNS usage. The study chose Facebook as a representative of SNSs because this is the most popular platform for online social connectivity and conducted a survey...
Seo, Eunjin; Lee, You-kyung
We examine the intrinsic value students placed on schoolwork (i.e. academic intrinsic value) and social relationships (i.e. social intrinsic value). We then look at how these values predict middle and high school achievement. To do this, we came up with four profiles based on cluster analyses of 6,562 South Korean middle school students. The four…
Full Text Available The number of social networking services (SNSs users in Bangladesh is increasing at an accelerating rate. There are many who argue that SNS usage is destroying the students’ future by diminishing their academic engagement. The authors aim to investigate whether there is any relationship between students’ academic performance and their SNS usage. The study chose Facebook as a representative of SNSs because this is the most popular platform for online social connectivity and conducted a survey regarding the usage of Facebook among students of Business Administration from three private Bangladeshi private universities. The research results show that Facebook can be used for at least 21 academic tasks or goals and that these can be grouped into six major factors. Moreover, students opine that their online socializing does not reduce their study time, instead it helps them get the latest study related information, sharing courses, class schedules etc. After running a regression analysis, the authors conclude that the students’ level of engagement with the academic life through Facebook does not influence their academic results. The reason for this insignificant relation between academic results and academic engagement through SNSs may be due to the non-diversified course curriculum, the traditional way of delivering lectures and evaluating, limited study materials, non-receptiveness to technology-based learning etc. However, the authors propose to include SNSs as a study tool as it is a popular media and to conduct further research to better understand the effective way of using it in the education system.
Meijs, Noortje; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Segers, Eliane; Spijkerman, Renske
This study compared the effects of social intelligence and cognitive intelligence, as measured by academic achievement, on adolescent popularity in two school contexts. A distinction was made between sociometric popularity, a measure of acceptance, and perceived popularity, a measure of social dominance. Participants were 512, 14-15 year-old…
Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel
The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…
Zappa-Hollman, Sandra; Duff, Patricia A.
This article introduces the notion of individual network of practice (INoP) as a viable construct for analyzing academic (discourse) socialization in second language (L2) contexts. The authors provide an overview of social practice theories that have informed the development of INoP--community of practice (CoP; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger,…
Austin, Ann Marie Berghout; Draper, Dianne C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of academic achievement to four categories of social status including popular, rejected, isolated, and amiable, and to the variables of peer acceptance and social impact. Subjects were 145 elementary school children, grades 3 through 6. The children responded to a questionnaire designed to assess peer acceptance as well as rejection. Data consisted of (a) acceptance scores based on the predominance of either acceptance or rejection...
Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.
Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and
Datu, Jesus Alfonso D; King, Ronnel B; Valdez, Jana Patricia M
Interdependent happiness has been found to be positively associated with optimal psychological outcomes in collectivist cultures. However, the association between interdependent happiness and key academic outcomes has remained unexplored. The current study examined the association of interdependent happiness with key academic outcomes such as autonomous motivation, engagement, and achievement using both cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) approaches. Study 1 revealed that interdependent happiness positively predicted academic engagement (partly) via autonomous motivation. Study 2 showed that prior interdependent happiness positively predicted subsequent academic engagement even after controlling for autoregressor effects. In addition, reciprocal associations among the key variables were found. Taken together, results of the two studies suggest that interdependent happiness plays an adaptive role in the academic context especially in a collectivist cultural setting. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wright, Michelle F
Little attention has been given to adolescents' experience of cyberstalking and how such experiences relate to their depression and academic performance. It is less clear how other variables, such as perceived social support, might impact these associations. Addressing these gaps in the literature, this study investigated the potential moderating effect of perceived social support from parents on the association between cyberstalking victimization and depression and academic performance, each assessed 1 year later, from 11th to 12th grade. Participants were 413 adolescents (ages 17-19 years old; 54 percent female; M = 17.39 years, SD = 0.53) in the 12th grade from a Midwestern city in the United States. They completed questionnaires on their self-reported face-to-face and cyberstalking victimization, depression, and perceived social support from parents. Adolescents' academic performance was also assessed using their school records. During the 12th grade, depression and academic performance were examined again. The findings indicated that the association between cyberstalking victimization and Time 2 depression was much more positive at lower levels of perceived social support, while such an association was more negative at higher levels of perceived social support. Opposite patterns were found for Time 2 academic performance. The results indicate the need for additional research focused on cyberstalking about adolescents.
Kilgus, Stephen P.; Bowman, Nicollette A.; Christ, Theodore J.; Taylor, Crystal N.
This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of student behavior via the "Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener" (SAEBRS) predicted academic achievement in math and reading. A secondary purpose was to compare the predictive capacity of three SAEBRS subscales corresponding to social, academic, or emotional…
Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary
Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This dissertation examines the effects of social network sites on youth social and academic development. First, I provide a critical analysis of the extant research literature surrounding social network sites and youth. I merge scholarly thought in the areas of Internet studies, digital divides, social capital theory, psychological well-being,…
Abd-Elmotaleb, Moustafa; Saha, Sudhir K.
This study examines the mediating influence of academic self-efficacy on the link between perceived academic climate and academic performance among university students. The participants in the study consist of 272 undergraduate students at the University of Assiut, Assiut, Egypt. A scale to measure perceived academic climate, was developed. To…
Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Haji Alizadeh, Kobra; Yarmohammadzadeh, Peyman; Feyzollahi, Zahra
Academic burnout leads to creation of a series of negative and scattered thoughts, loss of hope and emotional and physical exhaustion in carrying out activities. Two factors that affect academic burnout are sleep quality and social intimacy. This study was conducted in order to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and social intimacy, and academic burn-out in the students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. This study was descriptive and correlational. The population of this study consisted of the students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and 196 medical students were selected. They completed Berso et al. Academic Burnout Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Miller Social Intimacy Scale (MSIS). The validity of the questionnaires confirmed by experts' views. Their reliability were obtained as 77%, 64% and 85% for academic burnout, sleep quality and social intimacy questionnaires respectively by calculating the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). For data analysis, descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test, Regression, cluster analysis and t-test were used. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between sleep quality and academic burnout at the level pintimacy and academic burnout at the level pintimacy were able to predict 37% and 39% of academic burnout respectively. Moreover, the students were divided into two clusters of individuals with high social intimacy and individuals with low social intimacy. No significant difference was found between the two types in terms of the variable of academic burn-out. Based on the research results, it can be stated that the variables of sleep quality and social intimacy are the predictor factors of academic burn-out.
Rientjes, B.; Beausaert, S.; Grohnert, T.; Niemantsverdriet, S.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
More than 3 million students study outside their home country, primarily at a Western university. A common belief among educators is that international students are insufficiently adjusted to higher education in their host country, both academically and socially. Furthermore, several groups of
Zander, Lysann; Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Crayen, Claudia; Hannover, Bettina
Combining complete social networks and structural equation modeling, we investigate how two learning-related cognitions, academic self-efficacy and growth mindsets, relate to integration in support networks of 580 university students in 30 seminar groups. We assessed integration as popularity in
Asuman Seda SARACALOĞLU
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the variables predicting academic procrastination behavior of prospective primary school teachers and is conducted using the correlational survey model. The study group is composed of 294 undergraduate students studying primary school teaching programs in faculties of education at Adnan Menderes, Pamukkale, and Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Universities in Turkey. The data collection instruments used were the Procrastination Assessment Scale Students (PASS, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES, and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS. While analyzing the gathered data, descriptive analysis techniques were utilized. Moreover, while analyzing the data, power of variables namely reasons of academic procrastination, academic motivation, and academic efficacy to predict prospective primary school teachers’ academic procrastination tendencies were tested. For that purpose, stepwise regression analysis was employed. It was found that nearly half of the prospective primary school teachers displayed no academic procrastination behavior. Participants’ reasons for procrastination were fear of failure, laziness, taking risks, and rebellion against control. An average level significant correlation was found between participants’ academic procrastination and other variables. As a result, it was identified that prospective primary school teachers had less academic procrastination than reported in literature and laziness, fear of failure, academic motivation predicted academic procrastination.
“Assessment of the effects of skipping breakfast on the children by pupils was the basic ... concludes that since proper feeding is necessary for the child's academic and social development, the ... people feed influence their behaviour in a variety ... J. C. Duruamaku-Dim, Department of Curriculum & Teaching, Faculty of ...
Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others
This study replicates and elaborates a three-dimensional, spherical model that integrates research findings concerning social and emotional behavior, psychopathology, and academic competence. Kindergarten teachers completed an extensive set of rating scales on 100 children, including the Classroom Behavior Inventory and the Child Adaptive Behavior…
Staton-Spicer, Ann Q.; Spicer, Christopher H.
Describes a typology of communication dimensions used by academic chairpersons in the early stages of the socialization process. Four new chairpersons were interviewed, and four functions of communication (informative, integrative, regulative, and innovative) guided data gathering in researching the link between communicator and role…
This study examined the associations of parents' cultural beliefs and attitudes with respect to fate, traditional gender roles, aspirations, and involvement in children's academic achievement in Cambodia. Based on Coleman's social capital theory, a good parent-child relationship enables children's school success because resources are created as a…
The findings revealed that academic libraries in Kenya are currently using Facebook, WhatsApp, YouTube and Twitter to facilitate the sharing of information resources, provision of reference services, formation of professional networks, and promotion of library services. The findings also indicate that the use of social media ...
Full Text Available Aims: Due to the studentship stressful factors and challenging clinical conditions and internship, the nursing students undergo emotional exhaustion and academic burnout. The outcomes might, also, negatively affect their academic engagement and functions. The aim of this study was to explain the academic motivation of the nursing students based on the social welfare and vitality. Instrument & Methods: In the correlational study, the nursing students of Arak University of Medical Sciences were studied in the academic year 2014-15. 210 students were selected via available sampling. Data was collected using academic motivation, Kees social welfare, and academic vitality questionnaires. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using Pearson correlation and multivariate regression tests. Findings: The total mean scores of social welfare, academic motivation, and academic vitality were 98.68±13.21, 40.55±5.98, and 18.58±7.58, respectively. There were significant and positive correlations between social welfare and academic motivation (r=0.183; p<0.001 and the subscales including emotional motivation (r=0.103; p<0.048 and cognitive motivation (r=0.154; p<0.003. Due to the lack of any correlation between academic vitality and academic motivation and its sub-scales, the academic vitality could not predict the academic motivation. Nevertheless, the social welfare could predict 33% of the variance of academic motivation. Conclusion: The social welfare plays an important role to determine the academic motivation of nursing students. Nevertheless, academic vitality plays no role.
Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Darvishpour, Azar
Individuals with social well-being can cope more successfully with major problems of social roles. Due to the social nature of human life, it cannot be ignored to pay attention the social aspect of health. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that predict the social well-being of medical students. A descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 489 medical science students of Gilan Province, the North of Iran, during May to September 2016. The samples were selected using quota sampling method. Research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts: demographic section and Keyes social well-being questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 19 and with descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, ANOVA, and linear regression). The results showed that majority of the students had average social well-being. Furthermore, a significant relationship between the academic degree ( P = 0.009), major ( P = 0.0001), the interest and field's satisfaction ( P = 0.0001), and social well-being was seen. The results of linear regression model showed that four variables (academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction) were significantly associated with the social well-being ( P social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.
Full Text Available Technology strengthens learning and dominates over the conventional methods in too many aspects. Technologies are advancing learning procedure by their multiple formats, variety of resources, numerous delivery channels and not restricted to time space and place. Social media is a new form of communication that transformed the entire landscape of information access and dissemination online. This platform consists of a range of communication channels, considerably popular among students and assists them in various types of communication and collaborative learning. However, the platform of social media can also be considered as a source of distractions and divert student’s attention from learning and academic achievements. The principal objective of the current study is to understand the recent trends of social media use, the phenomenon of distractions and factors out convincing students for the academic use of social media. Interviews administered to enquire the phenomenon and analyzed with the help of ATLAS-Ti-7 and MS Excel. It is concluded from the results that individual psychological characteristics, social influences, information quality and system usefulness are the leading factors. Furthermore, the survey established the importance of this platform for academic purposes and perception concerning the phenomenon of distraction. In addition, future research directions and study limitations are discussed.
Davis, Alan; Solberg, V. Scott; de Baca, Christine; Gore, Taryn Hargrove
This study evaluated the degree to which a range of social emotional learning skills--academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, social connections, importance of school, and managing psychological and emotional distress and academic stress--could be used as an indicator of future academic outcomes. Using a sample of 4,797 from a large urban…
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…
Magalhães-Alves, Cristina; Barbosa, Joselina; Ribeiro, Laura; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
Students with a previous degree have personal and professional experiences that can contribute to a different academic path during the medical course. This study aims to: 1) analyze both satisfaction and impact of academic recognition; 2) investigate whether motivations and expectations at entrance are maintained along the course; 3) to evaluate socialization after regress to higher education. To accomplish the first objective a questionnaire was administered to 82 students who entered the medical school from 2011/2012 to 2013/2014. For the second and third goals a focus group was run (three groups with five students each, representing the three academic years). Students felt satisfied with the recognition, and 50% of them believe that accreditations replace knowledge acquired with the curricular units, and 47% preferred to obtain accreditation. Academic achievement was negatively associated with the satisfaction of recognition and positively with age, background and registration cycle. Socialization of these students is distinct from the younger ones, their motivations at entrance are intrinsic and, contrary to expectations, are maintained along the course. Students prefer recognition instead of attending the curricular units. The most satisfied with the recognition accomplish less credits and the younger ones, from health area and enrolled in the clinical cycle, accomplish more. Along the course, motivations become more solid, expectations change and socialization is carried out with greater responsibility.
The purpose of this article is to present the opportunities provided for researchers and academics by social networking websites in the context of their professional work. Moreover, the paper discusses the level of penetration of social websites by Polish academics on the example of Nicolaus Copernicus University (NCU) researchers. The results…
Scott E. Wilks
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...
Ghadah Al Murshidi
Full Text Available The study investigated the academic literacy socialization of students at U.S. universities from the Gulf Region—Oman, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (UAE. International students were contacted and asked if they would participate in the project. Fifty three students responded to the survey and interview, 77% of the respondents were male and 23% were female. The results of the study found that the Gulf Coast students studying in the U.S. shared similar experiences in how they socialized academically, however, noticeable differences appeared between linguistic abilities and grammar challenges. When the students were asked if their linguistic abilities prevented them from participating in classroom discussion, the Saudi participants were the only group that said ‘Never’. Likewise, when the researchers inquired about grammar challenges, an interesting dissimilarity revealed itself. The Saudi sample indicated it was very easy while the UAE participants specified that it was somewhat difficult and each group had the same percentage of respondents. Although differences between the students were observed, similarities were also revealed. For instance, all the students did not mind working academically with the opposite sex. The results of this study help in the understanding on how to help students from the Gulf Coast academically assimilate into the American educational system.
McIntyre, Jason C; Worsley, Joanne; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Harrison Woods, Paula; Bentall, Richard P
University students experience high rates of stress and mental illness; however, few studies have comprehensively examined the impact of academic and non-academic stressors on student mental health. Similarly, there has been little focus on the role of social groups in protecting against mental distress in this young adult group. To identify the key social determinants of mental health symptoms in a student population. Using an online survey, we administered measures of social connectedness and mental health symptoms alongside academic and non-academic stressors to a large sample of UK university students. Loneliness was the strongest overall predictor of mental distress, while assessment stress was the most important academic predictor. Strong identification with university friendship groups was most protective against distress relative to other social identities, and the beneficial impact of identification on symptoms was mediated by reduced loneliness. The study highlights the benefits of establishing strong social connections at university and the importance of minimising stress associated with assessment tasks.
AlFaris, Eiad; Irfan, Farhana; Ponnamperuma, Gominda; Jamal, Amr; Van der Vleuten, Cees; Al Maflehi, Nassr; Al-Qeas, Sairaa; Alenezi, Awtan; Alrowaished, Mashael; Alsalman, Reem; Ahmed, Abdullah M A
There are concerns that the use of social media (SM) among medical students could affect academic performance. The objectives of the study were to investigate the pattern and reasons for SM use and their association with academic performance. A stratified random sample, frequency distribution and comparison of categorical variables with Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used. Of the 97% who responded, 98% used SM. The most popular were Whatsapp (87.8%), You tube (60.8%) and Twitter (51.8%) for general use; while You tube (83.5%), Whatsapp (35.5%) and Twitter (35.3%) for learning. For general use, there was a significant higher number of visits to You tube and Facebook among male students, while the reverse was true for Instagram and Path. Around 71% visited SM >4 times/day and 55% spent 1-4 hours/day. The main reasons for SM use were entertainment (95.8%), staying up-to-date with news (88.3%), and socializing (85.5%); for academic studies (40%). There was no significant association between Grade Point Average and the frequency of daily SM use or use during lectures. While almost all the students used SM, only a minority used them for academic purposes. SM use was not associated with academic performance.
Obiekezie, Eucharia O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I.; Timothy, Alexander E.; Essien, Margaret I.
The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality assurance in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…
Since language is an influential tool in social interaction, the relationship of speech and social factors, such as social class, gender, even age is worth studying. People employ different linguistic variables to imply their social class, status and iden-tity in the social interaction. Thus the linguistic variation involves vocabulary, sounds, grammatical constructions, dialects and so on. As a result, a classification of social class draws people’s attention. Linguistic variable in speech interactions indicate the social relationship between people. This paper attempts to illustrate three main linguistic variables which influence the social class, and further sociolinguistic studies need to be more concerned about.
.... Categorical values from the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), SAT scores and high school rank were incorporated as independent variables in a linear regression model with dependent variable Cumulative Quality Point Rating (CQPR...
Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Ella, Krisztina; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Roenneberg, Till; Káldi, Krisztina
Discrepancies between sleep timing on workdays and weekends, also known as social jetlag (SJL), affect the majority of the population and have been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this study, we explored the relationship between SJL and academic performance in a sample of undergraduates of the Semmelweis University. We assessed SJL and other sleep-related parameters with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) (n = 753). Academic performance was measured by the average grade based on weekly test results as well as scores acquired on the final test (n = 247). The average mid-sleep point on free days in the Hungarian sample fits well the regression line plotted for longitudes within the Central European Time Zone and chronotypes, confirming that sunlight has a major impact on chronotype. Multivariate analysis showed negative effect of SJL on the weekly average grade (p = 0.028, n = 247) during the lecture term with its highly regular teaching schedules, while this association disappeared in the exam period (p = 0.871, n = 247) when students had no scheduled obligations (lower SJL). We also analyzed the relationship between the time of the weekly tests and academic performance and found that students with later sleep times on free days achieved worse in the morning (p = 0.017, n = 129), while the inverse tendency was observed for the afternoon test-takers (p = 0.10, n = 118). We did not find significant association between academic performance and sleep duration or sleep debt on work days. Our data suggest that circadian misalignment can have a significant negative effect on academic performance. One possible reason for this misalignment is socially enforced sleep times.
Mohammad Ali Tavakoli
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to predict addictability among the students, based on demographic variables, academic procrastination, and interpersonal variables, and also to study the prevalence of addictability among these students. Method: The participants were 500 students (260 females, 240 males selected through a stratified random sampling among the students in Islamic Azad University Branch Abadan. The participants were assessed through Individual specification inventory, addiction potential scale and Aitken procrastination Inventory. Findings: The findings showed %23/6 of students’ readiness for addiction. Men showed higher addictability than women, but age wasn’t an issue. Also variables such as economic status, age, major, and academic procrastination predicted %13, and among interpersonal variables, the variables of having friends who use drugs and dissociated family predicted %13/2 of the variance in addictability. Conclusion: This study contains applied implications for addiction prevention.
Arturo Barraza Macías
Full Text Available The present investigation tries to establish the descriptive profile of the academic stress of the students of the masters in education and to identify which sociodemographic and situational variables play a modulator role. This investigation is based on the Person-Surroundings Research Program and the systemical cognitive model of academic stress. The study can be characterized as transectional, correlational and non experimental. The collection of the information was made through the SISCO inventory of Academic Stress which was applied to 152 students. The main results suggest that 95% of the master students report having felt academic stress a few times but with medium-high intensity. Variables gender, civil state, attending masters and institutional support of the attending masters act as modulators in academic stress.
Zach, Sima; Yazdi-Ugav, Orly; Zeev, Aviva
This study aimed to examine to what extent academic achievements, learning disorders, behavior problems and loneliness explain the variance of students' social skills. The differences between students diagnosed with learning disorders and students without learning disorders in all four variables were examined. Participants were 733 elementary…
Cherney, Adrian; Head, Brian; Boreham, Paul; Povey, Jenny; Ferguson, Michele
This paper reports results from a survey of academic social scientists in Australian universities on their research engagement experience with industry and government partners and end-users of research. The results highlight that while academics report a range of benefits arising from research collaborations, there are also significant impediments…
Wright, D. J.
We are all familiar with the three-legged stool of standard academic practice -- research, teaching, and service -- especially as it pertains to promotion and tenure. For example, many studies are emerging on the various ways that social media can be effectively used in teaching at all levels. Researchers are using analytical tools to turn social media feeds into useful indicators of human pattern and process. Darling et al. (2013) investigate the usefulness of Twitter for the development and distribution of scientific knowledge, including within the life cycle of scientific publication. However, the author focuses here on the use of social media as related to the traditional forms of academic "service:" i.e., participation on a committee or a board, in strategic planning or development of programs, in coordination of a seminar series or workshop, in professional reviews of books, papers, proposals, delivery of a public lectures to a civic group, giving an interview to a journalist on one's research or practice, even providing testimony to a group of policymakers. The author shares personal and institutional/organizational perspectives on how appropriate social media interaction in this context, can be viewed as a necessary (even daily) part of professional practice, and thus yet another moniker of good scientific behavior (especially as a model for students and early-career faculty), and of the "gift culture" of scholarship. For example, the "live tweeting" of ideas and summary points from paper sessions at scholarly meetings is gaining popularity, especially to inform those who could not attend. Other modes of contribution to intellectual communities range from advertising calls for special issues, proposals, participation in specialists meetings, to showcasing the real-time effects of natural disasters via social media feeds embedded in maps. Indeed, there is much discussion of "innovation" in research and in teaching, but can the speed and structure of social
DeLay, Dawn; Zhang, Linlin; Hanish, Laura D; Miller, Cindy F; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Kochel, Karen P; Updegraff, Kimberly A
Longitudinal social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine how a social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention may be associated with peer socialization on academic performance. Fifth graders (N = 631; 48 % girls; 9 to 12 years) were recruited from six elementary schools. Intervention classrooms (14) received a relationship building intervention (RBI) and control classrooms (8) received elementary school as usual. At pre- and post-test, students nominated their friends, and teachers completed assessments of students' writing and math performance. The results of longitudinal SNA suggested that the RBI was associated with friend selection and peer influence within the classroom peer network. Friendship choices were significantly more diverse (i.e., less evidence of social segregation as a function of ethnicity and academic ability) in intervention compared to control classrooms, and peer influence on improved writing and math performance was observed in RBI but not control classrooms. The current findings provide initial evidence that SEL interventions may change social processes in a classroom peer network and may break down barriers of social segregation and improve academic performance.
Singley, Daniel B.; Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin
The authors tested a social cognitive model of academic and overall life satisfaction in a sample of 769 university students. The predictors, drawn from Lent's unifying perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment, included social cognitive (academic self-efficacy, goal progress, social support) and personality (trait positive affect)…
Tarek A. El-Badawy; Yasmin Hashem
Today, it is crucial to determine the impact of social media on the academic performance of students. Technology is booming rapidly from year to year, and the younger generations are the ones caught in this rapid change. Questionnaires were distributed through Facebook and E-mails, to find out whether students academic performance is impacted by social media or not. The findings demonstrate that there is no relationship between social media and academic performance; this is clearly projected ...
Gustavsen, Ann Margareth
Previous studies found that girls have higher academic achievement than boys in most school subjects. Teachers’ grading of academic achievement seems to be based not only on students’ knowledge but also their social skills, and teachers tend to assess girls as having better social skills than boys. The main aim of this study was to examine through multilevel analysis the extent to which teacher-rated social skills predicted teacher-rated academic achievement in Norwegian, mathematics and Engl...
Kennedy, Gary J.; Tuckman, Bruce W.
The results of a structural equation model showed that a tendency to procrastinate, assessed early in college students' first term, was positively related to social values, assessed as concerns over social exclusion, but was negatively related to academic task values and grade goal-setting. The results suggest that procrastination may be a…
The majority of college students use social media of some kind, and academic libraries are increasingly using social media to reach them. Although studies have analyzed which platforms academic libraries most commonly use and case studies have provided examples of how libraries use specific platforms, there are few examinations of the usage habits…
Lento, Camillo; Sayed, Naqi; Bujaki, Merridee
We examine differences between male and female accounting faculty members' perceptions of academic dishonesty and their uses of controls to prevent academically dishonest behaviour. We use socialization concepts to motivate our examination of these differences. Specifically, we find that females generally perceive academic dishonesty to be a more…
Matthews, Kelly E.; Crampton, Andrea; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth D.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Varsavsky, Cristina
Social network perspectives acknowledge the influence of disciplinary cultures on academics' teaching beliefs and practices with implications for academic developers. The contribution of academic developers in 18 scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) projects situated in the sciences are explored by drawing on data from a two-year national…
Carr, Bruce Henry
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified
Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
Background: Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between the academic success levels of the boys playing basketball and certain variables such as age, basketball playing times, the number of the weekly average trainings and motoric skills. Material and Methods: 93 students participated voluntarily in the study from three different sports clubs. The ages in which the participants started basketball varied between 10 and 13, and their durations of weekly trainings differed from each other. The end-of-the-year academic success average points of the participants were considered in determining the academic success levels; and the International Physical Performance Test Profile (IPPTP (Kamar, 2008 was used in measuring the motoric skills. The issue of whether there was a significant difference between the participants was determined by using the SPSS 21.0 Package Program together with the One-Way ANOVA Test. Results: According to the findings, it was determined that there were no relations between the academic success rates and the basketball playing durations, the number of weekly trainings, and their motoric skills (p>0.05. On the other hand, a statistically significant difference was determined between the age variable and the academic success levels (p<0.05. Conclusions: No significant differences were detected between the motoric skills, number of trainings, starting basketball dates and the academic success levels of the sportsmen who receive basic basketball training (which contribute to the development of motoric skills with different numbers of weekly training and with different basketball starting dates; while a negative significance was detected between the age variable and academic success.
Sofia Dokuka; Diliara Valeeva; Maria Yudkevich
Peer group effects show the influence of student social environments on their individual achievements. Traditionally, a social environment is considered by researchers of peer effects as exogenously given. However, significant peers that affect performance are often those that are deliberately chosen. Students might choose their friends among peers with similar academic achievements. A dynamic analysis of student social networks and academic achievements is needed to disentangle social select...
Blackman, Ian; Hall, Margaret; Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah.
A hypothetical model was formulated to explore factors that influenced academic and clinical achievement for undergraduate nursing students. Sixteen latent variables were considered including the students' background, gender, type of first language, age, their previous successes with their undergraduate nursing studies and status given for…
Al-Srour, Nadia Hayel; Al-Ali, Safa Mohammad
The aim of this study is to explore the level of self-concept among primary school students according to gender and academic achievement variables in Amman. A random sample was chosen from fourth, fifth and sixth grades in private schools in Amman city. The sample of the study consisted of (365) male and female students, (177) males and (188)…
Jones, Stephanie M.; Kahn, Jennifer
The Aspen Institute's National Commission on Social, Emotional, and Academic Development united a broad alliance of leaders to speak with a unified voice about the urgency of integrating social and emotional development into the fabric of K-12 education. The commission convened a group of scientists, researchers, and academics across disparate…
Gustavsen, Ann Margareth
Previous studies found that girls have higher academic achievement than boys in most school subjects. Teachers' grading of academic achievement seems to be based not only on students' knowledge but also their social skills, and teachers tend to assess girls as having better social skills than boys. The main aim of this study was to examine through…
S.E. Severiens (Sabine); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)
textabstractThe present study explores the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on social and academic integration and study progress. Three hundred and five first-year students from three different psychology curricula completed a questionnaire on social and academic integration. Effects of a
Social skills and academic competence are key factors influencing children's development and functioning across early childhood and through adolescence. There is a great need to understand the longitudinal patterns of growth in social and academic skills in order to further inform intervention, particularly for at-risk groups such as individuals…
Betts, Kelly J.; Shirley, Janet A.; Kennedy, Robert
Background: Student success in a baccalaureate nursing program is of utmost importance at a southern College of Nursing (CON).CON faculty wanted to understand better what academic/ social risk factors attributed to attrition in the first year of the nursing program. The purpose of this study was to determine academic and social risk factors…
Internationalization is an integral part of the strategies of leading Chinese universities to strive for world-class standing. It has left its marks on the academic life of China's social scientists. This article explores the impact of internationalization on the academic life of Chinese social scientists using Tsinghua University as an example.…
Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian
Examined impact of birth order on social skills and academic performance of children and adolescents (N=3,568). Results revealed no significant relationship between birth order and academic performance but did reveal a significant positive relationship between birth order and social skills. Leadership skills were related to birth order for males.…
Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of internet addiction, social self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Participants were 311 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Academic Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Social Self-efficacy Scale. The…
Becht, Louis A., Jr.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to expand the literature on Division III student-athletes by examining their integration into the social and academic systems at one institution located in northeastern United States. This study examined participants' experiences within institutional social and academic systems designed for…
Haber, Noah; Smith, Emily R; Moscoe, Ellen; Andrews, Kathryn; Audy, Robin; Bell, Winnie; Brennan, Alana T; Breskin, Alexander; Kane, Jeremy C; Karra, Mahesh; McClure, Elizabeth S; Suarez, Elizabeth A
The pathway from evidence generation to consumption contains many steps which can lead to overstatement or misinformation. The proliferation of internet-based health news may encourage selection of media and academic research articles that overstate strength of causal inference. We investigated the state of causal inference in health research as it appears at the end of the pathway, at the point of social media consumption. We screened the NewsWhip Insights database for the most shared media articles on Facebook and Twitter reporting about peer-reviewed academic studies associating an exposure with a health outcome in 2015, extracting the 50 most-shared academic articles and media articles covering them. We designed and utilized a review tool to systematically assess and summarize studies' strength of causal inference, including generalizability, potential confounders, and methods used. These were then compared with the strength of causal language used to describe results in both academic and media articles. Two randomly assigned independent reviewers and one arbitrating reviewer from a pool of 21 reviewers assessed each article. We accepted the most shared 64 media articles pertaining to 50 academic articles for review, representing 68% of Facebook and 45% of Twitter shares in 2015. Thirty-four percent of academic studies and 48% of media articles used language that reviewers considered too strong for their strength of causal inference. Seventy percent of academic studies were considered low or very low strength of inference, with only 6% considered high or very high strength of causal inference. The most severe issues with academic studies' causal inference were reported to be omitted confounding variables and generalizability. Fifty-eight percent of media articles were found to have inaccurately reported the question, results, intervention, or population of the academic study. We find a large disparity between the strength of language as presented to the
Lewin, Daniel S; Wang, Guanghai; Chen, Yao I; Skora, Elizabeth; Hoehn, Jessica; Baylor, Allison; Wang, Jichuan
Improving sleep health among adolescents is a national health priority and implementing healthy school start times (SSTs) is an important strategy to achieve these goals. This study leveraged the differences in middle school SST in a large district to evaluate associations between SST, sleep health, and academic performance. This cross-sectional study draws data from a county-wide surveillance survey. Participants were three cohorts of eighth graders (n = 26,440). The school district is unique because SST ranged from 7:20 a.m. to 8:10 a.m. Path analysis and probit regression were used to analyze associations between SST and self-report measures of weekday sleep duration, grades, and homework controlling for demographic variables (sex, race, and socioeconomic status). The independent contributions of SST and sleep duration to academic performance were also analyzed. Earlier SST was associated with decreased sleep duration (χ 2 = 173, p academic performance, and academic effort. Path analysis models demonstrated the independent contributions of sleep duration, SST, and variable effects for demographic variables. This is the first study to evaluate the independent contributions of SST and sleep to academic performance in a large sample of middle school students. Deficient sleep was prevalent, and the earliest SST was associated with decrements in sleep and academics. These findings support the prioritization of policy initiatives to implement healthy SST for younger adolescents and highlight the importance of sleep health education disparities among race and gender groups. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rabitoy, Eric R.; Hoffman, John L.; Person, Dawn R.
This study evaluated variables associated with academic preparation and student demographics as predictors of academic achievement through participation in supplemental instruction (SI) programs for community college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. The findings suggest a differential impact of SI outcome for…
McKown, Clark; Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole M.; Allen, Adelaide; Johnson, Jason K.; Warren-Khot, Heather K.
Social-emotional comprehension involves encoding, interpreting, and reasoning about social-emotional information, and self-regulating. This study examined the mediating pathways through which social-emotional comprehension and social behaviour are related to academic outcomes in two ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous samples totaling…
Bourgoyne, Ashley; Alt, Mary
The purpose of this study was to identify effects of variability of visual input on development of conceptual representations of academic concepts for college-age students with normal language (NL) and those with language-learning disabilities (LLD). Students with NL (n = 11) and LLD (n = 11) participated in a computer-based training for introductory biology course concepts. Participants were trained on half the concepts under a low-variability condition and half under a high-variability condition. Participants completed a posttest in which they were asked to identify and rate the accuracy of novel and trained visual representations of the concepts. We performed separate repeated measures analyses of variance to examine the accuracy of identification and ratings. Participants were equally accurate on trained and novel items in the high-variability condition, but were less accurate on novel items only in the low-variability condition. The LLD group showed the same pattern as the NL group; they were just less accurate. Results indicated that high-variability visual input may facilitate the acquisition of academic concepts in college students with NL and LLD. High-variability visual input may be especially beneficial for generalization to novel representations of concepts. Implicit learning methods may be harnessed by college courses to provide students with basic conceptual knowledge when they are entering courses or beginning new units.
Jordan, Katy; Weller, Martin
The web has had a profound effect on the ways people interact, with online social networks arguably playing an important role in changing or augmenting how we connect with others. However, uptake of online social networking by the academic community varies, and needs to be understood. This paper presents an independent, novel analysis of a large-scale dataset published by Nature Publishing Group detailing the results of a survey about academics use of online social networking services. An ope...
The main topic of this thesis is analysing of the mobility of academic staff from the Faculty of Social Sciences in period 2011- 2015. The main aim of thesis will be exploration of the mobility of academic staff of the Faculty of Social Sciences at Charles University, focuses on the individual academic degrees and different institutions inside of faculty. The first sub-objective will analyse the usability offered by the mobility of academic staff and their interest. As another sub-goal I chos...
Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee
This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Eaton, Judy; Long, Jennifer; Morris, David
We developed a course, as part of our institution's core program, which provides students with a foundation in academic literacy in the social sciences: how to find, read, critically assess, and communicate about social science research. It is not a research methods course; rather, it is intended to introduce students to the social sciences and be…
Mugabe, C.; Brug, P.; Catling, J. C.
The relationship between academic motivation, support structures, self-esteem, and social mobility was assessed between three culturally distinct Higher Education student cohorts. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven students took part in the study: 64 American undergraduates; 100 British undergraduates; and 103 Ugandan undergraduates. Using a number of…
Wilson, Hope E.; Siegle, Del; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Reis, Sally M.
Academic self-concept predicts students' future goals and is affected by a student's relative success compared with his or her peer group. This exploratory study used structural equation modeling to examine the contributions of the perceived level of difficulty of the curriculum, in addition to the contributions of social comparison and…
Hale, Jimmie Edwin
This study explained Academic Progress Rate (APR) levels and differences in APR (DAPR) with team and institutional variables. Team variables included team gender, sport profile, and squad size. Institutional variables included individual variables aggregated to the institutional level. The data analyzed in this study was derived from the National…
Fassinger, Ruth E.; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Richmond, Geraldine
This article presents quantitative results of a study of 139 academic women in the chemical sciences who participated in a professional development program sponsored by the Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists. The study investigated variables frequently examined in the vocational psychology of women: approaches to achievement, coping strategies, career advancement, the home-work interface, workplace climate, and mentoring. The article presents and discusses results in the context of unique issues faced by women in scientific careers.
Smith, Patrick O; Grigsby, R Kevin
The Association of American Medical Colleges plays a leading role in supporting the expansion and evolution of academic medicine and medical science in North America, which are undergoing high-velocity change. Behavioral and social science concepts have great practical value when applied to the leadership practices and administrative structures that guide and support the rapid evolution of academic medicine and medical sciences. The authors are two behavioral and social science professionals who serve as academic administrators in academic medical centers. They outline their career development and describe the many ways activities have been shaped by their work with the Association of American Medical Colleges. Behavioral and social science professionals are encouraged to become change agents in the ongoing transformation of academic medicine.
Focussing on academics' professional identity, this paper analyses the challenges academics experience when adopting new technologies in their pedagogical practices. Notions of "economies of performance" and "ecologies of practice" as well as the concept of liminality are employed to understand this identity work. The paper…
Phillips, Deborah A.
Academically competent third-graders and their parents were studied to (1) determine whether the illusion of incompetence documented in fifth graders appears in younger children; and (2) examine the influence that parents exert on their children's development of self-perceptions of academic competence. (PCB)
Koontz, Nicholas A; Kamer, Aaron P; Dodson, Sean C; Capps, Alisha E; Tomblinson, Courtney M; Brown, Brandon P; Frank, Mark S; Heitkamp, Darel E
We report social media (SoMe) utilization trends at an academic radiology department, highlighting differences between trainees and faculty and between Baby Boomers versus Generation X and Millennials. An anonymous online survey regarding SoMe utilization and SoMe-based educational curriculum was distributed to all radiologists (trainees and faculty) in our department. Regular chi-square, ordered (Mantel-Haenszel) chi-square, and Fischer exact tests were performed. The survey instrument was sent to 172 radiologists with a 65% completion rate (N = 112). Eighty-three percent (n = 92) of the respondents use SoMe, with Facebook (67%, n = 75), YouTube (57%, n = 64), Instagram (26%, n = 29), and Twitter (21%, n = 23) as the most commonly used platforms. Eighty-one percent (n = 91) use SoMe for 30 minutes or less per day. Thirty-five percent (n = 39) reported previously using SoMe for educational purposes, although 66% (n = 73) would be willing to join SoMe for educational activities. The faculty are more likely than trainees to avoid using SoMe (30% vs 9%, P < 0.03). Trainees are more likely than faculty to find an electronic case-based curriculum valuable (95% vs 83%, P < 0.05) and are willing to spend more time on cases (P < 0.01). Baby Boomers are less interested in joining SoMe for educational activities than Generation X and Millennials (24% vs 73%, P = 0.0001). Generation gaps between trainees and faculty, as well as between Generation X and Millennials versus Baby Boomers, exist with regard to the use of SoMe, which may be underutilized in radiology education. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between certain demographic variables and social skill levels of university students. Material and Methods: There were 100 participants (n=51 female, n=49 male in the study group who were the students at the department of Sport Sciences Faculty of Istanbul University in the 2015-2016 academic year. Of the study group 28 participants were between 18-20 years old, 27 participants were between 21-23 years old, 23 participants were between 24-26 years old and 22 participants were above 27 years old. After the demographic information of the participants was formed, the Social Skill Scale was applied which was developed by Matson, Rotarory and Hessel (1983 and adopted to Turkish. In order to measure their social skill levels, the reliability analysis of that scale was done. Cronbach Alpha value is 0.777; about the subscales, the results were found as such; positive social behaviour subscale 0.924, negative social behaviour subscale 0.904. Significance level was accepted as p<0.05. Results: Gender, age, class, whether or not to play sports with a licence, education level of parents, how many years they have been doing sports, and the level of social skills and subscales of their students were not significantly different. Conclusion: As a result; the demographic variables examined within our study did not make a difference in the level of social skills of the participants.
Vrocharidou, Anatoli; Efthymiou, Ilias
The present study approaches the Internet as a social space, where university students make use of computer mediated communication (CMC) applications, i.e. e-mail, instant messaging and social network sites, in order to satisfy social and academic needs. We focus on university students, because they represent one of the most avid groups of CMC…
Song, Juyeon; Bong, Mimi; Lee, Kyehyoung; Kim, Sung-il
We examined (a) the relative importance of perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers; (b) the consequences associated with different types of perceived social support; and (c) the mediation by achievement goals in the relationship between perceived social support and academic outcomes. We analyzed the first 3 waves of the Korean…
Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Demaray, Michelle K.; Malecki, Christine K.; Terry, Melissa N.; Clary, Michael; Elzinga, Nathan
Data on students' perceptions of teacher social support, academic functioning, and social-emotional functioning were collected from a sample of 796 7th and 8th grade middle school students using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS; Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000), Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and school records, and…
Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.
The present study examined indices of friends' social adjustment (prosocial skills and social anxiety) that may protect against or exacerbate vulnerability to lower academic competence in the context of peer victimization during middle school (N=320). Peer victimization was assessed with peer nominations, social anxiety was measured with self…
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.
The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…
Ozer, Ipek; Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.
Social-networking site (SNS) use, specifically Facebook®, has remained a controversial subject for many educators and media. Recent studies discuss the negative and positive impacts of SNSs on students’ academic performance. This qualitative study examines the impact of SNSs on students’ academic
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…
Mackinnon, Sean P.
As students transition to post-secondary education, they experience considerable stress and declines in academic performance. Perceived social support is thought to improve academic achievement by reducing stress. Longitudinal designs with three or more waves are needed in this area because they permit stronger causal inferences and help…
Harper, Casandra E.; Sax, Linda J.; Wolf, De'Sha S.
This study examined the relationship between parental contact (frequency of student-parent communication) and involvement (parents' interest and/or involvement in students' academic progress and decision-making) with college students' personal, social, and academic development. Parental involvement accounted for over two-thirds of the significant…
Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.
The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…
Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Background: Approaches to learning (ATL) is a key domain of school readiness with important implications for children's academic trajectories. Interestingly, however, the impact of early ATL on children's social competence has not been examined. Objective: This study examines associations between children's ATL at age 5 and academic achievement…
Aslan Efe, Hülya; Efe, Rifat
In this study, the relationship between study preservice science teachers' academic procrastination and their attitudes toward social media was investigated. The study was carried out with the participation of 511 preservice science teachers (F: 346, M:165) on teacher education course at Dicle University during 2014-2015 academic year. The date…
de Lijster, Jasmijn M.; Dieleman, Gwen C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Dierckx, Bram; Wierenga, Milou; Verhulst, Frank C.; Legerstee, Jeroen S.
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent during adolescence. Although literature points out that anxiety symptoms are related to problems in social and academic functioning, the extent of these problems among adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders has not been systematically reviewed before.
This study analyses the relationship between low self-esteem and problem behaviour, social competence and academic achievement among students in lower secondary schools in Norway. 2164 students in 11 lower secondary schools filled in a self-evaluation scale on self-esteem (Harter 1999). Teachers evaluated the same students using the problem-behaviour-scale, social competence scale and academic achievement scale developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990). Correlations were computed between each f...
Smith, Derek R; Watson, Roger
A discussion of bibliometrics, altmetrics and social media for the contemporary nursing scholar and academic researcher. Today's nursing academic faces myriad challenges in balancing their daily life and, in recent years, academic survival has been increasingly challenged by the various research assessment exercises that evaluate the performance of knowledge institutions. As such, it is essential that today's nursing academic keep up to date with the core competencies needed for survival in a modern research career, particularly the intersecting triad of bibliometrics, altmetrics and social media. Discussion paper. Published literature and relevant websites. The rise of social media and altmetrics has important implications for contemporary nursing scholars who publish their research. Some fundamental questions when choosing a journal might be 'does it have a Twitter and/or Facebook site, or a blog (or all three)'; and 'does it have any other presence on social media, such as LinkedIn, Wikipedia, YouTube, ResearchGate and so on?' Another consequence of embracing social media is that individual academics should also develop their own strategies for promoting and disseminating their work as widely as possible. The rising importance of social media and altmetrics can no longer be ignored, and today's nursing academic now has another facet to consider in their scholarly activities. Despite the changing nature of research dissemination, however, it is still important to recognize the undoubted value of established knowledge dissemination routes (that being the peer-reviewed publication). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Akgün, Ismail Hakan
The aim of this research is to determine Social Studies teacher candidates' intended uses of social networks in terms of various variables. The research was carried out by using screening model of quantitative research methods. In the study, "The Social Network Intended Use Scale" was used as a data collection tool. As a result of the…
Full Text Available This study was aimed at finding the best model to explain pupil academic attainment in learning social studies. The data came from pupils learning Social Studies at grade 3 and 4 of primary schools. The structural equation model contained 2 exogenous constructs–attitudes toward school and locus of control–and 2 endogenous constructs–self-concept and academic achievement. It was confirmed that the academic self-concept and achievement related to each other and both were influenced by attitudes toward school and internal locus of control. The model was fitting differently for different grade.
Bernardo, Allan B I
Academic achievement of students differs by socioeconomic group. Parents' socialization of academic achievement in their children was explored in self-reports of 241 students from two socioeconomic status (SES) groups in the Philippines, using a scale developed by Bempechat, et al. Students in the upper SES group had higher achievement than their peers in the middle SES group, but had lower scores on most dimensions of parental socialization of academic achievement. Regression analyses indicate that reported parental attempts to encourage more effort to achieve was associated with lower achievement in students with upper SES.
Gültekin, Bülent Kadri; Dereboy, I Ferhan
The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of social phobia, and the sociodemographic variables, substance use patterns, and comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with it. The impact of social phobia on quality of life, academic achievement, and identity formation were also examined. The study was conducted between 01 March and 01 June 2008, and included 700 undergraduate students at Adnan Menderes University. A sociodemographic data form, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Form, Turkish Version (WHOQoL-BREF-TR), and Instrument for Assessing Identity Confusion (IFAIC) were administered to the participants. In all, 20.9% of the participants had social phobia during the previous year and 21.7% had social phobia for a lifetime. In total, 74.6% of those that had social phobia during the previous year and 76.5% of those that had social phobia for their whole lives also had a specific social phobia. There was a significant difference between the participants with generalized social phobia or a specific social phobia, and those without social phobia, in terms of LSAS and IFAIC scores. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of social phobia was 1.7-fold higher among the females than males, 1.5-fold higher among those that lived in cities for the last 15 years than those that lived in towns, 1.9-fold higher among those that lived in cities for the last 15 years than those that lived in villages, and 1.8-fold higher among those that had relatives with a psychiatric illness than those that didn't. Higher socioeconomic status was negatively correlated with the prevalence of social phobia. Cigarette smoking was more prevalent among the students without social phobia and suicidal ideation was more prevalent among the students with social phobia. WHOQOL-BREF-TR scores showed that students without social phobia had significantly higher quality of life quality than those with social phobia. Self
Glover, McKinley; Choy, Garry; Boland, Giles W; Saini, Sanjay; Prabhakar, Anand M
This study assesses the prevalence of use of the most commonly used social media sites among private radiology groups (PRGs) and academic radiology departments (ARDs). The 50 largest PRGs and the 50 ARDs with the highest level of funding from the National Institutes of Health were assessed for presence of a radiology-specific social media account on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, YouTube, and LinkedIn. Measures of organizational activity and end-user activity were collected, including the number of posts and followers, as appropriate; between-group comparisons were performed. PRGs adopted Facebook 12 months earlier (P = .02) and Twitter 18 months earlier (P = .02) than did ARDs. A total of 76% of PRGs maintained ≥1 account on the social media sites included in the study, compared with 28% of ARDs (P Instagram, 2%. The prevalence of radiology-specific social media accounts for ARDs was: Facebook, 18%; LinkedIn, 0%; Twitter, 24%; YouTube, 6%; Pinterest, 0%; and Instagram, 0%. There was no significant difference between ARDs and PRGs in measures of end-user or organizational activity on Facebook or Twitter. Use of social media in health care is emerging as mainstream, with PRGs being early adopters of Facebook and Twitter in comparison with ARDs. Competitive environments and institutional policies may be strong factors that influence how social media is used by radiologists at the group and department levels. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meng, Qian; Zhu, Chang; Cao, Chun
This study examined global competence of Chinese international students sojourning in a non-Anglophone European country as a mediator between foreign language proficiency (i.e., English and local language) and social and academic adaptation, and social connectedness in international community. A sample of 206 Chinese students in Belgium responded…
Erhart, Amber C.
By the end of the kindergarten, students are expected to possess early academic skills as well as the social maturity to be successful in first grade. Students leaving kindergarten without these readiness skills are sometimes held back in first grade or referred for a special education evaluation in later grades if they fail to make adequate…
Maurizi, Laura K.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Granillo, M. Teresa; Delva, Jorge
While research has established that depression interferes with academic achievement, less is understood about the processes by which social relationships may buffer the relationship between depression and academic outcomes. In this study we examined the role of positive relationships in the school, family and peer contexts in the association between depressive symptoms and academic achievement among 894 adolescents aged 12-17 years living in Santiago, Chile. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of academic achievement; parental monitoring, school belonging, positive mother relationships, and having academically inclined peers moderated this relationship, though some interactions differed by sex and age. Implications for promoting the academic success of adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms are discussed. PMID:23667282
de Lijster, Jasmijn M; Dieleman, Gwen C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Dierckx, Bram; Wierenga, Milou; Verhulst, Frank C; Legerstee, Jeroen S
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent during adolescence. Although literature points out that anxiety symptoms are related to problems in social and academic functioning, the extent of these problems among adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders has not been systematically reviewed before. Electronic databases were searched up to October 2017, with keywords representing anxiety disorders, adolescents, and social or academic functioning. The inclusion criteria were studies with a sample of adolescents (10-19 years) with anxiety disorders that provided data regarding their social or academic functioning. 3431 studies were examined, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Adolescents with anxiety disorders had a lower social competence relative to their healthy peers. They reported more negativity within interpersonal relationships, higher levels of loneliness, and victimization. Most adolescents with anxiety disorders felt impaired at school, however, findings of their average school results, compared to peers, were mixed. In addition, they had a higher risk for school refusal and entered higher education less often. Impairments in social and academic functioning differed across type and the number of anxiety disorders. Most studies examined social phobia or anxiety disorders in general and methodological approaches varied widely between studies. This systematic review indicates that adolescents with anxiety disorders experience a range of significant problems in both social and academic functioning. These findings suggest that the assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescence should focus on improving functioning across domains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McQuade, Julia D; Penzel, Taylor E; Silk, Jennifer S; Lee, Kyung Hwa
This study examined whether children with poor executive functioning (EF) evidenced less social and academic impairments, compared to other children, if they demonstrated adaptive parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) regulation during experiences of failure. Participants with and without clinical elevations in ADHD symptoms (N = 61; 9-13 years; 48% male; 85% Caucasian) were administered a battery of EF tests and completed manipulated social and cognitive failure tasks. While participants completed failure tasks, respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) was measured as an indicator of PNS reactivity. Children's social and academic impairment in daily life was assessed based on parent and teacher report on multiple measures. RSA-R during social failure moderated the association between poor EF and adult-rated social impairment and RSA-R during cognitive failure moderated the association between poor EF and adult-rated academic impairment. Simple effects indicated that poor EF was significantly associated with impairment when children demonstrated RSA activation (increased PNS activity) but not when children demonstrated RSA withdrawal (decreases in PNS activity). Domain-crossed models (e.g., reactivity to social failure predicting academic impairment) were not significant, suggesting that the moderating effect of RSA-R was domain-specific. Results suggest that not all children with poor EF evidence social and academic impairment; RSA withdrawal during experiences of failure may be protective specifically for children with impaired EF skills.
Studies dedicated to examination of self-regulation posit a bi-directional association between self-regulation and other variables including social connectedness, self-efficacy and self-control. However, to date, studies of this caliber have only evidenced that self-regulation is a predictor of other variables. In the present study, the factors…
Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Christopher
Examines the relationship between 14 social process variables and the reading performances of 180 slow learners, ages 7-15. Finds that two of those factors (brith trauma and being held back in school) emerge as predictors of reading comprehension, word recognition, and spelling. (RL)
Background:Domestic violence is any intentional abuse of a family member mostly women by a partner which causes pain or injury. It is a growing phenomenon and is affected by several social variables. In pregnancy, domestic violence causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and other reproductive health consequences to ...
Premorbid functioning of patients with first-episode nonaffective psychosis: a comparison of deterioration in academic and social performance, and clinical correlates of Premorbid Adjustment Scale scores.
Monte, Ralph C; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T
Motivated by a previous study among male veterans [Allen, D.N., Frantom, L.V., Strauss, G.P., van Kammen, D.P., 2005. Differential patterns of premorbid academic and social deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 75, 389-397], the present analysis examined: (1) patterns of premorbid academic and social functioning during childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence, and (2) associations between these premorbid functioning dimensions and a number of clinical variables. Data on premorbid functioning were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) in 95 hospitalized first-episode patients. Analyses were similar to those conducted by Allen and colleagues (2005). Deterioration was evident in both academic and social functioning from childhood to early adolescence, along with a pronounced/accelerated deterioration in academic functioning from early adolescence to late adolescence, occurring in both male and female patients. Age at onset of prodromal symptoms was predicted by childhood/early adolescent/late adolescent academic functioning scores, and age at onset of psychotic symptoms was significantly associated only with childhood academic functioning. Severity of negative symptoms was predicted by childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores, and severity of general psychopathology symptoms was predicted by late adolescent academic functioning, as well as childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores. Consistent with prior findings, deterioration in premorbid functioning appears to be more pronounced in the academic than social dimension of the PAS. Some PAS scores are predictive of ages at onset of prodrome/psychosis and severity of psychotic symptoms. Ongoing research on premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia may have implications for future prevention goals.
Inglés, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; García del Castillo, José A; Gázquez, José J; García-Fernández, José M; Delgado, Beatriz
The aim of the present study was to analyze: (a) the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and academic performance, and (b) the predictive role of psycho-educational factors and alcohol and tobacco abuse on academic performance in a sample of 352 Spanish adolescents from grades 8 to 10 of Compulsory Secondary Education. The Self-Description Questionnaire-II, the Sydney Attribution Scale, and the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire were administered in order to analyze cognitive-motivational variables. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, sex, and grade retention were also measured using self-reported questions. Academic performance was measured by school records. Frequency analyses and logistic regression analyses were used. Frequency analyses revealed that students who abuse of tobacco and alcohol show a higher rate of poor academic performance. Logistic regression analyses showed that health behaviours, and educational and cognitive-motivational variables exert a different effect on academic performance depending on the academic area analyzed. These results point out that not only academic, but also health variables should be address to improve academic performance in adolescence.
Zahra, Asma-Tuz; Arif, Manzoor H.; Yousuf, Muhammad Imran
This study investigated relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of bachelor degree students. Female students at bachelor were considered the target population. A sample of 1500 students was selected by using two stage cluster sampling technique. An amended form of Self-Descriptive Questionnaire developed by Marsh (1985) was used…
Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko
Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baptista, Carlos Alberto; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; de Lima Osório, Flávia; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Magalhães, Pedro V; Kapczinski, Flávio; Filho, Alaor Santos; Freitas-Ferrari, Maria Cecília; Crippa, José Alexandre S
Despite the fact that public speaking is a common academic activity and that social phobia has been associated with lower educational achievement and impaired academic performance, little research has examined the prevalence of social phobia in college students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of social phobia in a large sample of Brazilian college students and to examine the academic impact of this disorder. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the MINI-SPIN, used as the indicator of social phobia in the screening phase, were applied to 2319 randomly selected students from two Brazilian universities. For the second phase (diagnostic confirmation), four psychiatrists and one clinical psychologist administered the SCID-IV to subjects with MINI-SPIN scores of 6 or higher. The prevalence of social phobia among the university students was 11.6%. Women with social phobia had significantly lower grades than those without the disorder. Fear of public speaking was the most common social fear. Only two of the 237 students with social phobia (0.8%) had previously received a diagnosis of social phobia and were under treatment. Social phobia comorbidities were not evaluated in this study. The methods of assessment employed by the universities (written exams) may mask the presence of social phobia. This was not a population-based study, and thus the results are not generalizable to the entire population with social phobia. Preventive strategies are recommended to reduce the under-recognition and the adverse impact of social phobia on academic performance and overall quality of life of university students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.
This study examined student-teacher goal congruence and its relation to social and academic motivation. Based on a sample of 97 ninth-graders, high levels of goal congruence for each of the four goals measured (prosocial, responsibility, learning, performance) was positively related to student interest in class and perceived social support from…
Turkpour, Azita; Mehdinezhad, Vali
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relation between social and academic support on student ability to adapt to college. Results demonstrated a weak and reverse relation between expression of support and personal ability to adapt and total adaptation. A direct relation was determined between emotional support and social adaptation and…
Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan
This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…
Verboom, C.E.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Ormel, J.
Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between
Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan
Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between
Mann, Trisha D.; Hund, Alycia M.; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S.; Roman, Zachary J.
The current study specified the extent to which hot and cool aspects of executive functioning predicted academic and social-emotional indicators of school readiness. It was unique in focusing on positive aspects of social-emotional readiness, rather than problem behaviors. One hundred four 3-5-year-old children completed tasks measuring executive…
White-Johnson, Rhonda L.
Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…
Jordan, Katy; Weller, Martin
The web has had a profound effect on the ways people interact, with online social networks arguably playing an important role in changing or augmenting how we connect with others. However, uptake of online social networking by the academic community varies, and needs to be understood. This paper presents an independent, novel analysis of a…
Patrut, Bogdan; Patrut, Monica; Cmeciu, Camelia
As web applications play a vital role in our society, social media has emerged as an important tool in the creation and exchange of user-generated content and social interaction. The benefits of these services have entered in the educational areas to become new means by which scholars communicate, collaborate and teach. Social Media and the New…
The current research investigated how the contextual expression of personality differs across interpersonal relationships. Two related studies were conducted with college samples (Study 1: N = 52, 38 female; Study 2: N = 111, 72 female). Participants in each study completed a five-factor measure of personality and constructed a social network detailing their 30 most important relationships. Participants used a brief Five-Factor Model scale to rate their personality as they experience it when with each person in their social network. Multiple informants selected from each social network then rated the target participant's personality (Study 1: N = 227, Study 2: N = 777). Contextual personality ratings demonstrated incremental validity beyond standard global self-report in predicting specific informants' perceptions. Variability in these contextualized personality ratings was predicted by the position of the other individuals within the social network. Across both studies, participants reported being more extraverted and neurotic, and less conscientious, with more central members of their social networks. Dyadic social network-based assessments of personality provide incremental validity in understanding personality, revealing dynamic patterns of personality variability unobservable with standard assessment techniques. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Preckel, Franzis; Niepel, Christoph; Schneider, Marian; Brunner, Martin
Fostering social and academic self-concepts are central educational goals. During mid-adolescence academic engagement and success seem to be devalued by peers and to be negatively associated with students' social standing. For this age group, is the development of a positive academic self-concept compatible with the development of a positive social self-concept? We investigated relations among academic self-concept, social self-concept, and academic achievement. 1282 students (47.60% female) participated in three-waves of measurement in Grade 5, 6, and 8. Earlier social self-concept of acceptance negatively predicted changes in academic self-concept over time while earlier social self-concept of assertion positively predicted changes in academic self-concept. There were no significant relations between social self-concepts and achievement but positive reciprocal relations between academic self-concept and achievement. Results indicate that fostering adolescents self-concept in social and academic domains are compatible goals. However, some students need support in managing the challenge to coordinate social and academic goals. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
José Concepción Gaxiola Romero
Full Text Available The academic achievement in high school students of Mexico, according to national and international evaluations has been insufficient. In spite of this situation, is possible to find excellent students, even in the context of sharing negative contextual and physical conditions. There are few investigations that describe the variables associated to resilient students. The alumni that are beyond the risks are called resilient (Rutter, 2007. The aim of this research was to explore and identify the internal variables: goals and resilience, and the external variables: risky neighborhood and risky friends that predicted the scholar achievement of high school students. To measure those variables, was used a compilation of scales validated in the region. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, and show that resilience predicted indirectly the scholar achievement trough the academic goals. The results could be used in programs to improve the academic achievement of this group of students.
Thompson, Renee J.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Gotlib, Ian H.
Recent research has underscored the importance of elucidating specific patterns of emotion that characterize mental disorders. We examined two emotion traits, emotional variability and emotional clarity, in relation to both categorical (diagnostic interview) and dimensional (self-report) measures of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) in women diagnosed with MDD only (n=35), SAD only (n=31), MDD and SAD (n=26), or no psychiatric disorder (n=38). Results of the categorical analyses suggest that elevated emotional variability and diminished emotional clarity are transdiagnostic of MDD and SAD. More specifically, emotional variability was elevated for MDD and SAD diagnoses compared to no diagnosis, showing an additive effect for co-occurring MDD and SAD. Similarly diminished levels of emotional clarity characterized all three clinical groups compared to the healthy control group. Dimensional findings suggest that whereas emotional variability is associated more consistently with depression than with social anxiety, emotional clarity is associated more consistently with social anxiety than with depression. Results are interpreted using a threshold- and dose-response framework. PMID:26371579
Javier Organista Sandoval
Full Text Available During the first semester of 2008 a research study was conducted with incoming freshman in the School of Administrative and Social Sciences (FCAyS—acronym in Spanish of the Ensenada campus of the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC. The purpose was to characterize the new students based on academic achievement (grade point averages in high school and the first semester of college, family context (parents’ schooling and use of technology (computers and the Web. A survey of technology use developed within the framework of the research was applied to a sample of 438 students. The results show that the majority of the students are female (2 out of 3 and that 4 out of 5 have computers at home. About 80% of the students showed an intermediate level of proficiency in computer technology and the Web. Two classifying techniques were employed: CHAID and a cluster analysis to explore the development of patterns based on the above-mentioned variables. The result of the applied CHAID analysis highlights the importance of the variables of gender, parental schooling and level of immersion in the Web for the classification. The cluster analysis (k-means generated four clusters; of these, cluster 1, which had the lowest average grades and the highest levels of computer and Web immersion, is noteworthy, because it suggests a non-educational use of technological resources. In contrast, cluster 4 presented the highest grade point average in college, a moderate level of computer use and a low level of immersion in the Web. This suggests a greater commitment to academics by reduced use of the computer and the Web for recreational purposes.
Mingle, Jeffrey; Adams, Musah; Adjei, E. A.
The study comparatively analyzed social media usage and academic performance in public and private senior high schools. The issue of social media and academic performance has been a very debatable topic with regard to its effect. This study further explores the relation between private and public schools in relation to social media use and…
Full Text Available There has been a plethora of research related to attribution in the last few decades. However, very few studies focused on the relationship between understanding the causes of others’ behavior and social representation. The overall objective of this study was to fill the gap by showing that the understanding of the causes behind others’ behavior is influenced by our social believes. We studied the scholar failure social representation of school-teacher.
Hennessy, Catherine; Keenan, I D; Border, S
This workshop welcomes novices and existing social media users alike, to collaborate and participate in using social media in order to disseminate information and network with other delegates. This workshop will inform delegates how social media can be effectively used long-term for both professional and educational purposes, beyond the conclusion of the conference. \\ud New users will be inspired to create their own academic Twitter accounts and to become confident in tweeting, while existing...
Tulley, Stephanie; Dennis, Tim
Social media data is a high-profile resource across academic disciplines, in areas as diverse as understanding voter behavior, tracking social communication networks, and identifying sources and effects of pollution on human health. While manual data collection and review from public social media sites can provide some insight into the content of these sources, bulk access to data is preferred for more complex and deeper analysis into the content. A certain amount of data can be accessed dire...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of personality traits and student academic and social college adjustment to their overall life satisfaction and depression. Sample of 492 freshmen completed a battery of measures. Hierarchical regression analyses are applied to analyze the contribution of predictor variables on life satisfaction and depression in the group of male and female students. After controlling for the personality traits, college adjustment had a significant contribution to student depression and life satisfaction. Optimism has a significant protective role only with male, but not with female students.
Şuheda Bozkurt Yükçü
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine preschool children's social problem solving skills in terms of various variables. The population of the study consisted of parents and their children between the ages four-six years who attend independent kindergartens located in Çankaya county of Ankara during the 2015-2016 academic year. The sample of the study selected by simple random sampling method, consisted of 240 parents and their children between the ages four-six years who attend independent kindergartens located in Çankaya counties of Ankara during the 2015-2016 academic year. In this study conducted by descriptive screenning model, General Information Form and Wally Child Social Problem Solving Detective Game Test were used. Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Independent Groups T Test, One Way Anova were used to analyze of data. According to the results of this study, social problem solving skills of children differ based on child’s age but do not differ based on gender, number of siblings, montly income, parents’s age, educational status and working status. The findings were discussed and interpreted within the scope of the literature.
Gunnarsdottir, T; Njardvik, U; Olafsdottir, A S; Craighead, L W; Bjarnason, R
The first objective was to determine the prevalence of psychological maladjustment (emotional and behavioural problems), low academic competencies and teasing/social rejection among obese Icelandic children enrolling in a family-based behavioural treatment. A second objective was to explore the degree to which teasing/social rejection specifically contributes to children's psychological adjustment and academic competencies when controlling for other variables, including demographics, children's physical activity, parental depression and life-stress. Participants were 84 obese children (mean body mass index-standard deviation score=3.11, age range=7.52-13.61 years). Height and weight, demographics and measures of children's psychological adjustment, academic competencies, teasing/social rejection and physical activity were collected from children, parents and teachers. Parental depression and life-stress was self-reported. Over half the children exceeded cutoffs indicating concern on at least one measure of behavioural or emotional difficulties. Children endorsed significant levels of teasing/social rejection, with almost half acknowledging they were not popular with same-gender peers. Parent reports of peer problems were even higher, with over 90% of both boys and girls being rated by their parents as having significant peer difficulties. However, rates of low academic competencies as reported by teachers were not different from those of the general population. In regression analyses controlling for other variables, self-reported teasing/social rejection emerged as a significant contributor to explaining both child psychological adjustment and academic competencies. The results indicate that among obese children enrolled in family-based treatment, self-reported teasing/social rejection is quite high and it is associated with poorer psychological adjustment as well as lower academic competencies. Parent reports corroborate the presence of substantial peer
Martí Xavier March Cerdà
Full Text Available Introduction and aims: A reflection on the reality of Social Pedagogy in Spain during the second decade of the 21st century from an analytical perspective, with the aim of finding out and recognising its weak points, its strong points, its challenges and its opportunities. The analysis centres on reviewing Social Pedagogy as a key discipline in the reconstruction of Educational Sci- ences and a socio-educational response to the demands and needs of society and the Welfare State. Analysis of the current situation is completed with research into Social Education studies. The sphere of reference is made up of the group of universities offering social education courses in Spain. The variables structuring the data capture were: 1 the structure of the offer, 2 the fea- tures of the courses offered, and 3 course results. Methodology: The sample taken was structural in nature, selecting 11 universities holding the courses in three areas of Spain - the North, Central and Southern Spain and the Mediterranean region. Information was gathered using two comple- mentary methodologies, a questionnaire, falling within the context of the Ibero-American Social Education Society (SIPS, and a review of the web sites of the universities offering courses in so- cial education. Data processing and analysis: The analysis was carried out in two complementary stages. First of all, the closed questions were processed using SPSS and then the digital records of the open questions were processed using the NVIVO program. Results: The large majority of the courses on offer are classroom-based, with some distance learning courses being available. The average size of the courses was around 87 places. It should be pointed out that the double degree in Social Education and Social Work on offer is merely symbolic. There is multi-departmental in- volvement in teaching the Degree, although a larger role is played by the Pedagogy departments and all socio-educational fields are
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males;...
Fisher, Paige H; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Klein, Rachel G
This paper describes Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS), a cognitive-behavioral, school-based intervention for adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Clinic-based treatment studies for socially anxious youth are reviewed, and a strong rationale for transporting empirically-based interventions into schools, such as SASS, is provided. The SASS program consists of 12, 40-min group sessions that emphasize social skills and in-vivo exposure. In addition to group sessions, students are seen individually at least twice and participate in 4 weekend social events with prosocial peers from their high schools. Meetings with teachers provide information about social anxiety and facilitate classroom exposures for socially anxious participants. Parents attend 2 psychoeducational meetings about social anxiety, its treatment, and approaches for managing their child's anxiety. Initial findings regarding the program's effectiveness are presented. We conclude by discussing the challenges involved in implementing treatment protocols in schools and provide suggestions to address these issues.
Social media are becoming a critical part of communication in everyday lives and are a common form of communication for many students in and outside of school. Accordingly, English learner (EL) students are using social media-based communication to gather information, maintain friendships, and express multiple identities. Considering that social…
Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Nasir Zakaria, Gamal Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati; Abdul Latif, Siti Norhedayah
Lawrence Mundia, Salwa Mahalle, Rohani Matzin, Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria, Nor Zaiham Midawati Abdullah, Siti Norhedayah Abdul Latif Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam Abstract: The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer&nd...
Martins, Antonio Camargo; Oliveira, Felipe Renê Alves; Delfino, Breno Matos; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; de Moraes, Fabio Henrique Pinto; Barbosa, Guilherme Viana; de Macedo, Lucas Felipe; Domingos, Tayna Da Silva; Da Silva, Dyemisson Pinheiro; Menezes, Charlene Cristine Rodrigues; Oliveira Filho, Edmar Santana; Pereira, Thales Augusto Da Silva; Piccirilli, Elizabeth Souza; Pinto, Wagner De Jesus
The training of future physicians should be concurrent with the development of different skills and attitudes. This warrants the need to regularly provide students with opportunities for self-development throughout their academic career. This approach was exemplified in a medical school in the Brazilian Amazon, where students were allowed to play the role of high school teachers. As part of this exercise, they conducted reinforcement classes for high school students to increase the number of university admissions. The medical students were solely responsible for organizing and implementing this project, giving them the opportunity to develop teaching and leadership skills, enhance their understanding of communication and administration and contribute toward the society.
Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the impact of using social media and internet on the academic achievement of prospective teachers. Focus group of the research could be expressed as 204 prospective teachers that were studying in 2016-2017 fall semesters. To collect data, Attitudes Towards to Social Media Scale was employed. Result of the study revealed that, prospective teachers’ attitudes towards to social media had an influence on academic achievement. Furthermore, it could be stressed that prospective teachers with lower attitudes towards to social media were more likely to have lower academic success when compared with the prospective teachers with higher attitudes towards to social media. In addition to these, results of the current study also expressed that prospective teachers with social media accounts were achieved better grades when compared with the prospective teachers who did not have any social media account. Lastly, it could be indicated that prospective teachers’ attitudes towards to social media was at a moderate level.
Erhardt, Drew; Hinshaw, Stephen P
This study systematically compared the influence of naturalistic social behaviors and nonbehavioral variables on the development of peer status in 49 previously unfamiliar boys, aged 6-12 years, who attended a summer research program. Twenty-five boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 24 comparison boys participated. Physical attractiveness, motor competence, intelligence, and academic achievement constituted the nonbehavioral variables; social behaviors included noncompliance, aggression, prosocial actions, and isolation, measured by live observations of classroom and playground interactions. As early as the first day of interaction, ADHD and comparison boys displayed clear differences in social behaviors, and the ADHD youngsters were overwhelmingly rejected. Whereas prosocial behavior independently predicted friendship ratings during the first week, the magnitude of prediction was small. In contrast, the boys' aggression (or noncompliance) strongly predicted negative nominations, even with nonbehavioral factors, group status (ADHD versus comparison), and other social behaviors controlled statistically. Implications for understanding and remediating negative peer reputations are discussed.
Ayral , Sylvie; Raibaud , Yves
Le but de cet article n'est pas de savoir si le genre est une variable centrale de la violence sociale mais comment cette hypothèse (qui induit la possibilité d'un changement social) est réfutée et quelles connaissances sont mobilisées à cet effet. Il s'agit d'identifier les modèles récurrents mis en œuvre par les « membres » (par exemple la communauté scientifique des sciences humaines et sociales) lorsqu'ils.elles examinent le sens de ces modèles par l'observation de « ce que les gens font ...
Jensen, Dorthe H.; Jetten, Jolanda
It is increasingly recognized that graduates’ achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students’ socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students’ professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students’ parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students’ professional identity
Jensen, Dorthe H; Jetten, Jolanda
It is increasingly recognized that graduates' achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students' socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students' professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students' parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students' professional identity development.
Volkov A.A.; Zerkalova E.A.
The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Full Text Available The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Monney, Gregoire; Thorens, Gabriel; Dufour, Magali; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane
Online gambling has gained popularity in the last decade, leading to an important shift in how consumers engage in gambling and in the factors related to problem gambling and prevention. Indebtedness and loneliness have previously been associated with problem gambling. The current study aimed to characterize online gamblers in relation to indebtedness, loneliness, and several in-game social behaviors. The data set was obtained from 584 Internet gamblers recruited online through gambling websites and forums. Of these gamblers, 372 participants completed all study assessments and were included in the analyses. Questionnaires included those on sociodemographics and social variables (indebtedness, loneliness, in-game social behaviors), as well as the Gambling Motives Questionnaire, Gambling Related Cognitions Scale, Internet Addiction Test, Problem Gambling Severity Index, Short Depression-Happiness Scale, and UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. Social variables were explored with a latent class model. The clusters obtained were compared for psychological measures and three clusters were found: lonely indebted gamblers (cluster 1: 6.5%), not lonely not indebted gamblers (cluster 2: 75.4%), and not lonely indebted gamblers (cluster 3: 18%). Participants in clusters 1 and 3 (particularly in cluster 1) were at higher risk of problem gambling than were those in cluster 2. The three groups differed on most assessed variables, including the Problem Gambling Severity Index, the Short Depression-Happiness Scale, and the UPPS-P subscales (except the sensation seeking subscore). Results highlight significant between-group differences, suggesting that Internet gamblers are not a homogeneous group. Specific intervention strategies could be implemented for groups at risk.
Institutions, the Influence of Acculturation, Networking and. School Management .... research on predictors of social justice building among teachers, and how it is related ... Acculturation theory has historically focused on individual and group ... behaviors are used to build and maintain informal contacts that enhance career.
Britton, R. Jason
The process of strategically planning enrollment in higher education, particularly at private institutions has seen tremendous changes in a short period of time. Changes in perspectives toward the value of a college degree, along with economic and social factors, have contributed to the difficulty of discovering relationships affecting enrollment.…
Warshawski, Sigalit; Bar-Lev, Oshra; Barnoy, Sivia
Associations between test anxiety, academic self-efficacy (ASE), and social support through social media have not been fully explored. The purposes were to explore associations between test anxiety, ASE, and social support from social media and to examine differences in test anxiety by students' year of studies and cultural background. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design. The sample comprised first- and fourth-year nursing students (n = 240) attending a baccalaureate nursing program in Israel. Higher ASE and support through social media were related to lower test anxiety. Fourth-year students and Jewish students had higher ASE than first-year and Arab students, who received more support on social media than Jewish students. Developing learning strategies designed to increase students' ASE and reduce test anxiety is warranted. Social media as an educational tool can be adopted for this purpose.
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene
Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…
Cappella, Elise; Hwang, Sophia H. J.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Yates, Miranda
Given the potential of afterschool programs to support youth in urban, low-income communities, we examined the role of afterschool classroom ecology in the academic outcomes of Latino and African American youth with and without social-behavioral risk. Using multireporter methods and multilevel analysis, we find that positive classroom ecology…
Best, Linda M.; Shelley, Daniel J.
This article examines the effects of the social media applications Facebook, Twitter, Snap Chat/Instagram, Texting and various smartphone applications on academic dishonesty in higher education. The study employed a mixed-methods approach conducted through an emailed question-pro student survey consisting of 20 questions. The results of the study…
Elias, Maurice J.; Zins, Joseph E.; Graczyk, Patricia A.; Weissberg, Roger P.
Many attempts at bringing successful educational programs and products "to scale" as part of school reform, particularly in urban districts, have been disappointing. Based on the experiences of the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) and reviews of literature addressing implementation failures, observations about…
The globalization of economies and societies has created many positive influences on American universities. One relevant influence is increasing the number of international students. Conversely, these students encounter many social and academic challenges. Therefore, universities should adapt their programs to assist international students in…
Recent scholarship challenges the celebratory discourse surrounding Web 2.0. This paper engages with this scholarship to examine critically the implications of academic libraries' presence within commercially owned social media spaces. It considers the apparent contradiction between work to promote the principles of open access and the idea of the…
Mitchell, Brenda O.
A correlational explanatory research design examined the relationship between peer mentoring, academic success and social engagement of first year college students participating in a peer mentoring program at a research one university in the southeastern United States. One hundred thirty-eight participants from the peer mentoring program responded…
Meredith, Corine Cadle
This article illuminates the current status of our understanding regarding the academic and social-emotional needs of gifted, early adolescent females in the United States. A synthesis of both theoretical and empirical studies addresses two foundational questions. First, how do we describe the unique population of gifted, female, adolescent…
Fan, F. A.
Background: The classroom is a social system in which the teacher and the students interact as organizational members. The quality of classroom relations is dependent on the activities of both the instructor and the students. Several environmental conditions and circumstances often tend to either improve or depress the academic performances of…
Bae, Hyo; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Lavigne, John V.
Background: Most research on the relation between parenting behaviors and child outcomes has not focused on cross-ethnic variation in these relations. Objective: This study examined if ethnicity moderates associations between parenting, child agency/persistence, and child academic achievement and social competence. Design: Participants included…
Wang, Yi; Cullen, Kristin L.; Yao, Xiang; Li, Yixuan
When transitioning to college freshmen must behave proactively in order to strive for success in their collegiate careers and their future life. Past research has mainly focused on the academic strategies of freshmen when investigating the predictors of successful college transition and has paid little attention to students' social strategies. The…
Buchanan, John; Ljungdahl, Lesley; Maher, Damian
Adjustment to university is challenging for students as they navigate a path through new academic, social and cultural practices. Some may feel on the borders, marginalised by their background. Issues such as adjustment to university life, independence, performance expectations, establishing friendships, technological competence, cultural capital,…
Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.
Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group…
McKenney, Elizabeth L. W.; Stachniak, Catherine; Albright, Jordan; Jewell, Jeremy D.; Dorencz, Julie M.
An exploratory, observation-based study sought to strengthen understanding of the development of social communication skills that facilitate academic success, particularly within general education settings. Sixteen middle and high school students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), all of whom participated in at least one period per day of core…
Ruthig, Joelle C.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.
The first year of college presents numerous challenges experienced as overwhelming by some freshmen who may become overly stressed and depressed. This longitudinal study examined perceived academic control (PAC) as a mediator of optimism and social support's buffering effects on freshman students' psychological health. Multiple regressions…
Jimenez-Morales, M. Isabel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther
Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze the role that Perceived Emotional Intelligence and social competences have on academic performance. Furthermore, we analyze the role of teacher's expectancies on performance in secondary school students. Method: One hundred ninety three students (50.7% male and 49.3 % female) from the first and…
Chew, Boon-How; Md Zain, Azhar; Hassan, Faezah
Positive social interaction with peers was said to facilitate cognitive and intellectual development leading to good academic performance. There was paucity of published data on the effect of social management (SM) emotional intelligence (EI) on academic performance. We conducted this study to examine their relationship in the undergraduate medical students in a public medical school in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to measure the SM. The first and final year medical students were invited to participate. Students answered a paper-based demography questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT in privacy. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 first year and 79 final year) medical students completed the study (at a response rate of 66.0%). SM score (B = -.10 95% CI -.175 to -.015, p = .021) was significantly related to the continuous assessment (CA) marks (adjusted R(2) = .45, F13,137 = 10.26, p social intelligence and academic success in undergraduate medical students. A different collection of social skills and SM EI could be constructive towards academic achievement in medical schools.
Isabella, Russell A.; Diener, Marissa L.
Self-representations of 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-graders' social and academic competence were examined in relation to children's personal (grade/age); family (attachment to parents, marital conflict, anxiety related to conflict); and school (teacher appraisals) contexts. Children who reported higher levels of security of attachment to parents and lower…
Guided by positioning theory and poststructural views of second language learning, the two descriptive case studies presented in this article explored the links between social positioning and the language learning experiences of two talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. Focusing on the macro- and micro-level contexts of communication,…
The purpose of this study was to investigate how different forms of peer relationships offer children unique support for loneliness and to examine the direct as well as indirect effects of social behaviours and academic performance through the mediation of peer relationships on the prediction of loneliness in Korean children. Four hundred and…
de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and
Bencivenga, Anthony S.; Elias, Maurice J.
In the 21st century, students' character, social-emotional skills, and academic competencies will define school excellence. This article describes characteristics of visionary leadership for such schools based on settings already characterized by strengths in "EQ + IQ = Best Leadership Practices for Caring and Successful Schools." Core beliefs…
Research has shown social class differences in undergraduate engagement, yet we know little about the reasons for these differences. Drawing on interviews and participant observation with undergraduates at an urban, public comprehensive university, this ethnographic study investigates the academic engagement strategies of students from different…
Morris, David S.
Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…
Mars, Matthew M.; Rhoades, Gary
This paper presents two clarifying cases of socially oriented student entrepreneurship. The findings illuminate an overlooked organizational space located at the intersection of the public good and academic capitalist knowledge/learning regimes (Slaughter & Rhoades, 2004) that provides students with the entrepreneurial agency to create social…
In this study, the effects of family leadership orientation on social entrepreneurship, generativity and academic education success were examined with the views of college students. The study was conducted at a state university in Central Anatolia in Turkey. 402 college students who attending at three different colleges voluntarily participated in…
Thatcher, Karen L.; Fletcher, Kathryn; Decker, Blair
The critical role of communication in schools cannot be understated. Communication skills are a necessity both in the academic and social atmosphere of the school environment. Unfortunately, there are a large number of children in the schools today identified with speech and language disorders. This special edition of "Psychology in the Schools"…
Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Moore, Julia E.; Powers, C. J.; Cleveland, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.
Research Findings: Researchers and policymakers emphasize that early childhood is a critical developmental stage with the potential to impact academic and social-emotional outcomes (G. Conti & J. J. Heckman, 2012; J. J. Heckman, 2012; R. Murnane, I. Sawhill, & C. Snow, 2012). Although there is substantial evidence that children's early…
Arnold, David H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Marshall, Nastassja A.
This study examined the relationship between social functioning and emergent academic development in a sample of 467 preschool children (M=55.9 months old, SD=3.8). Teachers reported on children's aggression, attention problems, and prosocial skills. Preliteracy, language, and early mathematics skills were assessed with standardized tests. Better…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parenting practices, social engagement, academic competency, and high school dropout. The study revealed students whose parents practiced Reactive Communication along with students that exhibited Truancy and Disciplinary Issues were more likely to drop out. Conversely, students…
Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.; Shreffler, Anthony; Albert, Patricia; Tomko, Carrie
Different cultures communicate differently. Research is beginning to examine the differences in culture related to social-networking site (SNS) use. Differences in specific SNS activities related to academic performance among United States (US; n = 446) and European (n = 394) university students
Clifton, Rodney A.; Roberts, Lance W.
Examines differences between Inuit and non-Inuit students in activism (social attitude), self-concept, and academic achievement. Inuits scored lower in activism and self-concept than non-Inuits. Suggests teachers create personalized classroom environments to positively affect activism and self-concept, and thereby enhancing achievement.…
Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances; Schneeweiss, David; Wood, Megan A.
Based on cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and organismic integration theory (OIT)--both sub-theories of self-determination theory (SDT)--the present study examined whether the academic self-regulation of youth with test anxiety can be strengthened through social and motivational relationships with peers and teachers. This study employed a large…
When students look at their classmates in the classroom, consciously or unconsciously, they see competitors both for academic recognition and social success. How do they fit in relation to others and how do they succeed in achieving both? Traditional views on the drive to succeed and the fear of failure are well known as motivators for achieving…
Fernández-González, L.; González-Hernández, A.; Trianes-Torres, M. V.
Introduction: This research aims to analyse how optimism, self-esteem and social support help to predict academic stress. Method: The sample consisted of 123 students aged 20 to 31 years old, from the 3rd Year in the Psychology Degree. Students completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Optimism Questionnaire (LOT-R), the…
Nwazor, Joseph Chukwudi; Godwin-Maduike, Chinwe Constance
The aim of the study was to analyze effects of social media on academic performance of business education students in south-east Nigeria. To achieve this, an instrument was designed and sent out to four universities in south-east Nigeria. Out of the 600 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 520 were completely filled and returned giving a…
Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Navarro, Rachel L.
In this study, we used Lent's (2004) social cognitive model of well being to examine the academic and life satisfaction of 457 Mexican American college students attending a Hispanic-Serving Institution. Using structural equation modeling, results indicated that the model provided a good fit to the data. Specifically, we found positive relations…
This dissertation examined the relationship between Asian international doctoral students' self-regulation on academic and social integration and explored how acculturation tendencies function as a mediator between self-regulated learning and academic and social integration. Previous research has indicated that self-regulated learning has a great…
Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Mehdi, Hashemi Seyed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh, Kobra Haji; Yarmohammadzadeh, Peyman; Feyzollahi, Zahra
Introduction: Academic burnout leads to creation of a series of negative and scattered thoughts, loss of hope and emotional and physical exhaustion in carrying out activities. Two factors that affect academic burnout are sleep quality and social intimacy. This study was conducted in order to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and social intimacy, and academic burn-out in the students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Materials & Methods: This study was descriptive and c...
Santos Rego, Miguel A; Ferraces Otero, María J; Godas Otero, Agustín; Lorenzo Moledo, María M
One of the most serious problems in the Spanish education system is the high percentage of school failure in Compulsory Secondary Education. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of a socio-educational program based on cooperative learning and family involvement on a series of variables related to academic performance, paying particular attention to the differences between retained and non-retained students. A two-group quasi-experimental design incorporating pre-testing and post-testing was used. The study involved 146 students in the experimental group and 123 in the control group, 8 teachers, and 89 parents or other family members. The program was observed to have a positive effect on self-image, study habits, satisfaction with the subject, maternal support and control, and opinions about the school. In addition, the results for non-retained students are better. Cooperative work and family involvement in education affect the variables which research links to improving school performance.
Facebook is now a ubiquitous part of the lives of many university students across the world. The libraries that serve them now have an opportunity to leverage this online social network to promote their services and resources. However, the effectiveness of a library’s efforts in this area will depend greatly on the number of connections it can make between its users and its Facebook presence. Building on a previous investigation that suggested online advertising might be a cost-effective way ...
Tan, Kevin; Oe, Jin Shin; Hoang Le, Minh Dung
Boys struggle academically and behaviorally more than girls and are more likely to have difficulty with social skills. It seems likely that boys and girls do not perceive social skills in the same light. Past research has not investigated this or its relationship to academic and behavioral performance. Using data from a cohort of 9th-grade…
Maricato, João de Melo; Vilan Filho, Jayme Leiro
Introduction: Altmetrics is an area under construction, with a potential to study the impacts of academic products from social media data. It is believed that altmetrics can capture social and academic impacts, going beyond measures obtained using bibliometric and scientometric indicators. This research aimed to analyse aspects, characteristics…
Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the adoption, use, perceived impact of, and barriers to using social networking tools for scholarly communication at two universities. Design – Cross-institutional quantitative study using an online survey. Setting – Academics working in the disciplines of the humanities and social sciences at two universities: one in Europe and one in the Middle East. Methods – An online survey was devised based on a previous survey (Al-Aufi, 2007 and informed by relevant research. The survey was piloted by 10 academics at the 2 participating universities. Post pilot it was revised and then circulated to all academics from similar faculties at two universities. Three follow up emails were sent to both sets of academics. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software. Descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed using ANOVA tests. Main Results – The survey achieved a 34% response rate (n=130. The majority of participants were from the university based in the Middle East and were male (70.8%. Most of the responses were from academics under 40 years of age. The use of notebooks was prevalent at both universities. “Notebooks” is used as a term to describe laptops, netbooks, or ultra-book computers. The majority reported use of social networking tools for informal scholarly communication (70.1%, valuing this type of use. 29.9% of respondents reported they do not use social networking tools for this purpose. Barriers were identified as lack of incentive, digital literacy, training, and concerns over Internet security. Among the non-users, barriers included low interest in their use and a perceived lack of relevancy of such tools for scholarly communication. The types of tools used the most were those with social connection functions, such as Facebook and Twitter. The tools used the least were social bookmarking tools. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test indicated that
Dinora Tereza Zucchetti
Full Text Available This essay is produced from teaching experience in Higher Education. Its central problematic is the practices of students of a Pedagogy Course of a University located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre / RS. The text problematizes the expression of risk and social vulnerability categories in the initial formation of teachers and educators in the field of school and non-school education, considering the dimension of the pedagogical interventions developed. It seeks, ultimately, from the developed reflections, to contribute to the students training as teachers.
Potter, Daniel; Roksa, Josipa
Children from different family backgrounds enter schooling with different levels of academic skills, and those differences grow over time. What explains this growing inequality? While the social reproduction tradition has argued that family contexts are central to producing class gaps in academic achievement, recent quantitative studies have found that family experiences explain only a small portion of those inequalities. We propose that resolving this inconsistency requires developing a new measure of family experiences that captures the continuity of exposure over time and thus more closely reflects the logic of the social reproduction tradition. Results using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K) show that, consistent with previous quantitative research, time-specific measures of family experiences have little explanatory power. However, cumulative family experiences account for most of the growing inequality in academic achievement between children from different social class backgrounds over time. These findings support claims from the social reproduction tradition, and contribute more broadly to the understanding of how family experiences contribute to social inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
José Jesús eGázquez
Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify interpersonal value profiles and find out whether there were any differences in academic performance and social thinking. The study sample was 885 high school students of whom 49.8% (N=441 were boys and 50.2% (N=444 were girls. The results show that students with low Benevolence and Conformity levels showed higher prevalence of failures and repeated the year more often. Furthermore, students with a high level of Recognition and Leadership and low Conformity and Benevolence are socially incompetent students. Intervention programs should to achieve high levels of kindness and consideration, respect for rules and generosity, and diminish the perception of recognition by others and exertion of authority. Thus, this study shows the values that must be worked on to improve students’ Academic Performance and social competence.
Jacobsen, Wade C; Forste, Renata
Little is known about the influence of electronic media use on the academic and social lives of university students. Using time-diary and survey data, we explore the use of various types of electronic media among first-year students. Time-diary results suggest that the majority of students use electronic media to multitask. Robust regression results indicate a negative relationship between the use of various types of electronic media and first-semester grades. In addition, we find a positive association between social-networking-site use, cellular-phone communication, and face-to-face social interaction.
Delgado Monge, Islande C.; Espinoza González, Johan; Fonseca Castro, Jennifer
The study tried to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the variables of gender, academic achievement, number of times students have taken the course and type of school in students taking the course MAT-001 General Mathematics of the National University of Costa Rica. To that end, a purposive sample of 472 students of such…
Morzinski, Jeffrey A
Successful academic physicians acquire and maintain productive colleague relationships, understand unwritten rules of academe, and effectively manage their careers. Developing these professional socialization skills are goals of some faculty development programs (FDPs), but there is scant evidence about whether such programs are effective. A nationwide retrospective, cross-sectional written survey was conducted in two phases: (1) FDP directors who received US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration support between 1994 and 1997 described program activities and provided enrollee rosters and (2) enrollees reported socialization and colleague outcomes. Instruments were developed, pilot tested, and administered for this study. Analysis utilized descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and ANOVA. Of 52 eligible directors, 37 (71%) provided FDP activity details and rosters. Of 543 eligible enrollees, 351 (65%) returned surveys. A key result of factor analysis was a seven-item scale related to academic project activities. FDPs with greater emphasis on these activities were associated with enrollees reporting higher levels of colleague relationships and professional socialization skills. This study's factor analysis indicates that certain FDP project activities are positively associated with enrollees' professional socialization outcomes.
Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana
Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.
α= 0.86), Academic Self-efficacy scale (α= 0.82), Peer influence scale (α= 0.76), Attitude to School Scale (α= 0.68), Interest in schooling scale (α= 0.79), Emotional Intelligence Scale (α= 0.87), Academic Adjustment Scale (α= 0.79) and ...
Sawitri, Dian R.; Nurtjahjanti, Harlina; Prasetyo, Anggun R.
Research interest is the degree to which an individual is interested in conducting research-related activities. Nowadays, Indonesian higher education academics are expected to be research productive, especially those in life sciences. However, what predicts interest in research among life sciences academics is rarely known. We surveyed 240 life sciences academics (64.6% female, mean age = 31.91 years) from several higher degree institutions in Indonesia, using interest in research, research self-efficacy, and research outcome expectations questionnaires. We used social cognitive career theory which proposes that individual’s interests are the results of the interaction between one’s self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations overtime. Structural equation modelling demonstrated that research self-efficacy was directly and indirectly associated with interest in research via research outcome expectations. Understanding the social cognitive predictors of interest in research contributes to an understanding of the associations between research self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and interest in research. Recommendations for life sciences academics, faculties, and higher education institutions are discussed.
Ana M. Cristóvão
Full Text Available Social and Emotional Learning (SEL is an educational movement that is gaining ground throughout the world. We can define SEL as the capacity to recognize and manage emotions, solve problems effectively, and establish positive relationships with others. Research has demonstrated the significant role of SEL in promoting healthy student development and academic achievement. Extensive research confirms that SEL competencies: can be taught, that they promote positive development and reduce problem behaviors, and that they improve students' academic achievement and citizenship. At the international level, several rigorous studies have identified programs and practices that promote SEL. In Portugal, however, no review has yet been published regarding the implementation of SEL programs. Such a study would elucidate the current panorama of SEL programs in Portugal. This study aims to identify research on SEL programs implemented in Portuguese schools and the relationship of those programs with academic achievement. To this end, we have consulted the following databases: Scientific Repository of Open Access of Portugal (RCAAP, Online Knowledge Library (b-on, and Web of Science (WoS. The criteria were: (a all time frames; (b publications in either Portuguese or English; (c programs that developed socio-emotional competencies in Portuguese schools; (d academic levels including elementary, middle, and high school and (e students of regular education. Few publications on SEL programs implemented in Portugal were found, although the recent decade has witnessed an upsurge of interest in the topic, principally that arising from academic research.
de Greeff, J W; Hartman, E; Mullender-Wijnsma, M J; Bosker, R J; Doolaard, S; Visscher, C
This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the possible moderator effect of SDC. Data on 544 children were collected and analysed (130 SDC, 414 non-SDC, mean age = 8.0 ± 0.7). Physical fitness was measured with tests for cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Academic performance was evaluated using scores on mathematics, spelling and reading. SDC did not differ on physical fitness, compared with non-SDC, but scored significantly lower on academic performance. In the total group, multilevel analysis showed positive associations between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics (β = 0.23), and between cardiovascular fitness and spelling (β = 0.16), but not with reading. No associations were found between muscular fitness and academic performance. A significant interaction effect between SDC and cardiovascular fitness was found for spelling. To conclude, results showed a specific link between cardiovascular fitness and mathematics, regardless of socioeconomic status. SDC did moderate the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and spelling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry’s economic interests. PMID:23237151
Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine
We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests.
This study examined the influence of academic teaming (i.e., sharing academic classes with the same classmates) on the relationship between social preference and peer victimization among 6th grade students in middle school. Approximately 1,000 participants were drawn from 5 middle schools that varied in their practice of academic teaming. A novel methodology for measuring academic teaming at the individual level was employed, in which students received their own teaming score based on the unique set of classmates with whom they shared academic courses in their class schedule. Using both peer- and self-reports of victimization, the results of two path models indicated that students with low social preference in highly teamed classroom environments were more victimized than low preference students who experienced less teaming throughout the school day. This effect was exaggerated in higher performing classrooms. Implications for the practice of academic teaming were discussed. PMID:25937668
Provides a review and integration of findings on the effects of parenting styles and maternal employment on children's academic achievement. Presents a model in which it is argued that maternal employment status has little, if any, direct effect on children's academic achievement. Suggests maternal employment affects parenting styles, which in…
Smith, Ellen M. T.
An equitable predictor of academic success is needed as nursing education strives toward comprehensive preparation of diverse nursing students. The purpose of this study was to discover how Sedlacek's (2004a) Noncognitive Questionnaire (NCQ) and Duckworth & Quinn's (2009) Grit-S predicted baccalaureate nursing student academic performance and…
Mirgül ENTERİEVA; Ferudun SEZGİN
The aim of this study is to determine the fulfilment level of students who come from Turkic Republics to study in Turkey, regarding their academic and social expectations. The qualita-tive research technique and phenomenological design were used in the study. Data of this research was collected via a semistructured interview form consisting 11 openended questions and probes, which were developed by the researchers. A total of 39 undergraduate and postgraduate students from Azerbaijan, Kazakhs...
Gázquez, José J.; Sainz, Jorge; Pérez-Fuentes, María del C.; Molero, María del M.; Soler, Francisco J.
The purposes of this study were to identify interpersonal value profiles and find out whether there were any differences in academic performance and social thinking. The study sample was 885 high school students of whom 49.8% (N = 441) were boys and 50.2% (N = 444) were girls. The results show that students with low Benevolence and Conformity levels showed higher prevalence of failures and repeated the year more often. Furthermore, students with a high level of Recognition and Leadership and ...
Rodríguez, María Soledad; Tinajero, Carolina; Páramo, María Fernanda
Transition to university is a multifactorial process to which scarce consideration has been given in Spain, despite this being one of the countries with the highest rates of academic failure and attrition within the European Union. The present study proposes an empirical model for predicting Spanish students' academic achievement at university by considering pre-entry characteristics, perceived social support and adaptation to university, in a sample of 300 traditional first-year university students. The findings of the path analysis showed that pre-university achievement and academic and personal-emotional adjustment were direct predictors of academic achievement. Furthermore, gender, parents' education and family support were indirect predictors of academic achievement, mediated by pre-university grades and adjustment to university. The current findings supporting evidence that academic achievement in first-year Spanish students is the cumulative effect of pre-entry characteristics and process variables, key factors that should be taken into account in designing intervention strategies involving families and that establish stronger links between research findings and university policies.
de la Iglesia G
Full Text Available Guadalupe de la Iglesia,1,2 Agustin Freiberg Hoffmann,2 Mercedes Fernández Liporace1,2 1National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET, 2University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years and most of them (83.3% were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed. Keywords: academic achievement, parenting, social support, college
Kim, Min Sun; Seo, Young Seok
The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in a cross-cultural setting by examining the relationships between the social cognitive variables of South Korean engineering students and their engineering interests and major choice goals across university type and gender. Participants (N =…
Siffredi, Vanessa; Anderson, Vicki; McIlroy, Alissandra; Wood, Amanda G; Leventer, Richard J; Spencer-Smith, Megan M
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), characterized by developmental absence of the corpus callosum, is one of the most common congenital brain malformations. To date, there are limited data on the neuropsychological consequences of AgCC and factors that modulate different outcomes, especially in children. This study aimed to describe general intellectual, academic, executive, social and behavioral functioning in a cohort of school-aged children presenting for clinical services to a hospital and diagnosed with AgCC. The influences of age, social risk and neurological factors were examined. Twenty-eight school-aged children (8 to 17 years) diagnosed with AgCC completed tests of general intelligence (IQ) and academic functioning. Executive, social and behavioral functioning in daily life, and social risk, were estimated from parent and teacher rated questionnaires. MRI findings reviewed by a pediatric neurologist confirmed diagnosis and identified brain characteristics. Clinical details including the presence of epilepsy and diagnosed genetic condition were obtained from medical records. In our cohort, ~50% of children experienced general intellectual, academic, executive, social and/or behavioral difficulties and ~20% were functioning at a level comparable to typically developing children. Social risk was important for understanding variability in neuropsychological outcomes. Brain anomalies and complete AgCC were associated with lower mathematics performance and poorer executive functioning. This is the first comprehensive report of general intellectual, academic, executive social and behavioral consequences of AgCC in school-aged children. The findings have important clinical implications, suggesting that support to families and targeted intervention could promote positive neuropsychological functioning in children with AgCC who come to clinical attention. (JINS, 2018, 24, 445-455).
Tsou, Andrew; Bowman, Timothy D.; Sugimoto, Thomas; Lariviere, Vincent; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.
Online self-presentation is of increasing importance in modern life, from establishing and maintaining personal relationships to forging professional identities. Academic scholars are no exception, and a host of social networking platforms designed specifically for scholars abound. This study used Amazon’s Mechanical Turk service to code 10,500 profile pictures used by scholars on three platforms — Mendeley, Microsoft Academic Search, and Google Scholar — in order to determine how academics a...
de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes
The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed.
Vagos, Paula; Pereira, Anabela; Warner, Carrie Masia
Social fears are common among adolescents and may considerably impair their lives. Even so, most adolescents do not seek professional help for these difficulties, making it important to promote evidence-based and preventive interventions in community samples. This research presents the effectiveness of an intervention with a group of five female adolescents who reported serious interference of their social fears in their daily life. At post-intervention, effectiveness was noticeable by high recovery, reliable individual change, and intragroup statistical change. The intervention showed impact for measures of social anxiety, avoidance, and assertiveness, and such impact was steady at 3-month follow-up. These findings add to the cumulative and transcultural evidence on the effectiveness of Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS).
Allala, Saeb; Alzubairi, Sharefa
The current study is an attempt to identify social shyness among mothers of children with disabilities based on (Disability type, mother's academic qualification, and family's economic level) in Riyadh. Thus, Social Shyness Scale was prepared of (28) paragraphs according to five-point Likert Scale. The reliability coefficient of the scale rated…
Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that the different effects of the demographic factors on social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.
Jessani, Nasreen S; Boulay, Marc G; Bennett, Sara C
The potential for academic research institutions to facilitate knowledge exchange and influence evidence-informed decision-making has been gaining ground. Schools of public health (SPHs) may play a key knowledge brokering role-serving as agencies of and for development. Understanding academic-policymaker networks can facilitate the enhancement of links between policymakers and academic faculty at SPHs, as well as assist in identifying academic knowledge brokers (KBs). Using a census approach, we administered a sociometric survey to academic faculty across six SPHs in Kenya to construct academic-policymaker networks. We identified academic KBs using social network analysis (SNA) in a two-step approach: First, we ranked individuals based on (1) number of policymakers in their network; (2) number of academic peers who report seeking them out for advice on knowledge translation and (3) their network position as 'inter-group connectors'. Second, we triangulated the three scores and re-ranked individuals. Academic faculty scoring within the top decile across all three measures were classified as KBs. Results indicate that each SPH commands a variety of unique as well as overlapping relationships with national ministries in Kenya. Of 124 full-time faculty, we identified 7 KBs in 4 of the 6 SPHs. Those scoring high on the first measure were not necessarily the same individuals scoring high on the second. KBs were also situated in a wide range along the 'connector/betweenness' measure. We propose that a composite score rather than traditional 'betweenness centrality', provides an alternative means of identifying KBs within these networks. In conclusion, SNA is a valuable tool for identifying academic-policymaker networks in Kenya. More efforts to conduct similar network studies would permit SPH leadership to identify existing linkages between faculty and policymakers, shared linkages with other SPHs and gaps so as to contribute to evidence-informed health policies. © The
Chain, J; Shapiro, VB; LeBuffe, PA; Bryson, AMK
© Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health. Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between socialemotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to det ermine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emo...
Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina
Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.
Craig, Holly K.; Grogger, Jeffrey T.
Purpose In this study, the authors examined the influences of selected social (gender, employment status, educational achievement level) and style variables (race of examiner, interview topic) on the production of African American English (AAE) by adults. Method Participants were 50 African American men and women, ages 20–30 years. The authors used Rapid and Anonymous Survey (RAS) methods to collect responses to questions on informal situational and formal message-oriented topics in a short interview with an unacquainted interlocutor. Results Results revealed strong systematic effects for academic achievement, but not gender or employment status. Most features were used less frequently by participants with higher educational levels, but sharp declines in the usage of 5 specific features distinguished the participants differing in educational achievement. Strong systematic style effects were found for the 2 types of questions, but not race of addressee. The features that were most commonly used across participants—copula absence, variable subject–verb agreement, and appositive pronouns—were also the features that showed the greatest style shifting. Conclusions The findings lay a foundation with mature speakers for rate-based and feature inventory methods recently shown to be informative for the study of child AAE and demonstrate the benefits of the RAS. PMID:22361105
Walton, Gregory M; Cohen, Geoffrey L
A brief intervention aimed at buttressing college freshmen's sense of social belonging in school was tested in a randomized controlled trial (N = 92), and its academic and health-related consequences over 3 years are reported. The intervention aimed to lessen psychological perceptions of threat on campus by framing social adversity as common and transient. It used subtle attitude-change strategies to lead participants to self-generate the intervention message. The intervention was expected to be particularly beneficial to African-American students (N = 49), a stereotyped and socially marginalized group in academics, and less so to European-American students (N = 43). Consistent with these expectations, over the 3-year observation period the intervention raised African Americans' grade-point average (GPA) relative to multiple control groups and halved the minority achievement gap. This performance boost was mediated by the effect of the intervention on subjective construal: It prevented students from seeing adversity on campus as an indictment of their belonging. Additionally, the intervention improved African Americans' self-reported health and well-being and reduced their reported number of doctor visits 3 years postintervention. Senior-year surveys indicated no awareness among participants of the intervention's impact. The results suggest that social belonging is a psychological lever where targeted intervention can have broad consequences that lessen inequalities in achievement and health.
Godwin P. Dzvapatsva
Objectives: The aim of the project was to investigate the use of: (1 a knowledge portal for verifying the quality of assessments by lecturers and (2 social media to increase contact time with FET college students in an attempt to improve their academic performance. Method: The NC(V level 3 student test scores for 2011 were compared to those of 2012. In addition to the test scores, students also received a questionnaire so as to determine their perceptions on social media usage. Lecturers also received a questionnaire on their perception of the knowledge portal. Results: The data collected from seven lecturers and 38 students indicated a 35% (from 30% – 65% improvement in academic performance after the introduction of the interventions, that is social media and a knowledge portal; an indication of the importance of electronic media in enhancing learning. Conclusion: The research offered FET lecturers an additional method for learning and teaching in that they could use the knowledge portal to set up quality assessments for the students and social media to increase contact learning time.
Full Text Available Academic Dishonesty is one of the important issues in the higher education system of Iran, and reducing or preventing it requires identifying the factors which have an impact on it. The present study has analyzed the perceptions and understandings of PhD students in social science fields, who have a wider experience of scientific socialization in the process of education, with the aim of identifying the factors influencing academic dishonesty in the space of social science in Iran. The findings of this research show that the factors influencing academic dishonesty in the space of social science education can be detected at two individual and structural levels. At the structural level, sources and rules, and at the individual level, academic dishonesty among three groups of actors in educational space, i.e. professors, students and managers (heads of departments and faculties, with reference to their individual and personality characteristics, have paved the way for academic dishonesty, or have resulted in its occurrence. In the framework of a combination of actor/structure in explaining social phenomena, the factors influencing academic dishonesty and non-conformity to the norms of the ethics of science in the educational space can be reduced neither to the role of the structure nor that of the actor. Dishonesty in the ethics of science in social science education and the factors affecting them can be explained in the light of a combination of structure and actor.
Full Text Available An individual’s social style is determined by behavioral patterns in the interactions with their peers. Some studies suggest that social style may influence the way in which an individual’s performance is evaluated. We studied the effects that speakers’ and evaluators’ social styles have on the marks given for end-of-term presentations in a project engineering master’s course. The participants completed a self-evaluation exercise that classified their social styles into one of four categories: Driver, expressive, analytical, or amiable. Students individually rated the content and appearance of their classmates’ presentations. A statistical analysis of these scores revealed that the speaker’s social style had a significant effect on the marks received for content and appearance. The evaluator’s social style also demonstrated a statistically significant effect on the marks given for appearance, though not for content. Students with expressive social style received the highest scores, while the analytical style received the lowest scores. These results reiterate the necessity to train students as evaluators in order to reduce bias when evaluating their classmates and co-workers during their academic and professional careers.
Full Text Available Introduction: Social networks are the most important means of communication in the societies as well as in the world, so the use of virtual social networks among students is important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of virtual social networks among students in Gonabad University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive study, 277 students were randomly selected from Gonabad University of Medical Sciences. They completed a questionnaire which its validity and reliability were obtained in earlier studies. Then the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Results: The findings showed that 87 percent of the students were aware of virtual social networks, and 52 percent were members of these social networks. Students spend about an hour and eleven minutes (SD=2.20771 on the virtual networks. There was no significant difference between academic achievement of students in the groups. Conclusion: The results showed that more than half of the students were members of social networks. Students are not familiar with all of the effects of these social networks since they are recently emerged, so performing more research on other aspects of their impact on the life and health of students are necessary.
Ledford, Jennifer R.; Wehby, Joseph H.
Students with ASD are often taught in individual instructional arrangements, even when they receive educational services in inclusive settings. Providing intervention in small group arrangements may increase opportunities for social interactions, particularly when these opportunities are systematically planned. In this study, academic instruction…
Increasing student retention and improving graduation rates continues to remain a critical issue for undergraduate institutions. Previous research suggests that student attrition is predominantly voluntary, and is influenced by institutional characteristics. The importance of academic and social integration as a strategy to reduce attrition is…
Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R
Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.
Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…
Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu
Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through youth self-pride, including racial identity and self-esteem, and academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization in order to better understand how these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride, as well as their orientation to education and academic success. PMID:19209975
Full Text Available This research analyses the relationship between academic procrastination and emotional intelligence taking also into account the gender and age influence. Psychology undergraduates from the UAB (Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain and the UIB (Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain, 45 males and 147 females constituted the sample of the study. Academic procrastination was assessed by means of the D scale (CLARIANA & MARTÍN, 2008 and emotional intelligence by means of the EQ–i (BAR–ON, 1997. The results show that academic procrastination has a significant negative relationship with intrapersonal intelligence, emotional quotient and mood. Moreover, female students scored significantly higher than males both in intrapersonal and interpersonal Intelligence while males obtained higher scores in both stress management and adaptability.
Vala Ali Rohani
Full Text Available Abundance of information in recent years has become a serious challenge for web users. Recommender systems (RSs have been often utilized to alleviate this issue. RSs prune large information spaces to recommend the most relevant items to users by considering their preferences. Nonetheless, in situations where users or items have few opinions, the recommendations cannot be made properly. This notable shortcoming in practical RSs is called cold-start problem. In the present study, we propose a novel approach to address this problem by incorporating social networking features. Coined as enhanced content-based algorithm using social networking (ECSN, the proposed algorithm considers the submitted ratings of faculty mates and friends besides user’s own preferences. The effectiveness of ECSN algorithm was evaluated by implementing it in MyExpert, a newly designed academic social network (ASN for academics in Malaysia. Real feedbacks from live interactions of MyExpert users with the recommended items are recorded for 12 consecutive weeks in which four different algorithms, namely, random, collaborative, content-based, and ECSN were applied every three weeks. The empirical results show significant performance of ECSN in mitigating the cold-start problem besides improving the prediction accuracy of recommendations when compared with other studied recommender algorithms.
Gavrin, Andy; Lindell, Rebecca
There are many reasons for an instructor to consider using social media, particularly in a large introductory course. Improved communications can lessen the sense of isolation some students feel in large classes, and students may be more likely to respond to faculty announce-ments in a form that is familiar and comfortable. Furthermore, many students currently establish social media sites for their classes, without the knowledge or participation of their instructors. Such "shadow" sites can be useful, but they can also become distributors of misinformation, or venues for inappropriate or disruptive discussions. CourseNetworking (CN) is a social media platform designed for the academic environment. It combines many features common among learning management systems (LMS's) with an interface that looks and feels more like Facebook than a typical academic system. We have recently begun using CN as a means to engage students in an introductory calculus-based mechanics class, with enrollments of 150-200 students per semester. This article presents basic features of CN, and details our initial experiences and observations.
Kaufman, Arthur; Powell, Wayne; Alfero, Charles; Pacheco, Mario; Silverblatt, Helene; Anastasoff, Juliana; Ronquillo, Francisco; Lucero, Ken; Corriveau, Erin; Vanleit, Betsy; Alverson, Dale; Scott, Amy
The Agricultural Cooperative Extension Service model offers academic health centers methodologies for community engagement that can address the social determinants of disease. The University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center developed Health Extension Rural Offices (HEROs) as a vehicle for its model of health extension. Health extension agents are located in rural communities across the state and are supported by regional coordinators and the Office of the Vice President for Community Health at the Health Sciences Center. The role of agents is to work with different sectors of the community in identifying high-priority health needs and linking those needs with university resources in education, clinical service and research. Community needs, interventions, and outcomes are monitored by county health report cards. The Health Sciences Center is a large and varied resource, the breadth and accessibility of which are mostly unknown to communities. Community health needs vary, and agents are able to tap into an array of existing health center resources to address those needs. Agents serve a broader purpose beyond immediate, strictly medical needs by addressing underlying social determinants of disease, such as school retention, food insecurity, and local economic development. Developing local capacity to address local needs has become an overriding concern. Community-based health extension agents can effectively bridge those needs with academic health center resources and extend those resources to address the underlying social determinants of disease. PMID:20065282
Rheinschmidt, Michelle L; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo
Undergraduates, especially those from lower income backgrounds, may perceive their social class background as different or disadvantaged relative to that of peers and worry about negative social treatment. We hypothesized that concerns about discrimination based on one's social class (i.e., class-based rejection sensitivity or RS-class) would be damaging to undergraduates' achievement outcomes particularly among entity theorists, who perceive their personal characteristics as fixed. We reasoned that a perceived capacity for personal growth and change, characteristic of incremental theorists, would make the pursuit of a college degree and upward mobility seem more worthwhile and attainable. We found evidence across 3 studies that dispositionally held and experimentally primed entity (vs. incremental) beliefs predicted college academic performance as a function of RS-class. Studies 1a and 1b documented that high levels of both entity beliefs and RS-class predicted lower self-reported and official grades, respectively, among undergraduates from socioeconomically diverse backgrounds. In Study 2, high entity beliefs and RS-class at matriculation predicted decreased year-end official grades among lower class Latino students. Study 3 established the causal relationship of entity (vs. incremental) beliefs on academic test performance as a function of RS-class. We observed worse test performance with higher RS-class levels following an entity (vs. incremental) prime, an effect driven by lower income students. Findings from a 4th study suggest that entity theorists with RS-class concerns tend to believe less in upward mobility and, following academic setbacks, are prone to personal attributions of failure, as well as hopelessness. Implications for education and intervention are discussed.
de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes
Guadalupe de la Iglesia,1,2 Agustin Freiberg Hoffmann,2 Mercedes Fernández Liporace1,2 1National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), 2University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%...
Lazuras, Lambros; Ypsilanti, Antonia; Lamprou, Efthymios; Kontogiorgis, Christos
Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) represents the non-medical use of prescribed medication for the improvement of cognitive functioning and academic performance. Although there are some studies about PCE prevalence, it is less clear how users and non-users of PCE substances differ with respect to their positive and negative student experiences (e.g. academic burnout and engagement with studies) and in social cognitive variables that relate to decision-making and self-regulation of PCE use. The present study assessed whether students with different experiences of PCE substance use displayed differences in academic burnout, study engagement, and social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use. Three hundred and forty-seven university students (mean age (M) = 22.15 years, SD = 1.69; 54% females) completed a battery of anonymous questionnaires on academic burnout, engagement with studies, social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use, and self-reported use of PCE substances and non-prescribed nutritional supplements. Three user groups emerged, namely non-users (51.9%, n = 180), single users of non-prescribed dietary supplements (25.4%, n = 88), and dual users of both non-prescribed dietary supplements and PCE (22.8%, n = 79). Multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the three user groups in intentions, attitudes, social norms, and anticipated regret toward PCE use. No significant differences were observed with respect to academic burnout and work engagement. The findings show that university students may engage in PCE use independent of their student experiences. Rather, a chemically assisted performance enhancement mindset seems to differentiate users from non-users of PCE substances.
Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris
Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage. In addition, the relationship between lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and academic engagement was examined. From four elementary schools, 86 children who participated in the 22-weeks intervention were recruited (23 socially disadvantaged children). Academic engagement was determined by observing time-on-task during three classroom observation moments (start, midway and end observation). Every moment consisted of lesson observations after intervention lessons (post-intervention) and after regular classroom lessons (post-control). Differences in time-on-task between socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Differences between post-intervention and post-control observations were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Heart rate monitors measured the lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The relationship between percentage of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the intervention lessons and time-on-task was analyzed by calculation of partial correlations. Time-on-task of socially disadvantaged children was lower than that of children without this disadvantage, differences were significant at the start post-control (t(65) = 2.39, p < 0.05) and post-intervention (t(71) = 2.75, p < 0.05) observation and at the midway post-control (t(68) = 2.45, p < 0.05) observation. Multilevel analysis showed that the time-on-task of all children was significantly higher during post-intervention in comparison with post-control lessons (ES = 0.41). No significant difference was found at the start observation, but
Dutra, Andrew Martin
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self
Konold, Timothy R.; Shukla, Kathan D.
Discrepancies among informants' ratings of a given child's behavior complicate the study of linkages between child behavior and academic achievement. In the current study, we examined the potential moderating effect of informant type on associations between behavior and two types of achievement in a longitudinal growth model that…
Musso, Mariel F.; Kyndt, Eva; Cascallar, Eduardo C.; Dochy, Filip
Many studies have explored the contribution of different factors from diverse theoretical perspectives to the explanation of academic performance. These factors have been identified as having important implications not only for the study of learning processes, but also as tools for improving curriculum designs, tutorial systems, and students'…
Badgett, John L., Jr.
The relationship between the self-concepts and certain academic, vocational, biographical, and personality variables of freshmen students was examined to provide the basis for a more scientific approach to academic-vocational counseling. The subjects completed the Self-Rating Scale, the Fascism Scale, and the Military Ideology Scale, and a student…
Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; De Vries, Hein; Vartiainen, Erkki
Poor academic achievement is strongly related to smoking but studies that examine the mechanism between academic achievement and smoking are lacking. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the smoking-related cognitions (i.e. attitude, social influence, self-efficacy and intention to smoke) in relation to academic achievement and determine whether these cognitions explain different patterns of smoking. The study uses the data of a longitudinal study that was carried out in Finland, and the sample comprised 1,096 students in grades seven to nine. During the seventh-grade students with poor academic achievement reported more positive attitudes to smoking and a greater social influence of their peers regarding smoking, weaker self-efficacy to refuse smoking and more intentions to smoke in the future compared to students with high academic achievement. Moreover, the follow-up analyses after a 24-month interval revealed that self-efficacy to refuse smoking of students with poor grades had become weaker compared to students with high grades. Furthermore, the influence of seventh-grade academic achievement predicting ninth-grade weekly smoking was partially mediated through the self-efficacy beliefs and the intention to smoke. Differences in academic achievement may have an impact on adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs and the intention to smoke in the future. To reduce health inequalities a strong input on continuing research to improve smoking prevention methods, especially for students with low academic achievement, is needed.
Using data from the Korean Educational Longitudinal Study of 2005-2007, the current study investigated the role of family and school social capital in students' academic achievement in South Korea. Results showed that while some forms of family and school social capital were associated with increased math achievement, the effect of family social…
Garandeau, Claire F.; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade…
Strang, Louise; And Others
Predictions from social comparison theory and group reference theory were tested in two experiments assessing the impact of half-day mainstreaming upon the self-concepts of academically handicapped children. The results supported the theoretical viability of social comparison theory and group reference theory in educational settings. (Author/BH)
Kaf, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Ozge Uygungul
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of creative drama as a teaching method on academic achievement and retention in social studies, students' attitude towards social studies of 4th grade. The research is designed according to quasiexperimental model. The research was conducted with 4th year students in a public school in Adana…
Conole, Grainne; Galley, Rebecca; Culver, Juliette
This paper describes a new social networking site, Cloudworks, which has been developed to enable discussion and sharing of learning and teaching ideas/designs and to promote reflective academic practice. The site aims to foster new forms of social and participatory practices (peer critiquing, sharing, user-generated content, aggregation, and…
Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.
The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…
In this research, an experimental study was carried out in social studies 4th grade students to develop students' conceptual achievement and motivation to succeed academically. The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of project-based learning (PBL) in social studies. A quasi-experimental research design (pre- and posttest) was used in the…
Gail A Alvares
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyvagal theory emphasizes that autonomic nervous system functioning plays a key role in social behavior and emotion. The theory predicts that psychiatric disorders of social dysfunction are associated with reduced heart rate variability, an index of autonomic control, as well as social inhibition and avoidance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether heart rate variability was reduced in treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by social fear and avoidance. METHODS: Social anxiety patients (n = 53 were recruited prior to receiving psychological therapy. Healthy volunteers were recruited through the University of Sydney and the general community and were matched by gender and age (n = 53. Heart rate variability was assessed during a five-minute recording at rest, with participants completing a range of self-report clinical symptom measures. RESULTS: Compared to controls, participants with social anxiety exhibited significant reductions across a number of heart rate variability measures. Reductions in heart rate variability were observed in females with social anxiety, compared to female controls, and in patients taking psychotropic medication compared to non-medicated patients. Finally, within the clinical group, we observed significant associations between reduced heart rate variability and increased social interaction anxiety, psychological distress, and harmful alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm that social anxiety disorder is associated with reduced heart rate variability. Resting state heart rate variability may therefore be considered a marker for social approach-related motivation and capacity for social engagement. Additionally, heart rate variability may provide a useful biomarker to explain underlying difficulties with social approach, impaired stress regulation, and behavioral inhibition, especially in disorders associated with
Chain, Jennifer; Shapiro, Valerie B; LeBuffe, Paul A; Bryson, Ann McKay
Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between social-emotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emotional competence, and the schoolwide percentage of students by race. Data are from 335 students across 6 schools. This study suggests that promoting social-emotional competence among AI/AN students could be a strategy for reducing disparities in academic achievement and the consequences of these disparities.
Potter, Daniel; Mashburn, Andrew; Grissmer, David
Current explanations of social class gaps in children's early academic skills tend to focus on non-cognitive skills that more advantaged children acquire in the family. Accordingly, social class matters because the cultural resources more abundant in advantaged families cultivate children's repertories and tool kits, which allow them to more easily navigate social institutions, such as schools. Within these accounts, parenting practices matter for children's academic success, but for seemingly arbitrary reasons. Alternatively, findings from current neuroscience research indicate that family context matters for children because it cultivates neural networks that assist in learning and the development of academic skills. That is, children's exposure to particular parenting practices and stimulating home environments contribute to the growth in neurocognitive skills that affect later academic performance. We synthesize sociological and neuroscience accounts of developmental inequality by focusing on one such skill-fine motor skills-to illustrate how family context alters children's early academic performance. Our findings support an interdisciplinary account of academic inequality, and extend current accounts of the family's role in the transmission of social inequality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available With the advent of social media where customers have the technical ability to upload own content the change occurred in some of the communication habits online. This world of constant communication is a challenge for businesses as well researchers. Academic research in this area is bringing valuable insights into people attitudes and behaviour on the social media. What is the current situation and where the research field is heading is a question of high importance. This study uses the systematic approach to reviewing the literature and to show the development of publications produced at Czech universities. Although the results show an increasing number of studies, Czech research is lagging behind other similar countries. Compared with the best countries, it is lagging behind in the number of quotations per article. On the basis of these analyses, suggestions for future research that can help to promote future theory development are proposed.
Full Text Available Even Since the 1970`s several studies have been carried out in order to identify the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and financial profit. The results have not been homogeneous and so far no definitive conclusion has been reached. Recently a group of researchers have linked CSR with business strategy and state that what distinguishes those cases in which CSR is related to a positive financial performance is its consideration and design as a social strategy closely related and embedded in the business strategy. The aim of this research is to review some of the authors that have contributed with their researches to this field. CSR has been approached form the academic and the business field and its definition vary from one view to other. Even inside the academy definitions are not alike. According to Garriga and Mele (2004 there are four major areas in which CSR theories may be categorized: instrumental, political, integrative and ethical. And even though this research is exhaustive and includes most of the different theories and approaches I consider it might be useful to pay special attention to a field that is gaining in importance due to the number of researches related to it. That is the consideration of CSR as a social strategy capable of generating value to the firm and aligned and coherent with the business strategy. I will intend to review the contributions done in the academic field by a group of authors: Burke y Logsdon (1996, Husted y Allen (2000 y 2001 and McWilliams y Siegel (2001 and based on their contributions I will intend to develop a preliminary theoretical model for the application of social strategies within the firm and then introduce a series of propositions that look to understand and extend the relationship between both type of strategies.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the fulfilment level of students who come from Turkic Republics to study in Turkey, regarding their academic and social expectations. The qualita-tive research technique and phenomenological design were used in the study. Data of this research was collected via a semistructured interview form consisting 11 openended questions and probes, which were developed by the researchers. A total of 39 undergraduate and postgraduate students from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan participated in the present study. This study indicated that, while expecting satisfactory accommodation the students also anticipated having quality education enabling them for better employment opportunities upon graduation. Some of the students thought that graduate studies in Turkey would be a bridge to Europe. However, it has been found out that students have several academical, social and educational support service problems. According to findings it can be recommended to improve internationalization in higher education, student-centered environment and current educational and training content, organization of orientation programs, submission of international student office and guidance and consultancy services and enhancing the education support services and dormitory facilities.
Full Text Available Purpose: There is a tendency to assess educational systems in terms of their efficiency in gaining high scores on cognitive skills. Schools perform, however, also a socializing function. The whole policy debate tends to ignore the impact of educational systems on attitudes or democratic values. This contribution focuses on the impact of the organization of education in European societies on the civic attitudes of adolescents. Design/methodology/approach: We explore the impact of academic segregation – the practice of segregating children on the basis of their scholastic achievement – on attitudes of adolescents living in different educational systems. We use the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009 relying on multilevel models. Findings: Pupils differ in their outlook on fellow citizens, according to the ways in which educational systems select and differentiate throughout school careers. More specifically, there is a negative impact of academic segregation on the attitudes towards immigrants and ethnic minorities. Research limitations/implications: The experience of adolescents based on their educational achievement seems to affect how they perceive other people. We have not answered the question why this is the case. We hope to have provided a minimal indication of the impact of inequality on social outcomes.
Full Text Available In this study, we describe a new coordination mechanism for non-atomic congestion games that leads to a (selfish social cost which is arbitrarily close to the non-selfish optimal. This mechanism incurs no additional cost, in contrast to tolls that typically differ from the social cost as expressed in terms of delays.
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.
Hughes, Jan N; Im, Myung Hee; Wehrly, Sarah E
This longitudinal study examined the prospective relations between 713 elementary students' individual peer teacher support reputation (PTSR) and a measure of the classroom-wide dispersion of peer nominations of teacher support (Centralization of Teacher Support) on students' peer relatedness (i.e., peer acceptance and peer academic reputation) and academic motivation (i.e., academic self-efficacy and teacher-rated behavioral engagement). PTSR was measured as the proportion of classmates who nominated a given student on a descriptor of teacher-student support. Centralization of Teacher Support was assessed using social network analysis to identify the degree to which peer nominations of teacher support in a classroom centered on a few students. PTSR predicted changes in all student outcomes, above academic achievement and relevant covariates. Centralization of Teacher Support predicted changes in students' peer academic reputation, net the effect of PTSR and covariates. Students' academic achievement moderated effects of PTSR and Centralization of Teacher Support on some outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of peers' perceptions of teacher support and of the structure of those perceptions for children's social and academic outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maria del Rosario González-Rodriguez
Full Text Available Consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR can be directly influenced by individual value structures. This research aims to provide new knowledge regarding the relationship between basic human values and the public’s perception of CSR. It focuses on the values of higher education students and their views regarding a particular corporate social initiative. The study reveals that social, educational, and economic circumstances influence human values. Those values in turn influence why different students perceive CSR differently. These findings are relevant to companies as they provide a more detailed understanding of why certain consumer groups perceive certain CSR initiatives the way that they do. They also suggest that universities should increase their awareness of the importance of integrating human values and CSR in the curricula of future business managers and social leaders.
Makhni, Eric C; Crump, Erica K; Steinhaus, Michael E; Verma, Nikhil N; Ahmad, Christopher S; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R
To assess the quality and variability found across anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation protocols published online by academic orthopaedic programs. Web-based ACL physical therapy protocols from United States academic orthopaedic programs available online were included for review. Main exclusion criteria included concomitant meniscus repair, protocols aimed at pediatric patients, and failure to provide time points for the commencement or recommended completion of any protocol components. A comprehensive, custom scoring rubric was created that was used to assess each protocol for the presence or absence of various rehabilitation components, as well as when those activities were allowed to be initiated in each protocol. Forty-two protocols were included for review from 155 U.S. academic orthopaedic programs. Only 13 protocols (31%) recommended a prehabilitation program. Five protocols (12%) recommended continuous passive motion postoperatively. Eleven protocols (26%) recommended routine partial or non-weight bearing immediately postoperatively. Ten protocols (24%) mentioned utilization of a secondary/functional brace. There was considerable variation in range of desired full-weight-bearing initiation (9 weeks), as well as in the types of strength and proprioception exercises specifically recommended. Only 8 different protocols (19%) recommended return to sport after achieving certain strength and activity criteria. Many ACL rehabilitation protocols recommend treatment modalities not supported by current reports. Moreover, high variability in the composition and time ranges of rehabilitation components may lead to confusion among patients and therapists. Level II. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between Teacher self- efficacy, interest, attitude, qualification, experience and pupils’ academic achievement in primary school mathematics. The participants of the study comprises of 254 primary school teachers and 120 primary school pupils. Data collected on the study were analysed using a stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results reveals that teacher self – efficacy and interest had significant correlation with pupils achievement scores. Teacher’s self-efficacy being the best predictor of pupils’ academic achievement in mathematics was followed by teacher’s interest. Attitude, qualification and experience were not significant correlation with pupil’s achievement in mathematics. The study recommended that it is high time for primary school mathematics teachers to have a change of attitude towards the teaching of the subject so that the achievement of universal basic education will not be hindered. Furthermore, primary school educational authorities were called upon to ensure that only teachers who are qualified to teach the subject are employed. Not these alone, their attention was also drawn to the fact that they should design educational programmes that will enhance the teacher self- efficacy for a better prediction of pupils’ achievement in mathematics.
Full Text Available Spanish universities have recently adapted their studies to the requirements of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA. As part of these requirements, the development of computer and informational skills must be considered as an academic objective. Amongst other activities geared towards developing these skills, an informational video was disseminated. The design of the communication campaign promoting this video, developed through viral marketing and social networking sites, was the result of empirical research carried out by students of the University of Valencia. This paper describes the research objectives, questions, techniques and main findings of the study. A survey was conducted on a sample of 844 valid questionnaires completed by students after watching the video, following a non-probability procedure of quota sampling (gender and type of studies and convenience sampling in order to achieve a representative sample of the total population. After processing data through descriptive analysis techniques, we were given a fairly detailed picture of the most commonly used electronic devices, social networking sites and activities developed by students using Web 2.0. In particular, personal computers were the most commonly used electronic devices for access to the Internet. Regarding the most commonly used social networking services, Tuenti and Facebook are the most popular websites among students, the majority of whom use social networks several times a day for chatting and sending messages. Concerning the students’ opinions about the video, most of them liked the video and its individual elements (music, images, story, etc.. They also find the message easy to understand. However, differences observed across gender and type of studies suggest the need to include several social networks as well as video features in order to effectively reach these different groups of students. This information enables the design of a communication plan to
Legault, Lisa; Green-Demers, Isabelle; Pelletier, Luc
The present series of studies sought to develop and conceptually validate a taxonomy of reasons that give rise to academic amotivation and to investigate its social antecedents and academic consequences. In Study 1 (N = 351), an exploratory factor analysis offered preliminary support for an academic amotivation taxonomy comprising four dimensions:…
Milošević Nikoleta M.
Full Text Available Cooperation between a family and school makes provisions for solving problems students face in their interpersonal relations and academic achievement. We are singling out a view of the effects of a micro-system on child's development, which states that immediate interrelations in a micro-system - a family - can effect interrelations in another micro-system -peer groups - or can effect academic achievement. The majority of authors agree that modes and spheres of influences that family exerts are numerous and diverse and that they depend on characteristics of a broader social and cultural community where a child is growing up as well as on parents' abilities and preparations. How successful the family-school cooperation will be is largely determined by teacher's personality and the way he/she is communicating with parents. A joint planning and implementation of decisions reached, identical norms of behavior, commonly adopted goals are a prerequisite for a child's normal development. It is pointed out that school should plan and organize its activities (courses, seminars, forums lectures, discussions, so as to popularize knowledge of pedagogy and psychology among parents as well as teacher training in communication competence.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Jigsaw and Ask Together Learn Together technique used in the application of cooperative learning model on the academic success of social studies of 6th degree students. Experimental research design, including pretest and post-test, was used in the study. Work group of the study consisted of 54 6th grade students studying in three different classes of a secondary school in Trabzon between 2015-2016 school years. The study was conducted with two experimental groups and one control group. The related unit was taught via the related techniques for four weeks with experimental groups. Academic Success Test (AST was used as data collection tool of the study. The pre-test and post test scores of experimental and control groups from AST were analysed by using ANOVA and ANCOVA. According to the AST pre-test and posttest results of research groups, there was no significant difference between pre-test and posttest scores of Jigsaw and Ask Together Learn Together technique students in experimental groups, while significant difference was measured between experimental groups and control group.
Researchers will carry out a serological study in nine city wards in Dhaka with different levels of dengue virus transmission; a clinical study of suspected cases of dengue in two hospitals; entomological surveys in the nine wards already mentioned; and an ethnographic study in three wards to examine the social and ...
DuPaul, George J; Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Maczuga, Steve
We examined trajectories of academic and social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to identify those who might be at risk for especially severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. We estimated a series of growth mixture models using data from two subsamples of children participating in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) including those with at least baseline and 96-month data for reading and mathematics achievement (n = 392; 77.3% male; M age = 7.7; SD = 0.8) or social skills ratings from teachers (n = 259; 74.9% male; M age = 7.6; SD = 0.8). We compared latent trajectories for children with ADHD to mean observed trajectories obtained from a local normative (i.e., non-ADHD) comparison group (n = 289; 80.6% male; M age = 9.9; SD = 1.1). Results indicated six latent trajectory classes for reading and mathematics and four classes for teacher social skills ratings. There was not only a relationship between trajectories of inattention symptoms and academic impairment, but also a similarly strong association between trajectory classes of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and achievement. Trajectory class membership correlated with socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics, inattention and hyperactive-impulsive symptom trajectories, externalizing behavior in school, and treatment receipt and dosage. Although children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and social skills growth trajectories, those with behavioral and socio-demographic disadvantages are especially likely to display severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Evidence-based early screening and intervention that directly address academic and social impairments in elementary school-aged children with ADHD are warranted. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT00000388.
Full Text Available CSR implementation is a relatively untapped area of study. Barriers are components that block and test the execution of CSR in an organization while drivers are positive CSR performance indicators. There is a dearth of academic literature of exploration of barriers and drivers of CSR in developing economies. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing scholarly research literature on drivers and barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility from the perspectives of developed and developing economies. With most companies around the world joining the CSR bandwagon in a bid to positively influence their relationships with employees and stakeholders, it is imperative that CSR research addresses the barriers and drivers that companies are likely to face during the implementation of their CSR strategies.
Palomar-Lever, Joaquina; Victorio-Estrada, Amparo
This study identified significant predictors of important academic results such as academic performance and school desertion by adolescent students living in poverty in both urban and rural settings. The results indicate the relative importance of individual, family, educational and social variables reported by the young people, and the…
Sally L. Duncan
Full Text Available Historical range of variability has been proposed as a concept that can be used by forest land managers to guide conservation of ecosystem functions and biodiversity conservation. The role of humans in historical range of variability has remained somewhat murky and unsettled, even though it is clear that humans have been, are, and will continue to be forces of disturbance and recovery in forested landscapes. We attempt to develop concepts that integrate the ecological and social forces affecting landscape variability. Toward that end, we present a conceptual framework that places "range of variability" into a broader context and integrates the ecological and social forces affecting landscapes past, present, and future. We use two terms to aid us in understanding the utility of historical range of variability as a context and future range of variability as a point of comparison: (1 the ecological range of variability is the estimated range of some ecological condition as a function of the biophysical and social forces affecting the area and (2 the social range of variability is the range of an ecological condition that society finds acceptable at a given time. We find it is important to recognize that future range of variability represents a constantly emerging and changing set of conditions, and that the more humans push a system to depart from its historical range of variabiloity domain, the less likely it becomes that historical range of variability processes will prove useful as benchmarks in recovering a system.
Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to capture the relationship between cognitive and motivational variables and the student learning. 102 students from the Psychology specialization, license cycle, took part in the study. The following tools were used: the Rational-Experiential Inventory (Paccini & Epstein, 1999; the Intellectual development level questionnaire (Paloş, 2009, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Rao & Sachs, 1999. The results indicated that the motivational and learning strategies used by students are influenced by their intellectual development level and their information processing style. Knowing the cognitive and motivational variables play an important role in devising the educational experiences and in making learning more efficient.
Shah, Vishal; Subramanian, Sankara; Rouis, Sana; Limyaem, Moez
Prior research has focused on the benefits of usage of social media such as Facebook in terms of the social capital gains they bring. Other research has studied the adverse impact of such usage on academic performance. In this study we try to understand both the beneficial and adverse aspects of Facebook usage in the case of U.S. undergraduate students. Basing on social capital theory and system usage in hedonic context, we tested the dual effect of the usage of Facebook on social capital and...
Garandeau, Claire F; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C
This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade level as the main predictors of interest as well as classroom aggression and ethnic composition as controls. Multilevel analyses were conducted on an ethnically diverse sample of 968 fourth- and fifth-graders from 46 classrooms in 9 schools. Associations between aggression and status varied greatly from one classroom to another. Aggressive students were more popular and better liked in classrooms with higher levels of peer status hierarchy. Aggressive students had higher social status in Grade 5 than in Grade 4 and lower social preference in classrooms of higher academic level. Classroom aggression and ethnic composition did not moderate aggression-status associations. Limitations and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Biscotti, Dina Louise
Autonomy is a social product. Although some might view autonomy as the absence of social interference in individual action, it is in fact produced through social institutions. It enables social actors to act; it is the justification for the allocation of enormous public resources into institutions classified as "public" or "nonprofit;" it can lead to innovation; and, significantly, it is key to the public acceptance of new technologies. In this dissertation, I analyze the social construction of autonomy for academic science in U.S. university-industry agricultural biotechnology research collaborations. University-industry relationships (UIRs) are a site of concern about the influence of commercial interests on academic science. Agricultural biotechnology is a contentious technology that has prompted questions about the ecological and public health implications of genetically-modified plants and animals. It has also spurred awareness of the industrialization of agriculture and accelerating corporate control of the global food system. Through analysis of in-depth interviews with over 200 scientists and administrators from nine U.S. research universities and thirty agricultural biotechnology companies, I find that both the academy and industry have a vested interest in the social construction of the academy as an autonomous space from which claims to objective, disinterested scientific knowledge can be made. These claims influence government regulation, as well as grower and public acceptance of agricultural biotechnology products. I argue that the social production of autonomy for academic science can be observed in narratives and practices related to: (1) the framing of when, how and why academic scientists collaborate with industry, (2) the meanings ascribed to and the uses deemed appropriate for industry monies in academic research, and (3) the dissemination of research results into the public domain through publications and patents. These narratives and practices
Lomi, Alessandro; Snijders, Tom A.B.; Steglich, Christian E.G.; Torlo, Vanina Jasmine
Studies of peer effects in educational settings confront two main problems. The first is the presence of endogenous sorting which confounds the effects of social influence and social selection on individual attainment. The second is how to account for the local network dependencies through which peer effects influence individual behavior. We empirically address these problems using longitudinal data on academic performance, friendship, and advice seeking relations among stud...
P.Priya Packiaselvi; Ms.Malathi.V.A
Every human being seeks adjustment to various situations. He constantly makes efforts to adjustment himself to his surroundings because a wholesome adjustment is essential for leading a happy life and going satisfaction. Social adjustment to other people is general and to the group with which they are identified is particular. The main motive of the study is to find out the social adjustment among higher secondary school students and its impact on academic achievement in Coimbatore Educationa...
Verdi, Genevieve; Weyandt, Lisa L; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez
The objective of this study was to examine graduate students' non-medical use of prescription stimulant medication, and the relationship between non-medical use of prescription stimulants with academic self-efficacy, psychological factors (i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress), and internal restlessness. The sample consisted of 807 graduate students from universities located in five geographic regions of the United States. Past-year rates of self-reported non-medical use were determined to be 5.9%, with overall lifetime prevalence of 17.5%. Observed self-reported non-medical use of prescription stimulant medications was significantly correlated with self-reported levels of anxiety and stress, various aspects of internal restlessness, and perceived safety of the medications. Findings support graduate students' motivations of non-medical prescription stimulant use to be both academic and social in nature. Effective prevention and education efforts are needed to help address the non-medical use of prescription stimulants by graduate students on university campuses. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available In the recent years, social media have developed significantly and their usages have become main activities of internet users. The proposed study of this paper considers the effects of personal characteristics such as age, gender and marital status on social media. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes 385 questionnaires among students who are enrolled in different educational levels in governmental university named Allameh Tabatabayi university located in Tehran, Iran during the year of 2011. Because of abnormality of data, non-parametric test were used. In this research, we studied the effects of demographic variables on success of social media. The results showed that success of social media is more important among female students. Marriage situation shows that social media success variable is more important among married than single ones and, finally, this variable is more important among older people.
Islande C. Delgado Monge
Full Text Available The study tried to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the variables of gender, academic achievement, number of times students have taken the course and type of school in students taking the course MAT-001 General Mathematics of the National University of Costa Rica. To that end, a purposive sample of 472 students of such course was collected and the instrument of Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare and Hunt was adjusted to it (2003. Data collected were analyzed with the statistical program SPSS applying the corresponding hypothesis tests. According with the results, students showed a medium level of math anxiety and women showed a math anxiety significantly higher than men, while student graduated from private schools showed a significantly lower level of math anxiety than those from public schools or from the modality “General Equivalency Diploma”. Besides, the higher the math anxiety of the student is, the lower their academic achievement will be. Finally, there were no statistically significant differences between math anxiety and the number of times students have taken the course.
Carmichael, Patrick; Burchmore, Helen
In order to develop potentially transformative Web 2.0 tools in higher education, the complexity of existing academic practices, including current patterns of technology use, must be recognised. This paper describes how a series of participatory design activities allowed postgraduate students in education, social sciences and computer sciences to…
Kilgus, Stephen P.; Taylor, Crystal N.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.
The purpose of this study was to support the identification of Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS) cut scores that could be used to detect high-risk students. Teachers rated students across two time points (Time 1 n = 1,242 students; Time 2 n = 704) using the SAEBRS and the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System…
Beebe, Jennifer Elizabeth
The current study investigated the prevalence and frequency of cyber bullying victimization and examined the impact of cyber bullying on academic, social, and emotional college adjustment. Participants were recruited from two universities in the United States. Participants completed the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey (Kowalski & Limber, 2007)…
Baker, Claire E.
The present study used a large sample of mostly non-resident fathers (74%) to determine whether father-school involvement (e.g. attending parent-teacher conferences) predicted better academic and social emotional skills after controlling for the influence of mother-school involvement, the quality of children's home learning environment, and…
Adams, Danielle R.; Meyers, Steven A.; Beidas, Rinad S.
Objective: Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes:…
Raskauskas, Juliana; Rubiano, Sherry; Offen, Ilanit; Wayland, Ann Kathleen
Victimization by peers has been associated with low academic performance and internalizing problems. Still, not all students who experience peer victimization report a reduction in performance. The current study examines the potential protective nature of self-esteem and social self-efficacy in the relationship between peer victimization and…
Pluut, H.; Curseu, P.L.; Ilies, R.
Stress is a prevalent phenomenon among university students. We extend research on academic consequences and outcomes of stress by exploring study–leisure conflict (interference between the study and social domains) in our study of student well-being and performance. Using the Job Demands-Resources
This naturalistic inquiry explored the cultural impact of a historically Black independent boarding school on the social and academic experiences of four of its graduates who attended two traditionally White universities. The study examined two primary questions: (a) What factors from the historically Black boarding school assisted or hindered…
Laird, Thomas F. Nelson
The results of this study conducted at the University of Michigan (n = 289) indicate that students with more experiences with diversity, particularly enrollment in diversity courses and positive interactions with diverse peers, are more likely to score higher on academic self-confidence, social agency, and critical thinking disposition. In…
LeGary, Robert A., Jr.
This exploratory case study examined the reports by advanced undergraduate students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of perceived social supports that buffer college-related stress and facilitate academic success. The sample for this study was comprised of 10 advanced undergraduate students who self-identified as having ASD. These participants…
Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.; Ozer, Ipek; Mellott, Jennifer; Ochwo, Pius
Studies have shown that multitasking with technology, specifically using Social Networking Sites (SNSs), decreases both efficiency and productivity in an academic setting. This study investigates multitasking’s impact on the relationship between SNS use and Grade Point Average (GPA) in United
Sazak-Pinar, Elif; Guner-Yildiz, Nevin
The present study was designed to (a) investigate teachers' approval and disapproval behaviors towards academic and social behaviors of students in mainstreaming classrooms and (b) determine whether or not having special needs be a predictor of teachers' approval and disapproval behaviors. The study group consisted of 43 teachers who were working…
Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin
This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…
Pérez-Gualdrón, Leyla, M.; Helms, Janet E.
Background: Social justice orientation (SJO) is the motivation to promote justice and equity among all in society. Researchers argue that students of Color with high SJO can resist structural racism in their schools/society and have positive academic outcomes. Purpose: In the present study, a longitudinal model of cultural and environmental…
Madjar, Nir; Cohen, Veronique; Shoval, Gal
School transitions are important phases in students' educational experiences. The current study aimed to explore the trajectories of academic and social motivation across the transition from elementary to middle school. Participants (N = 415) were sampled from six elementary schools; 55% transitioned after sixth grade (transition) and 45% remained…
Catsambis, Sophia; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.
We revisit Harry L. Gracey's perspective of kindergarten as academic boot camp where, at school entry, children acquire the student role through a structured program of activities. We provide further insights into the crucial mechanisms of socialization that occur in U.S. kindergartens by examining the relationship between within-class ability…
Thomas, Theda; Wallace, Joy; Allen, Pamela; Clark, Jennifer; Jones, Adrian; Lawrence, Jill; Cole, Bronwyn; Sheridan Burns, Lynette
The introduction of discipline standards in Australia has required a comprehensive rethinking of humanities and social science curricula from first year through to graduation. This paper proposes a model to facilitate academics' engagement with discipline standards and their implication for first-year curricula. The model supports…
Herrera, Socorro G.; Kavimandan, Shabina K.; Perez, Della R.; Wessels, Stephanie
Research indicates that the culturally responsive teaching strategies outlined in this book accelerate literacy, language development, and academic growth for students in grades K-8, particularly for English language learners. Completely revised and updated, this bestselling resource speaks to the social-emotional needs of learners and helps…
Colbow, Alexander James
The aim of this study was to examine the relations between aspects of subjective social class, academic performance, and subjective wellbeing in first-generation and veteran students. In recent years, both student veterans and first-generation students have become topics of interest for universities, counselors, and researchers, as they are…
The aim of this study was to identify support strategies used to promote "social inclusion" and "academic progress" of Key Stage 3 and 4 Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (GRT) pupils. The study used an interpretivist approach, incorporating an embedded single case study with several participant groups, namely GRT pupils, GRT parents,…
Wang, Hongyu; Kong, Miosi; Shan, Wenjing; Vong, Sou Kuan
Student employment has been treated as a homogeneous category in studying the effects of doing part-time jobs on student academic performance or social life. In the present study, using data collected from a well-known public university in Macau, we treat student employment as a heterogeneous experience and compare the relative importance of…
Runge, Amy L.
This evaluation case study explores the impact of the An Achievable Dream social, academic, and moral program on college student's performance in college. Through this study, the researcher was able to provide insight on college student and college student advocates perceptions of An Achievable Dream's social, academic, and moral program's impact…
Brabeck, Kalina M.; Sibley, Erin; Taubin, Patricia; Murcia, Angela
The present study investigated the relationship between immigrant parent legal status and academic performance among U.S.-born children, ages 7-10. Building on previous research and a social ecological framework, the study further explored how social service use moderates the relationship between parent legal status and academic performance.…
Lomi, Alessandro; Snijders, Tom A B; Steglich, Christian E G; Torlo, Vanina Jasmine
Studies of peer effects in educational settings confront two main problems. The first is the presence of endogenous sorting which confounds the effects of social influence and social selection on individual attainment. The second is how to account for the local network dependencies through which peer effects influence individual behavior. We empirically address these problems using longitudinal data on academic performance, friendship, and advice seeking relations among students in a full-time graduate academic program. We specify stochastic agent-based models that permit estimation of the interdependent contribution of social selection and social influence to individual performance. We report evidence of peer effects. Students tend to assimilate the average performance of their friends and of their advisors. At the same time, students attaining similar levels of academic performance are more likely to develop friendship and advice ties. Together, these results imply that processes of social influence and social selection are sub-components of a more general a co-evolutionary process linking network structure and individual behavior. We discuss possible points of contact between our findings and current research in the economics and sociology of education.
Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Hendres, Daniela Muntele
This article describes research exploring the relationship between students' self-perceptions in the context of university learning (i.e. student social identity), their approaches to learning, and academic achievement. The exploration of these inter-related aspects requires a mix of theoretical approaches, that is, in this research both social…
Barnett, Tony; Fournié, Guillaume; Gupta, Sunetra; Seeley, Janet
Incorporation of 'social' variables into epidemiological models remains a challenge. Too much detail and models cease to be useful; too little and the very notion of infection - a highly social process in human populations - may be considered with little reference to the social. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim proposed that the scientific study of society required identification and study of 'social currents'. Such 'currents' are what we might today describe as 'emergent properties', specifiable variables appertaining to individuals and groups, which represent the perspectives of social actors as they experience the environment in which they live their lives. Here we review the ways in which one particular emergent property, hope, relevant to a range of epidemiological situations, might be used in epidemiological modelling of infectious diseases in human populations. We also indicate how such an approach might be extended to include a range of other potential emergent properties to represent complex social and economic processes bearing on infectious disease transmission.
Jong, de I.C.; Sgoifo, A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.
The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which
de Jong, IC; Sgoifo, A; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM
The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which
Previous studies suggest that international graduate students' academic success is significantly associated with the average grade point (GPA), and this measure is closely related with international graduate students' received academic and financial supports. However, international graduate students' academic success can involve a multidimensional…
Caruana, Albert; Magri, Emanuel
Explores the effects of dogmatism and social class variables on consumer ethnocentrism and formulates hypotheses linking these variables. Also considers the effects of a number of classificatory variables on consumer ethnocentrism. Reports the findings from a survey of consumers in Malta which show not only that dogmatism and age are positively related to consumer ethnocentrism but also that consumer ethnocentrism is lower among consumers with higher levels of education. Discusses the implica...
حسین قمری گیوی
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare social skills, mental health and academic performance in children with divorced, divorcing and intact parents. The study sample included 481 children with divorced parents and 419 children with divorcing parents, who were matched to 500 children with normal parents. The participants responded to the Matson's Social Skills Scale and Goldenberg's Mental Health Questionnaire. To assess the academic performance GPA was used. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. The Findings showed that children with divorced and divorcing parents had more average scores of the components of physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression and general mental disorder than those of children with normal parents. Also children with divorcing parents had more scores in components of social dysfunction, depression and general mental disorder than children with divorced parents had. Social skills scores and academic performance in children with normal parents were higher than those of divorced parents’ children and children with divorced parents had higher scores than children with divorcing parents. Hence, due to the harm and the conesquences of divorce on children, strategies for minimalizing these conesquences should be planed.
Elizabeth Margaret Stovold
(2%, n=6, or multiple identifiers (7%, n=22. The majority of requests originated from the UK and Ireland (29.1%, n=88, the United States (26.5%, n=80, and the rest of Europe (19.2%, n=58. Many requests came from people with affiliations to an academic institution (45%, n=136. These included librarians (3.3%, n=10, students (13.6%, n=41, and academics (28.1%, n=85. When tweets of unknown affiliation were excluded (n=117, over 70% of the requests were from people with academic links. Other requesters included journalists, clinicians, non-profit organisations, patients, and industry employees. The authors examined comments in the tweets to gain some understanding of the reasons for seeking articles through #icanhazpdf, although this was not the primary focus of their study. A preliminary examination of the comments suggested that users value the ease, convenience, and the ability to connect with other researchers that social media offers. Conclusion – The authors concluded that the number of requests for health sciences literature through this channel is modest, but health librarians should be aware of #icanhazpdf as another method through which their users might seek to obtain articles. The authors recommend further research into the reasons why users sometimes choose social media over the library to obtain articles.
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Metindogan, Aysegul; Evans, Melanie
This study examined the influence of parenting styles, parent-child academic involvement at home, and parent-school contact on academic skills and social behaviors among kindergarten-age children of Caribbean immigrants. Seventy immigrant mothers and fathers participated in the study. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that fathers'…
Di Ciommo, Floridea; Comendador, Julio; Eugenia Lopez-Lambas, Maria
This paper explores the potential role of individual trip characteristics and social capital network variables in the choice of transport mode. A sample of around 100 individuals living or working in one suburb of Madrid (i.e. Las Rosas district of Madrid) participated in a smartphone short panel......, the model incorporated two "social capital network" variables: participation in voluntary activities and receiving help for various tasks (i.e. child care, housekeeping, etc.). Both variables improved the capacity of the model to explain transport mode shifts. Further, our results confirm that the shift...
Christopher Rotilles Vicera, Ed. D*
This study aimed to determine the effects of social networking sites on the academic performance of the students as related to the socio-demographic characteristics, social networking site usage and social network addiction. As to the socio-demographic characteristics, the respondents' age ranged from 15-17 years old or 70% of the total number of respondents. A big proportion of 70% were females. Most of the respondents were single with 98%. Their family income ranged from P5,000-9,999 with 4...
Full Text Available The widening participation agenda means that students will be entering degree courses with increasingly diverse needs, particularly with respect to the academic skills necessary for successful tertiary study in Australia. This paper presents findings from a mixed methods project investigating first year social work students’ perceived role in academic skills and their development. Students expressed the perception that academic skill requirements and how they would be assessed should be made explicit, and identified a stigma associated with accessing study support services. The paper concludes that an intentional design strategy, such as embedding academic skills into the curriculum, helps bridge the different expectations between academics and students in the teaching and learning of academic skills, and hence constitutes a socially inclusive strategy to teaching professional courses such as social work, within higher education. Recommendations to enhance the success and sustainability of such an initiative in the current higher education environment are offered.
Estimating peer effects with observational data is very difficult because of contextual confounding, peer selection, simultaneity bias, and measurement error, etc. In this paper, I show that instrumental variables (IVs) can help to address these problems in order to provide causal estimates of peer effects. Based on data collected from over 4000 students in six middle schools in China, I use the IV methods to estimate peer effects on smoking. My design-based IV approach differs from previous ones in that it helps to construct potentially strong IVs and to directly test possible violation of exogeneity of the IVs. I show that measurement error in smoking can lead to both under- and imprecise estimations of peer effects. Based on a refined measure of smoking, I find consistent evidence for peer effects on smoking. If a student's best friend smoked within the past 30 days, the student was about one fifth (as indicated by the OLS estimate) or 40 percentage points (as indicated by the IV estimate) more likely to smoke in the same time period. The findings are robust to a variety of robustness checks. I also show that sharing cigarettes may be a mechanism for peer effects on smoking. A 10% increase in the number of cigarettes smoked by a student's best friend is associated with about 4% increase in the number of cigarettes smoked by the student in the same time period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Malle, Bertram F.; Stallworth, Lisa M.; Sidanius, James; Pratto, Felicia
Social dominance orientation (SDO), one's degree of preference for inequality among social groups, is introduced. On the basis of social dominance theory, it is shown that (a) men are more social dominance-oriented than women, (b) high-SDO people seek hierarchy-enhancing professional roles and low-SDO people seek hierarchy-attenuating roles, (c) SDO was related to beliefs in a large number of social and political ideologies that support group-based hierarchy (e.g., meritocracy and racism) and...
Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Salwa Mahalle, Rohani Matzin, Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria, Nor Zaiham Midawati Abdullah, Siti Norhedayah Abdul Latif Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam Abstract: The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public and private sector workers of both genders. A quantitative field survey design was used and data were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression. The rationale and justification for using this approach is explained. The main sociodemographic correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in this study were educational level and the district in which the employee resided and worked. Other correlates, but not necessarily predictors, of employer–employee relationship problems were seeking help from the Bomo (traditional healer; obtaining help from online social networking; and workers with children in the family. The two best and most significant social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems included interpersonal communications; and self-regulation and self-direction. Low scorers on the following variables were also associated with high likelihood for possessing employer–employee relationship problems: satisfaction with work achievements; and peace and security, while low scorers on work stress had lower odds of having employer–employee relationship problems. Other significant social value correlates, but not predictors of employer–employee relationship problems were self-presentation; interpersonal trust; peace and security; and general anxiety. Consistent with findings of relevant previous studies conducted elsewhere, there were the variables that correlated
Volkova, Svitlana; Han, Kyungsik; Corley, Courtney D.
Student resilience and emotional well-being are essential for both academic and social development. Earlier studies on tracking students' happiness in academia showed that many of them struggle with mental health issues. For example, a 2015 study at the University of California Berkeley found that 47% of graduate students suffer from depression, following a 2005 study that showed 10% had considered suicide. This is the first large-scale study that uses signals from social media to evaluate students' emotional well-being in academia. This work presents fine-grained emotion and opinion analysis of 79,329 tweets produced by students from 44 universities. The goal of this study is to qualitatively evaluate and compare emotions and sentiments emanating from students' communications across different academic discourse types and across universities in the U.S. We first build novel predictive models to categorize academic discourse types generated by students into personal, social, and general categories. We then apply emotion and sentiment classification models to annotate each tweet with six Ekman's emotions -- joy, fear, sadness, disgust, anger, and surprise and three opinion types -- positive, negative, and neutral. We found that emotions and opinions expressed by students vary across discourse types and universities, and correlate with survey-based data on student satisfaction, happiness and stress. Moreover, our results provide novel insights on how students use social media to share academic information, emotions, and opinions that would pertain to students academic performance and emotional well-being.
Puschel, Klaus; Rojas, Paulina; Erazo, Alvaro; Thompson, Beti; Lopez, Jorge; Barros, Jorge
Latin America has one of the highest rates of health disparities in the world and is experiencing a steep increase in its number of medical schools. It is not clear if medical school authorities consider social responsibility, defined as the institutional commitment to contribute to the improvement of community well-being, as a priority and if there are any organizational strategies that could reduce health disparities. To study the significance and relevance of social responsibility in the academic training of medical schools in Latin America. The study combined a qualitative thematic literature review of three databases with a quantitative design based on a sample of nine Latin American and non-Latin American countries. The thematic analysis showed high agreement among academic groups on considering medical schools as 'moral agents', part of a 'social contract' and with an institutional responsibility to reduce health disparities mainly through the implementation of strong academic primary care programs. The quantitative analysis showed a significant association between higher development of academic primary care programs and lower level of health disparities by country (P = 0.028). However, the data showed that most Latin American medical schools did not prioritize graduate primary care training. The study shows a discrepancy between the importance given to social responsibility and academic primary care training in Latin America and the practices implemented by medical schools. It highlights the need to refocus medical education policies in the region. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Francisco M Salzano
Full Text Available Past and present attempts to classify and characterize the human biological variability are examined, considering the race concept, ethnic identification problems, assortative mating based on ethnicity, and historical genetics. In relation to the latter, a review is made of the methods presently available for admixture quantification and of previous studies aimed at the characterization of the parental continental contributions to Latin American populations, with emphasis in global evaluations of the Costa Rican and Brazilian gene pools. Finally, the question of racism and discrimination is considered, including the relation between human rights and affirmative actions. The right to equal opportunity should be strictly respected. Biological inequality has nothing to do with the ethical principle that someone’s position in a given society should be an accurate reflection of her/his individual ability. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 405-415. Epub 2004 Dic 15Son examinados los intentos pasados y presentes de clasificar y caracterizar a la variabilidad biológica humana, considerando el concepto de raza, los problemas de identificación étnica, el matrimonio selectivo basado en la etnicidad, y la historia genética. En relación con la última, se hace una revisión de los métodos disponibles actualmente para la cuantificación de la mezcla y de los estudios previos enfocados en la caracterización de la contribuciones parentales de origen continental a las poblaciones Latinoamericanas, con énfasis en las evaluaciones globales de los acervos genéticos de de Brasil y Costa Rica. Finalmente, se considera el tema del racismo y la discriminación, incluyendo la relación entre los derechos humanos y las acciones afirmativas. El derecho a iguales oportunidades debe ser estrictamente respetado. La inequidad biológica no tiene nada que ver con el principio ético de que la posición de cualquiera en una sociedad dada debe ser un reflejo exacto de sus
Ocak, Gürbüz; Boyraz, Serkan
Academic procrastination is seen to be quite common among undergraduates and time management is thought to be one of the possible reasons of it. Two surveys, academic procrastination and time management, were given to 332 undergraduate students in this correlational research. Students' academic procrastination is explained through frequencies and…
Wasson, Jillian Woodford
There is a well-documented gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, which has been the focus of research for several decades (i.e., Betz & Hackett, 1981; Ceci & Williams, 2009, 2010; Wang, Eccles, & Kenny, 2013). Questions as to why this is the case are not new; however, with the growing body of research, there seem to be more questions than answers. This study drew primarily from the vocational psychology literature, particularly Social Cognitive Career Theory, building on previous literature in this area by examining differences in career choices made over time by qualified women across different stages in the education-to-career pathway. The results of the present study indicate that among qualified women many of the SCCT personal and contextual variables are relevant to STEM career development. Moreover, findings from the present study support the hypothesis (Lent et al., 1994) that personal, environmental, and behavioral variables affect one another. An important aspect of the SCCT model is the acknowledgment that at any given point in time, certain variables will carry different weight (Lent et al., 1994). The current study provides further support for this and underscores the necessity of understanding and framing career development as a process, unfolding across several developmental stages. These findings, their generalizability, and implications for practice should be carefully considered in the context of several limitations that this sample was influenced by: limitations in reliability and selection of variables, lack of diversity within the sample, as well as the extraneous variables related to overall economic and political backdrop.
Ahmed Tawfeeq Alahmar
Social media applications and their use among students have witnessed dramatic increase in the last decade and data on their effect on students academic performance are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social media on the academic performance and grades of second year medical students at the College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Iraq. Second year medical students (n=57) completed online questionnaire about the type of social media they use frequently, time...
Ciommo, F. di
This paper explores the potential role of social capital variables on the transport mode choice. Traditionally travel behavior model included social capital as empowerment factor (i.e. social capital as substitute of financial capital) or as social network influence on travel choice. Only recently constraints of social capital are considered as factors influencing travel behavior (Swanen et al, 2015, Di Ciommo & Martens, 2015).This article will show both aspects of empowerments and constraints of social capital in a dynamic way stressing two dynamic aspects of social capital: the building up social capital and use of social capital. Both aspects are related with the value of time: when you are doing something for others ( i.e. Voluntary actions, pick up all family members, etc) you are loosing your time, and your mode choice will be oriented to saving time, therefore a private mode will be chosen, while when you are using your social capital benefit (somebody else is helping you), you will easily choose the less flexible and more time consuming public transport. After defining social capital notion in both aspects of empowerments and constraints, a set of social capital variables is defined. Then two of these variables are tested through a smartphone short panel survey, where 100 individuals living or working in one surrounding southern area of Madrid have participated in entering their travel data for an entire working week. The estimated mixed-logit model that incorporated two “social capital variables: participation in voluntary activities and receiving help for various tasks (i.e. child care) show how people who have less social capital, but that are trying to build it up choose more private than public modes: building social capital stock has a cost in term of time that push people to use more flexible transport mode (i.e. private car), while people who have already a stock of social capital and can use it (i.e. helped people) receive time from others and
Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sohrabi, Mozaffar Cheshmeh; Zare, Firoozeh; Hassnazadeh, Akbar; Malekahmadi, Parisa
Numerous researches conducted on about the quality of perception of media messages shows that the people are not passive receivers but they have the ability of understanding, interpreting and accepting or rejecting messages. In order to make clear the relationship of information and communication technologies with social changes and to gain a broader vision from this scope, sociological theories about information and communication technologies' usage, especially appropriation approach can be very useful. So, keeping in mind the important role of Databases in the qualitative expansion of education, research, diagnosis, remedy and medical services presentation, this research was carried out with the aim of status determination of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach in 2012. This is an applicative research of an analytical-descriptive type, which was carried out by measurement approach. The statistical society of this research was composed of the academic staffs of the Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences in 2012 and finally 390 academic staffs were selected according to the Cochran's formula were selected. The research tool are searcher's made questionnaire, which was composed of nine separate parts. Its validity was accepted by the specialists and its reliability was calculated and found to be 0.961 by Cronbakh's alpha. Database appropriation score in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences with 65.020% was in a good status and data bases dis appropriation score with 71.484 was in a high status. According to the findings of this research, Librarians and politicians in this scope-with determination of the academic staff's positive and negative points in usage and appropriation would be capable of accurately diagnozing and analyzing the chances and challenges of the academic staffs members in using databases and would also be capable of
Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh
The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…
Bekmezci, Mehmet; Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Kiray, Ahmet; Akturk, Ahmet Oguz
In this research, students' scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents' educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are…
Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Günaydin, Esra; Okur, Alperen
The aim of the study is to explore the academic achievement and performance tasks of students studying in a regional primary boarding school in science course with regard to different variables. The study was carried out via survey method and total 96 students, 57 of them boarding students and 39 of them non-boarding students studying in the 5th,…
Karda, Mehmet Nuri
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Academic controversy as a technique of collaborative learning on Turkish Teachers candidates' success to effective speaking skills and its relationship with variables like gender and multilingualism. Therefore the experimental design based on the pre-test and post-test measurement with control…
Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar
The present paper (1) examined variables, which could predict traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization and cybervictimization and (2) looked at persons to examine whether academic, socio-emotional and demographic characteristics differed between traditional, cyber and mixed bullies, victims and bully-victims. A sample of…
Marucha, Phillip T.; Crespin, Timothy R.; Shelby, Rebecca A.; Andersen, Barbara L.
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important cytokine associated with tumor regression and increased survival time for cancer patients. Research evidence relates immune factors (e.g., natural killer (NK) cell counts, NK cell lysis, lymphocyte profile, and lymphocyte proliferation) to the frequency and quality of social relations among cancer patients. We hypothesized that disruptions in social relations would be associated with lower TNF-α responses, and conversely, that reports of positive changes in social relations correlate with stronger responses. A prospective design measured changes in social activity and relationship satisfaction with a partner in 44 breast cancer patients at the time of cancer diagnosis, and initial surgery and 12 months later. Results indicated that patients reporting increased social activities or satisfaction exhibited stronger stimulated TNF-α responses. This is the first study to link changes in patient social relations with a cancer-relevant immune variable. PMID:15890493
Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Zhou, Biru; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie
Poor social integration increases risk for poor health. The psychobiological pathways underlying this effect are not well-understood. This study utilized a migration stress model to prospectively investigate the impact of social integration on change in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), a marker of autonomic functioning. Sixty new international students were recruited shortly after their arrival in the host country and assessed 2 and 5 months later. At each assessment period, participants provided information on social integration and loneliness and had their resting HF-HRV evaluated. There was an overall decrease in HF-HRV over time. The magnitude of the within-person and between-person effects of social integration on HRV increased over time, such that greater social integration was associated with higher HF-HRV at later follow-ups. These results suggest that altered autonomic functioning might represent a key pathway linking social integration to health outcomes.
Sarid, Orly; Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Schwartz, Doron; Friger, Michael; Sergienko, Ruslan; Pereg, Avihu; Vardi, Hillel; Chernin, Elena; Singer, Terri; Greenberg, Dan; Odes, Shmuel
How psycho-social variables affect the degree of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) is incompletely understood. Therefore, we measured and compared the impact of psycho-social variables on the active disease state in UC and CD. One hundred and twenty-two UC and 305 CD patients with active disease completed questionnaires detailing their psychological symptoms, threatening experiences, disease-coping strategies, satisfaction with life, quality of life, and demographics. UC and CD patients were aged (mean, SD) 38.6 ± 14.0 and 45.2 ± 15.1 years, respectively. The psychological symptom index (median, IQR) was greater in UC 1.24 (0.8) than CD 0.9 (0.8), p psycho-social variables on the active disease state differs between UC and CD, thus indicating a need for specifically tailored psychotherapies.
Full Text Available A Review of: Hilbert, F., Barth, J., Gremm, J., Gros, D., Haiter, J., Henkel, M., Reinhardt, W., & Stock, W.G. (2015. Coverage of academic citation databases compared with coverage of scientific social media: personal publication lists as calibration parameters. Online Information Review 39(2: 255-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/OIR-07-2014-0159 Objective – The purpose of this study was to explore coverage rates of information science publications in academic citation databases and scientific social media using a new method of personal publication lists as a calibration parameter. The research questions were: How many publications are covered in different databases, which has the best coverage, and what institutions are represented and how does the language of the publication play a role? Design – Bibliometric analysis. Setting – Academic citation databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and scientific social media (Mendeley, CiteULike, Bibsonomy. Subjects – 1,017 library and information science publications produced by 76 information scientists at 5 German-speaking universities in Germany and Austria. Methods – Only documents which were published between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2012 were included. In that time the 76 information scientists had produced 1,017 documents. The information scientists confirmed that their publication lists were complete and these served as the calibration parameter for the study. The citations from the publication lists were searched in three academic databases: Google Scholar, Web of Science (WoS, and Scopus; as well as three social media citation sites: Mendeley, CiteULike, and BibSonomy and the results were compared. The publications were searched for by author name and words from the title. Main results – None of the databases investigated had 100% coverage. In the academic databases, Google Scholar had the highest amount of coverage with an average of 63%, Scopus an average of 31%, and
Full Text Available This article describes a process for introducing modern technological subjects into the academic curricula of non-technical universities. The process described may increase and contribute to social sustainability by enabling non-technical students’ access to the field of the Internet of Things and the broader Industry 4.0. The process has been defined and tested during a curricular reform project that took place in two large universities in Eastern Europe. In this article, the authors describe the results and impact, over multiple years, of a project financed by the European Union that aimed to introduce the following subjects into the academic curricula of business students: cloud computing, big data, mobile programming, and social networks and cybersecurity (CAMSS. The results are useful for those trying to implement similar curricular reforms, or to companies that need to manage talent pipelines.
The editors of this special issue have recruited six papers focused on the ways that language and communication interact with culture to influence student behavior. Two themes that emerge from these papers are the fundamental role of communication in learning and living, and the impact of culture on the functions of communication. The present…
Burrows, Anne M; Li, Ly; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jerome
Mammals use their faces in social interactions more so than any other vertebrates. Primates are an extreme among most mammals in their complex, direct, lifelong social interactions and their frequent use of facial displays is a means of proximate visual communication with conspecifics. The available repertoire of facial displays is primarily controlled by mimetic musculature, the muscles that move the face. The form of these muscles is, in turn, limited by and influenced by phylogenetic inertia but here we use examples, both morphological and physiological, to illustrate the influence that social variables may exert on the evolution and form of mimetic musculature among primates. Ecomorphology is concerned with the adaptive responses of morphology to various ecological variables such as diet, foliage density, predation pressures, and time of day activity. We present evidence that social variables also exert selective pressures on morphology, specifically using mimetic muscles among primates as an example. Social variables include group size, dominance 'style', and mating systems. We present two case studies to illustrate the potential influence of social behavior on adaptive morphology of mimetic musculature in primates: (1) gross morphology of the mimetic muscles around the external ear in closely related species of macaque (Macaca mulatta and Macaca nigra) characterized by varying dominance styles and (2) comparative physiology of the orbicularis oris muscle among select ape species. This muscle is used in both facial displays/expressions and in vocalizations/human speech. We present qualitative observations of myosin fiber-type distribution in this muscle of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and human to demonstrate the potential influence of visual and auditory communication on muscle physiology. In sum, ecomorphologists should be aware of social selective pressures as well as ecological ones, and that observed morphology might
Vogel, David; Nicolis, Stamatios C; Perez-Escudero, Alfonso; Nanjundiah, Vidyanand; Sumpter, David J T; Dussutour, Audrey
Historically, research has focused on the mean and often neglected the variance. However, variability in nature is observable at all scales: among cells within an individual, among individuals within a population and among populations within a species. A fundamental quest in biology now is to find the mechanisms that underlie variability. Here, we investigated behavioural variability in a unique unicellular organism, Physarum polycephalum. We combined experiments and models to show that variability in cell signalling contributes to major differences in behaviour underpinning some aspects of social interactions. First, following thousands of cells under various contexts, we identified distinct behavioural phenotypes: 'slow-regular-social', 'fast-regular-social' and 'fast-irregular-asocial'. Second, coupling chemical analysis and behavioural assays we found that calcium signalling is responsible for these behavioural phenotypes. Finally, we show that differences in signalling and behaviour led to alternative social strategies. Our results have considerable implications for our understanding of the emergence of variability in living organisms. © 2015 The Author(s).
Li, Yaoran; Allen, Jeff; Casillas, Alex
We investigated the relations between middle school students' psychological factors (academic commitment and emotional control), social perceptions (family involvement and school climate), and academic performance over time. Gender differences in these relations were also examined. Based on a two-year longitudinal data set of 942 middle-school students from a high-poverty district in the United States, we found that all four factors measured in 6th grade were predictive of GPA at the end of the 7th grade above and beyond gender, race, and home intellectual materials. Among these factors, emotional control had the strongest relation with GPA, and the importance of family involvement increased over time, especially for female students. The results also revealed the indirect effects of the social factors on GPA through the psychological factors, and mostly through emotional control. These findings highlight the complex relation between the social-emotional factors and academic outcomes in early adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Witte, Ginna Gauntner
The use of Facebook to share resources and engage patrons continues to gain acceptance within academic libraries. While many studies have analyzed the types of content academic libraries share on Facebook, there has not yet been a full examination of how this content is generated. This article examined the posting methods, the user responses, and…
Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães
This article analyzes some challenges for knowledge output in the human and social sciences in the public health field, under the current academic assessment model in Brazil. The article focuses on the qualitative research approach in human and social sciences, analyzing its status in comparison to the other traditions vying for hegemony in the public health field, conjugating the dialogue with the literature, especially the propositions pertaining to the social fields present in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, with elements concerning the field's dynamics, including some empirical data. Challenges identified in the article include hurdles to interdisciplinary dialogue and equity in the production of knowledge, based on recognition of the founding place of human and social sciences in the public health field. The article discusses strategies to reshape the current correlation of forces among centers of knowledge in public health, especially those capable of impacting the committees and agendas that define the accumulation of symbolic and economic capital in the field.
This study is a qualitative investigation of the role that social networks play in the adjustment and academic success of international students. With large numbers of international students enrolled on US campuses, it is important for practitioners to prepare, understand and address their dynamic needs. Based on social network, social capital and…
Wilcox, Gabrielle; McQuay, Jocelyn; Blackstaffe, Anita; Perry, Rosemary; Hawe, Penelope
Understanding what contributes to academic engagement is important to effectively support students. This study examines the relationship between sociodemographic factors, anxiety, social support, and academic engagement in elementary and junior high school students. Students in grades 5-9 (N = 1,904) completed self-reports measuring academic…
Scebold, Jody L.
The purpose of the study was to explore the emotional impact nursing faculty experience in relationship to nursing student academic dishonesty and the social and political factors that influence their decision to report suspected acts of academic dishonesty. The study was based on Fontana's 2009 study titled "Nursing Faculty Experiences of…
Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Castaneda-Sound, Carrie
This study examined the influences of generational status, self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and perceived social support on 367 undergraduate college students' well-being. Findings showed that 1st-generation students reported significantly more somatic symptoms and lower levels of academic self-efficacy than did non-1st-generation students. In…
Dervojeda, K.; Dervojeda, Kristina; Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Groen, Arend J.
This paper focuses on academics that are looking for entrepreneurial ways to pursue their teaching, research and commercialization interests, in particular by actively engaging in university-industry interactions. The paper aims to improve our knowledge of why some academics exploit their social
Pedro Farias Batlle
Full Text Available El uso académico que hacen los universitarios de las redes sociales es el estudio que se presenta a partir de una encuesta administrada a una muestra representativa de estudiantes de la Universidad de Málaga (n=938 y dos grupos de discusión. Dado que el consumo de redes se ha implantado profundamente en las rutinas diarias de los estudiantes, las vastas posibilidades comunicativas de estos canales podrían considerarse para sacar provecho educativo en el futuro, a pesar del predominio del uso dirigido al entretenimiento. Se discuten cuáles son las redes más adecuadas para su uso académico, qué tipo de actividades pueden tener mejor acogida entre los estudiantes y qué herramientas de las redes sociales podrían ser más útiles para propósitos académicos. Los resultados indican que el consumo de redes sociales de la población estudiada es muy alto. Así mismo, los estudiantes presentan una actitud favorable a que los docentes utilicen las redes como recurso educativo. Sin embargo, la frecuencia con la que los estudiantes dan un uso académico a las redes es más bien escasa y, en promedio, las actividades académicas con frecuencia de uso más elevada son aquellas que parten de la iniciativa de los propios estudiantes, como la solución de dudas inter pares o la realización de trabajos de clase. Del escaso apoyo académico percibido en las redes por los estudiantes, se deduce un limitado aprovechamiento por parte de los docentes.This paper examines the academic use made of the social networks by university students through a survey conducted among a representative sample of students at Universidad de Málaga (Spain (n=938 and two discussion groups. Given that network consumption has profoundly penetrated the daily routines of the students, the vast communication possibilities of these channels could be considered for educational use in the future despite a predominance of entertainment-related use. We discuss the most suitable
Özdenk, Serhat; Karabulut, Ebru Olcay
In this study, it was aimed to examine of youth team athletes' social values according to some variables. The study was carried out by screening model and includes in range of 9-17 years 273 youth team athletes who take part in individual and team sports such as Taekwondo, Handball, Badminton, Wrestling, Volleyball and Football. "A Tool for…
Ángel A Villafañe-Santiago; Carol Y Irizarry-Robles; Robinson A Vázquez-Ramos
The purpose of this study was to identify the needs of a sample of the international and exchange students staying at the North Tower Residence of the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus. Social and demographic data, as well as the academic, vocational, and social/personal needs were explored with the purpose of gathering relevant information and submitting recommendations to universities serving this student population. Findings revealed particular needs in the academic, voc...
Ford, Jason A; Ong, Julianne
The current research examines whether measures associated with Akers' social learning theory are related to non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic reasons among college students. We examine data from a sample of 549 undergraduate students at one public university in the Southeastern United States. We estimate several logistic regression models to test our hypotheses. The findings indicated that roughly 17% of students reported non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic reasons during the past year. In separate models, all four of the social learning measures were significantly correlated to non-medical use. In the complete model, the risk of non-medical prescription stimulant use for academic reasons was increased for respondents who reported more of their friends used and also for respondents who believed that prescription stimulants were an effective study aid. The current research fills an important gap in the literature regarding theoretical explanations for non-medical prescription stimulant use. Given the high prevalence of non-medical prescription stimulant use and the known risks associated with non-medical use this research can help inform intervention strategies for college populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spray, Julie; Floyd, Bruce; Littleton, Judith; Trnka, Susanna; Mattison, Siobhan
Previous research proposes stress as a mechanism for linking social environments and biological bodies. In particular, non-human primate studies investigate relationships between cortisol as a measure of stress response and social hierarchies. Because human social structures often include hierarchies of dominance and social status, humans may exhibit similar patterns. Studies of non-human primates, however, have not reached consistent conclusions with respect to relationships between social position and levels of cortisol. While human studies report associations between cortisol and various aspects of social environments, studies that consider social status as a predictor of stress response also report mixed results. Others have argued that perceptions of social status may have different implications for stress response depending upon social context. We propose here that characteristics of children's social networks may be a better predictor of central tendencies and variability of stress response than their perceptions of social status. This is evaluated among 24 children from 9.4 to 11.3 years of age in one upper middle-class New Zealand primary school classroom, assessed through observation within the classroom, self-reports during semi-structured interviews and 221 serial saliva samples provided daily over 10 consecutive school days. A synthetic assessment of the children's networks and peer-relationships was developed prior to saliva-cortisol analysis. We found that greater stability of peer-relationships within groups significantly predicts lower within-group variation in mid-morning cortisol over the two-week period, but not overall within-group differences in mean cortisol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Nicotera, Nicole; Walls, N. Eugene
The required research courses in social work education are, perhaps, one of the more difficult content areas in which to infuse direct teaching and knowledge acquisition of multiculturalism. The study presented in this article examines the outcomes of systematically addressing social justice within a required master's level social work research…
Social competence and parental practices in adolescents with high and low academic achievement / Competência social e práticas educativas parentais em adolescentes com alto e baixo rendimento acadêmico
Full Text Available This paper investigated the relations between social competence, parental practices and academic performance in adolescents. 66 adolescents took part in the study and they were divided in two groups: high and low academic performance. The tools used in this research were CBCL and YSR (Achenbach, 1991, and IEP (Gomide, 2006. The results showed that adolescents of high academic achievements are perceived by the parents as socially competent and are raised with more positive parental practices. The data indicated that academic performance is also influenced by the social competence and the way the adolescents are educated by the parents. Those aspects should be considered in interventions that aim at promoting the improvement of academic performance and development of a behavior adjusted to the school.
Tyler E. Weant
Full Text Available Improved screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in correctional facilities may improve TB control. The Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (ODRC consists of 32 prisons. Inmates are screened upon entry to ODRC and yearly thereafter. The objective of the study was to determine if social history factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and drug use are significant predictors of LTBI and treatment outcomes. We reviewed the medical charts of inmates and randomly selected age-matched controls at one ODRC facility for 2009. We used a conditional logistic regression to assess associations between selected social history variables and LTBI diagnosis. Eighty-nine inmates with a history of LTBI and 88 controls were identified. No social history variable was a significant predictor of LTBI. Medical comorbidities such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and hepatitis C were significantly higher in inmates with LTBI. 84% of inmates diagnosed with LTBI had either completed or were on treatment. Annual TB screening may not be cost-effective in all inmate populations. Identification of factors to help target screening populations at risk for TB is critical. Social history variables did not predict LTBI in our inmate population. Additional studies are needed to identify inmates for the targeted TB testing.
de Senna, Viviane; Souza, Adriano Mendonça
Since the 1988 Federal Constitution social assistance has become a duty of the State and a right to everyone, guaranteeing the population a dignified life. To ensure these rights federal government has created programs that can supply the main needs of people in extreme poverty. Among the programs that provide social assistance to the population, the best known are the ;Bolsa Família; Program - PBF and the Continuous Cash Benefit - Continuous Cash Benefit - BPC. This research's main purpose is to analyze the relationship between the main macroeconomic variables and the Federal government spending on social welfare policy in the period from January 2004 to August 2014. The used methodologies are the Vector auto regression model - VAR and Error Correction Vector - VEC. The conclusion, was that there is a meaningful relationship between macroeconomic variables and social assistance programs. This indicates that if the government takes a more abrupt resolution in changing the existing programs it will result in fluctuations in the main macroeconomic variables interfering with the stability of Brazilian domestic economy up to twelve months.
Lah, Mike Myoungwhan
Researchers study social networks to understand how individuals with similar behavior form clusters, and what causes them to do so. Universities are interested in learning more about influential factors of student behavior, including the impact that their social networks have on these behaviors. We have done foundational work to collect a dataset about UCSD student social network data gathered from Facebook and academic data from the UCSD Registrar. Once complete, the social network portion o...
Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara
This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2) = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p social support, inversely (β = -.16, p social support as a predicting factor in the model. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
de la Fuente, Jesús; Sander, Paul; Martínez-Vicente, José M; Vera, Mariano; Garzón, Angélica; Fadda, Salvattore
The Theory of Self- vs . Externally-Regulated Learning™ (SRL vs. ERL) proposed different types of relationships among levels of variables in Personal Self-Regulation (PSR) and Regulatory Teaching (RT) to predict the meta-cognitive, meta-motivational and -emotional variables of learning, and of Academic Achievement in Higher Education. The aim of this investigation was empirical in order to validate the model of the combined effect of low-medium-high levels in PSR and RT on the dependent variables. For the analysis of combinations, a selected sample of 544 undergraduate students from two Spanish universities was used. Data collection was obtained from validated instruments, in Spanish versions. Using an ex-post-facto design, different Univariate and Multivariate Analyses (3 × 1, 3 × 3, and 4 × 1) were conducted. Results provide evidence for a consistent effect of low-medium-high levels of PSR and of RT, thus giving significant partial confirmation of the proposed rational model. As predicted, (1) the levels of PSR and positively and significantly effected the levels of learning approaches, resilience, engagement, academic confidence, test anxiety, and procedural and attitudinal academic achievement; (2) the most favorable type of interaction was a high level of PSR with a high level RT process. The limitations and implications of these results in the design of effective teaching are analyzed, to improve university teaching-learning processes.
Eastwood, John Graeme; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Phung, Hai Ngoc
We have previously reported in this journal on an ecological study of perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney. In that article, we briefly reported on a factor analysis that was utilized to identify empirical indicators for analysis. In this article, we report on the mixed method approach that was used to identify those latent variables. Social epidemiology has been slow to embrace a latent variable approach to the study of social, political, economic, and cultural structures and mechanisms, partly for philosophical reasons. Critical realist ontology and epistemology have been advocated as an appropriate methodological approach to both theory building and theory testing in the health sciences. We describe here an emergent mixed method approach that uses qualitative methods to identify latent constructs followed by factor analysis using empirical indicators chosen to measure identified qualitative codes. Comparative analysis of the findings is reported together with a limited description of realist approaches to abstract reasoning.
Epkins, Catherine C; Seegan, Paige L
Depression and social anxiety symptoms and disorders are highly comorbid, and are associated with low social acceptance and academic competence. Theoretical models of both depression and social anxiety highlight the saliency of negative self-perceptions. We examined whether children's self-perceptions of social acceptance and mother-reported youth social acceptance are independently and uniquely related to children's depression and social anxiety, both before and after controlling for comorbid symptoms. Similar questions were examined regarding academic competence. The sample was 110 clinic-referred youth aged 8-16 years (65 boys, 45 girls; M age = 11.15, SD = 2.57). In the social acceptance area, both youth self-perceptions and mother-perceptions had independent and unique relations to depression and social anxiety, before and after controlling for comorbid symptoms. In the academic domain, both youth self-perceptions and mother-perceptions had independent and unique relations to depression, before and after controlling for social anxiety; yet only youth self-perceptions were related to social anxiety, before, but not after controlling for depression. For depression, larger effect sizes were observed for children's perceived, versus mother-reported, social acceptance and academic competence. Bootstrapping and Sobel tests found youth self-perceptions of social acceptance mediated the relation between mothers' perceptions and each of youth depression and social anxiety; and perceived academic competence mediated the relation between mothers' perceptions and youth depression, both before and after controlling for social anxiety. We found similarities and differences in findings for depression and social anxiety. Theoretical and treatment implications are highlighted, and future research directions are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract: Social digital networking is a facet of living that recognizes no national borders or social boundaries and has become a way of life. This paper investigates the social networking habits of students at Lingnan University and considers how these habits can be channelled for academic purposes by introducing an ePortfolio system into their language enhancement courses. The investigation analyzed the purpose and usage of these social profiles thus forming the basis of the need for academic profiles. After considering the attitudes and motivations of students, this paper reports on the adoption of an ePortfolio platform which best suits the academic needs of students by introducing it into two important language enhancement courses. The paper thus explores students’ attitudes towards two forms of digital identities: social and academic. This process has led to arriving at an ePortfolio system that is in synch with the other digitized aspects of students’ lives. Résumé : Le réseautage social numérique est l’une des facettes de la vie qui ne connaît ni les frontières nationales, ni les démarcations sociales; cette pratique est devenue un mode de vie. Le présent article examine les habitudes de réseautage social des étudiants de l’Université Lingnan et étudie la façon dont ces habitudes peuvent être canalisées à des fins universitaires par l’introduction d’un système de portfolios électroniques dans les cours de perfectionnement des langues. L’enquête a analysé quelles fonctions ces profils sociaux remplissent et quelle est l’utilisation qui en est faite, ce qui constitue la base du besoin de profils universitaires. Après avoir examiné la réponse et la motivation des étudiants, cet article présente les résultats de l’adoption d’une plateforme de portfolios électroniques qui répond bien aux besoins des étudiants universitaires à la suite de son introduction dans deux cours importants de
Masten, Carrie L.; Juvonen, Jaana; Spatzier, Agnieszka
By focusing on school-based behaviors, this study examined the validity of a lay assumption that peers match, and even surpass, parents in terms of their importance as socialization agents by early adolescence. Self-reported academic and social behaviors, peer group norms, and perceived parent values were assessed among fourth, sixth, and eighth…
Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro
Past research on the associations between area-level/contextual social capital and health has produced conflicting evidence. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in both sexes when country population density and corruption were used as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Previous findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within and across
Moschetti, Roxanne Venus; Hudley, Cynthia
Social capital, the value of a relationship that provides support and assistance in a given social situation (Stanton-Salazar, 2001), is a useful theory for understanding the experiences of low-income adolescents who are the first in their families to attend college. According to social capital theory, networks of relationships can help students…
Hassell, Martin D.; Sukalich, Mary F.
Introduction: The use of social media is prevalent among college students, and it is important to understand how social media use may impact students' attitudes and behaviour. Prior studies have shown negative outcomes of social media use, but researchers have not fully discovered or fully understand the processes and implications of these…
Quardokus, Kathleen; Henderson, Charles
Calls for improvement of undergraduate science education have resulted in numerous initiatives that seek to improve student learning outcomes by promoting changes in faculty teaching practices. Although many of these initiatives focus on individual faculty, researchers consider the academic department to be a highly productive focus for creating…
Reynolds, Pauline J.
This paper examines the portrayal of women university academics in American films from the 1940s. It applies analytical tools from a critical methodology to access the socio-cultural ideas and values attributed to the female professoriate during what is a period of great change for women in American society. This analysis reveals that the values…
Hendricks, George E.; Barkley, William M.
No published studies using statewide end-of-grade (EOG) scores have compared the academic achievement of homeless and normally housed students. This preliminary quasi-experimental study used archival records from the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction of more than 57,000 grade six students in 2006 and more than 94,000 grade six…
Grund, Axel; Brassler, Nina K.; Fries, Stefan
Research on motivational conflicts indicates that students' difficulties during studying may result from tempting alternatives in the leisure domain. In the present set of studies, we addressed the question of whether academic motivation inversely has negative spillover effects on students' leisure-related functioning, too. In the first 2 studies…
Cristina Scheibe Wolff
Full Text Available This article explains how Revista Estudos Feministas has related academic debates and feminist movement discussions in its trajectory, taking into consideration the way its publication, in which there have always been articles, dossiers and thematic sections, has been organized.
Wehrens, Maike J. P. W.; Kuyper, Hans; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.
The present study was part of a large-scale cohort study among several thousand students in the Netherlands. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of comparison choice, i.e., comparison with a target performing better or worse than oneself, and academic comparative
Syed, Syraj; Poston-Escue, Carlee
The benefits of developing learning communities or communities of practice to optimize the learning experiences of education professionals has been well documented in the recent research literature. Less consideration has been made for the development of academic scholars. This essay considers an existing paradigm within the academy, the academic…
The paper examines the higher education system in South Africa today and relates it to principles for imposing an academic boycott. It criticizes the defending of a collaboration with South African science and urges South African scientists to reconstruct an ethically legitimate "societal contract" with the majority of the South African…
The black power movement helped redefine African Americans' identity and establish a new racial consciousness in the 1960s. As an influential political force, this movement in turn spawned the academic discipline known as Black Studies. Today there are more than a hundred Black Studies degree programs in the United States, many of them located in…
Calero, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Parra, Antonio; Lopez-Rubio, Sonia; Carles, Rosario; Mata, Sara; Vives, Maria del Carmen; Navarro, Elena; Marquez, Jose
The continuing incorporation of immigrant populations into the Spanish educational system poses an important challenge in that all participants must cooperate toward creating the best possible adaptation process at the academic level as well as on the personal and social levels. A number of different factors appear to influence children's…
background characteristics, community college experiences, university experiences, and the overall adjustment and cumulative GPA of transfer students from STEM non-engineering and engineering majors. In addition, students reported how their early experiences in science and mathematics inspired them to pursue a career in STEM. Even though students chose to go into STEM areas at the community college and university level due to prior interest, the role of academic advisors and faculty were crucial to the adjustment process. Thus, it is vital for academic advisors and faculty to assist students in researching the transfer process to four-year institutions because students need to understand why this is essential to their academic and social adjustment process. The results indicate that it is important to encourage students to interact inside and outside the classroom with other students and instructors. Also, students should become more involved in academic and social groups since these are important factors in enhancing their academic and social adjustment.
Results. Patients' estimates of their own social functioning were not significantly different from examiners' estimates. The impact of clinical variables on social functioning in PD revealed depression to be the strongest association of social functioning in PD on both the patient and the examiner version of the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale. Conclusions. PD patients appear to be well aware of their social strengths and weaknesses. Depression and motor symptom severity are significant predictors of both self- and examiner reported social functioning in patients with PD. Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with PD may improve social functioning and overall quality of life.
Waters, Johanna L.
This paper examines the role of specific and place-based social capital in the recognition and evaluation of international credentials. Whilst research on labour market segmentation has contributed towards an understanding of the spatial variability of the value of human capital, very little attention has been paid to the ways in which the…
Full Text Available This paper describes a new social networking site, Cloudworks, which has been developed to enable discussion and sharing of learning and teaching ideas/designs and to promote reflective academic practice. The site aims to foster new forms of social and participatory practices (peer critiquing, sharing, user-generated content, aggregation, and personalisation within an educational context. One of the key challenges in the development of the site has been to understand the user interactions and the changing patterns of user behaviour as it evolves. The paper explores the extent to which four frameworks that have been used in researching networked learning contexts can provide insights into the patterns of user behaviour that we see in Cloudworks. The paper considers this within the current debate about the new types of interactions, networking, and community being observed as users adapt to and appropriate new technologies.
Micah L. Ingalls
Full Text Available Increased attention has been paid to how the spatial dimensions of social-ecological systems are formative in shaping their ability to negotiate change and remain resilient. This paper moves this research further by exploring how diverse forms of power play a crucial role in shaping these spatial dimensions and the production of social-ecological outcomes. Grounding these explorations in a National Protected Area in Lao PDR, this paper explores how power relationships operate through the spatial and temporal domains of complex systems. Findings suggest (at least four important insights: (1 the exercise of power materializes in policies and programs and becomes written onto the spaces of social-ecological systems through boundary creation, zonation, and other social processes that (redefine spatial meanings; these meanings vary by social actor; (2 policies and programs map out unevenly across space and time as they interact with antecedent social-ecological conditions in ways that preclude linear causal relationships between policy and outcomes; (3 although local in their expression, spatialized disputes in social-ecological systems draw on cross-scalar discourses and networks of power to bolster, undermine, and (delegitimize competing environmental and social narratives; and (4 however powerful institutions and actor-networks may be, they are never fully hegemonic as they are attenuated by other discourses and operations of power, although these all play out across a highly uneven sociopolitical terrain. Paying greater attention to the spatial and temporal dynamics of power may be much more than a project of introducing yet another variable into the already complex admixture of analytic elements. Rather, by rendering these explicit as objects of analysis, common insights may change entirely or even be overturned.
Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted in order to determine the level of contribution of capoeira to the social integration of athletes according to some demographic variables. Materials and Methods: Among the survey model a sample of the research using the general survey model was composed of 135 athletes, 86 of which were male and 49 of which were female. In order to collect the necessary data in the research, the ‘Social İntegration Scale’ was used in the sport which was prepared by Yılmaz, Karlı and Yetim, (2006 and consisted of seven sub-dimensions. Kolmogorov Smirnov test was used for the normal distribution of data in the analysis of data in the study. It was observed that the data did not follow a normal distribution in response to the outcome and Mann-Whitney U Test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used in our study. Bonferroni correction from multiple comparison tests was used in the binary comparison of groups with significant differences as a result of Kruskal-Wallis H test analysis. Results: The results of the study show that the athletes in the sample have positive scores in all the subscales of social skills perceptions with their participation in capoeira sport. There was no statistically significant effect of capoeira on socializing between male and female athletes. At ages 27 and over, it was detected that the socializing effect of athletes was higher than that of other age groups. Conclusion: According to the findings, athletes who participated in the capoeira sports branch which has many parts of the music, rhythm and sports movements had high scores of social skills perceptions in all sub-dimensions. It can be said that the level of socialization of individuals who have Capoeira is high. In this case, it shows that sports activities affect the level of social integration of the individuals.
Full Text Available As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution's culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor’s study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening Variable ... This study was designed to seek explanations for differences in academic performance among junior ...
Borden, Paula D.
This dissertation study concerned the lack of underrepresented minority students matriculating through the health professions pipeline. The term pipeline is "the educational avenue by which one must travel to successfully enter a profession" (Sullivan Alliance, 2004). There are a significant number of health professional pipeline programs based across the United States and, for the purposes of this study, a focus was placed on the Science Enrichment Preparation (S.E.P.) Program which is based at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The S.E.P. Program, is an eight-week residential summer experience, designed to support underrepresented minority pre-health students develop the competitive edge for successful admission into health professional school programs. The bedrock of this dissertation study concerned itself with the relationships between cognitive variables and non-cognitive variables and academic performance of students in the S.E.P. Program from 2005-2013. The study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding for the NC Health Careers Access Program's (NC-HCAP) leadership with regard to variables associated with the students' academic performance in the S.E.P. Program. The data outcomes were informative for NC-HCAP in identifying cognitive and non-cognitive variables associated with student academic performance. Additionally, these findings provided direction as to what infrastructures may be put into place to more effectively support the S.E.P. participants. It is the researcher's hope this study may serve as an educational model and resource to pipeline programs and others with similar educational missions. The consequences and implications of a non-diverse healthcare workforce are high and far reaching. Without parity representation in the healthcare workforce, health disparities between racial and economic groups will likely continue to grow.
M.Tech. (Information Technology) Since the introduction of Web 2.0, there has been an increase in the number of applications that promote the use of user-generated content, support social and collaborative interaction on the Web, and provide engaging user interactions. This together with the continuous increase in internet speed gave rise to the formation of interactive online communication channels, such as Social Media (SM). SM moved from just being a purely social platform to being an i...
Godwin P. Dzvapatsva; Zoran Mitrovic; Anthony D. Dietrich
Background: The National Certificate Vocational (NC[V]) curriculum offered by Further Education and Training (FET) colleges was introduced in 2007 to address the skills shortage in South Africa. Information Technology (IT) lecturers encountered a number of challenges in delivering lessons throughout the course, which affected the academic performance of learners. The biggest challenges identified were the lack of adequate contact hours for the course and inconsistency in the way in which fina...
Xiao, Yan-Hong; Wang, Lei; Hoyt, Joseph R; Jiang, Ting-Lei; Lin, Ai-Qing; Feng, Jiang
Echolocating bats have developed advanced auditory perception systems, predominantly using acoustic signaling to communicate with each other. They can emit a diverse range of social calls in complex behavioral contexts. This study examined the vocal repertoire of five pregnant big-footed myotis bats (Myotis macrodactylus). In the process of clustering, the last individual to return to the colony (LI) emitted social calls that correlated with behavior, as recorded on a PC-based digital recorder. These last individuals could emit 10 simple monosyllabic and 27 complex multisyllabic types of calls, constituting four types of syllables. The social calls were composed of highly stereotyped syllables, hierarchically organized by a common set of syllables. However, intra-specific variation was also found in the number of syllables, syllable order and patterns of syllable repetition across call renditions. Data were obtained to characterize the significant individual differences that existed in the maximum frequency and duration of calls. Time taken to return to the roost was negatively associated with the diversity of social calls. Our findings indicate that variability in social calls may be an effective strategy taken by individuals during reintegration into clusters of female M. macrodactylus.
The ten richest and ten poorest municipalities of Sweden were investigated with respect to national statistics to assess the relationship between suicide incidence, discrete social psychological variables associated with welfare admittance among the elderly, and income of municipality. The relative frequency of suicide was 1.6 times greater for Swedes from the low-income municipalities than for those from the high-income ones. The group of municipalities with the highest suicide rate had a significantly higher proportion of older people in need of municipal social assistance at their homes and also a significantly higher proportion of elderly living in municipality-managed 'service-homes.' The findings replicate earlier investigations and suggest social psychological indicators denoting less favourable economic and social resources are also associated with both an increased suicide rate and a decreased county or municipal income. Some theoretical issues of the socioeconomic and of the external restraint hypotheses of the incidence of suicide, contradicted by the present findings as well as of Durkheim's hypothesis of social control are discussed. Further, we suggest the consideration of negative socioeconomic conditions as a risk factor amid psychiatric clinical assessments of risk for suicidal behaviour.
van Kessel, F.G.A.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.; van Stroe-Biezen, S.A.M.
This paper examines the relationship between perceptions of organizational culture, academics’ social embeddedness, and their creative paper project output. It argues that the extent to which researchers working on paper projects are socially embedded by having social ties with colleagues inside and outside their academic department (but within the same university) is a causal step linking organizational values and norms to creative outputs. This study, however, does not find support for the ...
Della Sala, Matthew Robert
School finance scholars have called for the alignment of accountability policies with state finance formulae to allocate resources toward student learning goals (Adams, 2008; Ryan, 2008; Superfine, 2009; Verstegen, 2002). With the presence of accountability policies that focus on improving students' academic achievement, state finance systems must…
Barbosa, José Isnaldo de Lima; Curi, Edda; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon
The theory of social representations, appeared in 1961, arrived in Brazil in 1982, and since then has advanced significantly, been used in various areas of knowledge, assumed a significant role also in education. Thus, the aim of this article is to make a mapping of theses and dissertations in post-graduation programs, whose basic area is the Teaching of Science and Mathematics, and used as the theoretical foundation the theory of social representations, highlighted the social groups that are subject of this research. This is a documentary research, and lifting to the "state of knowledge" of two theses and 36 dissertations, defended in ten of the 37 existing programs in the basic area of Science and Mathematics Teaching, with the delimitation of academic masters and doctorates. The data collection was executed on December 2014 and was placed in the virtual libraries of these masters and doctoral programs, these elements were analysed according to some categories established after reading the summaries of the work, and the results showed that the theory of social representations has been used as a theoretical framework in various research groups, established in postgraduate programs in this area, for almost the entire Brazil. As for the subjects involved in this research, three groups were detected, which are: Middle school and high school students, teachers who are in full swing, spread from the early years to higher education, and undergraduates in Science and Mathematics.
Blake, Jamilia J.; Lease, A. Michele; Turner, Terez L.; Outley, Corliss
The authors examined whether the adjustment patterns of socially and overtly aggressive preadolescent girls, ages 9 to 11 years, from rural communities differed by ethnicity. Students were administered a series of questionnaires to assess the degree to which girls engaged in various forms of aggression and to assess aggressive girls' social,…
Hernandez, Lucie; Oubrayrie-Roussel, Nathalie; Prêteur, Yves
Perceived social support has been widely recognized as having beneficial effects on a person's development, and adolescence is no exception. The objective of this article is to go beyond this "stereotypical" vision of friendship by showing that social support does not always have a positive and direct effect on adolescents' academic…
Regner, Isabelle; Escribe, Christian; Dupeyrat, Caroline
Proponents of achievement goal theory typically posit social comparison to be associated with performance goals but not with mastery goals (C. Ames, 1992). Contrary to this postulate, there is some evidence that individuals who are experimentally induced to adopt mastery goals may also use social comparison (e.g., R. Butler, 1992). However, such…
Saatcioglu, Argun; Moore, Suzanne; Sargut, Gokce; Bajaj, Aarti
Social capital refers to the nature of ties within a social unit, as well as the unit's external relationships. We draw from organizational sociology and political science, and also build upon existing insights in school board research, to offer an approach that address the effects of "bonding" (internal ties) and "bridging"…
Wehrens, M.J.P.W.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Lubbers, M.J.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.
The goal of the present study was to study the relationship between affective responses to social comparison and test scores among high school students Our analyses showed that three types of responses to social comparison could be distinguished: an empathic, constructive, and destructive response.
García-Rubio, María J; Espín, Laura; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia; Gómez-Amor, Jesús
The study of autonomic nervous system changes associated with generalized social phobia (GSP) disorder has increased in recent years, showing contradictory results. The present study aimed to evaluate how young people with GSP reacted before, during, and after exposure to the Trier Stress Social Test (TSST), focusing on their autonomic changes (heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)) compared to a control group (non-GSP). Some psychological variables were also considered. Sex was specifically studied as a possible modulator of autonomic fluctuations and psychological state. Eighty young people were randomly distributed into two counterbalanced situations: stress condition (N = 18 and 21 for GSP and non-GSP, respectively) and control condition (N = 21 and 20 for GSP and non-GSP, respectively), where cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded. Psychological questionnaires about mood and perceived stress were filled out, and five saliva samples were collected to analyze sAA. GSP participants showed higher values on low- and high-frequency ratios (HR domains), compared to non-GSP people, during exposure to the TSST, but no differences were observed after the stressor. Furthermore, the two groups did not differ in sAA. Importantly, positive affect in GSP participants was modulated by sex. The present study suggests that the balance between high- and low-frequency domains of HRV is a key cardiovascular marker reflecting the stress response of GSP people, as well the importance of sex in positive affect when facing a stressful situation.
Keith, L; Hollar, D
This study assessed the impact of a pre-medical pipeline program on successful completion of medical school and the capacity of this program to address achievement gaps experienced by disadvantaged students. The University of North Carolina (USA) Medical Education Development (MED) program provides intensive academic and test skills preparation for admission to medical, dental, and other allied health professions schools. This retrospective study evaluated the academic progress of a longitudinal sample of 1738 disadvantaged college students who completed MED between 1974 and 2001. Data sources included MED participant data, medical school admissions data for the host school, aggregate data from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), and individual MED participant data from AAMC. Methods of analysis utilized Chi-square, independent samples t test, and logistic regression to examine associations between factors. Of the 935 students in MED from 1974 to 2001, who had indicated an interest in medical school, 887 (94.9%) successfully matriculated and 801 (85.7%) successfully earned the MD degree. Using logistic regression, factors that were significantly correlated with earning the medical degree included the student's race, college undergraduate total and science grade point averages, with Hispanic, African American, and Native American participants earning the medical degree at rates comparable to Caucasian participants. MED students successfully earned the MD degree despite having significantly lower Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) scores and undergraduate grade point averages compared to all United States medical school applicants: MCAT scores had little relationship with student's success. These findings suggest that an intensive, nine-week, pre-medical academic enrichment program that incorporates confidence-building and small-group tutoring and peer support activities can build a foundation on which disadvantaged students can successfully earn
Gigliotti, Larry M.; Chase, Loren
Market segmentation is useful to understanding and classifying the diverse range of outdoor recreation experiences sought by different recreationists. Although many different segmentation methodologies exist, many are complex and difficult to measure accurately during in-person intercepts, such as that of creel surveys. To address that gap in the literature, we propose a single-item measure of the importance of fishing as a surrogate to often overly- or needlesslycomplex segmentation techniques. The importance of fishing item is a measure of the value anglers place on the activity or a coarse quantification of how central the activity is to the respondent’s lifestyle (scale: 0 = not important, 1 = slightly, 2 = moderately, 3 = very, and 4 = fishing is my most important recreational activity). We suggest the importance scale may be a proxy measurement for segmenting anglers using the social worlds model as a theoretical framework. Vaske (1980) suggested that commitment to recreational activities may be best understood in relation to social group participation and the social worlds model provides a rich theoretical framework for understanding social group segments. Unruh (1983) identified four types of actor involvement in social worlds: strangers, tourists, regulars, and insiders, differentiated by four characteristics (orientation, experiences, relationships, and commitment). We evaluated the importance of fishing as a segmentation variable using data collected by a mixed-mode survey of South Dakota anglers fishing in 2010. We contend that this straightforward measurement may be useful for segmenting outdoor recreation activities when more complicated segmentation schemes are not suitable. Further, this index, when coupled with the social worlds model, provides a valuable framework for understanding the segments and making management decisions.
Sesterhenn, Shannon Marie
The landscape of higher education is constantly evolving. Similar to a wave that washes ashore and transforms the shoreline, the same is occurring with higher education and its "shoreline". With the influx of technology and social media on college and university campuses, higher education institutions have had to grapple with whether or…
Full Text Available In the last decades the corporate social responsibility (CSR has been a major subject both for universities, civil society and businesses. Although the CSR concept is especially promoted by large multinational and transnational corporations, it has become also a prominent issue for universities. Social responsibility represents more than a challenge for universities. It has to be a purpose of the universities, taking into account that young people formation also means creating a high level of awareness about the need to involve members of society in solving social problems. Our paper contributes for better clarifying the CSR concept and presents as a study case some of initiatives of the University of Bucharest related to the social responsibility.
Aglair Alencar Setubal
Full Text Available The reflections contained in this essay seek to the call attention of professionals, professors and students of Social Work to the importance of research in the various contexts of activity in this field, despite the challenges and difficulties presented in its realization. It offers possibilities for conducting research from a critical professional intervention, in keeping with the concrete reality - the context of professional practice. It also highlights the importance for the preparation of a history of Social Work based on theoretical-methodological postures that consider the wealth, complexity and essence of reality, breaking with the 'pseudoconcreticity', with the utilitarian, manipulative praxis that is constructed in the dimension of a 'common consciousness'. Despite the importance attributed to research, it sought to avoid separating it from human-social reality, given that it is in this context that research acquires meaning, becomes accepted and considers the needs of Social Work as a historic profession.
Ahmed Tawfeeq Alahmar
Full Text Available Social media applications and their use among students have witnessed dramatic increase in the last decade and data on their effect on students academic performance are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social media on the academic performance and grades of second year medical students at the College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Iraq. Second year medical students (n=57 completed online questionnaire about the type of social media they use frequently, time spent on these media in hours per day, the reasons for use of these media and the effect of social media on their grades. Students were also asked to provide the cumulative grades of physiology and anatomy courses. Time spent by students on social media and facebook messenger was correlated with combined grades of physiology and anatomy courses. All students have been using facebook and 96.5% have been using facebook messenger. Other popular applications were telegram, instagram and ask.fm. Average time spent on social media was 5.07+/- 2.93 and on facebook messenger was 1.80 +/-1.45 hours per day. Forty-two percent of students reported that social media have positive effect on their academic performance. No correlation has been found between time spent on social media or facebook messenger and students combined grades of physiology and anatomy. To conclude, social media and in particular facebook and facebook messenger are very popular among second year medical students. Time spent on social media seems to have no influence on second year medical students grades and academic performance. [J Med Allied Sci 2016; 6(2.000: 77-83
Langenkamp, Amy G.
The transition to high school is a critical stage in students' academic trajectories and can be especially difficult for middle school students who struggle academically. Starting high school on a low academic track and with low academic performance often leads to dropping out of high school. This study investigates what might protect academically…
Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and socio-economic status. Distance trainees outperformed the on-campus trainees on their preference for left-hemispheric styles of learning and thinking, budgeting time, learning motivation, overall study habits, academic motivation, attitude towards education, work methods, interpersonal relations, and on their perception about relevance of course content of theory papers in B.Ed., but on-campus trainees outperformed distance trainees on preference for right-hemispheric learning styles, need for achievement, motivation for sports, attitude towards teaching profession, child-centered practices, teachers, overall attitude towards teaching along with their perception for development of teaching skills and attitude, personality development during B.Ed. course. In academic performance distance trainees lag behind the on-campus trainee in their marks in theory papers, skills in teaching and in aggregate.
Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob
Purpose – The literature on business expatriates has been increasing rapidly, but research on expatriate academics has remained scant, despite the apparent increasing globalisation of the academic world. Therefore, more research is needed on the latter group of expatriates. This paper aims to fill...... some of the gaps. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was directed electronically towards expatriate academics occupying regular positions in science faculty departments in universities in northern Europe. Findings – Results showed that job clarity was the dominating job factor with strong...... relationships with all of the five investigated work outcome variables, work adjustment, work performance, work effectiveness, job satisfaction, and time to proficiency. Job conflict and job freedom had an association with some of the work outcome variables but not with all of them. Neither workload nor job...
Brock, Laura L; Nishida, Tracy K; Chiong, Cynthia; Grimm, Kevin J; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E
This study examines the contribution of the Responsive Classroom (RC) Approach, a set of teaching practices that integrate social and academic learning, to children's perceptions of their classroom, and children's academic and social performance over time. Three questions emerge: (a) What is the concurrent and cumulative relation between children's perceptions of the classroom and social and academic outcomes over time? (b) What is the contribution of teacher's use of RC practices to children's perceptions and social and academic outcomes? (c) Do children's perceptions of the classroom mediate the relation between RC teacher practices and child outcomes? Cross-lagged autoregressive structural equation models were used to analyze teacher and child-report questionnaire data, along with standardized test scores collected over 3 years from a sample of 520 children in grades 3-5. Results indicate a significant positive relation between RC teacher practices and child perceptions and outcomes over time. Further, children's perceptions partially mediated the relation between RC teacher practices and social competence. However, the models did not demonstrate that child perceptions mediated the relation between RC practices and achievement outcomes. Results are explained in terms of the contribution of teacher practices to children's perceptions and student performance.
Eadeh, Hana-May; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Langberg, Joshua M; Eddy, Laura D; Oddo, Lauren; Molitor, Stephen J; Evans, Steven W
Older adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a significantly increased likelihood of developing comorbid depression. It is important to evaluate factors during the early adolescent period that may contribute to this risk. A predominant theory is that impairment and failure experiences lead to the development of low-self efficacy and depression, and that parent and family factors also play a role. In a sample of 326 young adolescents with ADHD ( Mage = 12), the present study evaluated whether parent-adolescent conflict mediated the association between social and academic impairment and the development of depression. This study builds upon prior work by evaluating these associations longitudinally and by using a multi-rater approach, including the parent, adolescent, and teacher perspectives. Social and academic impairment directly predicted depression controlling for baseline levels of depression and change in ADHD symptoms. The association between social impairment and depression was partially mediated by parent-adolescent conflict. Mediation through conflict was not found for academic impairment, and the association between academic impairment and depression was no longer significant when accounting for conflict. These findings highlight the importance of social impairment in the development of depression in adolescents with ADHD. Caregivers may play an important role in determining whether adolescents with ADHD internalize social impairment and failure experiences and develop depressive symptoms. Implications of these findings in terms of the importance of interventions focused on parent-adolescent conflict are discussed.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the use of mobile based virtual social networks with academic achievement and trust in interpersonal relations of university students Of Medical Sciences was conducted. Materials and Methods: This study was descriptive correlational. The study population included college of Public Health students and students of medicine at Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Based on purposive sampling method, 150 students were selected. For data collection Scale of trust in interpersonal relations of Rempel & Holmes was used. The researchers made use of social networks and academic achievement. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Result: There was a significant negative relationship between the time allotted to the network and the number of virtual memberships in social groups and academic achievement of students(P <0.01. Academic achievement of students who used virtual social networks for scientific purposes was higher than those who used it for non-scientific purposes. There was a significant negative correlation between the time allocated to social networks and factors such as capability of trust, predictability and loyalty (P <0.05. Conclusion: It is recommended that workshops and training courses be held for practical learning of virtual networks.
Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER, is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2006, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ (Elluminate Support for details on how to download this FREE software. * An Investigation into the Use of an Orientation Course to Address Academic and Social Integration Heather Kanuka and Kam Jugdev Athabasca University
Lischke, Alexander; Jacksteit, Robert; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Pahnke, Rike; Hamm, Alfons O; Weippert, Matthias
Psychosocial stress is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in biomarkers that indicate whether individuals show adaptive (i.e., stress-buffering and health-promoting) or maladaptive (i.e., stress-escalating and health-impairing) stress reactions in social contexts. As heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested to be a biomarker of adaptive behavior during social encounters, it may be possible that inter-individual differences in HRV are associated with inter-individual differences regarding stress in distinct social domains. To test this hypothesis, resting state HRV and psychosocial stress was assessed in 83 healthy community-dwelling individuals (age: 18-35years). HRV was derived from heart rate recordings during spontaneous and instructed breathing to assess the robustness of possible associations between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress. Psychosocial stress was determined with a self-report questionnaire assessing stress in distinct social domains. A series of categorical and dimensional analyses revealed an association between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress: Individuals with high HRV reported less stress in social life, but not in family life, work life or everyday life, than individuals with low HRV. On basis of these findings, it may be assumed that individuals with high HRV experience less psychosocial stress than individuals with low HRV. Although such an assumption needs to be corroborated by further findings, it seems to be consistent with previous findings showing that individuals with high HRV suffer less from stress and stress-related disorders than individuals with low HRV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article aimed to examine the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure to the financial performance proxy on Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and company value proxy on Price to Book Value (PBV empirically as well as knowing the existence of the audit quality as moderating variable whether it will affect the relationship between CSR disclosure on ROA, ROE, and PBV. The object of this study was mining companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2010-2012. The sample was selected using a purposive sampling method and obtained samples as many as 26 companies with a total data of 78 data. Hypothesis testing methods used were simple regression analysis and moderated regression analysis. The results of this study showed that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure had an effect on ROA, but had no effect on ROE and PBV, and audit quality as a moderating variable could not affect the relationship of CSR disc losure on ROA, ROE, and PBV.
Bierman, Karen L; Domitrovich, Celene E; Nix, Robert L; Gest, Scott D; Welsh, Janet A; Greenberg, Mark T; Blair, Clancy; Nelson, Keith E; Gill, Sukhdeep
Forty-four Head Start classrooms were randomly assigned to enriched intervention (Head Start REDI-Research-based, Developmentally Informed) or "usual practice" conditions. The intervention involved brief lessons, "hands-on" extension activities, and specific teaching strategies linked empirically with the promotion of: (a) social-emotional competencies and (b) language development and emergent literacy skills. Take-home materials were provided to parents to enhance skill development at home. Multimethod assessments of three hundred and fifty-six 4-year-old children tracked their progress over the course of the 1-year program. Results revealed significant differences favoring children in the enriched intervention classrooms on measures of vocabulary, emergent literacy, emotional understanding, social problem solving, social behavior, and learning engagement. Implications are discussed for developmental models of school readiness and for early educational programs and policies.
Full Text Available My starting point for this article is the increasing pace of academic life. As the other articles in this special section evidence, the Slow movement, which seeks to challenge our contemporary obsession with speed, is being taken up by many in order to intervene into "fast academia". However, in this article, I suggest we should pause and question what kind of a solution this offers to the current crisis of speed. Working auto/biographically and using examples drawn from popular culture, I argue that Slow is both classed and gendered, re/producing wider patterns of inclusion and exclusion. Specifically, I suggest that Slow naturalises a particular relationship to self which requires not just stability of employment but an individualist way of being, constituting selves that calculate and invest in them-selves for the future. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs140374
Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L
The influence of ecology on social behavior and mating strategies is one of the central questions in behavioral ecology and primatology. Callitrichines are New World primates that exhibit high behavioral variability, which is widely acknowledged, but not always systematically researched. Here, I examine the hypothesis that differences in the cost of infant care among genera help explain variation in reproductive traits. I present an integrative approach to generate and evaluate predictions from this hypothesis. I first identify callitrichine traits that vary minimally and traits that are more flexible (e.g., have greater variance or norm of reaction), including the number of males that mate with a breeding female, mechanisms of male reproductive competition, number of natal young retained, and the extent of female reproductive suppression. I outline how these more labile traits should vary along a continuum of infant care costs according to individual reproductive strategies. At one end of the spectrum, I predict that groups with higher infant care costs will show multiple adult males mating and providing infant care, high subordinate female reproductive suppression, few natal individuals delaying dispersal, and increased reproductive output by the dominant female -with opposite predictions under low infant costs. I derive an estimate of the differences in ecological and physiological infant care costs that suggest an order of ascending costs in the wild: Cebuella, Callithrix, Mico, Callimico, Saguinus, and Leontopithecus. I examine the literature on each genus for the most variable traits and evaluate a) where they fall along the continuum of infant care costs according to their reproductive strategies, and b) whether these costs correspond to the ecophysiological estimates of infant care costs. I conclude that infant care costs can provide a unifying explanation for the most variable reproductive traits among callitrichine genera. The approach presented can be
Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.
The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…
Wright, Fiona; White, David; Hirst, Tony; Cann, Alan
The Visitors and Residents model of internet use suggests a continuum of modes of engagement with the online world, ranging from tool use to social spaces. In this paper, we examine evidence derived from a large cohort of students to assess whether this idea can be validated by experimental evidence. We find statistically significant differences…
Christensen, Line Lisberg; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin
uncovered 11 texts of relevance to the topic, along with five pre-determined texts. In order to create a legible overview of the literature, a qualitative content analysis was conducted, coded with 21 themes, and merged into three categories: (1) Bibliometrics, social media analytics and alternative metrics...
Mehta, Sandhya Rao
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is swiftly emerging as an integral part of corporate culture and discourse. Associated with notions of responsibility, accountability and community involvement, it remains privileged with concerns that increasingly define the new millennium. Less developed, however, is the relevance of CSR ideas to academic…
Thurairaj, Saraswathy; Hoon, Er Pek; Roy, Swagata Sinha; Fong, Pok Wei
Social networking sites (SNSs) have become a major form of communication in today's day and age whereby language use has been impacted in various areas especially in that of learning and teaching. Young users use literally half their week engaging in SNSs communication, thereby giving rise to a brand of internet slang which is entirely their own.…
Gavrin, Andy; Lindell, Rebecca
There are many reasons for an instructor to consider using social media, particularly in a large introductory course. Improved communications can lessen the sense of isolation some students feel in large classes, and students may be more likely to respond to faculty announcements in a form that is familiar and comfortable. Furthermore, many…
Hammarfelt, B.M.S.; Rijcke, de S.; Rushforth, A.D.
Introduction. Our study critically engages with techniques of self-quantification in contemporary academia, by demonstrating how social networking services enact research and scholarly communication as a 'game'. Method. The empirical part of the study involves an analysis of two leading platforms:
Mooney, Paul; Lastrapes, Renée E.
The amount of research evaluating the technical merits of general outcome measures of science and social studies achievement is growing. This study targeted criterion validity for critical content monitoring. Questions addressed the concurrent criterion validity of alternate presentation formats of critical content monitoring and the measure's…
Hammarfelt, Björn; de Rijcke, Sarah; Rushforth, Alexander D.
Introduction: Our study critically engages with techniques of self-quantification in contemporary academia, by demonstrating how social networking services enact research and scholarly communication as a "game". Method: The empirical part of the study involves an analysis of two leading platforms: Impactstory and ResearchGate. Observed…
Diêgo Ferreira de Oliveira
Full Text Available The present research had as an objective the comparison of Social Skills (SS on psychology course undergraduates' and professionals working in the area with at least one year of work performance. Three groups participated in this study: 63 students at the beginning of the course (1st, 2nd and 3rd semesters; 54 students at the end of the course (8th, 9th and 10th semesters; and 25 psychologists. For the data collect it was used a Social Skills Inventory (SSI that was applied at the university places of work or availability, or via e-mail, with the professionals. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the overall score of Social Skills, neither between the students at the beginning and the end of the course (p=0.319 nor between students at the end of the course and the psychologists (p= 0,70. There was a significant difference in the comparison of students at the beginning of the course and psychologists (p= 0.009. From the manual, it was possible to verify that the majority, of students and professionals, presented a good repertory of SS in its different factors. It was considered still relevant, the development of activities that could enable a major learning of these SS still during graduation, evaluating that they are fundamental to the psychologists' performance. Keywords: Social skills. Psychology. Psychology students. Psychologists.
Nam, Kyoung-Ah; Fry, Gerald W.
Since its inception at Harvard in 2004, the social network, Facebook, has grown dramatically and spread across the globe. It will soon have 1 billion users and is now operative in over 75 languages. A large percentage of undergraduates are now active on Facebook. Much of the recent literature on Facebook focuses on business applications and how it…
Oravec, Jo Ann
Bullying and mobbing are migrating to online realms, intensifying the damage involved and increasing the complexities of these issues. Social media (such as Facebook and Twitter) are intensely communal in many senses; they may serve to increase the negative aspects of bullying and mobbing as well as provide community-oriented tools for mitigation.…
Tella, Adeyinka; Olarongbe, Shuaib Agboola; Akanbi-Ademolake, Hauwa Bolanle; Adisa, Mulikat Y.
The attractiveness of social networking sites (SNSs) has extended to almost all professionals in numerous human organizations including the library. Librarians as a result of this development are now making use of these sites to connect to other libraries and librarians both within and outside their environment. However, it is observed that the…
Youse, Keith Edward
The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…
Lim, Jane See Yin; Harper, Barry; Chicharo, Joe F.
Higher education institutions are currently examining how the current emerging technologies and social media applications can be integrated with the appropriate teaching pedagogies adopted by higher education institutions to provide students with learning experiences that take advantage of these new affordances. Due to the continuous and pervasive…
Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is one of the most common musculoskeletal problem and a metabolic bone disorder that normally is without sign and is shown with fragile bone in the absence of prevention and treatment. This study was aimed to determine social variables affected the health belief model in adopting preventive behaviors of osteoporosis. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 278 women referring to 6 health Centers of Yazd city with random sampling. Data collection was using a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software including Kruskall Wallis, Dunn Tests, Mann Whitney, Spearman correlation coefficient and regression. Results: Among the osteoporosis preventive behaviors, the most frequency was related to non smoking actions or exposure to cigarette and the lowest frequency was related to regular physical activity during every weeks. According to spearman's correlation coefficient, it was occurred a direct significant correlation between knowledge, perceived benefits, practical guide, self efficacy and preventive behaviors of women. In addition, a reverse significant correlation was occurred between perceived barrier and women's behavior (P<0.001. Overall, variables of the model predicted 0.36 of preventive behavior's variables and finally self-efficacy was the strongest prediction of behavior (P=0.000. Conclusion: according to the results, the presentation of suitable educational program with emphasize on promotion of knowledge and upgrade of HBM's level in addition increasing barriers in the context of diseases such as osteoporosis by staff of health centers is suggested.
Lint, Anna H.
This quantitative study evaluated and investigated the theoretical underpinnings of the Kember's (1995) student progress model that examines the direct or indirect effects of student persistence in online education by identifying the relationships between variables. The primary method of data collection in this study was a survey by exploring the…
Ángel A Villafañe-Santiago
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the needs of a sample of the international and exchange students staying at the North Tower Residence of the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus. Social and demographic data, as well as the academic, vocational, and social/personal needs were explored with the purpose of gathering relevant information and submitting recommendations to universities serving this student population. Findings revealed particular needs in the academic, vocational areas, including English or Spanish learning, information on internships and study programs in Puerto Rico or abroad, salary and employment opportunities, financial aid and services available to the students of this University. Recommendations are provided to work with the identified needs. According to the literature, difficulties faced by these students may affect their academic performance and emotional health.
This paper outlines the redesign of an MSc module to enhance students' engagement and learning through embedding social media technologies into the academic curriculum as a learning and assessment strategy, and in a complementary manner that facilitated and enhanced the achievement of the module's learning outcomes. This paper describes the…
Wilkinson, Heather; Gallagher, Michael; Smith, Mark
This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project involving academics and practitioners in six local authority social work departments. It contributes to recent debates about the coproduction of knowledge, presenting findings in three key areas: the importance of relationships for knowledge exchange; "what works" for practitioners…
Ross, Sabrina N.
This essay discusses an academic capitalist knowledge regime (i.e. the increasing engagement of public institutions of higher education in market-based ventures) and the alterations to teacher and student behavior and the learning environment that result. Social justice-oriented university courses are positioned as sites where democratization and…
This study examined the relationship between Acculturation Strategy and Social Supports on Acculturative Stress and Academic Performance Among Hispanic/Latino/a College students. The sample of approximately 522 students was recruited at the City College of The City University of New York. Various statistical methods, including one way ANOVAS,…
Jones, Stephanie M.; Kahn, Jennifer
"The Evidence Base for How We Learn: Supporting Students' Social, Emotional, and Academic Development" articulates the scientific consensus regarding how people learn. The research brief presents a set of consensus statements--developed and unanimously signed onto by the Commission's Council of Distinguished Scientists--that affirm the…
This study examines the female postsecondary advantage in matriculation among Hispanic and white youth with the goal of exploring whether social capital, in addition to academic performance and orientation, function similarly to help explain females' higher likelihood of college attendance for each group. Utilizing data from the Texas Higher…
Eissa, Mourad Ali
This study investigated the effect of using advance graphic organizers on academic achievement, self efficacy, and motivation to learn social studies in learning disabled second year prep students. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30, 23 boys,…
Alsubyani, Noor Abdulhadi
The purpose of this study is to investigate the academic, administrative, economic, social, and psychological problems faced by students of Textile and fabric major at King Abdul-Aziz University. To achieve this purpose, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of students in the Textile and fabric major, after the use of…
Researchers suggest that psycho-social mentoring may represent a way for instructors to provide emotional support and personal insight to students. Given the nationwide rise in academic stress among university students, the present study examines the kinds of negative emotions associated with failing an exam and how such emotions are linked to…
McCormick, Adam; Schmidt, Kathryn; Clifton, Emily
Few studies have examined the effectiveness of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on the social and academic experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youths. The limited research on GSAs suggests that they are associated with positive youth development and increased safety; however, little qualitative information…
Hassani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Seyyed Jamal Mir
This study was carried out in order to explore the status of stratification within higher education through measuring cultural, economic and social capital of students in major academic disciplines across universities in Urmia, Northwestern Iran. The findings indicate that there are stratification structures in the presence of students in…
Yogan, Lissa; Freedle, Agata; Ringenberg, Matthew
This study explored the effects of parents' and students' communication patterns on students' social, emotional, and academic adjustment to college. It matched 118 pairs of parents and students (n = 236) and asked them to report their frequency and mode of communication, as well as the first-year students' perceived adjustment to college. The…
Owusu-Acheaw, M.; Larson, Agatha Gifty
The study sought to assess students' use of social media and its effect on academic performance of tertiary institutions students in Ghana with a focus on Koforidua Polytechnic students. Questionnaire was used for collecting data. Out of one thousand five hundred and seventy-eight copies of the questionnaire distributed, one thousand five hundred…
Alqahtani, Ragea Mohammed
A mixed methods research design was chosen for this study in order to examine the effectiveness of the Peer Buddy Program across one year on the social and academic skill acquisition of high school students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or emotional/behavioral disabilities (EBD). Specifically, this research focused on identifying the…
Gautam N Yadama
Full Text Available We examine if social and economic factors, fuelwood availability, market and media access are associated with owning a modified stove and variation in household emissions from biomass combustion, a significant environmental and health concern in rural India. We analyze cross-sectional household socio-economic data, and PM(2.5 and particulate surface area concentration in household emissions from cookstoves (n=100. This data set combines household social and economic variables with particle emissions indexes associated with the household stove. The data are from the Foundation for Ecological Society, India, from a field study of household emissions. In our analysis, we find that less access to ready and free fuelwood and higher wealth are associated with owning a replacement/modified stove. We also find that additional kitchen ventilation is associated with a 12% reduction in particulate emissions concentration (p<0.05, after we account for the type of stove used. We did not find a significant association between replacement/modified stove on household emissions when controlling for additional ventilation. Higher wealth and education are associated with having additional ventilation. Social caste, market and media access did not have any effect on the presence of replacement or modified stoves or additional ventilation. While the data available to us does not allow an examination of direct health outcomes from emissions variations, adverse environmental and health impacts of toxic household emissions are well established elsewhere in the literature. The value of this study is in its further examination of the role of social and economic factors and available fuelwood from commons in type of stove use, and additional ventilation, and their effect on household emissions. These associations are important since the two direct routes to improving household air quality among the poor are stove type and better ventilation.
Spira, Elana Greenfield; Fischel, Janet E
The literature on the prevalence and stability of preschool problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity suggests a number of links to early literacy skills and broader school achievement. Developmental considerations in the assessment of preschool ADHD are reviewed in this paper, along with evidence for the stability of symptoms over time and the relationship between early symptoms of ADHD and elementary school achievement. Emphasis is placed on describing the nature of the connection between preschool ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, as few studies to date have focused specifically on that relationship. Several explanations for the relationship between preschool ADHD symptoms and achievement are analyzed, including an explanation that focuses on the relationship between inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and the acquisition of emergent literacy and language skills. Finally, the evidence for four models that have been proposed to account for the link between behavior and learning is reviewed and critically analyzed. Suggestions are made for future research that might resolve important questions only partially addressed in studies to date.