WorldWideScience

Sample records for social validity literature

  1. Social validity in single-case research: A systematic literature review of prevalence and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Melinda R; Chung, Moon Y; Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W

    2018-03-01

    Single-case research (SCR) has been a valuable methodology in special education research. Montrose Wolf (1978), an early pioneer in single-case methodology, coined the term "social validity" to refer to the social importance of the goals selected, the acceptability of procedures employed, and the effectiveness of the outcomes produced in applied investigations. Since 1978, many contributors to SCR have included social validity as a feature of their articles and several authors have examined the prevalence and role of social validity in SCR. We systematically reviewed all SCR published in six highly-ranked special education journals from 2005 to 2016 to establish the prevalence of social validity assessments and to evaluate their scientific rigor. We found relatively low, but stable prevalence with only 28 publications addressing all three factors of the social validity construct (i.e., goals, procedures, outcomes). We conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific rigor of these 28 publications. Social validity remains an understudied construct in SCR, and the scientific rigor of social validity assessments is often lacking. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social Media in IS Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of ‘digital living’ is to a high extent influenced by the introduction of new media into society. Especially, social media are affecting the digital world of today and are setting the agenda for social connectedness in private, public and commercial networks. Based in an initial...... desire to explore a research agenda for the workings of social media in network structures a look into the literature on social media within the field of Information Systems sparked an interest in exploring a new research perspective for social media. Reviewing the IS literature it is apparent...... that the perspective of the ‘media’ as an artifact of social media has been neglected in existing literature. Based in this, this paper proposes research possibilities for investigating the ‘media’ of social media as well as some theoretical considerations that could aid the investigation. Finally, potential outcomes...

  3. Social Media Use Among Nurses: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoş, Ariana Anamaria; Bolboacă, Sorana D

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the research was to increase the understanding of social media's influence among nurses while highlighting gaps in the literature and areas for further research. The search of PubMed database was performed in November 2015, using terms to identify peer-reviewed articles that describe the use of social media for nursing students or nurse practitioners. A systematic approach was used to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. There were identified 23 full text articles involving social media and nurse-related terminology. The majority of the studies were interventional (n = 20) that assessed social media as a teaching tool. Podcasts, Multiplayer virtual worlds and mixed social media platforms has also been assessed. Social media is used as a tool of information for nurses mainly as the means for engaging and communicating.

  4. Analyzing Social Influence through Social Media: A Structured Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, R.; Helms, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of social media enables billions of people to share their content and in doing so they influence others and are being influenced themselves. This virtual environment provides a new perspective for the current social influence theories. In this study, the state-of-the-art literature on

  5. Social marketing and breastfeeding: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2013-02-08

    Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. The review indicates that the relationship between social marketing and breastfeeding is complex. There are indications that this relationship is being investigated within three distinct fields of research: psychology/education, public health and marketing. Depending on the research field the emphasis is put on either breastfeeding or social marketing as well as on the other concepts that were discovered to be of importance within this relationship. Namely, group and individual demography as well as behaviour were revealed to be important elements of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding. Based on the results this study concludes that a more multidimensional view on the relationship between the concepts under study is needed since the focus of previous studies is very one-sided and limited to just one element when all elements should be integrated equally.

  6. Social imaginaries: the literature of eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Alison

    2008-06-01

    This paper starts from a premise relating to the act of fictional writing about eugenics and the way it may be understood as the embodiment and enactment of social imaginaries. It proposes that literature (in the sense of fiction) frequently, if not habitually, expresses the underside of what is expressed in public discourse. That is, far from being the implement of state policy or intervention, it acts in counterpoint to the state, constituting a type of social fantasy in that it explores through the realm of the imagination what might happen. It becomes the arena for contestation, exploration, and nuancing as it essays how ideas from public, 'real' life, might transform when acted out. The paper considers two sorts of literary case. First it looks at that of 'naïve' literature, harnessed unashamedly to a specific sociological discourse of eugenics. Then, using primarily Ibsen, it considers a subset, the case of literature that does not set out to be explicitly in the service of the cause of eugenics, but is appropriated and disseminated from a platform of eugenics. Lastly, taking the example of Unamuno's Amor y pedagogía (1902) the paper considers literature that exists in a quite different sphere of public awareness. It shows awareness of the arguments and precepts of eugenics and related beliefs and practices, but acts as a transitional space (in the terms of Winnicott) to enable such ideas to be entertained and thought about, without a requirement of acceptance or belief.

  7. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  8. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  9. Contributions of Literature to Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasio Ovejero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two main kind of psychology: a intuitive psychology, and an academic and professional psychology. These two psychologies are different, but they can make important reciprocals contributions. And the best of the intuitive psychology, that in my opinion is in the literature and overall in the romance, can be very useful for professional psychologists. The main end of this paper is to show how the social psychologists can learn from the intuitive psychology of the great romances. This contribution of the romance to the social psychology is, at least, at these two levels. At the level of construction of the subjectivity and the modern subject and the, therefore, of the psychology’s arise, and at the level of some concrete subjects studied by the psychologists (romantic love, jealousy, infidelity, compunction, emotions, vengeance, human relations…

  10. Literature evidence in open targets - a target validation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Dunham, Ian; McEntyre, Johanna

    2017-06-06

    We present the Europe PMC literature component of Open Targets - a target validation platform that integrates various evidence to aid drug target identification and validation. The component identifies target-disease associations in documents and ranks the documents based on their confidence from the Europe PMC literature database, by using rules utilising expert-provided heuristic information. The confidence score of a given document represents how valuable the document is in the scope of target validation for a given target-disease association by taking into account the credibility of the association based on the properties of the text. The component serves the platform regularly with the up-to-date data since December, 2015. Currently, there are a total number of 1168365 distinct target-disease associations text mined from >26 million PubMed abstracts and >1.2 million Open Access full text articles. Our comparative analyses on the current available evidence data in the platform revealed that 850179 of these associations are exclusively identified by literature mining. This component helps the platform's users by providing the most relevant literature hits for a given target and disease. The text mining evidence along with the other types of evidence can be explored visually through https://www.targetvalidation.org and all the evidence data is available for download in json format from https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data .

  11. Automatic target validation based on neuroscientific literature mining for tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eVasques

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Target identification for tractography studies requires solid anatomical knowledge validated by an extensive literature review across species for each seed structure to be studied. Manual literature review to identify targets for a given seed region is tedious and potentially subjective. Therefore, complementary approaches would be useful. We propose to use text-mining models to automatically suggest potential targets from the neuroscientific literature, full-text articles and abstracts, so that they can be used for anatomical connection studies and more specifically for tractography. We applied text-mining models to three structures: two well studied structures, since validated deep brain stimulation targets, the internal globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus and, the nucleus accumbens, an exploratory target for treating psychiatric disorders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to document the projections of the three selected structures and compared it with the targets proposed by text-mining models, both in rat and primate (including human. We ran probabilistic tractography on the nucleus accumbens and compared the output with the results of the text-mining models and literature review. Overall, text-mining the literature could find three times as many targets as two man-weeks of curation could. The overall efficiency of the text-mining against literature review in our study was 98% recall (at 36% precision, meaning that over all the targets for the three selected seeds, only one target has been missed by text-mining. We demonstrate that connectivity for a structure of interest can be extracted from a very large amount of publications and abstracts. We believe this tool will be useful in helping the neuroscience community to facilitate connectivity studies of particular brain regions. The text mining tools used for the study are part of the HBP Neuroinformatics Platform, publicly available at http://connectivity-brainer.rhcloud.com/.

  12. Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative finance instruments can help increase funding of investments aimed at environmental and social sustainability. At the request of Duisenberg school of finance, this report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on ‘innovations in financing environmental and social

  13. Social Media and Health Education: What the Early Literature Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Robyn; Carter, Lorraine; Nowrouzi, Behdin; McLean, Natalie; Guimond, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Social media allows for a wealth of social interactions. More recently, there is a growing use of social media for the purposes of health education. Using an adaptation of the Networked student model by Drexler (2010) as a conceptual model, this article conducts a literature review focusing on the use of social media for health education purposes.…

  14. LITERATURE REVIEW ON SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Otreba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article depicts the most important aspects of social dialogue in Poland: definitions and dimensions of the term, basic research questions, dialogue partners and factors influencing the quality of social dialogue. The potential of subsequent research issues are advocated: institutionalized forms and bottom-up models of social dialogue, public policies aiming at enhancement of the analyzed process. Moreover, the social dialogue can be treated as a public policy itself.

  15. The Treatment of Wife Abuse in Recent Social Science Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Laurie; And Others

    This paper reviews the social science literature dealing with gender relations in marriage and the issues of wife abuse. It is argued that the old anti-woman biases of the literature have not really diminished under the impact of feminism. The sexist assumptions and victim-blaming focus of the new battery literature are examined through…

  16. Using social stories and comic strip conversations to promote socially valid outcomes for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A

    2006-02-01

    Very little is documented regarding the efficacy of social stories and comic strip conversations for promoting an understanding of social situations and the appropriate social behaviors of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition, few studies on the efficacy of social stories have examined whether outcomes are socially valid. The purpose of this article is to respond to some of the gaps in the literature on the efficacy of a frequently used intervention for children with ASD and to describe a family-centered collaborative approach to developing social stories and comic strip conversations. The results of intervention employing an A-B design are reported for two case vignettes. Clinical implications, limitations of the available data, and potential factors contributing to outcome variability are discussed.

  17. Social anxiety questionnaire (SAQ): Development and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łakuta, Patryk

    2018-05-30

    The Social Anxiety Questionnaire (SAQ) was designed to assess five dimensions of social anxiety as posited by the Clark and Wells' (1995; Clark, 2001) cognitive model. The development of the SAQ involved generation of an item pool, followed by a verification of content validity and the theorized factor structure (Study 1). The final version of the SAQ was then assessed for reliability, temporal stability (test re-test reliability), and construct, criterion-related, and contrasted-group validity (Study 2, 3, and 4). Following a systematic process, the results provide support for the SAQ as reliable, and both theoretically and empirically valid measure. A five-factor structure of the SAQ verified and replicated through confirmatory factor analyses reflect five dimensions of social anxiety: negative self-processing; self-focused attention and self-monitoring; safety behaviours; somatic and cognitive symptoms; and anticipatory and post-event rumination. Results suggest that the SAQ possesses good psychometric properties, while recognizing that additional validation is a required future research direction. It is important to replicate these findings in diverse populations, including a large clinical sample. The SAQ is a promising measure that supports social anxiety as a multidimensional construct, and the foundational role of self-focused cognitive processes in generation and maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. The findings make a significant contribution to the literature, moreover, the SAQ is a first instrument that offers to assess all, proposed by the Clark-Wells model, specific cognitive-affective, physiological, attitudinal, and attention processes related to social anxiety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Media Storytelling as a Method for Teaching Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pajares Tosca, Susana; Nørgaard Isholdt, Anne Katrine; Tarp-Petzke, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    This chapter investigates how a social medium (Facebook in this case) can be a platform for a novel way of teaching literature focusing on social roleplaying of the literary characters. We call this new form “social media storytelling”. Our project transmedially recreates the world of an original...

  19. The Discussion of Social Entrepreneurship: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud@Fhiri Nur Suriaty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the various discussion of social entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurship provides a unique opportunity and assumptions to question, challenge and rethink from different perspective of management and business research. This article offers a comparative analysis of commercial entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship using a prevailing analytical model from commercial entrepreneurship. The analysis highlights key differences and similarities between commercial entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship. This article also presents a framework on how to approach the social entrepreneurial process more effectively and systematically. Social entrepreneurship is a process of creating value by combining resources in new concepts. These process are intended primarily to get the opportunities to create social value by stimulating social change or achieve social needs. When viewed as a process, social entrepreneurship involves the offering of products and services but can also refer to the creation of new organizations. This article focuses and analyses the literature finding of social entrepreneurship.

  20. The Value of Qualitative Methods in Social Validity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leko, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    One quality indicator of intervention research is the extent to which the intervention has a high degree of social validity, or practicality. In this study, I drew on Wolf's framework for social validity and used qualitative methods to ascertain five middle schoolteachers' perceptions of the social validity of System 44®--a phonics-based reading…

  1. Initial Reliability and Validity of the Perceived Social Competence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Iachini, Aidyn L.; Amorose, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the development and validation of a perceived social competence scale that social workers can easily use to assess children's and youth's social competence. Method: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on a calibration and a cross-validation sample of youth. Predictive validity was also…

  2. Development and Validation of the Perceived Social Work Competence Scale in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yean; Chui, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This article reports a study that developed and validated the Perceived Social Work Competence Scale (PSWCS) for assessing social work students' competence in Mainland China. Method: The indicators were generated by a broad empirical review of recent literature, confirmed by experts, and indigenized by means of two focus groups of…

  3. Theoretical approaches to social innovation – A critical literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzin, A.; Davis, A.; Domanski, D.; Dhondt, S.; Howaldt, J.; Kaletka, C.; Kesselring, A.; Kopp, R.; Millard, J.; Oeij, P.; Rehfeld, D.; Schaper-Rinkel, P.; Schwartz, M.; Scoppetta, A.; Wagner-Luptacik, P.; Weber, M.

    2014-01-01

    The SI-DRIVE report “Theoretical approaches to Social Innovation – A Critical Literature Review” delivers a comprehensive overview on the state of the art of theoretically relevant building blocks for advancing a theoretical understanding of social innovation. It collects different theoretical

  4. Online Social Behavior in Twitter : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, O.A.J.; Maanen, P.P. van; Ouboter, T.; Schraagen, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review is aimed at examining state of the art research in the field of online social networks. The goal is to identify the current challenges within this area of research, given the questions raised in society. In this review we pay attention to three aspects of social networks:

  5. Linking Children's Literature with Social Studies in the Elementary Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    The author shares information related to integrating quality literature written for children into the teaching of social studies at the elementary school level. Research within the past decade informs educators of the strong impact of curriculum standards for the social studies as developed by professional organizations. Teachers today are…

  6. Dimensions of Ideology. A Review of Social-Psychological Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Todosijević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In social psychological literature, ideology is typically conceived as a relatively stable and organized set of general orientations that include interrelated attitudes grouped according to various sources of constraint, such as psychological disposition, general values, or ideological traditions. The paper reviews social-psychological literature on the organization of social attitudes. Research on this topic started nearly eight decades ago, inspired by the research on the structure of intellectual abilities. Since then, a large body of literature has been generated, which has not been systematically reviewed. Despite the long tradition, this literature has not resulted in proportional cumulative scientific development. The review should help improving this situation by listing the relevant studies, examining the research methodology and the main findings. The review ends with the critical summary of the man findings and methodological problems, and recommendations for the future research.

  7. Social Story Effectiveness on Social Interaction for Students with Autism: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karal, Muhammed A.; Wolfe, Pamela S.

    2018-01-01

    Social stories frequently have been used to improve the social interaction of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This literature review examines the effectiveness of social story interventions on the social interactions of students with ASD including with whom, where, and what formats have been implemented, as well as the methodological…

  8. Threatening faces and social anxiety: A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2010-01-01

    A threatening facial expression is a potent social sign of hostility or dominance. During the past 20 years, photographs of threatening faces have been increasingly included as stimuli in studies with socially anxious participants, based on the hypothesis that a threatening face is especially...... salient to people with fears of social interaction or negative evaluation. The purpose of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the accumulated research and suggest possible avenues for further research. The main conclusion is that photographs of threatening faces engage a broad range...... of perceptual processes in socially anxious participants, particularly when exposure times are very short...

  9. Social Validation Influences Individuals’ Judgments about Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Leandro; Faigenbaum, Gustavo; Chehtman, Alejandro; Sigman, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    In all domains, from informal to formal, there are conflicts about property and ownership which resolution demands consideration of alleged claims from more than one party. In this work we asked adults (N = 359) to judge cases in which a character held a property claim over an item, but is challenged by a second character who holds a different, subsequent claim over it. The specific goal of this work is to investigate how the resolution of such conflicts depends on the social endorsement of ownership claims. To achieve this aim, we designed variations of conflictive situations over property in which we manipulated details regarding the knowledge of the second agent of other third-parties about the first agent’s actions. In essence, our questions were: if an agent claims ownership of something which has a previous property claim on (1) does it matter whether said agent knew of the first’s agent actions or not? And (2) does it matter whether third parties were aware or notified of the first one’s claim? The results confirm that adults resolve the settling of property rights based not only on the nature of ownership claims but also on the social acknowledgment of such claims, in accordance with what is stipulated in legal systems worldwide. Participants considered the second character in the stories to hold a lesser right over the object under dispute when she knew of the first character’s claim. Participants also considered that the first character’s claim was reinforced when there were witnesses for her actions, but not when third parties were merely communicated of such actions. This is the first study to our knowledge that studies how social validation of ownership claims drives adults’ judgments on property claims. PMID:29440998

  10. Social science literature on the environment: review and prospects for energy studies. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    Much of the social science literature on environment is of recent origin and represents the response of the social science research community to a complex societal problem in which technology is a major factor. Energy represents another such problem to which the social science research community is now turning its attention. Because energy problems and environment problems have some similarities and because energy-conversion processes have large effects on the environment, a review of the social science literature on environment was undertaken. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the concepts developed in social science research on the environment; (2) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the methodologies utilized in social science research on the environment; and (3) to study the extent to which the results of social science research on the environment have contributed to the development of policy. The first two items above receive major attention in this preliminary literature survey. 50 references.

  11. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF ORGANIZATION. AN EXTENDED LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveanu Tomina Gabriela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we review the general topic of social involvement of organizations, in the light of business-society relationship. For this aim we analyze the extensive international literature of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, social philanthropy, sustainable corporation and other related concepts. In this endeavor we categorize the main body of knowledge in three broad areas: (1 papers investigating the definitions and measures of these concepts, including practitioners’ opinions, (2 predictors of such involvement and actions, (3 effects of social responsibility manifested by organizations. The second section of our paper focuses on the Romanian literature on this topic, as it is less systematized so far. In this section we focus on the main findings of studies conducted on Romanian companies regarding CSR or related concepts. In the final, concluding section we propose a research methodology for CSR in Romania meant to clarify the impact of the most frequently considered predictors.

  12. Aggregated trustworthiness: Redefining online credibility through social validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Johan; Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of social dynamics on online credibility. Empirical studies by Pettingill (2006) and Hargittai, et al. (2010) suggest that social validation and online trustees play increasingly important roles when evaluating credibility online. This dynamic puts pressure...

  13. Consumer health information seeking in social media: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuehua; Zhang, Jin

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this literature review was to summarise current research regarding how consumers seek health-related information from social media. Primarily, we hope to reveal characteristics of existing studies investigating the health topics that consumers have discussed in social media, ascertaining the roles social media have played in consumers' information-seeking processes and discussing the potential benefits and concerns of accessing consumer health information in social media. The Web of Science Core Collection database was searched for existing literature on consumer health information seeking in social media. The search returned 214 articles, of which 21 met the eligibility criteria following review of full-text documents. Between 2011 and 2016, twenty-one studies published explored various topics related to consumer information seeking in social media. These ranged from online discussions on specific diseases (e.g. diabetes) to public health concerns (e.g. pesticide residues). Consumers' information needs vary depending on the health issues of interest. Benefits of health seeking on social media, in addition to filling a need for health information, include the social and emotional support health consumers gain from peer-to-peer interactions. These benefits, however, are tempered by concerns of information quality and authority and lead to decreased consumer engagement. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  14. Social media for breast cancer survivors: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falisi, Angela L; Wiseman, Kara P; Gaysynsky, Anna; Scheideler, Jennifer K; Ramin, Daniel A; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia

    2017-12-01

    Social media may offer support to individuals who are navigating the complex and challenging experience of cancer. A growing body of literature has been published over the last decade exploring the ways cancer survivors utilize social media. This study aims to provide a systematic synthesis of the current literature in order to inform cancer health communication practice and cancer survivorship research. Using PRISMA guidelines, four electronic databases were searched to retrieve publications on breast cancer and social media published between 2005 and 2015. The final sample included 98 publications (13 commentaries and reviews, 47 descriptive studies, and 38 intervention studies). Intervention studies were assessed for key features and outcome measures. Studies utilizing content analysis were further evaluated qualitatively. Online support groups were the most commonly studied platform, followed by interactive message boards and web forums. Limited research focuses on non-Caucasian populations. Psychosocial well-being was the most commonly measured outcome of interest. While social media engagement was assessed, few standardized measures were identified. Content analyses of social media interactions were prevalent, though few articles linked content to health outcomes. The current literature highlights the impact and potential utility of social media for breast cancer survivors. Future studies should consider connecting social media engagement and content to psychosocial, behavioral, and physical health outcomes. Online groups and communities may improve the well-being of breast cancer survivors by providing opportunities to engage with wider social networks, connect with others navigating similar cancer experiences, and obtain cancer-related information. Researchers should consider the potential role of social media in addressing the unmet needs of breast cancer survivors, and particularly the implications for clinical and public health practice.

  15. The Socialization of Music Teachers: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Many institutions provide an undergraduate experience that can lead to professional certification to teach music. Each institution provides a unique socialization experience in the music teaching profession. In this literature review, studies are presented that provide information on the decision to become a music teacher, the early socialization…

  16. Theatre and social criticism in African literature: socio-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since literature is a creative work that mirrors society, Alachi in The Dilemma of Oko, observes aspects of the social, political, cultural and moral degeneration of contemporary society. He presents them in this play with thorough detachment and clinical dispassion. The play presents the image of a society, whose moral order ...

  17. Social networks in nursing work processes: an integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify and analyze the available evidence in the literature on the use of social networks in nursing work processes. METHOD An integrative review of the literature conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and LILACS databases in January 2016, using the descriptors social media, social networking, nursing, enfermagem, redes sociais, mídias sociais, and the keyword nursing practice, without year restriction. RESULTS The sample consisted of 27 international articles which were published between 2011 and 2016. The social networks used were Facebook (66.5%, Twitter (30% and WhatsApp (3.5%. In 70.5% of the studies, social networks were used for research purposes, in 18.5% they were used as a tool aimed to assist students in academic activities, and in 11% for executing interventions via the internet. CONCLUSION Nurses have used social networks in their work processes such as Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp to research, teach and watch. The articles show several benefits in using such tools in the nursing profession; however, ethical considerations regarding the use of social networks deserve further discussion.

  18. Validation of the Social Inclusion Scale with Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interventions (such as participatory arts projects aimed at increasing social inclusion are increasingly in operation, as social inclusion is proving to play a key role in recovery from mental ill health and the promotion of mental wellbeing. These interventions require evaluation with a systematically developed and validated measure of social inclusion; however, a “gold-standard” measure does not yet exist. The Social Inclusion Scale (SIS has three subscales measuring social isolation, relations and acceptance. This scale has been partially validated with arts and mental health project users, demonstrating good internal consistency. However, test-retest reliability and construct validity require assessment, along with validation in the general population. The present study aimed to validate the SIS in a sample of university students. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent validity (one aspect of construct validity were assessed by comparing SIS scores with scores on other measures of social inclusion and related concepts. Participants completed the measures at two time-points seven-to-14 days apart. The SIS demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, although convergent validity was less well-established and possible reasons for this are discussed. This systematic validation of the SIS represents a further step towards the establishment of a “gold-standard” measure of social inclusion.

  19. Development, standardization and validation of social anxiety scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little attention has been given to social anxiety in Nigeria despite its debilitating effects on the sufferers. The objective of this study was to develop, standardize and validate an instrument (Social Anxiety Scale) with high coefficients of Cronbach Alpha Internal Consistency Split-half reliability and construct validity.

  20. Educational testing validity and reliability in pharmacy and medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew J; Jung, Rose; Jacobs, David M; Peeters, Michael J

    2013-12-16

    To evaluate and compare the reliability and validity of educational testing reported in pharmacy education journals to medical education literature. Descriptions of validity evidence sources (content, construct, criterion, and reliability) were extracted from articles that reported educational testing of learners' knowledge, skills, and/or abilities. Using educational testing, the findings of 108 pharmacy education articles were compared to the findings of 198 medical education articles. For pharmacy educational testing, 14 articles (13%) reported more than 1 validity evidence source while 83 articles (77%) reported 1 validity evidence source and 11 articles (10%) did not have evidence. Among validity evidence sources, content validity was reported most frequently. Compared with pharmacy education literature, more medical education articles reported both validity and reliability (59%; particles in pharmacy education compared to medical education, validity, and reliability reporting were limited in the pharmacy education literature.

  1. Social cognition deficits and the 'ultra high risk' for psychosis population: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew D; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Yung, Alison R

    2011-08-01

    A number of risk factors for developing a psychotic disorder have been investigated in the 'ultra high risk' (UHR) population, including neurocognitive abilities, social functioning and, more recently, social cognition. We aimed to review the literature on social cognition in the UHR population. Literature was restricted to English articles and identified using Pubmed, Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHLplus, as well as the reference lists of published studies and reviews. Search terms included social cognition, theory of mind, emotion recognition, attributional style, social knowledge, social perception, 'at risk mental state', psychosis prodrome 'clinical high risk' and 'ultra high risk'. Inclusion criteria were an outcome measure of a social cognition task and an UHR population defined by a structured validated instrument. Seven original research articles met the inclusion criteria, one of which was a conference abstract. One of the two studies that assessed theory of mind, two of the four studies that assessed emotion recognition and both the two studies that assessed social perception/knowledge found significant deficits in UHR patients. The single study that assessed attributional bias also reported differences in UHR patients compared with healthy controls. There is limited published literature on social cognitive performance in the UHR population. Despite this, deficits in certain social cognitive abilities do appear to be present, but further research with more reliable cross-cultural measures is needed. The characterization of social cognitive deficits in the UHR populations may aid in the identification of potential markers for development of a subsequent psychotic disorder, as well as targets for early intervention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. The Structure and Validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…

  3. ICT-based applications to improve social health and social participation in older adults with dementia. A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Bruno, Ángel C; García-Casal, J Antonio; Csipke, Emese; Jenaro-Río, Cristina; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) developers, together with dementia experts have created several technological solutions to improve and facilitate social health and social participation and quality of life of older adults living with dementia. However, there is a need to carry out a systematic literature review that focuses on the validity and efficacy of these new technologies assessing their utility to promote 'social health' and 'active ageing' in people with dementia. Searches in electronic databases identified 3824 articles of which 6 met the inclusion criteria and were coded according to their methodological approach, sample sizes, type of outcomes and results. Six papers were identified reporting the use of 10 different interventions with people with dementia. Qualitative studies (four) showed a benefit of the use of technologies to foster social participation in people with dementia. At the same time, barriers to a widespread use of these technologies in this population were identified. A quantitative study and a mixed-method study with quantitative outcomes showed that ICT-based interventions promote more social behaviours than non-technology-based interventions. In the last years, several technological devices for living independently and fostering social health and social participation in people with dementia have been developed. However, specific outcome measures to assess social health and social participation are needed. Even though the analysed studies provided some evidence-base for the use of technology in this field, there is an urge to develop high quality studies and specific outcome measures.

  4. Authenticity, Validity and Reliability in A-Level English Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, John

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the use of assessment by teachers to replace external marking. It shows how professional participation and moderation can provide reliability in summative assessment, even in public examinations for older students. It draws on historical experiences of assessment for A-level English literature.

  5. Content validity and reliability of the Copenhagen social relations questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Nielsen, Lene Snabe; Henriksen, Pia Wichmann

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present article is to describe the face and content validity as well as reliability of the Copenhagen Social Relations Questionnaire (CSRQ). METHOD: The face and content validity test was based on focus group discussions and individual interviews with 31 informants...... from the interviews. Two additional themes not covered by CSRQ on dynamics and reciprocity of social relations were identified. DISCUSSION: CSRQ holds satisfactory face and content validity as well as reliability, and is suitable for measuring structure and function of social relations including...

  6. Development and validation of the Iranian Social Health Questionnaire (IrSHQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rafiey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social health is a fundamental dimension of health, and plays an important role in promoting social well-being. Research in social health needs reliable and valid tools, which should be also applicable to any type of social context. This study was aimed to develop an effective social health questionnaire for the social context of Iranian society. Methods: The study was conducted in three phases: 1 A preliminary 43-item questionnaire was created based on an extensive literature review; 2 The questionnaire was validated. Firstly, social health experts evaluated content validity; secondly, an exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach’s coefficient test were used; 3 The questionnaire was tested in a representative sample of 500 persons, who were selected through a multistage sampling in Tehran, Iran, in 2015. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software (version 22. Results: We developed the Iranian Social Health Questionnaire (IrSHQ consisting of a 29-item questionnaire organized in seven subscales – ‘Social interaction’, ‘social responsibility’, ‘conscientiousness’, ‘attitude to society’, ‘empathy’, ‘family relationship’, and ‘social participation’−. Internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.86. Validity and reliability of our questionnaire were confirmed. Conclusion: Due to the size and diversity of participants, validity of results, compliance with Iranian culture, and its relative shortness, the IrSHQ appears to be a very useful instrument for measuring individual’s social health in the Iranian social context.

  7. Some notes about the relations between Social Psychology and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasio Ovejero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to show the value that the study of the relationship between Social Psychology and Literature would have to improve our psychosocial knowledge of the human being. On one hand, the psychosocial analysis of the novel would provide us with the wide and deep knowledge that is contained in the classic literary works. On the other hand, it is also useful to analyze how these literary works have been reflecting both their own time as well as the social changes in the last centuries and, furthermore, its effect on the readers, their mentality, their behaviour and even the way they relate each other. This approach would be of great value for a Social Psychology that pretends to look beyond a positivist perspective, a perspective that is pervasive in Psychology for the last century. 

  8. Social networking in nursing education: integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushi, Luciana Emi; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez

    2016-01-01

    to identify the use of social networking in nursing education. integrative literature review in the databases: LILACS, IBECS, Cochrane, BDENF, SciELO, CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed, CAPES Periodicals Portal and Web of Science, using the descriptors: social networking and nursing education and the keywords: social networking sites and nursing education, carried out in April 2015. of the 489 articles found, only 14 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most studies were published after 2013 (57%), originating from the United States and United Kingdom (77.8%). It was observed the use of social networking among nursing students, postgraduate students, mentors and nurses, in undergraduate programmes, hybrid education (blended-learning) and in interprofessional education. The social networking sites used in the teaching and learning process were Facebook (42.8%), Ning (28.5%), Twitter (21.4%) and MySpace (7.1%), by means of audios, videos, quizzes, animations, forums, guidance, support, discussions and research group. few experiences of the use of social networking in nursing education were found and their contributions show the numerous benefits and difficulties faced, providing resourses for the improvement and revaluation of their use in the teaching and learning process.

  9. Social networking in nursing education: integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Emi Kakushi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to identify the use of social networking in nursing education. Method: integrative literature review in the databases: LILACS, IBECS, Cochrane, BDENF, SciELO, CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed, CAPES Periodicals Portal and Web of Science, using the descriptors: social networking and nursing education and the keywords: social networking sites and nursing education, carried out in April 2015. Results: of the 489 articles found, only 14 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most studies were published after 2013 (57%, originating from the United States and United Kingdom (77.8%. It was observed the use of social networking among nursing students, postgraduate students, mentors and nurses, in undergraduate programmes, hybrid education (blended-learning and in interprofessional education. The social networking sites used in the teaching and learning process were Facebook (42.8%, Ning (28.5%, Twitter (21.4% and MySpace (7.1%, by means of audios, videos, quizzes, animations, forums, guidance, support, discussions and research group. Conclusion: few experiences of the use of social networking in nursing education were found and their contributions show the numerous benefits and difficulties faced, providing resourses for the improvement and revaluation of their use in the teaching and learning process.

  10. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  11. Social networks in nursing work processes: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Ana Cláudia; Zamarioli, Cristina Mara; Fulquini, Francine Lima; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de; Angerami, Emilia Luigia Saporiti

    2017-03-20

    To identify and analyze the available evidence in the literature on the use of social networks in nursing work processes. An integrative review of the literature conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and LILACS databases in January 2016, using the descriptors social media, social networking, nursing, enfermagem, redes sociais, mídias sociais, and the keyword nursing practice, without year restriction. The sample consisted of 27 international articles which were published between 2011 and 2016. The social networks used were Facebook (66.5%), Twitter (30%) and WhatsApp (3.5%). In 70.5% of the studies, social networks were used for research purposes, in 18.5% they were used as a tool aimed to assist students in academic activities, and in 11% for executing interventions via the internet. Nurses have used social networks in their work processes such as Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp to research, teach and watch. The articles show several benefits in using such tools in the nursing profession; however, ethical considerations regarding the use of social networks deserve further discussion. Identificar e analisar as evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre a utilização de redes sociais nos processos de trabalho em enfermagem. Revisão integrativa da literatura realizada em janeiro de 2016, nas bases de dados PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE e LILACS, com os descritores social media, social networking, nursing, enfermagem, redes sociais, mídias sociais e a palavra-chave nursing practice, sem restrição de ano. A amostra foi composta por 27 artigos, os quais foram publicados entre 2011 e 2016, todos internacionais. As redes sociais utilizadas foram o Facebook (66,5%), o Twitter (30%) e o WhatsApp (3,5%). Em 70,5% dos estudos as redes sociais foram utilizadas para fins de pesquisa, em 18,5% como ferramenta para auxiliar estudantes nas atividades acadêmicas, e em 11% para a realização de intervenções via internet. Em seus processos de trabalho, os enfermeiros têm utilizado

  12. The Online Social Support Scale: Measure development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Elizabeth A; Cole, David A; Cho, Sun-Joo; Smith, Darcy K; Carter, T Grace; Zelkowitz, Rachel L

    2018-05-21

    A new measure, the Online Social Support Scale, was developed based on previous theory, research, and measurement of in-person social support. It includes four subscales: Esteem/Emotional Support, Social Companionship, Informational Support, and Instrumental Support. In college and community samples, factor analytic and item response theory results suggest that subtypes of in-person social support also pertain in the online world. Evidence of reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity provide excellent psychometric support for the measure. Construct validity accrues to the measure vis-à-vis support for three hypotheses: (a) Various broad types of Internet platforms for social interactions are differentially associated with online social support and online victimization; (b) similar to in-person social support, online social support offsets the adverse effect of negative life events on self-esteem and depression-related outcome; and (c) online social support counteracts the effects of online victimization in much the same way that in-person friends in one social niche counterbalance rejection in other social niches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Social Security Numbers in Medicaid Records: Reporting and Validity, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Czajka; Shinu Verghese

    2013-01-01

    This report presents findings from a validation study of Social Security numbers (SSNs) in Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) records for the fourth quarter of federal fiscal year 2009. The study produced results for the nation and the states on how often SSNs were reported in MSIS records and how often the reported SSNs passed a validation test at the U.S. Census Bureau, based on data obtained from the Social Security Administration.

  14. Social Support Questionnaire for Children: Development and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Thompson, Julia E.; Geary, Meghan A.; Schexnaildre, Mark A.; Lai, Betty S.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2016-01-01

    The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children's social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of…

  15. Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC): Spanish Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahera, G.; Boada, L.; Pousa, E.; Mirapeix, I.; Morón-Nozaleda, G.; Marinas, L.; Gisbert, L.; Pamiàs, M.; Parellada, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Spanish validation of the "Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition" instrument (MASC-SP). We recruited 22 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 26 participants with typical development. The MASC-SP and three other social cognition instruments (Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect test, Reading the Mind in…

  16. Validation of the Child and Adolescent Social Perception Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Cyndie; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2001-01-01

    Compared 32 adolescent boys who had social skills deficits consistent with Asperger's Disorder to 29 controls matched on age and intelligence quotient. Significant differences were found between groups on Child and Adolescent Social Perception Measure scores, and the validity of the instrument was supported. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

  17. Social Validity of a Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane

    2011-01-01

    As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…

  18. Referencing Science: Teaching Undergraduates to Identify, Validate, and Utilize Peer-Reviewed Online Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, William A.; Richardson, Katherine D.

    2008-01-01

    Accessibility of online scientific literature continues to expand due to the advent of scholarly databases and search engines. Studies have shown that undergraduates favor using online scientific literature to address research questions, but they often do not have the skills to assess the validity of research articles. Undergraduates generally are…

  19. English Validation of the Parental Socialization Scale?ESPA29

    OpenAIRE

    Mart?nez, Isabel; Cruise, Edie; Garc?a, ?scar F.; Murgui, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Parenting styles have traditionally been studied following the classical two-dimensional orthogonal model of parental socialization. The Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29 is used to measure the four styles of parental socialization through the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. The ESPA29 scale is a developmentally appropriate measure of parenting styles, which has been validated in several languages including Spanish, Italian, and Brazilian Portuguese. In this stu...

  20. A Measure of Perceived Chronic Social Adversity: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiu Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a measure that assesses negative daily social encounters. Specifically, we examined the concept of perceived chronic social adversity and its assessment, the Perceived Chronic Social Adversity Questionnaire (PCSAQ. The PCSAQ focused on the subjective processing of daily social experiences. Psychometric properties were examined within two non-clinical samples (N = 331 and N = 390 and one clinical sample (N = 86. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of the PCSAQ, which corresponds to three types of daily social stressors. The final 28-item PCSAQ was shown to be internally consistent, and to have good construct validity in terms of factor structure and group differences. It was also shown to have good concurrent validity in terms of association with outcome variables (sense of control, happiness, and mood and anxiety symptoms. Perceived chronic social adversity was also shown to be correlated with PTSD severity. Taken together, these findings suggest that the PCSAQ is a reliable, valid, and useful measure that can be used to assess negative social and clinical aspects of personal experiences. This study is an important exploratory step in improving our understanding of the relationship between the cumulative effect of negative social encounters and psychological difficulty.

  1. Measuring Social Anxiety in 11 Countries Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballo, V.E.; Salazar, I.C.; Irurtia, M.J.; Arias, B.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies conducted to develop and validate a new self-report measure of social phobia/anxiety - the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults (SAQ-A) (Cuestionario de ansiedad social para adultos, CASO-A). A diary-item recording procedure was used to generate the initial pool

  2. AHP 6: Review: Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Thurston

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fiction, as understood in the West, was not a strong part of the Tibetan literary tradition (Stein 1972, 251-2. Although Newman (1996, 411 has argued that certain literary works existed as early as the eighteenth century, most fictional texts in Tibet belonged to folklore and oral tradition. Beginning in the twentieth century, however, modern fiction and poetry has gradually emerged and even thrives in spite of continuing issues of literacy and education. As relative newcomers to the study of Tibetan writing, western scholars, many of whom approach Tibet from disciplines that emphasize religion or philosophy, tend to overlook modern fiction. This work, edited by Hartley and Schiaffini-Vedani, aims to fill this void and provide scholars with an introduction to the complexities of modern Tibetan literature and how it reflects and impacts the unique transnational and cross-cultural social context it is written in... ...

  3. Ecological validity of cost-effectiveness models of universal HPV vaccination: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favato, Giampiero; Easton, Tania; Vecchiato, Riccardo; Noikokyris, Emmanouil

    2017-05-09

    The protective (herd) effect of the selective vaccination of pubertal girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) implies a high probability that one of the two partners involved in intercourse is immunised, hence preventing the other from this sexually transmitted infection. The dynamic transmission models used to inform immunisation policy should include consideration of sexual behaviours and population mixing in order to demonstrate an ecological validity, whereby the scenarios modelled remain faithful to the real-life social and cultural context. The primary aim of this review is to test the ecological validity of the universal HPV vaccination cost-effectiveness modelling available in the published literature. The research protocol related to this systematic review has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42016034145). Eight published economic evaluations were reviewed. None of the studies showed due consideration of the complexities of human sexual behaviour and the impact this may have on the transmission of HPV. Our findings indicate that all the included models might be affected by a different degree of ecological bias, which implies an inability to reflect the natural demographic and behavioural trends in their outcomes and, consequently, to accurately inform public healthcare policy. In particular, ecological bias have the effect to over-estimate the preference-based outcomes of selective immunisation. A relatively small (15-20%) over-estimation of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained with selective immunisation programmes could induce a significant error in the estimate of cost-effectiveness of universal immunisation, by inflating its incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) beyond the acceptability threshold. The results modelled here demonstrate the limitations of the cost-effectiveness studies for HPV vaccination, and highlight the concern that public healthcare policy might have been

  4. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The Validity of Teacher Ratings of Adolescents' Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Terje

    2003-01-01

    Examined the validity of teacher ratings of adolescents' social skills in a followup of a cohort sample of 395 students from seventh to ninth grades. Findings show multi-informant consistency in ratings; teacher ratings consistently covaried with teacher ratings of problem behavior and academic competence, nominations by peer students, and grade…

  6. Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

    2013-06-01

    The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse.

  7. Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Behavior: The Social Validity of Social Stories[TM] and Comic Strip Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a family-centered collaborative approach to the development and socially valid assessment of Social Stories[TM] and comic strip conversations (CSCs) for supporting the social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventeen children with ASD (ages 4-12 years) participated in either an immediate or a…

  8. Social Entrepreneurship Discourses and Contributions : A Literature Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Aaltio, Iiris

    2017-01-01

    Differing from traditional type of entrepreneurship (i.e. business/ commercial entrepreneurship), social entrepreneurship embeds social value creation as its main objective. Recently, social entrepreneurship research is gaining popularity; meanwhile, ethics within social enterprises have not been comprehensively analyzed and debated. How to teach and train social entrepreneurs has also become a point of pedagogical significance. With a critical review...

  9. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: Factor, Convergent, and Divergent Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to assess fear of overall appearance evaluation. Initial psychometric work indicated that the measure had a single-factor structure and exhibited excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. In the current study, the authors further examined the factor,…

  10. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: factor, convergent, and divergent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2011-09-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to assess fear of overall appearance evaluation. Initial psychometric work indicated that the measure had a single-factor structure and exhibited excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. In the current study, the authors further examined the factor, convergent, and divergent validity of the SAAS in two samples of undergraduates. In Study 1 (N = 323), the authors tested the factor structure, convergent, and divergent validity of the SAAS with measures of the Big Five personality traits, negative affect, fear of negative evaluation, and social interaction anxiety. In Study 2 (N = 118), participants completed a body evaluation that included measurements of height, weight, and body fat content. The SAAS exhibited excellent convergent and divergent validity with self-report measures (i.e., self-esteem, trait anxiety, ethnic identity, and sympathy), predicted state anxiety experienced during the body evaluation, and predicted body fat content. In both studies, results confirmed a single-factor structure as the best fit to the data. These results lend additional support for the use of the SAAS as a valid measure of social appearance anxiety.

  11. Validity as a social imperative for assessment in health professions education: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Mélanie; Gallagher, Frances; Young, Meredith; St-Onge, Christina

    2018-06-01

    Assessment can have far-reaching consequences for future health care professionals and for society. Thus, it is essential to establish the quality of assessment. Few modern approaches to validity are well situated to ensure the quality of complex assessment approaches, such as authentic and programmatic assessments. Here, we explore and delineate the concept of validity as a social imperative in the context of assessment in health professions education (HPE) as a potential framework for examining the quality of complex and programmatic assessment approaches. We conducted a concept analysis using Rodgers' evolutionary method to describe the concept of validity as a social imperative in the context of assessment in HPE. Supported by an academic librarian, we developed and executed a search strategy across several databases for literature published between 1995 and 2016. From a total of 321 citations, we identified 67 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Two team members analysed the texts using a specified approach to qualitative data analysis. Consensus was achieved through full team discussions. Attributes that characterise the concept were: (i) demonstration of the use of evidence considered credible by society to document the quality of assessment; (ii) validation embedded through the assessment process and score interpretation; (iii) documented validity evidence supporting the interpretation of the combination of assessment findings, and (iv) demonstration of a justified use of a variety of evidence (quantitative and qualitative) to document the quality of assessment strategies. The emerging concept of validity as a social imperative highlights some areas of focus in traditional validation frameworks, whereas some characteristics appear unique to HPE and move beyond traditional frameworks. The study reflects the importance of embedding consideration for society and societal concerns throughout the assessment and validation process, and may represent a

  12. Paulo Freire, Social Change, and the Teaching of Gothic Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropiano, Carmelo

    2008-01-01

    Constructions of power are latent everywhere; the nature of the concept of power, as it finds its expression in and through literature, is presented in all its forms, notably power's implications and its consequences. Far too many college students approach literature anemically and conclude that reading literature and writing about it are…

  13. Literature research concerning alternative methods for validation of criticality calculation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behler, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Beside radiochemical analysis of irradiated fuel and critical experiments, which has become a well-established basis for the validation of depletion code and criticality codes respectively, also results of oscillation experiments or the operating conditions of power reactor and research reactors can provide useful information for the validation of the above mentioned codes. Based on a literature review the potential of the utilization of oscillation experiment measurements for the validation of criticality codes is estimated. It is found that the reactivity measurements for actinides and fission products within the CERES program on the reactors DIMPLE (Winfrith, UK) and MINERVE (Cadarache, France) can give a valuable addition to the commonly used critical experiments for criticality code validation. However, there are approaches but yet no generally satisfactory solution for integrating the reactivity measurements in a quantitative bias determination for the neutron multiplication factor of typical application cases including irradiated spent fuel outside reactor cores, calculated using common criticality codes.

  14. Truly included? A literature study focusing on the social dimension of inclusion in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Social participation of students with special educational needs (SEN) is a key issue in the inclusion debate. However, the meaning of concepts like social integration, social inclusion and social participation used in current literature is often unclear. Recently, these concepts were clarified based

  15. Reliability and validity of the workplace social distance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Hatsumi; Mandai, Nozomu; Saito, Hidemitsu; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2014-10-29

    Self-stigma, defined by a negative attitude toward oneself combined with the consciousness of being a target of prejudice, is a critical problem for psychiatric patients. Self-stigma studies among psychiatric patients have indicated that high stigma is predictive of detrimental effects such as the delay of treatment and decreases in social participation in patients, and levels of self-stigma should be statistically evaluated. In this study, we developed the Workplace Social Distance Scale (WSDS), rephrasing the eight items of the Japanese version of the Social Distance Scale (SDSJ) to apply to the work setting in Japan. We examined the reliability and validity of the WSDS among 83 psychiatric patients. Factor analysis extracted three factors from the scale items: "work relations," "shallow relationships," and "employment." These factors are similar to the assessment factors of the SDSJ. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the WSDS was 0.753. The split-half reliability for the WSDS was 0.801, indicating significant correlations. In addition, the WSDS was significantly correlated with the SDSJ. These findings suggest that the WSDS represents an approximation of self-stigma in the workplace among psychiatric patients. Our study assessed the reliability and validity of the WSDS for measuring self-stigma in Japan. Future studies should investigate the reliability and validity of the scale in other countries.

  16. Refining and validating the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G; McCabe, Randi E; Rowa, Karen; Antony, Martin M

    2009-01-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale are companion measures for assessing symptoms of social anxiety and social phobia. The scales have good reliability and validity across several samples, however, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have yielded solutions comprising substantially different item content and factor structures. These discrepancies are likely the result of analyzing items from each scale separately or simultaneously. The current investigation sets out to assess items from those scales, both simultaneously and separately, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in an effort to resolve the factor structure. Participants consisted of a clinical sample (n 5353; 54% women) and an undergraduate sample (n 5317; 75% women) who completed the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale, along with additional fear-related measures to assess convergent and discriminant validity. A three-factor solution with a reduced set of items was found to be most stable, irrespective of whether the items from each scale are assessed together or separately. Items from the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale represented one factor, whereas items from the Social Phobia Scale represented two other factors. Initial support for scale and factor validity, along with implications and recommendations for future research, is provided. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The Discussion of Social Entrepreneurship: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Daud@Fhiri Nur Suriaty; Diyana Ishak Siti Intan; Abdullah Suhairimi; Azmi A. A.; Ishak Aida Shakila; Ahmad Z.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the various discussion of social entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurship provides a unique opportunity and assumptions to question, challenge and rethink from different perspective of management and business research. This article offers a comparative analysis of commercial entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship using a prevailing analytical model from commercial entrepreneurship. The analysis highlights key differences and similarities betwee...

  18. Social Media in Higher Education: A Literature Review of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Ritesh; Ruhi, Umar

    2018-01-01

    The rapid adoption of social media technologies has resulted in a fundamental shift in the way communication and collaboration take place. As staff and students use social media technologies in their personal lives, it is important to explore how social media technologies are being used as an educational tool. The aim of this paper is to analyse…

  19. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  20. Investigating the reliability and validity of the waterlow risk assessment scale: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Breda

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review was to examine health literature on the reliability and validity of the Waterlow pressure sore assessment scale. A systematic review of published studies relating to the topic was conducted and literature was examined for its relevancy to the topic under investigation. Findings suggest that despite the availability of over 40 assessment tools, the Waterlow assessment scale is the most frequently used by health care staff. Research suggests that the Waterlow Scale is an unreliable method of assessing individuals at risk of pressure sore development with all studies indicating a poor interrater reliability status. Its validity has also been criticized because of its high-sensitivity but low-specificity levels.

  1. Social Work Literature Searching: Current Issues with Databases and Online Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Tony; Taylor, Brian; McColgan, Mary; McQuilkan, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the performance of a range of search facilities; and to illustrate the execution of a comprehensive literature search for qualitative evidence in social work. Context: Developments in literature search methods and comparisons of search facilities help facilitate access to the best available evidence for social workers.…

  2. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Peer-Reviewed Literature: The Evidence Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Social workers from one state chapter of the National Association of Social Workers were surveyed to assess their use of and attitudes toward the peer-reviewed literature and their engagement in evidence-based practice. Results reveal that, in general, the practitioners in this study did not read the peer-reviewed literature, particularly articles…

  3. Social CRM Adoption and its Impact on Performance Outcomes: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marolt Marjeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Social customer relationship management (social CRM is an emerging concept that integrates traditional CRM and social media in order to provide benefits for organizations and customers. Despite the benefits that social CRM can bring, many organizations are still at the early stage of adoption. To move beyond social marketing and to exploit opportunities offered by sales and customer service, organizations need to be aware of factors that drive social CRM adoption and different implications of social CRM adoption for performance outcomes. This paper aims to provide a review of scholarly literature on social CRM adoption with the focus on factors and performance outcomes.

  4. Social media and digital technology use among Indigenous young people in Australia: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Emma S.; Haynes, Emma; Royce, Paul; Thompson, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of social media and digital technologies has grown rapidly in Australia and around the world, including among Indigenous young people who face social disadvantage. Given the potential to use social media for communication, providing information and as part of creating and responding to social change, this paper explores published literature to understand how Indigenous Australian youth use digital technologies and social media, and its positive and negative impacts. Metho...

  5. The Social Dimension of Globalization: A review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G. Gunter (Bernard); R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPreface. The Technical Secretariat to support the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization first prepared a synthesis of ILO activities on the Social Dimension of Globalization (published as Working Paper No. 1 in this series). Documentation on the work and outcomes of

  6. English Validation of the Parental Socialization Scale—ESPA29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; Cruise, Edie; García, Óscar F.; Murgui, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Parenting styles have traditionally been studied following the classical two-dimensional orthogonal model of parental socialization. The Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29 is used to measure the four styles of parental socialization through the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. The ESPA29 scale is a developmentally appropriate measure of parenting styles, which has been validated in several languages including Spanish, Italian, and Brazilian Portuguese. In this study, the English translation of the ESPA29 was evaluated. The objective of the work is to test the ESPA29’s structure of parenting practices with a United States sample measuring parenting practices using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The scores of fathers’ and mothers’ behavioral practices toward their children were obtained for a sample of 911 United States adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. First, the total sample was split and a principal components analysis with varimax rotation was carried out with one of the two halves. EFA showed a two-factor structure fully congruent with the theoretical model for mothers’ and fathers’ scores. Next, a CFA was calculated on the second half by using the factor structure obtained in the previous EFA. The CFA replicated the two-factor structure with appropriate fit index. The seven parenting practices that were measured loaded appropriately on the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. Then, the multigroup analysis between girls and boys showed equal loading in the factors and equal covariation between the acceptance/involvement and the strictness/imposition dimensions. Additionally, the two dimensions of the ESPA29 scale were related to self-esteem in order to obtain an external validity index. The findings confirm the invariant structure of the ESPA29 was in the United States and their equivalence in both fathers’ and mothers’ scores. These findings

  7. English Validation of the Parental Socialization Scale—ESPA29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martínez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parenting styles have traditionally been studied following the classical two-dimensional orthogonal model of parental socialization. The Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29 is used to measure the four styles of parental socialization through the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. The ESPA29 scale is a developmentally appropriate measure of parenting styles, which has been validated in several languages including Spanish, Italian, and Brazilian Portuguese. In this study, the English translation of the ESPA29 was evaluated. The objective of the work is to test the ESPA29’s structure of parenting practices with a United States sample measuring parenting practices using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The scores of fathers’ and mothers’ behavioral practices toward their children were obtained for a sample of 911 United States adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. First, the total sample was split and a principal components analysis with varimax rotation was carried out with one of the two halves. EFA showed a two-factor structure fully congruent with the theoretical model for mothers’ and fathers’ scores. Next, a CFA was calculated on the second half by using the factor structure obtained in the previous EFA. The CFA replicated the two-factor structure with appropriate fit index. The seven parenting practices that were measured loaded appropriately on the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. Then, the multigroup analysis between girls and boys showed equal loading in the factors and equal covariation between the acceptance/involvement and the strictness/imposition dimensions. Additionally, the two dimensions of the ESPA29 scale were related to self-esteem in order to obtain an external validity index. The findings confirm the invariant structure of the ESPA29 was in the United States and their equivalence in both fathers’ and mothers’ scores

  8. English Validation of the Parental Socialization Scale-ESPA29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; Cruise, Edie; García, Óscar F; Murgui, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Parenting styles have traditionally been studied following the classical two-dimensional orthogonal model of parental socialization. The Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29 is used to measure the four styles of parental socialization through the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. The ESPA29 scale is a developmentally appropriate measure of parenting styles, which has been validated in several languages including Spanish, Italian, and Brazilian Portuguese. In this study, the English translation of the ESPA29 was evaluated. The objective of the work is to test the ESPA29's structure of parenting practices with a United States sample measuring parenting practices using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The scores of fathers' and mothers' behavioral practices toward their children were obtained for a sample of 911 United States adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. First, the total sample was split and a principal components analysis with varimax rotation was carried out with one of the two halves. EFA showed a two-factor structure fully congruent with the theoretical model for mothers' and fathers' scores. Next, a CFA was calculated on the second half by using the factor structure obtained in the previous EFA. The CFA replicated the two-factor structure with appropriate fit index. The seven parenting practices that were measured loaded appropriately on the acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition dimensions. Then, the multigroup analysis between girls and boys showed equal loading in the factors and equal covariation between the acceptance/involvement and the strictness/imposition dimensions. Additionally, the two dimensions of the ESPA29 scale were related to self-esteem in order to obtain an external validity index. The findings confirm the invariant structure of the ESPA29 was in the United States and their equivalence in both fathers' and mothers' scores. These findings validate the

  9. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  10. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…

  11. Social Values Reflected in "Batu Dara Muning" An Oral Literature of Dayak Keninjal Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martono Martono

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral literature has an important function in life because it can reflect people's lives and instil a sense of love for their own culture. Oral literature is a cultural heritage of the region passed down from generation to generation which is narrated from mouth to mouth and has a noble value. The noble value contained in oral literature reflects the local culture of the tribe. Certain noble values must be continuously preserved and implemented in the life of society and state. The noble value as a form of character education, such as social values. Therefore, positive social values must be maintained. The social values as many ancestral riches are also found in Dayak Keninjal oral literature titled Batu Dara Muning. The social value that can be found in oral literature entitled Batu Dara Muning is the value of a mother's love for a child, obedient to parents, forbidden marriage, obedience to customs. To analyze oral literature Batu Dara Muning used an approach of a sociology of literature. The reason literature is a mirror of the lives of the people who own the story. Stories or events expressed in oral literature are sourced from events in society with the narrator's imagination. The character used in oral literature is not the name of the character in his tribe, but the name made by the narrator.

  12. Social Validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings…

  13. Moderators and Mediators in Social Work Research: Toward a More Ecologically Valid Evidence Base for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Summary Evidence-based practice involves the consistent and critical consumption of the social work research literature. As methodologies advance, primers to guide such efforts are often needed. In the present work, common statistical methods for testing moderation and mediation are identified, summarized, and corresponding examples, drawn from the substance abuse, domestic violence, and mental health literature, are provided. Findings While methodologically complex, analyses of these third variable effects can provide an optimal fit for the complexity involved in the provision of evidence-based social work services. While a moderator may identify the trait or state requirement for a causal relationship to occur, a mediator is concerned with the transmission of that relationship. In social work practice, these are questions of “under what conditions and for whom?” and of the “how?” of behavior change. Implications Implications include a need for greater attention to these methods among practitioners and evaluation researchers. With knowledge gained through the present review, social workers can benefit from a more ecologically valid evidence base for practice. PMID:22833701

  14. The social dimension of globalization: A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G. Gunter (Bernard); R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWith globalization affecting so many inter-connected areas, it is difficult to grasp its full impact. This literature review of over 120 sources considers the impact of globalization on wages and taxes, poverty, inequality, insecurity, child labour, gender, and migration. Opening with

  15. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  16. Measuring social alienation in adolescence: translation and validation of the Jessor and Jessor Social Alienation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safipour, Jalal; Tessma, Mesfin Kassaye; Higginbottom, Gina; Emami, Azita

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the study is to translate and examine the reliability and validity of the Jessor and Jessor Social Alienation Scale for use in a Swedish context. The study involved four phases of testing: (1) Translation and back-translation; (2) a pilot test to evaluate the translation; (3) reliability testing; and (4) a validity test. Main participants of this study were 446 students (Age = 15-19, SD = 1.01, Mean = 17). Results from the reliability test showed high internal consistency and stability. Face, content and construct validity were demonstrated using experts and confirmatory factor analysis. The results of testing the Swedish version of the alienation scale revealed an acceptable level of reliability and validity, and is appropriate for use in the Swedish context. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Social networking site (SNS) use by adolescent mothers: Can social support and social capital be enhanced by online social networks? - A structured review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Ferguson, Sally; Towell, Amanda

    2017-05-01

    to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children. Social support has been shown to benefit adolescent mothers thus online mechanisms require consideration. a review of original research articles METHOD: key terms and Boolean operators identified research reports across a 20-year timeframe pertaining to the area of enquiry in: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, ERIC, ProQuest, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Health Collection (Informit) and Google Scholar databases. Eight original research articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. studies demonstrate that adolescent mothers actively search for health information using the Internet and social networking sites, and that social support and social capital can be attributed to their use of specifically created online groups from within targeted health interventions. Use of a message board forum for pregnant and parenting adolescents also demonstrates elements of social support. There are no studies to date pertaining to adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of social support provision and related outcomes. further investigation is warranted to explore the potential benefits of adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of any social support provision and social capital they may provide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social vulnerability and climate change: synthesis of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathy Lynn; Katharine MacKendrick; Ellen M. Donoghue

    2011-01-01

    The effects of climate change are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others because of geographic location, the degree of association with climate-sensitive environments, and unique cultural, economic, or political characteristics of particular landscapes and human populations. Social vulnerability and equity in the context of climate change...

  19. Reviewing the literature : from user innovator to social user entrepreneur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koers-Stuiver, D.M.; Groen, A.J.; Ehrenhard, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the boundaries of the theories on user entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship by examining the differences and analogies between them. This research was the first to explore the analogies between both types of entrepreneurship and theorized about the value these types of

  20. The dutch social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale: reliability, validity, and clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, Edwin; Tielen, Deirdre; Wollmann, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and the social phobia scale (SPS) assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subscales was good. The concurrent and discriminant validity was supported and the scales were well able to discriminate between patients and community-based respondents. Cut-off values with excellent sensitivity and specificity are presented. Of all self-report measures included, the SPS was the most sensitive for treatment effects. Normative data are provided which can be used to assess whether clinically significant change has occurred in individual patients.

  1. The Dutch Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale: Reliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin de Beurs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS and the social phobia scale (SPS assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subscales was good. The concurrent and discriminant validity was supported and the scales were well able to discriminate between patients and community-based respondents. Cut-off values with excellent sensitivity and specificity are presented. Of all self-report measures included, the SPS was the most sensitive for treatment effects. Normative data are provided which can be used to assess whether clinically significant change has occurred in individual patients.

  2. Is the smile line a valid parameter for esthetic evaluation? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passia, Nicole; Blatz, Markus; Strub, Jörg Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    The "smile line" is commonly used as a parameter to evaluate and categorize a person's smile. This systematic literature review assessed the existing evidence on the validity and universal applicability of this parameter. The latter was evaluated based on studies on smile perception by orthodontists, general clinicians, and laypeople. A review of the literature published between October 1973 and January 2010 was conducted with the electronic database Pubmed and the search terms "smile," "smile line," "smile arc," and "smile design." The search yielded 309 articles, of which nine studies were included based on the selection criteria. The selected studies typically correlate the smile line with the position of the upper lip during a smile while, on average, 75 to 100% of the maxillary anterior teeth are exposed. A virtual line that connects the incisal edges of the maxillary anterior teeth commonly follows the upper border of the lower lip. Average and parallel smile lines are most common, influenced by the age and gender of a person. Orthodontists, general clinicians, and laypeople have similar preferences and rate average smile lines as most attractive. The smile line is a valid tool to assess the esthetic appearance of a smile. It can be applied universally as clinicians and laypersons perceive and judge it similarly.

  3. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF MINORS MATERNITY (REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Альбертовна Новикова

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of recent data of Russian and foreign researches for social aspects of teenage pregnancy is presented, including factors that contribute to the problem - acceleration of the growth and development of adolescents, compared to previous generations, changes in the rules governing the relationship between adolescents, changes in the system of medical and educational measures to educate teenagers right attitude to gender issues, etc. The basic scenario, the first sexual encounter: violence, passive behavior, voluntary consent, innovative behavior, beer alcoholization. And their outcomes: abortion, juvenile motherhood, early marriage, child abandonment. The necessity of government activities in the field of regulation and social support for young mothers, and teen pregnancy prevention organizations in educational institutions are justified.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-37

  4. Methods for mapping the impact of social sciences and humanities - a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz; Grønvad, Jonas Følsgaard; Hvidtfeldt, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the current literature on 'research impact' in the Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH). By providing a comprehensive review of available literature, drawing on national and international experiences, we seek to examine key methods and frameworks used to assess research impact...

  5. Social Peer Interactions in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…

  6. Measuring Social Relationships in Different Social Systems: The Construction and Validation of the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537), a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558) confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317), an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons. PMID:26200357

  7. Measuring Social Relationships in Different Social Systems: The Construction and Validation of the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Aguilar-Raab

    Full Text Available Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537, a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558 confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317, an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons.

  8. Utilizing the social media data to validate 'climate change' indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodtsova, T.; Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2013-12-01

    Reporting the observed and modeled changes in climate to public requires the measures understandable by the general audience. E.g., the NASA GISS Common Sense Climate Index (Hansen et al., 1998) reports the change in climate based on six practically observable parameters such as the air temperature exceeding the norm by one standard deviation. The utility of the constructed indices for reporting climate change depends, however, on an assumption that the selected parameters are felt and connected with the changing climate by a non-expert, which needs to be validated. Dynamic discussion of climate change issues in social media may provide data for this validation. We connected the intensity of public discussion of climate change in social networks with regional weather variations for the territory of the USA. We collected the entire 2012 population of Twitter microblogging activity on climate change topic, accumulating over 1.8 million separate records (tweets) globally. We identified the geographic location of the tweets and associated the daily and weekly intensity of twitting with the following parameters of weather for these locations: temperature anomalies, 'hot' temperature anomalies, 'cold' temperature anomalies, heavy rain/snow events. To account for non-weather related events we included the articles on climate change from the 'prestige press', a collection of major newspapers. We found that the regional changes in parameters of weather significantly affect the number of tweets published on climate change. This effect, however, is short-lived and varies throughout the country. We found that in different locations different weather parameters had the most significant effect on climate change microblogging activity. Overall 'hot' temperature anomalies had significant influence on climate change twitting intensity.

  9. Validation of the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale among Junior Middle School Students in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jibin; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Mo, Phoenix K. H.; Su, Xuefen; Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Jie; Qin, Zuguo

    2016-01-01

    Background Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents? daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents? well-being. However, there are few validated instruments to measure social networking use intensity. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. Methods A total of 910 students who were social networking...

  10. How portable is social security for migrant workers? : A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Taha (Nurulsyahirah); M. Messkoub (Mahmood); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the literature on the portability of social security entitlements for migrant workers, who moved along North-North, South- North, and South-South migration flows. Portability of social security entitlements is the ability of migrant workers to preserve, maintain, and

  11. Signature Pedagogy: A Literature Review of Social Studies and Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dennis; Eno, Jenni

    2012-01-01

    A literature review of 121 peer-reviewed articles, books, and conference proceedings was conducted to determine the signature pedagogies of social studies education and technology integration. The authors found that the signature social studies pedagogy is based on two primary instructional models: direct-instruction and inquiry-based,…

  12. Evaluating the Social Validity of the Early Start Denver Model: A Convergent Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Emily; McCrudden, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    An intervention has social validity to the extent that it is socially acceptable to participants and stakeholders. This pilot convergent mixed methods study evaluated parents' perceptions of the social validity of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), a naturalistic behavioral intervention for children with autism. It focused on whether the parents…

  13. Will Pre-Funding Provide Security for Social Security? A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Brown

    2000-01-01

    President Clinton has proposed creating larger social security funds and investing a portion of them in the private sector. Others have suggested more radical reforms such as moving social security from a defined-benefit scheme to a defined contribution plan based on the Chilean model. These proposals are based on the goal of creating higher investment returns, which would make social security benefits easier to finance in the long run. After an extensive review of the literature, this paper ...

  14. Personality dynamics: insights from the personality social cognitive literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Gordon, Kathryn H

    2011-03-01

    Psychodynamic and social cognitive approaches to personality assessment converge now more so than at any time in the history of experimental psychology. This contribution seeks to make this point. First, the trait of neuroticism predisposes one to multiple adverse outcomes, a point not sufficiently captured by the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Second, though, self-reported levels of neuroticism are insufficient in understanding problematic outcomes for multiple reasons. Third, there are ways of experimentally modeling the many processes of interest to psychodynamic theorists such as unconscious affective biases, implicit representations of self and other, and underlying deficits in self- and emotion regulation. Implicit approaches to assessment also provide clues to interventions targeting the processes of interest, a point that will be made as well.

  15. Social support networks and eating disorders: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas, Carolina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED). By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006-2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. The selection of articles was based on preestablished inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 24 articles were selected for data extraction. There was a predominance of studies that used nonexperimental and descriptive designs, and which were published in international journals. This review provided evidence of the fact that fully consolidated literature regarding social support and social networks in patients with ED is not available, given the small number of studies dedicated to the subject. We identified evidence that the family social network of patients with ED has been widely explored by the literature, although there is a lack of studies about other networks and sources of social support outside the family. The evidence presented in this study shows the need to include other social networks in health care. This expansion beyond family networks would include significant others - such as friends, colleagues, neighbors, people from religious groups, among others - who could help the individual coping with the disorder. The study also highlights the need for future research on this topic, as well as a need for greater investment in publications on the various dimensions of social support and social networks.

  16. Developing a common language for using social marketing: an analysis of Public Health literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Ellery, Jane; Thomas, Kamilah B; Marshall, Robert

    2010-10-01

    The term social marketing has been used to describe a multitude of interventions that incorporate the use of traditional marketing techniques to promote a behavior that will improve the health or well-being of a target audience or of society as a whole. However, there is wide variation in the way social marketing is defined and used. This systematic review article examines how social marketing has been defined and applied to social problems within the public health literature from 2001-2006, by adapting a grading-system borrowed from evidence-based medicine and utilizing Kotler and Zaltman's definition of social marketing. Additionally, definitions of social marketing were identified in the reviewed articles. Identifying a common language in the description and design of social marketing interventions will benefit researchers and practitioners interested in social marketing as a behavior change approach.

  17. Social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the primary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings indicated that teachers generally perceived the SSIS-CIP as a socially valid and feasible intervention for primary grades; however, teachers' ratings regarding ease of implementation and relevance and sequence demonstrated differences across grade levels in the second year of implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Development and Validation of a Video-Based Social Knowledge Test for Junior Commissioned Army Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, R. J; Johnson, J. W

    2004-01-01

    Social knowledge/skill are increasingly critical to the success of U.S. Army officers. In this paper, we describe development and criterion-related validation of an experimental video-based social knowledge test...

  19. Social networking addiction, attachment style, and validation of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D.; Sinatra, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Research into social networking addiction has greatly increased over the last decade. However, the number of\\ud validated instruments assessing addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) remains few, and none have been\\ud validated in the Italian language. Consequently, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Italian version of\\ud the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), as well as providing empirical data concerning the relationship\\ud between attachment styles and...

  20. Examining ecological validity in social interaction: problems of visual fidelity, gaze, and social potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Arran T; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    Social interaction is an essential part of the human experience, and much work has been done to study it. However, several common approaches to examining social interactions in psychological research may inadvertently either unnaturally constrain the observed behaviour by causing it to deviate from naturalistic performance, or introduce unwanted sources of variance. In particular, these sources are the differences between naturalistic and experimental behaviour that occur from changes in visual fidelity (quality of the observed stimuli), gaze (whether it is controlled for in the stimuli), and social potential (potential for the stimuli to provide actual interaction). We expand on these possible sources of extraneous variance and why they may be important. We review the ways in which experimenters have developed novel designs to remove these sources of extraneous variance. New experimental designs using a 'two-person' approach are argued to be one of the most effective ways to develop more ecologically valid measures of social interaction, and we suggest that future work on social interaction should use these designs wherever possible.

  1. [Design and validation of the CSR-Hospital-SP scale to measure corporate social responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José Joaquín; Lorenzo, Susana; Navarro, Isabel; Pérez-Jover, Virtudes; Vitaller, Julián

    2013-01-01

    To design and validate a scale (CSR-Hospital-SP) to determine health professionals' views on the approach of management to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in their hospital. The literature was reviewed to identify the main CSR scales and select the dimensions to be evaluated. The initial version of the scale consisted of 25 items. A convenience sample of a minimum of 224 health professionals working in five public hospitals in five autonomous regions were invited to respond. Floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity were analyzed. A total of 233 health professionals responded. The CSR-Hospital-SP scale had 20 items grouped into four factors. The item-total correlation was higher than 0.30; all factor loadings were greater than 0.50; 59.57% of the variance was explained; Cronbach's alpha was 0.90; Spearman-Brown's coefficient was 0.82. The CSR-Hospital-SP scale is a tool designed for hospitals that implement accountability mechanisms and promote socially responsible management approaches. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychometric validation study of the liebowitz social anxiety scale - self-reported version for Brazilian Portuguese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Forni dos Santos

    Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR, translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413 and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252. The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90-0.96 and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson's = 0.82. The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard.

  3. Stability, reliability and validity of social value orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2004-01-01

    Social value orientations are often regarded as stable individual differences in otherregarding preferences - the concern for equality and joint outcomes - affecting the propensity to cooperate in experimental social dilemma situations. Despite the widespread use of measures of social value

  4. Social Support and Mental Health in LGBTQ Adolescents: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kari

    2018-01-01

    LGBTQ adolescents experience higher rates of mental health disorders than their heterosexual peers. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature was to examine studies evaluating social support and its effects on mental health in the LGBTQ adolescent population. Higher levels of social support were associated with positive self-esteem. Lack of social support (or low social support) was associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, alcohol or drug misuse, risky sexual behaviors, shame, and low self-esteem. Interdisciplinary research teams from multiple and diverse professions could provide valuable insight supporting the development of inclusive and comprehensive interventions programs for this population.

  5. Social support networks and eating disorders: an integrative review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Leonidas, Manoel Antônio dos Santos Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil Aims: This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED. Methods: By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006–2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. The selection of articles was based on preestablished inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 24 articles were selected for data extraction. There was a predominance of studies that used nonexperimental and descriptive designs, and which were published in international journals. This review provided evidence of the fact that fully consolidated literature regarding social support and social networks in patients with ED is not available, given the small number of studies dedicated to the subject. We identified evidence that the family social network of patients with ED has been widely explored by the literature, although there is a lack of studies about other networks and sources of social support outside the family. Conclusion: The evidence presented in this study shows the need to include other social networks in health care. This expansion beyond family networks would include significant others – such as friends, colleagues, neighbors, people from religious groups, among others – who could help the individual coping with the disorder. The study also highlights the need for future research on this topic, as well as a need for greater investment in publications on the various dimensions of social support and social networks. Keywords: eating disorders, social networks, social support, family relations, peer relations

  6. Utilizing social networking sites to promote adolescents' health: a pragmatic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francomano, Jesse A; Harpin, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Social networking site use has exploded among youth in the last few years and is being adapted as an important tool for healthcare interventions and serving as a platform for adolescents to gain access to health information. The aim of this study was to examine the strengths, weaknesses, and best practices of utilizing Facebook in adolescent health promotion and research via pragmatic literature review. We also examine how sites can facilitate ethically sound healthcare for adolescents, particularly at-risk youth. We conducted a literature review of health and social sciences literature from the past 5 years related to adolescent health and social network site use. Publications were grouped by shared content then categorized by themes. Five themes emerged: access to healthcare information, peer support and networking, risk and benefits of social network site use in care delivery, overcoming technological barriers, and social network site interventions. More research is needed to better understand how such Web sites can be better utilized to provide access to adolescents seeking healthcare. Given the broad reach of social network sites, all health information must be closely monitored for accurate, safe distribution. Finally, consent and privacy issues are omnipresent in social network sites, which calls for standards of ethical use.

  7. Towards Knowledge Sharing Through Social Media in Software Development: A Systematic Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarka, Peter Bo; Heisig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    An effective knowledge exchange among software developers is crucial for the competitive performance of their organisations. Today, the constant pressure on business to continually innovate and the increasing capability of information technologies to facilitate broader and more distributed....... Although several studies of the relationship is available, today there exists no comprehensive overview of what has been investigated. Using a systematic literature review approach, this study aims to map the current state of literature on knowledge sharing through social media applicable to software...

  8. Scholarly literature and the press: scientific impact and social perception of physics computing

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia; Bell, Zane W; Dressendorfer, Paul V

    2014-01-01

    The broad coverage of the search for the Higgs boson in the mainstream media is a relative novelty for high energy physics (HEP) research, whose achievements have traditionally been limited to scholarly literature. This paper illustrates the results of a scientometric analysis of HEP computing in scientific literature, institutional media and the press, and a comparative overview of similar metrics concerning representative particle physics measurements. The picture emerging from these scientometric data documents the scientific impact and social perception of HEP computing. The results of this analysis suggest that improved communication of the scientific and social role of HEP computing would be beneficial to the high energy physics community.

  9. Resident Wellness and Social Support: Development and Cognitive Validation of a Resident Social Capital Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Stephen J; Seabott, Heather M; Cunningham, Erika B; Helman, James D; Calderon, Alvin; Thirlby, Richard C; Schenarts, Kimberly D

    The purpose of this study is to develop and generate validity evidence for an instrument to measure social capital in residents. Mixed-methods, phased approach utilizing a modified Delphi technique, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. Four residency training institutions in Washington state between February 2016 and March 2017. General surgery, anesthesia, and internal medicine residents ranging from PGY-1 to PGY-6. The initial resident-focused instrument underwent revision via Delphi process with 6 experts; 100% expert consensus was achieved after 4 cycles. Three focus groups were conducted with 19 total residents. Focus groups identified 6 of 11 instrument items with mean quality ratings ≤4.0 on a 1-5 scale. The composite instrument rating of the draft version was 4.1 ± 0.5. After refining the instrument, cognitive interviews with the final version were completed with 22 residents. All items in the final version had quality ratings >4.0; the composite instrument rating was 4.8 ± 0.1. Social capital may be an important factor in resident wellness as residents rely upon each other and external social support to withstand fatigue, burnout, and other negative sequelae of rigorous training. This instrument for assessment of social capital in residents may provide an avenue for data collection and potentially, identification of residents at-risk for wellness degradation. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential Threats of Information Disclosure in Social Media: a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Yulianto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the growth of social media, a variety of potential threats to users is also increasing. These kinds of threats often occur because the users accidentally or unknowingly disclose their information or identity on social media. Threats resulted from the disclosure of information are needed to be known so that the users can understand the risks that arise and take precautions. This research was aimed to summarize the potential threats arising from the information disclosure in social media. The research method used was a systematic literature review to explore and summarize the literatures that discuss the specific topic. The research results show that the potential threats are mostly social threats and identity theft. 

  11. Seventeen years of human trafficking research in social work: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, David; Choi, Y Joon; Elkins, Jennifer; Burns, Abigail C

    2018-01-01

    The trafficking of persons around the world is a serious violation of human rights and manifestation of social injustice. It disproportionately affects women and children worldwide. Given the values of the social work profession and the prevalence of trafficking, it is essential to understand the current literature on human trafficking in social work journals. Using the PRISMA method, this systematic review (n = 94 articles) of human trafficking in social work journals found the following: more focus on sex trafficking than other forms of trafficking; a lack of a clear conceptualization and definition on the entire spectrum of trafficking; a lack of evidence-informed empirical research to inform programs, practice, and policy; and a dearth of recommendations for social work education. Specific implications for social work policy, research, practice, and education are highlighted and discussed.

  12. Social Sustainable Supply Chain Management in the Textile and Apparel Industry—A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Köksal; Jochen Strähle; Martin Müller; Matthias Freise

    2017-01-01

    So far, a vast amount of studies on sustainability in supply chain management have been conducted by academics over the last decade. Nevertheless, socially related aspects are still neglected in the related discussion. The primary motivation of the present literature review has arisen from this shortcoming, thus the key purpose of this study is to enrich the discussion by providing a state-of-the-art, focusing exclusively on social issues in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) by consi...

  13. Online Social Networking and Addiction?A Review of the Psychological Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a ‘global consumer phenomenon’ with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that ‘addiction’ to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addr...

  14. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    FERREIRA, ELİZABETH REAL DE OLIVEIRA – PEDRO; SAUR, IRİNA; AMARAL,

    2013-01-01

    We perform a systematic literature review on academic papers in Human Resources Management and Corporate Social Responsibility in ISI Current Contents. Based on 117 academic papers from 2001 to date, we perform content analysis in a grounded-theory methodological approach and map the field of Human Resources Management and Corporate Social Responsibility, identifying main schools of thought (invisible colleges) and main players. We see a tendency to increase publications from 2008 onwards. We...

  15. Social support networks and eating disorders: an integrative review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Leonidas, Carolina; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Carolina Leonidas, Manoel Antônio dos Santos Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil Aims: This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature about social networks and social support in eating disorders (ED). Methods: By combining keywords, an integrative review was performed. It included publications from 2006–2013, retrieved from the MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, an...

  16. Online Social Networking and Addiction—A Review of the Psychological Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Social Networking Sites (SNSs are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a ‘global consumer phenomenon’ with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that ‘addiction’ to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1 outlining SNS usage patterns, (2 examining motivations for SNS usage, (3 examining personalities of SNS users, (4 examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5 exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6 exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction.

  17. Online Social Networking and Addiction—A Review of the Psychological Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a ‘global consumer phenomenon’ with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that ‘addiction’ to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction. PMID:22016701

  18. Online social networking and addiction--a review of the psychological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a 'global consumer phenomenon' with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. Anecdotal case study evidence suggests that 'addiction' to social networks on the Internet may be a potential mental health problem for some users. However, the contemporary scientific literature addressing the addictive qualities of social networks on the Internet is scarce. Therefore, this literature review is intended to provide empirical and conceptual insight into the emerging phenomenon of addiction to SNSs by: (1) outlining SNS usage patterns, (2) examining motivations for SNS usage, (3) examining personalities of SNS users, (4) examining negative consequences of SNS usage, (5) exploring potential SNS addiction, and (6) exploring SNS addiction specificity and comorbidity. The findings indicate that SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks. Moreover, extraverts appear to use social networking sites for social enhancement, whereas introverts use it for social compensation, each of which appears to be related to greater usage, as does low conscientiousness and high narcissism. Negative correlates of SNS usage include the decrease in real life social community participation and academic achievement, as well as relationship problems, each of which may be indicative of potential addiction.

  19. Social media and digital technology use among Indigenous young people in Australia: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emma S; Haynes, Emma; Royce, Paul; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-05-25

    The use of social media and digital technologies has grown rapidly in Australia and around the world, including among Indigenous young people who face social disadvantage. Given the potential to use social media for communication, providing information and as part of creating and responding to social change, this paper explores published literature to understand how Indigenous Australian youth use digital technologies and social media, and its positive and negative impacts. Online literature searches were conducted in three databases: PubMed, Google Scholar and Informit in August 2014; with further searches of additional relevant databases (Engineering Village; Communication & mass media complete; Computers & applied sciences complete; Web of Science) undertaken in May 2015. In addition, relevant literature was gathered using citation snowballing so that additional peer-reviewed and grey literature was included. Articles were deemed relevant if they discussed social media and/or digital technologies and Indigenous Australians. After reading and reviewing all relevant articles, a thematic analysis was used to identify overall themes and identify specific examples. A total of 22 papers were included in the review. Several major themes were identified about how and why Indigenous young people use social media: identity, power and control, cultural compatibility and community and family connections. Examples of marketing for health and health promotion approaches that utilize social media and digital technologies were identified. Negative uses of social media such as cyber bullying, cyber racism and the exchange of sexually explicit content between minors are common with limited approaches to dealing with this at the community level. Strong cultural identity and community and family connections, which can be enhanced through social media, are linked to improved educational and health outcomes. The confidence that Indigenous young people demonstrate when approaching the

  20. The Validity, Reliability and Factorial Structure of the Turkish Version of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Tayfun; Cetin, Bayram

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS) developed by Silvera, Martinussen, and Dahl (2001). 719 students from Sakarya University participated in the study. Construct validity and criterion related validity and reliability were assessed.…

  1. Social Anxiety Disorder and Social Skills: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelico, Antonio Paulo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a critical analysis of the research outlines used in empirical studies published between the years 2000 and March of 2007 about social anxiety disorder and its associations with social skills. Seventeen papers were identified and grouped into two classes for analysis, namely: Characterization of Social…

  2. Social media analytics dashboard for academics and the decision-making process: A systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Lisberg; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2018-01-01

    uncovered 11 texts of relevance to the topic, along with five pre-determined texts. In order to create a legible overview of the literature, a qualitative content analysis was conducted, coded with 21 themes, and merged into three categories: (1) Bibliometrics, social media analytics and alternative metrics...

  3. Using Social Networks and ICTs to Enhance Literature Circles: A Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and demonstrate how social networks such as "Facebook" and "Goodreads", and information and communication technologies (ICTs) tools like laptops and iPods can support and enhance literature circles. The innovation described is implemented by the library and aims to promote reading for…

  4. Peace Education through Bilingual Children's Literature Written in Arabic and in Hebrew: Different Narratives, Different Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research has been to evaluate the contribution of the emerging Israeli genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to peace education. Since Israeli society is a multicultural one comprised of two nations, Arabs and Jews who live in an environment of conflict, one must regard those textbooks as political socialization agents.…

  5. Characteristics of Music Teachers Who Effectively Promote Social Capital: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    It is the aim of this investigation through literature review to identify teacher characteristics that may best promote social capital in students, thereby improving their ability to succeed in society. This review defines success as the procurement of a career-aimed occupation or a prestigious occupation. Consequently, it intends to (a) provide a…

  6. Obesity Intervention Programs among Adolescents Using Social Cognitive Theory: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Taghipour, Ali; Sharma, Manoj; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Contento, Isobel R.; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Mostafavi Darani, Firoozeh; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is a well-known theory for designing nutrition education and physical activity programs for adolescents. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intervention studies based on SCT in reducing or preventing overweight and obesity in adolescents. An electronic literature search in PubMed-Medline, Web of…

  7. Group Work Education in Social Work: A Review of the Literature Reveals Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the growing concerns in the literature that traditional group work education in social work is not providing the foundational knowledge, skills, evidence-based practice, professional uses of self, and adherence to practice standards necessary for effective group practice. An exploration of the best available evidence on group…

  8. Measuring Teacher Knowledge of Classroom Social Networks: Convergent and Predictive Validity in Elementary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Rebecca A.; Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to a growing body of literature focused on the role of the teacher's "invisible hand" in managing students social relationships. The authors focus on one specific aspect of attunement, teachers' social network knowledge, which they conceptualize as the completeness and accuracy of the teacher's social network…

  9. Social media and nurse education: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzetta, M; Dal Molin, A; Vellone, E; Alvaro, R; Arrigoni, C

    2016-01-01

    The exponential advance of social media has touched all areas of society, no exception for the professional and personal lives of healthcare people. The issue to be considered is not whether or not social media are being used, but how they are used. The line between proper and improper use, and even abuse, of social media is a subtle one. Thus, the key issue is to be aware of the tool that is being used and this should be supported with suitable training for healthcare professionals and, at an even earlier stage, for students at healthcare training institutions during their studies. To describe, through an integrative review of the literature, the use of social media by teachers and students during teaching activity and practical training courses. An integrative review of the literature was conducted in October 2014. The literature search was performed by consulting the main biomedical databases: PubMed, CINAHL and Embase. The literature search brought up a total of 854 citations. 804 abstracts were excluded as they were not relevant. Of the remaining 50, 31 were excluded for not meeting the general criteria and, hence, only 19 articles were included. Two aspects emerged from the works selected: the use and potential of social media in nursing education and the ethical and professional implications of their use. The analysis of the literature reveals two areas for further investigation: evaluating the level of moral awareness in nursing education with regards to the use of Web 2.0 communication tools and implementing teaching methods to promote the construction and development of moral reasoning in professionals.

  10. Knowing Every Child: Validation of the Holistic Student Assessment (HSA) as a Measure of Social-Emotional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Zuffianò, Antonio; Noam, Gil G

    2018-04-01

    Knowing every child's social-emotional development is important as it can support prevention and intervention approaches to meet the developmental needs and strengths of children. Here, we discuss the role of social-emotional assessment tools in planning, implementing, and evaluating preventative strategies to promote mental health in all children and adolescents. We, first, selectively review existing tools and identify current gaps in the measurement literature. Next, we introduce the Holistic Student Assessment (HSA), a tool that is based in our social-emotional developmental theory, The Clover Model, and designed to measure social-emotional development in children and adolescents. Using a sample of 5946 students (51% boys, M age  = 13.16 years), we provide evidence for the psychometric validity of the self-report version of the HSA. First, we document the theoretically expected 7-dimension factor structure in a calibration sub-sample (n = 984) and cross-validate its structure in a validation sub-sample (n = 4962). Next, we show measurement invariance across development, i.e., late childhood (9- to 11-year-olds), early adolescence (12- to 14-year-olds), and middle adolescence (15- to 18-year-olds), and evidence for the HSA's construct validity in each age group. The findings support the robustness of the factor structure and confirm its developmental sensitivity. Structural equation modeling validity analysis in a multiple-group framework indicates that the HSA is associated with mental health in expected directions across ages. Overall, these findings show the psychometric properties of the tool, and we discuss how social-emotional tools such as the HSA can guide future research and inform large-scale dissemination of preventive strategies.

  11. Development and Validation of Anonymous Third-Party Physicians’ Reports of Exemplar Cases of Social Iatrogenesis Questionnaire (ATPROSIQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Shaghaghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Social iatrogenesis is a phenomenon in which normal behaviour is redefined as a medical condition, and people depend on physicians’ help even in doing their normal tasks. It poses considerable problems to public health. The aim of this study was to design and psychometrically evaluate an instrument for measuring factors associated with social iatrogenesis by physicians. Method: This study is a methodological research that was conducted during 2016- 2017 in Tabriz, Iran. At first, a questionnaire was developed after literature review to generate a preliminary item pool and then, content and face validity were performed. In the quantitative phase, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest analysis, validity and exploratory factor analysis were performed to assess psychometric properties of the instrument. Results: A 26-item questionnaire was reduced to 20-item after content validity. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution (eigenvalues>1 explaining 41.94% of the cumulative variance. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient showed excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.8, and test-retest of the scale with a 2-week interval indicated an appropriate stability (ICC=0.97. Conclusion: The anonymous third-party physicians’ report of exemplar cases of social iatrogenesis questionnaire is reliable and valid and can be used in health care systems.

  12. Views of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers and Their Managers Related to Professional and Organizational Socialization Processes of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbas, Mehmet; Arslan, M. Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Turkish effectively and successfully is one of the main functions of all the teaching phases of Turkish education system. In secondary education, this duty mostly depends on Turkish Language and Literature teachers. The aim of the research named "Socialization of Turkish Language and Literature teachers" is to evaluate the…

  13. Use of the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" to Identify Social Skill Acquisition Deficits: A Preliminary Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Scott, Katherine; Paxton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and initially validate the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" (ISP-SS), a novel brief social skills assessment method intended for use at Tier 2. Participants included 54 elementary school teachers and their 243 randomly selected students. Teachers rated students on two rating…

  14. Social Sustainable Supply Chain Management in the Textile and Apparel Industry—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Köksal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available So far, a vast amount of studies on sustainability in supply chain management have been conducted by academics over the last decade. Nevertheless, socially related aspects are still neglected in the related discussion. The primary motivation of the present literature review has arisen from this shortcoming, thus the key purpose of this study is to enrich the discussion by providing a state-of-the-art, focusing exclusively on social issues in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM by considering the textile/apparel sector as the field of application. The authors conduct a literature review, including content analysis which covers 45 articles published in English peer-reviewed journals, and proposes a comprehensive map which integrates the latest findings on socially related practices in the textile/apparel industry with the dominant conceptualization in order to reveal potential research areas in the field. The results show an ongoing lack of investigation regarding the social dimension of the triple bottom line in SSCM. Findings indicate that a company’s internal orientation is the main assisting factor in sustainable supply chain management practices. Further, supplier collaboration and assessment can be interpreted as an offer for suppliers deriving from stakeholders and a focal company’s management of social risk. Nevertheless, suppliers do also face or even create huge barriers in improving their social performance. This calls for more empirical research and qualitative or quantitative survey methods, especially at the supplier level located in developing countries.

  15. Exploring social dimensions of municipal solid waste management around the globe - A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Hipel, Keith W

    2016-10-01

    Currently, municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a massive increase in both the amount and composition throughout the world. Effective and efficient MSW management has been widely accepted as an emergent factor for future social development, which requires not only technical innovation, but also the involvement of all stakeholders as well as social, economic, and psychological components. On account of this reality, there is an urgent need for research related to the social dimensions of MSW management. In this paper, a systematic literature review was carried out to characterize and critically evaluate the published literature on the social dimensions of MSW management from 1980 to 2014 in terms of vulnerability, public participation, public attitude and behavior, and policy. A keyword search was first performed by using the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, which retrieves 1843 documents. After removing the papers that were not closely related to the topic, 200 articles were retained for an in-depth review. In each category, major research issues and observations were summarized, and important insights were obtained. Besides compiling a related list of key references, the analysis results indicate that the global distribution of social dimensions reports on MSW management is inequitable and the research on the social dimensions of MSW management is insufficient, which may attract increased research interest and attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brief report: The Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA): convergent, criterion-related, and incremental validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Acker, John D; Bollinger, Jared; Clifton, Allan; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol misuse is substantially influenced by social factors, but systematic assessments of social network drinking are typically lengthy. The goal of the present study was to provide further validation of a brief measure of social network alcohol use, the Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA), in a sample of emerging adults. Specifically, the study sought to examine the BASDA's convergent, criterion, and incremental validity in relation to well-established measures of drinking motives and problematic drinking. Participants were 354 undergraduates who were assessed using the BASDA, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drinking Motives Questionnaire. Significant associations were observed between the BASDA index of alcohol-related social density and alcohol misuse, social motives, and conformity motives, supporting convergent validity. Criterion-related validity was supported by evidence that significantly greater alcohol involvement was present in the social networks of individuals scoring at or above an AUDIT score of 8, a validated criterion for hazardous drinking. Finally, the BASDA index was significantly associated with alcohol misuse above and beyond drinking motives in relation to AUDIT scores, supporting incremental validity. Taken together, these findings provide further support for the BASDA as an efficient measure of drinking in an individual's social network. Methodological considerations as well as recommendations for future investigations in this area are discussed.

  17. Groningen orthopaedic social support scale: Validity and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker-Scheek, I.; Stevens, M.; Spriensma, A.; van Horn, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social support is an important factor in the rehabilitation process, as it has a positive influence on patients' health, functioning and recovery. In particular, perceived social support and instrumental support are important after total hip or knee arthroplasty. However, nursing staff

  18. Social stress models in rodents : Towards enhanced validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J M; de Boer, S F; Buwalda, B; Meerlo, P

    Understanding the role of the social environment in the development of stress related diseases requires a more fundamental understanding of stress. Stress includes not only the stimulus and the response but also the individual appraisal of the situation. The social environment is not only essential

  19. Animal models of social anxiety disorder and their validity criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Quevedo, João

    2014-09-26

    Anxiety disorders pose one of the largest threats to global mental health, and they predominantly emerge early in life. Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is the most common of all anxiety disorders. Moreover, it has severe consequences and is a disabling disorder that can cause an individual to be unable to perform the tasks of daily life. Social anxiety disorder is associated with the subsequent development of major depression and other mental diseases, as well as increased substance abuse. Although some neurobiological alterations have been found to be associated with social anxiety disorder, little is known about this disorder. Animal models are useful tools for the investigation of this disorder, as well as for finding new pharmacological targets for treatment. Thus, this review will highlight the main animal models of anxiety associated with social phobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Concepts of social inclusion, exclusion and mental health: a review of the international literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Stickley, T

    2013-02-01

    Social inclusion and exclusion are concepts which have been widely associated with politics and policy in the first decade of the 2000s. People with mental health problems have become the focus of a range of social inclusion initiatives. A literature review was conducted to explore the peer-reviewed evidence relating social inclusion/exclusion and mental health. In total 36 papers were included in the review from the UK, Canada, Australia and Scandinavia. The papers had used a range of different approaches to research and evaluation. The included papers associated being socially included to: social roles and responsibilities such as employment, participation in social activities, environmental work and voting. Although some papers engaged in a critical discussion of the concept, many offered only simplistic accounts or definitions. Social inclusion is such a widely used term within political and policy discourses that it is surprising so little research is available within the mental health realm. There was a lack of clarity related to the concept of social exclusion and the qualitative studies focused entirely on the experiences of being excluded within an institutional or semi-institutional setting. The relationship between exclusion, inequality and injustice is identified and the relevance of the concept to current and future mental health policy is questioned. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process.

  2. Social Justice and Social Action in Everyday Worlds: Literature Bridging History, Hope, and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Patricia; Rogers, Theresa; Marshall, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Christine; Brown, Jackie; Core, Elizabeth; Cordova, Carmen; Youngsteadt-Parish, Denise; Robinson, Dwan; Tyson, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 20 recently published children's books discussing them in tandem with 40 landmark children's books, in the following categories: (1) poetry: gathering strength through song, verse, and prayer; (2) picture books: images of history, hope, and action; (3) chapter books: engaging and extending the social awareness of older…

  3. "More Than Words" : Social Validation in Close Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Conversations are susceptible to many disturbances: A speaker's hesitations, distractions, or, when communicating online, technical hiccups that may cause brief delays. Research among previously unacquainted individuals revealed that brief disruptions in conversational flow can have profound social

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Workplace Social Distance Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Hatsumi; Mandai, Nozomu; Saito, Hidemitsu; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2014-01-01

    Self-stigma, defined by a negative attitude toward oneself combined with the consciousness of being a target of prejudice, is a critical problem for psychiatric patients. Self-stigma studies among psychiatric patients have indicated that high stigma is predictive of detrimental effects such as the delay of treatment and decreases in social participation in patients, and levels of self-stigma should be statistically evaluated. In this study, we developed the Workplace Social Distance Scale (WS...

  5. Scholarly literature and the press: scientific impact and social perception of physics computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pia, M G; Basaglia, T; Bell, Z W; Dressendorfer, P V

    2014-01-01

    The broad coverage of the search for the Higgs boson in the mainstream media is a relative novelty for high energy physics (HEP) research, whose achievements have traditionally been limited to scholarly literature. This paper illustrates the results of a scientometric analysis of HEP computing in scientific literature, institutional media and the press, and a comparative overview of similar metrics concerning representative particle physics measurements. The picture emerging from these scientometric data documents the relationship between the scientific impact and the social perception of HEP physics research versus that of HEP computing. The results of this analysis suggest that improved communication of the scientific and social role of HEP computing via press releases from the major HEP laboratories would be beneficial to the high energy physics community.

  6. Validating Farmers' Indigenous Social Networks for Local Seed Supply in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seboka, B.; Deressa, A.

    2000-01-01

    Indigenous social networks of Ethiopian farmers participate in seed exchange based on mutual interdependence and trust. A government-imposed extension program must validate the role of local seed systems in developing a national seed industry

  7. Psycho-social aspects of personal health monitoring: a descriptive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlan, Holger; Schmidt, Silke

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at providing a short review on already published studies addressing psycho-social issues of personal health monitoring (PHM). Both core questions addressed within this review are: What is the impact of PHM on intended psycho-social and health-related outcomes? And which psycho-social issues affected by or related to PHM have already been investigated? This descriptive review based on a literature search using various databases (Psycinfo, Psyndex, Pubmed, SSCI). Resulting 428 abstracts were coded regarding their psycho-social content. Inspection of results was carried out along the relevance of the papers regarding psycho-social issues. Research in PHM focuses on telemonitoring and smart home applications: Tele-monitoring studies are directed to outcome-related questions, smart home studies to feasibility issues. Despite of technological matters, comparability of both systems in psycho-social issues is lacking. Tele-monitoring has been proven for impact on patient groups with chronic diseases, yet smart home still lacks evidence in health-related and psycho-social matters. Smart home applications have been investigated with respect to attitudes, perceptions and concerns of end-users, telemonitoring regarding acceptance and adherence.

  8. Loneliness and social support of older people in China: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Hicks, Allan; While, Alison E

    2014-03-01

    Loneliness is a serious problem for older people, which can be alleviated by social support. The dramatic population ageing together with social and economic change in China increases the likelihood of loneliness and the availability of different sources of social support of older people. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence of loneliness and its related factors and sources of social support of older people in China. Electronic literature searches were conducted in September 2011 using Web of Science, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, China Academic Journal and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals. Twenty-six papers were identified and reviewed. The prevalence of loneliness varied across the studies, reflecting the different measurements and samples. Marital status, gender, age, educational level, economic level, living arrangements, health status and social support were significant factors related to loneliness. The family was the most important source of social support followed by friends. The receipt of family support improved subjective well-being and mental health, but the effects of support from friends were inconsistent. Chinese older people received relatively little support from neighbours, governmental or other social organisations. Further well-designed studies are needed to identify additional factors related to loneliness and to understand the support from friends, neighbours, formal organisations and other sources. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Innovative CSR: a framework for anchoring corporate social responsibility in the innovation literature

    OpenAIRE

    Preuss, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    Sketching the evolution of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from decoupled corporate philanthropy through strategic CSR to efforts to mainstream CSR throughout the firm, this paper highlights considerable drawbacks of a narrow view of the business case for CSR. Hence it seeks to provide an alternative that is still linked to key business processes but avoids such a tight coupling. The paper argues that this can be achieved through anchoring CSR in the literature on innovation. A definiti...

  10. Reassessing the validity of research assessments. A social experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.J. Achterberg (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe literature concerned with bibliometry and scientometry has been concerned with the question of how the actual output and impact of scholars can be ascertained. Whereas a situation in which scholars were mainly judged of subjective criteria was deemed undesirable, scientometry has

  11. Social marketing of water and sanitation products: a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W D; Pattanayak, S K; Young, S; Buszin, J; Rai, S; Bihm, Jasmine Wallace

    2014-06-01

    Like commercial marketing, social marketing uses the 4 "Ps" and seeks exchange of value between the marketer and consumer. Behaviors such as handwashing, and products such as those for oral rehydration treatment (ORT), can be marketed like commercial products in developing countries. Although social marketing in these areas is growing, there has been no systematic review of the current state of practice, research and evaluation. We searched the literature for published peer-reviewed studies available through major online publication databases. We identified manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on social marketing that used at least one of the 4 Ps of marketing and had a behavioral objective targeting the behaviors or products related to improving water and sanitation. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 117 articles and reviewed a final set of 32 that met our criteria. Social marketing is a widespread strategy. Marketing efforts have created high levels of awareness of health threats and solutions, including behavior change and socially marketed products. There is widespread use of the 4 Ps of marketing, with price interventions being the least common. Evaluations show consistent improvements in behavioral mediators but mixed results in behavior change. Interventions have successfully used social marketing following widely recommended strategies. Future evaluations need to focus on mediators that explain successful behavior change in order to identify best practices and improve future programs. More rigorous evaluations including quasi-experimental designs and randomized trials are needed. More consistent reporting of evaluation results that permits meta-analysis of effects is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between social determinants of health, and rehabilitation of neurological conditions: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frier, Amanda; Barnett, Fiona; Devine, Sue

    2017-05-01

    This systematic literature review aims to explore the relationship between social determinants of health (SDH), and the rehabilitation of neurological conditions. In particular, the review will consider relationships between social determinants and peoples' attendance and sustained adherence to rehabilitation programs, and motivation regarding neurological rehabilitation. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature from electronic databases; MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL and Informit health, was conducted. Papers published between 2004 and 2014 were considered. Eleven quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. There was a lack of research addressing SDH and neurological rehabilitation simultaneously. Cardiac and cancer rehabilitation studies reported employment and income, social support, transport, housing and food security as the most frequent SDH factors influencing attendance, sustained adherence and motivation. Given this association, a similar relationship between neurological rehabilitation and SDH is plausible. Rehabilitation of neurological conditions can be a long and difficult process. To pursue optimal outcomes, an individual's social circumstances should be considered. Understanding how SDH interact with neurological rehabilitation may enhance service delivery, thus maximizing the possible rehabilitation outcomes for individuals. Future research that considers SDH and rehabilitation of neurological conditions jointly may benefit service providers and those requiring neurological rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Social determinants of health are important to consider in the rehabilitation of neurological conditions. Understanding the interplay between the social determinants of health and neurological rehabilitation may enhance the possible outcomes for those requiring rehabilitation. Increased awareness and capacity of health care professionals involved in neurological rehabilitation may hasten momentum towards decreased health

  13. Tracing the Social Work Literature: Exploring Connections to Allied Health through Citation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Bakker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social work is a complex and multidisciplinary field drawing on a wide range of literature in terms of format, age, and discipline. Librarians in both collections and public services must be aware of this diversity in order to serve this rapidly growing field. This study was designed to identify core journals in the social work field, the most commonly cited formats and the age of citations, to assess the use of non-social work journals in the social work literature, and to draw comparisons to results in allied health and social science disciplines. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide librarians supporting social work programs with data which can contribute to their assessment of collections, both for maintenance and accreditation, and which can allow them to have a broader understanding of the field and a more effective approach to instruction. 28,269 citations from 567 source articles were examined. Journal articles were the most commonly cited format (69.90%, followed by books (17.69%. Over 91% of all citations came from materials published after 1990 and over 50% of citations came from materials published in the last ten years. Of the 2,520 journals cited, 32 top journals (1.27% accounted for 6,612 (33.46% of all citations to journals. Of those 32 journals, six were assigned to the field of social work. The remaining core journals came from the fields of psychology, public health, psychiatry, family and gender studies, pediatrics, and medicine. Format distribution and citation age were found to be similar to that of psychology, health care management, health education, and nurse practitioners. There was little similarity with the fields of addictions treatment and sociology. Practical implications for librarians are discussed.

  14. Continuing professional development and social accountability: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Lisa J; Kirby, Fran; Cutler, Sarah; Dunikowski, Lynn; Nasmith, Louise; Shaughnessy, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The idea that health professionals should be accountable to the society they serve is not a new concept and by the 1990 s, the continuing professional development (CPD) of health professionals was being seen as one way in which Canadians' level of health could be improved. The public was, and is still today, increasingly demanding a system that is more responsive to regional and community needs. As a result, there is a need for more health professional education at all stages of the education continuum - undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing professional development - that meets the health and social needs of the populations being served. The trend is now towards 'socially accountable' health care, meaning that the broader context of CPD must also include the personal, social, and political aspects of health care and as such, involve a widening of accountability to patients, the community, managers and policymakers. CPD planning must take into account local and national priorities as well as personal learning needs. However, the definition of social accountability and the stages at which it is addressed is sometimes vague and this added to the difficulty of identifying relevant studies in the literature. Nonetheless, there were some "best practices" evident via Canadian and American studies which focused on models of socially accountable CPD, as well as examples of interdisciplinary collaboration in Canada, the United States, Australia, Great Britain, and the United Arab Emirates. However, there is a definite need for increased research and publication of such "best practice" initiatives. There is also a need for Canadian health professional schools to facilitate this process by sharing their experiences and resources if possible. An extensive literature review was conducted between January and March 2004. Due to time constraints, it was limited to articles written in the English language. The databases/sources utilized included: Medline (now known as Pubmed

  15. Social capital and health in the least developed countries: A critical review of the literature and implications for a future research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the linkage between social capital and health has grown in recent years; however, there is a dearth of evidence from resource-poor countries. This review examines the association between social capital and physical health (including health behaviours) in the least developed countries (LDCs). Citations were searched using three databases from 1990 to 2011 using the keyword ‘social capital’ combined with the name of each of the 48 LDCs. Of the 14 studies reviewed, 12 took place in Africa and two in South Asia. All used cross-sectional study designs, including five qualitative and nine quantitative studies. The literature reviewed suggests that social capital is an important factor for improving health in resource-poor settings; however, more research is needed in order to determine the best measures for social capital and elucidate the mechanisms through which social capital affects health in the developing world. Future research on social capital and health in the developing world should focus on applying appropriate theoretical conceptualizations of social capital to the developing country context, adapting and validating instruments for measuring social capital, and examining multilevel models of social capital and health in developing countries. PMID:24172027

  16. Exploring the Reliability and Validity of the Social-Moral Awareness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Alexandra; Dodd, Karen; Pote, Helen; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to explore the validity of the social-moral awareness test (SMAT) a measure designed for assessing socio-moral rule knowledge and reasoning in people with learning disabilities. Comparisons between Theory of Mind and socio-moral reasoning allowed the exploration of construct validity of the tool. Factor…

  17. Measuring Children’s Perceptions of Robots’ Social Competence : Design and Validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, Daniel Patrick; Charisi, Vasiliki; Wijnen, Frances Martine; Reidsma, Dennis; Evers, Vanessa; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Yoshida, Eiichi; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Suzuki, Kenji; Cabibihan, John-John; Eyssel, Friederike; He, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and validation of a measurement instrument for children’s perceptions of robots’ social competence. The need for a standardized validated instrument has emerged as a requisite for meta-analyses and comparisons among various studies in the field of child-robot

  18. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Five-Factor Structure of Social Goals: A Filipino Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor structure of social goals that Dowson and McInerney proposed. Using both between-network and within-network approaches to construct validation, 1,147 Filipino high school students participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the…

  19. Social Impacts of GM Crops in Agriculture: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Fischer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been argued that the fragmented knowledge on the social impacts of genetically modified (GM crops is contributing to the polarised debate on the matter. This paper addresses this issue by systematically reviewing 99 peer-reviewed journal articles published since 2004 on the social impacts of GM crops in agriculture; summarising current knowledge, and identifying research gaps. Economic impact studies currently dominate the literature and mainly report that GM crops provide economic benefits for farmers. Other social impacts are less well studied, but present a more complex picture. Studies on access to and benefits of GM crops show that these vary significantly depending on the political and regulatory setting. Substantial evidence indicates that intellectual property rights (IPR and the private industry’s dominance limit the access and utility of available GM crops to many farmers. Wellbeing is frequently discussed in the literature, but rarely investigated empirically. Existing evidence is contradictory and inconclusive. Impact studies from the Global North are virtually non-existent. Moreover, two-thirds of publications are based on previously published empirical evidence, indicating a need for new empirical investigations into the social impacts of GM crops in agriculture.

  20. REPORTING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: AT THE PURSUIT OF LEGITIMACY - A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Lahbil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since one of today’s business buzzwords is “Sustainability”, an increasingly large number of companies aim to generate a lasting competitive advantage by balancing the value creating process with the social and environmental challenges. Therefore, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR appears as the assertive voice in which corporate governance is expressed in terms of sustainable development. The widespread adoption of sustainability reporting (SR confirms companies' growing awareness of their social responsibilities. The researches previously conducted present mainly two drivers for sustainability reporting. Firstly, it is seen as a communication technique. Secondly, it is a legal obligation, driven by national and international laws. Thus, the credibility of sustainability reporting seems to be relevant to question. The literature review reveals that scholars and practitioners have largely focused on the determinants of this form of communication, used media, content and recipients. Although the reliability of the information has often been questioned, it is the least studied empirically. By adopting internal control mechanisms and privileging external audits, an arsenal of arrangements is used in order to improve the credibility and the transparency of social and environmental information. Through a theoretical and empirical synthesis of the literature exploring the SR research field, this paper answers two major questions: what value for the sustainability reporting and how can their legitimacy be assured? The findings imply that, subjected to various institutional and regulatory pressures, companies tend to adopt societal reporting practices. It is mainly intended to guarantee trust and reliability in the information transmitted to the public.

  1. Defining tipping points for social-ecological systems scholarship—an interdisciplinary literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkoreit, Manjana; Hodbod, Jennifer; Baggio, Jacopo; Benessaiah, Karina; Calderón-Contreras, Rafael; Donges, Jonathan F.; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rocha, Juan Carlos; Schoon, Michael; Werners, Saskia E.

    2018-03-01

    The term tipping point has experienced explosive popularity across multiple disciplines over the last decade. Research on social-ecological systems (SES) has contributed to the growth and diversity of the term’s use. The diverse uses of the term obscure potential differences between tipping behavior in natural and social systems, and issues of causality across natural and social system components in SES. This paper aims to create the foundation for a discussion within the SES research community about the appropriate use of the term tipping point, especially the relatively novel term ‘social tipping point.’ We review existing literature on tipping points and similar concepts (e.g. regime shifts, critical transitions) across all spheres of science published between 1960 and 2016 with a special focus on a recent and still small body of work on social tipping points. We combine quantitative and qualitative analyses in a bibliometric approach, rooted in an expert elicitation process. We find that the term tipping point became popular after the year 2000—long after the terms regime shift and critical transition—across all spheres of science. We identify 23 distinct features of tipping point definitions and their prevalence across disciplines, but find no clear taxonomy of discipline-specific definitions. Building on the most frequently used features, we propose definitions for tipping points in general and social tipping points in SES in particular.

  2. An Empirical Study of the Construct Validity of Social Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchiroud, Christophe; Bernoussi, Aurore

    2008-01-01

    Creativity can be broadly defined as a combination of interacting individual and environmental resources leading to the production of valuable solutions. This paper concentrates on the type of creativity that can be expressed in solving social problems. After reviewing the potentially relevant psychological and contextual variables intervening in…

  3. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction : Making the case for ecological validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A.; Rot, Marije Aan Het

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those

  4. Measuring participation of social-support clients: : validity and reliability of IPA-MO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berenschot, L.; Grift, Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the reliability and validity of the Impact on Autonomy and Participation instrument (IPA) for heterogeneous populations of social support clients. Decentralisation of social support and accompanying budget cuts spurred interest in outcome-related payment systems to foster

  5. Are adaptations self-organized, autonomous, and harmonious? Assessing the social-ecological resilience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hahn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how adaptability (adaptive capacity and adaptations is constructed in the literature on resilience of social-ecological systems (SES. According to some critics, this literature views adaptability as the capacity of SES to self-organize in an autonomous harmonious consensus-building process, ignoring strategies, conflicting goals, and power issues. We assessed 183 papers, coding two dimensions of adaptability: autonomous vs. intentional and descriptive vs. normative. We found a plurality of framings, where 51% of the papers perceived adaptability as autonomous, but one-third constructed adaptability as intentional processes driven by stakeholders; where social learning and networking are often used as strategies for changing power structures and achieving sustainability transformations. For the other dimension, adaptability was used normatively in 59% of the assessed papers, but one-third used descriptive framings. We found no evidence that the SES literature in general assumes a priori that adaptations are harmonious consensus-building processes. It is, rather, conflicts that are assumed, not spelled out, and assertions of "desirable" that are often not clarified by reference to policy documents or explicit normative frameworks. We discuss alternative definitions of adaptability and transformability to clarify or avoid the notion of desirability. Complex adaptive systems framing often precludes analysis of agency, but lately self-organization and emergence have been used to study actors with intentions, strategies, and conflicting interests. Transformations and power structures are increasingly being addressed in the SES literature. We conclude that ontological clashes between social science and SES research have resulted in multiple constructive pathways.

  6. Perceptions towards disability among social work students in Israel: Development and validation of a new scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Roni; Werner, Shirli

    2018-05-01

    Over the last decades, the disability movement has been advocating for a paradigmatic shift in how disability is perceived and managed: from a medical or individual perspective focusing on the person's body and mind to a social perspective emphasizing the context and barriers of disability. However, we still know little about the perceptions of helping professionals, particularly social workers who work closely with disabled people. Thus, the aim of the current study is to develop and validate a scale-Perceptions Toward Disability Scale (PTDS)-to measure how social workers view disability: as an individual or social category. This paper describes the three phases of the scale's construction. First, scale items were formulated and its content validity was examined. Next, a pilot of 30 social workers completed a questionnaire and an initial exploratory factor analysis was conducted. In the third and main phase, the final draft was completed in 2016 by 565 Israeli social work students to assess its psychometric properties. Both exploratory and confirmatory factorial validity and discriminant validity analyses were conducted. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis revealed two distinct factors: an individual perspective of disability comprised of eight items (α = 0.77) and a social perspective of disability comprised of ten (α = 0.66). Subsequent analyses supported the scale's discriminant validity as indicated by the lack of an association between the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP) and the social model subscale (r = .13, p = .19) and by the weak negative relation with the individual model subscale (r = -.25, p = .01). These findings show that the PTDS possesses promising construct validity and provide support for its utility. This easy-to-administer instrument offers several practical benefits and can serve as a framework for further empirical research regarding social work practice with disabled people. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons

  7. Are chiropractic tests for the lumbo-pelvic spine reliable and valid? A systematic critical literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, L; Leboeuf-Yde, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the peer-reviewed literature about the reliability and validity of chiropractic tests used to determine the need for spinal manipulative therapy of the lumbo-pelvic spine, taking into account the quality of the studies. DATA SOURCES: The CHIROLARS database......-pelvic spine were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Data quality were assessed independently by the two reviewers, with a quality score based on predefined methodologic criteria. Results of the studies were then evaluated in relation to quality. DATA SYNTHESIS: None of the tests studied had been sufficiently...... evaluated in relation to reliability and validity. Only tests for palpation for pain had consistently acceptable results. Motion palpation of the lumbar spine might be valid but showed poor reliability, whereas motion palpation of the sacroiliac joints seemed to be slightly reliable but was not shown...

  8. Human Rights, Culture, and Literature. An Example in the Narrative of Latin American Social Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Guaraglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the theoretical proposal of Amartya Sen to consider human rights as demands of an ethical nature, capable of articulating a particular type of moral reciprocity, the article proposes to deepen the idea of human rights as cultural artifacts inseparable from the public sphere and from their logic of creation and legitimization of political and social identities. To do this, the paper adopts the advances of a recent field of research exploring the relation between literature and human rights, and discusses their possibilities for the case of Latin American literature. Through the analysis of four novels, belonging to the social criticism narrative in the middle of the twentieth century, the article shows the way in which the literary discourse has been involved in the promotion and expansion of human rights, and in the defense of new subjects of rights. When studying the way in which these fictions build arguments in favor of the expansion of the political space and of a more equitable reorganization of the national community, the article dares to contribute to a better understanding of both the way in which human rights are integrated and consolidated in other discourses, and the key role that literature claimed to have in the construction of a democratic ethics in the Latin American national states.

  9. Searching for religion and mental health studies required health, social science, and grey literature databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Judy M; Cottrell, David J; Mir, Ghazala

    2014-07-01

    To determine the optimal databases to search for studies of faith-sensitive interventions for treating depression. We examined 23 health, social science, religious, and grey literature databases searched for an evidence synthesis. Databases were prioritized by yield of (1) search results, (2) potentially relevant references identified during screening, (3) included references contained in the synthesis, and (4) included references that were available in the database. We assessed the impact of databases beyond MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO by their ability to supply studies identifying new themes and issues. We identified pragmatic workload factors that influence database selection. PsycINFO was the best performing database within all priority lists. ArabPsyNet, CINAHL, Dissertations and Theses, EMBASE, Global Health, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts were essential for our searches to retrieve the included references. Citation tracking activities and the personal library of one of the research teams made significant contributions of unique, relevant references. Religion studies databases (Am Theo Lib Assoc, FRANCIS) did not provide unique, relevant references. Literature searches for reviews and evidence syntheses of religion and health studies should include social science, grey literature, non-Western databases, personal libraries, and citation tracking activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing a typology of mobile phone usage in social care: A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, David; Steels, Stephanie; Fenney, Deborah

    2017-07-31

    The ways in which mobile phones have transformed the boundaries of time and space and the possibilities of communication have profoundly affected our lives. However, there is little research on the use of mobiles in social care though evidence is emerging that mobile phones can play an important role in delivering services. This paper is based on a scoping review of the international literature in this area. A typology of mobile interventions is suggested. While most mobile phone interventions remain unidirectional and sit within traditional social care service provider-service user relationships, a minority are bi- or multidirectional and contain within them the potential to transform these traditional relationships by facilitating a collective development of social networks and social capital. Such transformations are accompanied by a range of issues and dilemmas that have made many service providers reluctant to engage with new technologies. We suggest that our typology is a useful model to draw on when researching the use of mobile phones in social care to support and empower isolated, marginalised and vulnerable service users. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Social marketing campaigns that promote condom use among MSM: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery; Holdershaw, Judith

    2014-03-01

    The turn of the century has seen an increase in reported cases of sexually transmitted infections including the human immunodeficiency virus, particularly in groups of men who have sex with men. Both internationally and in New Zealand the implementation of social marketing human immunodeficiency virus prevention programmes are identified as appropriate mechanisms to promote condom use in men who have sex with men. This paper presents a review of the literature on research-based social marketing initiatives designed to decrease sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus, through an increase in condom use by men who have sex with men. Eleven quality assured articles met the inclusion criteria and were consequently included in the review. The review presented here strongly supports the utilisation of behaviourally based social marketing campaigns to increase condom use in men who have sex with men. Nurses are frequently first point of contact for consumers of health services. As such they need to have a sound understanding of not only Get it On!, a New Zealand social marketing campaign designed to promote condom use, but also about existing international campaigns. Nurses should also know about social marketing principles if they are to effect positive changes in condom use and address the complex challenges inherent in tackling increased rates of sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus.

  12. Exploring Approaches to Drivers and Barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation in Academic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindasamy Vimala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CSR implementation is a relatively untapped area of study. Barriers are components that block and test the execution of CSR in an organization while drivers are positive CSR performance indicators. There is a dearth of academic literature of exploration of barriers and drivers of CSR in developing economies. This paper focuses on synthesizing existing scholarly research literature on drivers and barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility from the perspectives of developed and developing economies. With most companies around the world joining the CSR bandwagon in a bid to positively influence their relationships with employees and stakeholders, it is imperative that CSR research addresses the barriers and drivers that companies are likely to face during the implementation of their CSR strategies.

  13. Measuring Social Relations in New Classroom Spaces: Development and Validation of the Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D.; Baepler, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the need for reliable and valid information concerning how innovative classrooms on college and university campuses affect teaching and learning. The Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) survey was developed though a three-stage process involving approximately 1300 college students. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  14. Pediatric psychotropic medication initiation and adherence: a literature review based on social exchange theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Vanya; McCarthy, Erin M; Tyson, Veda

    2010-08-01

    Psychotropic medication initiation and adherence is an identified problem. This literature review explores factors that determine families' decisions to initiate, sustain, or discontinue use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. Social exchange theory is used as a framework to explore decisions to initiate and adhere to psychotropic medications. Contributing factors related to psychotropic medication initiation, adherence, and discontinuation are explored. Themes in the literature encompassing costs and benefits of psychotropic medication adherence include family experiences with adverse effects, previous psychotropic medication experience, medication psychoeducation, stigma, societal views about psychotropic medication, particular diagnosis, the effect of comorbid diagnosis on adherence, attitudes and beliefs about medication by both children and parents, and relationships with the provider. The impact of family demographics including parent gender, age of the child, ethnicity, and parent educational level on psychotropic medication adherence is evaluated. International and U.S. studies from Medline, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsychInfo evaluating medication initiation and adherence in the pediatric psychiatric population and social exchange theory was incorporated from relevant textbook resources. Rewards experienced from medication treatment include improvement in symptoms, school performance and family relationships, and reduced level of parenting stress. Identified costs include impact of adverse side effects, social stigma, lack of response, fears of addiction, and changing the child's personality. Acceptance of the diagnosis influences adherence while medication education has varying effects. Families' attitudes, beliefs and perceptions about psychiatric illness and treatment play a large role in medication treatment decisions. A trusting provider relationship has a positive effect on adherence

  15. An integrative literature review and empirical validation of motives for introducing shared services in government organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paagman, Arnaud; Tate, Mary; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; de Bloom, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of the meaning of shared services and motives for introducing shared services in government organizations. We review and clarify definitions of shared services and derive a definition applicable for the government context. Based on an extensive literature

  16. An integrative literature review and empirical validation of motives for introducing shared services in government organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paagman, Arnaud; Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, Elfi; de Bloom, Jessica

    This paper contributes to the understanding of the meaning of shared services and motives for introducing shared services in government organizations. We review and clarify definitions of shared services and derive a definition applicable for the government context. Based on an extensive literature

  17. Psychometric validation of the SF-36® Health Survey in ulcerative colitis: results from a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlas, Aaron; Bayliss, Martha; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Maher, Stephen; Bushmakin, Andrew G; Chen, Lea Ann; Manuchehri, Alireza; Healey, Paul

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review of the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the SF-36 ® Health Survey (SF-36) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We performed a systematic search of electronic medical databases to identify published peer-reviewed studies which reported scores from the eight scales and/or two summary measures of the SF-36 collected from adult patients with UC. Study findings relevant to reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness were reviewed. Data were extracted and summarized from 43 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Convergent validity was supported by findings that 83% (197/236) of correlations between SF-36 scales and measures of disease symptoms, disease activity, and functioning exceeded the prespecified threshold (r ≥ |0.40|). Known-groups validity was supported by findings of clinically meaningful differences in SF-36 scores between subgroups of patients when classified by disease activity (i.e., active versus inactive), symptom status, and comorbidity status. Responsiveness was supported by findings of clinically meaningful changes in SF-36 scores following treatment in non-comparative trials, and by meaningfully larger improvements in SF-36 scores in treatment arms relative to controls in randomized controlled trials. The sole study of SF-36 reliability found evidence supporting internal consistency (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70) for all SF-36 scales and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.70) for six of eight scales. Evidence from this systematic literature review indicates that the SF-36 is reliable, valid, and responsive when used with UC patients, supporting the inclusion of the SF-36 as an endpoint in clinical trials for this patient population.

  18. Validated Practices for Teaching Mathematics to Students with Learning Disabilities: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan Peterson; Butler, Frances M.; Lee, Kit-hung

    1998-01-01

    Presents a review of 54 studies on math practices for students with learning disabilities. Validated practices included strategy and self-regulation interventions. Students benefited from step-by-step processes that guided their thinking and performance when solving math problems. The use of manipulative devices and drawings also were effective.…

  19. Neurological and biological foundations of children's social and emotional development: an integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Shields, Linda

    2014-08-01

    This article provides an integrated review of the expert literature on developmental processes that combine social, biological, and neurological pathways, and the mechanisms through which these pathways may influence school success and health. It begins with a historical overview of the current understanding of how attachment relationships and social environments influence brain development and plasticity and are, therefore, central to the physical and mental health of individuals and populations. It then expands on the effect of plasticity in relation to behavior and learning at school. This article concludes with a discussion of the role the school nurse may play in supporting health and learning by recognizing signs of relational stress and by advocating for prevention strategies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. The Dutch Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale: Reliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility

    OpenAIRE

    de Beurs, Edwin; Tielen, Deirdre; Wollmann, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and the social phobia scale (SPS) assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subsc...

  1. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2014-07-01

    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory.

  2. Social differences in traffic injury risks in childhood and youth--a literature review and a research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews the scientific literature concerning social differences in traffic injuries in childhood in order to highlight the current state of knowledge and to draw the main lines of a research agenda....

  3. Psycho-social and Economic Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moya Alonso

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on onchocerciasis and its control programmes were also reviewed. Methods: Electronic searches of PUBMED and Google were made. In addition, the Cochrane Library and WHO website were searched. Different types of economic analysis were reviewed to quantify the relationship between the programme costs and impacts. Results: Eighty papers were identified from different sources, most of which are quantitative studies or literature reviews, and only two were clinical trials. Onchocerciasis has severe socio-economic and psychological consequences. The stigma associated with the disease may reduce marital prospects among affected individuals, disrupt social relationships and cause loss of self-confidence. Also among agricultural workers onchocerciasis has been associated with increased time away from work and reduced productivity, leading to lower income. Discussion: Most of the papers analysed were cross-sectional studies based on data collection through questionnaires. Although there is an increasing number of published papers about the importance of the psycho-social and economic perspective of onchocerciasis, further research is still necessary to quantify and control its consequences. Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is still a serious problem in poor countries. Infected people face physical disability and social stigma that can dramatically reduce the quality of life and land productivity. Control programmes, though costly, have been very successful and cost

  4. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Arabic Social Media Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Menayes, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the SMAS. SMAS is a variant of IAT customized to measure addiction to social media instead of the Internet as a whole. Using a self-report instrument on a cross-sectional sample of undergraduate students, the results revealed the following. First, the exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well. Second, concurrent validity analysis showed the SMAS to be a valid measure of social media addiction. However, further studies and data should verify the hypothesized model. Finally, this study showed that the Arabic version of the SMAS is a valid and reliable instrument for use in measuring social media addiction in the Arab world.

  5. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Arabic Social Media Addiction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Al-Menayes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the SMAS. SMAS is a variant of IAT customized to measure addiction to social media instead of the Internet as a whole. Using a self-report instrument on a cross-sectional sample of undergraduate students, the results revealed the following. First, the exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well. Second, concurrent validity analysis showed the SMAS to be a valid measure of social media addiction. However, further studies and data should verify the hypothesized model. Finally, this study showed that the Arabic version of the SMAS is a valid and reliable instrument for use in measuring social media addiction in the Arab world.

  6. Blogging within a Social Networking Site as a Form of Literature Response in a Teacher Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to document how pre-service teachers in a children's literature course experienced blogging on a social networking site as a form of literature response. Understanding how pre-service teachers experience these tools can inform the ways we instruct them to integrate Web 2.0 tools into their teaching.…

  7. Friends and Family: A Literature Review on How High School Social Groups Influence Advanced Math and Science Coursetaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael; Owens, Ann; Williams, Darryl; Kim, Hui Yon; Musto, Michela

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized the literature on how informal contexts, namely friends and family social groups, shape high school students' likelihood of pursuing advanced math and science coursework. Extending scholarly understandings of STEM education, we turned to the body of literature with three guiding questions: (1) What influence do…

  8. Exploring the Literature on Music Participation and Social Connectedness for Young People with Intellectual Disability: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa A. I.; McFerran, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Background: This article explores the literature on social connectedness and music for young people with disability. It then critically examines the level of congruence between the reported literature to date and current rights-based disability studies discourse. Method: A critical interpretive synthesis was used to examine 27 articles referencing…

  9. Higher Education's Role in Educating for Personal and Social Responsibility: A Review of Existing Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.; Ryder, Andrew J.; Kee, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the existing literature in two major areas. A review of literature related to higher education's mission to educate for personal and social responsibility provides a rationale to refocus our collective attention on this important area of student learning and development. The chapter also reviews the current understanding…

  10. Development and validation of the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales among registered nurses with multiple roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Song, Rhayun

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, and to validate the psychometrics of those scales among registered nurses with multiple roles. The concepts, generation of items, and the scale domains of work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales were constructed based on a review of the literature. The validity and reliability of the scales were examined by administering them to 201 registered nurses who were recruited from 8 university hospitals in South Korea. The content validity was examined by nursing experts using a content validity index. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to establish the construct validity. The correlation with depression was examined to assess concurrent validity. Finally, internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The work-family-school role conflicts scale comprised ten items with three factors: work-school-to-family conflict (three items), family-school-to-work conflict (three items), and work-family-to-school conflict (four items). The role-related social support scale comprised nine items with three factors: support from family (three items), support from work (three items), and support from school (three items). Cronbach's alphas were 0.83 and 0.76 for the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, respectively. Both instruments exhibited acceptable construct and concurrent validity. The validity and reliability of the developed scales indicate their potential usefulness for the assessment of work-family-school role conflict and role-related social support among registered nurses with multiple roles in Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Determinants of Stroke as Related to Stress at Work among Working Women: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Toivanen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In adult life, many of the social determinants of health are connected to working life. Yet, our knowledge of the role of work-related factors for the risk of stroke is fairly limited. In contemporary occupational health research, the Demand-Control Model (DCM is frequently used to measure work stress. Previous literature reviews of the association of work stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD do not include stroke as a specific outcome. Results regarding work stress and the risk of CVD are less evident in working women. With the focus on working women, the purpose of the present paper was to review the current research into the DCM in relation to stroke and to scrutinize potential gender differences. A literature search was performed and eight studies from three countries were identified. Based on the reviewed studies, there is some evidence that high psychological demands, low job control, and job strain are associated with increased stroke risk in women as well as in men. Any major reduction in deaths and disability from stroke is likely to come from decreasing social inequalities in health, and reducing work stress has a potential to contribute to a reduced risk of stroke in working populations.

  12. Measurement of alienation among adolescents: construct validity of three scales on powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayce, Signe Boe; Kreiner, Svend; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Nielsen, Tine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2017-01-01

    Psychological alienation is an important concept in the study of adolescents' health and behavior but no gold standard for measuring alienation among adolescents exists. There is a need for new scales with high validity for use in adolescent health and social research. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate alienation scales in accordance with Seeman's conceptualization of alienation focusing on three independent variants specifically relevant in adolescent health research: powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation. Cross-sectional data from 3083 adolescents aged 13 to 15 years from the Danish contribution to the cross-national study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) were used. We identified and developed items, addressed content and face validity through interviews, and examined the criterion-related construct validity of the scales using graphical loglinear Rasch models (GLLRM). The three scales each comprised three to five face valid items. The powerlessness scale reflected the adolescent's expectancy as to whether his/her behavior can determine the outcome or reinforcement he/she seeks. The meaninglessness scale reflected the expectancy as to whether satisfactory predictions regarding the effects of one's behavior are possible. Finally, the social isolation scale reflected whether the adolescent had a low expectancy for inclusion and social acceptance. All scales contained some uniform local dependency and differential item functioning. However, only to a limited degree, which could be accounted for using GLLRM. Thus the scales fitted GLLRMs and can therefore be considered to be essentially construct valid and essentially objective. The three alienation scales appear to be content and face valid and fulfill the psychometric properties of a good construct valid reflective scale. This suggests that the scales may be appropriate in future large-scale surveys to examine the relation between alienation and a range of

  13. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Arabic Social Media Addiction Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Menayes, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the SMAS. SMAS is a variant of IAT customized to measure addiction to social media instead of the Internet as a whole. Using a self-report instrument on a cross-sectional sample of undergraduate students, the results revealed the following. First, the exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well. Second, concurrent validity analysis showed the SMAS to be a valid measure of social me...

  14. Outcomes validity and reliability of the modified Rankin scale: implications for stroke clinical trials: a literature review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jamie L; Marotta, Charles A

    2007-03-01

    The modified Rankin scale (mRS), a clinician-reported measure of global disability, is widely applied for evaluating stroke patient outcomes and as an end point in randomized clinical trials. Extensive evidence on the validity of the mRS exists across a large but fragmented literature. As new treatments for acute ischemic stroke are submitted for agency approval, an appreciation of the mRS's attributes, specifically its relationship to other stroke evaluation scales, would be valuable for decision-makers to properly assess the impact of a new drug on treatment paradigms. The purpose of this report is to assemble and systematically assess the properties of the mRS to provide decision-makers with pertinent evaluative information. A Medline search was conducted to identify reports in the peer-reviewed medical literature (1957-2006) that provide information on the structure, validation, scoring, and psychometric properties of the mRS and its use in clinical trials. The selection of articles was based on defined criteria that included relevance, study design and use of appropriate statistical methods. Of 224 articles identified by the literature search, 50 were selected for detailed assessment. Inter-rater reliability with the mRS is moderate and improves with structured interviews (kappa 0.56 versus 0.78); strong test-re-test reliability (kappa=0.81 to 0.95) has been reported. Numerous studies demonstrate the construct validity of the mRS by its relationships to physiological indicators such as stroke type, lesion size, perfusion and neurological impairment. Convergent validity between the mRS and other disability scales is well documented. Patient comorbidities and socioeconomic factors should be considered in properly applying and interpreting the mRS. Recent analyses suggest that randomized clinical trials of acute stroke treatments may require a smaller sample size if the mRS is used as a primary end point rather than the Barthel Index. Multiple types of evidence

  15. Social networking addiction, attachment style, and validation of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Aim Research into social networking addiction has greatly increased over the last decade. However, the number of validated instruments assessing addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) remains few, and none have been validated in the Italian language. Consequently, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), as well as providing empirical data concerning the relationship between attachment styles and SNS addiction. Methods A total of 769 participants were recruited to this study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multigroup analyses were applied to assess construct validity of the Italian version of the BSMAS. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Results Indices obtained from the CFA showed the Italian version of the BSMAS to have an excellent fit of the model to the data, thus confirming the single-factor structure of the instrument. Measurement invariance was established at configural, metric, and strict invariances across age groups, and at configural and metric levels across gender groups. Internal consistency was supported by several indicators. In addition, the theoretical associations between SNS addiction and attachment styles were generally supported. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the Italian version of the BSMAS is a psychometrically robust tool that can be used in future Italian research into social networking addiction.

  16. Consequences of rheumatoid arthritis for performance of social roles--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuskens, Goedele A; Burdorf, Alex; Hazes, Johanna M W

    2007-06-01

    To obtain quantitative estimates of restrictions in participation, i.e., the performance of social roles, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Participation categories were selected from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (preliminary) Comprehensive Core Set for RA. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed and PsychInfo. Articles were included if: (1) performance in at least one of the participation categories was described; (2) patients with RA were compared to a healthy reference population or their performance over time was described; (3) published between 1995 and 2005; and (4) written in English. Seven participation categories were selected from the Comprehensive Core Set for RA, resulting in 50 articles included in the review. Almost all studies focused on remunerative employment (n = 30), recreation and leisure (n = 17), or both (n = 3). RA patients had an increased risk of being without a paid job compared to well adjusted reference groups (absolute difference 4% to 28%, odds ratios 1.2 to 3.4). Restrictions in employment occurred already within the early phase of RA and varied greatly among studies. Two years after diagnosis, disability benefits increased up to roughly 30% in some European cohorts. In the category of recreation and leisure most studies focused on socializing (n = 16). Patients with longstanding RA experienced a decrease in socializing (range, Cohen's d, -0.46 to -1.0), but changes over time were minor. RA patients experience restrictions in the performance of remunerative employment and in recreation and leisure (socializing). Due to the lack of studies, no conclusions on other ICF categories describing social roles could be made.

  17. Clinical validation of a non-heteronormative version of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Philip; Martell, Christopher; Bergström, Jan; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite welcomed changes in societal attitudes and practices towards sexual minorities, instances of heteronormativity can still be found within healthcare and research. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) is a valid and reliable self-rating scale of social anxiety, which includes one item (number 14) with an explicit heteronormative assumption about the respondents sexual orientation. This heteronormative phrasing may confuse, insult or alienate sexual minority responde...

  18. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  19. Validation of the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale among Junior Middle School Students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jibin; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix K H; Su, Xuefen; Wu, Anise M S; Tang, Jie; Qin, Zuguo

    2016-01-01

    Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents' daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents' well-being. However, there are few validated instruments to measure social networking use intensity. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. A total of 910 students who were social networking users were recruited from two junior middle schools in Guangzhou, and 114 students were retested after two weeks to examine the test-retest reliability. The psychometrics of the SNAIS were estimated using appropriate statistical methods. Two factors, Social Function Use Intensity (SFUI) and Entertainment Function Use Intensity (EFUI), were clearly identified by both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. No ceiling or floor effects were observed for the SNAIS and its two subscales. The SNAIS and its two subscales exhibited acceptable reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89, 0.90 and 0.60, and test-retest Intra-class Correlation Coefficient = 0.85, 0.87 and 0.67 for Overall scale, SFUI and EFUI subscale, respectively, psocial networking, social networking addiction, Internet addiction, and characteristics related to social networking use. The SNAIS is an easily self-administered scale with good psychometric properties. It would facilitate more research in this field worldwide and specifically in the Chinese population.

  20. Validation of the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale among Junior Middle School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jibin; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Mo, Phoenix K. H.; Su, Xuefen; Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Jie; Qin, Zuguo

    2016-01-01

    Background Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents’ daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents’ well-being. However, there are few validated instruments to measure social networking use intensity. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. Methods A total of 910 students who were social networking users were recruited from two junior middle schools in Guangzhou, and 114 students were retested after two weeks to examine the test-retest reliability. The psychometrics of the SNAIS were estimated using appropriate statistical methods. Results Two factors, Social Function Use Intensity (SFUI) and Entertainment Function Use Intensity (EFUI), were clearly identified by both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. No ceiling or floor effects were observed for the SNAIS and its two subscales. The SNAIS and its two subscales exhibited acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89, 0.90 and 0.60, and test-retest Intra-class Correlation Coefficient = 0.85, 0.87 and 0.67 for Overall scale, SFUI and EFUI subscale, respectively, psocial networking, social networking addiction, Internet addiction, and characteristics related to social networking use. Conclusions The SNAIS is an easily self-administered scale with good psychometric properties. It would facilitate more research in this field worldwide and specifically in the Chinese population. PMID:27798699

  1. The negative self-portrayal scale: development, validation, and application to social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, David A; Huyder, Vanessa

    2011-06-01

    The Negative Self-Portrayal Scale (NSPS) is a new questionnaire designed to assess the extent to which individuals are concerned that specific self-attributes they view as being deficient will be exposed to scrutiny and evaluation by critical others in social situations. These concerns have been proposed to drive symptoms of social anxiety and account for individual differences in social fears and avoidance behaviors (Moscovitch, 2009). Here, we introduce the NSPS and examine its factor structure and psychometric properties across two large samples of North American undergraduate students with normally distributed symptoms of social anxiety. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor solution representing concerns about (a) social competence; (b) physical appearance; and (c) signs of anxiety. The NSPS was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, strong convergent validity, and adequate discriminant validity. In addition, NSPS total scores accounted for a significant proportion of unique variance in self-concealment (i.e., safety) behaviors over and above established symptom measures of social interaction anxiety, social performance anxiety, and depression. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical models of social anxiety and the potential utility of the NSPS for both clinical research and practice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, part 3: fathoming external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown whether measures adapted from social neuroscience linked to specific neural systems will demonstrate relationships to external variables. Four paradigms adapted from social neuroscience were administered to 173 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia to determine their relationships to functionally meaningful variables and to investigate their incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Overall, social neuroscience paradigms showed significant relationships to functional capacity but weak relationships to community functioning; the paradigms also showed weak correlations to clinical symptoms. Evidence for incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition was mixed with additional predictive power shown for functional capacity but not community functioning. Of the newly adapted paradigms, the empathic accuracy task had the broadest external validity. These results underscore the difficulty of translating developments from neuroscience into clinically useful tasks with functional significance.

  3. VALIDITY IN COMPUTER-BASED TESTING: A LITERATURE REVIEW OF COMPARABILITY ISSUES AND EXAMINEE PERSPECTIVES

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    Ika Kana Trisnawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available These past years have seen the growing popularity of the Computer-Based Tests (CBTs in various disciplines, for various purposes, although the Paper-and Pencil Based Tests (P&Ps are still in use. However, many question on whether the use of CBTs outperform the effectiveness of the P&Ps or if the CBTs can become a valid measuring tool compared to the PBTs. This paper tries to present the comparison on both the CBTs and the P&Ps and their respective examinee perspectives in order to figure out if doubts should arise to the emergence of the CBTs over the classic P&Ps. Findings showed that the CBTs are advantageous in that they are both efficient (reducing testing time and effective (maintaining the test reliability over the P&P versions. Nevertheless, the CBTs still need to have their variables well-designed (e.g., study design, computer algorithm in order for the scores to be comparable to those in the P&P tests since the score equivalence is one of the validity evidences needed in a CBT.

  4. Exploring the reliability and validity of the social-moral awareness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Alexandra; Dodd, Karen; Pote, Helen; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the validity of the social-moral awareness test (SMAT) a measure designed for assessing socio-moral rule knowledge and reasoning in people with learning disabilities. Comparisons between Theory of Mind and socio-moral reasoning allowed the exploration of construct validity of the tool. Factor structure, reliability and discriminant validity were also assessed. Seventy-one participants with mild-moderate learning disabilities completed the two scales of the SMAT and two False Belief Tasks for Theory of Mind. Reliability of the SMAT was very good, and the scales were shown to be uni-dimensional in factor structure. There was a significant positive relationship between Theory of Mind and both SMAT scales. There is early evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the SMAT. Further assessment of the validity of the SMAT will be required. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Tangible User Interface for Social Interactions for the Elderly: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way Kiat Bong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The global population is ageing rapidly. The ageing population faces not only the risk of health-related problems but also the challenge of social isolation and loneliness. While mainstream technology is designed to improve daily life, elderly people’s unique needs are often neglected. These technology designs can be difficult for older adults to learn and use. Tangible user interface (TUI gives physical form to digital information, with the aim of bridging the gap between the digital world and the physical world. Thus, it can be a more natural and intuitive interface for the older adults. The objective of this research is to review the existing research on TUI for enhancing the social interactions of elderly people. Results show that very little research has been published, given that the TUI concept was introduced 20 years ago. Our systematic literature review also resulted in several recommendations for future research, which includes getting elderly people involved in the process, from designing to evaluating the prototype and investigating the effect of TUI on older adults’ social interactions and health.

  6. Validation of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale across the Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elissa J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Scale and the Social Phobia Scale (both by R. P. Mattick and J. C. Clark, 1989) was studied with 165 patients with anxiety disorders and 21 people without anxiety. Results support the usefulness of the scales for screening and treatment design and evaluation. (SLD)

  7. Self-Efficacy in Social Work: Development and Initial Validation of the Self-Efficacy Scale for Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pedrazza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-efficacy beliefs do not reflect a generic sense of competence, but are instead context-specific. Therefore, self-efficacy should be assessed by using an ad hoc scale measuring individual behaviors that allows social workers to exercise influence over events that affect their work life. The present study describes the development and initial validation of the self-efficacy scale for social workers (SESSW. Items were generated through the Critical Incident Technique. Sixteen social workers with at least 10 years of service participated in two focus groups; they were asked to recall critical incidents in their work and to indicate the most effective behaviors to manage the incidents. Content analysis of the focus group transcripts provided 13 key self-efficacy beliefs. The 13-item scale was validated with a sample of 805 social workers. Data were analyzed using a split-sample technique. Exploratory factor analysis on the first split sample (n = 402 revealed three dimensions of self-efficacy, corresponding to emotion regulation, support request, and procedural self-efficacy. The three-factor structure of the scale was further confirmed with confirmatory factor analysis on the second split sample (n = 403. Our results show that SESSW is an adequate instrument for assessment of self-efficacy beliefs in social work.

  8. Assessing Academic Advising Outcomes Using Social Cognitive Theory: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2012-01-01

    The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…

  9. Parent-reported social support for child’s fruit and vegetable intake: validity of measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our study was to develop and validate measures of parental social support to increase their child’s fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. We used a cross-sectional study design by studying participants at school and home. We studied two hundred three parents with at least 1 elemen...

  10. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Social Emotional Health Survey-Primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Yang, Chunyan; Jiang, Xu; Furlong, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Social Emotional Health Survey-Primary (SEHS-P) was originally developed to assess U.S. elementary students' positive psychological traits: gratitude, zest, optimism, and persistence, and the higher-order latent construct of covitality. The present study evaluated the validity of a Chinese version of SEHS-P with a sample of 653 Chinese…

  11. Social Validation of the New England Center for Children-Core Skills Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Chata A.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee; Guilhardi, Paulo; Johnson, Cammarie; Ahearn, William H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the social validity of the NECC Core Skills Assessment (NECC-CSA) with parents and professionals as participants. The NECC-CSA is a measurement tool consisting of direct and indirect measures of skills important to all individuals with autism, across the lifespan. Participants (N = 245) were provided with a list of 66 skills, 47 of…

  12. Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U) Development and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Valeria E; Olaz, Fabián O; Del Prette, Zilda A P

    2015-11-27

    In this paper we present a new instrument called Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U). Based on the adapted version of the Social Skills Inventory - Del Prette (SSI-Del Prette) (Olaz, Medrano, Greco, & Del Prette, 2009), we wrote new items for the scale, and carried out psychometric analysis to assess the validity and reliability of the instrument. In the first study, we collected evidence based on test content through expert judges who evaluated the quality and the relevance of the items. In the second and third studies, we provided validity evidence based on the internal structure of the instrument using exploratory (n = 1067) and confirmatory (n = 661) factor analysis. Results suggested a five-factor structure consistent with the dimensions of social skills, as proposed by Kelly (2002). The fit indexes corresponding to the obtained model were adequate, and composite reliability coefficients of each factor were excellent (above .75). Finally, in the fourth study, we provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the SSQ-U is the first valid and reliable instrument for measuring social skills in Argentinean college students.

  13. The Social Validity of "Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions Used in Classrooms": Inferences from Longitudinal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    2017-01-01

    In this retrospective commentary on "Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions Used in Classrooms: The Influence of Amount of Teacher Time, Severity of Behavior Problem, and Type of Intervention," I first examine the concept of social validity and related measurement challenges per Wolf's concerns about consumers' subjective reactions to…

  14. Social Media Addiction Scale-Student Form: The Reliability and Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool to determine the social media addictions of secondary school, high school and university students. 998 students participated in the study. 476 students from secondary schools, high schools and universities participated in the first application during which the…

  15. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  16. Successful aging and its discontents: a systematic review of the social gerontology literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Marty; Berridge, Clara

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the range of critiques of successful aging models and the suggestions for improvement as expressed in the social gerontology literature. We conducted a systematic literature review using the following criteria: journal articles retrieved in the Abstracts in Social Gerontology, published 1987-2013, successful aging/ageing in the title or text (n = 453), a critique of successful aging models as a key component of the article. Sixty-seven articles met the criteria. Qualitative methods were used to identify key themes and inductively configure meanings across the range of critiques. The critiques and remedies fell into 4 categories. The Add and Stir group suggested a multidimensional expansion of successful aging criteria and offered an array of additions. The Missing Voices group advocated for adding older adults' subjective meanings of successful aging to established objective measures. The Hard Hitting Critiques group called for more just and inclusive frameworks that embrace diversity, avoid stigma and discrimination, and intervene at structural contexts of aging. The New Frames and Names group presented alternative ideal models often grounded in Eastern philosophies. The vast array of criteria that gerontologists collectively offered to expand Rowe and Kahn's original successful model is symptomatic of the problem that a normative model is by definition exclusionary. Greater reflexivity about gerontology's use of "successful aging" and other normative models is needed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Applying a Social Justice Lens to Youth Mentoring: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Jamie N; Hurd, Noelle M; Hussain, Saida B

    2017-06-01

    Youth mentoring interventions are often designed with the intention of promoting improved outcomes among marginalized youth. Despite their promise to reduce inequality through the provision of novel opportunities and increased social capital to marginalized youth, youth mentoring interventions hold the potential to reproduce rather than reduce inequality. In the current review, we explore literature on youth mentoring that has incorporated a social justice lens. We conclude that there is a need for greater attention to principles of social justice in the design, implementation, and evaluation of youth mentoring interventions. After reviewing the literature, we make recommendations for research and practice based on a social justice perspective and explore alternatives to traditional youth mentoring that may allow for better alignment with social justice principles. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  18. BIOETHICS METHODS IN THE ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT LITERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair

    2013-01-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003-2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  19. The study of social representations in children and adolescents: Lessons from a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anastasie Aim

    Full Text Available An ad hoc review of the existing literature concerning the study of social representations (SRs; Moscovici, 1961/1976 in children and adolescents was conducted in order to put forward theoretical and methodological proposals on the study and development of SRs, and to highlight future directions. The review was performed using the PsycINFO database (up to September 2016, and included 60 eligible works. While the main part of the work sample does not mention theoretical and/or methodological implications (41.7%, other contributions highlight the necessity to take into account: (a the active role of children/adolescents as well as their social interactions in the creation of SRs, (b the relevance of studying SRs in these populations for developing the theory of SRs, (c the expression of SRs in children's everyday actions, (d the use of suitable methods for children/adolescents, and (e the link between the psychology of development and the theory of SRs.

  20. Validity and Reliability in the Assessment of the Vulnerability of Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orantes-Jiménez Sandra Dinora

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, measuring the impact and effectiveness of Social Networks is important for people who use them in an individual manner, due to social or academic interests, as well as for companies that use them to evaluate or promote their products and businesses. Particularly, it is necessary to monitor and evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively, if possible, this tool that is used for the dissemination of information of any kind. We have tried to create an instrument that aims to validate the reliability of social networks, taking Facebook our case study because it is one of the most widely used currently. This instrument is a tool that measures the "information vulnerability"; information that people decide to upload to the Internet as part of a social network. Regarding validity, a suitable solution focused on four factors was found: legality (self-regulation, social factors, psychological factors, and finally technology. It was concluded that the proposed mechanism can be a useful instrument that detects the information vulnerability storage in each social network.

  1. Development of Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scale and tests for its reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-hong TANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To develop Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scaleand verify its reliability and validity. Methods  The Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalewas initiated, organized and compiled based upon open-ended questionnaire survey done in a systematic manner, and previous researches were taken as references. A total of 630 military personnel were chosen by random cluster sampling and tested with the Scale, among them 50 were tested with Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS and Chinese Military Psychosomatic Health Scale(CMPHS simultaneously, and the test was done solely a second time with CMPHS 2 weeks later. The reliability and validity were assessed and verified by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis. Results  The Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalecomprised three factors, namely subjective support, objective support and utility of social support. Eighteen items were left in official scale after amendment by factor analysis, and one lying subscale was added. The correlation coefficients between the public factors ranged from 0.477 to 0.589 (P<0.01, and the correlation coefficients between factors and total scale ranged from 0.721 to 0.823 (P<0.01. The test-retest correlation coefficients of total scale and subscales ranged from 0.622 to 0.803 (P<0.01, the Cronbach α coefficients ranged from 0.624 to 0.874, and the split-half correlation coefficients ranged from 0.551 to 0.828. Significant correlation existed between this Scale and two criterion scales, namely SSRS and CMPHS. Conclusion  It is verified that the Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalehas excellent reliability and validity, and complying with psychometric standards, it may be used to evaluate the social support level of Chinese military personnel.

  2. Validation of the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale among Junior Middle School Students in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Li

    Full Text Available Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents' daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents' well-being. However, there are few validated instruments to measure social networking use intensity. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS and validate it among junior middle school students in China.A total of 910 students who were social networking users were recruited from two junior middle schools in Guangzhou, and 114 students were retested after two weeks to examine the test-retest reliability. The psychometrics of the SNAIS were estimated using appropriate statistical methods.Two factors, Social Function Use Intensity (SFUI and Entertainment Function Use Intensity (EFUI, were clearly identified by both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. No ceiling or floor effects were observed for the SNAIS and its two subscales. The SNAIS and its two subscales exhibited acceptable reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89, 0.90 and 0.60, and test-retest Intra-class Correlation Coefficient = 0.85, 0.87 and 0.67 for Overall scale, SFUI and EFUI subscale, respectively, p<0.001. As expected, the SNAIS and its subscale scores were correlated significantly with emotional connection to social networking, social networking addiction, Internet addiction, and characteristics related to social networking use.The SNAIS is an easily self-administered scale with good psychometric properties. It would facilitate more research in this field worldwide and specifically in the Chinese population.

  3. Humanitarian health computing using artificial intelligence and social media: A narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Imran, Muhammad

    2018-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 130 million people are in constant need of humanitarian assistance due to natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflicts, among other factors. These health crises can compromise the resilience of healthcare systems, which are essential for achieving the health objectives of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN). During a humanitarian health crisis, rapid and informed decision making is required. This is often challenging due to information scarcity, limited resources, and strict time constraints. Moreover, the traditional approach to digital health development, which involves a substantial requirement analysis, a feasibility study, and deployment of technology, is ill-suited for many crisis contexts. The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies and social media platforms in the past decade, such as Twitter, has created a new paradigm of massive information and misinformation, in which new technologies need to be developed to aid rapid decision making during humanitarian health crises. Humanitarian health crises increasingly require the analysis of massive amounts of information produced by different sources, such as social media content, and, hence, they are a prime case for the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to help identify relevant information and make it actionable. To identify challenges and opportunities for using AI in humanitarian health crises, we reviewed the literature on the use of AI techniques to process social media. We performed a narrative literature review aimed at identifying examples of the use of AI in humanitarian health crises. Our search strategy was designed to get a broad overview of the different applications of AI in a humanitarian health crisis and their challenges. A total of 1459 articles were screened, and 24 articles were included in the final analysis. Successful case studies of AI applications in a humanitarian health crisis have

  4. Participatory action research designs in applied disability and rehabilitation science: protecting against threats to social validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekins, Tom; White, Glen W

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and disability advocates have been debating consumer involvement in disability and rehabilitation science since at least 1972. Despite the length of this debate, much confusion remains. Consumer involvement may represent a spirit of democracy or even empowerment, but as a tool of science, it is necessary to understand how to judge its application. To realize consumer involvement as a design element in science, researchers need a framework for understanding how it can contribute to the scientific process. The thesis of this article is that a primary scientific function of consumer involvement is to reduce threats to the social validity of research, the extent to which those expected to use or benefit from research products judge them as useful and actually use them. Social validity has traditionally not been treated with the same rigor as concerns for internal and external validity. This article presents a framework that describes 7 threats to social validity and explains how 15 forms of consumer involvement protect against those threats. We also suggest procedures for reporting and reviewing consumer involvement in proposals and manuscripts. This framework offers tools familiar to all scientists for identifying threats to the quality of research, and for judging the effectiveness of strategies for protecting against those threats. It may also enhance the standing of consumer involvement strategies as tools for protecting research quality by organizing them in a way that allows for systematic criticism of their effectiveness and subsequent improvement. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interpreting social network metrics in healthcare organisations: a review and guide to validating small networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Adam G; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2011-04-01

    Social network analysis is an increasingly popular sociological method used to describe and understand the social aspects of communication patterns in the health care sector. The networks studied in this area are special because they are small, and for these sizes, the metrics calculated during analysis are sensitive to the number of people in the network and the density of observed communication. Validation is of particular value in controlling for these factors and in assisting in the accurate interpretation of network findings, yet such approaches are rarely applied. Our aim in this paper was to bring together published case studies to demonstrate how a proposed validation technique provides a basis for standardised comparison of networks within and across studies. A validation is performed for three network studies comprising ten networks, where the results are compared within and across the studies in relation to a standard baseline. The results confirm that hierarchy, centralisation and clustering metrics are highly sensitive to changes in size or density. Amongst the three case studies, we found support for some conclusions and contrary evidence for others. This validation approach is a tool for identifying additional features and verifying the conclusions reached in observational studies of small networks. We provide a methodological basis from which to perform intra-study and inter-study comparisons, for the purpose of introducing greater rigour to the use of social network analysis in health care applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Studies Oriented Achievement Goal Scale (SOAGS: Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehat GEZER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring students' social studies achievement goal. The research was conducted on a study group consisted of 374 middle school students studying in the central district of Diyarbakır in 2014-2015 school year fall semester. Expert opinion was consulted with regard to the scale's content and face validity. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA were performed in order to measure the scale's construct validity. As a result of EFA, a 29-item and a six-factor structure model which explains 50.82% of the total variance was obtained. The emerging factors were called as a self-approach, task-approach, other-approach, task-avoidance, other-avoidance and self-avoidance respectively. The findings acquired CFA indicated that the 29-item and six-factor structure related to social studies oriented achievement goal scale have acceptable goodness of fit indices. The scale's reliability coefficients were calculated by means of internal consistency method. As a result of reliability analysis, it was determined that the reliability coefficients were within admissible limits. The finding of the item correlation and 27% of upper and lower group comparisons demonstrated that all of the items in the scale should remain. In light of these results, it could be argued that the scale is reliable and valid instrument and can be used in order to test students' social studies achievement goals.

  7. Social anxiety and fear of negative evaluation: construct validity of the BFNE-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2007-01-01

    The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale [BFNE; Leary, M. R. (1983). A brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 371-375] is a self-report measure designed to assess fear of negative evaluation, a characteristic feature of social anxiety disorders [Rapee, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741-756]. Recent psychometric assessments have suggested that a 2-factor model is most appropriate, with the first factor comprising the straightforwardly worded items and the second factor comprising the reverse-worded items [Carleton, R. N., McCreary, D., Norton, P. J., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (in press-a). The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Revised. Depression & Anxiety; Rodebaugh, T. L., Woods, C. M., Thissen, D. M., Heimberg, R. G., Chambless, D. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). More information from fewer questions: the factor structure and item properties of the original and brief fear of negative evaluation scale. Psychological Assessment, 2, 169-181; Weeks, J. W., Heimberg, R. G., Fresco, D. M., Hart, T. A., Turk, C. L., Schneier, F. R., et al. (2005). Empirical validation and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale in patients with social anxiety disorder. Psychological Assessment, 17, 179-190]. Some researchers recommend the reverse-worded items be removed from scoring [e.g., Rodebaugh, T. L., Woods, C. M., Thissen, D. M., Heimberg, R. G., Chambless, D. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). More information from fewer questions: the factor structure and item properties of the original and brief fear of negative evaluation scale. Psychological Assessment, 2, 169-181; Weeks, J. W., Heimberg, R. G., Fresco, D. M., Hart, T. A., Turk, C. L., Schneier, F. R., et al. (2005). Empirical validation and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale in patients with social anxiety

  8. [Validation of the portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'El Rey, Gustavo José Fonseca; Matos, Cláudia Wilmor

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia (also known as social anxiety disorder) is a severe mental disorder that brings distress and disability. The aim of this study was validate to the Portuguese language the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN) in a populational sample. We performed a discriminative validity study of the Mini-SPIN in a sample of 644 subjects (Mini-SPIN positive group: n = 218 and control/negative group: n = 426) of a study of anxiety disorders' prevalence in the city of Santo André-SP. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN (with score of 6 points, suggested in the original English version) demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.0%, specificity of 80.3%, positive predictive value of 52.8%, negative predictive value of 98.6% and incorrect classification rate of 16.9%. With score of 7 points, was observed an increase in the specificity and positive predictive value (88.6% and 62.7%), while the sensitivity and negative predictive value (84.8% and 96.2%) remained high. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN showed satisfactory psychometric qualities in terms of discriminative validity. In this study, the cut-off of 7, was considered to be the most suitable to screening of the generalized social phobia.

  9. Teaching Socially Valid Social Interaction Responses to Students with Severe Disabilities in an Integrated School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nientimp, Edward G.; Cole, Christine L.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated effects of procedure to teach appropriate social responses to adolescents with severe disabilities by employing ABA withdrawal design, replicated twice with two students, and AB design with third student. Results showed increases in correct responding and decreases in echolalia following intervention. Generalization of appropriate…

  10. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions.

  11. Baseline social amotivation predicts 1-year functioning in UHR subjects: A validation and prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Max; Abdul Rashid, Nur Amirah; Lee, Sara-Ann; Lim, Jeanette; Foussias, George; Fervaha, Gagan; Ruhrman, Stephan; Remington, Gary; Lee, Jimmy

    2015-12-01

    Social amotivation and diminished expression have been reported to underlie negative symptomatology in schizophrenia. In the current study we sought to establish and validate these negative symptom domains in a large cohort of schizophrenia subjects (n=887) and individuals who are deemed to be Ultra-High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on PANSS item domains demonstrate that the dual negative symptom domains exist in schizophrenia and UHR subjects. We further sought to examine if these negative symptom domains were associated with functioning in UHR subjects. Linear regression analyses confirmed that social amotivation predicted functioning in UHR subjects prospectively at 1 year follow up. Results suggest that the association between social amotivation and functioning is generalisable beyond schizophrenia populations to those who are at-risk of developing psychosis. Social amotivation may be an important dimensional clinical construct to be studied across a range of psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in women: a literature review on the reliability and validity of assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Völlm, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Crime rates are low in women compared to men. The two disorders most commonly associated with offending behaviour, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy, are also less prevalent in female samples. However, developments in forensic psychiatry have often ignored gender, and the utility of constructs such as psychopathy and their assessment instruments in female samples remains unclear. This article presents a review of studies looking at rates of ASPD and psychopathy and on the reliability and validity of assessment instruments of these disorders in women. Gender differences in symptom patterns will be considered. The literature seems to suggest that DSM-IV criteria for ASPD may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of the disorder in women due to the requirement of childhood conduct disorder symptoms. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to identify psychopathy in women but there are gender differences in the factor structure and item loadings on this measure. Research to date seems to suggest a three-factor model may be most strongly supported in females. Preliminary evidence suggests the PCL-R may have some value in predicting future offending while the PCL:SV may be useful in predicting institutional violence. Clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Reliability and validity of a physical activity social support assessment scale in adolescents - ASAFA Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the reliability and validity of a scale used to measure social support for physical activity in adolescents - ASAFA Scale. Methods: This study included 2,755 adolescents (57.6% girls, 16.5 ± 1.2 years of age, from Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. Initially, the scale was consisted of 12 items (6 for social support from parents and 6 from friends. The reliability of the scale was estimated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α, by the Composite Reliability (CR, and by the model with two factors and factorial invariance by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA adequacy. Results: The CFA results confirmed that the social support scale contained two factors (factor 1: social support from parents; factor 2: social support from friends with five items each (one item was excluded from each scale, all with high factor loadings (> 0.65 and acceptable adjustment indexes (RMR = 0.050; RMSEA = 0.063; 90%CI: 0.060 - 0.067; AGFI = 0.903; GFI = 0.940; CFI = 0.934, NNFI = 0.932. The internal consistency was satisfactory (parents: α ≥ 0.77 and CR ≥ 0.83; friends: α ≥ 0.87 and CR ≥ 0.91. The scale's factorial invariance was confirmed (p > 0.05; Δχ2 and ΔCFI ≤ 0.01 across all subgroups analyzed (gender, age, economic class. The construct validity was evidenced by the significant association (p < 0.05 between the adolescents physical activity level and the social support score of parents (rho = 0.29 and friends (rho = 0.39. Conclusions: The scale showed reliability, factorial invariance and satisfactory validity, so it can be used in studies with adolescents.

  14. Validation of the Croatian Version of the Social Self-Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Jelić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the frame of Social Identity Theory (SIT self-esteem was given a central role in explaining intergroup discrimination. Furthermore, SIT emphasized the difference between personal and social identity and thus tried to avoid explaining group process and intergroup relations in terms of personal characteristics. However, social identity theory hypotheses are largely tested using measures of personal self-esteem due to the lack of social self-esteem measures. The Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES (Luhtanen i Crocker, 1992, has thus been adapted for use in Croatia. The scale measures social identity level based on belonging to the group in focus and has proved to be a useful tool in many studies. The aim of this research was the validation of the Collective Self-esteem Scale. The research was conducted on 1014 citizens of Vukovar and 273 pupils and students from Zagreb and Velika Gorica. Firstly, metric characteristics of the Croatian version of the scale were checked. Secondly, its validity and connections to related constructs were determined. Although the obtained 4-factor solution does not fully meet the structure proposed by the authors of the scale, it has had a stable factor structure on the Croatian sample, confirmed on two different samples. It gives information on the positive and negative social self-esteem level; on how one thinks other perceive his/her group; and how important that group is for one’s self-concept. All four types of information proved useful in explanation of the ethnic identity level, ingroup bias and intergroup attitudes in general. Reliability and validity values obtained in two research projects have shown the Collective Self-Esteem Scale’s potential as a useful tool when investigating group processes and intergroup relations in Croatia.

  15. Twitter Users with Access to Academic Library Services Request Health Sciences Literature through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Swab, M., & Romme, K. (2016. Scholarly sharing via Twitter: #icanhazpdf requests for health sciences literature. Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association, 37(1, 6-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.5596/c16-009 Abstract Objective – To analyze article sharing requests for health sciences literature on Twitter, received through the #icanhazpdf protocol. Design – Social media content analysis. Setting – Twitter. Subjects – 302 tweets requesting health sciences articles with the #icanhazpdf tag. Methods – The authors used a subscription service called RowFeeder to collect public tweets posted with the hashtag #icanhazpdf between February and April 2015. Rowfeeder recorded the Twitter user name, location, date and time, URL, and content of the tweet. The authors excluded all retweets and then each reviewed one of two sets. They recorded the geographic region and affiliation of the requestor, whether the tweet was a request or comment, type of material requested, how the item was identified, and if the subject of the request was health or non-health. Health requests were further classified using the Scopus subject category of the journal. A journal could be classified with more than one category. Any uncertainties during the coding process were resolved by both authors reviewing the tweet and reaching a consensus. Main results – After excluding all the retweets and comments, 1079 tweets were coded as heath or non-health related. A final set of 302 health related requests were further analyzed. Almost all the requests were for journal articles (99%, n=300. The highest-ranking subject was medicine (64.9%, n=196, and the lowest was dentistry (0.3%, n=1. The most common article identifier was a link to the publisher’s website (50%, n=152, followed by a link to the PubMed record (22%, n=67. Articles were also identified by citation information (11%, n=32, DOI (5%, n=14, a direct request to an individual (3%, n=9, another method

  16. Social skills of adolescents: convergent validity between IHSA-Del-Prette and MESSY

    OpenAIRE

    Del Prette,Zilda Aparecida Pereira; Teodoro,Maycoln; Del Prette,Almir

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the evidence demonstrating the reliability and convergent validity between the Social Skills Inventory for Adolescents and the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters in two groups: the first with 136 adolescents from a public school (89 females and 47 males, with ages ranging from 12 to 17 years, 13.98 ± 1.24 years); the second with 24 adolescents from a socio-educational program (ages ranging from 13 to 17 years, 15.64 ± 1.18 years). The results showed ...

  17. Validity and Reliability of Persian Version of Onyx Social Capital Scale in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Eftekharian

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The Persian version of the questionnaire for this population has acceptable levels of face validity based on clarity, simplicity, and understandability of the questions, answers, and explanations of the Persian version of the social capital questionnaire. This version of the questionnaire also had acceptable levels in terms of suitability of the translation of the questionnaire, its suitability for Iranian community, its understandability, and suitability for needs assessment, discriminate validity (the internal consistency of the Persian version of questionnaire, test-retest reliability (absolute, and relative, and internal consistency. Therefore, this instrument is suitable for evaluating the level of social capital among the Iranian elderly people.

  18. Reliability and validity evidence of the Assessment of Language Use in Social Contexts for Adults (ALUSCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Rita S; Hall, Andreia; Alvelos, Helena; Leahy, Margaret; Jesus, Luis M T

    2018-04-12

    The appropriate use of language in context depends on the speaker's pragmatic language competencies. A coding system was used to develop a specific and adult-focused self-administered questionnaire to adults who stutter and adults who do not stutter, The Assessment of Language Use in Social Contexts for Adults, with three categories: precursors, basic exchanges, and extended literal/non-literal discourse. This paper presents the content validity, item analysis, reliability coefficients and evidences of construct validity of the instrument. Content validity analysis was based on a two-stage process: first, 11 pragmatic questionnaires were assessed to identify items that probe each pragmatic competency and to create the first version of the instrument; second, items were assessed qualitatively by an expert panel composed by adults who stutter and controls, and quantitatively and qualitatively by an expert panel composed by clinicians. A pilot study was conducted with five adults who stutter and five controls to analyse items and calculate reliability. Construct validity evidences were obtained using the hypothesized relationships method and factor analysis with 28 adults who stutter and 28 controls. Concerning content validity, the questionnaires assessed up to 13 pragmatic competencies. Qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed ambiguities in items construction. Disagreement between experts was solved through item modification. The pilot study showed that the instrument presented internal consistency and temporal stability. Significant differences between adults who stutter and controls and different response profiles revealed the instrument's underlying construct. The instrument is reliable and presented evidences of construct validity.

  19. Validity evidence of the Social and Emotional Nationwide Assessment (SENNA 1.0 Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Pancorbo

    Full Text Available Abstract: Given the necessity of adequate instruments to measure socio-emotional skills, this study aimed to obtain validity evidence of the Social and Emotional Nationwide Assessment inventory (SENNA 1.0. The instrument was administered to a sample of 634 students (59% females with a mean age of 16.3 years (SD = 1.21, from eight secondary schools of the Federal District ] of Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a six factor structure that explained 42.7% of the common variance, while confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equational modeling analysis showed a moderate fit to the data. Reliability coefficients of the factor scores varied between .66 and .89. The coefficients of the convergent validity with the Reduced Scale of the Big Five Personality Factors (ER5FP had a mean value of .59. In conclusion, the results indicate satisfactory evidence for the score validity of the SENNA 1.0 inventory.

  20. Dutch translation and cross-cultural validation of the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Karen M; Bosmans, Judith E; Jansen, Aaltje Pd; Rand, Stacey E; Towers, Ann-Marie; Smith, Nick; Razik, Kamilla; Trukeschitz, Birgit; van Tulder, Maurits W; van der Horst, Henriette E; Ostelo, Raymond W

    2015-05-13

    The Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit was developed to measure outcomes of social care in England. In this study, we translated the four level self-completion version (SCT-4) of the ASCOT for use in the Netherlands and performed a cross-cultural validation. The ASCOT SCT-4 was translated into Dutch following international guidelines, including two forward and back translations. The resulting version was pilot tested among frail older adults using think-aloud interviews. Furthermore, using a subsample of the Dutch ACT-study, we investigated test-retest reliability and construct validity and compared response distributions with data from a comparable English study. The pilot tests showed that translated items were in general understood as intended, that most items were reliable, and that the response distributions of the Dutch translation and associations with other measures were comparable to the original English version. Based on the results of the pilot tests, some small modifications and a revision of the Dignity items were proposed for the final translation, which were approved by the ASCOT development team. The complete original English version and the final Dutch translation can be obtained after registration on the ASCOT website ( http://www.pssru.ac.uk/ascot ). This study provides preliminary evidence that the Dutch translation of the ASCOT is valid, reliable and comparable to the original English version. We recommend further research to confirm the validity of the modified Dutch ASCOT translation.

  1. Symptom validity issues in the psychological consultative examination for social security disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    This article is about Social Security Administration (SSA) policy with regard to the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability, particularly with respect to validation of the responses and findings. First, the nature of the consultation and the importance of understanding the boundaries and ethics of the psychologist's role are described. Issues particular to working with low-functioning claimants usually form a large part of these examinations. The psychologist must understand various forms of non-credible behavior during the PCE, and how malingering might be considered among other non-credible presentations. Issues pertaining to symptom validity testing in low-functioning claimants are further explored. SSA policy with respect to symptom validity testing is carefully examined, with an attempt to answer specific concerns and show how psychological science can be of assistance, particularly with evidence-based practice. Additionally, the nature and importance of techniques to avoid the mislabeling of claimants as malingerers are examined. SSA requires the use of accepted diagnostic techniques with which to establish impairment, and this article describes the implementation of that requirement, particularly with respect to validating the findings.

  2. Generation Validation: The Role of Social Comparison in Use of Instagram Among Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Peta; Luiz, Gabriella; Chatwin, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide emerging adults with extreme and unprecedented transparency, exposing them to a plethora of opportunities for social comparison. In light of the growing use of the popular SNS, Instagram, among emerging adults, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of exposure to social media-based social comparison information on self-esteem. The study recruited 237 participants through social media. The sample was narrowed to young adults aged 18-29 years. The study used a correlational nonexperimental approach to investigate two mediation models proposed in the literature. First, the study investigated the mediating role of social comparison on Instagram in the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and self-esteem. Second, the study examined the mediating role of social comparison in the relationship between self-worth contingent on approval from others and self-esteem. Although the first model was found to be nonsignificant, results observed a significant indirect pathway that confirmed the second model. Thus, social comparison on Instagram mediated the relationship between contingent self-worth and self-esteem. Furthermore, moderation analyses found that self-worth contingent on approval from others moderated the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and social comparison on Instagram. Thus, although Instagram did not directly affect self-esteem, the significant moderation suggested that intensity of Instagram use is influential when the young person's self-worth is contingent on approval from others. Overall, the findings are consistent with previous research and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms that link SNS use to low self-esteem.

  3. Are randomised controlled trials positivist? Reviewing the social science and philosophy literature to assess positivist tendencies of trials of social interventions in public health and health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Chris; Moore, Graham; Warren, Emily; Moore, Laurence

    2018-04-19

    We have previously proposed that trials of social interventions can be done within a "realist" research paradigm. Critics have countered that such trials are irredeemably positivist and asked us to explain our philosophical position. We set out to explore what is meant by positivism and whether trials adhere to its tenets (of necessity or in practice) via a narrative literature review of social science and philosophical discussions of positivism, and of the trials literature and three case studies of trials. The philosophical literature described positivism as asserting: (1) the epistemic primacy of sensory information; (2) the requirement that theoretical terms equate with empirical terms; (3) the aim of developing universal laws; and (4) the unity of method between natural and social sciences. Regarding (1), it seems that rather than embodying the epistemic primacy of sensory data, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of social interventions in health embrace an anti-positivist approach aiming to test hypotheses derived deductively from prior theory. Considering (2), while some RCTs of social interventions appear to limit theorisation to concepts with empirical analogues, others examine interventions underpinned by theories engaging with mechanisms and contextual contingencies not all of which can be measured. Regarding (3), while some trialists and reviewers in the health field do limit their role to estimating statistical trends as a mechanistic form of generalisation, this is not an inevitable feature of RCT-based research. Trials of social interventions can instead aim to generalise at the level of theory which specifies how mechanisms are contingent on context. In terms of (4), while RCTs are used to examine biomedical as well as social interventions in health, RCTs of social interventions are often distinctive in using qualitative analyses of data on participant accounts to examine questions of meaning and agency not pursued in the natural sciences. We

  4. Social CRM adoption and its impact on performance outcomes: a literature review:

    OpenAIRE

    Marolt, Marjeta; Pucihar, Andreja; Zimmermann, Hans Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Social customer relationship management (social CRM) is an emerging concept that integrates traditional CRM and social media in order to provide benefits for organizations and customers. Despite the benefits that social CRM can bring, many organizations are still at the early stage of adoption. To move beyond social marketing and to exploit opportunities offered by sales and customer service, organizations need to be aware of factors that drive social CRM adoption and ...

  5. Setting the stage for social entrepreneurship : a systematic literature reiview on user entrepreneurship in relation to social entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koers-Stuiver, D.M.; Groen, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the boundaries of the theories on user entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship by examining the differences and analogies between them. This research was the first to explore the relationship between user entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship and theorized about

  6. Project Based Learning in Literature: The Teacher's New Role and the Development of Student's Social Skills in Upper Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styla, Despoina; Michalopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The present research examines the project method, as it is met at the new curriculum of literature in the first Grade of Greek high schools and the effectiveness of it and of the teacher's role at the development of social skills, of students with low level. At first it is made an effort to measure that level at the beginning of the literature…

  7. Health outcomes and related effects of using social media in chronic disease management: a literature review and analysis of affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the future for social media in chronic disease management appears to be optimistic, there is limited concrete evidence indicating whether and how social media use significantly improves patient outcomes. This review examines the health outcomes and related effects of using social media, while also exploring the unique affordances underpinning these effects. Few studies have investigated social media's potential in chronic disease, but those we found indicate impact on health status and other effects are positive, with none indicating adverse events. Benefits have been reported for psychosocial management via the ability to foster support and share information; however, there is less evidence of benefits for physical condition management. We found that studies covered a very limited range of social media platforms and that there is an ongoing propensity towards reporting investigations of earlier social platforms, such as online support groups (OSG), discussion forums and message boards. Finally, it is hypothesized that for social media to form a more meaningful part of effective chronic disease management, interventions need to be tailored to the individualized needs of sufferers. The particular affordances of social media that appear salient in this regard from analysis of the literature include: identity, flexibility, structure, narration and adaptation. This review suggests further research of high methodological quality is required to investigate the affordances of social media and how these can best serve chronic disease sufferers. Evidence-based practice (EBP) using social media may then be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and psychometric validation of social cognitive theory scales in an oral health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly; Parker, Eleanor J; Steffens, Margaret A; Logan, Richard M; Brennan, David; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate scales reflecting potentially modifiable social cognitive theory-based risk indicators associated with homeless populations' oral health. The scales are referred to as the social cognitive theory risk scales in an oral health context (SCTOH) and are referred to as SCTOH(SE), SCTOH(K) and SCTOH(F), respectively. The three SCTOH scales assess the key constructs of social cognitive theory: self-efficacy, knowledge and fatalism. The reliability and validity of the three scales were evaluated in a convenience sample of 248 homeless participants (age range 17-78 years, 79% male) located in a metropolitan setting in Australia. The scales were supported by exploratory factor analysis and established three distinct and internally consistent domains of social cognition: oral health-related self-efficacy, oral health-related knowledge and oral health-related fatalism, with Cronbach's alphas of 0.95, 0.85 and Spearman's-Brown ρ of 0.69. Concurrent ability was confirmed by each SCTOH scale's association with oral health status in the expected directions. The three SCTOH scales appear to be internally valid and reliable. If confirmed by further research, these scales could potentially be used for tailored educational and cognitive-behavioural interventions to reduce oral health inequalities among homeless and other vulnerable populations. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. The Ethics of Sharing Plastic Surgery Videos on Social Media: Systematic Literature Review, Ethical Analysis, and Proposed Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Robert G; Vaca, Elbert E; Fine, Neil A; Schierle, Clark F

    2017-10-01

    Recent videos shared by plastic surgeons on social media applications such as Snapchat, Instagram, and YouTube, among others, have blurred the line between entertainment and patient care. This has left many in the plastic surgery community calling for the development of more structured oversight and guidance regarding video sharing on social media. To date, no official guidelines exist for plastic surgeons to follow. Little is known about the ethical implications of social media use by plastic surgeons, especially with regard to video sharing. A systematic review of the literature on social media use in plastic surgery was performed on October 31, 2016, with an emphasis on ethics and professionalism. An ethical analysis was conducted using the four principles of medical ethics. The initial search yielded 87 articles. Thirty-four articles were included for analyses that were found to be relevant to the use of social media in plastic surgery. No peer-reviewed articles were found that mentioned Snapchat or addressed the ethical implications of sharing live videos of plastic surgery on social media. Using the four principles of medical ethics, it was determined that significant ethical concerns exist with broadcasting these videos. This analysis fills an important gap in the plastic surgery literature by addressing the ethical issues concerning live surgery broadcasts on social media. Plastic surgeons may use the guidelines proposed here to avoid potential pitfalls.

  10. Premorbid and illness-related social difficulties in eating disorders: an overview of the literature and treatment developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Tchanturia, Kate; Treasure, Janet

    2018-01-17

    Social difficulties in eating disorders can manifest as predisposing traits and premorbid difficulties, and/or as consequences of the illness. Objective The aim of this paper is to briefly review the evidence for social problems in people with eating disorders and to consider the literature on treatments that target these features. Method A narrative review of the literature was conducted. Results People with eating disorders often manifest traits, such as shyness, increased tendency to submissiveness and social comparison, and problems with peer relationships before illness onset. Further social difficulties occur as the illness develops, including impaired social cognition and increased threat sensitivity. All relationships with family, peers and therapists are compromised by these effects. Thus, social difficulties are both risk and maintaining factors of eating disorders and are suitable targets for interventions. Several forms of generic treatments (e.g. interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive analytic therapy, focal psychodynamic therapy) have an interpersonal focus and show some efficacy. Guided self-management based on the cognitive interpersonal model of the illness and directed to both individuals and support persons have been found to improve outcomes for all parties. Adjunctive treatments that focus on specific social difficulties, such as Cognitive Remediation and Emotion Skills Training and Cognitive Bias Modification have been shown to have promise. Conclusion More work is needed to establish whether these approaches can improve on the rather disappointing outcomes that are attained by currently used treatments for eating disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Exploring the literature on music participation and social connectedness for young people with intellectual disability: A critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa Ai; McFerran, Katrina

    2017-12-01

    This article explores the literature on social connectedness and music for young people with disability. It then critically examines the level of congruence between the reported literature to date and current rights-based disability studies discourse. A critical interpretive synthesis was used to examine 27 articles referencing the use of music for social connectedness. Areas of focus in the review are the nature of connections being fostered in music programs, the use of voice and collaboration. The majority of music programs reported on closed groups. Outdated 'expert' models of working persist. The use of participants' voice in the literature is growing, although there is a lack of collaboration and negative reporting. A shift in thinking heralds greater collaboration with participants, although this could be broadened to include decisions on research agendas, planning and evaluation. There is also need for active fostering of broader socio-musical pathways.

  12. The Role of Social Media User Experience as a Mediator for Understanding Social Media User Behavior in Indonesia’s Museum Industry: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundjaja, A. M.; LumanGaol, F.; Budiarti, T.; Abbas, B. S.; Abdinagoro, S. B.; Ongowarsito, H.

    2017-01-01

    Social media has changed the interaction between the customer and the business, social media has proven to provide new opportunities in facilitating access to information, efficiency and ease of interaction between customers and businesses that are distributed geographically dispersed. Ease of interaction to improve access to information about products, services, and prices have proven to have a positive impact for consumers. The purpose of this article is to develop a conceptual model to test the effect of user motivation, user expectations, and online community involvement to the intention of behavior that is mediated by the use of social media museum experience. This article is a literature study on exploration of social media user experiences museum in Indonesia. Authors searched and examined 85 articles from google scholar with the following keywords: motivation, expectations, online communities, user experience, social media, Technology Acceptance Model, Experiential Marketing, Uses and Gratification Theory. Proposed data collection techniques are literature study, survey and observation. The sample used in this research is 400 respondents of social media users that follow the social media managed by Indonesia’s museum. The sampling technique are systematic sampling. We use Structural Equation Model with AMOS for analyze the data.

  13. MAPPING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REPUTATION ANDCORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE BANKING SECTOR: ACOMPREHENSIVE LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarita Trotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an increasing number of scholars and practitioners have becomeinterested in the concepts of Corporate Reputation (CR and Corporate SocialResponsibility (CSR, examining them fromdifferent perspectives using severalapproaches.Some studies of the banking industry have emphasised the benefits ofpositive CR in achieving competitive advantages.Other studies have investigated the concept of CSR in the banking sector, exploring above all how CSR impactseconomic, financial and non-financial performance and focusing on the adoptionand disclosure of such initiatives (Callado-Munoz and Utrero-Gonzales,2011:755. However, this line ofinquiry is incomplete.In recent years, a growing number ofstudies have explored the relationshipbetween CR and CSR in non-financial sectors, but few studies have investigatedthe relationship in the banking industry. Although academic researches frequentlyconclude that CSR is an important reputational driver, Baldarelli and Gigli (2011point out that there is a lack of theoryand empirical evidence regarding the linkbetween CR and CSR, highlighting the need for further analysis. The academicdebate has so far failed to answer how responsibility and reputation interact.In the case of the banking industry, where there is no well-established tradition ofinvestigating either reputation or CSR, itis even more important to clarify therelationship between these two concepts. This may give rise to useful insightswith implications for management. Thisstudy aims to contribute to a betterunderstanding of the complex debate on these issues by developing an in-depthanalysis of the extant banking literature. Thus, our literature review has thefollowing aims: a to investigate the links between CR and CSR in the bankingindustry; b to critically explore thecharacteristics and methodologies of theprimary reputational and CSR measures; andc to suggest an agenda for futureresearch.The paper is structured as follows: the next section

  14. Automatic address validation and health record review to identify homeless Social Security disability applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Abbott, Kenneth; Susienka, Lucinda

    2018-06-01

    Homeless patients face a variety of obstacles in pursuit of basic social services. Acknowledging this, the Social Security Administration directs employees to prioritize homeless patients and handle their disability claims with special care. However, under existing manual processes for identification of homelessness, many homeless patients never receive the special service to which they are entitled. In this paper, we explore address validation and automatic annotation of electronic health records to improve identification of homeless patients. We developed a sample of claims containing medical records at the moment of arrival in a single office. Using address validation software, we reconciled patient addresses with public directories of homeless shelters, veterans' hospitals and clinics, and correctional facilities. Other tools annotated electronic health records. We trained random forests to identify homeless patients and validated each model with 10-fold cross validation. For our finished model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.942. The random forest improved sensitivity from 0.067 to 0.879 but decreased positive predictive value to 0.382. Presumed false positive classifications bore many characteristics of homelessness. Organizations could use these methods to prompt early collection of information necessary to avoid labor-intensive attempts to reestablish contact with homeless individuals. Annually, such methods could benefit tens of thousands of patients who are homeless, destitute, and in urgent need of assistance. We were able to identify many more homeless patients through a combination of automatic address validation and natural language processing of unstructured electronic health records. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Review of the literature on the use of social media by people with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Melissa; Hemsley, Bronwyn; Palmer, Stuart; Dann, Stephen; Togher, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    To review the literature relating to use of social media by people with a traumatic brain injury (TBI), specifically its use for social engagement, information exchange or rehabilitation. A systematic review with a qualitative meta-synthesis of content themes was conducted. In June 2014, 10 databases were searched for relevant, peer-reviewed research studies in English that related to both TBI and social media. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, with Facebook™ and Twitter™ being the most common social media represented in the included studies. Content analysis identified three major categories of meaning in relation to social media and TBI: (1) risks and benefits; (2) barriers and facilitators; and (3) purposes of use of social media. A greater emphasis was evident regarding potential risks and apparent barriers to social media use, with little focus on facilitators of successful use by people with TBI. Research to date reveals a range of benefits to the use of social media by people with TBI however there is little empirical research investigating its use. Further research focusing on ways to remove the barriers and increase facilitators for the use of social media by people with TBI is needed.

  16. Clinical validation of a non-heteronormative version of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Philip; Martell, Christopher; Bergström, Jan; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2013-12-19

    Despite welcomed changes in societal attitudes and practices towards sexual minorities, instances of heteronormativity can still be found within healthcare and research. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) is a valid and reliable self-rating scale of social anxiety, which includes one item (number 14) with an explicit heteronormative assumption about the respondent's sexual orientation. This heteronormative phrasing may confuse, insult or alienate sexual minority respondents. A clinically validated version of the SIAS featuring a non-heteronormative phrasing of item 14 is thus needed. 129 participants with diagnosed social anxiety disorder, enrolled in an Internet-based intervention trial, were randomly assigned to responding to the SIAS featuring either the original or a novel non-heteronormative phrasing of item 14, and then answered the other item version. Within-subject, correlation between item versions was calculated and the two scores were statistically compared. The two items' correlations with the other SIAS items and other psychiatric rating scales were also statistically compared. Item versions were highly correlated and scores did not differ statistically. The two items' correlations with other measures did not differ statistically either. The SIAS can be revised with a non-heteronormative formulation of item 14 with psychometric equivalence on item and scale level. Implications for other psychiatric instruments with heteronormative phrasings are discussed.

  17. Using psychodrama to relieve social barriers in an autistic child: A case study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: It was possible for autistic children to relieve social barriers by implementing psychodrama training, then to improve the social cognitive ability and enhance the social function of the autistic children. These results provided basic Clinical implications for exploring a new intervention technique to reduce autistic symptom severity.

  18. On the anatomy of social engineering attacks : A literature-based dissection of successful attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Montoya, L.; Pieters, Wolter; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    The aim of this studywas to explore the extent towhich persuasion principles are used in successful social engineering attacks. Seventy-four scenarioswere extracted from 4 books on social engineering (written by social engineers) and analysed. Each scenariowas split into attack steps, containing

  19. Rethinking Educational Spaces: A Review of Literature on Urban Youth and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Terry T.; Carpenter, B. Stephen, II

    2014-01-01

    This paper serves as an exploration into the landscape of social media use in educational research as it relates to urban youth in the United States. Initially, a social and learning context is provided that situates the implications social media may have for urban youth within formal and informal educational spaces. The paper offers a discussion…

  20. Emotions Trump Facts: The Role of Emotions in on Social Media: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyvärinen, Hissu; Beck, Roman

    2018-01-01

    Emotions are an inseparable part of how people use social media. While a more cognitive view on social media has initially dominated the research looking into areas such as knowledge sharing, the topic of emotions and their role on social media is gaining increasing interest. As is typical to an ...

  1. The meaning and validation of social support networks for close family of persons with advanced cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjolander Catarina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study’s empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Methods Seventeen family members with a relative who 8–14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. Results The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. Conclusions The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could

  2. The meaning and validation of social support networks for close family of persons with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolander, Catarina; Ahlstrom, Gerd

    2012-09-17

    To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study's empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Seventeen family members with a relative who 8-14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could encourage nurses and other health-care professionals to focus on family members

  3. Indicators validation for the improvement of environmental and social impact quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Monterde-Diaz, Rafael; Santamarina-Siurana, Maria-Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and social impact quantitative assessment is an essential tool for the correct location of economic activities within the territory. The main problem of impact quantification lies in establishing the appropriateness of the instruments (indicators) utilised, such that their level of objectivity is the highest possible. To improve the quality of this kind of studies, the present contribution discusses this problematic question and its consequences and proposes a methodology for the validation of indicators. Finally, the methodology proposed is subjected to an observational and experimental test to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal. The test is performed on four indicators, which are designed ad hoc to assess alternatives in industrial facility location problems where the decision-making process has to be supported by an environmental and social impact assessment

  4. Validation of the German Version of the Social Functioning Scale (SFS for schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jona R Iffland

    Full Text Available Deficits in social functioning are a core symptom of schizophrenia and an important criterion for evaluating the success of treatment. However, there is little agreement regarding its measurement. A common, often cited instrument for assessing self-reported social functioning is the Social Functioning Scale (SFS. The study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the German translation. 101 patients suffering from schizophrenia (SZ and 101 matched controls (C (60 male / 41 female, 35.8 years in both groups completed the German version. In addition, demographic, clinical, and functional data were collected. Internal consistency was investigated calculating Cronbach's alpha for SFS full scale (α: .81 and all subscales (α: .59-.88. Significant bivariate correlation coefficients were found between all subscales as well as between all subscales and full scale (p <.01. For the total sample, principal component analysis gave evidence to prefer a single-factor solution (eigenvalue ≥ 1 accounting for 48.5 % of the variance. For the subsamples, a two-component solution (SZ; 57.0 % and a three-component solution (C; 65.6 % fitted best, respectively. For SZ and C, significant associations were found between SFS and external criteria. The main factor "group" emerged as being significant. C showed higher values on both subscales and full scale. The sensitivity of the SFS was examined using discriminant analysis. 86.5% of the participants could be categorized correctly to their actual group. The German translation of the SFS turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire comparable to the original English version. This is in line with Spanish and Norwegian translations of the SFS. Concluding, the German version of the SFS is well suited to become a useful and practicable instrument for the assessment of social functioning in both clinical practice and research. It accomplishes commonly used external assessment scales.

  5. The benefits of corporate social responsibility introduction in small and medium-sized enterprises: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hodinková

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is considered as an important part of entrepreneur’s strategic behaviour. Its purpose is not only to achieve and maintain the good economic results, but at the same time also effort to do well to the environmental and social impact of business on the society. The systematic review of the literature was used to compare attitude of domestic and foreign SMEs and to identify the benefits of CSR implementation in business practice. The research findings point to the fact that the Czech SMEs do not realize enough the benefits of CSR introduction for their business.

  6. The social world of Australian practice nurses and the influence of medical dominance: an analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Hallinan, Christine

    2009-12-01

    In Australia, the number of practice nurses is growing at a rapid rate. On the nursing landscape, this group of nurses stand out because of their relationship with the Australian Government who both fund them, and concern themselves with their continuing professional development. This paper provides a construction of the social world of Australian practice nurses, identifying stakeholders in the business of practice nursing. Literature produced by the various social world segments is analysed for the influence of medical dominance on the role, image, power and politics of practice nurses.

  7. Landspotting: Social gaming to collect vast amounts of data for satellite validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, S.; Purgathofer, P.; Kayali, F.; Fellner, M.; Wimmer, M.; Sturn, T.; Triebnig, G.; Krause, S.; Schindler, F.; Kollegger, M.; Perger, C.; Dürauer, M.; Haberl, W.; See, L.; McCallum, I.

    2012-04-01

    At present there is no single satellite-derived global land cover product that is accurate enough to provide reliable estimates of forest or cropland area to determine, e.g., how much additional land is available to grow biofuels or to tackle problems of food security. The Landspotting Project aims to improve the quality of this land cover information by vastly increasing the amount of in-situ validation data available for calibration and validation of satellite-derived land cover. The Geo-Wiki (Geo-Wiki.org) system currently allows users to compare three satellite derived land cover products and validate them using Google Earth. However, there is presently no incentive for anyone to provide this data so the amount of validation through Geo-Wiki has been limited. However, recent competitions have proven that incentive driven campaigns can rapidly create large amounts of input. The LandSpotting Project is taking a truly innovative approach through the development of the Landspotting game. The game engages users whilst simultaneously collecting a large amount of in-situ land cover information. The development of the game is informed by the current raft of successful social gaming that is available on the internet and as mobile applications, many of which are geo-spatial in nature. Games that are integrated within a social networking site such as Facebook illustrate the power to reach and continually engage a large number of individuals. The number of active Facebook users is estimated to be greater than 400 million, where 100 million are accessing Facebook from mobile devices. The Landspotting Game has similar game mechanics as the famous strategy game "Civilization" (i.e. build, harvest, research, war, diplomacy, etc.). When a player wishes to make a settlement, they must first classify the land cover over the area they wish to settle. As the game is played on the earth surface with Google Maps, we are able to record and store this land cover/land use classification

  8. A Danish version of the Friendship Scale - Translation and validation of a brief measure of social isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Hawthorne, Graeme; Kjær, Per

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common and social isolation is both a risk factor for poor recovery from LBP and a consequence of LBP. The Friendship Scale is a brief measure of social isolation that has been validated for use in the general population and in people with LBP. The aim of this study...

  9. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target’s internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences. PMID:26696869

  10. Trauma exposure, resilience, social support, and PTSD construct validity among former prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P B; Engdahl, B E; Eberly, R E; Blake, R J; Page, W F; Frueh, B C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of persistent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to examine the construct validity of PTSD in a national sample of 270 World War II and Korean Conflict prisoners of war (POWs). POWs were interviewed at two points in time (1965 and 1990). Predictors included PTSD symptomatology measured in 1965 by items from the Cornell Medical Index (CMI), severity of captivity trauma, resilience factors, and post-trauma social support. The criterion, symptomatology in the early 1990s, was evaluated with the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). The CMI provided only partial coverage of PTSD criteria and appeared to provide only a general index of distress. Clustering of SCID items in two-dimensional space via multidimensional scaling analysis offers some construct validation for the DSM's differentiation of PTSD symptoms into criterion groups, although there was not a perfect match. Trauma severity is best related to PTSD symptomatology experienced in 1990, mitigated in part by greater education level and age at the time of trauma exposure. Surprisingly, 1965 distress added only a modest amount to the prediction of current distress, while post-trauma social support added none. These findings support previous work showing the severe psychological sequelae of POW status 40-50 years after captivity, and indicate that trauma severity during captivity is the best predictor of current PTSD symptomatology. Results also add to our understanding of the conceptual differentiation of PTSD symptoms into separate and distinct symptom clusters.

  11. Cultural Context In Process Of Mining Data From Social Media – Recommendations Based On Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Michalak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Social media is nothing else than a modern communication channel that carry a lot of advantages, such as their reach or range. Social media has such a big power of its reach that a single post, tweet, or "broad" start to matter globally. With globalization, we have seen an increase in usage of social media everywhere. This means that communication is being conducted across the borders or different countries, continents or even cultures. It is an desirable effect, however the social media user across the world differs in respect to their culture and data shows that significant differences exist in a way people in the world social media. However, in order to be well prepared to dig in social media, the question should be post whether the cultural context affects the activity of users. If so, it is appropriate to prepare data filters to include some specific criteria. In first part authors apply the Cross - Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM in social media data to specify the process of data analysis. Second part focuses on recommendations about cultural context in mining social media.

  12. Factors Associated with Social Interactions between Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Georgina; Oakes, Peter M.; Alexander, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that deaf children can have marked social difficulties compared with their hearing peers. Factors that influence these social interactions need to be reviewed to inform interventions. A systematic search of 5 key databases and 3 specialized journals identified 14 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of…

  13. Landscape and Social Values in Popular Children's Literature: Nancy Drew Mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker-Gross, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the covert lessons in moral social geography found in a set of popular juvenile fiction published between 1924 and 1978--the Nancy Drew mystery stories. Topics discussed include landscape symbolism, urban environments, uses of geographical elements in the stories, rural settings, wilderness settings, social stereotypes, and landscape…

  14. A Feeling for Books: Using Literature to Promote Social-Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunks, Karen W.; Gilles, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Social-emotional development is a fundamental part of a child's overall well-being. Healthy development forms a critical foundation for building positive relationships and a strong self-esteem. Social-emotional development includes the ability to express and manage emotions and to establish secure relationships. All children have a natural desire…

  15. Analysing the Literature on University Social Responsibility: A Review of Selected Higher Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrán Jorge, Manuel; Andrades Peña, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    In the last 30 years, different economic, political and social changes have taken place in the university sector and this has led to an extensive reform to meet the new societal challenges that these institutions are facing today. This emphasises the social dimension of universities and their important role in society as educators of future…

  16. Interpersonal Relations Among Hispanics in the United States: A Content Analysis of the Social Science Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    biological race. We draw on the definition of Van Den Berghe (1970:10) * who defines race as: ...not a subspecies of homo sapiens but a group of... economico : el caso de una comunidad puertorriqueia. Revista de Ciencias Sociales VII(1,2):103-112. Seda Bonilla, Eduardo 1966 Social Structure and

  17. The Use of Social Networks as a Communication Tool between Teachers and Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froment, Facundo; García González, Alfonso Javier; Bohórquez, M. Rocío

    2017-01-01

    Social networks have drastically changed communication between people, constituting a means of everyday use by which information is created and shared in a simple, instantaneous way with the rest of the world. Although social networks were not initially created for academic purposes, they are gradually being used as a means of communication…

  18. Social media and outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases: A systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Bie, Bijie; Park, Sung-Eun; Zhi, Degui

    2018-04-05

    The public often turn to social media for information during emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) outbreaks. This study identified the major approaches and assessed the rigors in published research articles on EIDs and social media. We searched 5 databases for published journal articles on EIDs and social media. We then evaluated these articles in terms of EIDs studied, social media examined, theoretical frameworks, methodologic approaches, and research findings. Thirty articles were included in the analysis (published between January 1, 2010, and March 1, 2016). EIDs that received most scholarly attention were H1N1 (or swine flu, n = 15), Ebola virus (n = 10), and H7N9 (or avian flu/bird flu, n = 2). Twitter was the most often studied social media (n = 17), followed by YouTube (n = 6), Facebook (n = 6), and blogs (n = 6). Three major approaches in this area of inquiry are identified: (1) assessment of the public's interest in and responses to EIDs, (2) examination of organizations' use of social media in communicating EIDs, and (3) evaluation of the accuracy of EID-related medical information on social media. Although academic studies of EID communication on social media are on the rise, they still suffer from a lack of theorization and a need for more methodologic rigor. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-school social abilities: Construction and validation of a scale for children in contexts of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Betina Lacunza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social abilities are an essential part of human activity since they have a bearing on self-con­fidence, adoption of roles, self-regulation of behavior and academic performance, among other aspects. This study presents the process of construction and validation of a scale of social abilities for pre-school children. The scale was administered to 318 parents of 3 to 5 years old children of low socio-economic status who attend Primary Health Care Centers in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Considering the evolutionary and contextual charac­teristics relative to the process of acquisition of social abilities, a different protocol for every age group was designed. The result was a scale with confidence and validity characteristics. The validation of these instruments is helpful for evaluating children in poverty contexts since they enable us to distinguish social resources that allow children’s adaptation.

  20. The Current Use of Social Media in Undergraduate Nursing Education: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer Gunberg; Myers, Shannon Marie

    2017-07-01

    Social media, including blogs, Twitter, wikis, Facebook, YouTube, and Ning, provides an opportunity for nurse educators to engage undergraduate nursing students who are members of the millennial generation in active learning while enhancing knowledge and fostering communication. Despite the rise of social media usage in undergraduate nursing education, there is a significant deficiency of empirical evidence supporting the efficacy and outcomes of these teaching strategies. This article provides an overview of social media use in undergraduate nursing education and a review of the existing research related to social media use in prelicensure nursing education. Overall, undergraduate nursing students respond positively to social media use in nursing education; however, no outcome measures are available to determine the effect of these teaching strategies on student learning.

  1. Review of the Literature: A Rural-Urban Comparison of Social Networks of Older Adults Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brittany N; Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R

    2016-01-01

    Globally, aging populations and older persons living with HIV (OPLWH) are emerging socioeconomic and health care concerns. Aging adults living in rural communities have less access to and lower utilization of health care services; they rely heavily on available peer and family networks. Although social networks have been linked to positive mental and physical health outcomes, there is a lack of understanding about social networks in rural-dwelling OPLWH. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to compare emerging themes in the social network components of rural versus urban-dwelling OPLWH and network benefits and barriers. Overarching themes include: limited and/or fragile networks, social inclusion versus social isolation, social capital, and health outcomes. Results demonstrate an overall lack of rural-focused research on OPLWH and a universal lack of informal and formal networks due to isolation, lack of health care services, and omnipresent HIV stigma. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Literature research concerning alternative methods for validation of criticality calculation systems; Literaturrecherche zu alternativen Daten und Methoden zur Validierung von Kritikalitaetsrechensystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behler, Matthias

    2016-05-15

    Beside radiochemical analysis of irradiated fuel and critical experiments, which has become a well-established basis for the validation of depletion code and criticality codes respectively, also results of oscillation experiments or the operating conditions of power reactor and research reactors can provide useful information for the validation of the above mentioned codes. Based on a literature review the potential of the utilization of oscillation experiment measurements for the validation of criticality codes is estimated. It is found that the reactivity measurements for actinides and fission products within the CERES program on the reactors DIMPLE (Winfrith, UK) and MINERVE (Cadarache, France) can give a valuable addition to the commonly used critical experiments for criticality code validation. However, there are approaches but yet no generally satisfactory solution for integrating the reactivity measurements in a quantitative bias determination for the neutron multiplication factor of typical application cases including irradiated spent fuel outside reactor cores, calculated using common criticality codes.

  3. Testing of the OMERACT 8 draft validation criteria for a soluble biomarker reflecting structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature search on 5 candidate biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syversen, Silje W; Landewe, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the OMERACT 8 draft validation criteria for soluble biomarkers by assessing the strength of literature evidence in support of 5 candidate biomarkers. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted on the 5 soluble biomarkers RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), matrix...... metalloprotease (MMP-3), urine C-telopeptide of types I and II collagen (U-CTX-I and U CTX-II), focusing on the 14 OMERACT 8 criteria. Two electronic voting exercises were conducted to address: (1) strength of evidence for each biomarker as reflecting structural damage according to each individual criterion...

  4. REPORTING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: AT THE PURSUIT OF LEGITIMACY - A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Rim Lahbil; Rachid Wahabi

    2017-01-01

    Since one of today’s business buzzwords is “Sustainability”, an increasingly large number of companies aim to generate a lasting competitive advantage by balancing the value creating process with the social and environmental challenges. Therefore, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) appears as the assertive voice in which corporate governance is expressed in terms of sustainable development. The widespread adoption of sustainability reporting (SR) confirms companies' growing ...

  5. Knowledge sharing via social media in software development: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarka, Peter Bo; Ipsen, Christine

    2017-01-01

    communication are driving organizations to leverage social media tools to improve performance. These tools, which have changed the way we share knowledge, enable people to connect, communicate, and collaborate. Research on knowledge sharing via social media is still in its early phases, with a comprehensive......Effective knowledge exchange among software developers is crucial for the competitive performance of their organizations. Today, the constant pressure on businesses to continually innovate and the increasing capability of information technologies to facilitate broader and more distributed...

  6. Older persons' experiences and perspectives of receiving social care: a systematic review of the qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de São José, José; Barros, Rosanna; Samitca, Sanda; Teixeira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The topic of social care for older people has gained increasing attention from the part of academics, professionals, policy makers and media. However, we know little about this topic from the perspectives of older persons, which hinders future developments in terms of theory, empirical research, professional practice and social policy. This article presents and discusses a systematic review of relevant qualitative research-based evidence on the older persons' experiences and perspectives of receiving social care published between 1990 and September 2014. This review aimed to obtain answers to the following questions: How is the reception of social care experienced by the older persons? What are the negative and positive aspects of these experiences? What are the factors which influence the experiences? The synthesis of the findings of reviewed papers identified six analytical themes: asking for care as a major challenge; ambivalences; (dis)engagement in decisions concerning care; multiple losses as outcomes of receiving social care; multiple strategies to deal with losses originated by the ageing process; and properties of 'good care'. These themes are discussed from the point of view of their implications for theory, care practice and social policy, and future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Social Media Usage for Patients and Healthcare Consumers: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana-Anamaria Cordoş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of Internet from static Web “publishing” to the highly participative, and data-driven, innovations of Web 2.0 has been influencing how people search for health-related information. This review included studies indexed in the PubMed electronic database that focused on social media analysis, examining relationships between participants (patients and healthcare consumers through social media usage. The obtained results showed that previous research regarding social media’s impact on patients and healthcare consumers aimed at a combination of platforms, but there is a penury of information about niche topics or its usage for retrieving medical information. Nevertheless, social media proved to be to be a promising tool in research mainly for recruitment purposes. The review has outlined that eHealth literacy is an attribute for populations that are female and relatively young and educated. Blogs share personal experiences, YouTube contains unregulated, high- and low-quality information that can mislead individuals, Facebook contains more marketing than health-related information, while Wikipedia is recommended for providing high-quality information. Despite healthcare practitioners’ and healthcare public institutions’ reluctance about the use of social media, this review demonstrates the usefulness of social media for patients and healthcare consumers in retrieving health-related information based on content availability and usage implications, and highlights gaps in knowledge that further research needs to fill.

  8. The effects of mindfulness-based interventions for health and social care undergraduate students - a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Michelle; Byrne, Stephen; Mc Gillicuddy, Aoife; Lambert, Sharon; Sahm, Laura J

    2017-08-01

    Health and social care undergraduate students experience stress due to high workloads and pressure to perform. Consequences include depression and burnout. Mindfulness may be a suitable way to reduce stress in health and social care degree courses. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and critically appraise the literature on the effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for health and social care undergraduate students. PubMed, EMBASE, Psych Info, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Academic Search Complete were searched from inception to 21st November 2016. Studies that delivered Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, or an intervention modelled closely on these, to health or social care undergraduate students were included. Eleven studies, representing medicine, nursing and psychology students met the inclusion criteria. The most commonly used measurement tools were; the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire. Short term benefits relating to stress and mood were reported, despite all but one study condensing the curriculum. Gender and personality emerged as factors likely to affect intervention results. Further research with long-term follow-up is required to definitively conclude that mindfulness is an appropriate intervention to mentally prepare health and social care undergraduate students for their future careers.

  9. An ecologically valid performance-based social functioning assessment battery for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chuan; He, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Yu, Xin; Chan, Raymond C K

    2013-12-30

    Psychiatrists pay more attention to the social functioning outcome of schizophrenia nowadays. How to evaluate the real world function among schizophrenia is a challenging task due to culture difference, there is no such kind of instrument in terms of the Chinese setting. This study aimed to report the validation of an ecologically valid performance-based everyday functioning assessment for schizophrenia, namely the Beijing Performance-based Functional Ecological Test (BJ-PERFECT). Fifty community-dwelling adults with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls were recruited. Fifteen of the healthy controls were re-tested one week later. All participants were administered the University of California, San Diego, Performance-based Skill Assessment-Brief version (UPSA-B) and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The finalized assessment included three subdomains: transportation, financial management and work ability. The test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities were good. The total score significantly correlated with the UPSA-B. The performance of individuals with schizophrenia was significantly more impaired than healthy controls, especially in the domain of work ability. Among individuals with schizophrenia, functional outcome was influenced by premorbid functioning, negative symptoms and neurocognition such as processing speed, visual learning and attention/vigilance. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social and Economic Considerations for Coastal and Watershed Restoration in the Puget Sound, Washington: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchfield, Holly M.; Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie R.

    2009-01-01

    This literature review summarizes and synthesizes the available information regarding the impacts of socioeconomic factors on coastal and watershed restoration in the Puget Sound, Wash. Major topic areas which are explored include: institutions and restoration; beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge about restoration and the environment; stakeholder involvement in restoration, communication of restoration issues, and economic issues in restoration. The review revealed that socioeconomic factors play an important role in determining the designation, process, and success of restoration projects. Socioeconomic factors can facilitate or obstruct restoration, but few large-scale restoration projects emphasize them in either prioritization or monitoring procedures. Additionally, there are substantial gaps in the literature regarding restoration in the Puget Sound across all of the topics addressed in this review. The lack of research makes it difficult to provide a holistic view of the social and economic dimensions of restoration in the Sound but provides opportunity for future research.

  11. Translation and Initial Validation of the Japanese Version of the Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shunta; Shimada, Hironori; Sato, Tomoya; Tashiro, Kyoko; Tanaka, Yuki

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive models of social anxiety posit that there are several types of maladaptive beliefs responsible for persistent social anxiety. Although these beliefs are theoretically important, currently there is no validated measure of these beliefs in Japan. In the present study, we translated into Japanese a well-validated measure of these beliefs, the Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety (SBSA) Scale. The psychometric properties of the scale were also examined in two nonclinical samples ( ns = 401 and 30). Using confirmatory factor analysis, the Japanese version of the SBSA was found to have a correlated three-factor structure that consisted of "conditional beliefs," "unconditional beliefs," and "high standard beliefs." In addition, the Japanese version of the SBSA and its subscales demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. The Japanese version of the SBSA also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Future applications of the Japanese version of the SBSA are discussed.

  12. Measures of Transport-Related Social Exclusion: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamruzzaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative measures of transport disadvantage are reviewed in this paper from the perspective of their effectiveness to investigate social exclusion. The effectiveness is assessed using criteria derived through a review of the concepts of transport disadvantage and social exclusion and their operationalisation. The specified criteria are related to issues of spatial (e.g., urban accessibility, and public transport accessibility, temporal (e.g., public transport availability, and facility opening hours, and social attributes of travel and activity participation (e.g., personal mobility, and disability. Four groups of transport disadvantage measures are identified and evaluated. These include deprivation-based measures, mobility-based measures, accessibility-based measures, and activity-based measures. The review suggests that although the first three categories of measures have traditionally been used to identify transport disadvantage, they do not satisfy issues surrounding activity participation—the key outcome of social exclusion. The activity space concept is a way in which these issues can be incorporated, as it is a measure of the outcomes of activity participation and their associated travel to that activity. Participation in an activity means that an individual has overcome the spatial, temporal and social barriers of travel for that activity. The research using the activity space concept has, however, inadequately identified individual travel and activity participation. This has been due to a separate application of a range of different indicators to assess activity space size. These indicators are by their nature multidimensional—e.g., area visited, distance travelled, and number of activity sites visited. Although each indicator represents a specific qualitative/quantitative aspect of travel and activity participation, researchers have treated these indicators in an isolated manner to identify transport disadvantage and

  13. Adaptation and validation of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES applied to social workers in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ramalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the items, and respective dimensions, of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17 of Schaufeli e Bakker (2009, when applied to social workers exercising their profession in Portugal (UWES-17. Method: The Portuguese version of the UWES was applied to a sample of 1369 Portuguese social workers, 94% of which female and 6% male, with an average age of 39 years (standard deviation = 8,99. The most frequent academic qualification is graduation (63,8% and in terms of professional activity they had, in average terms, 12,99 years of experience (standard deviation = 8,28. The reliability of the scale was assessed using the Chronbach alpha coefficient and the validity using the exploratory factorial analysis. Quantitative methodological research was used. Results: The results obtained agree with the values presented in previous studies regarding their internal consistency, both of the 17 items that make up the scale and of its three dimensions ("force", "dedication" and "absorption". The UWES-17 in this study presents a factorial structure of three factors, just like the original study, but the constitution of the items of each dimension is different. The UWES-17 scale presents good psychometric characteristics and good internal consistency. Conclusions: The UWES-17 scale presents good psychometric characteristics and good internal consistency.

  14. Disability profile/clinician-rated: validity for Brazilian university students with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro de Morais Abumusse, Luciene; Osório, Flávia L; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2013-01-01

    Functional impairment scales are important to assess Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) patients. The present study aims to evaluate the reliability, internal consistency, validity and factorial structure of the Disability Profile/Clinician-Rate (DP) scale, as well as to present an interview-guide to support its application by clinicians. University students (n = 173) of both genders participated in the study (SAD = 84 and Non-SAD = 89), with ages ranging between 17 and 35 years, systematically diagnosed. The SAD group presented more difficulties when compared to the Non-SAD group. The DP presented, for the SAD group, internal consistency of 0.68 (lifetime) and 0.67 (last two weeks). Inter-rater reliability varied from 0.75 to 0.93. Two factors were extracted and the correlation among such factors and the Social Phobia Inventory subscales presented association between fear and avoidance symptoms and the functional impairments. The scale presents good psychometric properties and can contribute to the assessment of functional impairments.

  15. Psychological and Biological Validation of a Novel Digital Social Peer Evaluation Experiment (digi-SPEE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Decoster, Jeroen; van Winkel, Ruud; Collip, Dina; Rutten, Bart P. F.; Delespaul, Philippe; De Hert, Marc; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke

    Introduction: Negative social evaluation is associated with psychopathology. Given the frequency of evaluation through increasingly prevalent virtual social networks, increased understanding of the effects of this social evaluation is urgently required. Methods: A new digital social peer evaluation

  16. Psycho-social effects of a repository for spent nuclear fuels. Literature review and interviews with inhabitants of Uppsala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brostroem, L.; Kessling, A.; Kraft, G.; Sjoeberg, L.

    2002-01-01

    This report is a complement to the studies of the communities of Tierp, Aelvkarleby and Oesthammar as candidates for localization of a repository for spent nuclear fuels. In the first part, a study is presented of published literature in the area of psycho-social effects of building large-scale plants. In the second part interviews are reported with people living in, or with other connections with, Uppsala, of their reactions on a location of the repository in the northern part of the county of Uppland and how they believe the repository would affect the local population, the tourism and local economy

  17. The problem of social reabilitation of children-orphans with immaturity of intellectual development in the foreign and russian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Bichkov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to discussion of a problem of social rehabilitation of children-orphans with the immaturity of intellectual development in the scientific literature. The maintenance of the term «rehabilitation» is considered into different theoretical aspects. The new contents of concept rehabilitation is offered as a system of the complex measures directed on preparation of the pupils of VIII type school of a kind to transition in the new environment (independent life for high-grade functioning in society.

  18. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Belon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  19. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nykiforuk, Candace

    2013-10-01

    This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social) and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  20. Alcohol screening and brief intervention in workplace settings and social services: A comparison of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eSchulte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI in primary health care (PHC suggests a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions take place in this context. METHODS: Update of two systematic reviews on ASBI effectiveness in workplaces, social service and criminal justice settings. Review to identify implementation barriers and facilitators and future research needs of ASBI in nonmedical settings.RESULTS: We found a limited number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in non-medical settings with an equivocal evidence of effectiveness of ASBI. In terms of barriers and facilitators to implementation, the heterogeneity of non-medical settings makes it challenging to draw overarching conclusions. In the workplace, employee concerns with regard to the consequences of self-disclosure appear to be key. For social services, the complexity of certain client needs suggest a stepped and carefully tailored approach is likely to be required.DISCUSSION: Compared to PHC, the reviewed settings are far more heterogeneous in terms of client groups, external conditions and the focus on substance use disorders. Thus, future research should try to systematize these differences, and consider their implications for the deliverability, acceptance and potential effectiveness of ASBI for different target groups, organisational frameworks and professionals.

  1. Social Work Interest in Prevention: A Content Analysis of the Professional Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jamie Wyatt; Ruth, Betty J.; Sisco, Sarah; Bethke, Christina; Piper, Tinka Markham; Cohen, Micaela; Bachman, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Every day in the United States, over half a million social workers provide services to people with health, mental health, and substance abuse problems in a fragmented system that emphasizes disease treatment over prevention. Powerful issues--including health inequities, population aging, globalization, natural disaster, war, and economic…

  2. Individual competencies for corporate social responsibility: A literature and practice perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osagie, E.R.; Wesselink, R.; Blok, V.; Lans, T.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    Because corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be beneficial to both companies and its stakeholders, interest in factors that support CSR performance has grown in recent years. A thorough integration of CSR in core business processes is particularly important for achieving effective long-term CSR

  3. Coaching Teachers' Use of Social Behavior Interventions to Improve Children's Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Melissa; Reinke, Wendy M.; Newcomer, Lori; Marchese, Dana; Lewis, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Children with social behavior problems need teachers who are prepared to use evidence-based interventions to increase their likelihood of success. However, it is clear that teachers do not feel prepared to support children in this area. One approach for supporting teachers in using more effective interventions for children with behavior needs is…

  4. How Kindergarten Students Connect and Critically Respond to Themes of Social Class in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Meredith; Pole, Kathryn; Rogers, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how critical literacy read-alouds can be facilitated in an early childhood setting. More specifically, it describes how books allow young children to connect with experiences that help them identify and challenge inequality and envision social change. A classroom teacher and two university-based researchers collaborated to…

  5. Social and cultural influences on management for carbon sequestration on US family forestlands: a literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Susan. Charnley

    2010-01-01

    Nonindustrial private—or "family"—forests hold great potential for sequestering carbon and have received much attention in discussions about forestry-based climate change mitigation. However, little is known about social and cultural influences on owners' willingness to manage for carbon and respond to policies designed to encourage carbon-oriented...

  6. Increasing Understanding and Social Acceptance of Individuals with Disabilities through Exploration of Comics Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms as a way to boost academic and social development, not only for children with disabilities, but also for typically developing children. A wide variety of perspectives and abilities in the classroom builds empathy, understanding, and creativity--all…

  7. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish version of DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale- Child Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin Sapmaz, Şermin; Ergin, Dilek; Şen Celasin, Nesrin; Karaarslan, Duygu; Öztürk, Masum; Özek Erkuran, Handan; Köroğlu, Ertuğrul; Aydemir, Ömer

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of Mental Disorders. (5 th ed.) (DSM-5) Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale- Child Form. The scale was prepared by carrying out the translation and back translation of the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale - Child Form. The study group consisted of 31 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and 99 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period. For the assessment, the Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) was also used along with the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale - Child Form. Regarding reliability analyses, Cronbach's alpha internal consistency coefficient was calculated as 0.941, while item-total score correlation coefficients were measured between 0.566 and 0.866. A test-retest correlation coefficient was calculated as r=0.711. As for construct validity, one factor that could explain 66.0 % of the variance was obtained. As for concurrent validity, the scale showed a high correlation with the SCARED. It was concluded that the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale - Child Form could be utilized as a valid and reliable tool both in clinical practice and for research purposes.

  8. Prevalence of Neurobehavioral, Social, and Emotional Dysfunction in Patients Treated for Childhood Craniopharyngioma: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Kintz, Natalie; Pulido, Mario; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2013-01-01

    Background Craniopharyngiomas (CP) are locally invasive and frequently recurring neoplasms often resulting in neurological and endocrinological dysfunction in children. In addition, social-behavioral impairment is commonly reported following treatment for childhood CP, yet remains to be fully understood. The authors aimed to further characterize the prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in survivors of childhood craniopharyngiomas. Materials and Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed to identify studies formally assessing neurobehavioral, social, and emotional outcomes in patients treated for CP prior to 18 years of age. Studies published between the years 1990-2012 that reported the primary outcome (prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, emotional/affective dysfunction, and/or impaired quality of life (QoL)) in ≥10 patients were included. Results Of the 471 studies screened, 11 met inclusion criteria. Overall neurobehavioral dysfunction was reported in 51 of 90 patients (57%) with available data. Social impairment (i.e. withdrawal, internalizing behavior) was reported in 91 of 222 cases (41%). School dysfunction was reported in 48 of 136 patients (35%). Emotional/affective dysfunction was reported in 58 of 146 patients (40%), primarily consisting of depressive symptoms. Health related quality of life was affected in 49 of 95 patients (52%). Common descriptors of behavior in affected children included irritability, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and emotional outbursts. Conclusions Neurobehavioral, social, and emotional impairment is highly prevalent in survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, and often affects quality of life. Thorough neurobehavioral/emotional screening and appropriate counseling is recommended in this population. Additional research is warranted to identify risk factors and treatment strategies for these disorders. PMID:24223703

  9. Prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in patients treated for childhood craniopharyngioma: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zada

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas (CP are locally invasive and frequently recurring neoplasms often resulting in neurological and endocrinological dysfunction in children. In addition, social-behavioral impairment is commonly reported following treatment for childhood CP, yet remains to be fully understood. The authors aimed to further characterize the prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in survivors of childhood craniopharyngiomas.A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed to identify studies formally assessing neurobehavioral, social, and emotional outcomes in patients treated for CP prior to 18 years of age. Studies published between the years 1990-2012 that reported the primary outcome (prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, emotional/affective dysfunction, and/or impaired quality of life (QoL in ≥ 10 patients were included.Of the 471 studies screened, 11 met inclusion criteria. Overall neurobehavioral dysfunction was reported in 51 of 90 patients (57% with available data. Social impairment (i.e. withdrawal, internalizing behavior was reported in 91 of 222 cases (41%. School dysfunction was reported in 48 of 136 patients (35%. Emotional/affective dysfunction was reported in 58 of 146 patients (40%, primarily consisting of depressive symptoms. Health related quality of life was affected in 49 of 95 patients (52%. Common descriptors of behavior in affected children included irritability, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and emotional outbursts.Neurobehavioral, social, and emotional impairment is highly prevalent in survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, and often affects quality of life. Thorough neurobehavioral/emotional screening and appropriate counseling is recommended in this population. Additional research is warranted to identify risk factors and treatment strategies for these disorders.

  10. The validity of self-reported cancer screening history and the role of social disadvantage in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lofters, Aisha; Vahabi, Mandana; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-report may not be an accurate method of determining cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening rates due to recall, acquiescence and social desirability biases, particularly for certain sociodemographic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the validity of self-report of cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, both for people in the general population and for socially disadvantaged groups based on immigrant status, ethnicity, education, income, languag...

  11. The social processes of production and validation of knowledge in particle physics: Preliminary theoretical and methodological observations

    OpenAIRE

    Bellotti, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the complementarities and differences between Bourdieu's Field Theory and Social Network Analysis from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. The argument is applied to a case study about the social production and validation of knowledge in particle physics in Italy. The methodological choices that have lead the research project are presented and justified, and provide a good example about the strengths and the weaknesses of the two theoretical perspectives com...

  12. Questionnaire of social probability and potential consequences: Examination of reliability and validity on Serbian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prejudice in judgment has an important role in cognitive models of psychopathology. Every selective processing of emotionally relevant stimuli is called cognitive prejudice. One of the cognitive prejudices that is considered a key factor of socially - anxious disorder is prejudice in judgment. It is defined as a disposition to overestimate the probability of occurrence of negative social events in the near future, as well as potential consequences (agitation that might follow them. The perception of danger is essentially determined by a joined effect of subjective assessment of probability and agitation created by certain events. The researches have shown that socially-anxious individuals have a more expressive prejudice in judgment and that it can be reduced by applying certain psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatments, which proves its relevance for the socially-anxious disorder. Considering the significance of the prejudice in judgment construct for the research and clinical practice and the lack of instruments that is operational in our country, the basic purpose of this paper is to check metric characteristics of the Serbian version of one of the most often mentioned and used questionnaires aimed at the assessment of this construct. It is the Questionnaire of social probability and potential consequences, which has two subscales: 1 to examine the reliability of the questionnaire on the sample of examinees from Serbia; 2 to examine the latent structure of the questionnaire and 3 to examine the construct of validity of the questionnaire by checking the correlations with other relevant constructs (personality traits, anxiety as a trait and fear of negative evaluation.The was adapted for Serbian language from English. The sample consists of 166 examinees, aged from 19 to 29 (AS = 21,73; SD = 1,43. The questionnaire for sensitivity to confirmation assessment was used to estimate personality traits, Anxiety as a trait was estimated by the

  13. Development and validation of a measure of criminal social identity within a sample of Polish recidivistic prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boduszek, Daniel; Adamson, Gary; Shevlin, Mark; Hyland, Philip

    2012-12-01

    Social identity is a well-established theoretical concept within psychological research; however, the role of criminal social identity has received far less research attention. One salient reason for the limited research relating to the concept of criminal social identity is the absence of a specific measure. To develop and test the construct validity of a new measure of criminal social identity (MCSI) and to provide additional evidence relating to Cameron's three-factor conceptualisation of social identity. The eight-item MCSI was used to collect data from recidivists incarcerated in high-security prison (N=312) to assess criminal social identification. These data were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. Three alternative models of criminal social identity were specified and tested in Mplus 6, and results revealed that the data were best explained by a three-factor model of criminal social identity (cognitive centrality, in-group affect and in-group ties). The current study is important in terms of future research in criminology and psychology because the MCSI provides the first reliable MCSI, which was developed and validated on a relatively large recidivistic prison sample. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Factor validation of the portuguese version of the social skills scale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Seabra-Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of preschoolers’ social skills represents a topic of growing importance in research recently developed in the field. The purpose of this article is to present confirmatory factor analyses studies for the Social Skills scale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales – Second Edition (PKBS-2, a behavior rating scale that evaluates social skills and problem behaviors, adapted and validated for Portuguese preschool children. The 34 items of the Social Skills scale, distributed on three subscales (Social Cooperation/Adjustment, Social Interaction/Empathy and Social Independence/Assertiveness, were grouped into item-parcels. Model adjustment was analyzed for the total sample (N = 2000 and the analyses were replicated for the subsamples collected in the home (n = 1000 and school settings (n = 1000. The factor structure was very stable for the three samples, with high internal consistency levels and correlations between parcels/scales. The results highlight the utility/validity of the Social Skills scale of the PKBS-2 (Portuguese version.

  15. Associations between social media and cyberbullying: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Lord, Lynwood R; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a significant public health concern that can lead to increased risk of mental health issues, including psychological and developmental problems or suicide. However, because cyberbullying is a relatively recent phenomenon, there is a lack of agreement among researchers about the definition and prevalence of cyberbullying as well as methods for measuring its prevalence. In this review, we evaluate papers published between January 2013 to August 2015 that explored cyberbullying through the medium of social media. The aims of the study are to (I) clarify the characteristics of people involved in cyberbullying, and (II) identify the types of instruments used to measure cyberbullying on social media. In particular, we attempt to understand the factors underlying abuser behavior, how abusive behavior affects the well-being of victims, and how bystanders mitigate or contribute to the act of cyberbullying.

  16. Prospective, Multicenter Validation Study of Magnetic Resonance Volumetry for Response Assessment After Preoperative Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer: Can the Results in the Literature be Reproduced?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Milou H., E-mail: mh.martens@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Heeswijk, Miriam M. van [Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Broek, Joris J. van den [Department of Surgery, Medical Center Alkmaar, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Rao, Sheng-Xiang [Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Vandecaveye, Vincent [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Vliegen, Roy A. [Department of Radiology, Atrium Medical Center, Heerlen (Netherlands); Schreurs, Wilhelmina H. [Department of Surgery, Medical Center Alkmaar, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Beets, Geerard L. [Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Lambregts, Doenja M.J. [Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. [Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: To review the available literature on tumor size/volume measurements on magnetic resonance imaging for response assessment after chemoradiotherapy, and validate these cut-offs in an independent multicenter patient cohort. Methods and Materials: The study included 2 parts. (1) Review of the literature: articles were included that assessed the accuracy of tumor size/volume measurements on magnetic resonance imaging for tumor response assessment. Size/volume cut-offs were extracted; (2) Multicenter validation: extracted cut-offs from the literature were tested in a multicenter cohort (n=146). Accuracies were calculated and compared with reported results from the literature. Results: The review included 14 articles, in which 3 different measurement methods were assessed: (1) tumor length; (2) 3-dimensonial tumor size; and (3) whole volume. Study outcomes consisted of (1) complete response (ypT0) versus residual tumor; (2) tumor regression grade 1 to 2 versus 3 to 5; and (3) T-downstaging (ypTvalidation of the whole-volume measurements, in particular for the outcome ypT0 (accuracy 44%-80%), with the optimal cut-offs being 1.6 cm{sup 3} (after chemoradiation therapy) and a volume reduction of Δ80% to 86.6%. Accuracies for whole-volume measurements to assess tumor regression grade 1 to 2 were 52% to 61%, and for T-downstaging 51% to 57%. Overall accuracies for tumor length ranged between 48% and 53% and for 3D size measurement between 52% and 56%. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance volumetry using whole-tumor volume measurements can be helpful in rectal cancer response assessment with selected cut-off values. Measurements of tumor length or 3-dimensional tumor size are not helpful. Magnetic resonance volumetry is mainly accurate to assess a complete tumor response (ypT0) after chemoradiation therapy (accuracies up to 80%).

  17. Development and content validation of a questionnaire to assess moral distress among social workers in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Sagit; Ayalon, Liat

    2018-03-01

    Despite the significance of ethical issues faced by social workers, research on moral distress among social workers has been extremely limited. The aim of the current study is to describe the development and content validation of a unique questionnaire to measure moral distress among social workers in long-term care facilities for older adults in Israel. The construction of the questionnaire was based on a secondary analysis of a qualitative study that addressed the moral dilemma of social workers in nursing homes in Israel. A content validation included review and evaluation by two experts, a cognitive interview with a nursing home social worker, and three focus groups of experts and the target population. The initial questionnaire consisted of 25 items. After the content validation process the questionnaire in its final version, consisted of 17 items and included two scales, measuring the frequency of morally loaded events and the intensity of distress that followed them. We believe that the questionnaire can contribute by broadening and deepening ethics discourse and research, with regard to social workers' obligation dilemmas and conflicts.

  18. On-the-Job Training and Social Learning Theory. A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    and discussed by Albert Bandura (47). The principles of social learning theory and learning from models are first described. Then a series of rules...developed by Bandura and his students (47, 48, 49) to be the most useful theory to account for observational learning and to provide a basis for...Learning Theory and Its Application 47. Bandura , A. Principles of Behavior Modification, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969. 48. Bandura , A

  19. The strategic approach of the corporative social responsibility: a review of academic literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Toro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Even Since the 1970`s several studies have been carried out in order to identify the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and financial profit. The results have not been homogeneous and so far no definitive conclusion has been reached. Recently a group of researchers have linked CSR with business strategy and state that what distinguishes those cases in which CSR is related to a positive financial performance is its consideration and design as a social strategy closely related and embedded in the business strategy. The aim of this research is to review some of the authors that have contributed with their researches to this field. CSR has been approached form the academic and the business field and its definition vary from one view to other. Even inside the academy definitions are not alike. According to Garriga and Mele (2004 there are four major areas in which CSR theories may be categorized: instrumental, political, integrative and ethical. And even though this research is exhaustive and includes most of the different theories and approaches I consider it might be useful to pay special attention to a field that is gaining in importance due to the number of researches related to it. That is the consideration of CSR as a social strategy capable of generating value to the firm and aligned and coherent with the business strategy. I will intend to review the contributions done in the academic field by a group of authors: Burke y Logsdon (1996, Husted y Allen (2000 y 2001 and McWilliams y Siegel (2001 and based on their contributions I will intend to develop a preliminary theoretical model for the application of social strategies within the firm and then introduce a series of propositions that look to understand and extend the relationship between both type of strategies.

  20. Validade e fidedignidade da escala de comportamento de segurança na ansiedade social Validity and reliability of the social phobia safety behaviour scale in social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Soares da Silva Burato

    2009-01-01

    75 non-cases of SAD, were systematically assessed using the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID-IV for diagnostic confirmation and for the exclusion of other psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the ECSAS measured by the Cronbach alpha was 0.92, and, based on the test-retest method separated by a two-week interval, it reached satisfactory levels of temporal stability, with a weighted Kappa of 0.73. Regarding discriminant validity, the ECSAS had 0.963 sensitivity and 1 specificity. Regarding convergent validity, it presented a correlation (r of 0.60. CONCLUSION: The ECSAS presented good psychometric indicators, contributing to a systematic assessment of the safety and avoidance behaviors associated with SAD.

  1. The Concurrent Validity of Brief Screening Questions for Anxiety, Depression, Social Isolation, Catastrophization and Fear of Movement in People with Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Mirkhil, Saeida; Keating, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    (i) to test the concurrent validity of brief screening questions for five psychosocial constructs (anxiety, depression, social isolation, catastrophization and fear of movement), and (ii) to translate into Danish and validate those screening questions.......(i) to test the concurrent validity of brief screening questions for five psychosocial constructs (anxiety, depression, social isolation, catastrophization and fear of movement), and (ii) to translate into Danish and validate those screening questions....

  2. The Assessment of Positivity and Negativity in Social Networks: The Reliability and Validity of the Social Relationships Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Uchino, Bert N.; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Vaughn, Allison; Reblin, Maija; Smith, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relationships Index (SRI) was designed to examine positivity and negativity in social relationships. Unique features of this scale include its brevity and the ability to examine relationship positivity and negativity at the level of the specific individual and social network. The SRI's psychometric properties were examined in three…

  3. Social, Organizational, and Contextual Characteristics of Clinical Decision Support Systems for Intensive Insulin Therapy: A Literature Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Thomas R.; Waitman, Lemuel R.; May, Addison K.; Ozdas, Asli; Lorenzi, Nancy M.; Gadd, Cynthia S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluations of computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSS) typically focus on clinical performance changes and do not include social, organizational, and contextual characteristics explaining use and effectiveness. Studies of CDSS for intensive insulin therapy (IIT) are no exception, and the literature lacks an understanding of effective computer-based IIT implementation and operation. Results: This paper presents (1) a literature review of computer-based IIT evaluations through the lens of institutional theory, a discipline from sociology and organization studies, to demonstrate the inconsistent reporting of workflow and care process execution and (2) a single-site case study to illustrate how computer-based IIT requires substantial organizational change and creates additional complexity with unintended consequences including error. Discussion: Computer-based IIT requires organizational commitment and attention to site-specific technology, workflow, and care processes to achieve intensive insulin therapy goals. The complex interaction between clinicians, blood glucose testing devices, and CDSS may contribute to workflow inefficiency and error. Evaluations rarely focus on the perspective of nurses, the primary users of computer-based IIT whose knowledge can potentially lead to process and care improvements. Conclusion: This paper addresses a gap in the literature concerning the social, organizational, and contextual characteristics of CDSS in general and for intensive insulin therapy specifically. Additionally, this paper identifies areas for future research to define optimal computer-based IIT process execution: the frequency and effect of manual data entry error of blood glucose values, the frequency and effect of nurse overrides of CDSS insulin dosing recommendations, and comprehensive ethnographic study of CDSS for IIT. PMID:19815452

  4. Social, organizational, and contextual characteristics of clinical decision support systems for intensive insulin therapy: a literature review and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Thomas R; Waitman, Lemuel R; May, Addison K; Ozdas, Asli; Lorenzi, Nancy M; Gadd, Cynthia S

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSS) typically focus on clinical performance changes and do not include social, organizational, and contextual characteristics explaining use and effectiveness. Studies of CDSS for intensive insulin therapy (IIT) are no exception, and the literature lacks an understanding of effective computer-based IIT implementation and operation. This paper presents (1) a literature review of computer-based IIT evaluations through the lens of institutional theory, a discipline from sociology and organization studies, to demonstrate the inconsistent reporting of workflow and care process execution and (2) a single-site case study to illustrate how computer-based IIT requires substantial organizational change and creates additional complexity with unintended consequences including error. Computer-based IIT requires organizational commitment and attention to site-specific technology, workflow, and care processes to achieve intensive insulin therapy goals. The complex interaction between clinicians, blood glucose testing devices, and CDSS may contribute to workflow inefficiency and error. Evaluations rarely focus on the perspective of nurses, the primary users of computer-based IIT whose knowledge can potentially lead to process and care improvements. This paper addresses a gap in the literature concerning the social, organizational, and contextual characteristics of CDSS in general and for intensive insulin therapy specifically. Additionally, this paper identifies areas for future research to define optimal computer-based IIT process execution: the frequency and effect of manual data entry error of blood glucose values, the frequency and effect of nurse overrides of CDSS insulin dosing recommendations, and comprehensive ethnographic study of CDSS for IIT. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Development and preliminary validation of an Observation List for detecting mental disorders and social Problems in the elderly in primary and home care (OLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Erwin C P M; van Hespen, Ariëtte T H; Verhaak, Peter F M; Eekhof, Just; Hopman-Rock, Marijke

    2016-07-01

    Even though the prevalence of mental disorders and social problems is high among elderly patients, it is difficult to detect these in a primary (home) care setting. Goal was the development and preliminary validation of a short observation list to detect six problem areas: anxiety, depression, cognition, suspicion, loneliness, and somatisation. A draft list of indicators identified from a short review of the literature and the opinions of 22 experts was evaluated by general practitioners (GPs) and home care organisations for feasibility. It was then used by GPs and home care personnel to observe patients, who also completed validated tests for psychological disorders (General Health Questionnaire 12 item version (GHQ-12)), depression (Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version (GDS-15)), anxiety and suspicion (Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90)), loneliness (University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)), somatisation (Illness Attitude Scale (IAS)), and cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)). GPs and home care personnel observed 180 patients (mean age 78.4 years; 66% female) and evaluated the draft list during a regular visit. Cronbach's α was 0.87 for the draft list and ≥0.80 for the draft problem areas (loneliness and suspicion excepted). Principal component analysis identified six components (cognition, depression + loneliness, somatisation, anxiety + suspicion, depression (other signs), and an ambiguous component). Convergent validity was shown for the indicators list as a whole (using the GHQ-12), and the subscales of depression, anxiety, loneliness, cognition, and somatisation. Using pre-set agreed criteria, the list was reduced to 14 final indicators divided over five problem areas. The Observation List for mental disorders and social Problems (OLP) proved to be preliminarily valid, reliable, and feasible for use in primary and home care settings. Copyright © John Wliey & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The cultural validation of two scales to assess social stigma in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ruth M H; Dadun; Van Brakel, Wim H; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Damayanti, Rita; Bunders, Joske F G; Irwanto

    2014-01-01

    Stigma plays in an important role in the lives of persons affected by neglected tropical diseases, and assessment of stigma is important to document this. The aim of this study is to test the cross-cultural validity of the Community Stigma Scale (EMIC-CSS) and the Social Distance Scale (SDS) in the field of leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia. Cultural equivalence was tested by assessing the conceptual, item, semantic, operational and measurement equivalence of these instruments. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to increase our understanding of the concept of stigma in Cirebon District. A process of translation, discussions, trainings and a pilot study followed. A sample of 259 community members was selected through convenience sampling and 67 repeated measures were obtained to assess the psychometric measurement properties. The aspects and items in the SDS and EMIC-CSS seem equally relevant and important in the target culture. The response scales were adapted to ensure that meaning is transferred accurately and no changes to the scale format (e.g. lay out, statements or questions) of both scales were made. A positive correlation was found between the EMIC-CSS and the SDS total scores (r=0.41). Cronbach's alphas of 0.83 and 0.87 were found for the EMIC-CSS and SDS. The exploratory factor analysis indicated for both scales an adequate fit as unidimensional scale. A standard error of measurement of 2.38 was found in the EMIC-CSS and of 1.78 in the SDS. The test-retest reliability coefficient was respectively, 0.84 and 0.75. No floor or ceiling effects were found. According to current international standards, our findings indicate that the EMIC-CSS and the SDS have adequate cultural validity to assess social stigma in leprosy in the Bahasa Indonesia-speaking population of Cirebon District. We believe the scales can be further improved, for instance, by adding, changing and rephrasing certain items. Finally, we provide suggestions for use with other

  7. The Cultural Validation of Two Scales to Assess Social Stigma in Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ruth M. H.; Dadun; Van Brakel, Wim H.; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B. M.; Damayanti, Rita; Bunders, Joske F. G.; Irwanto

    2014-01-01

    Background Stigma plays in an important role in the lives of persons affected by neglected tropical diseases, and assessment of stigma is important to document this. The aim of this study is to test the cross-cultural validity of the Community Stigma Scale (EMIC-CSS) and the Social Distance Scale (SDS) in the field of leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia. Methodology/principle findings Cultural equivalence was tested by assessing the conceptual, item, semantic, operational and measurement equivalence of these instruments. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to increase our understanding of the concept of stigma in Cirebon District. A process of translation, discussions, trainings and a pilot study followed. A sample of 259 community members was selected through convenience sampling and 67 repeated measures were obtained to assess the psychometric measurement properties. The aspects and items in the SDS and EMIC-CSS seem equally relevant and important in the target culture. The response scales were adapted to ensure that meaning is transferred accurately and no changes to the scale format (e.g. lay out, statements or questions) of both scales were made. A positive correlation was found between the EMIC-CSS and the SDS total scores (r = 0.41). Cronbach's alphas of 0.83 and 0.87 were found for the EMIC-CSS and SDS. The exploratory factor analysis indicated for both scales an adequate fit as unidimensional scale. A standard error of measurement of 2.38 was found in the EMIC-CSS and of 1.78 in the SDS. The test-retest reliability coefficient was respectively, 0.84 and 0.75. No floor or ceiling effects were found. Conclusions/significance According to current international standards, our findings indicate that the EMIC-CSS and the SDS have adequate cultural validity to assess social stigma in leprosy in the Bahasa Indonesia-speaking population of Cirebon District. We believe the scales can be further improved, for instance, by adding, changing and

  8. Development and validation of an item response theory-based Social Responsiveness Scale short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Alexandra; Kuhfeld, Megan; Kasari, Connie; McCracken, James T

    2017-09-01

    Research and practice in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely on quantitative measures, such as the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), for characterization and diagnosis. Like many ASD diagnostic measures, SRS scores are influenced by factors unrelated to ASD core features. This study further interrogates the psychometric properties of the SRS using item response theory (IRT), and demonstrates a strategy to create a psychometrically sound short form by applying IRT results. Social Responsiveness Scale analyses were conducted on a large sample (N = 21,426) of youth from four ASD databases. Items were subjected to item factor analyses and evaluation of item bias by gender, age, expressive language level, behavior problems, and nonverbal IQ. Item selection based on item psychometric properties, DIF analyses, and substantive validity produced a reduced item SRS short form that was unidimensional in structure, highly reliable (α = .96), and free of gender, age, expressive language, behavior problems, and nonverbal IQ influence. The short form also showed strong relationships with established measures of autism symptom severity (ADOS, ADI-R, Vineland). Degree of association between all measures varied as a function of expressive language. Results identified specific SRS items that are more vulnerable to non-ASD-related traits. The resultant 16-item SRS short form may possess superior psychometric properties compared to the original scale and emerge as a more precise measure of ASD core symptom severity, facilitating research and practice. Future research using IRT is needed to further refine existing measures of autism symptomatology. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Validity and reliability of a questionnaire to assess social skills in traumatic brain injury: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Heather M; Osborne-Crowley, Katherine; McDonald, Skye

    2017-01-01

    To describe the reliability and validity of a new measure, the Social Skills Questionnaire for Traumatic Brain Injury (SSQ-TBI). Fifty-one adults with severe TBI completed the SSQ-TBI questionnaire. Scores were compared to informant- and self-report on questionnaires addressing frontal lobe mediated behaviour, as well as performance on an objective measure of social cognition and neuropsychological tasks, in order to provide evidence of concurrent, divergent and predictive validity. Internal consistency was excellent at α = 0.90. Convergent validity was good, with informant ratings on the SSQ-TBI significantly correlated with Neuropsychiatric Inventory Disinhibition sub-scales (r = 0.50-63), the Current Behaviour Scale (r = 0.39-0.48) and Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale (r = 0.60-0.83). However, no relationship was seen with an objective measure of social skills or neuropsychological tasks of disinhibition. There was a significant relationship with real-world psychosocial outcomes on the Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale-2 (r = -0.38--0.69) Conclusions: This study provides preliminary findings of good internal consistency and convergent and predictive validity of a social skills questionnaire adapted to be appropriate for individuals with TBI. Further assessment of psychometric properties such as test-re-test reliability and factor structure is warranted.

  10. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  11. Enhancing Validity When Researching the "Other": Insights from Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Social Science Research Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Devika

    2014-01-01

    This article explores aspects of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social science research practice and discusses their relevance for enhancing validity when researching the "other." Aspects such as: a relational way of thinking about concepts, epistemology and methodology; the rigorous construction of the object of research; and…

  12. Validity of Evidence-Derived Criteria for Reactive Attachment Disorder: Indiscriminately Social/Disinhibited and Emotionally Withdrawn/Inhibited Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy; Smyke, Anna; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity of criteria for indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: As part of a longitudinal intervention trial of previously institutionalized children, caregiver interviews and direct observational measurements provided continuous and…

  13. Merging Empiricism and Humanism: Role of Social Validity in the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Miramontes, Nancy Y.

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating behavior support programs are changing. Consumer-based educational and behavioral programs, such as School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), are particularly influenced by consumer opinion. Unfortunately, the need for and use of social validity measures have not received adequate attention in the empirical literature…

  14. Social Network Analysis on Lean Production and World Class Manufacturing: how are associated in the literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antiqueira Goes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to conduct a Systematic Literature Review (SLR to identify how to configure the publications that relate WCM and Lean Production issues. Therefore, a search on the Brazilian metasearch portal called CAPES Periodicals was conducted focusing on articles of the last five years. They were identified after screening and filtering a total of 42 articles, which were analyzed. The construction of the network analysis has identified that the issues are still in an initial phase of association, with the characteristic part of decentralizes networks, with some points of greatest association. It was also identified that the theme Lean Production has greater representation between the two topics due its higher use by authors.

  15. Social Exclusion Index-for Health Surveys (SEI-HS): a prospective nationwide study to extend and validate a multidimensional social exclusion questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Addi P L; Hoff, Stella J M; Schreurs, Hanneke; van Loon, Annelies; van Hemert, Albert M

    2017-03-14

    Social exclusion (SE) refers to the inability of certain groups or individuals to fully participate in society. SE is associated with socioeconomic inequalities in health, and its measurement in routine public health monitoring is considered key to designing effective health policies. In an earlier retrospective analysis we demonstrated that in all four major Dutch cities, SE could largely be measured with existing local public health monitoring data. The current prospective study is aimed at constructing and validating an extended national measure for SE that optimally employs available items. In 2012, a stratified general population sample of 258,928 Dutch adults completed a version of the Netherlands Public Health Monitor (PHM) questionnaire in which 9 items were added covering aspects of SE that were found to be missing in our previous research. Items were derived from the SCP social exclusion index, a well-constructed 15-item instrument developed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP). The dataset was randomly divided into a development sample (N =129,464) and a validation sample (N = 129,464). Canonical correlation analysis was conducted in the development sample. The psychometric properties were studied and compared with those of the original SCP index. All analyses were then replicated in the validation sample. The analysis yielded a four dimensional index, the Social Exclusion Index for Health Surveys (SEI-HS), containing 8 SCP items and 9 PHM items. The four dimensions: "lack of social participation", "material deprivation", "lack of normative integration" and "inadequate access to basic social rights", were each measured with 3 to 6 items. The SEI-HS showed adequate internal consistency for both the general index and for two of four dimension scales. The internal structure and construct validity of the SEI-HS were satisfactory and similar to the original SCP index. Replication of the SEI-HS in the validation sample confirmed its

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS): Thai Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Ruktrakul, Ruk

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the Thai version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) for its psychometric properties. In total 462 participants were recruited - 310 medical students from Chiang Mai University and 152 psychiatric patients, and they completed the Thai version of the MSPSS, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI). Test-retest reliability was conducted over a four week period. Factor analysis produced three-factor solutions for both patient (PG) and student groups (SG), and overall the model demonstrated adequate fit indices. The mean total score and the sub-scale score for the SG were statistically higher than those in the PG, except for 'Significant Others'. The internal consistency of the scale was good, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.91 for the SG and 0.87 for the PG. After a four week retest for reliability exercise, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was found to be 0.84. The Thai-MSPSS was found to have a negative correlation with the STAI and the TDI, but was positively correlated with the RSES. The Thai MSPSS is a reliable and valid instrument to use.

  17. Validation of the verbal and social interaction questionnaire: nurses' focus in the nurse-patient relationship in forensic nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, M; Brunt, D; Fridlund, B

    2008-11-01

    There is a need to develop a questionnaire that measures nurses' verbal and social interactions (VSI) with their patients from the nurses' perspective as well as from the patients' perspective in the psychiatric and especially in the forensic psychiatric field. The major aim of the present study was to determine the construct validity and the internal consistency reliability of the VSI questionnaire. The study had a methodological and developmental design and was carried out in four steps: construction of the items, face validity, data collection and data analysis. The number of items was reduced from 50 to 21. The factor analysis of the final 21 items resulted in three quite distinct factors, namely, 'inviting the patient to establish a relationship', 'showing interest in the patients' feelings, experiences and behaviour' and 'helping the patients to establish structure and routines in their everyday life'. The results showed satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of content validity, construct validity and the internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire.

  18. Empirically Valid Strategies to Improve Social and Emotional Competence of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Paul C.; Altamura, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Research over the past few decades has highlighted the importance of social and emotional competence in preschool children on later academic, social, and psychological outcomes. Children who are socially and emotionally competent have increased socialization opportunities with peers, develop more friends, have better relationships with their…

  19. Users’ support as a social resource in educational services: construct validity and measurement invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Loera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.’ (2011 research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers’ well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011, translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children’s parents, to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS. In Study 1 (105 teachers, which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA. In Study 2 (304 teachers, the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators, measurement invariance was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%. The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = .88. The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (CFI = .987; SRMR = .054. Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of measurement invariance performed on the Study 3 data confirmed the equality

  20. Users’ Support as a Social Resource in Educational Services: Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera, Barbara; Martini, Mara; Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.’s (2011) research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers’ well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011), translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children’s parents), to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS). In Study 1 (105 teachers), which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 2 (304 teachers), the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators), measurement invariance (MI) was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%). The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = 0.88). The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (comparative fit index = 0.987; standardized root mean square residual = 0.054). Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent) with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent) with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of MI performed on the

  1. Users' Support as a Social Resource in Educational Services: Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera, Barbara; Martini, Mara; Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.'s (2011) research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers' well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011), translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children's parents), to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS). In Study 1 (105 teachers), which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 2 (304 teachers), the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators), measurement invariance (MI) was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%). The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = 0.88). The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (comparative fit index = 0.987; standardized root mean square residual = 0.054). Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent) with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent) with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of MI performed on the Study 3

  2. Development and validation of the Self-Stigma Questionnaire (SSQ) for people with schizophrenia and its relation to social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Susana; Martínez-Zambrano, Francisco; Garcia-Franco, Mar; Vilamala, Sonia; Ribas, Maria; Arenas, Oti; Garcia-Morales, Esther; Álvarez, Irene; Escartin, Gemma; Villellas, Raul; Escandell, Maria Jose; Martínez-Raves, Mónica; López-Arias, Elisabeth; Cunyat, Christian; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-10-01

    Self-stigma specifically in people with schizophrenia has been little studied. The aims of the present study were to validate a new instrument for the assessment of self-stigma (SSQ) and to assess the relationship between self-stigma and social functioning in people with schizophrenia. A sample of 76 people with schizophrenia was assessed at two moments in time with the SSQ, the PDD (stigma), two scales of social functioning (LSP, SFS), and a scale of general functioning (GAF). The results indicated that SSQ presented good psychometric properties, with Cronbach's alpha ranging between 0.75 and 0.901. The stability of the instrument was between 0.836 and 0.402. Three factors were found in the factor analysis (social discrimination, perceived capabilities, concealment of the disease), explaining 62.66% of the total variance. A relationship was found between self-stigma and social functioning in people with schizophrenia, especially in relation to social contact. In conclusion, the SSQ seems to be a valid and reliable questionnaire for the assessment of self-stigma in people with schizophrenia, and interventions should be designed to cope with self-stigma in order to improve the social functioning of people who suffer schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Parry Romberg Syndrome: The Socially Appalling Yet Less Acknowledged Diagnosis: Case Series and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zohair Nomani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dilemma of facing a facial cosmetic issue at a young age is the most troublesome symptom hampering social well-being. Beginning in the teen ages and progressing to variable extents, Parry Romberg Syndrome (PRS leads to facial asymmetry in the form of hemiatrophy secondary to loss of subcutaneous tissues, often fat but sometimes the underlying muscles and bones. It is indistinctly associated with seizure disorders at times or with other neurological sequelae. The first case was an 18 year old Pakistani male who presented with progressive wasting of the left side of the face for the past two and a half years. The second case was an 18-year-old Pakistani girl who presented to the neurology OPD with primary complaints of a seizure disorder for 3 years. In addition, she had progressive subtle asymmetry of her face. Over the course of time, a faint curvilinear grooved line showed up towards the right side of her forehead reaching on to her head up to the vertex. She also had hair loss ipsilateral to the line. The presentation of above cases depicts that although some features of PRS like facial asymmetry is characteristic, the presentation of a patient primarily with seizures should ideally include a thorough search for a secondary cause or of possible associations so that prognosis can be defined and appropriate interventions planned.

  4. Self-Reported Acceptance of Social Anxiety Symptoms: Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…

  5. Ignatian Pedagogy for Social Entrepreneurship: Twelve Years Helping 500 Social and Environmental Entrepreneurs Validates the GSBI Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Warner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In frontier economies, social entrepreneurship has emerged as a successful strategy to pursue sustainable development goals. By creatively blending business strategy, technology innovation and a deep understanding of customer need, social enterprises provide a pathway out of poverty, an alternative to private charity and government aid. Social entrepreneurs are developing strategies to make available distributed energy products, clean cooking and clean water technologies, and sustainable livelihoods. Social entrepreneurship is a pro-poor economic development strategy that promotes the common good. Many social entrepreneurs describe their work with terms like “calling” or “moral purpose” or “vocation,” harkening the emphasis in the Ignatian spiritual exercises on “making an election.”

  6. Expectations in the field of the internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-03-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users' online and offline practices and contexts. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for Sociology of Health & Illness.

  7. Expectations in the field of the Internet and health: an analysis of claims about social networking sites in clinical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyko, Nelya; Hunt, Daniel; Gunter, Barrie

    2015-01-01

    This article adopts a critical sociological perspective to examine the expectations surrounding the uses of social networking sites (SNSs) articulated in the domain of clinical literature. This emerging body of articles and commentaries responds to the recent significant growth in SNS use, and constitutes a venue in which the meanings of SNSs and their relation to health are negotiated. Our analysis indicates how clinical writing configures the role of SNSs in health care through a range of metaphorical constructions that frame SNSs as a tool, a conduit for information and a traversable space. The use of such metaphors serves not only to describe the new affordances offered by SNSs but also posits distinct lay and professional practices, while reviving a range of celebratory claims about the Internet and health critiqued in sociological literature. These metaphorical descriptions characterise SNS content as essentially controllable by autonomous users while reiterating existing arguments that e-health is both inherently empowering and risky. Our analysis calls for a close attention to these understandings of SNSs as they have the potential to shape future online initiatives, most notably by anticipating successful professional interventions while marginalising the factors that influence users’ online and offline practices and contexts. PMID:25847533

  8. Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Personalized Genomic Medicine Research: Current Literature and Suggestions for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Shawneequa L; Abudu, Rachel; Mehlman, Maxwell J; Singer, Mendel E; Neuhauser, Duncan; Caga-Anan, Charlisse; Wiesner, Georgia L

    2016-11-01

    This review identifies the prominent topics in the literature pertaining to the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) raised by research investigating personalized genomic medicine (PGM). The abstracts of 953 articles extracted from scholarly databases and published during a 5-year period (2008-2012) were reviewed. A total of 299 articles met our research criteria and were organized thematically to assess the representation of ELSI issues for stakeholders, health specialties, journals, and empirical studies. ELSI analyses were published in both scientific and ethics journals. Investigational research comprised 45% of the literature reviewed (135 articles) and the remaining 55% (164 articles) comprised normative analyses. Traditional ELSI concerns dominated the discourse including discussions about disclosure of research results. In fact, there was a dramatic increase in the number of articles focused on the disclosure of research results and incidental findings to research participants. Few papers focused on particular disorders, the use of racial categories in research, international communities, or special populations (e.g., adolescents, elderly patients, or ethnic groups). Considering that strategies in personalized medicine increasingly target individuals' unique health conditions, environments, and ancestries, further analysis is needed on how ELSI scholarship can better serve the increasingly global, interdisciplinary, and diverse PGM research community. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Cultural adaptation and validation of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey questionnaire (MOS-SSS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Fachado, A; Montes Martinez, A; Menendez Villalva, C; Pereira, M Graça

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assesment of psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the instrument "Medical Outcomes Study - Social Support Survey (MOSSSS)". This questionnaire has been translated and adapted in a Portuguese sample of 101 patients with chronic illness of a rural health centre in Portugal. The average age of patients was 63.4 years, 56.4% female. 29% were illiterate and 2% had completed high school. 78% had arterial hypertension and the 56.4% had diabetes mellitus type 2. The internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis were performed in order to confirm reliability and validity of the scale and its multidimensional characteristics. The 2-week test-retest reliability was estimated using weighted kappa for the ordinals variables and intraclass coefficient correlation for the quantitative variables. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales ranged from 0.873 to 0.967 at test, and 0.862 to 0.972 at retest. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors (emotional, tangible, positive interaction and affection support) that explain the 72.71% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of four factors that allowed the application of the scale with original items. The goodness-of-fit measures corroborate the initial structure, with chi2/ df=2.01, GFI=0.998, CFI=0.999, AGFI=0.998, TLI=0.999, NFI=0.998, SRMR=0.332, RMSEA=0.76. The 2-weeks test-retest reliability of the Portuguese MOS-SSS as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient was ranged from 0.941 to 0.966 for the four dimensions and the overall support index. The weighted kappa was ranged from 0.67 to 0.87 for all the items. The MOS-SSS Portuguese version demonstrates good psychometric properties and seems to be useful to measure multidimensional aspects of social support in the Portuguese population.

  10. Spanish validation of the social stigma scale: Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Susana; Martínez-Zambrano, Francisco; Vila-Badia, Regina; Arenas, Oti; Casas-Anguera, Emma; García-Morales, Esther; Villellas, Raúl; Martín, José Ramón; Pérez-Franco, María Belén; Valduciel, Tamara; García-Franco, Mar; Miguel, Jose; Balsera, Joaquim; Pascual, Gemma; Julia, Eugènia; Casellas, Diana; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    The stigma against people with mental illness is very high. In Spain there are currently no tools to assess this construct. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness questionnaire in an adolescent population, and determining its internal consistency and temporal stability. Another analysis by gender will be also performed. A translation and back-translation of the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness was performed. A total of 150 students of between 14 and 18 years-old were evaluated with this tool in two stages. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach α; and intraclass correlation coefficient was used for test-retest reliability. Gender-stratified analyses were also performed. The Cronbach α was 0.861 for the first evaluation and 0.909 for the second evaluation. The values of the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.775 to 0.339 in the item by item analysis, and between 0.88 and 0.81 in the subscales. In the segmentation by gender, it was found that girls scored between 0.797 and 0.863 in the intraclass correlation coefficient, and boys scored between 0.889 and 0.774. In conclusion, the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness is a reliable tool for the assessment of social stigma. Although reliable results have been found for boys and girls, our results found some gender differences in the analysis. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Can Findings from Randomized Controlled Trials of Social Skills Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder Be Generalized? The Neglected Dimension of External Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ulf; Olsson, Nora Choque; Bölte, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews have traditionally focused on internal validity, while external validity often has been overlooked. In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We…

  12. Education and social inclusion of people with disabilities in five countries in West Africa: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Emma; Lynch, Paul; Virendrakumar, Bhavisha; Rowe, Stacy; Schmidt, Elena

    2017-07-14

    An estimated 1 billion people worldwide live with some form of disability. With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals and the "Leave no one behind" agenda, there is a global momentum to ensure that disadvantaged groups, not least people with disabilities, are included and accounted for, in mainstream development efforts. However, in many low-income settings little is known about disability and the policies and programs in place to improve the lives of those affected. This literature review describes the extent and quality of published and unpublished literature on education and social inclusion of people with disabilities in five West African countries: Cameroon, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone and Senegal. Fifty-four unique documents met inclusion criteria of the review and described related policy and legislation; national and international stakeholders; intervention programs and primary research related to disability and inclusion. The majority of documents were from Sierra Leone (19); and four described more than one country. Primary research included mainly qualitative studies and cross-sectional surveys; 33 sources were critically appraised with the majority being attributed unclear risk of bias (20). The findings call for (i) standardized tools for monitoring the implementation of programs and policies at national level; (ii) improved stakeholder coordination mechanisms; (iii) development and adoption of coordinated approaches to measuring disability and social exclusion; (iv) rigorous evaluations of the effectiveness of disability programs and (v) disaggregation of routine data by disability. Implication for Rehabilitation There is a need for standardized tools for monitoring the implementation of programs and policies at national level. Countries that have not yet ratified the UNCRPD or the protocol should be supported to do so. Stakeholder coordination mechanisms need to be improved. Improved coordination between stakeholders involved in

  13. Validation of the Croatian Version of the Social Self-Esteem Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Margareta Jelić

    2009-01-01

    Within the frame of Social Identity Theory (SIT) self-esteem was given a central role in explaining intergroup discrimination. Furthermore, SIT emphasized the difference between personal and social identity and thus tried to avoid explaining group process and intergroup relations in terms of personal characteristics. However, social identity theory hypotheses are largely tested using measures of personal self-esteem due to the lack of social self-esteem measures. The Collective Self-Esteem Sc...

  14. Development and Validation of the Social Worker's Attitudes toward Disability Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Leah P.; Abell, Neil; Kim, Hyejin

    2015-01-01

    Disability scholars have recently highlighted social work professional organizations' lagging pace in adopting disability advocacy within diversity agendas and have questioned the adequacy of disability content within accredited social work curricula. Amid growing concerns, measures to assess attitudes of social workers toward disability and…

  15. [Social anxiety and self-esteem: Hungarian validation of the "Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Straightforward Items"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel-Forintos, Dóra; Kresznerits, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the third most frequent emotional disorder with 13-15% prevalence rate, it remains unrecognized very often. Social phobia is associated with low self-esteem, high self-criticism and fear of negative evaluation by others. It shows high comorbidity with depression, alcoholism, drug addiction and eating disorders. To adapt the widely used "Fear of Negative Evaluation" (FNE) social phobia questionnaire. Anxiety and mood disorder patients (n = 255) completed the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (30, 12 and 8 item-versions) as well as social cognition, anxiety and self-esteem questionnaires. All the three versions of the FNE have strong internal validity (α>0.83) and moderate significant correlation with low self-esteem, negative social cognitions and anxiety. The short 8-item BFNE-S has the strongest disciminative value in differentiating patients with social phobia and with other emotional disorders. The Hungarian version of the BFNE-S is an effective tool for the quick recognition of social phobia. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(22): 843-850.

  16. A systematic literature review of US definitions, scoring systems and validity according to the OMERACT filter for tendon lesion in RA and other inflammatory joint diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, María; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Bruyn, George A W; Möller, Ingrid; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Wakefield, Richard J; Naredo, Esperanza

    2012-07-01

    To present the published data concerning the US assessment of tendon lesions as well as the US metric properties investigated in inflammatory arthritis. A systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed. Selection criteria were original articles in the English language reporting US, Doppler, tenosynovitis and other tendon lesions in patients with RA and other inflammatory arthritis. Data extraction focused on the definition and quantification of US-detected tenosynovitis and other tendon abnormalities and the metric properties of US according to the OMERACT filter for evaluating the above tendon lesions. Thirty-three of 192 identified articles were included in the review. Most articles were case series (42%) or case-control (33%) studies describing hand and/or foot tenosynovitis in RA patients. The majority of older articles used only B-mode, whereas the most recent studies have incorporated Doppler mode. Definition of tenosynovitis or other tendon lesion was provided in 70% of the evaluated studies. Most of the studies (61%) used a binary score for evaluating tendon abnormalities. Concerning the OMERACT filter, 24 (73%) articles dealt with construct validity. The comparator most commonly used was clinical assessment and MRI. There were few studies assessing criterion validity. Some studies evaluated reliability (36%), responsiveness (21%) and feasibility (12%). US seems a promising tool for evaluating inflammatory tendon lesions. However, further validation is necessary for implementation in clinical practice and trials.

  17. Validity and reliability of instruments aimed at measuring Evidence-Based Practice in Physical Therapy: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Sesé-Abad, Albert; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Salinas-Bueno, Iosune; de Pedro-Gómez, Joan Ernest

    2014-12-01

    Our goal is to compile and analyse the characteristics - especially validity and reliability - of all the existing international tools that have been used to measure evidence-based clinical practice in physiotherapy. A systematic review conducted with data from exclusively quantitative-type studies synthesized in narrative format. An in-depth search of the literature was conducted in two phases: initial, structured, electronic search of databases and also journals with summarized evidence; followed by a residual-directed search in the bibliographical references of the main articles found in the primary search procedure. The studies included were assigned to members of the research team who acted as peer reviewers. Relevant information was extracted from each of the selected articles using a template that included the general characteristics of the instrument as well as an analysis of the quality of the validation processes carried out, by following the criteria of Terwee. Twenty-four instruments were found to comply with the review screening criteria; however, in all cases, they were found to be limited as regards the 'constructs' included. Besides, they can all be seen to be lacking as regards comprehensiveness associated to the validation process of the psychometric tests used. It seems that what constitutes a rigorously developed assessment instrument for EBP in physical therapy continues to be a challenge. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Validity of proxies and correction for proxy use when evaluating social determinants of health in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Sánchez, Brisa N; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Garcia, Nelda M; Smith, Melinda A; Brown, Devin L; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate stroke patient-proxy agreement with respect to social determinants of health, including depression, optimism, and spirituality, and to explore approaches to minimize proxy-introduced bias. Stroke patient-proxy pairs from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project were interviewed (n=34). Evaluation of agreement between patient-proxy pairs included calculation of intraclass correlation coefficients, linear regression models (ProxyResponse=alpha(0)+alpha(1)PatientResponse+delta, where alpha(0)=0 and alpha(1)=1 denotes no bias) and kappa statistics. Bias introduced by proxies was quantified with simulation studies. In the simulated data, we applied 4 approaches to estimate regression coefficients of stroke outcome social determinants of health associations when only proxy data were available for some patients: (1) substituting proxy responses in place of patient responses; (2) including an indicator variable for proxy use; (3) using regression calibration with external validation; and (4) internal validation. Agreement was fair for depression (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.41) and optimism (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.48) and moderate for spirituality (kappa, 0.48 to 0.53). Responses of proxies were a biased measure of the patients' responses for depression, with alpha(0)=4.88 (CI, 2.24 to 7.52) and alpha(1)=0.39 (CI, 0.09 to 0.69), and for optimism, with alpha(0)=3.82 (CI, -1.04 to 8.69) and alpha(1)=0.81 (CI, 0.41 to 1.22). Regression calibration with internal validation was the most accurate method to correct for proxy-induced bias. Fair/moderate patient-proxy agreement was observed for social determinants of health. Stroke researchers who plan to study social determinants of health may consider performing validation studies so corrections for proxy use can be made.

  19. A self-help problem-solving video for parents and teens : social validity and generalization of acquired skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hook, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    A self-administered problem-solving skill training video for nonclinical families with teens is evaluated. The study focuses on the generalization of skills to naturalistic family conversations and the program's social validity: potential iatrogenic aggravation of family problems, perceived effectiveness, and program enjoyment. Seventy families with young teens were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group (skill) viewed a skill training program that included information about ...

  20. Mindfulness-based interventions with social workers and the potential for enhanced patient-centered care: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) is well documented in the mental health, medical, and education literature. There is minimal research on the use of mindfulness with social workers. As demonstrated in other professional and helping fields, mindfulness may enhance clinical skills, reduce burnout, and increase job satisfaction among social workers. In the health care field mindfulness appears integral to patient and family relationships and personal resilience. The evolving and expanding role of hospital social workers may lead to increased work stress and greater demands from both the medical system and patients and families. Research with medical providers, such as physicians and nurses, suggests mindfulness may help in reducing stress, enhancing relationships, and fostering the self-reflection required to provide patient-centered care. We systematically reviewed the existing literature to begin understanding both mindfulness qualities and practices and the effectiveness of MBIs among social workers as well as the relationship of mindfulness to patient-centered care.

  1. Personal, social, and environmental factors associated with lifejacket wear in adults and children: A systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Peden

    Full Text Available Drowning claims 7% of the global burden of injury-related deaths. Lifejackets are routinely recommended as a drowning prevention strategy; however, a review of related factors regarding lifejacket wear has not previously been investigated.This systematic review examined literature published from inception to December 2016 in English and German languages. The personal, social, and environmental factors associated with lifejacket wear among adults and children were investigated, a quantitative evaluation of the results undertaken, and gaps in the literature identified.Twenty studies, with sample sizes of studies ranging between 20 and 482,331, were identified. Fifty-five percent were cross-sectional studies. All studies were scored IV or V on the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC grading system indicating mostly descriptive and cross-sectional levels of evidence. Factors associated with increased wear included age (mostly children, gender (mostly female, boat type (non-motorised, boat size (small boats, role modelling (children influenced by adult lifejacket wear, and activity (water-skiing, fishing. Factors not associated or inconsistent with lifejacket wear included education, household income, ethnicity, boating ability, confidence in lifejackets, waterway type, and weather and water conditions. Factors associated with reduced lifejacket wear included adults, males, discomfort, cost and accessibility, consumption of alcohol, and swimming ability. Three studies evaluated the impact of interventions.This review identified factors associated with both increased and decreased lifejacket wear. Future research should address the motivational factors associated with individuals' decisions to wear or not wear lifejackets. This, combined with further research on the evaluation of interventions designed to increase lifejacket wear, will enhance the evidence base to support future drowning prevention interventions.

  2. Validation of a Culturally Appropriate Social Capital Framework to Explore Health Conditions in Canadian First Nations Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Elias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An earlier study of our research group formulated a conceptual framework of social capital for First Nation communities and developed a culturally appropriate instrument for its measurement. We tested this instrument further with the Manitoba (Canada First Nations Regional Health Survey, 2003. Using data from this survey, we investigated the bonding dimension of the social capital conceptual framework, with a total sample of 2,765 First Nations individuals living in 24 Manitoba First Nations communities. Twenty seven Likert-scale survey questions measured aspects of bonding social capital, socially-invested resources, ethos,and networks. Validation analyses included an evaluation of internal consistency, factor analyses to explore how well the items clustered together into the components of the social capital framework, and the ability of the items to discriminate across the communities represented in the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was computed on the 27 scale items, producing an Alpha of 0.84 indicating high internal consistency. The factor analyses produced five distinct factors with a total explained variance of 54.3%. Lastly, a one-way analysis of variancerun by community produced highly significant F-ratios between the groups on all twenty-seven bonding items. The culturally-sensitive items included in the social capital framework were found to be an appropriate tool to measure bonding aspects among Manitoba First Nations communities. Research and policy implications are discussed.

  3. Social desirability bias in dietary self-report may compromise the validity of dietary intake measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, J R; Clemow, L; Pbert, L; Ockene, I S; Ockene, J K

    1995-04-01

    Self-report of dietary intake could be biased by social desirability or social approval thus affecting risk estimates in epidemiological studies. These constructs produce response set biases, which are evident when testing in domains characterized by easily recognizable correct or desirable responses. Given the social and psychological value ascribed to diet, assessment methodologies used most commonly in epidemiological studies are particularly vulnerable to these biases. Social desirability and social approval biases were tested by comparing nutrient scores derived from multiple 24-hour diet recalls (24HR) on seven randomly assigned days with those from two 7-day diet recalls (7DDR) (similar in some respects to commonly used food frequency questionnaires), one administered at the beginning of the test period (pre) and one at the end (post). Statistical analysis included correlation and multiple linear regression. Cross-sectionally, no relationships between social approval score and the nutritional variables existed. Social desirability score was negatively correlated with most nutritional variables. In linear regression analysis, social desirability score produced a large downward bias in nutrient estimation in the 7DDR relative to the 24HR. For total energy, this bias equalled about 50 kcal/point on the social desirability scale or about 450 kcal over its interquartile range. The bias was approximately twice as large for women as for men and only about half as large in the post measures. Individuals having the highest 24HR-derived fat and total energy intake scores had the largest downward bias due to social desirability. We observed a large downward bias in reporting food intake related to social desirability score. These results are consistent with the theoretical constructs on which the hypothesis is based. The effect of social desirability bias is discussed in terms of its influence on epidemiological estimates of effect. Suggestions are made for future work

  4. Older adults' preferences for formal social support of autonomy and dependence in pain: development and validation of a scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Sónia F; Matos, Marta; Goubert, Liesbet

    2017-09-01

    Chronic pain among older adults is common and often disabling. Pain-related formal social support (e.g., provided by staff at day-care centers, nursing homes), and the extent to which it promotes functional autonomy or dependence, plays a significant role in the promotion of older adults' ability to engage in their daily activities. Assessing older adults' preferences for pain-related social support for functional autonomy or dependence could contribute to increase formal social support responsiveness to individuals' needs. Therefore, this study aimed at developing and validating the preferences for formal social support of autonomy and dependence in pain inventory (PFSSADI). One hundred and sixty-five older adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain ( M age  = 79.1, 67.3% women), attending day-care centers, completed the PFSSADI, the revised formal social support for autonomy and dependence in pain inventory, and a measure of desire for (in)dependence; the PFSSADI was filled out again 6 weeks later. Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure of two correlated factors ( r  = .56): (a) preferences for autonomy support ( α  = .99) and (b) preferences for dependence support ( α  = .98). The scale showed good test-retest reliability, sensitivity and discriminant and concurrent validity; the higher the preferences for dependence support, the higher the desire for dependence ( r  = .33) and the lower the desire for independence ( r  = -.41). The PFSSADI is an innovative tool, which may contribute to explore the role of pain-related social support responsiveness on the promotion of older adults' functional autonomy when in pain.

  5. The effect of Interaction Anxiousness Scale and Brief Social Phobia Scale for screening social anxiety disorder in college students: a study on discriminative validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianqin; Yang, Jinwei; Zhou, Yuqiu; Chu, Fuliu; Zhao, Xiwu; Wang, Weiren; Wang, Yunlong; Peng, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent mental health problems, but there is little research concerning the effective screening instruments in practice. This study was designed to examine the discriminative validity of Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) and Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS) for the screening of SAD through the compared and combined analysis. Firstly, 421 Chinese undergraduates were screened by the IAS and BSPS. Secondly, in the follow-up stage, 248 students were interviewed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used, and the related psychometric characters were checked. The results indicated that the ROC in these two scales demonstrated discrimination is in satisfactory level (range: 0.7-0.8). However, the highest agreement (92.17%) was identified when a cut-off point of 50 measured by the IAS and a cut-off point of 34 by the BSPS were combined, also with higher PPV, SENS, SPEC and OA than that reached when BSPS was used individually, as well as PPV, SPEC and OA in IAS. The findings indicate that the combination of these two scales is valid as the general screening instrument for SAD in maximizing the discriminative validity.

  6. Do online prognostication tools represent a valid alternative to genomic profiling in the context of adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage Chehade, Hiba; Wazir, Umar; Mokbel, Kinan; Kasem, Abdul; Mokbel, Kefah

    2018-01-01

    Decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy has been based on clinical and pathological features. However, such decisions are seldom consistent. Web-based predictive models have been developed using data from cancer registries to help determine the need for adjuvant therapy. More recently, with the recognition of the heterogenous nature of breast cancer, genomic assays have been developed to aid in the therapeutic decision-making. We have carried out a comprehensive literature review regarding online prognostication tools and genomic assays to assess whether online tools could be used as valid alternatives to genomic profiling in decision-making regarding adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer. Breast cancer has been recently recognized as a heterogenous disease based on variations in molecular characteristics. Online tools are valuable in guiding adjuvant treatment, especially in resource constrained countries. However, in the era of personalized therapy, molecular profiling appears to be superior in predicting clinical outcome and guiding therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validating predictors of disease progression in a large cohort of primary-progressive multiple sclerosis based on a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Patrick Stellmann

    Full Text Available New agents with neuroprotective or neuroregenerative potential might be explored in primary-progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS--the MS disease course with leading neurodegenerative pathology. Identification of patients with a high short-term risk for progression may minimize study duration and sample size. Cohort studies reported several variables as predictors of EDSS disability progression but findings were partially contradictory.To analyse the impact of published predictors on EDSS disease progression in a large cohort of PPMS patients.A systematic literature research was performed to identify predictors for disease progression in PPMS. Individual case data from the Sylvia Lawry Centre (SLC and the Hamburg MS patient database (HAPIMS was pooled for a retrospective validation of these predictors on the annualized EDSS change.The systematic literature analysis revealed heterogeneous data from 3 prospective and 5 retrospective natural history cohort studies. Age at onset, gender, type of first symptoms and early EDSS changes were available for validation. Our pooled cohort of 597 PPMS patients (54% female had a mean follow-up of 4.4 years and mean change of EDSS of 0.35 per year based on 2503 EDSS assessments. There was no significant association between the investigated variables and the EDSS-change.None of the analysed variables were predictive for the disease progression measured by the annualized EDSS change. Whether PPMS is still unpredictable or our results may be due to limitations of cohort assessments or selection of predictors cannot be answered. Large systematic prospective studies with new endpoints are needed.

  8. [Development of social activities-related daily life satisfaction scale for the elderly and evaluation of its reliability and validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hideaki

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Social Activities-Related Daily Life Satisfaction Scale specifically applicable to elderly people in communities and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Sixteen items were extracted from an initial pool and assessed for inclusion in the scale by correlation and exploratory factor analyses. To confirm validity, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and correlation coefficients were calculated. In addition, t-tests were performed in order to generate scores of the subscale related to activity. To prove reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha values were calculated. Data for 755 older adults aged 65 to 84 years were obtained from a mail survey in Ichikawa City, Chiba Prefecture. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that four factors, "satisfaction with learning" (four items), "satisfaction with usefulness to others and society" (four items), "satisfaction with health and physical strength" (three items), and "satisfaction with friends" (three items) should be extracted. Confirmatory factor analysis for assessing the 14-item four-factor model showed high goodness of fit indices (GFI = 0.943, AGFI = 0.915, RMSEA = 0.068). Concurrent validity was established by comparing the score of the scale with five external variables (Activity and Daily Life Satisfaction Scale for the Elderly, Life Satisfaction Index K, etc). Student's t-tests revealed that each score of the subscale was positively associated with activity variable. The overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the scale was 0.919 and for its four subscales values ranged from 0.814 to 0.887. A Social Activities-Related Daily Life Satisfaction Scale was derived consisting of four subscales, "satisfaction with learning", "satisfaction with usefulness to others and society", "satisfaction with health and physical strength", and "satisfaction with friends". The results of the present study suggested that the Social Activities-Related Daily Life Satisfaction Scale

  9. Corpus-based Validation of a Dialogue Model for Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in affective computing show that Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are increasingly capable of complex social and emotional dialogues. Our research concerns the design and evaluation of an ECA that provides social support to children that are being bullied though the

  10. Efficacy and Social Validity of Peer Network Interventions for High School Students with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Jennifer M.; Carter, Erik W.; Moss, Colleen K.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Born, Tiffany L.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Brock, Matthew E.; Cattey, Gillian N.; Cooney, Molly; Fesperman, Ethan S.; Hochman, Julia M.; Huber, Heartley B.; Lequia, Jenna L.; Lyons, Gregory L.; Vincent, Lori B.; Weir, Katie

    2017-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of peer network interventions to improve the social connections of 47 high school students with severe disabilities. School staff invited, trained, and supported 192 peers without disabilities to participate in individualized social groups that met throughout one semester. Compared to…

  11. Assessing Individual Social Capital Capacity: The Development and Validation of a Network Accessibility Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, John-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Any organization that is able to promote the importance of increased levels of social capital and individuals who can leverage and use the resources that exist within the network may experience higher levels of performance. This study sought to add to our knowledge about individuals' accessing social resources for the purpose of accomplishing…

  12. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  13. The Association of Social Work Boards' Licensure Examinations: A Review of Reliability and Validity Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Stephen M.; DeAngelis, Donna; Mittal, Nisha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to create transparency for the psychometric methods employed for the development of the Association of Social Work Boards' (ASWB) exams. Results: The article includes an assessment of the macro (political) and micro (statistical) environments of testing social work competence. The seven-step process used…

  14. The relationship between self-concept of children with and without learning problems, their perceived social support and literature achievement in Greek secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampilis, Theodoros; Minnaert, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a comparison of students with and without learning problems in Greek secondary education. In general, self-concept of students and their perceived social support was found to be of importance for achievement in the first years of secondary education. In literature, less

  15. Farsi version of social skills rating system-secondary student form: cultural adaptation, reliability and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Amidi Mazaheri, Maryam; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Abbasi, Mohamad Hadi; Noroozi, Ensieh

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of social skills is a necessary requirement to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive and behavioral interventions. This paper reports the cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the social skills rating system-secondary students form (SSRS-SS) questionnaire (Gresham and Elliot, 1990), in a normative sample of secondary school students. A two-phase design was used that phase 1 consisted of the linguistic adaptation and in phase 2, using cross-sectional sample survey data, the construct validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the SSRS-SS were examined in a sample of 724 adolescents aged from 13 to 19 years. Content validity index was excellent, and the floor/ceiling effects were low. After deleting five of the original SSRS-SS items, the findings gave support for the item convergent and divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed four subscales. RESULTS showed good internal consistency (0.89) and temporal stability (0.91) for the total scale score. Findings demonstrated support for the use of the 27-item Farsi version in the school setting. Directions for future research regarding the applicability of the scale in other settings and populations of adolescents are discussed.

  16. A Qualitative Study on the Content Validity of the Social Capital Scales in the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Berthelsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II includes scales for measuring 'workplace social capital'. The overall aim of this article is to evaluate the content validity of the following scales: horizontal trust, vertical trust and justice based on data from cognitive interviews using a think-aloud procedure. Informants were selected to achieve variation in gender, age, region of residence, and occupation. A predetermined coding scheme was used to identify: 1 Perspective (reflection on behalf of oneself only or abstraction to a broader perspective, 2 Use of response options, 3 Contexts challenging the process of answering, and 4 Overall reflections included in the retrieval and judgement processes leading to an answer for each item. The results showed that 1 the intended shift from individual to a broader perspective worked for eight out of eleven items. 2 The response option balancing in the middle covered different meanings. Retrieval of information needed to answer constituted a problem in four out of eleven items. 3 Three contextually challenging situations were identified. 4 For most items the reflections corresponded well with the intention of the scales, though the items asking about withheld information caused more problems in answering and lower content validity compared to the other items of the scales. In general, the findings supported the content validity of the COPSOQ II measurement of workplace social capital as a group construct. The study opens for new insight into how concepts and questions are understood and answered among people coming from different occupations and organizational settings.

  17. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction reference genes in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain: validation and literature search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Nicolas; Decosterd, Isabelle; Suter, Marc R

    2013-07-10

    The reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a widely used, highly sensitive laboratory technique to rapidly and easily detect, identify and quantify gene expression. Reliable RT-qPCR data necessitates accurate normalization with validated control genes (reference genes) whose expression is constant in all studied conditions. This stability has to be demonstrated.We performed a literature search for studies using quantitative or semi-quantitative PCR in the rat spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain to verify whether any reference genes had previously been validated. We then analyzed the stability over time of 7 commonly used reference genes in the nervous system - specifically in the spinal cord dorsal horn and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). These were: Actin beta (Actb), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal proteins 18S (18S), L13a (RPL13a) and L29 (RPL29), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) and hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). We compared the candidate genes and established a stability ranking using the geNorm algorithm. Finally, we assessed the number of reference genes necessary for accurate normalization in this neuropathic pain model. We found GAPDH, HMBS, Actb, HPRT1 and 18S cited as reference genes in literature on studies using the SNI model. Only HPRT1 and 18S had been once previously demonstrated as stable in RT-qPCR arrays. All the genes tested in this study, using the geNorm algorithm, presented gene stability values (M-value) acceptable enough for them to qualify as potential reference genes in both DRG and spinal cord. Using the coefficient of variation, 18S failed the 50% cut-off with a value of 61% in the DRG. The two most stable genes in the dorsal horn were RPL29 and RPL13a; in the DRG they were HPRT1 and Actb. Using a 0.15 cut-off for pairwise variations we found that any pair of stable reference gene was sufficient for the normalization process

  18. Cooperativeness and competitiveness as two distinct constructs: validating the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale in a social dilemma context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Su; Au, Wing-Tung; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Xiaofei; Yam, Paton

    2013-01-01

    The present research validated the construct and criterion validities of the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale (CCPS) in a social dilemma context. The results from three studies supported the notion that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two independent dimensions, challenging the traditional view that they are two ends of a single continuum. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor structure fit the data significantly better than a one-factor structure. Moreover, cooperativeness and competitiveness were either not significantly correlated (Studies 1 and 3) or only moderately positively correlated (Study 2). Second, cooperativeness and competitiveness were differentially associated with Schwartz's Personal Values. These results further supported the idea that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two distinct constructs. Specifically, the individuals who were highly cooperative emphasized self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence) more, whereas the individuals who were highly competitive emphasized self-enhancement values (i.e., power and achievement) more. Finally, the CCPS, which adheres to the trait perspective of personality, was found to be a useful supplement to more prevalent social motive measures (i.e., social value orientation) in predicting cooperative behaviors. Specifically, in Study 2, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in a public goods dilemma (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale contributed more to the public goods). In Study 3, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in commons dilemmas (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale requested fewer resources from the common resource pool). The practical implications of the CCPS in conflict resolution, as well as in recruitment and selection settings, are discussed.

  19. Development and validation of an instrument to assess perceived social influence on health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOLT, CHERYL L.; CLARK, EDDIE M.; ROTH, DAVID L.; CROWTHER, MARTHA; KOHLER, CONNIE; FOUAD, MONA; FOUSHEE, RUSTY; LEE, PATRICIA A.; SOUTHWARD, PENNY L.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of social influence on health behavior is often approached through a situational context. The current study adapted an existing, theory-based instrument from another content domain to assess Perceived Social Influence on Health Behavior (PSI-HB) among African Americans, using an individual difference approach. The adapted instrument was found to have high internal reliability (α = .81–.84) and acceptable testretest reliability (r = .68–.85). A measurement model revealed a three-factor structure and supported the theoretical underpinnings. Scores were predictive of health behaviors, particularly among women. Future research using the new instrument may have applied value assessing social influence in the context of health interventions. PMID:20522506

  20. Social factors in innovation: A review of the literature; El Estudio de los Factores en la Innovacion. Revision de la Literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C; Sola, R

    2009-10-12

    This report analyses the main approaches in the social sciences in the study of technological innovation processes. The literature review aims at linking different perspectives such as innovation systems, the socio technical approach, the social shaping of technologies, the studies on social life cycle assessment, the social construction of technologies approach and the studies on technology policy. These approaches have allowed understanding technology deployment not as a natural phenomenon, but as the result of the investment of resources by the different actors. Feedbacks among the different components of the innovation system, such as research, technological knowledge, potential market, design, users and the social context modify the result of innovation. The main objective is to identify and to get a deeper knowledge of the factors influencing the successful implementation of energy technologies in society. (Author) 98 refs.

  1. Validity and reliability of the Malay version multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS-M) among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Cheng; Moy, Foong Ming; Hairi, Noran Naqiah

    2017-01-01

    The multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) was developed to measure perceived social support. It has been translated and culturally adapted among natives literate in the Malay language. However, its psychometric properties for teachers who are majority females and married have not been assessed. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the public secondary school teachers in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia from May to July 2013. A total of 150 and 203 teachers were recruited to perform exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), respectively. Reliability testing was evaluated on 141 teachers via internal consistency and two-week interval test-retest. The 12-item three-factor structure of MSPSS-M was revised to 8-item two-factor structure. The revised MSPSS-M demonstrated excellent fit in CFA with adequate divergent and convergent validity and good factor loadings (0.80-0.90). The revised MSPSS-M also displayed good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.91, 0.93 and 0.92 and good test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation of 0.89, 0.88 and 0.88 in the total scale, family and friends factors, respectively. The revised 8-item MSPSS-M is a reliable and valid tool for assessment of perceived social support among teachers.

  2. The Portuguese formal social support for autonomy and dependence in pain inventory (FSSADI_PAIN): a preliminary validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F

    2013-09-01

    Development and preliminary validation of a Portuguese measure of perceived Formal Social Support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain (FSSADI_PAIN). One hundred and fifty-one older adults (88.1% women), between 56 and 94 years of age (M = 75.41; SD = 9.11), who attended one of the following institutions--day care centre (33.1%), nursing home (36.4%) and senior university (30.5%)--were recruited for this study. Along with the FSSADI_PAIN, participants filled out the Portuguese versions of the Brief Pain Inventory (Azevedo et al., 2007, Dor, 15, 6) and the Social Support Scale of Medical Outcomes Survey (Pais-Ribeiro & Ponte, 2009, Psicologia, Saúde & Doença, 10, 163). The factorial structure reflected the functions of perceived promotion of (1) dependence and (2) autonomy, showing good internal consistency (α > .70) and sensitivity indices. The FSSADI_PAIN showed good content, discriminant and criterion validity; it differentiated the perceptions of promotion of dependence/autonomy according to individual's pain severity and disability, as well as the type of institution. These preliminary findings suggest that the FSSADI_PAIN is an innovative and promising measure of perceived formal social support adapted to pain-related contexts. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Development and preliminary validation of a measure of social inclusion for use in people with mental health problems: the SInQUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Gillian; White, Sarah; Thachil, Ajoy; Berg, Rachel; Kallumparam, Sen; Nasiruddin, Omar; Wright, Christine; Killaspy, Helen

    2013-08-01

    Social exclusion can be both a cause and a consequence of mental health problems. Socially inclusive practice by mental health professionals can mitigate against the stigmatizing and excluding effects of severe mental illness. To develop and test the validity of a measure of social inclusion for individuals with severe mental illness - the Social Inclusion Questionnaire User Experience (SInQUE). The domains of the SInQUE were chosen to reflect the domains of social inclusion identified in the Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey. Patients with severe mental illness were recruited from rehabilitation, general and forensic psychiatric services and were asked to complete the questionnaire in an individual interview with a researcher. Sixty six patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder completed the SInQUE, alongside measures of psychiatric symptoms, needs and quality of life, to assess its acceptability, and concurrent and construct (convergent and discriminant) validity. The SInQUE took 45 minutes to complete and was found to have good concurrent and discriminant validity. Convergent validity was established for two domains: social integration and productivity. Preliminary findings suggest that the SInQUE may be a useful tool for assessing and monitoring social inclusion in individuals with severe mental illness. It has construct and concurrent validity with measures of unmet need and quality of life in this group. Further testing of the reliability of the SInQUE on a larger population is indicated.

  4. Development of a community commitment scale with cross-sectional survey validation for preventing social isolation in older Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Ayumi; Tadaka, Etsuko; Kanaya, Yukiko; Dai, Yuka; Itoi, Waka; Imamatsu, Yuki

    2012-10-24

    Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC), but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS) to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008) and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of "belonging" and "socializing" in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach's alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS) was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions "belonging" and "socializing", among the local volunteers and general

  5. A study on the reliability and validity of Leary's social anxiety scale

    OpenAIRE

    岡林, 尚子; 生和, 秀敏

    1992-01-01

    The Interaction and Audience Anxiousness Scale (I-AA scale) drawn up by Leary is a measure of subjective social anxiety. This is a 27-item scale that is composed of two sub-scales, interaction anxiety scale and audience anxiety scale. Leary has hypothesized that higher interaction anxiety could be observed in the condition of continget social setting and audience anxiety might be sensitive in the condition of no contingent situation. The purpose of this study was to examin the factorial s...

  6. Toward a Psychological Study of Class Consciousness: Development and Validation of a Social Psychological Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Keefer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While social class has recently become a prominent topic in social psychological research, much of this effort has focused on the psychological consequences of objective and subjective indices of class (e.g., income, perceived status. This approach sheds light on the consequences of social class itself, but overlooks a construct of central importance in earlier theorizing on class: class consciousness, or the extent to which individuals acknowledge and situate themselves within class relations. The current paper offers a psychological model of class consciousness comprised of five elements: awareness of social class, perceptions of class conflict, beliefs about the permeability of class groups, identification with a class group, and personal experience of being treated as a member of one’s class. We offer a measure assessing those central dimensions and assess differences in these dimensions by age, gender, indices of social class, political ideology, and among different class groups. Finally, we offer suggestions for how an awareness of class consciousness may enrich social psychology and ultimately foster political change.

  7. Social support for healthy eating: development and validation of a questionnaire for the French-Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Elise; Bradette-Laplante, Maude; Lamarche, Benoît; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine; Robitaille, Julie; Desroches, Sophie; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Corneau, Louise; Lemieux, Simone

    2018-05-28

    The present study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire assessing social support for healthy eating in a French-Canadian population. A twenty-one-item questionnaire was developed. For each item, participants were asked to rate the frequency, in the past month, with which the actions described had been done by family and friends in two different environments: (i) at home and (ii) outside of home. The content was evaluated by an expert panel. A validation study sample was recruited and completed the questionnaire twice. Exploratory factor analysis was performed on items to assess the number of subscales. Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's ɑ. Test-retest reliability was evaluated with intraclass correlations between scores of the two completions. Online survey. Men and women from the Québec City area (n 150). The content validity assessment led to a few changes, resulting in a twenty-two-item questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure for both environments, resulting in four subscales: supportive actions at home; non-supportive actions at home; supportive actions outside of home; and non-supportive actions outside of home. Two items were removed from the questionnaire due to low loadings. The four subscales were found to be reliable (Cronbach's ɑ=0·82-0·94; test-retest intraclass correlation=0·51-0·70). The Social Support for Healthy Eating Questionnaire was developed for a French-Canadian population and demonstrated good psychometric properties. This questionnaire will be useful to explore the role of social support and its interactions with other factors in predicting eating behaviours.

  8. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Lub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate, the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of connecting them with aspects of evaluation in social policy. It argues that different purposes of qualitative evaluations can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives, thus transcending unproductive paradigmatic divisions as well as providing a flexible yet rigorous validity framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative evaluations.

  9. Development of a Brief Scale for Social Support: Reliability and validity in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bernal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El apoyo social es una interacción humana en la que recursos sociales, emocionales, instrumentales y recreacionales son intercambiados. Este fenómeno social está asociado al estrés, la depresión y a los problemas de salud mental. Este estudio instrumental presenta el desarrollo y evaluación de un Cuestionario de Apoyo Social (CAS como parte de un estudio más amplio que pretende desarrollar instrumentos psicosociales válidos y confiables en el contexto puertorriqueño. El CAS fue diseñado para evaluar la necesidad de apoyo emocional, interpersonal y material. También la satisfacción con el apoyo recibido fue evaluado. Cuatrocientos sesenta y cuatro estudiantes puertorriqueños de la Universidad de Puerto Rico participaron en este estudio. Los resultados demostraron una consistencia interna de 0,68 para los siete reactivos de necesidad y de 0,89 para los dos reactivos de satisfacción con el apoyo recibido. Las dimensiones principales de la escala fueron analizadas utilizando un análisis confirmatorio de factores (CFA, por sus siglas en inglés. Varios modelos fueron diseñados basados en el CFA y comparados. Los datos apoyaron un modelo de tres factores con siete reactivos a escala de necesidad de apoyo social. El aspecto multidimensional del constructo de apoyo social (necesidad emocional, interpersonal, instrumental fue apoyado por los datos. El uso de esta escala breve para evaluar apoyo social es discutido.

  10. Measures of Emotional Intelligence and Social Acceptability in Children: A Concurrent Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, Sunny; McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Dunn, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The concurrent validity of two measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), one considered a trait measure, the other an ability measure, was examined by administering the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQi:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, &…

  11. A Validation of the Health and Social Costs of Asthma Using Questionnaire Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brookman

    2017-04-01

    Societal cost factors are not adequately captured within existing tools, our findings will inform the development of a new RUM which will be piloted and validated according to best practice guidelines. Capturing the societal costs of asthma will allow more accurate estimates of the total costs of asthma in the UK.

  12. The influence of social media and easily accessible online information on the aesthetic plastic surgery practice: literature review and our own experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemurro, Paolo; Porcnik, Ales; Hedén, Per; Otte, Maximilian

    2015-04-01

    Patients interested in aesthetic plastic surgery procedures increasingly seek advice on social media and rely on easily accessible online information. The investigatory goal was to determine the impact of this phenomenon on the everyday aesthetic plastic surgery practice. Five hundred consecutive patients completed a questionnaire prior to their consultation with a plastic surgeon at our clinic. A questionnaire was also completed by 128 plastic surgeons practising in 19 different countries. A literature review was performed. Almost all patients (95%) used the internet to collect information prior to consultation, for 68% of them it being their first search method. Social media were used by 46% of patients and 40% of these were strongly influenced when choosing a specific doctor. The majority of plastic surgeons (85%) thought the information found on social media could lead to unrealistic expectations. However, 45% of plastic surgeons believed that their consultations became easier after the advent of social media, 29% found them more difficult. A literature review showed a high percentage of poor quality internet websites regarding plastic surgery and an increase in use of social media among plastic surgeons. The internet and social media play an important and growing role in plastic surgery. This results in more informed patients but may create unrealistic expectations. Even if the internet provides ample information, it cannot replace the face-to-face consultation, which always should remain a detailed process, covering both risks and limitations of alternative procedures. Available literature on how social media influences the medical practice is still scarce and further research is needed. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  13. Validity of a family-centered approach for assessing infants' social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hielkema, Margriet; De Winter, Andrea F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family-centered care seems promising in preventive pediatrics, but evidence is lacking as to whether this type of care is also valid as a means to identify risks to infants' social-emotional development. We aimed to examine the validity of such a family-centered approach. Methods: We

  14. Development and cross-cultural validation of a shortened social representations scale of new foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, J.

    2013-01-01

    The original 27-item social representations scale, developed by Bäckström et al. (2004), consists of five dimensions: suspicion, adherence to technology, adherence to natural food, eating as an enjoyment, and eating as a necessity. The aim of the present study is twofold. First, in study 1, we

  15. Pedagogical and Social Climate in School Questionnaire: Factorial Validity and Reliability of the Teacher Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the factorial structure of the Pedagogical and Social Climate in School (PESOC) questionnaire among 307 teachers in Bulgaria. The teacher edition of PESOC consists of 11 scales (i.e., Expectations for Students, Unity Among Teachers, Approach to Students, Basic Assumptions About Students' Ability to Learn, School-Home…

  16. Efficacy and Social Validity of Peer Support Arrangements for Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hoffman, Alicia; Chung, Yun-Ching; Sisco, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Current research and policy emphasize providing students with severe disabilities with the supports needed to participate socially and academically within inclusive classrooms. The authors examined the efficacy and acceptability of peer support arrangements as an avenue for promoting the participation of 3 students with severe disabilities in high…

  17. Adaptation and Validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey-Secondary into Turkish Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Furlong, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a Turkish-language adaptation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey-Secondary (SEHS-S), a measure of core psychological assets hypothesized to be associated with adolescents' flourishing mental health. Convenience samples of students (Grades 9-12) from six Turkish high schools were used;…

  18. The importance of psychological and social factors in influencing the uptake and maintenance of physical activity after stroke: a structured review of the empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqui; Oliver, Tracey; Kroll, Thilo; Macgillivray, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background. People with stroke are not maintaining adequate engagement in physical activity (PA) for health and functional benefit. This paper sought to describe any psychological and social factors that may influence physical activity engagement after stroke. Methods. A structured literature review of studies indexed in MEDLINE, CinAHL, P&BSC, and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to stroke, physical disabilities, and PA. Publications reporting empirical findings (quantitative or qualitative) regarding psychological and/or social factors were included. Results. Twenty studies from 19 publications (9 surveys, 1 RCT, and 10 qualitative studies) were included. Seventeen studies reported findings pertinent to psychological factors and fourteen findings pertinent to social factors. Conclusion. Self-efficacy, physical activity beliefs, and social support appear particularly relevant to physical activity behaviour after stroke and should be included in theoretically based physical interventions. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour are candidate behavioural models that may support intervention development.

  19. Finding Citations to Social Work Literature: The Relative Benefits of Using "Web of Science," "Scopus," or "Google Scholar"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Elaine M. Lasda

    2012-01-01

    Past studies of citation coverage of "Web of Science," "Scopus," and "Google Scholar" do not demonstrate a consistent pattern that can be applied to the interdisciplinary mix of resources used in social work research. To determine the utility of these tools to social work researchers, an analysis of citing references to well-known social work…

  20. Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2013-01-01

    Social skills are important treatment targets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan. However, few treatments are available for adolescents and adults with ASD who also have severe to profound intellectual disability (S/PID). Several social skill interventions have been described that may improve social skills in…

  1. Development of a Community Commitment Scale with Cross-sectional Survey Validation for Preventing Social Isolation in Older Japanese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono Ayumi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC, but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. Methods A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008 and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Results Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of “belonging” and “socializing” in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach’s alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. Conclusions These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions

  2. Demonstrations of Agency in Contemporary International Children's Literature: An Exploratory Critical Content Analysis across Personal, Social, and Cultural Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Janelle B.

    2015-01-01

    International children's literature has the potential to create global experiences and cultural insights for young people confronted with limited and biased images of the world offered by media. The current inquiry was designed to explore, through a critical content analysis approach, international children's literature in which characters…

  3. A Critical Assessment of Methods for Analysis of Social Welfare Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops: a Literature Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Demont, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a review of existing literature on economic and environmental costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM) crops focusing on methodological issues arising from this literature. Particular attention is given to the production function framework commonly used to quantify costs and

  4. Validation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Chinese Version of the Emotional and Social Dysfunction Questionnaire in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Shyu, Meei-Ling; Lin, Mei-Feng; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Chang, Chien-Hung; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chi, Nai-Fang; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a cross-cultural Chinese version of the Emotional and Social Dysfunction Questionnaire (ESDQ-C) and test its validity and reliability among Chinese-speaking stroke patients. Various methods were used to develop the ESDQ-C. A cross-sectional study was used to examine the validity and reliability of the developed questionnaire, which consists of 28 items belonging to six factors, anger, helplessness, emotional dyscontrol, indifference, inertia and fatigue, and euphoria. Satisfactory convergence and known-group validities were confirmed by significant correlations of the ESDQ-C with the Profile of Mood States-Short Form ( p < .05) and with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale ( p < .05). The internal consistency was represented by Cronbach's alpha, which was .96 and .79 to .92 for the entire scale and subscales, respectively. Appropriate application of the ESDQ-C will be helpful to identify critical adjustment-related types of distress and patients who experience difficulty coping with such distress.

  5. [Design and validation of a satisfaction and quality of life scale for users of residential and social care centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literas, Luciano; Navarro, Albert; Fontanals, María Dulce

    2010-01-01

    In a comprehensive approach to ageing care, the promotion of personal and emotional well-being is fundamental, as well as the development of tools to evaluate outcomes. This approach needs to take into account the subjective perception of the elderly by gathering evidence using indicators that express impacts and satisfaction. Thus, the SAR Foundation's Satisfaction and Quality of Life Scale (SyCV-FSAR) has been developed and validated to assess well-being in residential care settings. Bibliographical reviews, interviews and focal groups with professionals (doctors, nurses, social workers, quality managers, etc.) were conducted to define the questionnaire that was first piloted and then applied in a final survey. Test of validity was carried out by factorial analysis (FA), principal axis factoring and Oblimin rotation. The sampling adequacy was measured by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test and Bartlett's sphericity. Test of reliability was carried out by internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha). A total of 475 users took part in the survey, 69.1% of those who fulfilled the criteria. Of these 60.0% were women, an average age 82.1, 47.2% of them between 75 and 84 years old, with a MMSE of 27. The FA identified three factors ("Residential service and geriatric care", "Personal framework" and "Social relationships") that explained 27.5% of the total variability. The measure of sampling adequacy by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test was 0.80, and the Bartlett's sphericity test was significant (P<0.001). The global α Cronbach was 0.82. According to the results obtained in the study we can conclude that the SyCV-FSAR Scale is a reliable, simple and easy-to-apply tool, which gathers the users' perception on key aspects of daily life in residential and social care centres. Copyright © 2009 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychometric validation of the Persian Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale using classic test theory and Rasch models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Broström, Anders; Nilsen, Per; Griffiths, Mark D; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), a six-item self-report scale that is a brief and effective psychometric instrument for assessing at-risk social media addiction on the Internet. However, its psychometric properties in Persian have never been examined and no studies have applied Rasch analysis for the psychometric testing. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian BSMAS using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch models among 2,676 Iranian adolescents. Methods In addition to construct validity, measurement invariance in CFA and differential item functioning (DIF) in Rasch analysis across gender were tested for in the Persian BSMAS. Results Both CFA [comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.993; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.989; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.057; standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.039] and Rasch (infit MnSq = 0.88-1.28; outfit MnSq = 0.86-1.22) confirmed the unidimensionality of the BSMAS. Moreover, measurement invariance was supported in multigroup CFA including metric invariance (ΔCFI = -0.001; ΔSRMR = 0.003; ΔRMSEA = -0.005) and scalar invariance (ΔCFI = -0.002; ΔSRMR = 0.005; ΔRMSEA = 0.001) across gender. No item displayed DIF (DIF contrast = -0.48 to 0.24) in Rasch across gender. Conclusions Given the Persian BSMAS was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess how an adolescent is addicted to social media on the Internet. Moreover, users of the instrument may comfortably compare the sum scores of the BSMAS across gender.

  7. Development and validation of the social information processing application: a Web-based measure of social information processing patterns in elementary school-age boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmidt, Janis B; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in 3rd through 5th grades. This study included a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 244 boys ages 8 through 12 (M = 9.4) from public elementary schools in 3 states. The SIP-AP includes 8 videotaped vignettes, filmed from the first-person perspective, that depict common misunderstandings among boys. Each vignette shows a negative outcome for the victim and ambiguous intent on the part of the perpetrator. Boys responded to 16 Web-based questions representing the 5 social information processing mechanisms, after viewing each vignette. Parents and teachers completed measures assessing boys' antisocial behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a model positing the original 5 cognitive mechanisms fit the data well when the items representing prosocial cognitions were included on their own factor, creating a 6th factor. The internal consistencies for each of the 16 individual cognitions as well as for the 6 cognitive mechanism scales were excellent. Boys with elevated scores on 5 of the 6 cognitive mechanisms exhibited more antisocial behavior than boys whose scores were not elevated. These findings highlight the need for further research on the measurement of prosocial cognitions or cognitive strengths in boys in addition to assessing cognitive deficits. Findings suggest that the SIP-AP is a reliable and valid tool for use in future research of social information processing skills in boys.

  8. Validation of the Chinese version of the Modified Caregivers Strain Index among Hong Kong caregivers: an initiative of medical social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wallace Chi Ho; Chan, Christopher L F; Suen, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    Family caregivers may often experience caregiving stress and burden. To systematically assess this issue, medical social workers may need to use a brief and valid measurement in their practice. In the Hong Kong Chinese context, one additional challenge is to examine whether a measurement developed in the West is valid for Hong Kong Chinese caregivers. Thus, medical social workers in Hong Kong initiated this research study to validate the Chinese version of the Modified Caregiver Strain Index (C-M-CSI). A total of 223 Chinese caregivers of patients with various chronic illnesses were recruited for this validation study. C-M-CSI demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = .91), concurrent validity with the Chinese version of the Caregiver Burden Inventory, and discriminant validity with the Chinese version of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Factor analysis yielded a single factor as the original M-CSI, which explained 49 percent of variance. Construct validity was shown by differentiating spousal and nonspousal caregivers, as well as caregivers of patients with and without behavioral problems. C-M-CSI is recommended as a brief and valid measurement that can be used by medical social workers in assessing the caregiving strain of Chinese caregivers of patients in Hong Kong.

  9. Predictive validity of social support relative to psychological well-being in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintala, Diana H

    2013-11-01

    Compare predictive validity (relative to psychological well-being) of long and short versions of 2 measures of social support for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Sixty-nine men with SCI completed (a) a long and short version of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), (b) a structured interview regarding the frequency with which a person receives 11 kinds of support from each of their most important supporters (maximum of 5), and (c) a global measure of the same 11 kinds of support. Approximately 3 years later they completed 4 measures of psychological well-being--the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CESD), the Life Satisfaction Index A (LSIA), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Comparisons were made among the social support measures with regard to their ability to predict each of the 4 measures of psychological well-being at a later point in time. The long version of the ISEL had more predictive power than the long version of the structured interview. The long version of the ISEL is a good choice for measuring social support in persons with SCI and the short ISEL may be an acceptable choice when minimizing respondent burden is critical if the number of response options is increased to 4. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Social relationship difficulties in autism and reactive attachment disorder: Improving diagnostic validity through structured assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Claire; O'Hare, Anne; Mactaggart, Fiona; Green, Jonathan; Young, David; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) versus Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a common diagnostic challenge for clinicians due to overlapping difficulties with social relationships. RAD is associated with neglect or maltreatment whereas ASD is not: accurate differential diagnosis is therefore critical. Very little research has investigated the relationship between the two, and it is unknown if standardised measures are able to discriminate between ASD and RAD. The current study aimed to address these issues. Fifty eight children with ASD, and no history of maltreatment, were group matched on age with 67 children with RAD. Group profiles on multi-informant measures of RAD were investigated and group differences explored. Discriminant function analysis determined assessment features that best discriminated between the two groups. Although, according to parent report, children with ASD presented with significantly fewer indiscriminate friendliness behaviours compared to the RAD group (p<0.001), 36 children with ASD appeared to meet core RAD criteria. However, structured observation clearly demonstrated that features were indicative of ASD and not RAD for all but 1 of these 36 children. Children with RAD and children with ASD may demonstrate similar social relationship difficulties but there appears to be a difference in the social quality of the interactions between the groups. In most cases it was possible to differentiate between children with ASD and children with RAD via structured observation. Nevertheless, for a small proportion of children with ASD, particularly those whose difficulties may be more subtle, our current standardised measures, including structured observation, may not be effective in differentiating RAD from ASD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Education 2.0 -- how has social media and Web 2.0 been integrated into medical education? A systematical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinderbäumer, Anke; Hartz, Tobias; Uckert, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Present-day students have grown up with considerable knowledge concerning multi-media. The communication modes they use are faster, more spontaneous, and independent of place and time. These new web-based forms of information and communication are used by students, educators, and patients in various ways. Universities which have already used these tools report many positive effects on the learning behaviour of the students. In a systematic literature review, we summarized the manner in which the integration of Social Media and Web 2.0 into education has taken place. A systematic literature search covering the last 5 years using MeSH terms was carried out via PubMed. Among the 20 chosen publications, there was only one German publication. Most of the publications are from the US and Great Britain. The latest publications report on the concrete usage of the tools in education, including social networking, podcasts, blogs, wikis, YouTube, Twitter and Skype. The integration of Web 2.0 and Social Media is the modern form of self-determined learning. It stimulates reflection and actively integrates the students in the construction of their knowledge. With these new tools, the students acquire skills which they need in both their social and professional lives.

  12. Intellectually Capable but Socially Excluded? A Review of the Literature and Research on Students with Autism in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Nick; Beavan, Nick

    2012-01-01

    As autism is a social learning disability it is a disadvantage in any social setting such as a classroom. The 1990s saw a surge of young people diagnosed with autism who are now approaching college age; indeed there is evidence that students with autism are becoming a significant cohort in further education. However, anecdotal evidence suggests…

  13. Social Media Use for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Educational Settings: A Systematic Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toofaninejad, Ehsan; Zaraii Zavaraki, Esmaeil; Dawson, Shane; Poquet, Oleksandra; Sharifi Daramadi, Parviz

    2017-01-01

    The pedagogical benefits of the social media may be most pronounced when they impact groups of learners who are at a disadvantage in conventional face-to-face contexts. Among such disadvantaged groups are the deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) students who may experience new opportunities with the help of the social media. This paper stems from the…

  14. Advancing social inclusion in the neighbourhood for people with an intellectual disability: an exploration of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars-Marx, T.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Verdonschot, M.; Meininger, H.

    2013-01-01

    The shift from segregated facilities to community settings did not automatically lead to social inclusion for people with an intellectual disability (ID). Policies are increasingly decentralized but little is known about the factors that are important to realize social inclusion in the

  15. Informing future research priorities into the psychological and social problems faced by cancer survivors: a rapid review and synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, N; Scott, I; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Brearley, S; Hodges, L; Richardson, A; Sharpe, M; Stamataki, Z; Stark, D; Siller, C; Ziegler, L; Foster, C

    2013-10-01

    To establish what is known regarding the psychological and social problems faced by adult cancer survivors (people who are living with and beyond a diagnosis of cancer) and identify areas future research should address. A rapid search of published literature reviews held in electronic data bases was under taken. Inclusion and exclusion criteria, and removal of duplicated papers, reduced the initial number of papers from 4051 to 38. Twenty-two review papers were excluded on grounds of quality and 16 review papers were selected for appraisal. The psychological and social problems for cancer survivors are identified as depression, anxiety, distress, fear of recurrence, social support/function, relationships and impact on family, and quality of life. A substantial minority of people surviving cancer experience depression, anxiety, and distress or fear associated with recurrence or follow up. There is some indication that social support is positively associated with better outcomes. Quality of life for survivors of cancer appears generally good for most people, but an important minority experience a reduction in quality of life, especially those with more advanced disease and reduced social and economic resources. The majority of research knowledge is based on women with breast cancer. The longer term implications of cancer survival have not been adequately explored. Focussing well designed research in the identified areas where less is already known about the psychological and social impact of cancer survival is likely to have the greatest impact on the wellbeing of people surviving cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How credible are the study results? Evaluating and applying internal validity tools to literature-based assessments of environmental health hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Andrew A.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Jahnke, Gloria D.; Lam, Juleen; Morgan, Rebecca L.; Boyles, Abee L.; Ratcliffe, Jennifer M.; Kraft, Andrew D.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Schwingl, Pamela; Walker, Teneille D.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lunn, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health hazard assessments are routinely relied upon for public health decision-making. The evidence base used in these assessments is typically developed from a collection of diverse sources of information of varying quality. It is critical that literature-based evaluations consider the credibility of individual studies used to reach conclusions through consistent, transparent and accepted methods. Systematic review procedures address study credibility by assessing internal validity or “risk of bias” — the assessment of whether the design and conduct of a study compromised the credibility of the link between exposure/intervention and outcome. This paper describes the commonalities and differences in risk-of-bias methods developed or used by five groups that conduct or provide methodological input for performing environmental health hazard assessments: the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, the Navigation Guide, the National Toxicology Program’s (NTP) Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) and Office of the Report on Carcinogens (ORoC), and the Integrated Risk Information System of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-IRIS). Each of these groups have been developing and applying rigorous assessment methods for integrating across a heterogeneous collection of human and animal studies to inform conclusions on potential environmental health hazards. There is substantial consistency across the groups in the consideration of risk-of-bias issues or “domains” for assessing observational human studies. There is a similar overlap in terms of domains addressed for animal studies; however, the groups differ in the relative emphasis placed on different aspects of risk of bias. Future directions for the continued harmonization and improvement of these methods are also discussed. PMID:26857180

  17. ADAPTACIÓN Y VALIDACIÓN DE LA ESCALA DE CLIMA SOCIAL ESCOLAR (CES ( ADAPTATION AND VALIDATION TO THE SCALE OF SCHOOL SOCIAL CLIMATE (CES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Clavijo Magda Sofía

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El clima social escolar ha sido objeto de estudio de diversas disciplinas entre ellas: la sociología, psicología y pedagogía, dada su complejidad y multifactorialidad. El presente artículo aborda la adaptación y validación de la Escala de Clima Social Escolar (CES desarrollada originalmente por Moos & Trickett (1979, cuyo objetivo se orienta a la construcción de instrumentos fiables para el análisis de variables relacionadas con los procesos de formación en un escenario escolar. Se trata de un estudio psicométrico no experimental. La muestra la constituyen 204 estudiantes de los grados 6º, 7º, 8º, de dos Instituciones Educativas de la ciudad de Bogotá (una pública y una privada, con edades entre los 10 y 14 años. El proceso de validación se realiza mediante estudio piloto previo al diseño y análisis de reactivos cuidando aspectos semánticos y verbales y su valoración por criterio de jueces expertos. La confiabilidad se obtuvo a partir del modelo de las dos mitades, con la ecuación alternativa propuesta por Rulón alcanzando valores que oscilaron entre 0.8 y 1 para el conjunto de categorías; este índice se corrobora con el Alpha de Cronbach que alcanzó un valor de 0.9. El análisis de validez de contenido se realizó a través del criterio de siete jueces expertos, encontrándose un nivel de acuerdo inter jueces del 95% al ubicar los ítems en el dominio conceptual que les correspondía y los índices de concordancia de Kappa alcanzaron valores de 0.74.Abstract:The School social climate has been object study by various disciplines including: The sociology, psychology and pedagogy, given its complexity and multifactorial nature. This article discusses the adaptation and validation of School Social Climate Scale (CES originally developed by Moos & Trickett (1979, whose objective is oriented to the construction of reliable tools for the analysis of variables related with formation process in a school setting. This is

  18. The validity of self-reported cancer screening history and the role of social disadvantage in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha; Vahabi, Mandana; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-29

    Self-report may not be an accurate method of determining cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening rates due to recall, acquiescence and social desirability biases, particularly for certain sociodemographic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the validity of self-report of cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, both for people in the general population and for socially disadvantaged groups based on immigrant status, ethnicity, education, income, language ability, self-rated health, employment status, age category (for cervical cancer screening), and gender (for fecal occult blood testing). We linked multiple data sources for this study, including the Canadian Community Health Survey and provincial-level health databases. Using administrative data as our gold standard, we calculated validity measures for self-report (i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, positive and negative predictive values), calculated report-to-record ratios, and conducted a multivariable regression analysis to determine which characteristics were independently associated with over-reporting of screening. Specificity was less than 70% overall and for all subgroups for cervical and breast cancer screening, and sensitivity was lower than 80% overall and for all subgroups for fecal occult blood testing FOBT. Report-to-record ratios were persistently significantly greater than 1 across all cancer screening types, highest for the FOBT group: 1.246 [1.189-1.306]. Regression analyses showed no consistent patterns, but sociodemographic characteristics were associated with over-reporting for each screening type. We have found that in Ontario, as in other jurisdictions, there is a pervasive tendency for people to over-report their cancer screening histories. Sociodemographic status also appears to influence over-reporting. Public health practitioners and policymakers need to be aware of the limitations of self-report and adjust their methods

  19. R&D for computational cognitive and social models : foundations for model evaluation through verification and validation (final LDRD report).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepoy, Alexander; Mitchell, Scott A.; Backus, George A.; McNamara, Laura A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2008-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investing in projects that aim to develop computational modeling and simulation applications that explore human cognitive and social phenomena. While some of these modeling and simulation projects are explicitly research oriented, others are intended to support or provide insight for people involved in high consequence decision-making. This raises the issue of how to evaluate computational modeling and simulation applications in both research and applied settings where human behavior is the focus of the model: when is a simulation 'good enough' for the goals its designers want to achieve? In this report, we discuss two years' worth of review and assessment of the ASC program's approach to computational model verification and validation, uncertainty quantification, and decision making. We present a framework that extends the principles of the ASC approach into the area of computational social and cognitive modeling and simulation. In doing so, we argue that the potential for evaluation is a function of how the modeling and simulation software will be used in a particular setting. In making this argument, we move from strict, engineering and physics oriented approaches to V&V to a broader project of model evaluation, which asserts that the systematic, rigorous, and transparent accumulation of evidence about a model's performance under conditions of uncertainty is a reasonable and necessary goal for model evaluation, regardless of discipline. How to achieve the accumulation of evidence in areas outside physics and engineering is a significant research challenge, but one that requires addressing as modeling and simulation tools move out of research laboratories and into the hands of decision makers. This report provides an assessment of our thinking on ASC Verification and Validation, and argues for further extending V&V research in the physical and engineering sciences toward a broader program of model

  20. Improving social impact assessment of protected areas: A review of the literature and directions for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Nikoleta; McGinlay, James; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G.

    2017-01-01

    Protected areas are the most widely applied policy tool for biodiversity conservation. However, effective management of protected areas is often obstructed by conflicts mainly associated with the social impacts imposed on local communities and other users by their establishment. Despite the importance of these social impacts they remain significantly under-researched. There is now an increasing need to incorporate social impacts in decision making processes by providing accurate estimations and develop ways to forecast their change in the future. Considering the increase of studies identifying this need, the present paper aims to indicate three main directions that will assist in designing effective tools for measuring and most importantly understanding social impacts: a) perceptions on social impacts of individuals who are directly affected by protected areas need to be incorporated in management evaluation techniques in a meaningful and accurate way and be combined with objective measurements of impact; b) understanding the factors determining the actual and perceived levels of social impacts is a key step for the design of effective management frameworks of protected areas and c) social impacts should not be seen as static concepts but should be seen as a dynamic and long-term factor which needs to be incorporated in decision-making processes.

  1. Improving social impact assessment of protected areas: A review of the literature and directions for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Nikoleta, E-mail: nikoleta.jones@anglia.ac.uk [Global Sustainability Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); McGinlay, James, E-mail: jimmcginlay@hotmail.com [School of Water, Energy & Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom); Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G., E-mail: pdimi@env.aegean.gr [Biodiversity Conservation Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, 81100 Mytilene, Lesbos Island (Greece)

    2017-05-15

    Protected areas are the most widely applied policy tool for biodiversity conservation. However, effective management of protected areas is often obstructed by conflicts mainly associated with the social impacts imposed on local communities and other users by their establishment. Despite the importance of these social impacts they remain significantly under-researched. There is now an increasing need to incorporate social impacts in decision making processes by providing accurate estimations and develop ways to forecast their change in the future. Considering the increase of studies identifying this need, the present paper aims to indicate three main directions that will assist in designing effective tools for measuring and most importantly understanding social impacts: a) perceptions on social impacts of individuals who are directly affected by protected areas need to be incorporated in management evaluation techniques in a meaningful and accurate way and be combined with objective measurements of impact; b) understanding the factors determining the actual and perceived levels of social impacts is a key step for the design of effective management frameworks of protected areas and c) social impacts should not be seen as static concepts but should be seen as a dynamic and long-term factor which needs to be incorporated in decision-making processes.

  2. Concurrent and face validity of the MacArthur scale for assessing subjective social status: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Wasney de Almeida; Giatti, Luana; Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho de; Mello, Heliana Ribeiro de; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2018-04-01

    This work assessed the concurrent and face validity of the MacArthur scale, which attempts to capture subjective social status in society, neighborhood and work contexts. The study population comprised a convenience sample made up of 159 adult participants of the ELSA-Brasil cohort study conducted in Minas Gerais between 2012 and 2014. The analysis was conducted drawing on Conceptual Metaphor Theory and using corpus linguistic methods. Concurrent validity was shown to be moderate for the society ladder (Kappaw = 0.55) and good for the neighborhood (Kappaw = 0.60) and work (Kappaw = 0,67) ladders. Face validity indicated that the MacArthur scale really captures subjective social status across indicators of socioeconomic position, thus confirming that it is a valuable tool for the study of social inequalities in health Brazil.

  3. Neighbourhood social and built environment factors and falls in community-dwelling canadian older adults: A validation study and exploration of structural confounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Vafaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Older persons are vulnerable to the ill effects of their social and built environment due to age-related limitations in mobility and bio-psychological vulnerability. Falls are common in older adults and result from complex interactions between individual, social, and contextual determinants. We addressed two methodological issues of neighbourhood-health and social epidemiological studies in this analysis: (1 validity of measures of neighbourhood contexts, and (2 structural confounding resulting from social sorting mechanisms. Baseline data from International Mobility in Aging Study were used. Samples included community-dwelling Canadians older than 65 living in Kingston (Ontario and St-Hyacinthe (Quebec. We performed factor analysis and ecometric analysis to assess the validity of measures of neighbourhood social capital, socioeconomic status, and the built environment and stratified tabular analyses to explore structural confounding. The scales all demonstrated good psychometric and ecometric properties. There was an evidence of the existence of structural confounding in this sample of Canadian older adults as some combinations of strata for the three neighbourhood measures had no population. This limits causal inference in studying relationships between neighbourhood factors and falls and should be taken into account in aetiological aging research. Keywords: Ecometric analysis, Falls, Social and built environment, Neighbourhoods, Older adults, Social Capital, Structural confounding, Validity

  4. Validation of the Internet and Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire in Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Casas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es validar el Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con Internet (CERI con una muestra de 525 sujetos escolarizados en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO, a partir del cual se valora la posible adicción a Internet desde una dimensión intrapersonal e interpersonal. Además, se han relacionado las puntuaciones del CERI con variables como el sexo, la edad, así como la autoestima. Los resultados muestran un buen ajuste del cuestionario mediante un análisis factorial confirmatorio, donde el factor interpersonal explica un mayor porcentaje de la varianza en detrimento del factor intrapersonal. Existen diferencias significativas entre la puntuación del CERI y la edad, y tam-bién una relación lineal positiva entre la autoestima y la posible adicción interpersonal a Internet. Se discute la posible influencia en estos resultados del uso social de Internet y su generalización en la vida de los jóvenes, junto con la necesidad de diseñar e implementar programas de prevención para un uso saludable de la conexión a Internet. © 2012 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.

  5. Designing the Social Context for Easier Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification of Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkstrom, B. R.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification (VVUQ) are key actions that support conclusions based on Earth science data. Communities of data producers and users must undertake VVUQ when they create and use their data. The strategies [S] and tools [T] suggested below come from successful use on two large NASA projects. The first was the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The second is the investigation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). [S] 1. Partition the production system into subsystems that deal with data transformations confined to limited space and time scales. Simplify the subsystems to minimize the number of data transformations in each subsystem. [S] 2. Derive algorithms from the fundamental physics and chemistry governing the parameters in each subsystem including those for instrument calibration. [S] 3. Use preliminary uncertainty estimates to detect unexpected discrepancies. Removing these requires diagnostic work as well as development and testing of fixes. [S] 4. Make sure there are adequate resources to support multiple end-to-end reprocessing of all data products. [T] 1. Create file identifiers that accommodate temporal and spatial sequences of data files and subsystem version changes. [T] 2. Create libraries of parameters used in common by different subsystems to reduce errors due to inconsistent values. [T] 3. Maintain a list of action items to record progress on resolving discrepancies. [T] 4. Plan on VVUQ activities that use independent data sources and peer review before distributing and archiving data. The goal of VVUQ is to provide a transparent link between the data and the physics and chemistry governing the measured quantities. The VVUQ effort also involves specialized domain experience and nomenclature. It often requires as much effort as the original system development. ERBE and CERES demonstrated that these strategies and tools can reduce the cost of VVUQ for Earth science data products.

  6. Validation of operant social motivation paradigms using BTBR T+tf/J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Loren; Sample, Hannah; Gregg, Michael; Wood, Caleb

    2014-09-01

    As purported causal factors are identified for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), new assays are needed to better phenotype animal models designed to explore these factors. With recent evidence suggesting that deficits in social motivation are at the core of ASD behavior, the development of quantitative measures of social motivation is particularly important. The goal of our study was to develop and validate novel assays to quantitatively measure social motivation in mice. In order to test the validity of our paradigms, we compared the BTBR strain, with documented social deficits, to the prosocial C57BL/6J strain. Two novel conditioning paradigms were developed that allowed the test mouse to control access to a social partner. In the social motivation task, the test mice lever pressed for a social reward. The reward contingency was set on a progressive ratio of reinforcement and the number of lever presses achieved in the final trial of a testing session (breakpoint) was used as an index of social motivation. In the valence comparison task, motivation for a food reward was compared to a social reward. We also explored activity, social affiliation, and preference for social novelty through a series of tasks using an ANY-Maze video-tracking system in an open-field arena. BTBR mice had significantly lower breakpoints in the social motivation paradigm than C57BL/6J mice. However, the valence comparison task revealed that BTBR mice also made significantly fewer lever presses for a food reward. The results of the conditioning paradigms suggest that the BTBR strain has an overall deficit in motivated behavior. Furthermore, the results of the open-field observations may suggest that social differences in the BTBR strain are anxiety induced.

  7. Validation of operant social motivation paradigms using BTBR T+tf/J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Loren; Sample, Hannah; Gregg, Michael; Wood, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    Background As purported causal factors are identified for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), new assays are needed to better phenotype animal models designed to explore these factors. With recent evidence suggesting that deficits in social motivation are at the core of ASD behavior, the development of quantitative measures of social motivation is particularly important. The goal of our study was to develop and validate novel assays to quantitatively measure social motivation in mice. Methods In order to test the validity of our paradigms, we compared the BTBR strain, with documented social deficits, to the prosocial C57BL/6J strain. Two novel conditioning paradigms were developed that allowed the test mouse to control access to a social partner. In the social motivation task, the test mice lever pressed for a social reward. The reward contingency was set on a progressive ratio of reinforcement and the number of lever presses achieved in the final trial of a testing session (breakpoint) was used as an index of social motivation. In the valence comparison task, motivation for a food reward was compared to a social reward. We also explored activity, social affiliation, and preference for social novelty through a series of tasks using an ANY-Maze video-tracking system in an open-field arena. Results BTBR mice had significantly lower breakpoints in the social motivation paradigm than C57BL/6J mice. However, the valence comparison task revealed that BTBR mice also made significantly fewer lever presses for a food reward. Conclusions The results of the conditioning paradigms suggest that the BTBR strain has an overall deficit in motivated behavior. Furthermore, the results of the open-field observations may suggest that social differences in the BTBR strain are anxiety induced. PMID:25328850

  8. Official Position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology Social Security Administration Policy on Validity Testing: Guidance and Recommendations for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, M D; Williams, M A; Ben-Porath, Y S; Bianchini, K J; Boone, K B; Kirkwood, M W; Larrabee, G J; Ord, J S

    2015-01-01

    The milestone publication by Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) of criteria for determining malingered neurocognitive dysfunction led to extensive research on validity testing. Position statements by the National Academy of Neuropsychology and the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) recommended routine validity testing in neuropsychological evaluations. Despite this widespread scientific and professional support, the Social Security Administration (SSA) continued to discourage validity testing, a stance that led to a congressional initiative for SSA to reevaluate their position. In response, SSA commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to evaluate the science concerning the validation of psychological testing. The IOM concluded that validity assessment was necessary in psychological and neuropsychological examinations (IOM, 2015 ). The AACN sought to provide independent expert guidance and recommendations concerning the use of validity testing in disability determinations. A panel of contributors to the science of validity testing and its application to the disability process was charged with describing why the disability process for SSA needs improvement, and indicating the necessity for validity testing in disability exams. This work showed how the determination of malingering is a probability proposition, described how different types of validity tests are appropriate, provided evidence concerning non-credible findings in children and low-functioning individuals, and discussed the appropriate evaluation of pain disorders typically seen outside of mental consultations. A scientific plan for validity assessment that additionally protects test security is needed in disability determinations and in research on classification accuracy of disability decisions.

  9. Problems of the social non-acceptance of mining projects with particular emphasis on the European Union – a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badera Jarosław

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the social non-acceptance of the mining industry (particularly development projects is relatively new, so more widely discussed for a relatively short time. In this paper, an extensive review of worldwide literature on this topic has been presented with special regard to the specificity of the European Union countries, where the NIMBY (Not In My Backyard phenomenon is one of the key reasons for local community opposition. The problem is recognized mainly from the perspective of the mineral industry, but also from the point of view of government, NGOs or local communities. There are case studies, publications in the range of sustainable development, corporate social responsibility, geo-ethics, proposals for new analytical methods (for example multi-criteria and others or effective solutions. The improvement in social acceptance for the mineral industry may be achieved by further development of technological, organizational and scientific methods which minimizes mining influences on the environment and society developing. Modern approach to social issues associated with mineral activity includes also strategies of bilateral communication, mediation/negotiation, cooperation between stakeholders to a larger extent then in the past. However, it is the continuous need of extensive, in-depth social debate on mineral development projects in the European Union, both in energetic and non-energetic branch.

  10. An Overview of ICT Integration in Nigerian Colleges of Education and the Implications on Social Studies Pre-Service Teacher Training Programme: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani Alhaji Garba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of digital technology in society has made ICT literacy a basic requirement needed by all to survive the challenge of living in the 21st. The education industry is now faced with the challenge of helping learners to acquire this literacy. Coping with this challenge requires breeding teachers’ with high level of proficiency in ICT literacy and competence. This study investigates the readiness of Nigerian Colleges of Education toward breeding social studies teachers with ICT literacy and competence. It is an exploratory conceptual study that is literature-based (document-based qualitative study approach. The study therefore explore literature to find out the benefit of ICT integration in social studies teacher education; the preparedness of Nigerian Colleges of Education for ICT integration; and the implications of the current state of technology integration on social studies objectives. Findings from this study indicated that, Colleges of education in Nigeria are not readily prepared for effective technology integration; much is still needed in terms of infrastructure and manpower development.

  11. How do health behaviour interventions take account of social context? A literature trend and co-citation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Daniel; Lynch, Rebecca; Reeves, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, health behaviour interventions have received a great deal of attention in both research and policy as a means of encouraging people to lead healthier lives. The emphasis of such interventions has varied over time, in terms of level of intervention (e.g. individual vs community) and drawing on different disciplinary perspectives. Recently, a number of critiques have focused on how health behaviour interventions sometimes sideline issues of social context, framing health as a matter of individual choice and, by implication, a personal responsibility. Part of this criticism is that health behaviour interventions often do not draw on alternative social science understandings of the structured and contextual aspects of behaviour and health. Yet to our knowledge, no study has attempted to empirically assess the extent to which, and in what ways, the health behaviour intervention field has paid attention to social context. In this article, we undertake this task using bibliometric techniques in order to map out the health behaviour intervention field. We find that the number of health behaviour interventions has grown rapidly in recent years, especially since around 2006, and that references to social science disciplines and concepts that foreground issues of social context are rare and, relatively speaking, constitute less of the field post 2006. More quantifiable concepts are used most, and those more close to the complexities of social context are mentioned least. The document co-citation analysis suggests that pre 2006, documents referring to social context were relatively diffuse in the network of key citations, but post 2006 this influence had largely diminished. The journal co-citation analysis shows less disciplinary overlap post 2006. At present, health behaviour interventions are continuing to focus on individualised approaches drawn from behavioural psychology and behavioural economics. Our findings lend empirical support to a number of recent

  12. Validation of the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition in Adolescents with ASD: Fixation Duration and Pupil Dilation as Predictors of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nico; Baumeister, Sarah; Dziobek, Isabel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Poustka, Luise

    2016-09-01

    Impaired social cognition is one of the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Appropriate measures of social cognition for high-functioning adolescents with ASD are, however, lacking. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) uses dynamic social stimuli, ensuring ecological validity, and has proven to be a sensitive measure in adulthood. In the current study, 33 adolescents with ASD and 23 controls were administered the MASC, while concurrent eye tracking was used to relate gaze behavior to performance levels. The ASD group exhibited reduced MASC scores, with social cognition performance being explained by shorter fixation duration on eyes and decreased pupil dilation. These potential diagnostic markers are discussed as indicators of different processing of social information in ASD.

  13. Validation of French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire among young Swiss males, and its relationship with substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Studer, Joseph; Henchoz, Yves; Deline, Stéphane; Baggio, Stéphanie; N'Goran, Alexandra; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    This study main purpose was the validation of both French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire. The sample group comprised 5065 Swiss men from the "Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors." Multigroup Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well, which substantiates the generalizability of Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire factor structure, regardless of the language. The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire demonstrated excellent homogeneity (α = 95) and split-half reliability (r = .96). The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire was sensitive to community size and participants' financial situation, confirming that it also measures real social conditions. Finally, weak but frequent correlations between Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire and alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis dependence were measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Zulliger e habilidade social: evidências de validade no contexto empresarial Zulliger and social skills: validity evidences in business context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Bier Di Domenico Grazziotin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar evidências de validade do Zulliger no Sistema Compreensivo ZSC, focalizando a variável relacionamento, em correlação ao Inventário de Habilidades Sociais IHS. Participaram 19 sujeitos, entre 18 e 43 anos, de uma loja de supermercado. Nos indicadores, destacam-se as correlações das variáveis GHR, H, GPHR, Sum H do ZSC com os fatores GIHS, F3 e F1 do IHS, e variáveis AG, PHR, Sum T com os fatores GIHS e F5. Os resultados contribuíram para asseverar a validade do Zulliger no âmbito empresarial, e comprovaram a presença de um bom relacionamento interpessoal entre os profissionais que trabalham no atendimento ao público, confirmando as expectativas do estudo.The aim of this study was to verify the validity evidence of Zulliger Comprehensive System ZSC focusing the variable `relationship' in correlation to the Social Skills Inventory. Nineteen supermarket workers, aged between 18 and 43 years old, participated in the study. The indicators include the correlations of variables GHR, H, GPHR; Sum H of ZSC with the factors GIHS, F3 and F1 of HIS; and variables AG, PHR, Sum T with the factors GIHS and F5.The results contributed to certify the validity of Zulliger in the business field and prove the presence of good interpersonal relationships among professionals who work with the public, confirming the assumptions of the study.

  15. Validation of a Social Networks and Support Measurement Tool for Use in International Aging Research: The International Mobility in Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tamer; Belanger, Emmanuelle; Vafaei, Afshin; Koné, Georges K; Alvarado, Beatriz; Béland, François; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new instrument to assess social networks and social support (IMIAS-SNSS) for different types of social ties in an international sample of older adults. The study sample included n = 1995 community dwelling older people aged between 65 and 74 years from the baseline of the longitudinal International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). In order to measure social networks for each type of social tie, participants were asked about the number of contacts, the number of contacts they see at least once a month or have a very good relationship with, or speak with at least once a month. For social support, participants had to rate the level of social support provided by the four types of contacts for five Likert scale items. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted to determine the goodness of fit of the measurement models. Satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices confirmed the satisfactory factorial structure of the IMIAS-SNSS instrument. Reliability coefficients were 0.80, 0.81, 0.85, and 0.88 for friends, children, family, and partner models, respectively. The models were confirmed by CFA for each type of social tie. Moreover, IMIAS-SNSS detected gender differences in the older adult populations of IMIAS. These results provide evidence supporting that IMIAS-SNSS is a psychometrically sound instrument and of its validity and reliability for international populations of older adults.

  16. Cross- cultural validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN): study of the items and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to carry out the cross- cultural validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Social Phobia Inventory, an instrument for the evaluation of fear, avoidance and physiological symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. The process of translation and adaptation involved four bilingual professionals, appreciation and approval of the back- translation by the authors of the original scale, a pilot study with 30 Brazilian university students, and appreciation by raters who confirmed the face validity of the Portuguese version, which was named ' Inventário de Fobia Social' . As part of the psychometric study of the Social Phobia Inventory, analysis of the items and evaluation of the internal consistency of the instrument were performed in a study conducted on 2314 university students. The results demonstrated that item 11, related to the fear of public speaking, was the most frequently scored item. The correlation of the items with the total score was quite adequate, ranging from 0.44 to 0.71, as was the internal consistency, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. The authors conclude that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory proved to be adequate regarding the psychometric properties initially studied, with qualities quite close to those of the original study. Studies that will evaluate the remaining indicators of validity of the Social Phobia Inventory in clinical and non-clinical samples are considered to be opportune and necessary.

  17. What Social Impact Does Exposure to Domestic Violence Have on Adolescent Males? A Systemic Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Icheku, V; Graham, R

    2017-01-01

    Domestic violence is widespread in the United Kingdom (UK) and accounts for 14 per cent of all violent crimes. It is a significant health concern, as it damages physical and emotional health and can have long lasting negative impact across a wide range of health, social and economic outcomes for families as well as having a major impact on the social development of young people. A recent report shows that in 2002 there were 750,000 children in Britain estimated to have witnessed domestic viol...

  18. Social autopsy for maternal and child deaths: a comprehensive literature review to examine the concept and the development of the method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Alain K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Social autopsy" refers to an interview process aimed at identifying social, behavioral, and health systems contributors to maternal and child deaths. It is often combined with a verbal autopsy interview to establish the biological cause of death. Two complementary purposes of social autopsy include providing population-level data to health care programmers and policymakers to utilize in developing more effective strategies for delivering maternal and child health care technologies, and increasing awareness of maternal and child death as preventable problems in order to empower communities to participate and engage health programs to increase their responsiveness and accountability. Through a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the concept and development of social autopsy, focusing on the contributions of the Pathway Analysis format for child deaths and the Maternal and Perinatal Death Inquiry and Response program in India to social autopsy's success in meeting key objectives. The Pathway Analysis social autopsy format, based on the Pathway to Survival model designed to support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach, was developed from 1995 to 2001 and has been utilized in studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Adoption of the Pathway model has enriched the data gathered on care seeking for child illnesses and supported the development of demand- and supply-side interventions. The instrument has recently been updated to improve the assessment of neonatal deaths and is soon to be utilized in large-scale population-representative verbal/social autopsy studies in several African countries. Maternal death audit, starting with confidential inquiries into maternal deaths in Britain more than 50 years ago, is a long-accepted strategy for reducing maternal mortality. More recently, maternal social autopsy studies that supported health programming have been conducted in several developing countries

  19. STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking Africa: a review of the recent literature in the social sciences and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Simone

    2009-03-01

    The article reviews academic literature in the social sciences and health on the problems and challenges of STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries. Based on a bibliographic survey of the SciELO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts databases between 1997 and 2007, the research under review was organized into two groups, according to content. The first group of studies sought to understand STD/AIDS vulnerability among social groups by examining local cultural and socioeconomic factors as related to gender dynamics, sexuality, color/race, religion and health care. The second group encompassed critical assessments of shortcomings in the STD/AIDS educational messages delivered by governments and international agencies. Attention is called to the way in which the presence of traditional medicine systems and the occurrence of civil wars in the post-colonial period impact the STD/AIDS epidemic in the African countries under study.

  20. Social identities and racial integration in historically white universities: A literature review of the experiences of black students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandiso Bazana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available South African government has been promulgating pieces of legislation aimed at ensuring racial integration, especially in higher education, and indirectly enforcing acculturation in historically white universities. Studies have proven that institutional cultures in historically white universities alienate and exclude black students’ identities. These students’ sense of social identity, which includes culture, heritage, language and traditions, and consequently self-esteem and self-concept, is altered in these institutions. Research has been scant regarding the shape and form that black students’ identity assumes when they get to these spaces. Using Tajfel and Turner’s (1979 social identity theory and Berry’s (2005 theory of acculturation, this article explores the experiences of black students in negotiating their social identities in historically white universities. Evoking Steve Biko’s analysis of ‘artificial integration’ (1986, we hope to illustrate how the ‘integration’ narrative sought to discard the identity of black students and psychologically enforce a simulation of black students into white-established identities. The study has implications for policy development as we hope to sensitise theoretically the historically white universities to, apart from mere opening of spaces of learning, understand the social identity challenges of black students in these institutions.

  1. Transnational vs. domestic immigrant entrepreneurs: a comparative literature analysis of the use of personal skills and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solano, G.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are analyzing the roles of personal skills and social contacts in transnational immigrant entrepreneurship. However, whether the findings from extant research on immigrant entrepreneurs with a transnational business (TIEs) are peculiar to this particular group or

  2. Social and Language Skills as Predictors of Bullying Roles in Early Childhood: A Narrative Summary of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Mulvey, Nichole; Floress, Margaret T.

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence that aggressive, victim, and prosocial behaviors exist among preschool children, preschool bullying has received much less attention than school- age bullying from researchers and practitioners. Preschool is an important environment for examining social behaviors because, for many children, it is the first formal context for…

  3. The SPAI-18, a brief version of the social phobia and anxiety inventory: reliability and validity in clinically referred and non-referred samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Voncken, Marisol J; Beidel, Deborah C; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-03-01

    We developed a new version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) in order to have a brief instrument for measuring social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD) with a strong conceptual foundation. In the construction phase, a set of items representing 5 core aspects of social anxiety was selected by a panel of social anxiety experts. The selected item pool was validated using factor analysis, reliability analysis, and diagnostic analysis in a sample of healthy participants (N = 188) and a sample of clinically referred participants diagnosed with SAD (N = 98). This procedure resulted in an abbreviated version of the Social Phobia Subscale of the SPAI consisting of 18 items (i.e. the SPAI-18), which correlated strongly with the Social Phobia Subscale of the original SPAI (both groups r = .98). Internal consistency and diagnostic characteristics using a clinical cut-off score > 48 were good to excellent (Cronbach's alpha healthy group = .93; patient group = .91; sensitivity: .94; specificity: .88). The SPAI-18 was further validated in a community sample of parents-to-be without SAD (N = 237) and with SAD (N = 65). Internal consistency was again excellent (both groups Cronbach's alpha = .93) and a screening cut-off of > 36 proved to result in good sensitivity and specificity. The SPAI-18 also correlated strongly with other social anxiety instruments, supporting convergent validity. In sum, the SPAI-18 is a psychometrically sound instrument with good screening capacity for social anxiety disorder in clinical as well as community samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students in Southwest Nigeria: validation of a 5-item gender scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekitan, Afe Taiwo; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Osalusi, Bamidele; Adeleye, Olufunke; Ale, Ayotunde

    2017-08-29

    Our study focused on the perception of victims of rape and the relationship with the perception of social roles for gender among college students in southwest Nigeria using a 5-item gender social scale and a perception of victims of rape questionnaire. The study was done among 312 college students in Southwest Nigeria and explored the perception of victims of rape and gender social roles. The aim was to determine the relationship between perception of rape victims and view of gender social roles. We used a perception of rape victims questionnaire and a validated 5-item gender social roles scale to assess the views of participants. The findings revealed that females had better perception of victims of rape than males. Females also had more positive views of females' social roles involving gender. However, there was poor perception on work-related social roles and the traditional concept of headship in the varied situations described on the 5-item gender social scale. Old stereotypes of typically blaming victims of rape were not common beliefs among college students. There were no significant correlations between perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students. Seemingly, the perception of victims of rape does not have a significant relationship with the concept of gender social roles.

  5. Development and preliminary validation of an Observation List for detecting mental disorders and social Problems in the elderly in primary and home care (OLP).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.C.P.M.; Hespen, A.T.H. van; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Eekhof, J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Even though the prevalence of mental disorders and social problems is high among elderly patients, it is difficult to detect these in a primary (home) care setting. Goal was the development and preliminary validation of a short observation list to detect six problem areas: anxiety,

  6. Development and preliminary validation of an Observation List for detecting mental disorders and social Problems in the elderly in primary and home care (OLP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.C.P.M.; Hespen, A.T.H. van; Verhaal, P.F.M.; Eekhof, J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Even though the prevalence of mental disorders and social problems is high among elderly patients, it is difficult to detect these in a primary (home) care setting. Goal was the development and preliminary validation of a short observation list to detect six problem areas: anxiety,

  7. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During…

  8. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats’ Socialization Level in the Cat’s Normal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Slater

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stray cats routinely enter animal welfare organizations each year and shelters are challenged with determining the level of human socialization these cats may possess as quickly as possible. However, there is currently no standard process to guide this determination. This study describes the development and validation of a caregiver survey designed to be filled out by a cat’s caregiver so it accurately describes a cat’s personality, background, and full range of behavior with people when in its normal environment. The results from this survey provided the basis for a socialization score that ranged from unsocialized to well socialized with people. The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity. In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211–0.957 and test-retest agreement (median 0.92, range 0.211–0.999. Cronbach’s alpha showed high internal consistency (0.962. Estimates of validity did not highlight any major shortcomings. This survey will be used to develop and validate an effective assessment process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels towards humans based on direct observation of cats’ behavior in an animal shelter.

  9. Evaluation of the Criterion and Convergent Validity of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in Young and Low-Functioning Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…

  10. The Analysis and Clustering of Navy Ratings Based on Social Interaction Characteristics: A Literature Review and Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    frequency of contact, identity of the initiator of the interaction (Eisenberg, Monge, & Farace , 1984) or the use of various strategies, such as...But most important are the cues the physical environment gives about the social environment (Thomas & Griffin, 1983; Zalesny, Farace , & Kurchner...and Ghana. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 15(4), 477-4 5. Eisenberg, E. M., Monge, P. R., Farace , R. V. (1984). Coorientation on communication

  11. Validity and consistency analysis of a social transformation scale for the impact evaluation of the ViraVida program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Campos Crivelaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to estimates by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF, about one million children worldwide are directly affected by sexual violence and nearly a third of all cases occur in Brazil. The Program ViraVida acts to reduce the problem in the country, rescuing teenagers and youngsters in this situation, providing psychological, educational, and vocational assistance, including support for monitoring the placement and labor market. In this context, the main goal of the study is to analyze the validity and consistency of the Social Transformation Scale of the ViraVida Program. The study represents the second stage of the impact evaluation of the Program to measure possible impacts to strengthen employability, autonomy, self-esteem, community and family ties of young people from 16 to 24 years in situation of sexual exploitation. The methodology is based on the Factor Analysis procedures, including a verification of internal consistency of the full scale and their specific domains. Both proved to be consistent with Cronbach’s Alpha greater than 0.7. The results provide security for the performance of the later stage due to the ViraVida evaluation: evaluative research on adolescents and youngsters in the 11 states and 14 cities where ViraVida is ongoing.

  12. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Gholizadeh, Shadi; Fox, Rina S; Jewett, Lisa R; Gottesman, Karen; Roesch, Scott C; Thombs, Brett D; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2018-01-17

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that can cause disfiguring changes in appearance. This study examined the structural validity, internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and measurement equivalence of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) across SSc disease subtypes. Patients enrolled in the Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network Cohort completed the SAAS and measures of appearance-related concerns and psychological distress. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the structural validity of the SAAS. Multiple-group CFA was used to determine if SAAS scores can be compared across patients with limited and diffuse disease subtypes. Cronbach's alpha was used to examine internal consistency reliability. Correlations of SAAS scores with measures of body image dissatisfaction, fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety, and depression were used to examine convergent validity. SAAS scores were hypothesized to be positively associated with all convergent validity measures, with correlations significant and moderate to large in size. A total of 938 patients with SSc were included. CFA supported a one-factor structure (CFI: .92; SRMR: .04; RMSEA: .08), and multiple-group CFA indicated that the scalar invariance model best fit the data. Internal consistency reliability was good in the total sample (α = .96) and in disease subgroups. Overall, evidence of convergent validity was found with measures of body image dissatisfaction, fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety, and depression. The SAAS can be reliably and validly used to assess fear of appearance evaluation in patients with SSc, and SAAS scores can be meaningfully compared across disease subtypes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Do we all agree on how to measure work engagement? Factorial validity of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale as a standard measurement tool – A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad Kulikowski

    2017-01-01

    Work engagement as a predictor of health is an emerging concept in occupational science and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) is the most popular work engagement measurement tool. However, despite its popularity, the UWES is not free from controversy concerning its factorial validity. In this paper, 21 research studies on both UWES-9 and UWES-17 factorial validity within the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach have been reviewed in order to answer the question as to which of th...

  14. Apoio social: aspectos da validade de constructo em estudantes universitários Apoyo social: aspectos de la validez del constructo en estudiantes universitarios Social support: validity aspects of the construct in under graduation student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sacramento Zanini

    2009-03-01

    ,00 y afectivo (p=0,03. Se discute la necesidad de nuevos estudios para posteriores esclarecimientos del comportamiento de esta medida y constructo en distintas poblaciones y culturas.Although the concept of social support has received attention of the scientific community, there is not a valid measure for different cultures and contexts. The aim of this article is to replicate a social support scale in undergraduate students from Goiânia. The participants were 129 university students accessed in four high education institutions in Goiânia. As measure, the Social Support Questionnaire adapted to the Brazilian population was used. The results point to a good adaptation of the scales with alphas between 0.95 e 0.76, and factorial structure suited when compared to the original study. Significant differences between social support and the majority of socio demographic variables were not found. However, women refer more to material support (p=0,01 and affective (p=0,01 than men, and the ones who refer living with someone appraise more emotional support (p=0,00 and affective (p=0,03. It is discussed the necessity of new studies for latter subsequent explanation of the behavior of the measure and construct in different populations and cultures.

  15. Further development and validation of the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS) scales: relationship to anxiety and social phobia among adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Lisa; Menzies, Ross; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In an initial validation study, the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS I) scale, demonstrated excellent psychometric properties as a self-report measure of the frequency of unhelpful cognitions associated with social anxiety for adults who stutter. The aim was to further validate the original UTBAS I scale, and to develop two additional scales to assess beliefs (UTBAS II) and anxiety (UTBAS III) associated with negative thoughts. A total of 140 adults seeking speech-restructuring treatment for stuttering completed the original UTBAS I scale, the newly developed UTBAS II and III scales, and self-report measures of psychological functioning. Participants also completed a first-stage screener for the presence of anxious personality disorder, and a diagnostic assessment to evaluate the presence of social phobia, according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The mean UTBAS I score for the present sample did not differ significantly from the mean score reported in the original UTBAS I validation study. Convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the UTBAS Total score and all anxiety-related measures. Discriminant validity was established by the absence of strong correlations between the UTBAS Total score and some of the self-report measures of unrelated constructs, although it was found to tap into the negative cognitions associated with depression and life problems. Approximately one-quarter of participants met criteria for a diagnosis of DSM-IV or ICD-10 social phobia (23.5% and 27.2% respectively), and nearly one-third met first-stage screening criteria for anxious personality disorder (30%). The mean UTBAS scores for participants who met criteria for these disorders were significantly higher than scores for participants who did not, confirming known-groups validity. The present study demonstrates the validity and

  16. 国内社会性交互研究文献综述%The Literature Review of Social Interaction Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良; 乔海英

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning is the core of distance education and social interaction is the most important component of distance learning, which not only can facilitate learners'knowledge construction, but also is a vital method of online teaching. This paper concludes the achievements and existing problems of social interaction in three aspects, namely student -student interaction, teacherstudent interaction and interaction strategies, and provides some re- search suggestions in the above three aspects based on the literature review of the related domestic research in social interaction in the last ten years.%远程教育的核心是远程学习,社会性交互是远程学习的重要组成部分,它不但可以促进学习者知识的建构,也是教师开展网上教学的重要手段。回顾近十年来国内社会性交互的相关研究,对社会性交互研究在生生交互、师生交互以及交互策略三方面取得的成果进行了总结,分析目前国内社会性交互存在的问题,同时指出了每个方面研究的具体方向。

  17. The impact of health education transmitted via social media or text messaging on adolescent and young adult risky sexual behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista; Eathington, Patricia; Baldwin, Kathleen; Sipsma, Heather

    2014-07-01

    Despite the increased use of social media and text messaging among adolescents, it is unclear how effective education transmitted via these mechanisms is for reducing sexual risk behavior. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the effectiveness of social media and text messaging interventions designed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) knowledge, increase screening/testing, decrease risky sexual behaviors, and reduce the incidence of STDs among young adults aged 15 through 24 years. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies used a control group to explore intervention effects and included both young men and women. Sample sizes ranged from 32 to 7606 participants, and follow-up periods ranged between 4 weeks and 12 months. These studies provide preliminary evidence indicating that social media and text messaging can increase knowledge regarding the prevention of STDs. These interventions may also affect behavior, such as screening/testing for STDs, sexual risk behaviors, and STD acquisition, but the evidence for effect is weak. Many of these studies had several limitations that future research should address, including a reliance on self-reported data, small sample sizes, poor retention, low generalizability, and low analytic rigor. Additional research is needed to determine the most effective and engaging approaches for young men and women.

  18. Predictors and Social Consequences of Online Interactive Self-Disclosure: A Literature Review from 2002 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Malinda; Gilmour, Jillian; Sinclair, Jasmine; Howell, Kaitlyn B; West, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Computer-mediated communication has become ubiquitous in the lives of today's youth. The current review synthesizes recent findings regarding adolescents' and young adults' online interactive self-disclosure, with a particular emphasis on the direct antecedents and effects. Three broad categories of predictors are discussed, including demographic information and internal states, dispositional factors, as well as contextual factors. In addition, the synthesis of studies exploring consequences of online interactive self-disclosure indicates positive outcomes for social-related constructs. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, including the analysis of actual computer-mediated exchanges and longitudinal research that takes into account the dynamic process of self-disclosure over time and across media.

  19. Social acceptance of CO{sub 2} storage: Review of case studies and literature review; Aceptabilidad Social del Almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}: Revision de Estudios de Caso y Revision de la Literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R; Oltra, C; Sala, R; Di Masso, M

    2009-12-19

    Stake holder and public acceptance of CCS will play an important role in the efficient technology development. Together with socio-political acceptance, local acceptance could raise significant challenges to CCS deployment. The objective of the present work is to analyse the social acceptance of CO{sub 2} storage. First, we review the social science literature on local reactions and acceptance of risk technology projects. Lessons learned during these last decades around possible local reactions to risk technology facilities could help in the design of communication strategies for the context of CO{sub 2} storage. Second, we review different case studies of European CCS projects in which some strategy of public information, communication or engagement has been initiated from the promoters of the project. (Author) 26 refs.

  20. Do we all agree on how to measure work engagement? Factorial validity of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale as a standard measurement tool - A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Konrad

    2017-03-30

    Work engagement as a predictor of health is an emerging concept in occupational science and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) is the most popular work engagement measurement tool. However, despite its popularity, the UWES is not free from controversy concerning its factorial validity. In this paper, 21 research studies on both UWES-9 and UWES-17 factorial validity within the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach have been reviewed in order to answer the question as to which of the UWES factorial structures displays greater validity. The originally proposed threefactor structure of the UWES has been recognized as superior in 6 studies. In further 6 studies, the UWES structure with 1 general factor has been found to be superior. In 8 studies, the authors have concluded that the one- and three-factor structures could be considered equivalent. One study has failed to confirm either the one- or three-factor structure of the UWES. These ambiguous results from studies focusing on the UWES factorial validity are puzzling because they not only indicate a lack of validity for the UWES as a measurement tool but might also challenge the whole concept of work engagement as a three-factor structure of dedication, vigor and absorption. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(2):161-175. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Do we all agree on how to measure work engagement? Factorial validity of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale as a standard measurement tool – A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kulikowski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Work engagement as a predictor of health is an emerging concept in occupational science and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES is the most popular work engagement measurement tool. However, despite its popularity, the UWES is not free from controversy concerning its factorial validity. In this paper, 21 research studies on both UWES-9 and UWES-17 factorial validity within the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA approach have been reviewed in order to answer the question as to which of the UWES factorial structures displays greater validity. The originally proposed threefactor structure of the UWES has been recognized as superior in 6 studies. In further 6 studies, the UWES structure with 1 general factor has been found to be superior. In 8 studies, the authors have concluded that the one- and three-factor structures could be considered equivalent. One study has failed to confirm either the one- or three-factor structure of the UWES. These ambiguous results from studies focusing on the UWES factorial validity are puzzling because they not only indicate a lack of validity for the UWES as a measurement tool but might also challenge the whole concept of work engagement as a three-factor structure of dedication, vigor and absorption. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(2:161–175

  2. Reliability and validity in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannigan, Katrina; Watson, Roger

    2009-12-01

    To explore and explain the different concepts of reliability and validity as they are related to measurement instruments in social science and health care. There are different concepts contained in the terms reliability and validity and these are often explained poorly and there is often confusion between them. To develop some clarity about reliability and validity a conceptual framework was built based on the existing literature. The concepts of reliability, validity and utility are explored and explained. Reliability contains the concepts of internal consistency and stability and equivalence. Validity contains the concepts of content, face, criterion, concurrent, predictive, construct, convergent (and divergent), factorial and discriminant. In addition, for clinical practice and research, it is essential to establish the utility of a measurement instrument. To use measurement instruments appropriately in clinical practice, the extent to which they are reliable, valid and usable must be established.

  3. Social Health Inequalities and eHealth: A Literature Review With Qualitative Synthesis of Theoretical and Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Karine; Hamel, Christine; Giroux, Dominique

    2017-04-27

    eHealth is developing rapidly and brings with it a promise to reduce social health inequalities (SHIs). Yet, it appears that it also has the potential to increase them. The general objective of this review was to set out how to ensure that eHealth contributes to reducing SHIs rather than exacerbating them. This review has three objectives: (1) identifying characteristics of people at risk of experiencing social inequality in health; (2) determining the possibilities of developing eHealth tools that avoid increasing SHI; and (3) modeling the process of using an eHealth tool by people vulnerable to SHI. Following the EPPI approach (Evidence for Policy and Practice of Information of the Institute of Education at the University of London), two databases were searched for the terms SHIs and eHealth and their derivatives in titles and abstracts. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed articles were included and evaluated. The software NVivo (QSR International) was employed to extract the data and allow for a metasynthesis of the data. Of the 73 articles retained, 10 were theoretical, 7 were from reviews, and 56 were based on empirical studies. Of the latter, 40 used a quantitative approach, 8 used a qualitative approach, 4 used mixed methods approach, and only 4 were based on participatory research-action approach. The digital divide in eHealth is a serious barrier and contributes greatly to SHI. Ethnicity and low income are the most commonly used characteristics to identify people at risk of SHI. The most promising actions for reducing SHI via eHealth are to aim for universal access to the tool of eHealth, become aware of users' literacy level, create eHealth tools that respect the cultural attributes of future users, and encourage the participation of people at risk of SHI. eHealth has the potential to widen the gulf between those at risk of SHI and the rest of the population. The widespread expansion of eHealth technologies calls for rigorous consideration of

  4. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats’ Socialization Level in the Cat’s Normal Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Many animal welfare organizations accept cats with no known behavioral history. It can be difficult to differentiate between a frightened but well-socialized cat and an unsocialized cat in an animal shelter environment. Making this distinction can save lives, yet currently there is no valid tool. Here we measured the quality of a survey designed to determine socialization level using information from the cat’s caregiver about a cat’s usual behavior around people in the cat’s no...

  5. Validating a Culturally-Sensitive Social Competence Training Programme for Adolescents with ASD in a Chinese Context: An Initial Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond Won Shing; Leung, Cecilia Nga Wing; Ng, Denise Ching Yiu; Yau, Sania Sau Wai

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies on social skills training on ASD were done almost exclusively in the West with children as the main subjects. Demonstrations of the applicability of social interventions in different cultures and age groups are warranted. The current study outlined the development and preliminary evaluation of a CBT-context-based social competence…

  6. Validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey for Five Sociocultural Groups: Multigroup Invariance and Latent Mean Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael; Felix, Erika; O'Malley, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional health influences youth developmental trajectories and there is growing interest among educators to measure the social-emotional health of the students they serve. This study replicated the psychometric characteristics of the Social Emotional Health Survey (SEHS) with a diverse sample of high school students (Grades 9-12; N =…

  7. Association between perceived social stigma against mental disorders and use of health services for psychological distress symptoms in the older adult population: validity of the STIG scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2015-01-01

    To document the reliability, construct and nomological validity of the perceived Social Stigmatisation (STIG) scale in the older adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Primary medical health services clinics. Probabilistic sample of older adults aged 65 years and over waiting for medical services in the general medical sector (n = 1765). Perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem was measured using the STIG scale composed of seven indicators. A second-order measurement model of perceived social stigma fitted adequately the observed data. The reliability of the STIG scale was 0.83. According to our results, 39.6% of older adults had a significant level of perceived social stigma against people with a mental health problem. RESULTS showed that the perception of social stigma against mental health problems was not significantly associated with a respondent gender and age. RESULTS also showed that the perception of social stigma against the mental health problems was directly associated with the respondents' need for improved mental health (b = -0.10) and indirectly associated with their use of primary medical health services for psychological distress symptoms (b = -0.07). RESULTS lead us to conclude that social stigma against mental disorders perceived by older adults may limit help-seeking behaviours and warrants greater public health and public policy attention. Also, results lead us to conclude that physicians should pay greater attention to their patients' attitudes against mental disorders in order to identify possible hidden mental health problems.

  8. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to Treat Social Anxiety Disorder: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Flávia; Baczynski, Tathiana; Novaes, Felipe; Marinho, Tamires; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Sack, Alexander T.; Huston, Joseph P.; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Carta, Mauro; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Machado, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and debilitating anxiety disorders. However, few studies had been dedicated to the neurobiology underlying SAD until the last decade. Rates of non-responders to standard methods of treatment remain unsatisfactorily high of approximately 25%, including SAD. Advances in our understanding of SAD could lead to new treatment strategies. A potential non invasive therapeutic option is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Thus, we reported two cases of SAD treated with rTMS Methods: The bibliographical search used Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo databases. The terms chosen for the search were: anxiety disorders, neuroimaging, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results: In most of the studies conducted on anxiety disorders, except SAD, the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), more specifically dorsolateral PFC was stimulated, with marked results when applying high-rTMS compared with studies stimulating the opposite side. However, according to the “valence hypothesis”, anxiety disorders might be characterized by an interhemispheric imbalance associated with increased right-hemispheric activity. With regard to the two cases treated with rTMS, we found a decrease in BDI, BAI and LSAS scores from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the application of low-rTMS over the right medial PFC (mPFC; the main structure involved in SAD circuitry) combined with high-rTMS over the left mPFC, for at least 4 weeks on consecutive weekdays, may induce a balance in brain activity, opening an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of SAD. PMID:24278088

  9. Why we still don't understand the social aspects of wind power: A critique of key assumptions within the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, Mhairi

    2010-01-01

    The literature on public attitudes to wind power is underpinned by key assumptions which limit its scope and restrict the findings it can present. Five key assumptions are that: (1) The majority of the public supports wind power. (2) Opposition to wind power is therefore deviant. (3) Opponents are ignorant or misinformed. (4) The reason for understanding opposition is to overcome it. (5) Trust is key. The paper calls for critical reflection on each of these assumptions. It should not be assumed that opposition to wind power is deviant/illegitimate. Opposition cannot be dismissed as ignorant or misinformed instead it must be acknowledged that objectors are often very knowledgeable. Public attitudes and responses to wind power should not be examined in order to mitigate potential future opposition, but rather in order to understand the social context of renewable energy. Trust is identified as a key issue, however greater trust must be placed in members of the public and in their knowledge. In sum, the literature must abandon the assumption that it knows who is 'right' and instead must engage with the possibility that objectors to wind power are not always 'wrong'.

  10. Factorial Validity of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) in Clinical Samples: A Critical Examination of the Literature and a Psychometric Study in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra; Guerra, Marina P; Miller, Kylee; Costa, Patrício; Cruz, Inês; Vieira, Filipa M; Brandão, Isabel; Roma-Torres, António; Rocha, Magda

    2018-03-30

    There is extensive use of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) in research and clinical practice in anorexia nervosa (AN), though it is not empirically established in this population. This study aims to examine the factorial validity of the TAS-20 in a Portuguese AN sample (N = 125), testing four different models (ranging from 1 to 4 factors) that were identified in critical examination of existing factor analytic studies. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) suggested that the three-factor solution, measuring difficulty identifying (DIF) and describing feelings (DDF), and externally oriented thinking (EOT), was the best fitting model. The quality of measurement improves if two EOT items (16 and 18) are eliminated. Internal consistency of EOT was low and decreased with age. The results provide support for the factorial validity of the TAS-20 in AN. Nevertheless, the measurement of EOT requires some caution and may be problematic in AN adolescents.

  11. The Social Interaction Phobia Scale: Continued support for the psychometric validity of the SIPS using clinical and non-clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menatti, Alison R; Weeks, Justin W; Carleton, R Nicholas; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G; Hope, Debra A; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    The present study sought to extend findings supporting the psychometric validity of a promising measure of social anxiety (SA) symptoms, the Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009). Analyses were conducted using three samples: social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients, and healthy controls. SIPS scores of SAD patients demonstrated internal consistency and construct validity, and the previously demonstrated three-factor structure of the SIPS was replicated. Further, the SIPS total score uniquely predicted SA symptoms, and SIPS scores were significantly higher for SAD patients than GAD patients or controls. Two cut-off scores that discriminated SAD patients from GAD patients and from healthy controls were identified. The current study is the first to replicate the SIPS three-factor model in a large, treatment-seeking sample of SAD patients and establish a cut-off score discriminating SAD from GAD patients. Findings support the SIPS as a valid, SAD-specific assessment instrument. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of the MOS Social Support Survey 6-item (MOS-SSS-6) measure with two large population-based samples of Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Lee, Christina; Hockey, Richard; Ware, Robert S; Dobson, Annette J

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to validate a 6-item 1-factor global measure of social support developed from the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) for use in large epidemiological studies. Data were obtained from two large population-based samples of participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The two cohorts were aged 53-58 and 28-33 years at data collection (N = 10,616 and 8,977, respectively). Items selected for the 6-item 1-factor measure were derived from the factor structure obtained from unpublished work using an earlier wave of data from one of these cohorts. Descriptive statistics, including polychoric correlations, were used to describe the abbreviated scale. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis to assess scale validity. Concurrent validity was assessed using correlations between the new 6-item version and established 19-item version, and other concurrent variables. In both cohorts, the new 6-item 1-factor measure showed strong internal consistency and scale reliability. It had excellent goodness-of-fit indices, similar to those of the established 19-item measure. Both versions correlated similarly with concurrent measures. The 6-item 1-factor MOS-SSS measures global functional social support with fewer items than the established 19-item measure.

  13. Continuing professional education: Motivations and experiences of health and social care professional's part-time study in higher education. A qualitative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Simon; Mairs, Hilary; Pusey, Helen; Bradshaw, Timothy; Keady, John

    2016-11-01

    To understand the motivations and experiences of health and social care professionals undertaking part-time, accredited, continuing professional education in higher education. A review following systematic principles. Systematic searches for literature published between January 2000 and December 2015 using the databases: SCOPUS, Web of Science, Medline, PsychINFO, Social Policy and Practice and CINAHL. Studies were included if they were published in the English language and were qualitative in design, focussing on the motivations and experiences of staff engaged in part-time, accredited, higher education study. Three reviewers appraised the quality of the selected studies. Thirteen qualitative studies were identified for the review. Motivating factors for staff to engage in part-time, accredited, continuing professional development study included: personal and professional drivers, influence of workplace/management and funding and availability. Key themes in relation to how staff experienced study included: the demands of adjusting to the academic requirements of higher education study; the experience of juggling competing demands of study, work and family; and the presence or absence of support for part-time study in the personal and professional arenas. Health and social care professionals experience a number of challenges when engaging in part-time, continuing professional education in higher education institutions. A significant challenge is the juggling of competing demands of study, work and family, and this may have a negative impact on learning. Research is needed to inform how higher education can address the specific learning needs of this population and develop pedagogic approaches that are both responsive to need and support of effective learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and Validation of the Social Information Processing Application: A Web-Based Measure of Social Information Processing Patterns in Elementary School-Age Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in RD through 5th grades. This study included a racially and…

  15. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

  16. Assessment of Social Information Processing in early childhood: development and initial validation of the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing-Preliminary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David; Ambike, Archana; Logie, Sean Kevin; Bohner, Katherine E; Stapleton, Laura M; Vanderwalde, Holly; Min, Christopher B; Betkowski, Jennifer A

    2010-07-01

    Crick and Dodge's (Psychological Bulletin 115:74-101, 1994) social information processing model has proven very useful in guiding research focused on aggressive and peer-rejected children's social-cognitive functioning. Its application to early childhood, however, has been much more limited. The present study responds to this gap by developing and validating a video-based assessment tool appropriate for early childhood, the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing-Preliminary Version (STEP-P). One hundred twenty-five Head Start preschool children participated in the study. More socially competent children more frequently attributed sadness to the victims of provocation and labeled aggressive behaviors as both morally unacceptable and less likely to lead to positive outcomes. More socially competent girls labeled others' emotions more accurately. More disruptive children more frequently produced physically aggressive solutions to social provocations, and more disruptive boys less frequently interpreted social provocations as accidental. The STEP-P holds promise as an assessment tool that assesses knowledge structures related to the SIP model in early childhood.

  17. Military Influence Operations: Review of Relevant Scientific Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Barbara D; Sartori, Jessica; Waldherr, Sonya

    2007-01-01

    ...) literature and the social influence literature. The persuasion literature argues that messages can be processed either systematically or heuristically, and that messages that are processed more carefully...

  18. Validation of Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Walter L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), the most commonly used social desirability bias (SDB) assessment, conceptualizes SDB as an individual's need for approval. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) measures SDB as two separate constructs: impression management and self-deception. Scores on SDB scales are commonly…

  19. Efficacious Action and Social Approval as Interacting Dimensions of Self-Esteem: A Tentative Formulation Through Construct Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, David D.; Marolla, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and operational rationale is presented for the development of multidimensional measures of self-esteem. Self-esteem is conceptualized as a function of two processes reflected appraisals of significant others in one's social environment in the form of social approval, and the individual's feelings of efficacy and competence derived…

  20. Human Rights Engagement and Exposure: New Scales to Challenge Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Abell, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Advancing human rights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, human rights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, Human Rights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and Human Rights Exposure in…