Andrezza Gomes Peretti
Full Text Available The comprehension of the health-disease process from a multifactorial perspective has allowed important transformations in the healthcare practices. In this article, we discuss the use of the support group as a resource for mental health care, analyzing how conversations about social issues are managed in this context. Based on contributions from the social constructionist movement, we analyzed the transcripts of the conversations developed in meetings of a support group offered to patients of a mental health outpatient clinic. The analysis of the process of meaning making indicates that the discourse of the social influence on mental health is not legitimized, due to a predominant individualistic discourse, which psychologizes care and is centered on the emotional analysis of the problems of the quotidian. We argue that this mode of management brings limits to the construction of the group as a device for promoting autonomy and encouraging the social transformation processes.
Cole, Duncan; Rengasamy, Emma; Batchelor, Shafqat; Pope, Charles; Riley, Stephen; Cunningham, Anne Marie
Medical curricula are increasingly using small group learning and less didactic lecture-based teaching. This creates new challenges and opportunities in how students are best supported with information technology. We explored how university-supported and external social media could support collaborative small group working on our new undergraduate medical curriculum. We made available a curation platform (Scoop.it) and a wiki within our virtual learning environment as part of year 1 Case-Based Learning, and did not discourage the use of other tools such as Facebook. We undertook student surveys to capture perceptions of the tools and information on how they were used, and employed software user metrics to explore the extent to which they were used during the year. Student groups developed a preferred way of working early in the course. Most groups used Facebook to facilitate communication within the group, and to host documents and notes. There were more barriers to using the wiki and curation platform, although some groups did make extensive use of them. Staff engagement was variable, with some tutors reviewing the content posted on the wiki and curation platform in face-to-face sessions, but not outside these times. A small number of staff posted resources and reviewed student posts on the curation platform. Optimum use of these tools depends on sufficient training of both staff and students, and an opportunity to practice using them, with ongoing support. The platforms can all support collaborative learning, and may help develop digital literacy, critical appraisal skills, and awareness of wider health issues in society.
Kodatt, Stephanie A; Shenk, Jared E; Williams, Mark L; Horvath, Keith J
Technology-delivered interventions addressing a broad range of problems for which clients present for therapy are proliferating. However, little is known of leadership dynamics that emerge in online group interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the types of leadership qualities that would emerge in an online social support group intervention to improve medication adherence for men with HIV, and to characterize the demographic and psychosocial profiles of leaders. Written posts ( n =616) from 66 men were coded using an adapted version of the Full Range Model of Leadership. Results showed that 10% ( n =64) of posts reflected one of five leadership types, the most common of which was mentoring/providing feedback (40% of leadership posts). The next most common leadership style were instances in which encouragement was offered (30% of leadership posts). Leaders appeared to have lived with HIV longer and have higher Internet knowledge scores than non-leaders. Results indicate that online group interventions potentially may be useful to supplement traditional face-to-face treatment by providing an additional venue for group members to mentor and provide emotional support to each other. However, additional research is needed to more fully understand leadership qualities and group dynamics in other online group intervention settings.
Carmack Taylor, Cindy L; Kulik, James; Badr, Hoda; Smith, Murray; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Penedo, Frank; Gritz, Ellen R
Group-based psychosocial programs provide an effective forum for improving mood and social support for cancer patients. Because some studies show more benefit for patients with initially high psychosocial distress, and little or no benefit for patients with initially low distress, support programs may better address patient needs by only including distressed patients. However, distressed patients may benefit particularly from the presence of nondistressed patients who model effective coping, an idea many researchers and extensions of social comparison theory support. We present a theoretical analysis, based on a social comparison perspective, of how group composition (heterogeneous group of distressed and nondistressed patients versus homogeneous group of distressed patients) may affect the efficacy of cancer support programs. We propose that a heterogeneous group allows distressed patients maximal opportunity for the various social comparison activities they are likely to prefer; a homogeneous group does not. Though the presence of nondistressed patients in a heterogeneous group potentially benefits distressed patients, the benefits for nondistressed patients are unclear. For nondistressed patients, heterogeneous groups may provide limited opportunities for preferred social comparison activity and may create the possibility for no benefit or even negative effects on quality of life. We also discuss ethical issues with enrolling nondistressed patients whose presence may help others, but whose likelihood of personal benefit is questionable.
Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Wu, Liyun; Lewis, Marilyn W
HIV/AIDS, a chronic burden in Ghana, poses social and health outcome concerns to those infected. Examining the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) instrument among 300 Ghanaians from a cross-sectional design, Principal Component Analysis yielded four factors (positive interaction, trust building, information giving, and essential support), which accounted for 85.73% of the total variance in the MOS-SSS. A logistic regression analysis showed that essential support was the strongest predictor of the length of time an individual stayed in the support group, whereas positive interaction indicated negative association. The study's implications for policy, research, and practice were discussed.
Chung, Jae Eun
An increasing number of online support groups (OSGs) have embraced the features of social networking. So far, little is known about how patients use and benefit from these features. By implementing the uses-and-gratifications framework, the author conducted an online survey with current users of OSGs to examine associations among motivation, use of specific features of OSG, and support outcomes. Findings suggest that OSG users make selective use of varied features depending on their needs, and that perceptions of receiving emotional and informational support are associated more with the use of some features than others. For example, those with strong motivation for social interaction use diverse features of OSG and make one-to-one connections with other users by friending. In contrast, those with strong motivation for information seeking limit their use primarily to discussion boards. Results also show that online social networking features, such as friending and sharing of personal stories on blogs, are helpful in satisfying the need for emotional support. The present study sheds light on online social networking features in the context of health-related OSGs and provides practical lessons on how to improve the capacity of OSGs to serve the needs of their users.
Wilson, Nathan J; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L
People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived experiences of a supported social group. Data were analysed using descriptive phenomenology. Two themes emerged (i) supported engagement fosters wellbeing, and (ii) developing social belonging and connectedness. Participants not only acknowledged the support that they needed to participate, but also that the social group had changed their lives in many ways. Adults with intellectual disability want to socialise, have friends and be part of their community. For this to be achieved, they recognise the need to seek some form of support. With appropriate and targeted support, adults with intellectual disability can move from social exclusion towards supported inclusion and experience richer lives. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wilson, Nathan J.; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L.
Background: People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Methods: Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived…
Maloney, Erin Kay
This paper reports on the results of a field experimental design assessing online support groups testing hypotheses derived from the social identification model of deindividuation effects (SIDE; Lea & Spears, 1992) and social information processing theory (SIP; Walther, 1992). Specifically, it is predicted that individuals in an online support…
Norlander, T; Dahlin, A; Archer, T
This study examined the effects of life events, social support, personality traits, and siblings' birth-order on the health of women. 199 middle-class participants were included. 95 women, randomly assigned from four different patient groups, were compared with a control group of 96 randomly selected women without any special health problems. They completed a questionnaire which included questions regarding family background, health, different life events, social support, and signs of disease and a projective test, the Sivik Psychosomatism Test. Analysis indicated that report of negative life events was associated with more physical symptoms than positive life events and that the patient groups reported more negative life events and less social support than the control group.
Onezi, Hamidi Al; Khalifa, Mohamed; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa
Tobacco smoking remains a major preventable cause of mortality and morbidity across the globe. People who attempt to quit smoking often experience episodes of relapse before finally quitting. Understanding the part that social networking sites and social media can play in smoking cessation and prevention of relapse is important to aid the development of novel techniques to curb the smoking epidemic. This study investigated the use of extra-treatment provided outside of the formal healthcare setting, bolstered by online social support in order to prevent smoking relapse in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study included 473 smokers taking part in smoking cessation intervention programs run by the Riyadh branch of King Abdul-Aziz Medical City and PURITY, a Saudi anti-smoking association. Only subjects who expressed an interest in quitting smoking, and those attempting to quit, were considered for inclusion. The sample was divided into three groups: subjects who subscribed to support groups on Twitter (n = 150), and WhatsApp (n = 150), and a control group of subjects who had not subscribed to any social media support groups (n = 173). A significant difference was found between the mean average numbers of people who quit smoking among the three groups, with social media support proving to be more effective than other traditional methods. Our findings imply that Twitter and WhatsApp users found it easier to quit smoking than those who did not take part in these social media groups. Social media provides a good platform to discuss smoking cessation treatment, and thus reduce smoking relapses. Our findings support the suggestion that more social media support groups should be developed to help people to effectively cease smoking after abstinence. Individuals who struggle to quit smoking should be encouraged to join support groups on their social media platform of choice to increase their likelihood of quitting. Future studies should assess the effectiveness
Brown, Louis D; Tang, Xiaohui; Hollman, Ruth L
Self-help support groups are indigenous community resources designed to help people manage a variety of personal challenges, from alcohol abuse to xeroderma pigmentosum. The social exchanges that occur during group meetings are central to understanding how people benefit from participation. This paper examines the different types of social exchange behaviors that occur during meetings, using two studies to develop empirically distinct scales that reliably measure theoretically important types of exchange. Resource theory informed the initial measurement development efforts. Exploratory factor analyses from the first study led to revisions in the factor structure of the social exchange scales. The revised measure captured the exchange of emotional support, experiential information, humor, unwanted behaviors, and exchanges outside meetings. Confirmatory factor analyses from a follow-up study with a different sample of self-help support groups provided good model fit, suggesting the revised structure accurately represented the data. Further, the scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs. Future research can use the scales to identify aspects of social exchange that are most important in improving health outcomes among self-help support group participants. Groups can use the scales in practice to celebrate strengths and address weaknesses in their social exchange dynamics.
Coulson, N S; Greenwood, N
With increasing access to the Internet, there are new opportunities available to families to seek information, advice and support about childhood cancer online. A total of 487 messages were retrieved from three childhood cancer online support groups and were analysed using deductive thematic analysis for the presence of support-intended communication using Cutrona and Suhr's social support typology. In addition, the messages were examined for negative experiences or disadvantages. The results revealed the presence of five types of social support: emotional, informational, esteem support and tangible assistance. In addition, some potential limitations of online support were identified, including a lack of responses and difficulties in maintaining relationships outside the online group context. This study suggests that online support groups may offer the potential to support family members of children with cancer. In particular, it may be a useful resource for those seeking emotional and information support. However, there may be limitations associated with the use of online support groups. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Telephone-mediated group programs are an important but under-utilized medium for reaching frail or disabled older persons' family carers who are in need of support. The primary purpose and style of group programs can range across a broad spectrum–encompassing educational, supportive and therapeutic types. Gerontological social workers are the members of the multidisciplinary care team whose training, experience and supervision makes them most suitable for facilitating this broad range of group types. Drawing on the experience of training a number of group facilitators, this article provides suggestions for social workers contemplating the use of telephone-mediated groups and highlights groupwork skills peculiar to conducting group programs via the telephone.
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben
This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...... approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group......, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding...
Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane
PURPOSE: In this study, we identified the social and psychological characteristics of Danish cancer patients that determine use of the internet for support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited 230 cancer patients taking part in a public rehabilitation program to participate in an internet module...... observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...... comprising training in the retrieval of cancer-related information from the internet and self-support groups. Persons who were motivated to join the internet groups (N = 100; 47%) were compared with persons who chose not to participate (N = 111) on the basis of self-reported baseline questionnaire data...
Geckova, A; van Dijk, JP; Stewart, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D
Background: The influence of social support on health was explored among gender and socio-economic groups with the aim of contributing to the explanation of socio-economic health differences among Slovak adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 2616 Slovak adolescents (52.4% male, 47.6% female,
Molenaar, I.; Horvers, A.; Desain, P.W.M.
This study investigates the effects of a technology enhanced collaborative grammar learning activity on students sentence parsing and formulation. These types of collaborative learning activities for grammar education are expected to support more effective learning. Yet, effective intra-group social
Stewart, J B; Hardin, S B; Weinrich, S; McGeorge, S; Lopez, J; Pesut, D
Literature reports that cognitive understanding and social support can mitigate stress in both adults and adolescents. As a subcomponent of the Carolina Adolescent Health Project (CAHP), this research evaluated the efficacy of a Cognitive Social Support (CSS) group protocol designed to mitigate the disaster stress of adolescents who had been exposed seriously to Hurricane Hugo. A purposive sample of 259 students participated in and evaluated the CSS. This article reports the specific structure, content, process, rationale, and cost of the CSS. Evaluations indicated that 82% of the students evaluated the small-group component of the CSS as "very good" or "excellent," while 70% rated the large-group component as "very good" or "excellent."
Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T
The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.
Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.
This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…
Bíró, Éva; Veres-Balajti, Ilona; Kósa, Karolina
The present study, taking a resource-oriented approach to mental health, aimed at investigating mental resilience and its determinants among undergraduate physiotherapy students using quantitative and qualitative tools. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey supplemented by 2 focus groups. One university in Hungary. 130 physiotherapy students at years 1, 2, and 3. Sense of coherence, a measure of dynamic self-esteem, as well as social support from family and peers were used to assess mental well-being. A screening instrument for psychological morbidity and perceived stress were used as deficiency-oriented approaches. Student opinions were gathered on positive and negative determinants of mental health. Resilience was lower [mean difference 4.8 (95% CI -3.4; 13.1)], and the occurrence of psychological morbidity (32.5% vs. 0%) was higher among female compared to male students. However, the proportion of students fully supported by their peers was higher among females (63% vs. 37.5%). Female students, unlike their male counterparts, experienced higher stress compared to their peers in the general population. Social support declined as students progressed in their studies though this proved to be the most important protective factor for their mental well-being. Results were fed back to the course organizers recommending the implementation of an evidence-based method to improve social support as delineated by the Guide to Community Preventive Services of the US the outcomes of which are to be seen in the future. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... unknown for sometimes. Some may be assisted by good Samaritans while others might fell under the circumstances of criminals. Social support and medical treatment may be required to reunite some of these subjects as illustrated by this case report. KeyWords : Paranoid Schizophrenia, Homelessness, Social support ...
Ko, Yu Kyung
To identify the degree of group cohesion and social support of nurses in special and general units in hospitals in Korea, and to compare group cohesion and social support between the two groups. The level of commitment nurses have to their organizations has been shown to correlate with work group cohesion and social support. The participants were 1751 nurses who were working in Korean hospitals. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and were analysed using SAS. The statistical methods included: descriptive statistics, t-test, anova and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Group cohesion of nurses on special wards was significantly higher than for nurses on general wards. No significant difference was found between types of units in terms of social support. The degree of group cohesion was significantly different in terms of the respondents' clinical experience, position, religion, job satisfaction, number of supportive superiors and number of supportive peers. A statistically significant correlation was found between group cohesion scores and degree of social support. Hospital management can accomplish their goals more effectively through knowledge of the level of group cohesion, superior support and peer support for nursing staff in accordance with unit specialty. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Medina, Edhelmira Lima; Loques, Orlando Filho; Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco
The number of patients who use the internet in search for information that might improve their health conditions has increased. Among them, those looking for virtual environments to share experiences, doubts, opinions, and emotions, and to foster relationships aimed at giving and getting support stand out. Therefore, there is an increasing need to assess how those environments can affect the patients' health. This study was aimed at identifying scientific studies on the proliferation and impact of virtual communities, known as health social networks or online support groups, directed to cardiovascular diseases, which might be useful to patients with certain conditions, providing them with information and emotional support. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with articles published from 2007 to 2012, related to cardiovascular diseases and collected from the following databases: PubMed; Association for Computing Machinery(ACM); and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The results were interesting and relevant from the health viewpoint, identifying therapeutic benefits, such as provision of emotional support, greater compliance to treatment, and information sharing on diseases and on life experiences
Medina, Edhelmira Lima, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Loques, Orlando Filho [Instituto de Computação - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco [Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)
The number of patients who use the internet in search for information that might improve their health conditions has increased. Among them, those looking for virtual environments to share experiences, doubts, opinions, and emotions, and to foster relationships aimed at giving and getting support stand out. Therefore, there is an increasing need to assess how those environments can affect the patients' health. This study was aimed at identifying scientific studies on the proliferation and impact of virtual communities, known as health social networks or online support groups, directed to cardiovascular diseases, which might be useful to patients with certain conditions, providing them with information and emotional support. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with articles published from 2007 to 2012, related to cardiovascular diseases and collected from the following databases: PubMed; Association for Computing Machinery(ACM); and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The results were interesting and relevant from the health viewpoint, identifying therapeutic benefits, such as provision of emotional support, greater compliance to treatment, and information sharing on diseases and on life experiences.
Being interested in supporting social consensus making, in this paper, we have proposed a group decision making procedure through conflict resolution in the following situation: each group has a different privilege with decision making; the final goal should be evaluated by a few qualitative sub-goals besides quantitative ones. For this purpose, we have developed a step-wise procedure that has been popularly adapted when encountered with complicated and large-scale problem-solving. As well as at the value system design phase, we applied the analytic hierarchy process, AHP to decide weights standing for the privilege at the decision making phase. Then, after rearranging the hierarchy of the sub-goals depending on the nature, we have provided an iterative procedure to derive a final solution from a discrete optimization problem. To reduce the difficulties of multi-objective decision making thereat, we took a scoring method for total evaluation and applied the genetic algorithm as a solution method. Through numerical experiments applied to a planning problem of the radioactive waste management system, we have shown numerically the proposed approach is very promising for social consensus making. (author)
Yang, Yang; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire
Schools are often encouraged to facilitate extra-curricular learning within their own premises. This study addresses the potential of social networking sites (SNS) for supporting such out-of-class study. Given concerns that learning on these sites may happen at a surface level, we adopted self-determination theory for designing a social networking…
Pommeranz, A.; Wiggers, P.; Brinkman, W.P.; Jonker, C.M.
We investigate people’s attitudes toward the possible use of negotiation support systems (NSS) in different social contexts and the consequences for their design. To explore functional requirements and social acceptance in different use contexts, we followed a threestep approach. In the first step,
Frank A Sattler
Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1 it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2 group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively.Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity, group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism, and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support. A moderated multiple regression was conducted.Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems.The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.
Sattler, Frank A; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna
According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men.
Guo, Bin; Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Liming; Zhou, Xingshe; Ma, Xiaojuan
The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This paper presents a group-aware mobile crowd sensing system called MobiGroup, which supports group activity organization in real-world settings. Acknowledging the complexity and diversity of group activities, this paper introduces a formal concept model to characterize group activities and classifies them into four organizational stages. We t...
Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao
Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....
McAliney, Peter J.
Technology continues to evolve and become accessible to students in higher education. Concurrently, teamwork has become an important skill in academia and the workplace and students have adopted established technologies to support their learning in both individual and team project work. Given the emergence of social media technologies, I examined…
Flickinger, Tabor E; DeBolt, Claire; Waldman, Ava Lena; Reynolds, George; Cohn, Wendy F; Beach, Mary Catherine; Ingersoll, Karen; Dillingham, Rebecca
Social support can improve outcomes for people living with HIV (PLWH) and could be provided through online support groups. The Positive Links smartphone app is a multicomponent intervention that allows users to interact in a clinic-affiliated anonymous online support group. We investigated how social support was exchanged in a group of 55 participants over 8 months, using an adaptation of the Social Support Behavior Code. Participant interviews assessed their experiences and perceptions of the app. Of 840 posts analyzed, 115 (14 %) were coded as eliciting social support and 433 (52 %) as providing social support. Messages providing support were predominantly emotional (41 %), followed by network (27 %), esteem (24 %), informational (18 %), and instrumental (2 %) support. Participants perceived connection and support as key benefits of the app. Technical issues and interpersonal barriers limited some participants in fully using the app. Mobile technology offers a useful tool to reach populations with barriers to in-person support and may improve care for PLWH.
Sheehy, Tammy L
Group physical activity programs for clinical populations can provide opportunities for adaptive social interactions, improving perceptions of competence, and may facilitate posttraumatic growth (positive psychological changes resulting from traumatic life experiences). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how people with Parkinson's experience social interactions and physical challenges in a group physical activity program, and to investigate what role they think those experie...
Lipman, Ellen L; Boyle, Michael H
Members of families headed by single mothers are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage and mental health problems. We assessed the effect of a community-based program of social support and education groups for single mothers of young children on maternal well-being and parenting. We recruited 116 single mothers of children 3 to 9 years old through community advertisements. Eligible mothers were randomly assigned either to participate in a 10-week program of group sessions (1.5 hours per week) offering social support and education, with a parallel children's activity group, or to receive a standard list of community resources and the option to participate in group sessions at the end of the follow-up period. Interviewers blinded to the randomization collected assessment data from all mothers at baseline and at 3 follow-up visits (immediately after the intervention and at 3 and 6 months after the intervention). Outcome measures were self-reported mood, self-esteem, social support and parenting. Between February 2000 and April 2003, the program was offered to 9 groups of single mothers. Most of the mothers in the trial reported high levels of financial and mental health problems. In the short term (after the intervention), mothers in the intervention group had improved scores for mood (p effect = 0.55) and self-esteem (p effect = 0.29) compared with mothers in the control group; scores for the other 2 measures did not differ between the groups. Growth curve analysis of program effects over the follow-up period showed improvement in all 4 outcomes, with no significant difference between the intervention and control groups. This community-based program of group sessions offering social support and education to low-income single mothers had positive short-term effects on mood and self-esteem but not on social support and parenting. Longer follow-up showed attenuation of these effects.
The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.
... The Treatment Of MSUD The MSUD Family Support Group has provided funds to Buck Institute for its ... of the membership of the MSUD Family Support Group, research for improved treatments and potential cure was ...
Schellekens, Melanie P J; Tamagawa, Rie; Labelle, Laura E; Speca, Michael; Stephen, Joanne; Drysdale, Elaine; Sample, Sarah; Pickering, Barbara; Dirkse, Dale; Savage, Linette Lawlor; Carlson, Linda E
Despite growing evidence in support of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), it has been suggested that nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as the experience of social support, may contribute to the positive effects of MBIs. In the present study, we examined whether change in mindfulness and/or social support mediated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) compared to another active intervention (i.e. Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET)), on change in mood disturbance, stress symptoms and quality of life. A secondary analysis was conducted of a multi-site randomized clinical trial investigating the impacts of MBCR and SET on distressed breast cancer survivors (MINDSET). We applied the causal steps approach with bootstrapping to test mediation, using pre- and post-intervention questionnaire data of the participants who were randomised to MBCR (n = 69) or SET (n = 70). MBCR participants improved significantly more on mood disturbance, stress symptoms and social support, but not on quality of life or mindfulness, compared to SET participants. Increased social support partially mediated the impact of MBCR versus SET on mood disturbance and stress symptoms. Because no group differences on mindfulness and quality of life were observed, no mediation analyses were performed on these variables. Findings showed that increased social support was related to more improvement in mood and stress after MBCR compared to support groups, whereas changes in mindfulness were not. This suggests a more important role for social support in enhancing outcomes in MBCR than previously thought.
T. Stevens; P. Hughes (Peter); D. Williams; I. Craigie; I. Kegel; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); A.J. Jansen (Jack); M.F. Usrsu; M. Frantzis; N. Farber; M. Lutzky; S. Vogel
htmlabstractThis paper describes a prototype software platform that supports advanced communications services, specifically services enabling effective group-to-group communications with a social purpose, between remote homes. The architecture, the individual components, their interfaces, and the
Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Chan, Ching Han Helen; Wang, Man Ping; Li, Ho Cheung William; Lam, Tai-Hing
Online social groups have been increasingly used for smoking cessation intervention. This study aimed to explore the social support components of the online discussion through WhatsApp and Facebook, how these components addressed the need of relapse prevention, and how the participants evaluated this intervention. We coded and analyzed the posts (N = 467) by the 82 recent quitters in WhatsApp and Facebook social groups, who were recruited from the eight smoking cessation clinics in Hong Kong to participate in a pragmatic randomized trial of relapse prevention. Participants' postintervention feedback was collected from the 13 qualitative interviews after the intervention. The WhatsApp social groups had more participants' posts than the Facebook counterparts. The participants' posts in the online social groups could be classified as sharing views and experiences (55.5%), encouragement (28.7%), and knowledge and information (15.8%). About half of the participants' posts (52.9%) addressed the themes listed in the U.S. Clinical Practice Guideline for preventing smoking relapse. The participants perceived the posts as useful reminders for smoking cessation, but avoidance of reporting relapse, inactive discussions, and uninteresting content were barriers to the success of the intervention. Online social groups provided a useful platform for the delivery of cessation support and encouragement of reporting abstinence, which support relapse prevention. The effectiveness of such intervention can be improved by encouraging more self-report of relapse, active discussions, sharing of interesting content, and using an appropriate discussion platform. Quitters who participate in the online social groups can benefit from peer support and information sharing, and hence prevent smoking relapse.
Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish
Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.
Maercker, A; Heim, E; Hecker, T; Thoma, M V
The classical concept of social support has recently become of relevance again, particularly in the context of traumatized patient groups, which include refugees and migrants. This article summarizes the evidence from social support research, e. g. different types of positive effects as well as context, gender and cultural aspects. These aspects are highlighted by means of studies stemming from applied healthcare research and thus describe a wide range of health effects, e.g. increased well-being and reduced depressive symptoms, improved functional abilities, better immune status and longevity. Two new trauma-specific differentiations of the social support concept are introduced: societal acknowledgement as a trauma survivor and disclosure of traumatic experiences. Against this background several implications for working with refugees arise: promotion of self-efficacy and posttraumatic maturation as well as the treatment of mental disorders show considerable benefits from focusing on social support. Finally, possibilities emerging from digital communication media are discussed, which are particularly relevant in this context.
Vitor Corrêa Detomini
Full Text Available The literature points out a lack of studies describing practical experiences approaching the role of social participation, even though, the subject Brazilian Health System (SUS as a principle is valued by theoretical-conceptual works. The lack of studies is especially observed in mental health care services, where the existing studies focus on the users’ management engagement as part of psychosocial rehabilitation. Thus, this article introduces an experience developed in a Center for Psycho-Social Attention (CAPS, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, aiming to address the issue of social participation in care qualification, in accordance to legislation and technical standards. Thisstudy focused on two types of sources. 1 Internship Final Report of a Psycology Student including 54 sessions of a support group, 2 technical and legal documents concerning the SUS and the National Mental Health Policy and Humanization. The service aspects were analyzed through technical and legislative foundations - focusing the needs and claims on group discussions, classified as structure and process, used to assess the health care quality. Most concerns were listed on normative Ordinances and Regulations. Achieving social participation was not an institutional premise and, among the main difficulties was the medical/outpatient centered model and the representation of “crazy”/”CAPS users” as incapable. It requires: i integration of “clinic” and “politics”; ii intensification of interdisciplinary and psychological care; iii respect the citizenship of mental health users, and, finally, iv that the collective participation spaces do not exhaust themselves. Therefore, the collective participation spaces need practical recommendations in order to improve the structures and work processes and meet the users’ needs.
McParland, C.; Bronson, M.
During the past year, a group was created and placed under the leadership of Charles McParland. This is an expansion of previous Bevalac software efforts and has responsibilities in three major hardware and software areas. The first area is the support of the existing data acquisition/analysis VAX 11/780s at the Bevalac. The second area is the continued support of present data acquisition programs. The third principal area of effort is the development of new data acquisition systems to meet the increasing needs of the Bevalac experimental program
Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek
This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.
Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan
This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b
Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Scholtes, Ria
Peer support plays an important role in coping with many chronic health problems. Peer support may, however, contain a risk. Research has indicated that people with high social comparison orientation (SCO) are, on the one hand, more interested in contact with peers, but may, on the other hand, be
Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Davidson, Larry; van der Gaag, Mark
People with psychotic disorders frequently experience significant mental and social limitations that may result in persisting social isolation. Research has shown that a supportive social environment is crucial for the process of personal recovery. Peer support groups can provide an opportunity to
Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; Davidson, L.; van der Gaag, M.
People with psychotic disorders frequently experience significant mental and social limitations that may result in persisting social isolation. Research has shown that a supportive social environment is crucial for the process of personal recovery. Peer support groups can provide an opportunity to
Full Text Available Our reality, having been subject to the numerous social crises during the last decades of the 20th century, is characterized by frequent incidences of powerlessness and alienation. The man is more frequently a subject to loneliness and overcomes the feeling of worthlessness, no matter whether he considers himself an individual or a part of a whole larger social. Such an environment leads to development of aggression in all fields of ones life. This paper has as an objective the pointing out of the mental harassment that is manifested in the working environment. There is a prevalence of mobbing cases, as a mode of pathological communication. The result of this is that a person, subjected to this kind of abuse, is soon faced with social isolation. This research also aspires to initiate the need for social groups self-organization of which victims are part of. The reaction modality of a social group directly conditions the outcome of the deliberate social drama, one is subjected to it as a result of mobbing.
Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, Åse; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervåg, Arne Ola
Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between…
Full Text Available "n Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of social support on the mental health of disabled war veterans alongside the role of physical disability and deployment type. The second aim of the study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies and mental health. "n Method: 85 disabled Iranian war veterans participated in this study. All of the participants were asked to complete the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS ,Social Support Survey, Impact of Event-Revised Scale (IES-R, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, The Short Form (SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire, and Brief COPE Scale. Results: The results showed that social support had a significant contribution on the mental health of the participants above and beyond the physical disability and deployment type. The physical disability also predicted the mental health of veterans, but deployment type did not have any significant contribution on mental health of the participants. The findings also showed that those veterans who used constructive coping strategies had better mental health status . "nConclusion: The findings suggest that after more than twenty years of war, social support still plays an important role in the life of Iranian disabled war veterans.
Full Text Available This mixed-methods study aimed to explore the initial process of engagement with an online support group (OSG for depression. Fifteen British National Health Service patients experiencing depression who had not previously used an OSG for depression were offered facilitated access to an existing peer-to-peer OSG for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measures of depression, social support, and self-stigma were taken in addition to a weekly measure of OSG usage. A follow-up qualitative interview was conducted with a subsample of nine participants. Depression and self-stigma reduced over the 10-week period, but perceived social support did not change. There was no evidence of adverse outcomes. Perceived benefits of OSG participation included connection to others, normalization of depression, and stigma reduction. However, engagement with the OSG was generally low. Barriers included concerns over causing harm to others or being harmed oneself, feeling different from others in the group, and fears of being judged by others. OSGs may potentially reduce depressive symptoms and perceived self-stigma. However, considerable barriers may hinder people with depression from engaging with OSGs. Further work is needed to determine who will benefit most from participating in OSGs for depression and how best to facilitate engagement.
Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern
Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...... of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions...... are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles...
Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L
We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Woodward, Matthew J; Eddinger, Jasmine; Henschel, Aisling V; Dodson, Thomas S; Tran, Han N; Beck, J Gayle
Research has suggested that social support can shape posttraumatic cognitions and PTSD. However, research has yet to compare the influence of separate domains of support on posttraumatic cognitions. Multiple-group path analysis was used to examine a model in a sample of 170 victims of intimate partner violence and 208 motor vehicle accident victims in which support from friends, family, and a close other were each predicted to influence posttraumatic cognitions, which were in turn predicted to influence PTSD. Analyses revealed that support from family and friends were each negatively correlated with posttraumatic cognitions, which in turn were positively associated with PTSD. Social support from a close other was not associated with posttraumatic cognitions. No significant differences in the model were found between trauma groups. Findings identify which relationships are likely to influence posttraumatic cognitions and are discussed with regard to interpersonal processes in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nursing is generally considered to be a stressful profession. The purpose of the present study was to test the core hypotheses of the job demands-control-social support model (JDCS) of Karasek & Theorell (1990). In order to refine and extend the JDCS model, we also analyzed the direct and interactive role of three coping strategies: task- oriented, emotion-oriented, and avoidance-oriented coping. Questionnaire data from 1383 nurses (77%female) were collected. Controlling for demographic variables and non-linearity of the associations between job characteristics and outcomes (job satisfaction; burnout dimensions, psychological distress, and somatic complaints), hierarchical regression analyses indicated that job control and social support combined additively (p < 0.001) with job demands to explain the wellbeing outcomes (explained variance between 6% and 28%). Coping strategies accounted for additional variance (p < 0.001; explained variance between 4% and 15%) in all outcomes except in job satisfaction. Support was found for main effects of coping. Coping strategies did not moderate the impact of job characteristics on burnout and wellbeing. Emotion-oriented coping emerged as the most important predictor and was consistently associated with higher burnout levels and lower wellbeing levels. The results demonstrated the need to include the role of individual variables in the JDCS model. The limitations of the study, and theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and maintain these ... article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/social-support/art-20044445 . Mayo Clinic ...
Mariska Kromhout; Peteke Feijten; Frieke Vonk; Mirjam de Klerk; Anna Maria Marangos; Wouter Mensink; Maaike den Draak; Alice de Boer; m.m.v. Jurjen Iedema
Original title: De Wmo in beweging. Evaluatie Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning 2010-2012 The goal of the Dutch Social Support Act (Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning – Wmo) is to make it possible for people to manage within and outside their homes and to participate in society. Within the
Carter, Sid; Cook, James; Sutton-Boulton, Gary; Ward, Vicki; Clarke, Steve
The experiences of non-disabled children growing up with a sibling with an intellectual disability vary considerably, with reported impact ranging from increased mental health problems through evaluations of life enhancement. However, there is evidence that the net impact is neutral to positive, which was supported by the findings of this report of a service evaluation survey. The value of providing support to those young siblings is however clear. An established method of support is within a group of peers who also have a sibling with an intellectual disability, though no specific method for running this type of group has yet been fully explored. This article reports the views of 39 children taking part in such a group, analysing their perspective through a proposed model for the operation of sibling groups: social pedagogy. It was found that the closer the group's activities were to social pedagogy, the more supported the children and young people felt. © The Author(s) 2015.
Edelman, Lucila; Kordon, Diana
Argentina has gone through very difficult times during the last years and, in particularly, new kinds of social practices have emerged in order to cope with the crisis. This situation demands and urges a new type of reflection upon the double role of groups, as tools to transform reality and as a way to elaborate those processes regarding subjectivity. In this paper we analyse some topics regarding the groupal field (considering spontaneous groups as well as groupal devices that allow to elaborate the crisis). We consider social bond to be the condition of possibility for the existence of the psyche and of time continuity, and that it also makes possible personal and social elaboration of trauma, crisis and social catastrophe. We develop some aspects of an specific device (the reflection group), which we have already depicted in another moment, showing it's usefulness to cope with social crisis and to promote the subjective elaboration of crisis.
Delsignore, Aba; Rufer, Michael; Emmerich, Juliane; Weidt, Steffi; Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Moergeli, Hanspeter
The present study evaluates the impact of semi-individualized e-mail support as an adjunct to cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on dropout and outcome. The effectiveness of additional semi-individualized e-mail support was evaluated for the whole sample and for a subsample of patients at risk of dropping out of therapy. A total of 91 patients with SAD were allocated either to the intervention condition (CBGT with e-mail support), or to the control con...
Four studies examined children's (ages 3-10, Total N = 235) naive theories of social groups, in particular, their expectations about how group memberships constrain social interactions. After introduction to novel groups of people, preschoolers (ages 3-5) reliably expected agents from one group to harm members of the other group (rather than…
Stommel, Wyke; Meijman, Frans J
We conducted a conversation analysis of 21 threads initiated by newcomers of an online support group (OSG) on eating disorders, to examine the discursive process of entering such a group. The analysis revealed three important issues. First, many newcomers articulate that the step to join the group is extremely difficult. Second, a presentation of the self in terms of a diagnosis works as a legitimization for joining the forum. The data suggest that participants who do not fulfil the conditions for such a legitimization do not join the forum. Third, the option of acquiring a serious symptom as a solution to the legitimization problem is offered by one of the regular members. Hence, the newcomers' discourse reveals issues relevant to the accessibility for undiagnosed sufferers. We discuss these findings theoretically as a phenomenon of self-presentation in relation to community norms. The analysis generates the hypothesis that newcomers are confronted with implicit norms regarding membership legitimacy that they should obey in their self-presentation, although they may not be ready yet to actually do so. OSGs should find strategies to facilitate various possibilities for newcomers to present themselves to the group while becoming a member.
Zaunbrecher, Henrik; Riedl, Arno
Social identity has been shown to successfully enhance cooperation and effort in cooperation and coordination games. Little is known about the causal effect of social identity on the propensity to engage in group conflict. In this paper we explore theoretically and experimentally whether social identity increases investments in group contests. We show theoretically that increased social identity with the own group implies higher investments in Tullock contests. Empirically we find that induce...
Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to examine the factors affecting implementation of social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL small group interventions in primary schools and to explore the role of support from Local Authorities (LAs in the implementation process. Telephone interviews were conducted with lead SEAL staff in 12 LAs across England as part of a larger national evaluation of this educational initiative. Data were transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Subsequently, a tentative model was developed to document the relationship between the nature of support provided by LAs (e.g. training events, developing/providing additional materials, factors affecting implementation at school level (e.g. school readiness, the profile of SEAL and perceived barriers to success (e.g. misconceptions about the purpose of small group interventions. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature on the implementation of social-emotional initiatives and interventions in education.
Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens E; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe L; Pedersen, Marlene B; Trier, Christopher H; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik
The establishment of childhood adversities as risk factors for non-affective psychosis has derived a need to consider alternative interpretations of several psychosis-related factors. This paper sought to examine premorbid adjustment trajectories and social outcome factors in relation to childhood adversities. Perceived support has been found to decrease the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder, and we wished to compare perceived support in people with first-episode psychosis to non-clinical control persons and explore its relation to childhood adversities. Every individual presenting with a non-affective first-episode psychosis (F20-29, except F21) in Region Zealand over a 2-year period was approached for participation and the 101 consenting participants were matched to 101 people with no psychiatric disorders. Comprehensive demographic data were collected. Assessment instruments included the Premorbid Assessment Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The latter represented the childhood adversities in addition to parental separation and institutionalization. There were no associations between number of childhood adversities and different social or academic premorbid trajectories. Those with more adversities had lower global functioning the year prior to treatment start and reported lower rates of perceived support during childhood along with less current face-to-face contact with family members. Lack of peer support remained a significant predictor of psychosis when adversities were adjusted for; peer support diminished the risk of psychosis caused by childhood adversities by 10%. Childhood adversities may not predict specific premorbid trajectories, but have an effect on global functioning when the psychosis has begun. Perceived support, especially from peers, may be important in the development of psychosis, and those with more adversities may represent a vulnerable subgroup who need more assistance to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Late-life depression is a common condition and a challenging public health problem. A lack of social support is strongly associated with psychological distress. Senior centres seem to be suitable arenas for community-based health promotion interventions, although few studies have addressed this subject. The objectives were to examine the effect of a preventive senior centre group programme consisting of weekly meetings, on social support, depression and quality of life. Methods A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 4,000 persons over 65 in Oslo, and a total of 2,387 completed questionnaires were obtained. These subjects served as a basis for recruitment of participants for a trial, with scores on HSCL-10 being used as a main inclusion criterion. A total of 138 persons were randomized into an intervention group (N = 77 and control group (N = 61. Final analyses included 92 persons. Social support (OSS-3, depression (BDI, life satisfaction and health were measured in interviews at baseline and after 12 months (at the end of the intervention programme. Perceptions of benefits from the intervention were also measured. Mean scores, SD, SE and CI were used to describe the changes in outcomes. Effect sizes were calculated based on the original scales and as Cohen’s d. Paired sample tests and ANOVA were used to test group differences. Results There was an increase in social support in both groups, but greatest in the intervention group. The level of depression increased for both groups, but more so in the control than the intervention group. There was a decrease in life satisfaction, although the decrease was largest among controls. There were almost no differences in reported health between groups. However, effect sizes were small and differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, most of the participants said the intervention meant much to them and led to increased use of the centre. Conclusions In
Silverman, Michael J
Social support is associated with enhanced illness management and recovery in persons with mental illness, making it an important topic addressed through acute inpatient psychoeducational programs. In addition, trust in the therapist may mediate clinical outcomes in this patient population. To date, few studies have examined the effect of music-based psychoeducational programs on these variables. The purpose of this study was to isolate and examine the component parts of a live educational music therapy intervention, and its effect on acute psychiatric inpatients' perceived social support from significant others, family, and friends and trust in the therapist. This study also explored whether trust in therapist varied across conditions, but did not examine it as a mediator for social support. Participants (N = 96) were cluster-randomized in a single-session posttest-only design to one of four conditions: live educational music therapy, recorded educational music therapy, education without music, or recreational music therapy without education. Conditions were designed to isolate the following intervention components: live vs. recorded music, educational vs. non-educational content, and music vs. nonmusic modality. Dependent measures were assessed post intervention via established self-report instruments evaluating perceived social support and trust in the therapist. There were no significant between-group differences for social support or trust in therapist total scores. However, subscale score analyses revealed two significant between-group differences: (a) participants in the Live Educational Music Therapy condition reported significantly higher perceived therapist competence compared with the Recorded Educational Music Therapy condition; (b) participants in the Live Educational Music Therapy condition reported significantly higher perceived support from friends compared with the Recreational Music Therapy condition. Live educational music therapy may be a way to
Social Education, 1992
Presents a position statement of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Reports that the NCSS objects to ability grouping in social studies. Argues that ability grouping disadvantages minority, handicapped, and low ability students. Suggests that ability grouping undermines the democratic ideals that should be the basis of the social…
Zaunbrecher, Henrik; Riedl, Arno
Social identity has been shown to successfully enhance cooperation and effort in cooperation and coordination games. Little is known about the causal effect of social identity on the propensity to engage in group conflict. In this paper we explore theoretically and experimentally whether social
Olff, Miranda; Koch, Saskia B. J.; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Veltman, Dick J.
A lack of social support and recognition by the environment is one of the most consistent risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD patients will recover faster with proper social support. The oxytocin system has been proposed to underlie beneficial effects of social support as
Delsignore, Aba; Rufer, Michael; Emmerich, Juliane; Weidt, Steffi; Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Moergeli, Hanspeter
The present study evaluates the impact of semi-individualized e-mail support as an adjunct to cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on dropout and outcome. The effectiveness of additional semi-individualized e-mail support was evaluated for the whole sample and for a subsample of patients at risk of dropping out of therapy. A total of 91 patients with SAD were allocated either to the intervention condition (CBGT with e-mail support), or to the control condition (CBGT without e-mail support). Anxiety symptoms, depression, global symptomatology and life satisfaction were assessed at pretreatment, post-treatment and follow-up (3, 6 and 12 months). From pre-treatment to post-treatment, both groups improved significantly on all symptom measures. Therapy gains were maintained at the 1-year follow-up. Subsample analyses showed that CBGT+e-mail was more effective than CGBT alone in reducing symptom severity among patients missing at least two therapy sessions. Additionally, in this subgroup, those receiving additional e-mail support showed a tendency towards lower dropout rates. Based on the results of this study, semi-individualized e-mail support between sessions seems to enhance the effectiveness of CBGT for SAD patients at risk of dropping out of treatment and should be considered as an additional tool in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michell, Dee; Beddoe, Liz; Fraser, Heather; Jarldorn, Michele
This paper reports on our use of a two-phased, feminist memory work in a project conducted with 11 women, social science students at an Australian university. We begin by describing government-led attempts to widen participation in Australian universities because 10 of the 11 women who participated in our project were from…
... use lead to isolation from your in-person social network. When you join a new support group, you may be nervous about sharing personal issues with people you don't know. So at first, you may benefit from simply listening. Over time, though, contributing your own ideas and ...
Harel, Yoni; Shechtman, Zipora; Cutrona, Carolyn
The study explores the types of support expressed in counseling groups attended by trainee counselors. Support is a crucial factor in human life in general, and in groups in particular, yet little is known about the type of support presented in counseling groups. Type of support was categorized by means of the Social Support Behavior Code (SSBC;…
Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, Rikke
We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...... support is unrelated to this decline in contact frequency and appears to be at the same level for younger and older individuals. Relational strain, measured as conflicts, declines with age for all kinds of social relations. The weakening of the social network with age does not seem to affect the level...
The feedback from a consultant nurse in a listening support group for health professionals shows that, for hospital nursing staff, the phenomenon of suffering in the workplace is a reality. In addition to providing help to professionals who request it, the missions of such a group are to promote discussion around psycho-social risks in the framework of a policy of compassionate care for staff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
"It's for us -newcomers, LGBTQ persons, and HIV-positive persons. You feel free to be": a qualitative study exploring social support group participation among African and Caribbean lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender newcomers and refugees in Toronto, Canada.
Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Ryan, Shannon; Ramsay, Hope
Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and refugees often face marginalization and struggles meeting the social determinants of health (SDOH) following immigration to countries such as Canada. Social isolation is a key social determinant of health that may play a significant role in shaping health disparities among LGBT newcomers and refugees. Social support may moderate the effect of stressors on mental health, reduce social isolation, and build social networks. Scant research, however, has examined social support groups targeting LGBT newcomers and refugees. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore experiences of social support group participation among LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees in an urban Canadian city. We conducted 3 focus groups with a venue-based sample of LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees (n = 29) who attended social support groups at an ethno-specific AIDS Service Organization. Focus groups followed a semi-structured interview guide and were analyzed using narrative thematic techniques. Participant narratives highlighted immigration stressors, social isolation, mental health issues, and challenges meeting the SDOH. Findings reveal multi-level benefits of social support group participation at intrapersonal (self-acceptance, improved mental health), interpersonal (reduced isolation, friendships), community (reciprocity, reduced stigma and discrimination), and structural (housing, employment, immigration, health care) levels. Findings suggest that social support groups tailored for LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees can address social isolation, community resilience, and enhance resource access. Health care providers can provide support groups, culturally and LGBT competent health services, and resource access to promote LGBT
Van Dijk, F
"The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt
Guan, Ng Chong; Seng, Loh Huai; Hway Ann, Anne Yee; Hui, Koh Ong
This study was aimed at validating the simplified Chinese version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Support (MSPSS-SCV) among a group of medical and dental students in University Malaya. Two hundred and two students who took part in this study were given the MSPSS-SCV, the Medical Outcome Study social support survey, the Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Malay version of the General Health Questionnaire, and the English version of the MSPSS. After 1 week, these students were again required to complete the MSPSS-SCV but with the item sequences shuffled. This scale displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .924), high test-retest reliability (.71), parallel form reliability (.92; Spearman's ρ, P students. It could therefore be used as a simple screening tool among young educated Malaysian adolescents. © 2013 APJPH.
Resnick, Michael D.; And Others
Each of the seven factors that affect adolescent social development is presented together with a description of potentially important research, service, and policy initiatives within each topic area. The factors are self-esteem, peer group, parenting, family, services, enforced dependency, and positive sexual socialization. (CT)
Westdahl, Claire; Milan, Stephanie; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
OBJECTIVE To estimate how social support and social conflict relate to prenatal depressive symptoms and to generate a brief clinical tool to identify women at increased psychosocial risk. METHODS This is a prospective study following 1,047 pregnant women receiving care at two university-affiliated clinics from early pregnancy through 1 year postpartum. Structured interviews were conducted in the second trimester of pregnancy. Hierarchical and logistic regressions were used to examine potential direct and interactive effects of social support and conflict on prenatal depressive symptoms measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. RESULTS Thirty-three percent of the sample reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms predicted from sociodemographic factors, social support, and social conflict. Social support and conflict had independent effects on depressive symptoms although social conflict was a stronger predictor. There was a “dose–response,” with each increase in interpersonal risk factor resulting in consequent risk for probable depression based on symptom reports (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Scale greater than or equal to 16). A composite of one social support and three conflict items were identified to be used by clinicians to identify interpersonal risk factors for depression in pregnancy. Seventy-six percent of women with a composite score of three or more high-risk responses reported depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION Increased assessment of social support and social conflict by clinicians during pregnancy can identify women who could benefit from group or individual interventions to enhance supportive and reduce negative social interactions. PMID:17601908
Full Text Available Social networks often provide an important source of support for new parents. General, parent support programs sustain social-emotional development of children. Different aspects could impact both the quantity and quality of the sources of social support and the perception that parents would had. This study examines the role of social support in the couples of new-parents and assesses the influence of attachment models on it. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS were administered to a sample of 100 participants. Results indicated a perception of social support more pronounced in women, mainly on the dimension of social support derived from the partner. Furthermore, for women and not for men, an association between attachment models to the AAI and the different perceptions of social support was revealed. Data seems support the opportunity to assess parents during early rehabilitation interventions. Support groups could be used with insecure parents and has positive effects in reducing stress and promoting adjustment to the disability for children and their families.
Sergio Tudela de Marcos
Full Text Available Bullying is a fairly widespread problem in society. It consists of two main characteristics: a difference in strength between the victim and aggressor; the victim is subjected to a series of negative actions that endure over time. The growing use of ICT by minors has led to an increase in the magnitude and severity of school bullying. One form of intervention with the victims are support groups, which have been demonstrated to be very useful tools to work with groups that have experienced this problem. Thus, the aim of this study was to review the techniques used to intervene with victims of bullying, and to study the posible implementation of support group techniques using social networks as intervention tools. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 6 adults (children protection figures to analyze the factors that encourage bullying, and to study the implementation of online support groups as an intervention strategy with victims. The data show that the adults accepted the groups as an effective strategy, because of their effects and the advantages that social networks can offer. However, future research is needed to corroborate this result.
Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Kamitani, Emiko; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Lindgren, Teri
The onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus can be prevented or delayed by lifestyle changes. Communication technologies such as a mobile phone can be used as a means of delivering these lifestyle changes. The purposes of this analysis were to explore applicability of potential components of a mobile phone-based healthy lifestyle program and to understand motivators and barriers to continued engagement in a mobile phone healthy lifestyle program. We conducted 6 focus groups (4 female and 2 male groups) in May and June 2010 with 35 focus group participants. The qualitative data were analyzed by 3 researchers using a qualitative description method in an ATLAS.ti software program. Inclusion criteria for enrollment in a focus group were as follows: (1) being aged from 30 to 69 years, (2) speaking and reading English, (3) having a sedentary lifestyle at work or during leisure time (screened by the Brief Physical Activity Survey questionnaire), and (4) having a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2) (Asian >23 kg/m(2)) based on self-reported weight and height or 5) having a self-reported prediabetic condition. The mean age was 51 (SD 10.6) years; 54% (n = 19) were white; 71% (n = 25) used a mobile phone at least once a week during the last month prior to the study enrollment; and mean BMI was 32.5 (SD 6.5) kg/m(2). In the qualitative analyses, the following 4 major themes and their subthemes emerged: (1) real-time social support (real-time peer support from participants who are similarly engaged in a diet or physical activity program, and professional support from health care providers or a researcher), (2) tailoring of mobile phone programs (3) self-monitoring and motivation, and (4) potential barriers and sustainability of the program (fear of failing, age and mobile technologies, and loss of interest over time). Participants from a wide range of age and racial groups expressed interest in a mobile phone-based lifestyle program. Such a program that incorporates the themes that we
Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Gage, Ashley; Mooney, Megan; Demiris, George
The National Association of Social Workers developed practice standards for social workers using technology in their practice. These standards were derived from the foundation of the social work code of ethics and are helpful as social workers explore the use of new tools for the benefit of their clients. Hospice caregivers, both active and bereaved, are in great need of support but are often unable to attend traditional support groups. Facebook secret groups offer social workers a potential tool, given the geographic barriers that exist for traditional face-to-face support groups. The authors' experience with a secret Facebook group indicates that the technology can be useful when managed by a social worker facilitator. As social workers continue to explore helpful ways to use technology with clients, it is critical that they evaluate that practice and assess the clinical outcomes to establish an evidence base behind this practice.
Smyth, Natasha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L
Little is known about how social networks and social support are distributed within diverse communities and how different types of each are associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to address such shortcomings by: (1) describing the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of social networks and social support in a multicultural population and (2) examining how each is associated with multiple mental health outcomes. Data is drawn from the South East London Community Health Study; a cross-sectional study of 1,698 adults conducted between 2008 and 2010. The findings demonstrate variation in social networks and social support by socio-demographic factors. Ethnic minority groups reported larger family networks but less perceived instrumental support. Older individuals and migrant groups reported lower levels of particular network and support types. Individuals from lower socioeconomic groups tended to report less social networks and support across the indicators measured. Perceived emotional and instrumental support, family and friend network size emerged as protective factors for common mental disorder, personality dysfunction and psychotic experiences. In contrast, both social networks and social support appear less relevant for hazardous alcohol use. The findings both confirm established knowledge that social networks and social support exert differential effects on mental health and furthermore suggest that the particular type of social support may be important. In contrast, different types of social network appear to impact upon poor mental health in a more uniform way. Future psychosocial strategies promoting mental health should consider which social groups are vulnerable to reduced social networks and poor social support and which diagnostic groups may benefit most.
Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L
Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.
Zsiga, Katalin; Edelmayer, Georg; Rumeau, Pierre; Péter, Orsolya; Tóth, András; Fazekas, Gábor
The growing number of elderly individuals presents new challenges for society. Many elderly individuals have physical or cognitive impairments and require support from caregivers. An attempt to overcome the limitations caused by the lack of human caregivers is the inclusion of assistive technology such as socially active robots. The Domeo-project of the Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme of the European Union aims to develop a new companion robotic system that would allow assistance to the elderly. The requirements and attitude of the potential users and caregivers have been assessed in Austria, France and Hungary. The robot functions were demonstrated to the participants. Three focus groups were formed: potential end users, older caregivers and younger caregivers. The discussions were recorded and processed according to six aspects: (i) acceptability and privacy, (ii) pertinence of services, (iii) possible obstacles, (iv) motivation level to use the proposed services, (v) organizational issues and (vi) recommendations. Minor differences were observed between the countries, but there were considerable differences regarding the age of the participants. The younger caregivers want to be assured of the safety of their client and to receive immediate notification in case of an emergency. As for the elderly, the most important aspect is to gain a companion and a physical helper. Many of the recommendations can be taken into consideration during robot development, but some of them are not realistic at present.
Paula Mendonça Studart
Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that affects the functioning of its carriers in many different ways, even when treated properly. Therefore, it’s also important to identify the psychosocial aspects that could contribute to an improvement of this population’s quality of life.Objective Carry out a literature review on the role of social support in cases of bipolar disorder.Method A research on the following online databases PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO was conducted by using the keywords “social support” or “social networks” and “mood disorders” or “bipolar disorder” or “affective disorder,” with no defined timeline.Results Only 13 studies concerning the topic of social support and BD were found in the search for related articles. Generally speaking, the results show low rates of social support for BD patients.Discussion Despite the growing interest in the overall functioning of patients with bipolar disorder, studies on social support are still rare. Besides, the existing studies on the subject use different methodologies, making it difficult to establish data comparisons.
Vandell, D L
Three propositions that are central to J. R. Harris's group socialization theory (1995, 1998) are considered in this review. These propositions are as follows: (a) Parental behaviors have no long-term effects on children's psychological characteristics, (b) peer groups are the primary environmental influence on psychological functioning, and (c) dyadic relationships are situation-specific and do not generalize. The evidence that J. R. Harris has outlined in support of each of these propositions is reviewed, as is additional empirical research not considered by J. R. Harris. Serious limitations to each proposition are identified. The available evidence is more consistent with a model of multiple socialization agents. An expanded research agenda that permits a more definitive test of J. R. Harris's propositions and social relationship theory is proposed.
Farmer, Sherry; Galaris, Diana
Describes model for support groups for children of divorce developed at Marriage Council of Philadelphia. Gives details about group organization, illustrative case material, and typical concerns that group members work with throughout group sessions. Summarizes reported effects of support group involvement and considers ways of intervening in…
Esser, Sally R.; Vitaliano, Peter P.
Reviews recent literature on the relationships among dementia, depression, and social support, emphasizing the diagnostic differentiation of dementia and depression, and the role of these three entities in elderly with cognitive impairment. Discusses dementia-like symptoms arising in depression and the coexistence of dementia and depression.…
Randall, Elizabeth; Wodarski, John S.
Reviews relevant issues in clinical social group practice including group versus individual treatment, group work advantages, approach rationale, group conditions for change, worker role in group, group composition, group practice technique and method, time as group work dimension, pretherapy training, group therapy precautions, and group work…
Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying
This article discusses post-disaster group counseling and group supervision using a social justice orientation for working with post-disaster survivors from underserved populations. The Disaster Cross-Cultural Counseling model is a culturally responsive group counseling model that infuses social justice into post-disaster group counseling and…
Houck, Gail M; Stember, Lisa
Social competence is the effectiveness of social interaction behavior. Given its link to mental health outcomes, it is an important consideration in child and adolescent development. Social withdrawal is associated with depression. Socially withdrawn children make few social initiations and tend to be isolated in their play, further limiting their social involvement. To develop effective social behavior, experiences must be provided to learn relationship skills. This practice improvement project provided a small group experience for five socially withdrawn school-age girls. Weekly group meetings provided a social situation in which conversations could occur around a shared snack and craft project. The school nurse facilitated self-assertion and the expression of prosocial behavior in a socially safe (nonrejecting) environment and promoted social problem solving. On completion of the program, the participants not only showed more effective social reasoning and social skills, but developed friendships with each other that lasted beyond the life of the group.
Wesley P. McTernan
Full Text Available This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining workers due to a greater level of intragroup attraction and saliency attributable to the proximity effects. We used a two wave panel study and data from a random population sample of Australian employees (n = 2793, [n = 112 mining, n = 2681 non-mining]. Using structural equation modelling we tested the reciprocal three way interaction effects. In line with our theory, co-worker support buffered the reciprocal relationship between WFC and depression, showing a protective effect in both pathways. These moderation effects were found in the mining industry only suggesting a proximity component moderates the social support buffer hypothesis (i.e., a three way interaction effect. The present paper integrates previous theoretical perspectives of stress and support, and provides insight into the changing dynamics of workplace relationships.
McTernan, Wesley P; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Vandenberg, Robert J
This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships) between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining workers) due to a greater level of intragroup attraction and saliency attributable to the proximity effects. We used a two wave panel study and data from a random population sample of Australian employees (n = 2793, [n = 112 mining, n = 2681 non-mining]). Using structural equation modelling we tested the reciprocal three way interaction effects. In line with our theory, co-worker support buffered the reciprocal relationship between WFC and depression, showing a protective effect in both pathways. These moderation effects were found in the mining industry only suggesting a proximity component moderates the social support buffer hypothesis (i.e., a three way interaction effect). The present paper integrates previous theoretical perspectives of stress and support, and provides insight into the changing dynamics of workplace relationships.
Gallardo-Peralta, Lorena P; Sánchez-Moreno, Esteban; López De Roda, Ana Barrón; Arias Astray, Andrés
Recent evidence regarding the relationship between social support and depression in elderly people shows the important role of ethnicity. This research describes the characteristics of social support in a sample of elderly people aged 60 and above living in northern Chile (n = 493), and analyzes the differences in the relationship between social support and depression between an indigenous group (Aymara population, n = 147) and a nonindigenous group (white, Caucasian, mestizo, n = 346). Various dimensions of social support were considered: structural elements, functional social support according to source, and community participation. The results show the existence of significant differences in the characteristics and dimensions of social support depending on sex, ethnicity, and marital status. Further, the central role of the family group is observed for both Aymara and nonindigenous elderly people. The hierarchical regression models obtained result in notable differences in the role of the structural, functional, and community elements of support in explaining depression for the ethnic groups considered.
Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J
This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena.
BACKGROUND: Support groups help their participants to cope with the emotional and practical impact of their illnesses. METHODS: The effectiveness of the Leukemia Society of America support groups in enhancing the quality of life for their participants is reviewed. The groundwork, purpose, and structure of such groups, as well as alternate sources of support, are presented. Evaluation and future directions for oncology groupwork are discussed. RESULTS: Support groups complement the therapies provided by clinical practitioners and scientists by addressing the additional needs of cancer patients over the course of illness and survival. CONCLUSIONS: New concepts and methods that address the needs of specific age-groups and incorporate the newly generated data on cancer treatments will further enhance the benefits provided by support groups.
Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana
A large international literature on how lay citizens make sense of various aspects of science and technology has been generated by investigations which utilise small group methods. Within that literature, focus group and other group-based methods have come to co-exist, and to some extent, hybridise, with the use of small groups in citizen engagement initiatives. In this article, we report on how we drew upon these methodological developments in the design and operationalisation of a policymaking support tool (STAVE). This tool has been developed to gain insight, in a relatively speedy and cost-effective way, into practical details of the everyday lived experience of people's lives, as relating to the sustainability of corresponding practices. An important challenge we faced was how, in Kuhn's terms, to 'translate' between the forms of life corresponding to the world of policymaking and the world of everyday domestic life. We examine conceptual and methodological aspects of how the tool was designed and assembled, and then trialled in the context of active real-world collaborations with policymaking organisations. These trials were implemented in six European countries, where they were used to support work on live policy issues concerned with sustainable consumption. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gallardo-Peralta, Lorena; Sánchez-Moreno, Esteban; Barrón López de Roda, Ana; Arias Astray, Andrés
Recent evidence regarding the relationship between social support and depression in elderly people shows the important role of ethnicity. This research describes the characteristics of social support in a sample of elderly people aged 60 and above living in northern Chile (n = 493), and analyzes the differences in the relationship between social support and depression between an indigenous group (Aymara population, n = 147) and a nonindigenous group (white, Caucasian, mestizo, n = 346). Vario...
Jiang, Li; Drolet, Aimee; Kim, Heejung S
We examined age differences in the use of different types of social support and the reasons for these differences. We found that older adults (age 60+) seek explicit social support less compared with young adults (age 18-25), but there is no difference in implicit social support seeking. Concerns about the potential social costs of seeking explicit support mediate the age differences in explicit social support seeking. Whereas young adults view this strategy as conferring more benefits than costs, older adults have a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of explicit social support seeking. Older and young adults do not differ in perceptions of the relative costs versus benefits of implicit social support seeking. Finally, we found older adults benefit more from implicit (vs. explicit) social support emotionally than young adults, which further explains why age groups differ in their use of explicit versus implicit social support.
Adarves-Yorno, Inmaculada; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, S. Alexander
This paper develops an analysis of creativity that is informed by the social identity approach. Two studies are reported that support this analysis. Study I (N = 73) manipulated social identity salience and the content of group norms. The group norm was either conservative (i.e. promoted no change)
Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan A
Horizontal mobbing is a process of systematic and repeated aggression towards a worker by coworkers. Among others, stress has been pointed out as one of the antecedents that favors the onset of horizontal mobbing, whereas group support to the target could act as a buffer. Moreover, the social identity approach emphasizes that group identity is an antecedent of group support. This study explores the interaction of group support and group identity in the explanation of horizontal mobbing in a sample (N = 388) of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses employed at two large hospitals in Madrid and Navarre (Spain). The results show that stress is positively associated to horizontal mobbing, whereas group support and group identity were negative predictors of horizontal mobbing. Furthermore, the combination of low group identity and low group support precipitated HM among nurses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saharan African region. ... especially for vulnerable groups. At independence in 1980, Zimbabwe pledged to promote a viable social protection system that would be predicated on the principles of social justice and equality of opportunity.
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias
Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.
Goldberg, Simon B; Hoyt, William T
The notion that individuals' interpersonal behaviors in the context of therapy reflects their interpersonal behaviors outside of therapy is a fundamental hypothesis underlying numerous systems of psychotherapy. The social microcosm hypothesis, in particular, claims the interpersonal therapy group becomes a reflection of group members' general tendencies, and can thus be used as information about members' interpersonal functioning as well as an opportunity for learning and behavior change. The current study tested this hypothesis using data drawn from 207 individuals participating in 22 interpersonal process groups. Ratings were made on 2 key interpersonal domains (Dominance and Affiliation) at baseline and at Weeks 2, 5, and 8 of the group. Two-level multilevel models (with participants nested within groups) were used to account for the hierarchical structure, and the social relations model (SRM; Kenny, 1994) was used to estimate peer ratings (target effects in SRM) unconfounded with rater bias. Participants showed consensus at all time points during the interpersonal process groups on one another's levels of dominance and affiliation. In addition, self- and peer ratings were stable across time and correlated with one another. Importantly, self-ratings made prior to group significantly predicted ratings (self- and peer) made within the group, with effect sizes within the medium range. Taken together, these results provide robust support for the social microcosm hypothesis and the conjecture that interpersonal style within-group therapy is reflective of broader interpersonal tendencies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Many existing defenses of group rights seem to rely on the notion of group freedom. To date, however, no adequate analysis of this notion has been offered. Group freedom is best understood in terms of processes of social categorization that are embedded in social mechanisms. Such processes often
Crabtree, Jason W.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, Catherine
Research into the relationship between stigmatization and well-being suggests that identification with a stigmatized group can buffer individuals from the adverse effects of stigma. In part, this is because social identification is hypothesized to provide a basis for social support which increases
Stewart, Warren; Lovely, Rachel
To undertake a service evaluation to assess the effect of peer social support training using two separate learning programmes, which were designed to assist prisoners to support older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities. The service evaluation used an action research approach to support planning, delivery and data collection. Eleven interviews with nine prisoners who had undertaken the peer social support training programmes and two members of prison staff (one nurse manager and one prison officer) were recorded and transcribed by the researchers. This data was coded and thematically analysed to evaluate the findings. Recommendations were made regarding the format and content of the training. The training was well received by the peer social support worker trainees and had several positive outcomes, including increased peer social support, improved relationships between peer social support workers and older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities, increased self-esteem, measured as 'social capital', among peer social support workers, and effective teamworking. The peer social support training programmes were considered to be a positive intervention and were effective in supporting peer social support roles. Recommendations for future training of prisoner peer support workers include involving existing peer social support workers in training and recruitment, and enhancing the role of peer social support workers in prisons by providing them with job descriptions. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Full Text Available With the development of social networks and online mobile communities, group recommendation systems support users’ interaction with similar interests or purposes with others. We often provide some advices to the close friends, such as listening to favorite music and sharing favorite dishes. However, users’ personalities have been ignored by the traditional group recommendation systems while the majority is satisfied. In this paper, a method of group recommendation based on external social-trust networks is proposed, which builds a group profile by analyzing not only users’ preferences, but also the social relationships between members inside and outside of the group. We employ the users’ degree of disagreement to adjust group preference rating by external information of social-trust network. Moreover, having a discussion about different social network utilization ratio, we proposed a method to work for smaller group size. The experimental results show that the proposed method has consistently higher precision and leads to satisfactory recommendations for groups.
Ponnuchamy, L.; Mathew, Baijumon K.; Mathew, Sheeba; Udayakumar, G.S.; Kalyanasundaram, S.; Ramprasad, Dharitri
Background: Support groups for families of persons with mental illness are emerging as significant components in psychosocial rehabilitation programmes. Aim: To ascertain the expectations of family members who attend family support group meetings and to find out the efficacy of such programmes. Methods: The data were collected from support group members using a semi-structured interview schedule. The study sample (n=20) was drawn from family members who attended the support group meetings regularly for a minimum period of 6 months. Data analysis was done using percentile. Results: Analysis of the data revealed that members attending the support group meetings expected to get more information about the illness, develop skills to cope with problems at home and learn skills to deal with the ill person. An important finding of the study was that the members developed a ‘feeling of togetherness’ as a result of being a member of a group with common aims. Conclusion: Participation in a support group meeting positively affects key variables in the participant's adaptation to mental illness in a relative. PMID:20814460
“Heterogeneous Social Dilemmas: The Case of Social Support” studies the level of social support between heterogeneous actors. We consider heterogeneity with respect to several individual properties: the likelihood of needing support, the costs of providing support, and the benefits from receiving
Many people including some health workers and physicians believe bottle feeding is just as good as breast feeding, even though bottle feeding poses some dangers to infants. Further, health workers in hospital often are too busy to counsel new mothers in breast feeding or are simply not trained to do so. Moreover, young women often live in areas away from their family and friends thus not living close to women with whom they are familiar and who could guide them in mastering breast feeding skills. So new mothers who want to breast feed have no support, lack confidence, and/or feel they cannot do so because they work or have other responsibilities. Support groups for new breast feeding mothers can provide them with the needed confidence to breast feed by allowing them to discuss concerns with other new mothers and an experienced leader and to learn the advantages of breast feeding, e.g., a breast fed infant is never constipated. A confident experienced woman in breast feeding is best suited to start a support group in a community. She needs to promote the group by talking to health workers and physicians and advertising at maternity hospitals, women's organizations, and health centers. Once the support group has become successful, several mothers can undergo training to start and lead new support groups. If no national breast feeding promotion organization exists to offer advice on starting a support group, the article provides addresses of international organizations. At support group meetings, mothers learn how to breast feed, how to express and store breast milk, breast feed inconspicuously in public, how their bodies work, and about child growth and development. Support group members from the Philippines, Belize, Trinidad and Tobago, Australia, and singapore share their experiences.
Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna
Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…
Porter, Eliora; Chambless, Dianne L
Little is known about the quality of socially anxious individuals' romantic relationships. In the present study, we examine associations between social anxiety and social support in such relationships. In Study 1, we collected self-report data on social anxiety symptoms and received, provided, and perceived social support from 343 undergraduates and their romantic partners. One year later couples were contacted to determine whether they were still in this relationship. Results indicated that men's social anxiety at Time 1 predicted higher rates of breakup at Time 2. Men's and women's perceived support, as well as men's provided support, were also significantly predictive of breakup. Social anxiety did not interact with any of the support variables to predict breakup. In Study 2, a subset of undergraduate couples with a partner high (n=27) or low (n=27) in social anxiety completed two 10-minute, lab-based, video-recorded social support tasks. Both partners rated their received or provided social support following the interaction, and trained observers also coded for support behaviors. Results showed that socially anxious individuals received less support from their partners during the interaction according to participant but not observer report. High and lower social anxiety couples did not differ in terms of the target's provision of support. Taken together, results suggest that social anxiety is associated with difficulties even in the context of established romantic relationships. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Vandell, Deborah Lowe
Critically examines three propositions of Harris' group socialization theory (1995, 1998) related to parents' long-term effects on children's psychological characteristics, peer groups' influences, and the nature of dyadic relationships. Maintains that available evidence is more consistent with a model of multiple socialization agents. Proposes a…
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Brumen Žarn, Zarja
Master's thesis discusses group dream work as a form of support for increasing the individual's self-awareness. Working with dreams encourages creativity, opens up the possibilities of self-knowing and helps individuals to guide their life paths. One of the fundamental concepts of social pedagogy is the empowerment of individuals for problem solving and self-development. For this purpose, social educational profession develops and uses a number of methods and approaches. Working with dreams i...
Greenaway, Katharine H.; Cichocka, Aleksandra; van Veelen, Ruth; Likki, Tiina; Branscombe, Nyla R.
Hope is an emotion that has been implicated in social change efforts, yet little research has examined whether feeling hopeful actually motivates support for social change. Study 1 (N = 274) confirmed that hope is associated with greater support for social change in two countries with different
Sherman, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Fingerman, Karen L; Schnyer, David M
Social support benefits health and well-being in older individuals, however the mechanism remains poorly understood. One proposal, the stress-buffering hypothesis states social support 'buffers' the effects of stress on health. Alternatively, the main effect hypothesis suggests social support independently promotes health. We examined the combined association of social support and stress on the aging brain. Forty healthy older adults completed stress questionnaires, a social network interview and structural MRI to investigate the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuitry, which is implicated in social and emotional processing and negatively affected by stress. Social support was positively correlated with right medial prefrontal cortical thickness while amygdala volume was negatively associated with social support and positively related to stress. We examined whether the association between social support and amygdala volume varied across stress level. Stress and social support uniquely contribute to amygdala volume, which is consistent with the health benefits of social support being independent of stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Held, Mary L
Latino immigrants encounter considerable stressors that pose risks to health and well-being during settlement in the USA. Social support serves as a protective factor that can help to buffer the negative effects of stress. Despite the importance of social support, we know little about how Latino immigrants differentially experience this protective factor. The current study analyzed data from 100 Latino immigrants residing in Tennessee. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was employed to examine variation in self-reported social support by immigrant characteristics and immigration-related factors. Females, immigrants who are not married/cohabitating, and those who reported experiencing a greater number of discrete stressors in the USA each reported lower levels of social support. Implications for practice include an increased emphasis on assessing levels of social support and designing services to strengthen support for the most vulnerable immigrants. Future research should consider a longitudinal analysis and specific types of social support.
Endo, Go; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Fukuoka, Yoshiharu; Aiba, Miyuki; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Shiratori, Yuki; Matsui, Yutaka; Doi, Nagafumi; Asada, Takashi
The loss of social support is one of the major risk factors for suicide. However, there are few empirical studies that have examined how a person's suicide ideation relates to their social support. To examine the relationship between social support and suicidal ideation. Self-report questionnaires were sent to 2,200 randomly selected adults in Japan. The questionnaire inquired the participants about the severity of suicidal ideation, the details of current perceived social support and their degree of satisfaction with this social support. Social support and related indicators were compared among three groups of participants that varied in severity of suicidal ideation. People in the group that had suicide ideation during their lives reported receiving significantly less support from their family and had greater feelings of dissatisfaction with that support than those in the other groups. Furthermore, people who had suicide ideation during the month immediately preceding the survey reported providing less support to their family, relatives or friends, as well as receiving less support from family than other groups, and having stronger feelings of dissatisfaction with social support. Our study identified a strong relationship between the severity of suicidal ideation and perceived social support.
Full Text Available Introduction: Homeless and beggar are social problem in our society. The reason of people who becomes homeless and beggar can be influenced by internal factors such as lazy to work, mental and physical illness. Meanwhile, it also can be influenced by external factors, such as economy, geography, social, education, pshycology, culture and religion. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of peer group support to perception about the homeless and beggar. Method: A quasy experimental two group pre-post test purposive sampling design was used in this study. The subjects were homeless and beggar which stay at Lingkungan Pondok Sosial (Liponsos Keputih-Surabaya for at least three day. There were 16 respondent who met to the inclusion criteria which divided into two group (controlled and treatment. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that controlled group has significance level p=0.109 and treatment group has significance level p=0.017, statistically by using Mann Whitney U Test showed p=0.021. Discussion: It can be concluded that peer group support can change the perception about the homeless and beggar who stayed at Liponsos Surabaya. Peer group support can used continuously as social activity at Liponsos.
The issue of anticipation social support is actual topic because of detection important factors for positive development of personality. Emotional bonds are getting stronger with perception of social support. Subjective feeling of positive emotions and relationships is manifest with higher range of social and mental functioning, emotional - willing stability of personality. Emotional basement of personality is emotional stability, which represent relationship with the anticipated social suppo...
Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…
BUUNK, BP; HOORENS, [No Value
This paper first presents four different conceptualizations of social support: social integration, satisfying relationships, perceived helpfulness and enacted support. Then, classic and contemporary social comparison theory and social exchange theory are analysed as they are two theoretical
Damer, Diana E.; Latimer, Kelsey M.; Porter, Sarah H.
Social anxiety, a common concern among college students, carries significant negative consequences. Group therapy is an efficient and cost-effective way to provide treatment, and cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT; Heimberg & Becker, 2002) is the most widely researched and empirically supported treatment for persons with social anxiety…
Clement, Damien; Shannon, Vanessa R
According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes' health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes' psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted. To examine injured athletes' perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support. Descriptive. Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions. 49 injured athletes. Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey. Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support. Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete's experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes' rehabilitation and well-being.
Full Text Available Introduction: Social support is the perception that one is cared for, has assistance available from significant others and its benefit is by buffering stress by influencing the ability to adjust and live with illness. Social support can uplift the quality and subjective wellbeing of people. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived social support and factors influencing it among mentally ill patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Ninety cases aged more than 18 years visiting outpatient of psychiatric department and diagnosed as a case of mental illness for at least a year were included. Instruments used were self-developed proforma and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Interview technique was used to collect the data. Results: Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family, 28% of the patients perceive social support from significant others. Regression analysis showed that the perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. It is not influenced by gender, subjective financial status and frequency of hospitalization. Conclusion: Perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family.
Idalski Carcone, April; Ellis, Deborah A; Weisz, Arlene; Naar-King, Sylvie
The aim of this research study was to examine the relationship between 4 sources of social support (support for the adolescent from family, support for the adolescent from friends, support for the caregiver from another adult, and support to the family from the health care provider) and adolescents' diabetes outcomes (illness management behavior and health status) using a diverse sample of urban adolescents. One hundred forty-one adolescents with insulin-managed diabetes and their primary caregivers completed questionnaires assessing social support and illness management behavior. Glucose meters were downloaded and hemoglobin A1c assays were obtained. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model social support informed by social ecological theory. The results of the structural equation modeling indicated that support for the caregiver from another adult was directly and positively related to support for the adolescent from family and indirectly related to better illness management. Support for the adolescent from family was directly related to better diabetes management and, through better management, to better diabetes health. Support to the family from the health care provider was not related to support for the adolescent and support to the adolescent from friends was not related to illness management, as hypothesized. This study identifies a novel target for social support intervention to improve adolescents' illness management behavior-the caregivers of adolescents with diabetes. By enhancing the social support caregivers receive from other adults in their lives, caregivers' ability to support their adolescent children with diabetes might also be improved which, in turn, improves adolescents' illness outcomes.
Hess, J; Kurth, I; Henkel, A; Panic, L; Rübben, H; Rossi Neto, R; Hess-Busch, Y
Gender reassignment surgery (GRS) can lead to discrimination. This transition makes great demands on the individual and also affects the social environment. To evaluate the social support of male-to-female (MtF) transgender people. Group A comprised 254 consecutive MtF transsexuals, who received a penile inversion vaginoplasty between 2004 and 2010. These women were surveyed retrospectively. Group B comprised 144 consecutive MtF transsexuals who presented for preoperative counselling. These patients were asked to answer the survey in advance of the planned GRS. The return rate was 46.9 % (A) and 95.1 % (B). In both groups, approximately two-thirds lived with their parents or children at ease. About 13.4 % (A) and 16.9 % (B) estimated the relationship towards their parents and one- seventh (A) or one-sixth (B) woman rated their relationship towards their children as poor. The acceptance of the parents regarding GRS was 65.6 % (A) and 77.1 % (B). In total 20 % (A) and 9.2 % (B) did not, however, accept GRS in their children. The acceptance of children regarding GRS was 64.9 % (A) and 71.1 % (B) with 10.8 % (A) and 6.7 % (B) who did not approve the decision. Social support is an important resource in the context of gender reassignment surgery. Understanding can help to improve the situation for transsexuals and to reduce consecutive healthcare utilisation.
Full Text Available We analyze two large datasets from technological networks with location and social data: user location records from an online location-based social networking service, and anonymized telecommunications data from a European cellphone operator, in order to investigate the differences between individual and group behavior with respect to physical location. We discover agreements between the two datasets: firstly, that individuals are more likely to meet with one friend at a place they have not visited before, but tend to meet at familiar locations when with a larger group. We also find that groups of individuals are more likely to meet at places that their other friends have visited, and that the type of a place strongly affects the propensity for groups to meet there. These differences between group and solo mobility has potential technological applications, for example, in venue recommendation in location-based social networks.
The CANDU Owners Group (COG) was formed in 1984 by the Canadian CANDU owning utilities and Atomic Energy of Canada limited (AECL). Participation was subsequently extended to all CANDU owners world-wide. The mandate of the COG organization is to provide a framework for co-operation, mutual assistance and exchange of information for the successful support, development, operation, maintenance and economics of CANDU nuclear electric generating stations. To meet these objectives COG established co-operative programs in two areas: 1. Station Support. 2. Research and Development. In addition, joint projects are administered by COG on a case by case basis where CANDU owners can benefit from sharing of costs
Zhou, W-X; Sornette, D; Hill, R A; Dunbar, R I M
The 'social brain hypothesis' for the evolution of large brains in primates has led to evidence for the coevolution of neocortical size and social group sizes, suggesting that there is a cognitive constraint on group size that depends, in some way, on the volume of neural material available for processing and synthesizing information on social relationships. More recently, work on both human and non-human primates has suggested that social groups are often hierarchically structured. We combine data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study. Using fractal analysis, we identify, with high statistical confidence, a discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to three: rather than a single or a continuous spectrum of group sizes, humans spontaneously form groups of preferred sizes organized in a geometrical series approximating 3-5, 9-15, 30-45, etc. Such discrete scale invariance could be related to that identified in signatures of herding behaviour in financial markets and might reflect a hierarchical processing of social nearness by human brains.
Vlasova, Vera K.; Simonova, Galina I.; Soleymani, Nassim
The urgency of the problem stated in the article is caused by the need of pedagogical support of students' social adaptation on the basis of systematicity, which is achieved if we correctly define the components of the process. The aim of the article is to determine the pedagogical support components of students' social adaptation. The leading…
Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners.......Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners....
Bouas, Kelly S.; Komorita, S. S.
Face-to-face discussion has been shown to increase cooperation behavior in social dilemmas. Two general explanations of this effect were tested: group identity and perception of consensus. Female undergraduate students (N=160) participated in four-person groups in one of four experimental conditions. Findings indicate the most plausible…
The paper begins from the claim that ontological holism is given prima facie plausibility by the apparently ineliminable role of groups in some descriptions and explanations of the social domain. If the individualist accepts the link between indispensabilty and realism, then individualism must show that groups cannot play the ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. Methods A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Results Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted.
Lipman, Ellen L; Kenny, Meghan; Jack, Susan; Cameron, Ruth; Secord, Margaret; Byrne, Carolyn
Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted.
Strange, Cecily; Fisher, Colleen; Howat, Peter; Wood, Lisa
The aim of this study was to explore the ways that mothers' groups and playgroups support families with children aged 0-5 years and foster community connectedness in newer residential communities in Perth, Western Australia. The transition to parenthood is a time of increased support need. Changing community demography has resulted in a loss of traditional support structures and an increased need for local community initiatives to support families with young children. A qualitative descriptive design was used for this initial phase of a mixed methods sequential exploratory study. Data were collected between December 2011-August 2012. Interviews and focus groups conducted with 39 mothers provided insights from 16 mothers' groups and 13 playgroups. In addition, interviews were undertaken with three child health nurses and four local government early childhood staff. For the participants in this study, mothers' groups and playgroups provided opportunities to learn about parenting, to build a supportive network, to forge friendships and a connectedness to the local community. The families who relocated often experienced isolation until new groups and social networks were found. In general, where participation in mothers' groups and playgroups facilitated relationships with others from the local community, connectedness to that community was reported by participants to be enhanced. Mothers' groups and playgroups provide important community development opportunities and appear to help reduce potential isolation for mothers with young children. The findings are of interest to nurses and other health professionals working with families with young children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a review of Facebook group pages as an educational tool for language learning. One of the primary needs of foreign language learners is to gain the opportunity to use the target language outside the classroom practice. Social media communication provides occasions for learners to receive input and produce output while engaging in negotiation of meaning. In line with this point, teachers can instigate class group pages in the social media in an attempt to provide a space for practice and communication free of the traditional pedagogic concerns of a typical classroom. The distinctive discursive behaviour of Facebook group pages helps one to achieve that attempt. In light of these views, the researcher, in this study, formed a group page to understand the dynamics of social media environment as a supporting tool for language classrooms. This paper addresses various features which make social media a unique place to contribute to the sense of class community and collaboration outside the classroom. The face-to face classroom is a controlled communication event, that is, teachers and students are required to be in the classroom at the same time but a teacher’s use of Facebook is an attempt to communicate with students outside of that controlled environment where teachers can meet students in their territory. When compared to its disadvantages, the advantages of setting a class group page on the social media outweigh. Students can feel motivated to contribute to an online community if they subsequently receive support or help. It also leads students to feel that they are being supported by a whole portion of their class community and promotes students’ desire to maintain a valued relationship with others. Students continue developing and strengthening relationships with others.
Full Text Available In recent decades, scientific understanding of the many roles of oxytocin in social behavior has advanced tremendously. The focus of this research has been on maternal attachments and reproductive pair-bonds, and much less is known about the substrates of sociality outside of reproductive contexts. It is now apparent that oxytocin influences many aspects of social behavior including recognition, trust, empathy, and other components of the behavioral repertoire of social species. This review provides a comparative perspective on the contributions of oxytocin to life in mammalian social groups. We provide background on the functions of oxytocin in maternal attachments and the early social environment, and give an overview of the role of oxytocin circuitry in support of different mating systems. We then introduce peer relationships in group-living rodents as a means for studying the importance of oxytocin in non-reproductive affiliative behaviors. We review species differences in oxytocin receptor distributions in solitary and group-living species of South American tuco-tucos and in African mole-rats, as well as singing mice. We discuss variation in oxytocin receptor levels with seasonal changes in social behavior in female meadow voles, and the effects of oxytocin manipulations on peer huddling behavior. Finally, we discuss avenues of promise for future investigation, and relate current findings to research in humans and non-human primates. There is growing evidence that oxytocin is involved in social selectivity, including increases in aggression toward social outgroups and decreased huddling with unfamiliar individuals, which may support existing social structures or relationships at the expense of others. Oxytocin’s effects reach beyond maternal attachment and pair bonds to play a role in affiliative behavior underlying friendships, organization of broad social structures, and maintenance of established social relationships with individuals
Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul
A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness.
The Recovery Approach has been adopted by mental health services worldwide and peer support constitutes one of the main elements of recovery-based services. This article discusses the relevancy of recovery and peer support to mental health social work practice through an exploration of social work ethics and values. Furthermore, it provides an exploration of how peer support can be maximized in groupwork to assist the social work clinician to promote recovery and well-being. More specifically, this article discusses how the narrative therapy concepts of "retelling" and "witnessing" can be used in the context of peer support to promote recovery, and also how social constructionist, dialogical, and systemic therapy approaches can assist the social work practitioner to enhance peer support in recovery oriented groupwork. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Læssøe, Jeppe; Gundelach, Peter
outlines two examples. The first shows that energy research about the relation between lifestyles and energy consumption has to be aware of the change in social groups from stable communities towards partial imagined communities. Rituals and social signals are important means to constitute and maintain...... such communities. The acceptance or rejection of green consumption is influenced by this social dynamic. The second example attacks the widespread assumption among energy-behaviour researchers and administrators that the only way to change peoples behaviour goes from information to action. Based on psychological...
Armengol, C G
(a) To design and pilot a culturally sensitive and neuropsychologically informed support group addressing barriers to emotional, social, and vocational adjustment among high-level functioning Hispanic/Latino TBI survivors. (b) To determine efficacy through outcome measures. Ten-week multimodal, culturally sensitive support group focusing on TBI sequelae education, relaxation techniques, coping skills development, behavioral goal setting and monitoring, and family participation. Six Spanish-speaking high-level functioning TBI survivors aged 20-42. Outpatient neuropsychological assessment and treatment center. Beck Hopelessness Scale; Purpose in Life Test; Perceived Self-Regulatory Ability Inventory. Participants' sense of personal destiny and feelings of hopelessness improved, as evidenced by objective measures and self-report. A telephone interview a year later indicated that gains had been maintained, and most participants were vocationally active. Results underscore the importance of considering linguistic and ethnic factors in developing support groups.
Hurst, R.; Hale, B.; Smith, D.; Collins, D.
Objectives—To investigate psychological correlates of exercise dependence in experienced and inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Secondary objectives included measuring social physique anxiety, bodybuilding identity, and social support among bodybuilders and weightlifters. Methods—Thirty five experienced bodybuilders, 31 inexperienced bodybuilders, and 23 weightlifters completed the bodybuilding dependence scale, a bodybuilding version of the athletic identity measurement scale, the social physique anxiety scale, and an adapted version of the social support survey-clinical form. Results—A between subjects multivariate analysis of variance was calculated on the scores of the three groups of lifters for the four questionnaires. Univariate F tests and follow up tests indicated that experienced bodybuilders scored significantly higher than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters on bodybuilding dependence (pbodybuilding identity (pbodybuilders exhibit more exercise dependence, show greater social support behaviour, and experience less social physique anxiety than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Key Words: bodybuilding; exercise dependence; social physical anxiety; social support; athletic identity PMID:11131230
Full Text Available Social exclusion is a wider concept than poverty and includes not only material conditions but also inability to participate in economic, social, political and cultural life. The essence of social exclusion is social relationships (more exactly breaking off relationships, which may mean not only pushing away some members of the society, but also breaking off relationships with the society from the side of a person himself/herself. The reasons of origin of social exclusion may be legal, political, economical, social and cultural. Nowadays social exclusion is predetermined by social-economic factors. According to Poviliūnas (2001, the problems of children’s social exclusion may be solved ensuring proper education, care of public health, safety and minimal life standard. Growing aggression and violence of schoolchildren and their social exclusion are nowadays an important issue of political debate and media reports. Often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during the period of adolescence. The risk also depends on the social status of their family in the society and the relationship of the family members. The aim of the article is to identify characteristic features of schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion and analyze social support provided for them. A quantitative research was carried out to achieve the aim. The method of data collection is a questionnaire. 105 teachers working in 3 secondary schools in Lithuania participated in the research. The research results revealed that most often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during adolescence period. They are characterized as incommunicative, unsociable, passive, and shy, do not trust others, are vulnerable, have learning problems and avoid collaborative activities. These schoolchildren usually come from families of social risk or single parent families. The support provided at school by teachers to schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion
De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Rosaci, Domenico; Sarné, Giuseppe M L
Understanding the dynamics behind group formation and evolution in social networks is considered an instrumental milestone to better describe how individuals gather and form communities, how they enjoy and share the platform contents, how they are driven by their preferences/tastes, and how their behaviors are influenced by peers. In this context, the notion of compactness of a social group is particularly relevant. While the literature usually refers to compactness as a measure to merely determine how much members of a group are similar among each other, we argue that the mutual trustworthiness between the members should be considered as an important factor in defining such a term. In fact, trust has profound effects on the dynamics of group formation and their evolution: individuals are more likely to join with and stay in a group if they can trust other group members. In this paper, we propose a quantitative measure of group compactness that takes into account both the similarity and the trustworthiness among users, and we present an algorithm to optimize such a measure. We provide empirical results, obtained from the real social networks EPINIONS and CIAO, that compare our notion of compactness versus the traditional notion of user similarity, clearly proving the advantages of our approach.
Full Text Available The issue of anticipation social support is actual topic because of detection important factors for positive development of personality. Emotional bonds are getting stronger with perception of social support. Subjective feeling of positive emotions and relationships is manifest with higher range of social and mental functioning, emotional - willing stability of personality. Emotional basement of personality is emotional stability, which represent relationship with the anticipated social support. The lack of social support make a negative influence on personality development and personality traits. Positive emotional relationsthips with parents are important for healthy growth of personality (Filadelfiová, 2001; Arrive, 2004; Vágnerová, 2000; Langmeier & Křejčířová, 2006; Grun, 2011; Kraus & Poláčková, 2001; Matulník, 2002; Matějček & Dytrych, 2002. The meaning of social support and partner's love is confirmed with research. The meaning of social support in adolescence is replaced from parents to life partner. Strong emotional relationship motivates, integrates and regulates (Vágnerová, 2000. Absence of positive and permanent emotional relationship hold the positive soul steadiness. The signs of soul unsteadiness are destruction of self-esteem and self-image which manifest unstable emotionality. Subjective survival of emotional and social disharmony influence mental problems - neurotic disorders, problems with adaptation, emotional and social problems (Kondáš, 2002. The goal of research was find out relationship of social support regarding with emotional-willing stability and adolescence relationships in their family. We were interested in level of social support and level of emotional- willing stability and perception of quality family relationships regarding with gender and actual partnership. The research sample contained with N= 120 respondents (men = 33, women = 87 in age 19 - 24 years old, M = 23, 97. The next criterium of
Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.
Zhao, Zhenyuan; Calderón, J. P.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Guannan; Fenn, Dan; Sornette, Didier; Crane, Riley; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.
Despite the many works on contagion phenomena in both well-mixed systems and heterogeneous networks, there is still a lack of understanding of the intermediate regime where social group structures evolve on a similar time scale to individual-level transmission. We address this question by considering the process of transmission through a model population comprising social groups which follow simple dynamical rules for growth and breakup. Despite the simplicity of our model, the profiles produced bear a striking resemblance to a wide variety of real-world examples—in particular, empirical data that we have obtained for social (i.e., YouTube), financial (i.e., currency markets), and biological (i.e., colds in schools) systems. The observation of multiple resurgent peaks and abnormal decay times is qualitatively reproduced within the model simply by varying the time scales for group coalescence and fragmentation. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of the system and highlight a novel transition which arises as a result of the social group dynamics.
Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.
With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds
sound, ontologically congruent methodology to support their social-learning ..... role in strengthening democratisation of the decision-making of the participants. ... powers of the contextual social structures and cultural systems (Lindley, 2014). ... participatory practice in integrated water resource management in South Africa.
Gayer-Anderson, C; Morgan, C
Background. There is strong evidence that those with a long-standing psychotic disorder have fewer social contacts and less social support than comparison groups. There is less research on the extent of social contacts and support prior to or at the onset of psychosis. In the light of recent evidence implicating a range of social experiences and contexts at the onset of psychosis, it is relevant to establish whether social networks and support diminished before or at the time of onset and whether the absence of such supports might contribute to risk, either directly or indirectly. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review of this literature to establish what is currently known about the relationship between social networks, support and early psychosis. Methods. We identified all studies investigating social networks and support in first episode psychosis samples and in general population samples with measures of psychotic experiences or schizotype by conducting systematic searches of electronic databases using pre-defined search terms and criteria. Findings were synthesized using non-quantitative approaches. Results. Thirty-eight papers were identified that met inclusion criteria. There was marked methodological heterogeneity, which limits the capacity to draw direct comparisons. Nonetheless, the existing literature suggests social networks (particularly close friends) and support diminished both among first episode samples and among non-clinical samples reporting psychotic experiences or with schizotype traits, compared with varying comparison groups. These differences may be more marked for men and for those from minority ethnic populations. Conclusions. Tentatively, reduced social networks and support appear to pre-date onset of psychotic disorder. However, the substantial methodological heterogeneity among the existing studies makes comparisons difficult and suggests a need for more robust and comparable studies on networks, support and early psychosis.
O'Connell, Maria J; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A
This study examined social network structure and function among a sample of 460 homeless veterans who participated in an experimental trial of the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. Participants were randomly assigned to HUD-VASH (housing subsidies and case management), case management only, or standard care. Mixed-model longitudinal analysis was used to compare treatment groups on social network outcomes over 18 months. Veterans in HUD-VASH reported significantly greater increases in social support than veterans in the two other groups, as well as greater frequency of contacts, availability of tangible and emotional support, and satisfaction with nonkin relationships over time. These gains largely involved relationships with providers and other veterans encountered in treatment. Supported housing may play a pivotal role in fostering constructive new relationships with persons associated with service programs but may have a more limited impact on natural support networks.
Berry, Nina M.; Lee, Marinna; Pickett, Marc; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.
The Seldon software toolkit combines concepts from agent-based modeling and social science to create a computationally social dynamic model for group recruitment. The underlying recruitment model is based on a unique three-level hybrid agent-based architecture that contains simple agents (level one), abstract agents (level two), and cognitive agents (level three). This uniqueness of this architecture begins with abstract agents that permit the model to include social concepts (gang) or institutional concepts (school) into a typical software simulation environment. The future addition of cognitive agents to the recruitment model will provide a unique entity that does not exist in any agent-based modeling toolkits to date. We use social networks to provide an integrated mesh within and between the different levels. This Java based toolkit is used to analyze different social concepts based on initialization input from the user. The input alters a set of parameters used to influence the values associated with the simple agents, abstract agents, and the interactions (simple agent-simple agent or simple agent-abstract agent) between these entities. The results of phase-1 Seldon toolkit provide insight into how certain social concepts apply to different scenario development for inner city gang recruitment.
Gjerdingen, Dwenda; McGovern, Patricia; Attanasio, Laura; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes
The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and employment and whether it is mediated by social support. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 700 US women who gave birth in 2005 and completed 2 surveys in the Listening to Mothers series, the first in early 2006, an average of 7.3 months postpartum, and the second an average of 13.4 months postpartum. A dichotomous measure of depressive symptoms was calculated from the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and women reported their employment status and levels of social support from partners and others. We modeled the association between maternal employment and depressive symptoms using multivariate logistic regression, including social support and other control variables. Maternal employment and high support from a nonpartner source were both independently associated with significantly lower odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.35 and P = .011, and AOR, 0.40, P = .011, respectively). These relationships remained significant after controlling for mothers' baseline mental and physical health, babies' health, and demographic characteristics (AOR, 0.326 and P = .015, and AOR, 0.267 and P = .025, respectively). Maternal employment and strong social support, particularly nonpartner support, were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Clinicians should encourage mothers of young children who are at risk for depression to consider ways to optimize their employment circumstances and "other" social support.
Koball, Afton M; Jester, Dylan J; Domoff, Sarah E; Kallies, Kara J; Grothe, Karen B; Kothari, Shanu N
Support following bariatric surgery is vital to ensure long-term postoperative success. Many individuals undergoing bariatric surgery are turning to online modalities, especially the popular social media platform Facebook, to access support groups and pages. Despite evidence suggesting that the majority of patients considering bariatric surgery are utilizing online groups, little is known about the actual content of these groups. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a content analysis of bariatric surgery support groups and pages on Facebook. Online via Facebook, independent academic medical center, United States. Data from bariatric surgery-related Facebook support groups and pages were extracted over a 1-month period in 2016. Salient content themes (e.g., progress posts, depression content, eating behaviors) were coded reliably (all κ> .70). More than 6,800 posts and replies were coded. Results indicated that seeking recommendations (11%), providing information or recommendations (53%), commenting on changes since surgery (19%), and lending support to other members (32%) were the most common types of posts. Content surrounding anxiety, eating behaviors, depression, body image, weight bias, and alcohol was found less frequently. Online bariatric surgery groups can be used to receive support, celebrate physical and emotional accomplishments, provide anecdotal accounts of the "bariatric lifestyle" for preoperative patients, and comment on challenges with mental health and experiences of weight bias. Providers should become acquainted with the content commonly found in online groups and exercise caution in recommending these platforms to information-seeking patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A student-facilitated community-based support group initiative for Mental Health ... was a collaborative partnership between a local University Psychology Department ... users, Rehabilitation, Primary Health Care, Social support, Stigmatisation ...
supplement for offering support to service users in PHC settings. The group assisted ... training, as well as psychological and social support focussed on improving ... helping service users cope with their mental illness and improve their quality.
Mankowski, Eric S.; Wyer, Robert S.
Though research is exploratory, it suggests ways in which individuals' a priori beliefs in available social support might affect their reactions to new information and the mechanisms that could underlie the maintenance of these beliefs in light of that information. Evaluates implications for the stability of perceived support availability. (LSR)
Voils, Corrine I; Allaire, Jason C; Olsen, Maren K; Steffens, David C; Hoyle, Rick H; Bosworth, Hayden B
Research with nondepressed adults suggests that social networks and social support are stable over the life course until very late age. This may not hold true for older adults with depression. We examined baseline status and trajectories of social networks and social support at the group and individual levels over five years. The sample consisted of 339 initially depressed adults aged 59 or older (M = 69 years) enrolled in a naturalistic study of depression. Measures of social ties, including social network size, frequency of interaction, instrumental support, and subjective support, were administered at baseline and yearly for five years. Latent growth curve models were estimated for each aspect of social ties. On average, social network size and frequency of interaction were low at baseline and remained stable over time, whereas subjective and instrumental support were high at baseline yet increased over time. There was significant variation in the direction and rate of change over time, which was not predicted by demographic or clinical factors. Because increasing social networks may be ineffective and may not be possible for a portion of people who already receive maximal support, interventions to increase social support may only work for a portion of older depressed adults.
Carter, Sid; Cook, J.; Sutton-Boulton, G.; Ward, V.; Clarke, S.
The experiences of non-disabled children growing up with a sibling with an intellectual disability vary considerably, with reported impact ranging from increased mental health problems through evaluations of life enhancement. However, there is evidence that the net impact is neutral to positive, which was supported by the findings of this report of a service evaluation survey. The value of providing support to those young siblings is however clear. An established method of support is within a...
Stephen H. Forbes
Full Text Available Recent developments in social insect research have challenged the need for close kinship as a prerequisite for the evolution of stable group living. In a model communal bee species, Lasioglossum (Chilalictus hemichalceum, previous allozyme work indicated that groups of cooperating adult females are not relatives. Yet at any given time, not all group members perform the risky task of foraging. We previously hypothesized that tolerance for non-foragers was a component of extended parental care, previously known only for kin based social systems. DNA microsatellites were used to study colony genetic structure in order to test this hypothesis. Microsatellite polymorphism was substantial (He = 0.775. Overall intracolony relatedness, mainly of immatures, was low but significant in nine, late season nests (r = 0.136 plus or minus0.023, indicating that broods contain five to six unrelated sib ships. Detailed analyses of kinship between pairs of individuals revealed that most pairs were unrelated and most related pairs were siblings. Mothers are absent for 89-91% of the developing immature females, and 97% of developing males. Alternatively, 46% of adult females had neither sibs nor offspring in their nests. These findings indicate that the extended parental care model applies broadly to both kin based and nonkin based social systems in the Hymenoptera.
Gudbergsson, Saevar B; Fosså, Sophie D; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Dahl, Alv A
Cross-cultural studies of comparable patients can identify differences of health care services and point to issues of possible improvement. In this cross-sectional study we compared self-reported received and needed social support at the workplace of disease-free breast cancer survivors (BCSs) stage I from Norway and Finland. Age-matched samples of 135 BCSs from Norway and 148 from Finland were examined using a questionnaire including socio-demographic factors, employment data, measurements of social support at work from supervisors, colleagues and the occupational health service (OHS), and several other measurements. Finnish BCSs had significantly higher education and a higher rate of full-time employment than Norwegian ones. With adjustment for education and work time, Finnish compared to Norwegian BCSs reported significantly less received social support from supervisors, while they received significantly more social support from OHS. No differences were observed in received support from colleagues between Finnish and Norwegian BCSs. Somatic health was most strongly associated with received and needed support from supervisors, colleagues and OHS. The differences in received and needed social support at work observed between Norwegian and Finnish BCSs treated for stage I disease challenge strengthening of OHS for Norwegian BCSs and increased attention by supervisors in Finnish BCSs.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the self-esteem and social support of the elderly residing in boarding centers and living in their homes. Materials and Methods: In this causal-comparative study, 120 elderly individuals residing in boarding facilities and living he their homes in the city of Shiraz were selected through available sampling and responded to demographic, social support, and self-esteem questionnaires.Results: The findings show that there was a significant difference between self-esteem and social support in both groups of the elderly residing in their homes and those living in boarding centers.Conclusion: The elderly living at home have greater self-esteem and social support than the elderly residing in boarding facilities.
Peek, M Kristen; Howrey, Bret T; Ternent, Rafael Samper; Ray, Laura A; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J
There is little research on the effects of stressors and social support on frailty. Older Mexican Americans, in particular, are at higher risk of medical conditions, such as diabetes, that could contribute to frailty. Given that the Mexican American population is rapidly growing in the United States, it is important to determine whether there are modifiable social factors related to frailty in this older group. To address the influence of social support and stressors on frailty among older Mexican Americans, we utilized five waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) to examine the impact of stressors and social support on frailty over a 12-year period. Using a modified version of the Fried and Walston Frailty Index, we estimated the effects of social support and stressors on frailty over time using trajectory modeling (SAS 9.2, PROC TRAJ). We first grouped respondents according to one of three trajectories: low, progressive moderate, and progressive high frailty. Second, we found that the effects of stressors and social support on frailty varied by trajectory and by type of stressor. Health-related stressors and financial strain were related to increases in frailty over time, whereas social support was related to less-steep increases in frailty. Frailty has been hypothesized to reflect age-related physiological vulnerability to stressors, and the analyses presented indicate partial support for this hypothesis in an older sample of Mexican Americans. Future research needs to incorporate measures of stressors and social support in examining those who become frail, especially in minority populations.
Stelter, Reinhard; Nielsen, Glen; Wikman, Johan Michael
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives...... study included six participants. The group-coaching intervention had a significant effect on the scores for social recovery and general well-being. The qualitative study showed that groupcoaching participants valued the shared process of meaning-making as especially valuable. Narrative......-collaborative group coaching can be understood as a community psychological intervention that helps to support the development of durable social networks and the increase of social capital....
Malik, Sumaira H; Coulson, Neil S
Current research shows that online support groups can offer people affected by infertility a unique and valuable source of social support. However, to date most research has focused on the experiences of people who post messages to online infertility support groups; in comparison, little is known about how "lurkers" (i.e., those individuals who read messages but do not post messages) use and benefit from online infertility support groups. The purpose of the present study was to compare the use and experience of online infertility support groups between lurkers and posters. A total of 295 participants who were recruited from several online infertility support groups completed an online questionnaire containing questions about their use and experience of online support groups and measures of loneliness, social support, marital satisfaction, and perceived infertility-related stress. Differences between lurkers and posters were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and χ or Fisher exact tests. Results revealed that compared with posters, lurkers visited the online support groups less often and scored significantly lower in overall satisfaction with the online support group. However, both lurkers and posters reported gaining a range of unique benefits from access to an online support group. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in loneliness, social support, infertility-related stress, and marital satisfaction between lurkers and posters. These findings suggest that reading messages posted to online support groups may be as beneficial as interacting with the group.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to assess the relationship between the environment and mentally retarded persons. Material and methods: Information referring to social support of mentally retarded persons is a source material collected on the base of the data included in the Polish and foreign literature. The issues under discussion related to the following problems: social integration of persons with intellectual disabilities in a family and local environment, social functioning of people with mild intellectual disability, social rehabilitation of people with moderate, severe and profound intellectual disability and specific contact with people with disabilities. Results: For a person with an intellectual disability, the family is the source of acquisition of basic social skills that give him the opportunity for further development and performing certain social roles in a sense of safety. Full acceptance of the intellectually disabled, may dismiss their sense of shame and fear, and instill the satisfaction of belonging to a social community. Conclusions: Full social acceptance of people with intellectual disabilities is the basis for their assimilation and social functioning.
Bilgin, Okan; Tas, Ibrahim
This research investigated the effects of perceived social support and psychological resilience on social media addiction among university students. The research group was composed of 503 university students. The ages of participant students varied between 17 and 31 years old. 340 (67.6%) of the participants are female and 163 (32.4%) of them are…
Social media has been used increasingly as part of nursing education. Nurse educators at a large, multisite teaching hospital used social media to support clinical teaching. A series of educational images was created by nurse educators and shared across Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. This campaign coincided with in-unit clinical education. Nurse educators can consider using social media as an adjunct to clinical teaching, especially in large hospital settings. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(12):541-542. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Kreijns, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A; Jochems, Wim; Van Buuren, Hans
The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This "one-sided" educational focus largely determines the set of requirements in the design of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments resulting in functional CSCL environments. In contrast, our research is aimed at the design and implementation of sociable CSCL environments which may increase the likelihood that a sound social space will emerge. We use a theoretical framework that is based upon an ecological approach to social interaction, centering on the concept of social affordances, the concept of the sociability of CSCL environments, and social presence theory. The hypothesis is that the higher the sociability, the more likely that social interaction will take place or will increase, and the more likely that this will result in an emerging sound social space. In the present research, the variables of interest are sociability, social space, and social presence. This study deals with the construction and validation of three instruments to determine sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborating groups. The findings suggest that the instruments have potential to be useful as measures for the respective variables. However, it must be realized that these measures are "first steps."
Li, Yu-Chen; Meng, Ya-Jing; Yuan, Min-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Ren, Zheng-Jia; Qiu, Chang-Jian; Zhang, Wei
To evaluate the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on social anxiety disorders (SAD). A total of 50 patients with SAD were recruited in this study. A survey containing the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS),the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ),the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire (FNE),the social support rating scale (SSRS),the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ),and the egna minnen barndoms uppfostran (EMBU) was administered before and (one week) after the GCBT,including in the 50 healthy controls. About 21 patients completed the eight-week GCBT (once a week,2 h a session). Follow-up surveys were conducted on 40 patients (22 patients treated with GCBT and 18 untreated) over a 1-5 year period. Significant differences were found between the SAD patients and healthy controls in thinking mode,personality characteristics,social support,parental rearing styles,and social anxiety symptoms. Significant decrease in social anxiety symptom ( t =4.06, P =0.000) , negative automatic thoughts ( t =4.58, P =0.000) and fear for rejection ( t =3.85, P =0.000) were observed after the GCBT therapy. Such improvement was positively correlated with subjective social support ( r =0.361, P =0.022) ,and negatively correlated with rejection of father ( r =-0.431, P =0.005) . There was also statistical difference between the patients with and without the GCBT therapy ( P =0.033) . GCBT treatment can relieve SAD symptoms by changing the negative cognitive of SAD patients. Social support and rejection of father affects the prognosis of SAD.
Hutchins, Susan G; Kemple, William G; Kleinman, David L; Hocevar, Susan P
An Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) is a new capability mix that combines the combat power of three surface combatants and one submarine with an Amphibious Readiness Group/ Marine Expeditionary Unit...
Choi, Min-Je; Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sukwon; Kwon, Bum Chul; Yi, Ji Soo; Choo, Jaegul; Huh, Jina
While online health social networks (OHSNs) serve as an effective platform for patients to fulfill their various social support needs, predicting the needs of users and providing tailored information remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to discriminate important features for identifying users' social support needs based on knowledge gathered from survey data. This study also provides guidelines for a technical framework, which can be used to predict users' social support needs based on raw data collected from OHSNs. We initially conducted a Web-based survey with 184 OHSN users. From this survey data, we extracted 34 features based on 5 categories: (1) demographics, (2) reading behavior, (3) posting behavior, (4) perceived roles in OHSNs, and (5) values sought in OHSNs. Features from the first 4 categories were used as variables for binary classification. For the prediction outcomes, we used features from the last category: the needs for emotional support, experience-based information, unconventional information, and medical facts. We compared 5 binary classifier algorithms: gradient boosting tree, random forest, decision tree, support vector machines, and logistic regression. We then calculated the scores of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) to understand the comparative effectiveness of the used features. The best performance was AUC scores of 0.89 for predicting users seeking emotional support, 0.86 for experience-based information, 0.80 for unconventional information, and 0.83 for medical facts. With the gradient boosting tree as our best performing model, we analyzed the strength of individual features in predicting one's social support need. Among other discoveries, we found that users seeking emotional support tend to post more in OHSNs compared with others. We developed an initial framework for automatically predicting social support needs in OHSNs using survey data. Future work should involve nonsurvey
Leeves, Sylvia; Banerjee, Robin
Social support-seeking is recognised as an important strategy used by children to cope with negative emotions. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge about children's perceptions of different sources of social support, and the associations that these perceptions have with individual differences in socio-emotional functioning. The…
Timmerman, IGH; Emanuels-Zuurveen, ES; Emmelkamp, PMG
The development of a brief measure to assess satisfaction with obtained social support using Simultaneous Components Analysis (SCA) is described. In the first study the component structure of the Social Support Questionnaire (Van Sonderen, 1991) was determined in a sample of men (n = 401) and women
Carter, Sid; Cook, James; Sutton-Boulton, Gary; Ward, Vicki; Clarke, Steve
The experiences of non-disabled children growing up with a sibling with an intellectual disability vary considerably, with reported impact ranging from increased mental health problems through evaluations of life enhancement. However, there is evidence that the net impact is neutral to positive, which was supported by the findings of this report…
Shen, Sheng-Feng; Akçay, Erol; Rubenstein, Dustin R
Conflicts of interest over resources or reproduction among individuals in a social group have long been considered to result in automatic and universal costs to group living. However, exploring how social conflict varies with group size has produced mixed empirical results. Here we develop a model that generates alternative predictions for how social conflict should vary with group size depending on the type of benefits gained from being in a social group. We show that a positive relationship between social conflict and group size is favored when groups form primarily for the benefits of sociality but not when groups form mainly for accessing group-defended resources. Thus, increased social conflict in animal societies should not be viewed as an automatic cost of larger social groups. Instead, studying the relationship between social conflict and the types of grouping benefits will be crucial for understanding the evolution of complex societies.
Background and aims Most studies have regarded smartphone addiction as a condition stemming from individuals' psychological issues, so research has rarely examined it in relation to a lack of social resources and its social impacts. However, this study reinterprets smartphone addiction as a social problem stemming from a lack of offline social networks and resulting in a decline of social engagement. Methods This study drew on a survey of 2,000 children in Korea consisting of 991 males and 1,009 females with an average age of 12 years old. Using the STATA 14 structural equation modeling program, this study examined the relationships between children's lack of social networks, smartphone addiction, and social engagement. Results Social network variables, such as formal organizational membership, quality of relationship with parents, size of the peer group, and peer support, decrease smartphone addiction. Simply having good relationships and reciprocal feelings with peers do not have any influence on the smartphone addiction. The more the children become addicted to smartphones, the less they participate in social engagement. Discussion and conclusions This study provides a new understanding of smartphone addiction by focusing on its social aspects, augmenting prior studies that have addressed psychological factors. Findings suggest that children's lack of social networks may inhibit comfortable social interactions and feelings of support in the offline environment, which can heighten their desire to escape to smartphones. These children, unlike non-addicts, may not take advantage of the media to enrich their social lives and increase their level of social engagement.
Ferguson, Kristen; Mang, Colin; Frost, Lorraine
In this paper, we explore how the frequency of utilization of social supports is related to teacher demographics, stress factors, job satisfaction, career intent, career commitment, and the perception of a stigma attached to teacher stress. Using data from self-report questionnaires (N = 264) from teachers in northern Ontario, we found that…
Woodley, Carolyn; Meredith, CaAtherine
Views about the role of Facebook and other social networking sites in education are extremely varied. Facebook threatens academic success and yet "certain kinds of Facebook use" can support study; indeed, Facebooking students may perform better than their unwired peers (Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe 2007). Facebook is emphatically a…
Claudia Josefina Arias
Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.
Vonderheid, Susan C; Carrie, S Klima; Norr, Kathleen F; Grady, Mary Alice; Westdahl, Claire M
Centering Pregnancy, an innovative group model of prenatal care, shows promise to reduce persistent adverse maternal-infant outcomes and contain costs. Because this innovation requires systemwide change, clinics reported needing support enrolling women into groups and obtaining organizational buy-in. This study used the 3-step social marketing communication strategy to help clinic staff identify key customers and customer-specific barriers to adopting or supporting Centering Pregnancy. They developed targeted information to reduce barriers and built skills in communicating with different customers through role-playing. Findings provide practical information for others to use this communication strategy to improve implementation of Centering Pregnancy.
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the degree to which social media influence or support the learning process among students. The research was complex, involving three international panels, comprising students from Poland, China and Romania. Although intercultural differences between the three countries are evident, the attitudes and perceptions of the usefulness of social media in learning activities tend to be homogeneous, revealing not just the extensive use of this worldwide phenomenon amongst young people, but also its significance. Social media have impacted greatly on the way people relate, both positively and negatively. This research focuses on the analysis of the use of social networking in the process of training and self-training in youth education.
Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; van Busschbach, J. T.; van der Gaag, M.; Stant, A. D.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.
Objective: To investigate the effect of a (minimally) guided peer support group (GPSG) for people with psychosis on social network, social support, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and quality of life, and to evaluate the intervention and its economic consequences. Method: In a multi-center randomized
Medeiros, L.; Bosse, T.
Social media are an effective means for people to share everyday problems with their peers. Although this often leads to empathic responses which help alleviate the experienced stress, such peer support is not always available. As an alternative solution for such situations, this paper explores the
Wayment, Heidi A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
Examines the types of social support that lesbian and heterosexual women receive from their social networks and the link between support and psychological well-being. Results indicate that both groups reported receiving equivalent overall amounts of support from their social networks, and that coupled women reported greater well-being than single…
Counsellors have been identified as a group of professionals at elevated risk of burnout in general and emotional exhaustion in particular. Considering the nature of the illness, ... the quality of the services they provide. Key words: Emotional exhaustion, perceived social support, burnout syndrome, demographic variables.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A
Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Abstract. Existing work on the effects of social network sites (SNS) on well-being has often stressed that SNS can help people gain social support from their online networks, which positively affects their well-being. However, the majority of studies in this area have been cross-sectional in nature and/or relied on student samples. Using data from six waves of a longitudinal study with a representative sample of Dutch Internet users, we first examined whether users and nonusers of SNS differ in online social support and well-being (as indicated by life satisfaction and stress). In a second step, we investigated in more detail how SNS use – more specifically, asking for advice and the number of strong ties on these SNS – are related to online social support, stress, and satisfaction with life. Overall, our results provide no evidence for SNS use and online social support affecting either stress or life satisfaction. SNS users reported more online social support than nonusers did, but also higher levels of stress; the two groups did not differ in overall life satisfaction. With regard to the underlying processes, we found positive cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between asking for advice on SNS and online social support, indicating that SNS can be an effective tool for receiving social support. However, online social support was not related to higher life satisfaction or reduced stress 6 months later; instead, it seems that SNS users with lower life satisfaction and/or higher stress seek more social support online by asking for advice on SNS. PMID:29147141
Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.
Frans van Dijk
The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the `family' and the `community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on so...
Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van
The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group
Kreijns, C.J.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Buuren, van H.
The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group
Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Bargiela-Flórez, Beatriz; López-Coronado, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J P C
This article aims to characterize the different types of Facebook and Twitter groups for different mental diseases, their purposes, and their functions. We focused the search on depressive disorders, dementia, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and examined the Facebook (www.facebook.com) and Twitter (www.twitter.com) groups. We used four assessment criteria: (1) purpose, (2) type of creator, (3) telehealth content, and (4) free-text responses in surveys and interviews. We observed a total of 357 Parkinson groups, 325 dementia groups, 853 Alzheimer groups, and 1127 depression groups on Facebook and Twitter. Moreover, we analyze the responses provided by different users. The survey and interview responses showed that many people were interested in using social networks to support and help in the fight against these diseases. The results indicate that social networks are acceptable by users in terms of simplicity and utility. People use them for finding support, information, self-help, advocacy and awareness, and for collecting funds. © The Author(s) 2014.
Mitchell, Amanda M; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Christian, Lisa M
Adverse perinatal health outcomes are heightened among women with psychosocial risk factors, including childhood adversity and a lack of social support. Biological aging could be one pathway by which such outcomes occur. However, data examining links between psychosocial factors and indicators of biological aging among perinatal women are limited. The current study examined the associations of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), childhood trauma, and current social support with telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a sample of 81 women assessed in early, mid, and late pregnancy as well as 7-11 weeks postpartum. Childhood SES was defined as perceived childhood social class and parental educational attainment. Measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and average telomere length in PBMCs. Per a linear mixed model, telomere length did not change across pregnancy and postpartum visits; thus, subsequent analyses defined telomere length as the average across all available timepoints. ANCOVAs showed group differences by perceived childhood social class, maternal and paternal educational attainment, and current family social support, with lower values corresponding with shorter telomeres, after adjustment for possible confounds. No effects of childhood trauma or social support from significant others or friends on telomere length were observed. Findings demonstrate that while current SES was not related to telomeres, low childhood SES, independent of current SES, and low family social support were distinct risk factors for cellular aging in women. These data have relevance for understanding potential mechanisms by which early life deprivation of socioeconomic and relationship resources affect maternal health. In turn, this has potential significance for intergenerational transmission of telomere length. The predictive value of
Clementine M. Msengi
Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to describe a single multicultural women’s support program known as the Women of Care Project. The program was conducted in a community in the Midwest region of the United States and began in 2005 with a grant from the Open Meadows Foundation. Participants were volunteers who were recruited for the program through pre-existing access points to the Bosnian, African, and Hispanic communities, such as ethnic churches, markets, and key contacts within these communities. The support group format for the Women of Care Program was an open group format in which participants were encouraged to invite their friends to join. The initial support group consisted of women from various cultural origins, including Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania, Russia, Sierra Leone, Brazil, China, Taiwan, India, Nepal, Bosnia, Mexico, and the United States. This case study was based on focus group discussions, as well as observations and completion of evaluation forms. To analyze data, the focus group discussion notes and summaries were rearranged into recurring themes. The evaluation provided further feedback from the discussions to cement these themes. Findings suggested immigrants, especially women, benefit from support groups. Group involvement could empower women and increase their general sense of well-being in overcoming barriers they may face in transitioning into a new environment. It is recommended that host communities have integration programs which benefit both the host community and the immigrant: a win–win situation.
Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Ferguson, Sally; Towell, Amanda
to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children. Social support has been shown to benefit adolescent mothers thus online mechanisms require consideration. a review of original research articles METHOD: key terms and Boolean operators identified research reports across a 20-year timeframe pertaining to the area of enquiry in: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, ERIC, ProQuest, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Health Collection (Informit) and Google Scholar databases. Eight original research articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. studies demonstrate that adolescent mothers actively search for health information using the Internet and social networking sites, and that social support and social capital can be attributed to their use of specifically created online groups from within targeted health interventions. Use of a message board forum for pregnant and parenting adolescents also demonstrates elements of social support. There are no studies to date pertaining to adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of social support provision and related outcomes. further investigation is warranted to explore the potential benefits of adolescent mothers' use of globally accessible social networking sites in terms of any social support provision and social capital they may provide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
María José Rodrigo
Full Text Available This study investigated: a mothers´ use and satisfaction with informal and formal supports in at-risk psychosocial contexts, and b the relationships between satisfaction with help and the mothers´ perception of their role (personal agency. Self-report data about the use and satisfaction with sources of help, and levels of internal control, self-efficacy, couple agreement, role difficulty and motivation for change were obtained from 519 mothers referred by Social Services and 519 non-referred mothers. Results indicated that at-risk mothers relied less upon close informal support and more on formal support than non atrisk mothers. They were also more satisfied with the formal sources of support and had lower levels of personal agency. There were beneficial effects of satisfaction with informal help and school support on several aspects of personal agency for both groups. However, satisfaction with school and social services support had a detrimental effect on couple agreement in the at-risk group. Implications of the results for providing social support to at-risk families are discussed.
SUURMEIJER, TPBM; DOEGLAS, DM; BRIANCON, S; KRIJNEN, WP; KROL, B; SANDERMAN, R; MOUM, T; BJELLE, A; VANDENHEUVEL, WJA
Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the 'EUropean Research on Incapacitating DIseaes and Social Support' (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing
Suurmeijer, T P B M; Doeglas, D M; Briançon, S; Krijnen, W; Krol, B.; Sanderman, R.; Moum, T; Bjelle, A; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.
Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the "European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support" (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing
Namkoong, Kang; Shah, Dhavan V; Gustafson, David H
This study investigates how social support and family relationship perceptions influence breast cancer patients' online communication networks in a computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group. To examine social interactions in the CMSS group, we identified two types of online social networks: open and targeted communication networks. The open communication network reflects group communication behaviors (i.e., one-to-many or "broadcast" communication) in which the intended audience is not specified; in contrast, the targeted communication network reflects interpersonal discourses (i.e., one-to-one or directed communication) in which the audience for the message is specified. The communication networks were constructed by tracking CMSS group usage data of 237 breast cancer patients who participated in one of two National Cancer Institute-funded randomized clinical trials. Eligible subjects were within 2 months of a diagnosis of primary breast cancer or recurrence at the time of recruitment. Findings reveal that breast cancer patients who perceived less availability of offline social support had a larger social network size in the open communication network. In contrast, those who perceived less family cohesion had a larger targeted communication network in the CMSS group, meaning they were inclined to use the CMSS group for developing interpersonal relationships.
Over, Harriet; Eggleston, Adam; Bell, Jenny; Dunham, Yarrow
Understanding the origins of prejudice necessitates exploring the ways in which children participate in the construction of biased representations of social groups. We investigate whether young children actively seek out information that supports and extends their initial intergroup biases. In Studies 1 and 2, we show that children choose to hear a story that contains positive information about their own group and negative information about another group rather than a story that contains negative information about their own group and positive information about the other group. In a third study, we show that children choose to present biased information to others, thus demonstrating that the effects of information selection can start to propagate through social networks. In Studies 4 and 5, we further investigate the nature of children's selective information seeking and show that children prefer ingroup-favouring information to other types of biased information and even to balanced, unbiased information. Together, this work shows that children are not merely passively recipients of social information; they play an active role in the creation and transmission of intergroup attitudes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Andrioti, Despena; Kotrotsou, Christina; Tsakatara, Vanta
. Medical social centres operate in 33 Roma settlements all over the country. These centres provide vaccination, health promotion, disease prevention and health education services, as well as support in issuing documents and making appointments with health and social services. We recommend that the National......Roma people form the largest ethnic-minority group in Europe. They account for around 10 to 12 million people, and they face racism, discrimination and social exclusion in most countries. The Roma population of Greece currently numbers around 250 000 individuals. They have Greek nationality...... and enjoy the same rights, privileges and responsibilities as any other Greek citizens. Nevertheless, Roma in Greece face multiple inequalities and social exclusion in terms of housing, employment, education, and health and social services. In this report we present the outcome of a bestpractice initiative...
Özşahin, Akatlı Kürşad; Altıntaş, Ebru
Background/aim: Mental disorders may accompany obesity. This study aims to evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and obesity and the risk factors for SAD in obese female patients. Materials and methods: A total of 114 obese patients and 110 healthy controls were included. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI I-II), and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) were administered to assess anxiety, depression, and social anxiety levels. Scale scores were analyzed statistically. Results: The rate of SAD in obese female patients was found to be 8.8%. Anxiety, depression, and social anxiety levels were significantly higher in the obesity group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). According to linear regression analyses, a significant association between LSAS anxiety level and age, prior surgery, social support, history of being teased, BDI, and BAI was found. Conclusion: The present study shows that many factors are related to obesity and SAD in obese female patients. The clinical implications of these findings should be considered. Interventions for these factors may help prevent SAD in obese female patients.
Carvalho-Knighton, K.; Johnson, A.
In Fall 2008, STREAMS (Supporting Talented and Remarkable Environmental And Marine Science students) Scholarship initiative began at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg, the only public university in Pinellas County. STREAMS is a partnership between the University of South Florida St. Petersburg’s (USFSP) Environmental Science and Policy Program and University of South Florida’s (USF) College of Marine Science. The STREAMS Student Scholarship Program has facilitated increased recruitment, retention, and graduation of USFSP environmental science and USF marine science majors. The STREAMS program has increased opportunities for minorities and women to obtain undergraduate and graduate degrees, gain valuable research experience and engage in professional development activities. STREAMS scholars have benefited from being mentored by USFSP and USF faculty and as well as MSPhDs students and NSF Florida-Georgia LSAMP Bridge to Doctorate graduate fellows. In addition, STREAMS has facilitated activities designed to prepare student participants for successful Earth system science-related careers. We will elucidate the need for this initiative and vision for the collaboration.
Vânia Lúcia Pereira de Andrade
Full Text Available Occupational stress and coping strategies have increasingly become the focus of research for their applied feature. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support has helped people deal with stressful situations in the workplace. In order to reach this aim an exploratory mixed method embedded research design was conducted. Study 1, quantitative, described the level of satisfaction with social support and perceived organizational support by employing a scale that summarized factors of the perceived organizational support. Study 2, a qualitative one, sought to describe the stressors in the workplace environment, to whom the workers resorted to, and the kind of perceived social support. The group interview script was based on the dimensions proposed by Folkman e Lazarus (1985 model. Fifty-one volunteer workers participated in the study. Results showed a lack of social support in the workplace: incivility of colleagues and managers, psychological contract breach and conflict of values. Investments in personal development that stimulate urbanity in organizations and a listening space for employees are suggested actions that can benefit affective dimensions of work.
Platt, Jonathan; Keyes, Katherine M; Koenen, Karestan C
Supportive social networks are important to the post-traumatic response process. However, the effects of social network structure may be distinct from the perceived function of those networks. The present study examined the relative importance of role diversity and perceived strength of social support in mitigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were drawn from respondents who report lifetime potentially traumatic events in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 31,650). The Social Network Index (SNI) was used to measure the diversity of social connections. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL-12) was used to measure the perceived availability of social support within the network. Odds of current PTSD were compared among individuals representing four dichotomous types of social support: high diversity/high perceived strength, high diversity/low perceived strength, low diversity/high perceived strength, and low diversity/low perceived strength to examine which type of support is more protective against PTSD. Unadjusted odds of PTSD were 1.59 (95 % CI 1.39-1.82) for those with low versus high perceived support strength, and 1.10 (0.94-1.28) among those with non-diverse versus diverse social networks. Compared to the reference group (high diversity/high perceived strength), the adjusted odds of current PTSD were higher for two groups: low diversity/low perceived strength (OR = 1.62; 1.33-1.99), and low diversity/high perceived strength (OR = 1.57; 1.3-1.91). The high diversity/low perceived strength group had no greater odds of PTSD (OR = 1.02; 0.81-1.28). The diversity of a social network is potentially more protective against PTSD than the perception of strong social support. This suggests that programs, which engage individuals in social groups and activities may effectively attenuate the risk of PTSD. A better understanding of how these networks operate with respect to PTSD prevention and mitigation holds
Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Meyertholen, Andrew
The mathematical modeling of social group competition has garnered much attention. We consider a model originated by Abrams and Strogatz [Nature 424, 900 (2003)] that predicts the extinction of one of two social groups. This model assigns a utility to each social group, which is constant over the entire society. We find by allowing this utility to vary over a society, through the introduction of a network or spatial dependence, this model may result in the coexistence of the two social groups.
Mitranić Nevena N.
Full Text Available Play is a precious aspect of living and irreplaceable importance for not only child well-being and development but for adults and communities, too. Complex current living conditions often minimize the importance of child play and it becomes even more necessary that educational policies support it. The subject of the research is based on the role child play has in educational policy and the aim is formulation of measures and actions which can support child play in educational policy. We examined measures and actions of official educational policies and non government organizations of the United Kingdom of England and Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Republic of Serbia. The results show that the problem is deeper than current nonexistence of systemic support to play in Serbia and open the question on which paradigm official educational policy in Serbia approaches to education, and the question of how to bring to awareness the importance of play in order to support it. Relaying on the frameworks of play support policy in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland we suggest some guidelines for social support of child play which might prove sensible and feasible in Serbia.
Poteat, V. Paul
A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…
Social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women Las representaciones sociales de un grupo de mujeres/amamantadoras sobre el apoyo a la lactancia materna Representações sociais de um grupo de mulheres/nutrizes sobre o apoio à amamentação
Fabiana Swain Müller
Full Text Available This study aimed to get to know the social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women, as well as to identify the actions in their social environment these women perceive as supportive in their breastfeeding processes. Data were collected through a qualitative approach, using recorded semistructured interviews, organized in accordance with the Collective Subject Discourse and analyzed under the premises of Social Representations Theory. Results showed that the representations of women in this study about support for breastfeeding consist of actions available in the hospital, family and work contexts. In these women's perspective, support is a broad phenomenon that involves aspects of encouragement, promotion and protection to breastfeeding.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer las representaciones sociales de un grupo de amamantadoras sobre el apoyo para amamantar y, también, identificar las acciones del entorno social que son percibidas por esas mujeres, como apoyo en sus procesos de amamantar. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de un abordaje cualitativo, en entrevista semiestructurada grabada, y organizados conforme la propuesta del Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo y analizados según las concepciones de la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales. Los resultados mostraron que las representaciones de las mujeres de este estudio, sobre el apoyo para amamantar, son constituidas por las acciones disponibles en el contexto hospitalario, familiar y de trabajo. Bajo la óptica de la mujer, el apoyo es un fenómeno de gran amplitud que engloba aspectos de incentivo, de promoción y de protección al amamantamiento.Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as representações sociais de um grupo de nutrizes sobre o apoio para amamentar e, também, identificar as ações do entorno social que são percebidas por essas mulheres, como apoio em seus processos de amamentação. Os dados foram coletados por meio de
Fatemeh Mokhtari1 , Soheila Ehsanpour2 and Ashraf Kazemi 3*
Background: Social support is one of the important effective factors on health-related behaviors in different groups. The present study has evaluated the effect of an educational intervention on parents’ nutritional social support for having a healthy diet by teenagers. Methods: This field trial was conducted in two groups on the parents of 63 female early adolescent.The level of parents’ nutritional social support for having a healthy diet were measured using a questionnaire. One month after...
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective Social support interventions have a somewhat chequered history. Despite evidence that social connection is associated with good health, efforts to implement interventions designed to increase social support have produced mixed results. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the relationship between social connectedness and good health, by examining social support interventions with mothers of young children and analysing how support was conceptualised, enacted and valued, in order to advance what we know about providing support to improve health. Context and approach First, we provide a brief recent history of social support interventions for mothers with young children and we critically examine what was intended by ‘social support’, who provided it and for which groups of mothers, how support was enacted and what was valued by women. Second, we examine the challenges and promise of lay social support approaches focused explicitly on companionship, and draw on experiences in two cluster randomised trials which aimed to improve the wellbeing of mothers. One trial involved a universal approach, providing befriending opportunities for all mothers in the first year after birth, and the other a targeted approach offering support from a ‘mentor mother’ to childbearing women experiencing intimate partner violence. Results Interventions providing social support to mothers have most often been directed to women seen as disadvantaged, or ‘at risk’. They have also most often been enacted by health professionals and have included strong elements of health education and/or information, almost always with a focus on improving parenting skills for better child health outcomes. Fewer have involved non-professional ‘supporters’, and only some have aimed explicitly to provide companionship or a listening ear, despite these aspects being what mothers receiving support have said they valued most. Our trial
Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.
The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…
Fontanini, Humberto; Marshman, Zoe; Vettore, Mario
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between intermediary social determinants, namely social support and social network with dental caries in adolescents. An adapted version of the WHO social determinants of health conceptual framework was used to organize structural and intermediary social determinants of dental caries into six blocks including perceived social support and number of social networks. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 542 students between 12 and 14 years of age in public schools located in the city of Dourados, Brazil in 2012. The outcome variables were caries experience (DMFT ≥ 1) and current dental caries (component D of DMFT ≥ 1) recorded by a calibrated dentist. Individual interviews were performed to collect data on perceived social support and numbers of social networks from family and friends and covariates. Multivariate Poisson regressions using hierarchical models were conducted. The prevalence of adolescents with caries experience and current dental caries was 55.2% and 32.1%, respectively. Adolescents with low numbers of social networks and low levels of social support from family (PR 1.47; 95% CI = 1.01-2.14) were more likely to have DMFT ≥ 1. Current dental caries was associated with low numbers of social networks and low levels of social support from family (PR 2.26; 95% CI = 1.15-4.44). Social support and social network were influential psychosocial factors to dental caries in adolescents. This finding requires confirmation in other countries but potentially has implications for programmes to promote oral health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bancila, Delia; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Kronborg Bak, Carsten
From a transactional perspective on stress, the study aimed to examine if the relationships of social support with perceived stress and psychosomatic symptoms are equivalent in deprived and wealthier neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were randomly collected from 2906 inhabitants in a deprived...... neighbourhood (851) and wealthier communities (2055), in Esbjerg, Denmark. A model that included psychosomatic symptoms as outcome, and daily worries, economic deprivation, perceived stress and social support as predictors was tested with structural equation modelling in two-group analyses. The findings showed...... significant differences (D2 (6)¼16.66, p.¼0.011) between neighbourhoods, and the fit statistics (CFI¼0.930, RMSEA¼0.034, R2¼0.48) showed good fit. Under an increased perceived stress’ effect, the social support’s impact on psychosomatic symptoms decreased in the deprived neighbourhood compared with the other...
Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann
This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…
Chang, Mark D.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the advent and subsequent growth of several new media technologies, violent extremist groups have incorporated social media into recruiting strategies. How are violent extremist groups using social media for recruiting? This thesis explores several new media technologies—websites, blogs, social media, mobile phones, and online gaming—to determine if violent extremist groups rely on social media for recruiting. By comparing the com...
O'Brien, Gerald V.
Although the importance of metaphors is described in the social work literature, few articles or books in the profession have considered the role of metaphors in social policy, especially in providing a negative frame within which marginalized groups can be considered. This negative framing naturally supports aversive social policies designed to…
Hoberg, Astrid A; Ponto, Julie; Nelson, Pamela J; Frye, Mark A
To evaluate the feasibility of 2-week interpersonal and social rhythm therapy group (IPSRT-G) for bipolar depression. Participants with bipolar depression received two individual sessions, six IPSRT-G sessions, and a 12-week telephone call. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rated (IDS-C), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) were used. IDS-C and SDS scores improved significantly at 12 weeks. YMRS and CGI-BP scores improved but did not reach statistical significance. The promising antidepressive response supports further study of IPSRT-G for bipolar depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stelter, Reinhard; Ryom, Knud
-educated coaches and began in September 2013. All boys from 6th to 9th grade were offered group coaching on a regular basis as part of their school education. The intervention will finish in June 2015. The ambition was to provide a reflective and collaborative space where the whole group helped to support each......-year intervention for migrant boys (6th to 9th graders) at a lower secondary school in Copenhagen with 80+% of pupils having a non-Danish ethnic background. Besides coaching the boys had the opportunity to play soccer in a cooperative and mastery-oriented climate, organized by a local sports club. Group coaching...... other in this process. The focus of the intervention was on identity, on cultural, social and school issues, and on personal development. Qualitative interviews were conducted with ten 7th grade boys and complemented by observations. The (preliminary) results indicate a polarization of the boys...
Burton, C L; Bonanno, G A; Hatzenbuehler, M L
Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Papaoikonomou, K.; Kipouros, S.; Kungolos, A.; Somakos, L.; Aravossis, K.; Antonopoulos, I.; Karagiannidis, A.
This paper deals with the creation of appropriate conditions aimed at developing social services for reuse and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), by the inclusion of handicapped and Roma people in the workforce. Application areas for the project are the Hellenic (Greek) regions of Thessaly and North Aegean, where these groups suffer from professional and social exclusion. The efforts to reduce unemployment in the two aforementioned groups, together with the efforts to implement related Greek and European legislation for sustainable WEEE management, are examined here. Furthermore, networking and cooperation at local, regional and central levels between small enterprises, entrepreneurships and local authorities are examined, so that these social enterprises and their corresponding investments may support the development of the Greek alternative WEEE recycling system
Granero-Molina, José; Matarín Jimenez, Tamara María; Ramos Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida Maria; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano
The aim of this study is to describe and understand experiences related to social support for women with fibromyalgia who suffer from sexual dysfunction. An interpretive qualitative research methodology based on Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics was used. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with 13 women who averaged 44.8 years of age and 14.3 years since being diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Data were analyzed using Fleming’s method and two themes were identified: ...
Underwood, Jean D M
While there is much support for co-operative learning among learning theorists, not all learners exhibit the same enthusiasm for groupwork. A number of factors such as sex, group size and ability mix, subject domain, task type and organization have been shown to influence the effectiveness of co-operative and collaborative learning. This study established learners' attitudes to various shared working scenarios. In this mixed design, 140 post-graduate teacher trainees were asked to imagine their responses to seven groupwork scenarios presented as a series of short vignettes. The vignettes varied on the degree of co-operation required; the sex of the prospective co-worker(s) including single and mixed-sex groups; type of assessment, including no assessment at all; and on academically acceptable and unacceptable 'shared' working practices. Anticipated attitudinal and behavioural responses of the students were assessed by questionnaire. On the whole, students were cautiously willing to be involved in groupwork. There were caveats, however. Factors such as the characteristics of the group members, the level and type of assessment procedures in operation, and individual differences, including sex and self-reported social deviance, also governed their responses. There was very limited agreement to be involved in socially undesirable collaborative group activities at a personal level or to condone such activities by others. Those students who showed a tendency towards mild anti-social behaviour were more willing to take direct punitive action against non-contributors than their peers. Female students were more willing to invoke the help of the tutor than their male counterparts, but only if the anti-social behaviour impacted on them personally.
Ugelvig, Line V; Cremer, Sylvia
Life in a social group increases the risk of disease transmission. To counteract this threat, social insects have evolved manifold antiparasite defenses, ranging from social exclusion of infected group members to intensive care. It is generally assumed that individuals performing hygienic behavio...
Secchi, Davide; Bui, Hong T M
This study uses a quasi-experimental design to investigate what happens to individual socially responsible attitudes when they are exposed to group dynamics. Findings show that group engagement increases individual attitudes toward social responsibility. We also found that individuals with low attitudes toward social responsibility are more likely to change their opinions when group members show more positive attitudes toward social responsibility. Conversely, individuals with high attitudes do not change much, independent of group characteristics. To better analyze the effect of group dynamics, the study proposes to split social responsibility into relative and absolute components. Findings show that relative social responsibility is correlated with but different from absolute social responsibility although the latter is more susceptible than the former to group dynamics.
Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca
Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems.
Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer
The role of social support in physical exercise is well documented. However, the majority of studies that investigate the associations between social support and physical exercise target perceived instead of received social support. Moreover, most studies investigate the effects of received social support using a descriptive correlational design. Thus, our study aimed at investigating the effects of received social support by conducting an intervention study. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 118) or control group (n = 102). The intervention comprised regularly exercising with a new sports companion for eight weeks. To investigate the time course of physical exercise and received social support, growth curve modelling was employed. Generally, both groups were able to improve their physical exercise. However, the control group tended to decrease again during the final point of measurement. Received social support, however, decreased slightly in the control group, but remained stable in the intervention group. The intervention was suitable to sustain received social support for physical exercise across a two-month interval. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of further investigating social support for physical exercise applying an experimental approach. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
.... A useful resource for clinical practitioners and researchers, Social Support, Health, and Illness addresses the effects of intimate support on a wide variety of medical and psychiatric conditions...
Subjects with late-stage HIV infection reported a lower social adjustment to the disease, a lower quality of life and more severe lifestyle changes. Satisfaction with social support correlated significantly with quality of life and social adjustment. It is therefore concluded that the higher the level of satisfaction with social support, ...
Stephens, Derk; Jain, Sachin; Kim, Kioh
This paper examines literature that supports the use of group counseling techniques in the school setting to teach social skills to children and adolescents with special needs. From the review of this literature it was found that group counseling is a very effective way of addressing a variety of social skills problems that can be displayed by…
Lee, Roderick Lamar; Kvasny, Lynette M.
Around the globe, people are increasingly using social media for the provision of online social support. Online social support may be especially relevant for parents who have children that are afflicted with rare chronic diseases such as MECP2 Duplication Syndrome. Despite increasing evidence that online social support enhances a person’s psychological well-being, there is little research that seeks to understand how and why various forms of social media facilitate social support. This study ...
Coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus of control and gender. ... approach, social support should be in the front burner, society should be sensitized to the importance of social support that is culturally appropriate and behaviour modification focused.
Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.
This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…
Grapin, Sally L.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lazarus, Philip J.
In school contexts, social support refers to the overall perception one has of feeling included and cared for in a community of peers, teachers, caregivers, and others. Social support is critical for promoting positive academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Conversely, a lack of perceived social support may be associated with increased…
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
McCammon, Susan; And Others
Post-tornado support groups were organized by the Greene County, North Carolina disaster coordinators and the Pitt County outreach workers from the Community Mental Health Center sponsored tornado follow-up project. The most significant intervention used was the emphasis on creating a climate of group support by establishing a forum for…
family guide. Fort Hood, TX: Author. Granovsky , N. (1998). Family Support Group leader basic handbook (Operation READY). Alexandria, VA: U. S...Readiness and Financial Planning " (22.3 minutes). Granovsky , N. (1998). Family Support Group Leader Basic Handbook (Operation READY). Alexandria
Stant, A.D.; Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; Busschbach, J.T.; van der Gaag, M.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.
Peer support groups are rarely available for patients with psychosis, despite potential clinical and economic advantages of such groups. In this study, 106 patients with psychosis were randomly allocated to minimally guided peer support in addition to care as usual (CAU), or CAU only. No relevant
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.
Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…
Golenkova Zinaida T.
Full Text Available The instability of social and labor relations has attained enormous proportions in both modern developed countries and in developing societies. This phenomenon has led to the creation of a new social group in the structure of modern societies, which is called the precariat, and is characterized by the unstable situation in the labor market and by social insecurity. Instability in employment leads to emotional, psychological and social instability, which causes latent social conflict and rebellious behavior of individuals, and therefore this social group, in Western Europe, the U.S. and Japan, is considered to be a 'dangerous class'.
Scholand, Andrew J.; Tausczik, Yla R.; Pennebaker, James W.
In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.
Verkuyten, Maykel; Wolf, Angela de
This study examined how social reality restricts children’s tendency for in-group favoritism in group evaluations. Children were faced with social reality considerations and with group identity concerns. Using short stories, in this experimental study, conducted among 3 age groups (6-, 8-, and
von Krüchten, Cornelia; Schadschneider, Andreas
Pedestrian crowds often include social groups, i.e. pedestrians that walk together because of social relationships. They show characteristic configurations and influence the dynamics of the entire crowd. In order to investigate the impact of social groups on evacuations we performed an empirical study with pupils. Several evacuation runs with groups of different sizes and different interactions were performed. New group parameters are introduced which allow to describe the dynamics of the groups and the configuration of the group members quantitatively. The analysis shows a possible decrease of evacuation times for large groups due to self-ordering effects. Social groups can be approximated as ellipses that orientate along their direction of motion. Furthermore, explicitly cooperative behaviour among group members leads to a stronger aggregation of group members and an intermittent way of evacuation.
Robinson, James D; Tian, Yan
Research into the impact of social support on health-care patients has focused on the benefits of receiving social support. Although recipients benefit from social support, there are also potential benefits to the providers of social support that have gone relatively unexplored. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between the reception and provision of informational social support by cancer patients. Based on the work of Gouldner (1960), this investigation attempts to examine the role reciprocity plays within the social support process. The norm of reciprocity is conceptualized as a generalized moral belief rather than as a simple pattern of exchange between caregivers and care receivers. Use of reciprocity as a generalized moral belief instead of a pattern of behavioral exchange between providers and recipients of social support allows a more thorough integration theoretically and more methodical examination of the role the relationship between providers and recipients plays in this process. Specifically, this investigation employs the notion of optimal matching as part of the mechanism underlying the satisfactions derived from informational social support. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggest that reciprocity is a viable explanation of the mechanism underlying the desire to provide social support to others among cancer patients and among adults who have never been diagnosed with cancer. This relationship between the reception and the provision of informational social support remains even after controlling for age, education, gender, race, social integration, and cancer diagnosis. Implications for the social support literature are discussed.
Nick, Elizabeth A; Cole, David A; Cho, Sun-Joo; Smith, Darcy K; Carter, T Grace; Zelkowitz, Rachel L
A new measure, the Online Social Support Scale, was developed based on previous theory, research, and measurement of in-person social support. It includes four subscales: Esteem/Emotional Support, Social Companionship, Informational Support, and Instrumental Support. In college and community samples, factor analytic and item response theory results suggest that subtypes of in-person social support also pertain in the online world. Evidence of reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity provide excellent psychometric support for the measure. Construct validity accrues to the measure vis-à-vis support for three hypotheses: (a) Various broad types of Internet platforms for social interactions are differentially associated with online social support and online victimization; (b) similar to in-person social support, online social support offsets the adverse effect of negative life events on self-esteem and depression-related outcome; and (c) online social support counteracts the effects of online victimization in much the same way that in-person friends in one social niche counterbalance rejection in other social niches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; van Dijk, J.P.
The influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support were investigated in sample of adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years). The perceived social support was studied in five spheres: school, interpersonal relations, serious
Poteat, V Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L; Green, Harold D
Using the framework of social dominance theory, the current investigation tested for the contextual effects of adolescent peer groups on individuals' homophobic and social dominance attitudes. Results from multilevel models indicated that significant differences existed across peer groups on homophobic attitudes. In addition, these differences were accounted for on the basis of the hierarchy-enhancing or -attenuating climate of the group. A group socialization effect on individuals' social dominance attitudes over time was also observed. Furthermore, the social climate of the peer group moderated the stability of individuals' social dominance attitudes. Findings support the need to examine more proximal and informal group affiliations and earlier developmental periods in efforts to build more comprehensive theoretical models explaining when and how prejudiced and dominance attitudes are formed and the way in which they are perpetuated. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Choi, Peter M
.... To determine the relationship between social network centrality and work group satisfaction, a longitudinal field study was conducted on 440 active duty enlisted military members in a leadership...
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze social support on the wife who studies the master. The approach employed in this study was qualitative phenomenological. Samples in this study as many as two respondents, female students master, career woman, and married. In addition, there were secondary informants that comes from the husband, classmates, and coworkers subject. There are 6 secondary informants this research. Data were collected used interviews and observation. Forms interviews used in this study are free guided interviews and using participant observation. The validity of the data in this study using triangulation of sources and methods. The study found that two subjects in the lead role as a wife, staff, and students were able to run third that role with the help of others. But despite the help of others, this study provides new findings that the success of subjects affected their spiritual support that makes the subject able to survive to make the subject is able to do their job
Hansell, P S; Hughes, C B; Caliandro, G; Russo, P; Budin, W C; Hartman, B; Hernandez, O C
Caring for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected child is challenging and affects the entire family system. Studies have shown that social support can mitigate caregiver stress and enhance coping; however, social support may not always result in a positive outcome for the recipient. To measure caregiver stress, coping, and social support, and to test the effect of a social support boosting intervention on levels of stress, coping, and social support among caregivers of children with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). An experimental design was used with monthly social support boosting interventions implemented. The stratified randomized sample included 70 primary caregivers of children with HIV/AIDS. The sample strata were seropositive caregivers (biological parents) and seronegative caregivers (foster parents and extended family members). Study measures included the Derogatis Stress Profile, Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale, and the Tilden Interpersonal Relationship Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and repeated measure MANOVA. Statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found on changes in the dependent variables over time when caregiver strata were included as a factor in the analysis; no statistically significant results were found when caregiver strata were combined. Univariate Ftests indicated that the level of social support for caregivers who were seronegative in the experimental group was significantly different from seronegative caregivers in the control group and seropositive caregivers in both groups. No significant treatment group differences were found for seropositive caregivers. Seronegative caregivers derived substantial benefit from the social support boosting intervention. Seronegative caregivers who acquire a child with HIV/AIDS are confronted with a complex stressful situation; the critical need to enhance their social support is
Lee, Eun-Ju; Cho, Eugene
A survey (N = 316) examined how other-directed Facebook use driven by fear of social isolation affects users' perception of social support they possess. As predicted, those higher on fear of isolation were more likely to (a) closely monitor others' activities for self-evaluation (i.e., social comparison) and (b) regulate their self-presentation to garner social approval (i.e., other-directed self-presentation), but less likely to (c) express their true inner feelings and thoughts (i.e., inner-directed self-presentation) on Facebook. Social comparison, in turn, lowered perceived social support among heavy Facebook users, whereas inner-directed self-presentation heightened it. Other-directed self-presentation had no significant effect on perceived social support. Results indicate that the desire to avoid social isolation may paradoxically diminish perceived social support by promoting social comparison, while suppressing the expression of true self on Facebook.
Full Text Available Developing a suitable mechanism to stimulate the effective redeployment of capital to social activities can be designed using the corporate social responsibility (CSR concept. Informational asymmetry about the real state of social risks influences the effectiveness of allocations in social protection. Reducing information asymmetries can be achieved by providing the corporations with socially determined risk profiles based on predetermined patterns. Offering concrete lines of action following the risk profiles approach which to base investment decisions of companies in CSR can maximize the results of such a mechanism. In a previous study the authors have developed a theoretical model for determining the poverty risk profile. This study aims to present the practical application of the theoretical model and to provide comments on some errors. Hence, the authors analyzed Buzau county municipalities in presenting the highest risk level determined by the theoretical model and related causes and performed an impact assessment of an investment in CSR based on a model. Specifically, the authors evaluated the impact of reducing the risk of poverty for a suitable investment in CSR. In the second part of the study, the authors analyzed the types of errors that can be found in the municipalities risk profile model due to the granularity of the data. Thus, for the error of over-inclusion, the authors assessed social allocative efficiency at the community level using benchmarking analysis, Data Envelopment respectively and analyzed the data of the under-inclusion error in Buzau county villages. The paper aims to analyze the relative limits on quantitative models and risk of poverty and the practical implementation of these types of models in the development of corporate social responsibility. The study provides also a useful tool which can be made available to companies in order to increase the vulnerable groups’ life quality and the satisfaction of
Wolf, R S
A 1997 nationwide (US and Canada) search to identify support groups for older victims of domestic violence located 16 sponsored by domestic violence programs and 14 sponsored by aging services. Interviews with group leaders indicated more similarities than differences between the two types of sponsorship in group purpose, leadership, numbers served, content of support group sessions, and success in accomplishing goals. Resistance of elders to participate in a group experience was cited by leaders as a major barrier. Recommendations for future groups include insuring accessibility of meeting site; using a leader and co-leader, at least one of whom is older or familiar with aging issues; allocating resources for recruitment; and seeking a steady source of funding. A policy of collaboration among the state's domestic violence coalition, state unit on aging, adult protective services, and victim assistance program may help in promoting support group development and utilization.
Van Leeuwen, Anouschka; Janssen, Jeroen; Erkens, Gijsbert; Brekelmans, Mieke
Teachers regulating groups of students during computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) face the challenge of orchestrating their guidance at student, group, and class level. During CSCL, teachers can monitor all student activity and interact with multiple groups at the same time. Not much is
Ogurlu, Üzeyir; Sevgi-Yalin, Hatun; Yavuz-Birben, Fazilet
This study aimed to examine the relationship between social-emotional learning skills and perceived social support of gifted students. Based on this relationship, the authors also examined to what extent social and emotional learning skills were predictive of social support. In addition, gender variables were compared in social and emotional…
Adriano Gonçalves Silva
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Different kinds of psychological distress have been identified for students in the health field, especially in the medical school. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of mental suffering among medical students in the Southeastern Brazil and asses its association with social support. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study. Structured questionnaires were applied for students from the 1st up to the 6th years of the medical school of Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", assessing demographic variables related to aspects of graduation and adaptation to the city. Psychological suffering was defined as a common mental disorder (CMD assessed by the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Social support was assessed by the social support scale of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS. The association between the outcome and explanatory variables was assessed by the χ2 test and Logistic Regression, for the multivariate analyses, using p < 0.05. RESULTS: The response rate was of 80.7%, with no differences between sample and the population regarding gender (p = 0.78. The average age was 22 years old (standard deviation - SD = 2.2, mainly women (58.2% and students who were living with friends (62%. The prevalence of CMD was 44.9% (95%CI 40.2 - 49.6. After the multivariate analyses, the explanatory variables that were associated with CMD were: feeling rejected in the past year (p < 0.001, thinking about leaving medical school (p < 0.001 and "interaction" in the MOS scale (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CMD among medical students was high and insufficient social support was an important risk factor. Our findings suggest that interventions to improve social interaction among those students could be beneficial, decreasing the prevalence of CMD in this group.
Silva, Adriano Gonçalves; Cerqueira, Ana Teresa de Abreu Ramos; Lima, Maria Cristina Pereira
Different kinds of psychological distress have been identified for students in the health field, especially in the medical school. To estimate the prevalence of mental suffering among medical students in the Southeastern Brazil and asses its association with social support. It is a cross-sectional study. Structured questionnaires were applied for students from the 1st up to the 6th years of the medical school of Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", assessing demographic variables related to aspects of graduation and adaptation to the city. Psychological suffering was defined as a common mental disorder (CMD) assessed by the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Social support was assessed by the social support scale of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). The association between the outcome and explanatory variables was assessed by the χ2 test and Logistic Regression, for the multivariate analyses, using p < 0.05. The response rate was of 80.7%, with no differences between sample and the population regarding gender (p = 0.78). The average age was 22 years old (standard deviation - SD = 2.2), mainly women (58.2%) and students who were living with friends (62%). The prevalence of CMD was 44.9% (95%CI 40.2 - 49.6). After the multivariate analyses, the explanatory variables that were associated with CMD were: feeling rejected in the past year (p < 0.001), thinking about leaving medical school (p < 0.001) and "interaction" in the MOS scale (p = 0.002). The prevalence of CMD among medical students was high and insufficient social support was an important risk factor. Our findings suggest that interventions to improve social interaction among those students could be beneficial, decreasing the prevalence of CMD in this group.
Lippold, T; Burns, J
Social support has been identified as a major protective factor in preventing mental health problems and also as a major contributor to quality of life. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been identified as having limited social support structures. Interventions have been focused on promoting their social presence and integration. However, previous studies have shown that this does not always lead to the formation of social relationships. To date few studies have looked at how having an ID leads to impoverished social networks. This study aimed to do this by contrasting the social relationships of people with physical disabilities (PD) and people with ID. Two groups of participants were recruited; 30 people with mild ID and 17 people with PD. Social and functional support networks were assessed, in addition to life experiences. Between and within group differences were then explored statistically. Adults with ID had more restricted social networks than PD, despite being involved in more activities. Social support for adults with ID was mainly provided by family and carers and few relationships with non-disabled people were identified. In contrast adults with PD had larger social networks than had been reported in the mainstream literature and had a balance of relationships with disabled and non-disabled people. The results suggest that there are additional processes attached to having an ID, which lead to continued impoverished lifestyles. The findings also endorse other work that suggests being physically integrated and engaged in a wide range of activities does not guarantee good social and emotional support.
McCaughan, Eilis; Parahoo, Kader; Hueter, Irene; Northouse, Laurel; Bradbury, Ian
Survival rates for women with a diagnosis of breast cancer continue to improve. However, some women may experience physical, psychological and emotional effects post diagnosis, throughout treatment and beyond. Support groups can provide opportunities for people to share their experiences and learn from others. As the number of online support groups increases, more and more women with breast cancer will likely access them. To assess effects of online support groups on the emotional distress, uncertainty, anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) of women with breast cancer. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Breast Cancer Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO on 2 May 2016, and we handsearched journals and reference lists. We also searched the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) search portal and clinicaltrials.gov on 2 May 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing effects of online support groups on women with a diagnosis of breast cancer and women who have completed breast cancer treatment. We included studies comparing online support groups with a usual care group, and studies comparing two or more types of online support groups (without a usual care group). Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We presented outcome data using mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and we used the fixed-effect model when appropriate. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included six studies (492 women) that assessed online support groups for women with breast cancer. Online support groups in these six trials lasted from six to 30 weeks. Women participated in these groups between 1.5 and 2.5 hours per week, and investigators conducted all studies in the USA
Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Kohn, Jordan N; Barreiro, Luis B; Johnson, Zachary P; Wilson, Mark E; Tung, Jenny
Strong social relationships confer health and fitness benefits in a number of species, motivating the need to understand the processes through which they arise. In female cercopithecine primates, both kinship and dominance rank are thought to influence rates of affiliative behaviour and social partner preference. Teasing apart the relative importance of these factors has been challenging, however, as female kin often occupy similar positions in the dominance hierarchy. Here, we isolated the specific effects of rank on social relationships in female rhesus macaques by analysing grooming patterns in 18 social groups that did not contain close relatives, and in which dominance ranks were experimentally randomized. We found that grooming was asymmetrically directed towards higher-ranking females and that grooming bouts temporarily decreased the likelihood of aggression between grooming partners, supporting the idea that grooming is associated with social tolerance. Even in the absence of kin, females formed the strongest grooming relationships with females adjacent to them in rank, a pattern that was strongest for the highest-ranking females. Using simulations, we show that three rules for allocating grooming based on dominance rank recapitulated most of the relationships we observed. Finally, we evaluated whether a female's tendency to engage in grooming behaviour was stable across time and social setting. We found that one measure, the rate of grooming females provided to others (but not the rate of grooming females received), exhibited modest stability after accounting for the primary effect of dominance rank. Together, our findings indicate that dominance rank has strong effects on social relationships in the absence of kin, suggesting the importance of considering social status and social connectedness jointly when investigating their health and fitness consequences.
Full Text Available Group life involves both advantages and disadvantages, meaning that individuals have to compromise between their nutritional needs and their social links. When a compromise is impossible, the group splits in order to reduce conflict of interests and favour positive social interactions between its members. In this study we built a dynamic model of social networks to represent a succession of temporary fissions involving a change in social relations that could potentially lead to irreversible group fission (i.e. no more group fusion. This is the first study that assesses how a social network changes according to group fission-fusion dynamics. We built a model that was based on different parameters: the group size, the influence of nutritional needs compared to social needs, and the changes in the social network after a temporary fission. The results obtained from this theoretical data indicate how the percentage of social relation transfer, the number of individuals and the relative importance of nutritional requirements and social links influence the average number of days before irreversible fission occurs. The greater the nutritional needs and the higher the transfer of social relations during temporary fission, the fewer days will be observed before an irreversible fission. It is crucial to bridge the gap between the individual and the population level if we hope to understand how simple, local interactions may drive ecological systems.
Cole, David A; Nick, Elizabeth A; Zelkowitz, Rachel L; Roeder, Kathryn M; Spinelli, Tawny
As social media websites have grown in popularity, public concern about online victimization has grown as well; however, much less attention has focused on the possible beneficial effects of online social networks. If theory and research about in-person social networks pertain, then online social relationships may represent an important modern source of or vehicle for support. In a study of 231 undergraduates, three major findings emerged: (1) for people with weaker in-person social support, social media sites provide a source of social support that is less redundant of the social support they receive in person; (2) in ways that were not redundant of each other, both online and in-person social support were associated with lower levels of depression-related thoughts and feelings, and (3) the beneficial effects of online social support (like in-person social support) offset some of the adverse effects of peer victimization. The study suggests that augmenting social relations via strategic use of social media can enhance young people's social support systems in beneficial ways.
Mohr, Wanda K
Support groups have increased rapidly in number and become a viable alternative to formal treatment in the United States. However, little is known regarding how mental health advocacy or support groups start and develop, or about challenges that can threaten their survival. In this 2 1/2-year ethnography, the author studied the culture of a developing family support program associated with a system of care. Several phases emerged, reflecting an organizational dynamic. The group dynamics and response to challenges have implications for organizers and parent organizations about the need for technical assistance necessary for survival of the group. Participant observation and immersion in the culture of such groups can provide a deeper understanding of the ideologies and values around which they organize and the kinds of tensions that members can experience during the group's cycle.
Okun, Morris A; Ruehlman, Linda; Karoly, Paul; Lutz, Rafer; Fairholme, Chris; Schaub, Rachel
To clarify the contribution of social support and social norms to exercise behavior. A sample of 363 college students completed a questionnaire that assessed social support and social negativity from friends, descriptive and injunctive social norms related to friends, perceived behavioral control, attitude, intention, and leisure-time exercise. Esteem social support was the strongest predictor of total and strenuous leisure-time exercise (P leisure-time exercise. Social support and social norms contribute independently to our understanding of variation in the frequency of strenuous leisure-time exercise.
Hoelscher, Mark L; Hoffman, James J; Dawley, David
Social capital can have a positive impact on medical group performance. We forward our theory based on the integration of theories in social capital, resource advantage, and the resource-based view of the firm. Further, we suggest specific ways in which medical groups can increase their levels of social capital. First, medical groups should design or redesign the workplace so that there is ample interaction among employees. Second, employee participation within the community should be encouraged. Third, medical groups should recognize that social capital becomes ingrained in organizational culture. Therefore, medical groups should take steps to ensure a culture that supports its social capital. Fourth, hiring procedures should be designed (or redesigned) to ensure that new employees add social capital to the organization. Finally, trust must be fostered at the employee level.
de Dios, Marcel Alejandro; Stanton, Cassandra A; Caviness, Celeste M; Niaura, Raymond; Stein, Michael
Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p social support and social networks of smokers in MMT.
Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung
This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties.
Howie, Laura Odell; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Newman, Ann M.
Successful aging has been associated with adequate social support. However, impaired functionality, increased dependence, multiple comorbidities, and reduced social interactions place older assisted living community (ALC) residents at risk for poorer social support and less successful aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the revised…
Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…
Rehm, Matthias; Endrass, Birgit
In this article we present an engineering approach for the integration of social group dynamics in the behavior modeling of multiagent systems. To this end, a toolbox was created that brings together several theories from the social sciences, each focusing on different aspects of group dynamics. ...
This report describes the perceived stressors, coping strategies, and social supports of a group of adolescent mothers during their first month at home after delivery. In addition to concerns about the baby and the limitations imposed by motherhood, many of the young mothers considered their interpersonal relationships as problematic. Findings suggest that the puerperium was not a time of major distress for most of these young women. Factors contributing to a relatively smooth transition to motherhood were the adolescent's use of anticipatory coping prior to the birth, their extensive reliance on family support once at home, and their past experience with childcare. Sharing childcare with the family was an important component of the support received by these adolescents, and it is suggested that the adolescent's mobilization of social supports may be essential to ther adaptation to motherhood. Professionals were infrequently mentioned as sources of support even though a majority of the sample participated in special adolescent maternity programs. Finally, findings also suggest that problem-focused coping was used more often when dealing with concrete stressors, while emotion-focused coping was used more in response to interpersonal problems.
Poblete, Fernando; Glasinovic, Andrés; Sapag, Jaime; Barticevic, Nicolás; Arenas, Artzy; Padilla, Oslando
Validate an instrument to measure the Perceived Social Support in outpatients who are in treatment to hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus ii. Observational and exploratory design with mixed methods, qualitative and quantitative. Two community health centers from the municipality of Puente Alto (Santiago, Chile). Hypertensive and/or diabetic patients between 18 and 65 years old. A purposive sample was undertaken for the qualitative study, and a random sample for the final survey. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the constructs of social support as perceived by patients. According to expert opinion and literature review, a scale of social support was selected and a pilot study was conducted in 40 patients, then we interviewed in depth to some of those participants. The instrument was modified according the results of this process. The final version was applied to 250 participants. The construct existence was verified in the population. In the adaptation, one item was eliminated. The alpha of Cronbach was 0.89 and the factorial analysis had the same four factors from the original study. Nine new items obtained from the focal groups were added to the instrument, obtaining an alpha of Cronbach of 0.92. The final instrument has good psychometric proprieties, and is applicable in our population. The additional items from the qualitative study improve its internal consistency, but don't add new information about Perceived Social Support. This is consistent with other studies, and suggests the application of the original version of the instrument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Objective: This study aimed at determining how mother support groups affect the nutrition status of children under 2 years of age ... fants should be fed exclusively on breast milk from birth ... an intervention provides long-term health benefits for.
Matei, Magdalena; Enescu, Diana; Varjoghie, Elena; Radu, Florin; Matei, Lucian
District heating, DH, is an energy source which can provide a cost-effective, environmentally friendly source of heat and power for cities, but only in the case of well running systems, with reasonable technological losses. The benefits of DH system are well known: environmental friendly, energy security, economic and social advantages. DH already covers 60% of heating and hot water needs in transition economies. Today, 70 % of Russian, Latvian and Belarus homes use DH, and heating accounts for one-third of total Russian energy consumption. Yet a large number of DH systems in the region face serious financial, marketing or technical problems because of the policy framework. How can DH issues be best addressed in national and local policy? What can governments do to create the right conditions for the sustainable development of DH while improving service quality? What policies can help capture the economic, environmental and energy security benefits of co-generation and DH? To address these questions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) hosted in 2002 and 2004 conference focusing on the crucial importance of well-designed DH policies, for exchanging information on policy approaches. The conclusions of the conference have shown that 'DH systems can do much to save energy and boost energy security, but stronger policy measures are needed to encourage wise management and investment. With a stronger policy framework, DH systems in formerly socialist countries could save the equivalent of 80 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year through supply side efficiency improvements. This is greater than total annual natural gas consumption in Italy'. More efficient systems will also decrease costs, reducing household bills and making DH competitive on long-term. This paper presents the issues: -Theoretical benefits of the district heating and cooling systems; - Municipal heating in Romania; - Technical and economic problems of DH systems and social supportability; - How
Mastoras, Sarah M; Saklofske, Donald H; Schwean, Vicki L; Climie, Emma A
This study investigated the role of perceived social support in promoting emotional well-being among children with ADHD. Specifically, it examined how children with ADHD perceive support from key individuals in their lives and the relationships between this support and aspects of emotional well-being. Main versus buffering models of social support in the context of social preference status were also explored. Participants were 55 school-age children with ADHD-combined or hyperactive/impulsive (ADHD-C/HI). Parent and child ratings evaluated source-specific social support, social status, and aspects of self-concept, anxiety, and depression. Children with ADHD reported lower social support than normative samples. Social support had moderate positive associations with self-concept, with source-specific differences, but was not associated with internalizing symptoms. Regression models with social preference status supported a main effect model of perceived social support. Social support may provide a target for resilience-based interventions among children with ADHD in promoting their self-concept and well-being.
Majer, John M.; Salina, Doreen D.; Jason, Leonard A.
Social support types (abstinence, appraisal, belonging, tangible) were analyzed among a sample of women with criminal justice involvement and substance use disorders (n = 200). Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine social support types in relation to changes in abstinence self-efficacy while controlling for incarceration histories. Only abstinence social support and tangible social support predicted significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy, with tangible support accounting for more variance in the analytic model. Findings suggest women with criminal justice involvement who have substance use disorders have basic needs that if met would have an indirect effect on their recovery. Implications for treatment and research are discussed. PMID:26949443
Heiman, Tali; Berger, Ornit
The study examined the family environment and perceived social support of 33 parents with a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and 43 parents with a child with learning disability, which were compared to 45 parents of children without disabilities as a control group. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale and Social Support Scale…
Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Ziemecki, Piotr; Ziemecka, Anna; Partyka, Iwona
The meaning of non medical forms of support in the treatment of psoriasis is discussed in the paper. Related with psoriasis negative self image and feeling of stigmatization cause various mental disorders. Stress, depression, mental condition affect the appearance of psoriasis. Because of numerous studies and identify the factors and relationships important for psoriasis, patients can take the appropriate psychological and social support. Relaxation techniques, cognitive-behavioral therapy and support groups have a positive effect on the treatment of psoriasis. They reduce the level of stress in the patient, learn emotional control, adequate self-esteem, which leads to the acceptance of the disease and improve the quality of life of the patient.
van den Akker-Scheek, I.; Stevens, M.; Spriensma, A.; van Horn, J.R.
BACKGROUND: Social support is an important factor in the rehabilitation process, as it has a positive influence on patients' health, functioning and recovery. In particular, perceived social support and instrumental support are important after total hip or knee arthroplasty. However, nursing staff
Grossman, Arnold H.; Silverstein, Charles
Describes support groups for health care professionals who work with people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and who are experiencing burnout from excessive demands on their energy, strength, and resources. Discusses group administration, effective intervention techniques, and issues of health…
Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others
Discusses a five-session group experience within the context of establishing a support group for single custodial fathers. Includes topics of dating, remarriage, homemaking and house maintenance, and the effects of divorce on children. A follow-up showed fathers appreciated the sense of community and specific information and coping strategies.…
The evolution of group living requires that individuals limit the inherent risks of parasite infection. To this end, group living insects have developed a unique capability of mounting collective anti-parasite defences, such as allogrooming and corpse removal from the nest. Over the last 20 years, this phenomenon (called social immunity) was mostly studied in eusocial insects, with results emphasizing its importance in derived social systems. However, the role of social immunity in the early evolution of group living remains unclear. Here, I investigate this topic by first presenting the definitions of social immunity and discussing their applications across social systems. I then provide an up-to-date appraisal of the collective and individual mechanisms of social immunity described in eusocial insects and show that they have counterparts in non-eusocial species and even solitary species. Finally, I review evidence demonstrating that the increased risks of parasite infection in group living species may both decrease and increase the level of personal immunity, and discuss how the expression of social immunity could drive these opposite effects. By highlighting similarities and differences of social immunity across social systems, this review emphasizes the potential importance of this phenomenon in the early evolution of the multiple forms of group living in insects. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris
This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.
Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Franzese, Alexis T; Thorp, Steven R; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R
The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and depressive symptoms were associated with changes in perceived social support over the 3 year study interval in a sample of depressed older adults. Results suggest that Conscientiousness and Extraversion were personality traits that were significantly predictive of changes in perceived social support over this time interval. Based on these results it appears that, among depressed older adults, those with conscientious or extraverted personality traits are more likely to resist impulses to withdraw from relationships. In addition, these traits may lead to more satisfying interactions and greater perceived social support over time. The implications of these results are discussed.
Full Text Available As important as it is to fully comprehend the relationship between stress and depression among university students, it is also vital to ascertain the role of perceived social support as an essential psychosocial factor for effectively delimiting the deleterious impact of stress exposure. As such, the current study aimed to examine whether perceived social support functioned as a mediating factor in the relationship between stress and depression among university students. Data was collected from undergraduate students of a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. Information on demographics, depression, stress and perceived social support were collated through self-report questionnaires. Results revealed significant gender differences for perceived social support, wherein female students reported lower levels of social support compared to their counterparts. Mediation analysis portrayed that the association between stress and depression was partially accounted for, by the mediating role of perceived social support.
Elklit, Ask; Østergård Kjær, Kamilla; Lasgaard, Mathias; Palic, Sabina
Young refugees from the former Yugoslavia commonly testify to having been exposed to multiple, traumatic experiences, which may contribute to the development of serious mental health problems such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Using selfreport scales the present study investigated the prevalence of PTSD as well as factors associated with PTSD in a group of 119 Bosnian refugee youths (mean age 18.5). The group was special in that they had no right to seek asylum in the host country for the first couple of years of their stay. It is suspected that this circumstance had an effect on their wellbeing. Between 35-43% of the youth were found to be in the clinical range for a PTSD diagnosis. Female gender, problem-focused, and avoidant coping strategies, were significant predictors of PTSD. The protective effects of social support were, however, not observed for this group. There is a need for more studies, which address the factors that mediate and moderate effects of social support and effectiveness of different coping strategies in refugee youth dealing with different circumstances of the refugee experience.
Full Text Available Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries. The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.
Chou, Fang-Yu; Lee-Lin, Frances; Kuang, Lily Y
Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC) patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries). The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.
Meade, Oonagh; Buchanan, Heather; Coulson, Neil
People affected by neuromuscular disorders can experience adverse psychosocial consequences and difficulties accessing information and support. Online support groups provide new opportunities for peer support. The aim of this study was to understand how contributors used the message board function of a newly available neuromuscular disorders online support group. Message postings (n = 1951) from the first five months of the message board of a newly formed online support group for neuromuscular disorders hosted by a charitable organization were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Members created a sense of community through disclosing personal information, connecting with people with similar illness experiences or interests, welcoming others and sharing aspirations for the development of a resourceful community. Experiences, emotional reactions and support were shared in relation to: delayed diagnosis; symptom interpretation; illness management and progression; the isolating impact of rare disorders; and the influence of social and political factors on illness experiences. This study provided a novel insight into individuals' experiences of accessing a newly available online support group for rare conditions hosted by a charitable organization. The findings highlight how the online support group provided an important peer support environment for members to connect with others, exchange information and support and engender discussion on political and social issues unique to living with often-rare neuromuscular disorders. Online support groups may therefore provide an important and easily accessible support outlet for people with neuromuscular disorders as well as a platform for empowering members to raise awareness about the impact of living with these conditions. Further research is needed to examine member motivations for using such groups and any effects of participation in greater detail. Implications for rehabilitation Online support groups may
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a computer-mediated support group (CMSG) intervention for parents whose children had been diagnosed with cancer. An evaluative one-group, before-and-after research design. A CMSG, an unstructured listserve group where participants used their E-mail for communication, was conducted over a 4-month period. Participation in the CMSG was offered to parents in Iceland whose children had completed cancer treatment in the past 5 years. Outcome measures were done: before the intervention (Time 1), after 2 months of intervention (Time 2) and after 4 months of intervention (Time 3) when the project ended. Measures included: demographic and background variables; health related vulnerability factors of parents: anxiety, depression, somatization, and stress; perceived mutual support; and use of the CMSG. Data were collected from November 2002 to June 2003. Twenty-one of 58 eligible parents participated in the study, with 71% retention rate for both post-tests. Mothers' depression decreased significantly from Time 2 to Time 3 (pcomputer technology for support is particularly useful for dispersed populations and groups that have restrictions on their time. Computer-mediated support groups have been shown to be a valuable addition to, or substitute for, a traditional face-to-face mutual support group and might suit both genders equally.
Koontz, E; Cox, D; Hastings, S
1. Although family involvement has been increasingly recognized as a vital component in the treatment and care of the mentally ill, little has been written about efforts to provide education and support to the families of patients hospitalized for short-term evaluation and treatment. 2. The family education and support group provided emotional support and critical information to increase family members' coping and problem solving abilities, and enabled them to return to a pre-crisis or higher level of functioning. 3. The family education and support group not only enhances the assessment and planning phases of the nursing process, but it also can serve as a useful intervention for strengthening the patient's major support system.
Gerdenitsch, Cornelia; Scheel, Tabea E; Andorfer, Julia; Korunka, Christian
Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers) finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers) and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609). A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support.
Full Text Available Coworking spaces are shared office environments for independent professionals. Such spaces have been increasing rapidly throughout the world, and provide, in addition to basic business infrastructure, the opportunity for social interaction. This article explores social interaction in coworking spaces and reports the results of two studies. Study 1 (N = 69 coworkers finds that social interaction in coworking spaces can take the form of social support. Study 2 further investigates social support among coworkers (N = 154 coworkers and contrasts these results with those of social support among colleagues in traditional work organizations (N = 609. A moderated mediation model using time pressure and self-efficacy, based on the conservation of resources theory, is tested. Social support from both sources was positively related to performance satisfaction. Self-efficacy mediated this relationship in the employee sample, while in the coworking sample, self-efficacy only mediated the relationship between social support and performance satisfaction if time pressure was high. Thus, a mobilization of social support seems necessary in coworking spaces. We conclude that coworking spaces, as modern social work environments, should align flexible work infrastructure with well-constructed opportunities for social support.
Tittman, Sarah M; Harteau, Christy; Beyer, Kirsten M M
Rural residents are less likely to receive preventive health screening, more likely to be uninsured, and more likely to report fair to poor health than urban residents. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are known to be negative predictors of self-rated physical health; however, the direct effects of geographic isolation and social support on overall health have not been well elucidated. A cross-sectional survey of women (n = 113) participating in Wisconsin Rural Women's initiative programming was conducted, which included measures of geographic isolation, an assessment of overall health, and social support using the validated Interpersonal Support Evaluation List with 3 subscales, including belonging support, tangible support, and appraisal support. Geographic isolation was shown to be a negative predictor of belonging support (P = .0064) and tangible support (P = .0349); however, geographic isolation was not a statistically significant predictor of appraisal support. A strong and direct relationship was observed between social support and self-perceived health status among this population of Wisconsin women, and hospital access based on geographic proximity was positively correlated (P = .028) with overall health status. The direct relationship between social support and overall health demonstrated here stresses the importance of developing and maintaining strong social support networks, which can be improved through rural support groups that have the unique ability to assist rural residents in fostering social support systems, advocating stress management techniques, and achieving a greater sense of well-being.
The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996) translated and…
Aurelian Virgil BALUTA
Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the social progress, social politics, social law and successful projects applicable to the some disadvantaged groups: Roma people and woman. Inclusion of Roma people is analysed from economic point of view. The economic problems of equality by gender is presented in terms of labour rate and other relevant ratio. For Roma people the focus of analyse is also on labour involvement. The chapters of the communication are: introduction, literature review ( state of art in the field of social progress, theoretical background, tools for social progress in EU, economic inclusion of Roma population, economic equality by gender, conclusions.
Wong, Sabrina T.; Yoo, Grace J.; Stewart, Anita L.
This study explored social support domains and actual sources of support for older Chinese and Korean immigrants and compared them to the traditional domains based on mainly White, middle class populations. Fifty-two older Cantonese and Korean speaking immigrants participated in one of eight focus groups. We identified four similar domains:…
Cortina, Lilia M
Bridging the social support, sexual victimization, and cultural psychology literatures, this study examines social-support processes in the context of sexual harassment and Hispanic American culture. Surveys were administered to a community sample of Hispanic American working women, 249 of whom described some encounter with sexual harassment at work. Regression results provided mixed backing for hypotheses about support-seeking behavior, which appeared largely dependent on the social power of the harassment perpetrator. Additional findings upheld predictions about support-perception patterns; harassed women perceived more supportive social reactions when they turned to informal networks of friends and family, but responses were less positive when they turned to formal, organizational sources. Finally, as expected, perceived support and acculturation interacted to moderate relations between sexual harassment and job satisfaction. The article concludes with implications for research and interventions related to social support and sexual harassment.
Eghdam, Aboozar; Hamidi, Ulrika; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine
This study was conducted as a social network analysis of a Facebook group for Swedish speaking persons (1310 members) with perceived brain fatigue after an illness or injury to the brain to address the lack of research examining social media and the potential value of on-line support for persons with mild acquired cognitive impairment.
Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753
Full Text Available Background The most common symptom in early menopausal women is depression. Depression is a type of chronic disease that impacts on postmenopausal women’s life. Social support plays a protective role for women and enables them to solve their life problems and thus, feel less depressed. Objectives We assessed depression as a chronic disease and evaluated the association between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods This correlation-analytic study was conducted on 321 postmenopausal women using 2-stage cluster sampling in Ahvaz in 2014. Data collecting instruments were comprised of a demographic questionnaire, a depression scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, and a social support questionnaire (PRQ 85-Part 2. Data analysis was done using SPSS, version 20. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support and depression, and the χ2 test was employed to assess the relationship between perceived social support and demographic characteristics. Results The Spearman correlation test revealed a significant reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression (r = -0.468; P = 0.001. There were significant relationships between perceived social support and some personal variables such as marital status, education level, and job status (P 0.05. Conclusions We found a reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Raising awareness in society apropos the relationship between social support and depression in postmenopausal women can enhance their quality of life.
Thompson, Ross A
Social support has been a topic of research for nearly 50 years, and its applications to prevention and intervention have grown significantly, including programs advancing child protection. This article summarizes the central conclusions of the 1994 review of research on social support and the prevention of child maltreatment prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, and surveys advances in the field since its publication. Among the lessons learned twenty years ago are (a) the diversity of the social support needs of at-risk families and their association with child endangerment, (b) the need to supplement the emotionally affirmative aspects of social support with efforts to socialize parenting practices and monitor child well-being, (c) the desirability of integrating formal and informal sources of social support for recipients, and (d) the importance of considering the complex recipient reactions to receiving support from others. The lessons we are now learning derive from research exploring the potential of online communication to enhance social support, the neurobiology of stress and its buffering through social support, and the lessons of evaluation research that are identifying the effective ingredients of social support interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed.
Witt, Dawn; Benson, Gretchen; Campbell, Susan; Sillah, Arthur; Berra, Kathy
Social support has been associated with beneficial effects on many disease states and overall health and well-being. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of peer-led support models among women living with coronary heart disease. This study describes the structure of peer-led support groups offered by WomenHeart (WH): The National Coalition for Women Living with Heart Disease, and assesses WH participants' quality of life and social, emotional, and physical health. Participants were recruited from 50 WH groups. A 70-item online survey was administered, and the main analytic sample included 157 women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient activation levels (lower activation levels: 1, 2 vs higher activation levels: 3, 4) and social support scores (range: lowest 8 to highest 34), adjusting for age. High levels of social support, patient activation, physical activity, and low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression were reported. Those who were at or above the median for the social support measures (indicating high levels of social support) had greater odds of high levels of patient activation (level 3 or 4) than individuals reporting low levels of social support (OR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.04-4.76; P = .012). Women who regularly attended a support group by a trained peer leader were highly engaged in their health care and had low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. These findings lend credibility to the value of the peer support model and could potentially be replicated in other disease states to enhance patient care.
Geckova, Andrea; Simova, E.; van Dijk, J.P.
The importance of grandparents in life of their grandchildren is generally accepted but only very rarely also studied as a problem. The representation of grandparents in the social network of their adolescent grandchildren and the relations of incorporation of grandparents into the social network
Tonsing, Kareen; Zimet, Gregory D; Tse, Samson
The psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) of the Urdu (MSPSS-U) and Nepali (MSPSS-N) versions were investigated among Pakistani (n=148) and Nepalese (n=153) respondents living in Hong Kong. The factor analysis of the MSPSS-N conducted in this study confirmed the three factors of the original MSPSS, namely, Family, Friend, and Significant Others, while only two factors were extracted from the MSPSS-U (i.e., the Family and Friends subscales). With regard to construct validity, both the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were inversely correlated with depression, anxiety and stress as assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). The internal reliability and construct validity of the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were also established and provided support for the validity of both versions as tools for measuring perceived social support among South Asian migrants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maulik, P K; Eaton, W W; Bradshaw, C P
This study examined the association between life events and common mental disorders while accounting for social networks and social supports. Participants included 1920 adults in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Cohort who were interviewed in 1993-1996, of whom 1071 were re-interviewed in 2004-2005. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Social support from friends, spouse or relatives was associated with significantly reduced odds of panic disorder and psychological distress, after experiencing specific life events. Social networks or social support had no significant stress-buffering effect. Social networks and social support had almost no direct or buffering effect on major depressive disorder, and no effect on generalized anxiety disorder and alcohol abuse or dependence disorder. The significant association between social support and psychological distress, rather than diagnosable mental disorders, highlights the importance of social support, especially when the severity of a mental health related problem is low.
Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression
Robinson, James D; Turner, Jeanine
Although cancer occurs throughout the life span, many of the most frequently occurring types of cancer increase as we grow older. In fact, only cardiovascular disease accounts for more deaths in adults 65 years of age and older. One of the ways that cancer patients cope or adapt to their illness is through socially supportive communicative interactions and relationships. Cutrona and Russell (1990) argued that social support is multidimensional and suggested that social support is most effective when the support needs of the individual are consistent with the type of social support being offered by the support provider. From the communicative perspective, the notion of optimal matching between the types of social support desired and the type of social support offered is extended to include the type of relationship between the communicants. In addition, it is argued that computer-mediated social support can be superior to face-to-face social support. This article attempts to identify some of the conditions under which this is true.
Harrison, Katrin E; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Morse, Jennifer Q; Houck, Patricia; Schlernitzauer, Maryann; Reynolds, Charles F; Szanto, Katalin
Social networks may protect depressed elders against suicidal behavior. However, conflict in important relationships may undermine the sense of social support, potentially negating the protective effects. Thus, we investigated the role of chronic interpersonal difficulties and perceived social support in depressed elders with and without suicidal thoughts and attempts. 106 individuals aged 60 years and older participated in this cross-sectional, case-control study. They were placed in three groups: suicidal depressed, non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed. Following a detailed clinical characterization, we assessed perceived social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List), and chronic interpersonal difficulties (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems). Using general linear models, we explored the relationship between suicidal thoughts/attempts, social support, and chronic interpersonal difficulties. We also examined whether lower perceived social support explained the relationship between chronic interpersonal difficulties and suicidal thoughts/attempts. Suicidal depressed elders reported the lowest levels of perceived social support (belonging, tangible support, and self-esteem) and higher levels of chronic interpersonal difficulties (struggle against others and interpersonal hostility), compared to both non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed elders. The relationship between chronic interpersonal difficulties and suicidal behavior was partially explained by low perceived social support. The experience of strong affects, interpersonal struggle, and hostility in relationships may undermine the sense of social support in depressed elders, possibly leading them to contemplate or attempt suicide. Depressed elders with a history of interpersonal difficulties need to be carefully monitored for suicidal behavior.
Balcı Şengül, Melike Ceyhan; Kaya, Vildan; Şen, Cenk Ahmet; Kaya, Kemal
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between suicidal behavior and associated factors such as depression, anxiety, and perceived social support level in cancer patients. The study group included 102 patients who were under treatment in the oncology department and the control group included 100 individuals with similar sociodemographic features. A sociodemographic information form, Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, suicidal behavior inventory, suicidal ideation inventory, and multidimensional inventory of perceived social support were used. The mean Beck depression inventory and Beck anxiety inventory scores in the study group were significantly higher compared to the control group. Thirteen patients in the study group attempted suicide, whereas 3 individuals attempted suicide in the control group. Similarly, the mean suicide behavior and ideation scores in the study group were significantly higher compared to the control group. The mean total multidimensional inventories of perceived social support score, as well as the mean family and friend sub-inventory scores in the control group were significantly higher compared to the study group. This study revealed that depression and anxiety occur frequently in cancer patients. Suicide attempts and ideation are higher in cancer patients compared to the control group. Social support perceived from family and friends is lower in cancer patients. Suicide attempts are correlated with depression, anxiety, low level of perceived social support, and advanced disease stage.
Xiaoqing Jing; Jinhong Xie
This paper examines a unique selling strategy, Group Buying, under which consumers enjoy a discounted group price if they are willing and able to achieve a required group size and coordinate their transaction time. We argue that Group Buying allows a seller to gain from facilitating consumer social interaction, i.e., using a group discount to motivate informed customers to work as "sales agents" to acquire less-informed customers through interpersonal information/knowledge sharing. We formall...
Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lee, AT; Novak, RJ
A distinction between forms of social identity formation in small interactive groups is investigated. In groups in which a common identity is available or given, norms for individual behavior may be deduced; from group properties (deductive identity). In groups in which interpersonal relations are
Youth-headed households in Rwanda live in a context of chronic crisis, where poverty, disease and uncertainty are not exceptional but characterise people's daily lived reality. Struggling under the pressures of economic deprivation, social isolation, abuse and exploitation, these youths experience social suffering and feel ...
Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.
Tamers, Sara L.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Thompson, Beti; Zheng, Yingye; Cheadle, Allen D.
Objectives To explore the association of baseline co-worker social support with follow-up measures of health care use and sickness absence. Methods Data were obtained on 1,240 employees from 33 worksites, through Promoting Activity and Changes in Eating, a group randomized weight maintenance trial. Co-worker social support, health care utilization, and absenteeism were assessed via a self-reported questionnaire. Generalized Estimating Equations were employed using STATA version 10. Results Higher baseline co-worker social support was significantly associated with a greater number of doctors’ visits (p = 0.015). Co-worker social support was unrelated to number of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, or absenteeism. Conclusions The relationship between co-worker social support and health care utilization and absenteeism is complex and uncertain. Future studies should measure more specific outcomes, incorporate important mediating variables, and distill how social networks influence these outcomes. PMID:21685798
Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine; Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Rains, Stephen; Wright, Kevin B
Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate cancer-related stigma, weak-tie support preference, and online community use for social support in a survey of online prostate cancer community participants (n = 149). Findings revealed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress. This relationship, however, was moderated by weak-tie support preference and online community use for social support. Specifically, stigma was positively related to perceived stress when weak-tie support was preferred. Analyses also showed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress in those who used their online community for advice or emotional support. Health communication scholars should work collaboratively with diagnosed men, clinicians, and online community administrators to develop online interventions that optimally match social support needs.
Full Text Available Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.
Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen
Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.
Cehajić-Clancy, Sabina; Effron, Daniel A; Halperin, Eran; Liberman, Varda; Ross, Lee D
Three studies, 2 conducted in Israel and 1 conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina, demonstrated that affirming a positive aspect of the self can increase one's willingness to acknowledge in-group responsibility for wrongdoing against others, express feelings of group-based guilt, and consequently provide greater support for reparation policies. By contrast, affirming one's group, although similarly boosting feelings of pride, failed to increase willingness to acknowledge and redress in-group wrongdoing. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated the mediating role of group-based guilt. That is, increased acknowledgment of in-group responsibility for out-group victimization produced increased feelings of guilt, which in turn increased support for reparation policies to the victimized group. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
Results: Family source of support was the most available [hypertensive (225; 90.0%); T2D (174; 87.0%)], but government and non-governmental organisation support were largely desired, with financial support preferred, 233(93.2%) hypertensive and 190(95.0%) T2D, respectively. Adherent hypertensive patients with or ...
Objectives: This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. Method: An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Results: Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease,informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information and social companionship (place of belonging. Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease, informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group and social companionship (non-active status. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important,the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.
Scholl, Annika; Sassenberg, Kai; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan; de Wit, Frank
Power relations affect dynamics within groups. Power-holders' decisions not only determine their personal outcomes, but also the outcomes of others in the group that they control. Yet, power-holders often tend to overlook this responsibility to take care of collective interests. The present research investigated how social identification - with the group to which both the powerful and the powerless belong - alters perceived responsibility among power-holders (and the powerless). Combining research on social power and social identity, we argue that power-holders perceive more responsibility than the powerless when strongly (rather than when weakly) identifying with the group. A study among leaders and an experiment supported this, highlighting that although power-holders are often primarily concerned about personal outcomes, they do feel responsible for considering others' interests when these others are included in the (social) self. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Mazur-Elmer, Alison; McBride, Dawn
This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents and concludes by offering a set of 10 group therapy lesson plans for SAD that therapists can use in their practice. The overview includes a description of social anxiety disorder and highlights various theories of anxiety. The…
Kristiansen, T. M.; Gronkjaer, M.
Aim: This article aims to demonstrate how focus group discussions act as a social arena for the negotiation of social norms and normativity and to discuss the implications for the analysis of focus group discussions. Participants and methods: We have used sequences of group interactions from...... a focus group study on everyday life and chronic illness to demonstrate how methodological tools from conversation analysis and discursive psychology can be used to facilitate a systematic analysis of the negotiation and legitimization of social norms and normativity in focus groups. The empirical data...... consisted of six focus groups with a total of 32 participants. Results: The analysis demonstrated negotiations on normativity concerning four central aspects related to living with chronic illness: negotiating normativity about adjustment to the disease, negotiating normativity about being a dutiful...
Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Ergas, Isaac J; Wright, Jaime D; Caan, Bette J; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H
We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2011 and provided data on social networks (the presence of a spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible support, emotional/informational support, affection, positive social interaction), and QOL, measured by the FACT-B, approximately 2 months post diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower versus higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR = 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.65-2.63), social WB (OR = 3.46, 95 % CI: 2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR = 1.67, 95 % CI: 1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.87) compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was "positive social interaction." However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status.
LaGasse, A Blythe
Research indicates that music therapy can improve social behaviors and joint attention in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); however, more research on the use of music therapy interventions for social skills is needed to determine the impact of group music therapy. To examine the effects of a music therapy group intervention on eye gaze, joint attention, and communication in children with ASD. Seventeen children, ages 6 to 9, with a diagnosis of ASD were randomly assigned to the music therapy group (MTG) or the no-music social skills group (SSG). Children participated in ten 50-minute group sessions over a period of 5 weeks. All group sessions were designed to target social skills. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and video analysis of sessions were used to evaluate changes in social behavior. There were significant between-group differences for joint attention with peers and eye gaze towards persons, with participants in the MTG demonstrating greater gains. There were no significant between-group differences for initiation of communication, response to communication, or social withdraw/behaviors. There was a significant interaction between time and group for SRS scores, with improvements for the MTG but not the SSG. Scores on the ATEC did not differ over time between the MTG and SSG. The results of this study support further research on the use of music therapy group interventions for social skills in children with ASD. Statistical results demonstrate initial support for the use of music therapy social groups to develop joint attention. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Non-members had tested due to illness, reported considerably more pain and were more likely to have no income. PLWHA experienced high mental, physical and social distress which must be addressed. Attention to gender differences is called for. While all members joined the support group to gain information and learn ...
Full Text Available Introduction: People with epilepsy (PWE face physical and mental illness, and social stigma, which affect their self-esteem and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a support group on the self-esteem of PWE. Methods: A Quasi-experimental study was performed on 120 PWE in the Epilepsy Clinic at Srinagarind Hospital. The experimental group (N=60 attended the support group before receiving regular health care services. The control group (N=60 received only regular healthcare services. Data was collected by using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale scoring before and after the experiment. The score was analyzed by using a paired t-test and an independent t-test. Results: The study showed that before the experiment, the self–esteem score of the control group was significantly higher than the experimental group. After the experiment, the scores of the control group and the experimental group showed a significant statistical difference. The score in the control group was significantly lower than the experimental group, while the score in the experimental group was significantly higher than before the experiment. Conclusion: The support group improves the self-esteem of PWE. Medical personnel should set up a support group for PWE to enhance their self-esteem.
Kingsep, Patrick; Nathan, Paula; Castle, David
Anxiety symptoms reported by individuals with schizophrenia have been traditionally seen as symptoms associated with the principal disorder and therefore not requiring special attention. The primary aim of this paper is to therapeutically target social anxiety symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia in order to determine the effectiveness of the cognitive behavioural group treatment model as an intervention for social anxiety in this participant group. Thirty-three individuals with schizophrenia and co-morbid social anxiety were allocated to a group-based cognitive behaviour (CBGT) intervention or waitlist control (WLC). Baseline, completion and follow-up ratings consist of measures of social anxiety: the Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (BFNE) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS); measures of general psychopathology: the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI); and the Quality of Life, Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLESQ). Pre- and post-treatment measures were subjected to statistical evaluation. All outcome measures displayed statistical improvement in the intervention group compared with no change in the control group. These treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. CBGT for social anxiety in schizophrenia was demonstrated to be effective as an adjunctive treatment for this population.
McLaughlin, Deirdre; Leung, Janni; Pachana, Nancy; Flicker, Leon; Hankey, Graeme; Dobson, Annette
high levels of social support and engagement may help sustain good health and functional ability. However, the definition of social support in previous research has been inconsistent and findings are mixed. The aim of this analysis was to explore the effect of two aspects of social support on subsequent disability in a group of community dwelling older women and men. data were drawn from two concurrent prospective observational cohort studies of community-based older Australian women (N = 2,013) and men (N = 680). Baseline and follow-up data were drawn from the second (1999) and fifth (2008) surveys of the women and the second (2001) and third (2008) surveys of the men. At baseline, social support was measured by the two subscales (social network and subjective support) of the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI). The outcome measure was Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). overall, social network size was not associated with subsequent disability in either women or men. After adjusting for health status at baseline, lack of satisfaction with social support was associated with greater difficulties in ADLs and IADLs for both women and men. our results suggest that the provision of social support is insufficient to limit subsequent disability: support provided must be subjectively perceived to be relevant and adequate.
Vogel, Erin A; Rose, Jason P; Crane, Chantal
Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook have become integral in the development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. Users of SNSs seek social support and validation, often using posts that illustrate how they have changed over time. The purpose of the present research is to examine how the valence and temporal context of an SNS post affect the likelihood of other users providing social support. Participants viewed hypothetical SNS posts and reported their intentions to provide social support to the users. Results revealed that participants were more likely to provide social support for posts that were positive and included temporal context (i.e., depicted improvement over time; Study 1). Furthermore, this research suggests that visual representations of change over time are needed to elicit social support (Study 2). Results are discussed in terms of their practical implications for SNS users and theoretical implications for the literature on social support and social media.
Vogt, Sonja; Weesie, Jeroen
This paper studies how dyadic social support is affected by heterogeneity of the partners.We distinguish heterogeneity with respect to three parameters: the likelihood of needing support; the benefits from receiving support; and the costs of providing support. Hypotheses are based on a
Mirjam de Klerk; Rob Gilsing; Joost Timmermans
Original title: Op weg met de Wmo. The Social Support Act (Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning - Wmo) came into force in the Netherlands on 1 January 2007. The aim of the Act is to promote people's social and life skills and ability to participate, and to strengthen social cohesion and quality
van Breda, Ward; Treur, Jan; van Wissen, Arlette
Using recent insights from Cognitive, Affective and Social Neuroscience this paper addresses how affective states in social interactions can be used through social media to analyze and support behaviour for a certain lifestyle. A computational model is provided integrating mechanisms for the impact
Shaw, B R; McTavish, F; Hawkins, R; Gustafson, D H; Pingree, S
Using an existential-phenomenological approach, this paper describes how women with breast cancer experience the giving and receiving of social support in a computer-mediated context. Women viewed their experiences with the computer-mediated support group as an additional and unique source of support in facing their illness. Anonymity within the support group fostered equalized participation and allowed women to communicate in ways that would have been more difficult in a face-to-face context. The asynchronous communication was a frustration to some participants, but some indicated that the format allowed for more thoughtful interaction. Motivations for seeking social support appeared to be a dynamic process, with a consistent progression from a position of receiving support to that of giving support. The primary benefits women received from participation in the group were communicating with other people who shared similar problems and helping others, which allowed them to change their focus from a preoccupation with their own sickness to thinking of others. Consistent with past research is the finding that women in this study expressed that social support is a multidimensional phenomenon and that their computer-mediated support group provided abundant emotional support, encouragement, and informational support. Excerpts from the phenomenological interviews are used to review and highlight key theoretical concepts from the research literatures on computer-mediated communication, social support, and the psychosocial needs of women with breast cancer.
Preliminary research findings from Brazil and Kenya indicate that, when women are provided with female condoms and peer group support, traditional obstacles to safe sex practices can be overcome. In these countries, as well as many others, women face cultural barriers to negotiating condom use with male partners. The study, conducted by the Women's Health Initiative of Family Health International's AIDS Control and Prevention Project, involved 106 Kenyan and 103 Brazilian women. A female focus group was held at the beginning of the study, followed by two peer support group meetings, with another focus group at the end of the study. Group support was an essential element in the acceptance process. Women who were afraid or unsuccessful with initial use were encouraged by other group members to try different, non-threatening approaches to the negotiation of female condom use and given suggestions for overcoming difficulties with insertion and lubrication. Some of these strategies included laying the female condom on the bed so the male partner raises the subject of its use and telling the partner the doctor had recommended the method to avoid the negative side effects associated with the pill. When female condom use is presented as a form of pregnancy prevention, the association of condoms with infidelity is overcome.
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
Shelton, Andrew J.; Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Zhu, Wenzhen
This study investigated unique and shared effects of social support and cultural orientation on mental health indicators (depressive and anxiety symptoms, stress, and life satisfaction) of 896 college students. Results indicated that perceived social support predicted mental health variables and that cultural orientation variables (independent and…
Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Thompson, Julia E.; Geary, Meghan A.; Schexnaildre, Mark A.; Lai, Betty S.; Kelley, Mary Lou
The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children's social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of…
Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.
This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…
... ICT collaborative and supportive learning media utilisation within the Nigerian educational system. The concept of ICT was concisely explained vis-à-vis the social network concept, theory and collaborative and supportive learning media utilisation. Different types of social network are highlighted among which Facebook, ...
These show the central nature of the concept of social support not only to the Yorubas but to most if not all societies. In other words, social support can been seen as a universal phenomenon. This cocept is what is expoused in the present paper with its relevance to the societal well being in general. African Journal for the ...
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…
Phang, A. Young; Lee, Ki-Hak
The purpose of the study was to identify, categorize, and provide a model for the understanding of social support among Korean working mothers. The participants were interviewed and asked what kind of social support they received that allowed them to maintain work and family life. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering analysis…
Johnson, Jennifer E.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Miranda, Robert; Rizzo, Christie J.; Justus, Alicia N.; Clum, George
Knowing where criminal justice involved teens look for support and whether those supports reduce depression has important and possibly gender-specific treatment implications for this vulnerable population. This study examines the relationships between social support and depression in a mixed-gender sample of 198 incarcerated adolescents. Greater support from families and overall and greater satisfaction with supports predicted lower depression for boys and girls. Support from siblings and ext...
Guruge, S; Thomson, M S; George, U; Chaze, F
Social support has positive and negative dimensions, each of which has been associated with mental health outcomes. Social networks can also serve as sources of distress and conflict. This paper reviews journal articles published during the last 24 years to provide a consolidated summary of the role of social support and social conflict on immigrant women's mental health. The review reveals that social support can help immigrant women adjust to the new country, prevent depression and psychological distress, and access care and services. When social support is lacking or social networks act as a source of conflict, it can have negative effects on immigrant women's mental health. It is crucial that interventions, programmes, and services incorporate strategies to both enhance social support as well as reduce social conflict, in order to improve mental health and well-being of immigrant women. Researchers have documented the protective role of social support and the harmful consequences of social conflict on physical and mental health. However, consolidated information about social support, social conflict, and mental health of immigrant women in Canada is not available. This scoping review examined literature from the last 24 years to understand how social support and social conflict affect the mental health of immigrant women in Canada. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Healthstar, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications focusing on mental health among immigrant women in Canada. Thirty-four articles that met our inclusion criteria were reviewed, and are summarized under the following four headings: settlement challenges and the need for social support; social support and mental health outcomes; social conflict and reciprocity; and social support, social conflict, and mental health service use. The results revealed that social support can have a positive effect on immigrant women's mental health and well-being, and facilitate social inclusion and the use of
Volkov A.A.; Zerkalova E.A.
The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Full Text Available The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Hupcey, J E
Social support has been shown to be important for the critically ill patient. However, what constitutes adequate support for these patients has not been investigated. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate patients' perceptions of their need for and adequacy of the social support received while they were critically ill. Thirty adult patients who were critical during some point of their stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) stay were interviewed, once stable. Interviews were tape-recorded and began with an open-ended question regarding the ICU experience. This was followed by open-ended focused questions regarding social support, such as 'Who were your greatest sources of social support while you were critically ill?' 'What did they do that was supportive or unsupportive?' Data were analyzed according to Miles and Huberman (1994). The categories that emerged were need for social support based on patient perceptions (not number of visitors), quality of support (based on perceptions of positive and negative behaviors of supporters) and lack of support. This study found that quality of support was more important than the actual number of visitors. Patients with few visitors may have felt supported, while those with numerous visitors felt unsupported. Patients who felt unsupported also were more critical of the staff and the care they received. Nurses need to individually assess patients regarding their need for support, and assist family/friends to meet these needs.
Kaplan, Stephen J; Seabott, Heather M; Cunningham, Erika B; Helman, James D; Calderon, Alvin; Thirlby, Richard C; Schenarts, Kimberly D
The purpose of this study is to develop and generate validity evidence for an instrument to measure social capital in residents. Mixed-methods, phased approach utilizing a modified Delphi technique, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. Four residency training institutions in Washington state between February 2016 and March 2017. General surgery, anesthesia, and internal medicine residents ranging from PGY-1 to PGY-6. The initial resident-focused instrument underwent revision via Delphi process with 6 experts; 100% expert consensus was achieved after 4 cycles. Three focus groups were conducted with 19 total residents. Focus groups identified 6 of 11 instrument items with mean quality ratings ≤4.0 on a 1-5 scale. The composite instrument rating of the draft version was 4.1 ± 0.5. After refining the instrument, cognitive interviews with the final version were completed with 22 residents. All items in the final version had quality ratings >4.0; the composite instrument rating was 4.8 ± 0.1. Social capital may be an important factor in resident wellness as residents rely upon each other and external social support to withstand fatigue, burnout, and other negative sequelae of rigorous training. This instrument for assessment of social capital in residents may provide an avenue for data collection and potentially, identification of residents at-risk for wellness degradation. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zamani-Alavijeh, Freshteh; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Raeesi; Shahry, Parvin
Social support is emotional and instrumental assistance from family, friends or neighbors, and has an important but different impact on individuals, mainly depending on contextual factors. To determine the status of perceived social support and related personal and family characteristics of medical sciences students in Ahvaz, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the target population included the students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in the second semester of 2013-2014, of whom 763 were selected by cluster random sampling method. The study tool was a two-part questionnaire containing 48 self-administered questions including 25 questions of measurements of personal and family characteristics and a Persian modified version of Vaux's social support scale (Cronbach's α=0.745). Data were analyzed with T test, ANOVA and chi-square and using SPSS version 16 and 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. The mean score of the perceived social support was 17.06±3.6 and 60.3% of them reported low social support. There was a significant relationship among the perceived social support and sex (p=0.02), faculty (psocial support and importance of social support in reducing stress and academic failure, the planners need to provide efficient supportive interventions for students.
Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Adela
The purpose of this study was to conduct two meta-analyses. The first examined social support from parents in relation to adolescent hope, and the second examined social support from friends in relation to adolescent hope. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for the literature reviewed, nine published studies or doctoral dissertations completed between 1990 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. Using meta-analytic techniques and the mean weighted r statistic, the results indicated that social support from friends had a stronger mean effect size (ES = .31) than social support from parents (ES = .21); there was a statistically significant difference between the two ESs. Two of the four moderators for the parent social support-adolescent hope relationship were statistically significant. They were quality score and health status. Implications for school nurses and nurses in all settings are addressed, and conclusions are drawn based on the findings.
Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.
In this paper, we provide an empirical analysis of the impact of monitoring and social ties within group lending programs on moral hazard behavior of its participants, based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We find support for the fact that
Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L
Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Till James E
Full Text Available Abstract Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.
Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van
The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This...
van Uden-Kraan, C. F.; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, E; Seydel, E. R.; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Objective: Although much has been expected of the empowering effect of taking part in online patient support groups, there is no direct evidence thus far for the effects of participation on patient empowerment. Hence our exploring to what extent patients feel empowered by their participation in
James L. Goodson
Full Text Available Species-typical patterns of grouping have profound impacts on many aspects of physiology and behavior. However, prior to our recent studies in estrildid finches, neural mechanisms that titrate species-typical group size preferences, independent of other aspects of social organization (e.g., mating system and parental care, have been wholly unexplored, likely because species-typical group size is typically confounded with other aspects of behavior and biology. An additional complication is that components of social organization are evolutionarily labile and prone to repeated divergence and convergence. Hence, we cannot assume that convergence in social structure has been produced by convergent modifications to the same neural characters, and thus any comparative approach to grouping must include not only species that differ in their species-typical group sizes, but also species that exhibit convergent evolution in this aspect of social organization. Using five estrildid finch species that differ selectively in grouping (all biparental and monogamous we have demonstrated that neural motivational systems evolve in predictable ways in relation to species-typical group sizes, including convergence in two highly gregarious species and convergence in two relatively asocial, territorial species. These systems include nonapeptide (vasotocin and mesotocin circuits that encode the valence of social stimuli (positive-negative, titrate group-size preferences, and modulate anxiety-like behaviors. Nonapeptide systems exhibit functional and anatomical properties that are biased towards gregarious species, and experimental reductions of nonapeptide signaling by receptor antagonism and antisense oligonucleotides significantly decrease preferred group sizes in the gregarious zebra finch. Combined, these findings suggest that selection on species-typical group size may reliably target the same neural motivation systems when a given social structure evolves
Jun 2, 2017 ... Access to family support did not positively influence medication adherence, while access to financial support marginally impacted on outcome among hypertensive and T2D patients. However, un- wavering tendency for therapy affordability significantly influenced adherence and outcome, thus, the need for ...
Mikkola, Leena; Suutala, Elina; Parviainen, Heli
ABSTRACT When becoming a specialist, learning-through-service plays a significant role. The workplace affords good opportunities for learning, but the service-learning period may also impose stress on phycisians in specialization training. In medical work, social support has proved to be a very important factor in managing stress. Social support may afford advantages also for learning and professional identity building. However, little was known about how social support is perceived by doctors in specialization training. This study aimed to understand the perceptions of physicians in specialization training regarding social support communication in their workplace during their learning-through-service period. The study was conducted qualitatively by inductively analyzing the physicians’ descriptions of workplace communication. The dataset included 120 essays, 60 each from hospitals and primary healthcare centres. Physicians in specialization training explained the need of social support with the responsibilities and demands of their clinical work and the inability to control and manage their workloads. They perceived that social support works well for managing stress, but also for strengthening relational ties and one’s professional identity. A leader’s support was perceived as being effective, and both senior and junior colleagues were described as an important source of social support. Also co-workers, such as the individual nurse partner with whom one works, was mentioned as an important source of social support. The results of this study indicate that social support works at the relational and identity levels, which is due to the multi-functional nature of workplace communication. For example, consultation functions as situational problem-solving, but also the tone of social interaction is meaningful. Thus, strengthening one’s professional identity or collegial relationships requires further attention to workplace communication. Abbreviations Pi
Mikkola, Leena; Suutala, Elina; Parviainen, Heli
When becoming a specialist, learning-through-service plays a significant role. The workplace affords good opportunities for learning, but the service-learning period may also impose stress on phycisians in specialization training. In medical work, social support has proved to be a very important factor in managing stress. Social support may afford advantages also for learning and professional identity building. However, little was known about how social support is perceived by doctors in specialization training. This study aimed to understand the perceptions of physicians in specialization training regarding social support communication in their workplace during their learning-through-service period. The study was conducted qualitatively by inductively analyzing the physicians' descriptions of workplace communication. The dataset included 120 essays, 60 each from hospitals and primary healthcare centres. Physicians in specialization training explained the need of social support with the responsibilities and demands of their clinical work and the inability to control and manage their workloads. They perceived that social support works well for managing stress, but also for strengthening relational ties and one's professional identity. A leader's support was perceived as being effective, and both senior and junior colleagues were described as an important source of social support. Also co-workers, such as the individual nurse partner with whom one works, was mentioned as an important source of social support. The results of this study indicate that social support works at the relational and identity levels, which is due to the multi-functional nature of workplace communication. For example, consultation functions as situational problem-solving, but also the tone of social interaction is meaningful. Thus, strengthening one's professional identity or collegial relationships requires further attention to workplace communication. Abbreviations PiST: Physician in
Full Text Available This article proposes to incorporate social psychology elements with mainstream political science and international relations theories to help understand the contradictions related to the integration processes in Latin America. Through a theoretical analysis, it contributes to the challenge proposed by Dabène (2009 to explain the “resilience” of the Latin American regional integration process in spite of its “instability and crises.” Our main proposition calls for considering Latin America as a community and its regional organizations as “social groups.” In conclusion, three phenomena from the field of social psychology and particularly social group dynamics shed light on these contradictory patterns: the value of the group and the emotional bond, groupthink, and cognitive dissonance.
Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer
Received social support is considered important for health-enhancing exercise participation. The enabling hypothesis of social support suggests an indirect association of social support and exercising via constructs of self-regulation, such as self-efficacy. This study aimed at examining an expanded enabling hypothesis by examining effects of different kinds of social support (i.e., emotional and instrumental) on exercising not only via self-efficacy but also via self-monitoring and action planning. An 8-week online study was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention comprised finding and then exercising regularly with a new exercise companion. Intervention and control group effects were compared by a manifest multigroup model. Received emotional social support predicted self-efficacy, self-monitoring, and action planning in the intervention group. Moreover, received emotional social support was indirectly connected with exercise via the examined mediators. The indirect effect from received emotional social support via self-efficacy mainly contributed to the total effect. No direct or indirect effect of received instrumental social support on exercise emerged. In the control group, neither emotional nor instrumental social support was associated with any of the self-regulation constructs nor with exercise. Actively looking for a new exercise companion and exercising together seems to be beneficial for the promotion of received emotional and instrumental social support. Emotional support in turn promotes exercise by enabling better self-regulation, in particular self-efficacy. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? With the 'enabling hypothesis', Benight and Bandura (2004, Behav. Res. Ther., 42, 1129) claimed that social support indirectly affects behaviour via self-efficacy. Research in the domain of physical exercise has provided evidence for this enabling hypothesis on a
This article explores how group playing by ear (GEP) through imitation of recorded material and opportunities for inventive work during peer interaction was used to support first year undergraduate western classical music students' aural, group creativity and improvisation skills. The framework that emerged from the analysis of the data describes…
Kroenke, Candyce H; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Ergas, Isaac J.; Wright, Jaime D.; Caan, Bette J.; Hershman, Dawn; Kushi, Lawrence H.
Purpose We examined mechanisms through which social relationships influence quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors. Methods This study included 3,139 women from the Pathways Study who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006-2011 and provided data on social networks (presence of spouse or intimate partner, religious/social ties, volunteering, and numbers of close friends and relatives), social support (tangible, emotional/informational, affection, positive social interaction), and quality of life (QOL), measured by the FACT-B, approximately two months post-diagnosis. We used logistic models to evaluate associations between social network size, social support, and lower vs. higher than median QOL scores. We further stratified by stage at diagnosis and treatment. Results In multivariate-adjusted analyses, women who were characterized as socially isolated had significantly lower FACT-B (OR=2.18, 95%CI:1.72-2.77), physical well-being (WB) (OR=1.61, 95%CI:1.27-2.03), functional WB (OR=2.08, 95%CI:1.65-2.63), social WB (OR=3.46, 95%CI:2.73-4.39), and emotional WB (OR=1.67, 95%CI:1.33-2.11) scores and higher breast cancer symptoms (OR=1.48, 95%CI:1.18-1.87), compared with socially integrated women. Each social network member independently predicted higher QOL. Simultaneous adjustment for social networks and social support partially attenuated associations between social networks and QOL. The strongest mediator and type of social support that was most predictive of QOL outcomes was “positive social interaction”. However, each type of support was important depending on outcome, stage, and treatment status. Conclusions Larger social networks and greater social support were related to higher QOL after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Effective social support interventions need to evolve beyond social-emotional interventions and need to account for disease severity and treatment status. PMID:23657404
Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.
Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group…
Kim, Seoyoun; Thomas, Patricia A
We aimed to investigate potential direct and indirect pathways linking social support and health, while considering mental health and chronic inflammation as inter-related outcomes. The study also contributes to the literature through testing potential bidirectional relationships between social support, mental health, and chronic inflammation. This study uses Structural Equation Modeling and two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), including 1,124 community-living older adults aged 57-85 years at Wave 1 (2005). Analyses show that social support influenced mental health indirectly through better self-esteem. Moreover, social support was associated with lower levels of chronic inflammation but chronic inflammation did not influence social support. The growing number of older adults with an aging population urgently calls for a greater understanding of factors influencing their physical and mental health. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of social support in older adults' health, while specifically focusing on understudied indirect pathways from social support to health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.
Kjær Minke, Linda
setting, and participants revealed that the dog improved social relations between inmates and between staff and inmates. Finally, the dog provided comfort to the incarcerated women when they had to deal with difficult personal feelings. A recommendation for policy makers and prison officials arising from...
Morelli, Nicola; Aguilar, Marc; Concilio, Grazia
In the recent years, new forms of organisation have emerged, that have a disruptive power over the existing social and economic system. This phenomenon is challenging the traditional design approach, based on the idea that designers could design services for citizens and public administrations...
Manickam, Anu; de Graaf, Frank Jan
Developing European transnational clusters is a cornerstone in current EU-policies towards a sustainable competitive and open European economy. Within this conceptual paper relates these objectives to new developments in the application of network IT or, in popular terms, the rise of social media.
Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H
Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study
The clinical workplace in which doctors learn involves many social groups, including representatives of different professions, clinical specialties and workplace teams. This paper suggests that medical education research does not currently take full account of the effects of group membership, and describes a theoretical approach from social psychology, the social identity approach, which allows those effects to be explored. The social identity approach has a long history in social psychology and provides an integrated account of group processes, from the adoption of group identity through a process of self-categorisation, to the biases and conflicts between groups. This paper outlines key elements of this theoretical approach and illustrates their relevance to medical education. The relevance of the social identity approach is illustrated with reference to a number of areas of medical education. The paper shows how research questions in medical education may be usefully reframed in terms of social identity in ways that allow a deeper exploration of the psychological processes involved. Professional identity and professionalism may be viewed in terms of self-categorisation rather than simply attainment; the salience of different identities may be considered as influences on teamwork and interprofessional learning, and issues in communication and assessment may be considered in terms of intergroup biases. Social identity theory provides a powerful framework with which to consider many areas of medical education. It allows disparate influences on, and consequences of, group membership to be considered as part of an integrated system, and allows assumptions, such as about the nature of professional identity and interprofessional tensions, to be made explicit in the design of research studies. This power to question assumptions and develop deeper and more meaningful research questions may be increasingly relevant as the nature and role of the medical profession change
Penning, Margaret J; Wu, Zheng
Despite evidence of increasing diversification of family structures, little is known regarding implications of marital and parental status for access to social support in later life. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2007 General Social Survey, this study assessed the impact of marital and parental status intersections on social support among adults aged 60 and older (n = 11,503). Two-stage probit regression models indicated that among those who were currently married or separated/divorced, childless individuals were more likely to report instrumental (domestic, transportation) and emotional support from people outside the household. Conversely, among never-married or widowed older adults, being childless was associated with reduced domestic support but without differences in other support domains. Findings suggest that marital and parental status intersections are not uniformly positive, neutral, or negative regarding implications for extra-household social support. Future work should address complexities of these relationships in order to better understand rapidly changing family structures.
Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling
Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis
Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847
Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.
den Oudsten, Brenda L.; van Heck, Guus L.; van der Steeg, Alida F. W.; Roukema, Jan A.; de Vries, Jolanda
This study examines the relationships between personality, on the one hand, and perceived availability of social support (PASS) and satisfaction with received social support (SRSS), on the other hand, in women with early stage breast cancer (BC). In addition, this study examined whether a stressful
Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Schruijer, S.G.L.; Fodor, Oana
The main aim of this paper is to test the extent to which social acceptance moderates the impact of minority dissent on group cognitive complexity (GCC). We hypothesize that divergent views expressed by a minority increase GCC especially when the group climate is open to divergent contributions
Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen
Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…
Kramer, Michael W.
This study explores the communication experiences of two volunteer groups involved in the production of community theater musicals. Based on social exchange theory, it examined what group members perceived to be the positive benefits (primarily meeting people and having an opportunity to perform) and the negative costs (primarily disorganization,…
Garrido, Sandra; Eerola, Tuomas; McFerran, Katrina
One of the most important roles that music serves in human society is the promotion of social relationships and group cohesion. In general, emotional experiences tend to be amplified in group settings through processes of social feedback. However, previous research has established that listening to sad music can intensify negative emotions in people with tendencies to rumination and depression. This study therefore investigated the phenomenon of ruminating with music, and the question of whether listening to sad music in group settings provides social benefits for emotionally vulnerable listeners, or whether it further exaggerates depressive tendencies. Participants recruited via online depression groups and mental health websites were surveyed as to music listening habits. Results revealed that people with depression were more likely to engage in “group rumination” using music, and that this behavior could be partially explained by a general tendency to ruminate using music. Both affective states and coping styles were found to be related to the affective outcomes of group interactions around music. These findings go some way toward clarifying the situations in which group interactions around music are able to provide important social benefits for those involved, and situations in which negative emotions can be amplified by the group context. PMID:28421014
Hirsch, Jameson K.; Barton, Alison L.
Objective: Risk for suicide is often higher among college students, compared to same-age noncollegiate peers, and may be exacerbated by quality of social support and interactions. The authors examined the independent contributions of positive social support and negative social exchanges to suicide ideation and attempts in college students.…
Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha
and an effect of their drinking experience. We apply Coleman's micro-oriented perspective on local network mechanisms – with a specific focus on collective norms negotiated in the focus groups – in combination with Bourdieu's definition of social capital as resources. The data used in this article come from......The aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between peer-group social capital and the use of alcohol among young people – as this relationship is expressed in focus group interviews. The main point to be made is that social capital affects alcohol use in two different ways: it incites...... focus group interviews with 18–19-year-old Danes. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/16066351003725776...
Steadman, Jacqui; Pretorius, Chrisma
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease and there is little research on support networks for people with MS (PwMS). More specifically, most studies on online support groups focus on those who actively participate in the group, whereas the majority of those who utilise online support groups do so in a passive way. This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information) and social companionship (place of belonging). Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group) and social companionship (non-active status). These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important, the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.
Niklas K Steffens
Full Text Available We examine the extent to which multiple social identities are associated with enhanced health and well-being in retirement because they provide a basis for giving and receiving social support. Results from a cross-sectional study show that retirees (N = 171 who had multiple social identities following (but not prior to retirement report being (a more satisfied with retirement, (b in better health, and (c more satisfied with life in general. Furthermore, mediation analyses revealed an indirect path from multiple social identities to greater satisfaction with retirement and better health through greater provision, but not receipt, of social support to others. These findings are the first to point to the value of multiple group membership post-retirement as a basis for increased opportunities to give meaningful support to others. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the management of multiple identities in the process of significant life transitions such as retirement.
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Doxa; Montgomery, Anthony; Solomou, Argyro
Relatively little research exists with regard to the relationship between social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Such a gap is noteworthy when one considers that individuals become more dependent on others as they enter middle and late adulthood. The present research will examine the association between social networks, social support and depression among adults with visual impairments. Seventy-seven adults with visual impairments participated in the study. Depression, social network and emotional/practical social support were measured with self-report measures. Additionally, the degree to which emotional/practical social support received were positive or negative and the ability of respondents to self-manage their daily living were assessed. Less than a third of respondents scored above the threshold for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were not related to gender or vision status. Depression was correlated with age, educational level, less positive practical support, more negative practical support and more negative emotional support, with lower perceptions of self-management representing the most robust predictor of depression. Age moderated the relationship between depression and self-management, and between depression and negative emotional support. Lower perceptions of self-management and negative emotional support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin, Suzanne; Kelly, Greg; Kernohan, W George; McCreight, Bernadette; Nugent, Christopher
The integration of smart home technology to support health and social care is acquiring an increasing global significance. Provision is framed within the context of a rapidly changing population profile, which is impacting on the number of people requiring health and social care, workforce availability and the funding of healthcare systems. To explore the effectiveness of smart home technologies as an intervention for people with physical disability, cognitive impairment or learning disability, who are living at home, and to consider the impact on the individual's health status and on the financial resources of health care. We searched the following databases for primary studies: (a) the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Register, (b) the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), (The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2007), and (c) bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE (1966 to March 2007), EMBASE (1980 to March 2007) and CINAHL (1982 to March 2007). We also searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE). We searched the electronic databases using a strategy developed by the EPOC Trials Search Co-ordinator. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental studies, controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series analyses (ITS). Participants included adults over the age of 18, living in their home in a community setting. Participants with a physical disability, dementia or a learning disability were included. The included interventions were social alarms, electronic assistive devices, telecare social alert platforms, environmental control systems, automated home environments and 'ubiquitous homes'. Outcome measures included any objective measure that records an impact on a participant's quality of life, healthcare professional workload, economic outcomes, costs to healthcare provider or costs to participant. We included measures of service satisfaction
Full Text Available This work reports about the preliminary results and ongoing research based upon profiling collaborative learning groups of persons within the social micro-blogging platforms like Twitter that share potentially common interests on special topic. Hereby the focus is held on spontaneously initiated collaborative learning in Social Media and detection of collaborative learning groups based upon their communication dynamics. Research questions targeted to be answered are: are there any useful data mining algorithms to fulfill the task of pre-selection and clustering of users in social networks, how good do they perform, and what are the metrics that could be used for detection and evaluation in the realm of this task. Basic approach presented here uses as preamble hypothesis that users and their interests in Social Networks can be identified through content generated by them and content they consume. Special focus is held on topic oriented approach as least common bounding point. Those should be also the basic criteria used to detect and outline the learning groups. The aim of this work is to deliver first scientific pre-work for successfully implementation of recommender systems using social network metrics and content features of social network users for the purposes of better learning group communication and information consumption.
Dill-Shackleford, Karen E; Ramasubramanian, Srividya; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Scharrer, Erica; Burgess, Melinda C R; Lemish, Dafna
How do children and youth come to understand what it means to be a member of a particular race, gender, and other social groups? How do they come to hold beliefs about the groups that they do and do not belong to? Both news stories and fictional narratives that we are tuned into as a culture tell stories about what it means to be a member of a particular social group. In this review article, we relate the latest scientific knowledge on news and entertainment media representations of race, gender and other social categories and what they tell us about how these messages are taken in and processed by developing minds. We include research on identity development, social learning about members of other groups, and both positive and negative behavioral outcomes to cultural messages about race, gender, and other social categories. We offer recommendations for stakeholders to understand the role of the media in educating youth about race, gender and other social categories. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Zhao, Qun; Mao, Yuchen; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong
Existing research has suggested a positive role of social support in reducing drug use among female sex workers (FSWs). However, there is limited research on the role of social support in amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use among FSWs in China. This study explored the present situation of ATS use among FSWs in Guangxi, China and examined the associations of different types of social support from different sources with ATS use. A sample of 1022 FSWs was recruited from 56 commercial sex venues in Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. Bivariate comparison was used to compare demographic characteristics and source of emotional or tangible social support across frequency of ATS use among FSWs. The relationship between social support and ATS use was examined using multiple ordinal logistic regression models controlling for the potential confounding effects of demographic variables. The multiple ordinal logistic regression indicated that FSWs who were from younger age groups (aOR = 10.88 for age group workers for tangible support (aOR = 1.17). Different types of social support from different sources can be either positively or negatively associated with ATS use among FSWs, therefore, the future intervention efforts should differentiate and target different types and different sources of social support in response to the living and work conditions of FSWs.
McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E; Aisenberg, Eugene
Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance. This article examines the validity of four premises undergirding the ESI approach: ESIs are effective, relevant to common client problems and needs, culturally appropriate, and replicable and sustainable in community-based settings. In reviewing available literature, the authors found insufficient support for the uniform application of an ESI approach to social work practice in the human service sector, particularly as applied within agency contexts serving ethnic minority clients. The authors recommend that greater attention be devoted to the development and dissemination of social work interventions that respond to needs that are broadly understood and shared across diverse cultural groups, have proven clinical efficacy, and can be translated successfully for use across different agency and cultural environments. Such attention to the research and development function of the social work profession is increasingly necessary as policymakers and human service system architects require reduced costs and improved performance for programs serving historically oppressed client populations.
Leis, Ángela; Mayer, Miguel Ángel; Torres Niño, Javier; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Suelves, Josep Maria; Armayones, Manuel
To determine the features and use of groups related to healthy eating on Facebook. We carried out a cross-sectional study through the Internet. Using the API on Facebook, we included open groups related to healthy eating in the Spanish language. The variables studied were name, description, category, the number and gender of users, date of creation, number of posts, content of the first 20 posts, and the most recent update. We selected 281 open groups for inclusion in the study. Of these, 125 were excluded because the content was unrelated to healthy eating. Finally 156 groups were studied with 14,619 users (10,373 women [71%] and 3,919 men [26.8%]). Dietary products were promoted by 40% of the groups. Facebook is used as a means of communication and for sharing health information. Because many of these groups promote dietary products, their usefulness for health education is doubtful. Health organizations should participate in social media. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.
Background: Social media platforms are useful for creating communities, which can then be utilised as a mean for supportive, professional and social learning. Objective: To explore first year nursing student experiences with social media in supporting student transition and engagement into higher education. Design: Qualitative focus groups. Methods: Ten 1st yearBachelor of Nursing students were included in three face-to-face focus groups. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content ...
Ergh, Tanya C; Hanks, Robin A; Rapport, Lisa J; Coleman, Renee D
Social support is an important determinant of adjustment following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained by a family member. The present study examined the extent to which social support moderates the influence of characteristics of the person with injury on caregiver subjective well-being. Sixty pairs of individuals who had sustained a moderate to severe TBI and their caregivers (N=120) participated. Years postinjury ranged from 0.3 to 9.9 ( M=4.8, SD=2.6). Cognitive, functional, and neurobehavioral functioning of participants with TBI were assessed using neuropsychological tests and rating scales. Caregiver life satisfaction and perceived social support were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that time since injury was unrelated to life satisfaction. Neurobehavioral disturbances showed an inverse relation with life satisfaction. Social support emerged as an important moderator of life satisfaction. Only among caregivers with low social support was cognitive dysfunction adversely related to life satisfaction. Similarly, a trend suggested that patient unawareness of deficit was associated with caregiver life dissatisfaction only among caregivers with low social support. In contrast, these characteristics were unrelated to life satisfaction among caregivers with adequate social support.
Full Text Available Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46 showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others.
Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others.
Full Text Available The article deals with the definition of the concept of "incomplete family", describes the typology of single-parent families, the necessity of special social psychological and pedagogical support for children from such families and their parents has been proved. The analysis of various concepts of ―support‖has been made. The idea of psychological and pedagogical support of modern incomplete families has been determined. Key words: incomplete family, types of single-parent families, support, social support, psychological and pedagogical support of single-parent families.
Full Text Available Human faces automatically attract visual attention and this process appears to be guided by social group memberships. In two experiments, we examined how social groups guide selective attention toward in-group and out-group faces. Black and White participants detected a target letter among letter strings superimposed on faces (Experiment 1. White participants were less accurate on trials with racial out-group (Black compared to in-group (White distractor faces. Likewise, Black participants were less accurate on trials with racial out-group (White compared to in-group (Black distractor faces. However, this pattern of out-group bias was only evident under high perceptual load-when the task was visually difficult. To examine the malleability of this pattern of racial bias, a separate sample of participants were assigned to mixed-race minimal groups (Experiment 2. Participants assigned to groups were less accurate on trials with their minimal in-group members compared to minimal out-group distractor faces, regardless of race. Again, this pattern of out-group bias was only evident under high perceptual load. Taken together, these results suggest that social identity guides selective attention toward motivationally relevant social groups-shifting from out-group bias in the domain of race to in-group bias in the domain of minimal groups-when perceptual resources are scarce.
van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, Erik; Seydel, Erwin R; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Patients who visit online support groups benefit in various ways. Results of our earlier study indicated that participation in online support groups had a profound effect on the participants' feelings of "being empowered." However, most studies of online patient support groups have focused on the members of these groups who actively contribute by sending postings (posters). Thus far, little is known about the impact for "lurkers" (ie, those who do not actively participate by sending postings). In the present study, we explored if lurkers in online patient support groups profit to the same extent as posters do. We searched the Internet with the search engine Google to identify all Dutch online support groups for patients with breast cancer, fibromyalgia, and arthritis. Invitations to complete an online survey were sent out by the owners of 19 groups. In the online questionnaire, we asked questions about demographic and health characteristics, use of and satisfaction with the online support group, empowering processes, and empowering outcomes. The online questionnaire was completed by 528 individuals, of which 109 (21%) identified themselves as lurkers. Lurkers (mean age 47 years) were slightly older than active participants (mean age 43 years, P = .002), had a shorter disease history (time since diagnosis 3.7 years vs 5.4 years, P = .001), and reported lower mental well-being (SF 12 subscore 37.7 vs 40.5, P = .004). No significant differences were found in other demographic variables. Posters indicated visiting the online support groups significantly more often for social reasons, such as curiosity about how other members were doing, to enjoy themselves, as a part of their daily routine (all P posters did not differ in their information-related reasons for visiting the online support group. Lurkers were significantly less satisfied with the online support group compared to posters (P posters. However, lurkers did not differ significantly from posters with regard to
Chung, Soondool; Jeon, Haesang; Song, Ahyoung
Despite compelling evidence showing that social networks and social support are associated with depression, relatively little research is available on this topic for older Koreans at high risk of depression. This article aimed to examine the relationship among different types of social networks (family vs. friends), social support (instrumental vs. emotional), and perceived general health among older Koreans at high risk of depression. We would then test for possible differences in pathways between two age groups (60-74 years vs. 75 years and older). Using data from the 2008 Survey of Elderly Life and Welfare Need, age 60-74 years (n = 2,815) and age 75 years and older (n = 1,784) were analyzed separately. Path analyses were used to examine the relationships among social network, support, and health among Korean older adults at high risk of depression. Findings highlighted the complex associations among social networks, social support, and perceived general health within old age. Moreover, this study called attention to the negative association between instrumental support from family networks and perceived general health among older Koreans aged 60-74 years at high risk of depression. The work discussed in this article would help inform the design of much needed and effective social intervention programs for the growing number of Korean older adults with depression.
Cohen, Dov; Shin, Faith; Liu, Xi; Ondish, Peter; Kraus, Michael W
We examined changes over four decades and between ethnic groups in how people define their social class. Changes included the increasing importance of income, decreasing importance of occupational prestige, and the demise of the "Victorian bargain," in which poor people who subscribed to conservative sexual and religious norms could think of themselves as middle class. The period also saw changes (among Whites) and continuity (among Black Americans) in subjective status perceptions. For Whites (and particularly poor Whites), their perceptions of enhanced social class were greatly reduced. Poor Whites now view their social class as slightly but significantly lower than their poor Black and Latino counterparts. For Black respondents, a caste-like understanding of social class persisted, as they continued to view their class standing as relatively independent of their achieved education, income, and occupation. Such achievement indicators, however, predicted Black respondents' self-esteem more than they predicted self-esteem for any other group.
Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.
Relations between paternal autonomy support and four aspects of adolescent social competence and responsibility at age 16 were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. With controls on maternal autonomy support, significant relations were observed between paternal autonomy support and three of the four…
Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.
Helping someone who is depressed can be very important to the depressed person. A number of supportive family members or friends can often make a big difference. This paper addresses how a social support network can be formed, taking the needs of the support recipient and the possibilities of the
Sanchez-Martínez, Mercedes; López-García, Esther; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Cruz, Juan J; Orozco, Edilberto; García-Esquinas, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R
Social support has been associated with greater nocturnal decline (dipping) in blood pressure (BP) in younger and middle-aged individuals. However, it is uncertain if aggregated measures of social support are related to ambulatory SBP in older adults, where high SBP is frequent and clinically challenging. We studied 1047 community-living individuals aged at least 60 years in Spain. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP was determined under standardized conditions. Social support was assessed with a seven-item questionnaire on marital status, cohabitation, frequency of contact with relatives, or with friends and neighbors, emotional support, instrumental support, and outdoor companionship. A social support score was built by summing the values of the items that were significantly associated with SBP variables, such that the higher the score, the better the support. Participants' mean age was 71.7 years (50.8% men). Being married, cohabiting, and being accompanied when out of home were the support items significantly associated with SBP variables. After adjustment for sociodemographic (age, sex, education), behavioral (BMI, alcohol, tobacco, salt consumption, physical activity, Mediterranean diet score), and clinical variables [sleep quality, mental stress, comorbidity, BP medication, and ambulatory BP levels and heart rate (HR)], one additional point in the social support score built with the abovementioned three support variables, was associated with a decrease of 0.93 mmHg in night-time SBP (P = 0.039), totaling 2.8 mmHg decrease for a score of 3 vs. 0. The three-item social support score was also inversely associated with the night/day SBP ratio (β = -0.006, P = 0.010). In older adults, social support is independently associated with lower nocturnal SBP and greater SBP dipping. Further research is needed in prospective studies to confirm these results.
D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); R. van Dick (Rolf); S. Tavares (Susanna)
textabstractIntegrating insights from the social exchange perspective and the social identity perspective on the psychological relationship between the individual and the organization, we propose that evaluations of the support received from the organization and its representatives, and
D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); R. van Dick (Rolf); S. Tavares (Susanna)
textabstractIntegrating insights from the social exchange perspective and the social identity perspective, we propose that evaluations of support received from the organization and its representatives and organizational identification interact to predict withdrawal from the job. The relationship of
Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J; Hyams, Adriana; Yang, Xin; Parton, Jason
Perceived social support and hearing handicap were assessed in adults with and without hearing loss who lived in different geographical regions of Alabama. The Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults (HHIA) assessed emotional and social consequences of hearing loss. The Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Social Support Survey and the Social Functioning, Role Emotional and Mental Health scales of the SF-36 were administered. Data were collected from 71 study participants with hearing loss and from 45 adults without hearing loss. Degree of hearing loss and outcomes from the HHIA did not differ between adults who lived in rural or urban settings. Tangible support was poorer for adults with hearing loss who lived in rural settings compared to those who lived in urban settings. For adults without hearing loss, residency was not associated with tangible support. For these adults, income was associated with other types of social support (i.e. informational support, affection, positive social interaction). Adults with hearing loss living in rural areas had poor perceived tangible support. The provision of support to address a hearing loss could be worse for these adults compared to adults who lived in urban settings.
Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H
Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Zhihang; Chen, Hang; Chen, Kuen; Che, Ada
This paper describes the work on the development of a group decision support system for customer driven product design. The customer driven is to develop products, which meet all customer requirements in whole life cycle of products. A process model of decision during product primary design is proposed to formulate the structured, semi-structured and unstructured decision problems. The framework for the decision support system is presented that integrated both advances in the group decision making and distributed artificial intelligent. The system consists of the product primary design tool kit and the collaborative platform with multi-agent structure. The collaborative platform of the system and the product primary design tool kit, including the VOC (Voice of Customer) tool, QFD (Quality Function Deployment) tool, the Conceptual design tool, Reliability analysis tool and the cost and profit forecasting tool, are indicated.
Julie Johnson; Juanita Germaine; Diana Maliszewski; Renee Keberer
Abstract: Two schools in separate cites used the Nintendo Wii gaming system to assist selected boys in developing social skills. Using Skype and Twitter, the two groups collaborated at different stages of the project. The pilot project investigated the benefits of incorporating video games into traditional social skills programming, as well as the benefits of online collaboration between teachers in different school boards and students from different communities.
Full Text Available Abstract: Two schools in separate cites used the Nintendo Wii gaming system to assist selected boys in developing social skills. Using Skype and Twitter, the two groups collaborated at different stages of the project. The pilot project investigated the benefits of incorporating video games into traditional social skills programming, as well as the benefits of online collaboration between teachers in different school boards and students from different communities.
Stroke is one of the most common conditions with about 45,000 people suffering a first stroke in the Netherlands each year. Although survival after stroke has increased in recent decades, a substantial part of the survivors of stroke remain physically or cognitively impaired and in need of support
Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova
Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is
Gustavo Miranda Caran
Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies can be seen as an important factor for social inclusion in its different aspects - economic, social, relational and informational, among others. Inclusion potentiality is even more relevant for groups of people who face limiting life conditions which determine social barriers. This study investigated the social support offered to people with disabilities based on the social network analysis method. The research objective was to make the online support dynamics for low vision people, friends and relatives evident, having as case study the Facebook Low Vision group. The social network modelling and quantitative analysis were performed from user data collection, posts, comments and likes. Contents were classified according to the type of support (Emotional or Instrumental and according to its intention (Offered or Requested, represented in graphs as indicators for analysis. Results pointed towards a larger use rate of Instrumental and Offered support although a more intense and comprehensive exchange of Emotional and Requested support was found. Data collection limitations indicate the need for more empirical studies on the social use of socio-technical networks for different types of social support. This theme points to a research agenda about the role of information and communication technologies as a possible condition for inclusion, life quality and well-being of people with disabilities.
Idea evaluation is necessary in most modern organizations to identify the level of novelty and usefulness of new ideas. However, current idea evaluation research hinders creativity by primarily supporting convergent thinking (narrowing down ideas to a few tangible solutions), while divergent...... thinking (the development of wildly creative and novel thoughts patterns) is discounted. In this paper, this current view of idea evaluation is challenged through the development of a prototype that supports dynamic idea evaluation. The prototype uses knowledge created during evaluative processes...... to facilitate divergent thinking in a Group Creativity Support System (GCSS) designed from state-of-the-art research. The prototype is interpretively explored through a field experiment in a Danish IS research department. Consequently, the prototype demonstrates the ability to including divergent thinking...
Scott E. Wilks
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...
V??n?nen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, ...
Bohmert, Miriam Northcutt; Duwe, Grant; Hipple, Natalie Kroovand
In a climate in which stigmatic shaming is increasing for sex offenders as they leave prison, restorative justice practices have emerged as a promising approach to sex offender reentry success and have been shown to reduce recidivism. Criminologists and restorative justice advocates believe that providing ex-offenders with social support that they may not otherwise have is crucial to reducing recidivism. This case study describes the expressive and instrumental social support required and received, and its relationship to key outcomes, by sex offenders who participated in Circles of Support and Accountability (COSAs), a restorative justice, reentry program in Minnesota. In-depth interviews with re-entering sex offenders and program volunteers revealed that 75% of offenders reported weak to moderate levels of social support leaving prison, 70% reported receiving instrumental support in COSAs, and 100% reported receiving expressive support. Findings inform work on social support, structural barriers, and restorative justice programming during sex offender reentry.
MacElveen-Hoehn, P; Eyres, S J
The purpose of this presentation is to review the concepts of social support and vulnerable families and children, propose a theoretical model on coping and adaptation, and ascertain any significant implications for the delivery of health care services and future research. The review of the literature indicates that major problems persist in the classification, conceptualization, empirical investigation, and clinical application of social support due to a lack of clarity regarding the definition of social support and how it works. Related perspectives such as bonding, child development, and child rearing also reaffirm the need for and the utilization of social support. High-risk factors, such as low maternal age, poverty, single parenthood, and long-term health problems, increase the vulnerability of families and children. This literature strongly suggests that the interactions of adults and children with supportive members of their social networks are important in the development of essential cognitive and social skills, as well as for the promotion of security and comfort. Supports from individuals, families, and groups also are associated with more successful adaptation and favorable outcomes. Despite numerous articles and research projects, however, questions concerning how social support works to assist vulnerable children and families remain. Seven factors are proposed as a theoretical model to identify threatening situations and coping difficulties so that appropriate support can be provided. These factors are surprise, experience, confusion, perceived effectiveness, perceived allies, perceived uniqueness of threat, and overload. Additional testing is required for this model so that a more meaningful investigation and utilization of social support can be established. Additional research also is indicated to determine the specific types of support needed in the presence of certain factors, network style preferences, the supply and demand for support over the
White, M; Dorman, S M
Online support groups are expanding as the general public becomes more comfortable using computer-mediated communication technology. These support groups have certain benefits for users who may not be able to or do not have the desire to attend face-to-face sessions. Online support groups also present challenges when compared to traditional face-to-face group communication. Communication difficulties may arise resulting from lack of visual and aural cues found in traditional face-to-face communication. Online support groups have emerged within health care as a result of the need individuals have to know more about health conditions they are confronting. The proliferation of these online communities may provide an opportunity for health educators to reach target populations with specific messages. This paper reviews the development of health-related online support groups, examines research conducted within these communities, compares their utility with traditional support groups and discusses the implications of these groups for health education.
Full Text Available Food insecurity persists as a social problem in the U.S., putting its victims at risk of poor nutritional and overall health. Being food insecure is defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally safe foods or the inability to access such foods in socially acceptable ways. Food insecurity research tends to focus on younger populations, particularly households with children. Food insecurity among the elderly is, therefore, poorly understood, both in prevalence and in prevention and intervention methods. Addressing this gap, the present study examined the relationships between emotional social support and food security using data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in an effort to further the understanding of food insecurity among elders. Specifically, the effects of an emotional social support presence, number of support sources and types of support sources on food security were observed using OLS linear regression. Results indicated that emotional social support alleviated the risk of food insecurity, even when household income, marital/partnership status and health status were controlled for. However, the source of the support mattered: elders who reported a spouse as the primary source of support were more likely to report being food secure, while those who reported an “other” primary source of support were more likely to report being food insecure. Number of support sources were not significantly related to food security.
Ghorbani Saeedian, Radka; Nagyova, Iveta; Krokavcova, Martina; Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P
To explore how social support is associated with anxiety and depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients controlling for gender, disease duration and disease severity. The sample consisted of 124 patients (52.4% male; mean age 68.1 ± 8.4 years; mean disease duration 6.3 ± 5.5 years). Anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, social support with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and disease severity with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using linear regression. Gender, disease duration, disease severity and social support explained 31% of the total variance in anxiety in younger PD patients but did not significantly contribute to the explanation of depression. In the older group, this model explained 41% of the variance in depression but did not significantly contribute to the explanation of anxiety. PD patients experience the positive influence of social support differently according to age. In the younger group, disease duration plays the primary role regarding anxiety. In the older group, poor social support especially from friends is associated with more depression after controlling for the relevant variables. Implications of Rehabilitation PD is a disease of older age with a neurodegenerative character and treatment should focus on increasing quality of life. Anxiety and depression are common co-morbidities in PD patients. The support network should also be screened regularly and involved in enhancing the quality of life.
Jayles, Bertrand; Kim, Hye-Rin; Escobedo, Ramón; Cezera, Stéphane; Blanchet, Adrien; Kameda, Tatsuya; Sire, Clément; Theraulaz, Guy
In our digital and connected societies, the development of social networks, online shopping, and reputation systems raises the questions of how individuals use social information and how it affects their decisions. We report experiments performed in France and Japan, in which subjects could update their estimates after having received information from other subjects. We measure and model the impact of this social information at individual and collective scales. We observe and justify that, when individuals have little prior knowledge about a quantity, the distribution of the logarithm of their estimates is close to a Cauchy distribution. We find that social influence helps the group improve its properly defined collective accuracy. We quantify the improvement of the group estimation when additional controlled and reliable information is provided, unbeknownst to the subjects. We show that subjects' sensitivity to social influence permits us to define five robust behavioral traits and increases with the difference between personal and group estimates. We then use our data to build and calibrate a model of collective estimation to analyze the impact on the group performance of the quantity and quality of information received by individuals. The model quantitatively reproduces the distributions of estimates and the improvement of collective performance and accuracy observed in our experiments. Finally, our model predicts that providing a moderate amount of incorrect information to individuals can counterbalance the human cognitive bias to systematically underestimate quantities and thereby improve collective performance. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby; Tost, Leigh Plunkett
Researchers have suggested that viewing social inequity as dominant-group privilege (rather than subordinate-group disadvantage) enhances dominant-group members' support for social policies aimed at lessening such inequity. However, because viewing inequity as dominant-group privilege can be damaging to dominant-group members' self-images, this perspective is frequently resisted. In the research reported here, we explored the circumstances that enhance the likelihood of dominant-group members' viewing inequity as privilege. Because social hierarchies have multiple vertical dimensions, individuals may have high status on one dimension but low status on another. We predicted that occupying a subordinate position on one dimension of social hierarchy could enhance perceptions of one's own privilege on a different dimension of hierarchy, but that this tendency would be diminished among individuals who felt they had achieved a particularly high level of success. Results from three studies that considered gender-based and race-based hierarchies in organizational settings supported our hypothesis.
Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru
The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Socio-aesthetic care is increasingly being offered to patients suffering from long-term illnesses such as cancer. Combined with support care, it is performed by a socio-aesthetician having received specific training and can be offered as soon as the diagnosis is announced and until the end of the treatment or the end of life. This comfort care helps patients to reclaim a body transformed by the disease and treatments.
Gil, Michael A; Emberts, Zachary; Jones, Harrison; St Mary, Colette M
Empirical studies in select systems suggest that social information-the incidental or deliberate information produced by animals and available to other animals-can fundamentally shape animal grouping behavior. However, to understand the role of social information in animal behavior and fitness, we must establish general theory that quantifies effects of social information across ecological contexts and generates expectations that can be applied across systems. Here we used dynamic state variable modeling to isolate effects of social information about food and predators on grouping behavior and fitness. We characterized optimal behavior from a set of strategies that included grouping with different numbers of conspecifics or heterospecifics and the option to forage or be vigilant over the course of a day. We show that the use of social information alone increases grouping behavior but constrains group size to limit competition, ultimately increasing individual fitness substantially across various ecological contexts. We also found that across various contexts, foraging in mixed-species groups is generally better than foraging in conspecific groups, supporting recent theory on competition-information quality trade-offs. Our findings suggest that multiple forms of social information shape animal grouping and fitness, which are sensitive to resource availability and predation pressure that determine information usefulness.
Full Text Available Kathlene Tracy,1,2 Samantha P Wallace3 1Community Research and Recovery Program (CRRP, Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 2New York Harbor Healthcare System (NYHHS, New York, 3Department of Community Health Sciences, State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn, NY, USA Objective: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects. This article reports the results of a literature review that was undertaken to assess the effects of peer support groups, one aspect of peer support services, in the treatment of addiction.Methods: The authors of this article searched electronic databases of relevant peer-reviewed research literature including PubMed and MedLINE.Results: Ten studies met our minimum inclusion criteria, including randomized controlled trials or pre-/post-data studies, adult participants, inclusion of group format, substance use-related, and US-conducted studies published in 1999 or later. Studies demonstrated associated benefits in the following areas: 1 substance use, 2 treatment engagement, 3 human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus risk behaviors, and 4 secondary substance-related behaviors such as craving and self-efficacy. Limitations were noted on the relative lack of rigorously tested empirical studies within the literature and inability to disentangle the effects of the group treatment that is often included as a component of other services
Caitlin J. Symonette
Full Text Available Background. Distal radius fractures are the most common fracture of the upper extremity and cause variable disability. This study examined the role of social support in patient-reported pain and disability at one year following distal radius fracture. Methods. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey was administered to a prospective cohort of 291 subjects with distal radius fractures at their baseline visit. Pearson correlations and stepwise linear regression models (F-to-remove 0.10 were used to identify whether social support contributes to wrist fracture outcomes. The primary outcome of pain and disability at one year was measured using the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation. Results. Most injuries were low energy (67.5% and were treated nonoperatively (71.9%. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that higher reported social support correlated with improved Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores at 1 year, r(n=181=-0.22, P<0.05. Of the subscales within the Social Support Survey, emotional/informational support explained a significant proportion of the variance in 1-year Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores, R2=4.7%, F (1, 181 = 9.98, P<0.05. Conclusion. Lower emotional/informational social support at the time of distal radius fracture contributes a small but significant percentage to patient-reported pain and disability outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-didactically delivered curriculum based group psychoeducation has been shown to be more effective than both group support in a specialist mood disorder centre in Spain (with effects lasting up to five years, and treatment as usual in Australia. It is unclear whether the specific content and form of group psychoeducation is effective or the chance to meet and work collaboratively with other peers. The main objective of this trial is to determine whether curriculum based group psychoeducation is more clinically and cost effective than unstructured peer group support. Methods/design Single blind two centre cluster randomised controlled trial of 21 sessions group psychoeducation versus 21 sessions group peer support in adults with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder, not in current episode but relapsed in the previous two years. Individual randomisation is to either group at each site. The groups are carefully matched for the number and type of therapists, length and frequency of the interventions and overall aim of the groups but differ in content and style of delivery. The primary outcome is time to next bipolar episode with measures of the therapeutic process, barriers and drivers to the effective delivery of the interventions and economic analysis. Follow up is for 96 weeks after randomisation. Discussion The trial has features of both an efficacy and an effectiveness trial design. For generalisability in England it is set in routine public mental health practice with a high degree of expert patient involvement. Trial Registration ISRCTN62761948 Funding National Institute for Health Research, England.
Rosander, Michael; Chiriac, Eva Hammar
The aim of this study was to investigate how first-year students view the purpose of tutorial groups in problem-based learning. In all, 147 students from 24 groups participated, providing 399 statements. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed a focus on both learning and social influence. Learning involved the tutorial as…
Full Text Available When creativity is taken as a long-term, complex, and collaborative activity, support for awareness is required for group members to monitor the development of ideas, track how these ideas became narrowed, and understand how alternatives are being implemented and integrated by colleagues. In this paper, we investigate the effects of exposing design rationale to convey awareness, specifically activity awareness, in group creativity. Through evaluating a prototype, we investigate status updates that convey design rationale, and to what consequences, in small groups in fully distributed collaboration. We found that status updates are used for a variety of purposes and that participants’ comments on their collaborators’ status updates provided feedback. Overall, results suggest that participants’ awareness about their collaborators’ future plans increased over time. Majority of participants found the status updates useful, particularly those with higher metacognitive knowledge. Based on our results, two design strategies for activity awareness are proposed.
Nurdan Eren BODUR
Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to assess and evaluate the impact of the levels of perceived social support in infertile couples on stress related with infertility and marital adjustment. The study included 104 couples with primary or secondary infertility and 44 healthy couples with children for the control group. Control group was given the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS. Infertile group was given HADS, DAS, MSPSS and also Fertility Problem Inventory. Women in infertile couples reported greater psychological symptoms and more decreased marital adjustment than men in infertile couples; but the couples did not show any significant difference with those in control groups regarding these parameters. It was determined that, in general, while marital adjustment in infertile couples increases, depression and anxiety levels decrease. It was also observed that perceieved social support from the family has a positive effect on the marital adjustment. The perceived social support level in men in infertil couples is lower than women in the same group, and this outcome is also related with the increasing anxiety in men. These results showed that psychosocial problems in infertile couples should be evaluated with specific scales. Psychosocial support which will be given to infertile couples and motivating social support systems while providing this service would have positive effects especially on men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 214-223
Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Greeson, Megan R
Secondary exposure to trauma may have negative effects on rape victim advocates' well-being. Self-care can help to mitigate these negative effects on advocates' well-being, and prior research suggests that social support is an especially important aspect of advocates' self-care. However, there is a lack of research on how rape crisis advocates access and receive social support in relationship to their advocacy work. Therefore, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 rape crisis advocates who volunteered for a rape crisis center in Chicago to understand how they accessed social support from informal and formal support providers, and when they did receive support, what was helpful versus unhelpful. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results revealed that many advocates were able to seek out and receive positive instrumental and emotional social support that nurtured them and their work. However, advocates also experienced a variety of barriers to obtaining positive support from informal support providers, including fear of burdening providers and a reluctance or lack of preparedness of their support providers to speak about the issue. Advocates emphasized the need for rape crisis centers to provide resources for their informal social support systems in order to encourage helpful responses. In addition, advocates praised the rape crisis center for its built-in formal support structures, but also encouraged the organization to seek broader representation of persons from minority backgrounds among their advocates and mentors. Implications and future directions for research and rape crisis centers are also discussed. The present study highlights the importance of social support systems for advocates and potential barriers that may be addressed to reduce service provider burnout and vicarious trauma.
Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda
OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence.
Ozawa-De Silva, Chikako
Existing models for understanding suicide fail to account for the distinctiveness of Internet group suicide, a recent phenomenon in Japan. Drawing from an ethnography of Internet suicide websites, two social commentaries in Japanese popular culture, and the work of developmental psychologist Philippe Rochat, I argue that participation in Internet suicide forums and even the act of Internet group suicide result from both a need for social connectedness and the fear of social rejection and isolation that this need engenders. These needs and fears are especially strong in the case of Japan, where the dominant cultural rhetoric ties selfhood closely to the social self that is the object of perception and experience by others. I show how such an understanding of Internet group suicide helps us to understand some of its basic characteristics, which are otherwise difficult to explain and which have puzzled the Japanese media and popular accounts: the "ordinariness" or casual nature of Internet group suicide, the wish for an easy or comfortable death, the wish to die with others, and the wish to "vanish." Internet group suicide sheds light on questions of Japanese selfhood in modernity and expands our understanding of suicide in Japan in general.
Full Text Available Several indications that indicate student in low achievement motivation, among others: (1 lack of enthusiasm to follow the lesson, (2 less attention to the teacher, (3 the students have not targeted yet, (4 students tend to ignore the task, (5 (6 students are less harmonious with teachers, (7 students are lazy to learn, and (8 some students feel scared with the teacher. Students 'perceptions of teacher's social support are factors that allegedly influence students' achievement motivation. This study aims to determine the relationship of students' perceptions of the social support of teachers with achievement motivation. The method used throughout this research is quantitative with regression technique. Samples numbered to 206 students of SMA Negeri 1 V Koto Timur Padang Pariaman, and selected by proportional random sampling. The instrument used is the student's perception scale of teacher's social support and achievement motivation. The research findings indicate that there is a significant correlation between around teacher's social support with student achievement motivation.
The impact of parental social support on promoting children's physical activities. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... succe ss at school, while less attention was given to the child's involvement in the physical educat ion
Jun 29, 2016 ... long been linked with health and illness; for instance married adults have a lower ... recover faster than unmarried adults.13 Social support can be defined as those ..... Martire LM, Lustig AP, Schulz R, Miller GE, Helgeson VS.
The study examined tenth grade students' motivation, social support, alienation from school and ... called because it is external to the learning activity itself .... on mathematics achievement (Bandura,. 1997). ...... a Unifying Theory of Behavioral.
literature that supportive social relationships influence students' self-beliefs. Keywords ... consideration in both learning theory and pedagogical practice. Wilkins and Ma ... skills and competencies (Bandura, 1997; OECD, 2013). Mathematics ...
Probst; Carnevale; Triandis
Do cultural values influence the manner in which people cooperate with one another? This study assessed cultural characteristics of individuals and then related these characteristics to cooperative behavior in social dilemmas. Participants were assessed for their degree of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism, cultural values identified by Triandis (1995). They made choices in either a single-group or an intergroup social dilemma. The single-group dilemma entailed a three-person dilemma; the intergroup dilemma was identical but added subgroup competition, i.e., an opposing three-person group. The results indicated an interaction between cultural characteristics and type of dilemma for cooperation. The single-group versus intergroup effect reported by Bornstein and Ben-Yossef (1994) was replicated, but only for vertical individualists. The vertical individualists were least cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were more cooperative in the intergroup dilemma-where cooperation with the group maximized personal outcomes. The vertical collectivists were most cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were less cooperative in the intergroup dilemma- where group defection resulted in maximum group outcomes. The horizontal individualists and collectivists exhibited an intermediate level of cooperation, with no differences in cooperation between the single-group and intergroup dilemmas. Taken together, the results suggest that the relationship between cultural values and cooperation, in particular with reference to vertical and horizontal components of individualism and collectivism, is more complex than has been suggested in past research. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Berliner, Peter; Navarro Gongóra, José; Espaillat, Vanessa
. The support was centered on (1) providing information; (2) facilitating social regulation of emotions; (3) supporting a social support network for the patient; (4) focusing coping efforts; and (5) normalization of reactions. Finally it is described how the crisis made values of caring, compassion......The article describes how psychosocial support in the immediate and mid-term disaster response for Haitian earthquake survivors in hospitals in the Dominican Republic could ameliorate some of the suffering and prevent the crisis from becoming crystallized into symptoms and complex grief...
Full Text Available Prematurity is still an actual medical problem. Significant increase in the survival rate of premature babies is observed due to the progress in perinatal care .Usually, parents are not prepared for a premature birth, for the majority of them the hospitalization of a child in neonatal intensive care unit is a source of fear, moreover parents often blame themselves for the situation. Appearing emotions and questions require a compatible response from the therapeutic team. The most important activity in the practice of the team is emotional, informative, evaluative support.
Lee, H Erin; Cho, Jaehee
This study examined the relationships across social media use, social support, depression, and general psychological disposition among people with movement or mobility disabilities in Korea. First, with survey data (n = 91) collected from users of social network sites (SNSs) and online communities, hypotheses regarding positive associations between intensity of an individual's engagement in social media and four different types of social support-emotional, instrumental, informational, and appraisal support-were tested as well as hypotheses regarding mediation effects of the social support variables in the association between social media use and depression. Second, through focus group interviews (n = 15), influences of social media use on social support were more thoroughly explored as well as their influences on general psychological disposition. Results from hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that both intensity of SNS use and online community use significantly predicted instrumental, informational, and appraisal support, while they did not predict emotional support. Further regression and Sobel tests showed that higher levels of intensity of SNS use and of online community use both led to lower levels of depression through the mediation of instrumental and informational support. Analysis of the interviews further revealed the positive roles of social media use in building social support and healthy psychological dispositions. However, analysis also revealed some negative consequences of and limitations to social media use for those with physical disabilities. These findings expand our knowledge of the context and implications of engaging in online social activities for people with physical disabilities.
McCowan, Brenda; Beisner, Brianne; Hannibal, Darcy
Biomedical facilities across the nation and worldwide aim to develop cost-effective methods for the reproductive management of macaque breeding groups, typically by housing macaques in large, multi-male multi-female social groups that provide monkey subjects for research as well as appropriate socialization for their psychological well-being. One of the most difficult problems in managing socially housed macaques is their propensity for deleterious aggression. From a management perspective, deleterious aggression (as opposed to less intense aggression that serves to regulate social relationships) is undoubtedly the most problematic behavior observed in group-housed macaques, which can readily escalate to the degree that it causes social instability, increases serious physical trauma leading to group dissolution, and reduces psychological well-being. Thus for both welfare and other management reasons, aggression among rhesus macaques at primate centers and facilities needs to be addressed with a more proactive approach.Management strategies need to be instituted that maximize social housing while also reducing problematic social aggression due to instability using efficacious methods for detection and prevention in the most cost effective manner. Herein we review a new proactive approach using social network analysis to assess and predict deleterious aggression in macaque groups. We discovered three major pathways leading to instability, such as unusually high rates and severity of trauma and social relocations.These pathways are linked either directly or indirectly to network structure in rhesus macaque societies. We define these pathways according to the key intrinsic and extrinsic variables (e.g., demographic, genetic or social factors) that influence network and behavioral measures of stability (see Fig. 1). They are: (1) presence of natal males, (2) matrilineal genetic fragmentation, and (3) the power structure and conflict policing behavior supported by this
Bossy, Dagmara; Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Rogers, Anne; Foss, Christina
Self-management is considered important in chronic illness, and contemporary health policy recommends participation in support groups for individuals with chronic conditions. Although withdrawal from or non-participation in support groups is an important problem, there is limited knowledge about individuals' own motivation for participation in or withdrawal from self-management support groups. To investigate how individuals with type 2 diabetes perceive participation in group-based self-management support. This is a qualitative focus group study using a semi-structured interview guide. Sixteen participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. Individuals with and without group affiliations were mixed in three focus groups to trigger discussions. In the analysis, reoccurring themes of engagement and discussions between participants were focused within a theoretical frame of institutional logic. The focus groups are seen as social spaces where participants construct identity. Both participation and non-participation in group-based self-management support are associated with dealing with the stigma of having type 2 diabetes. Negotiations contribute to constructing an illness dignity as a response to the logic of moral responsibility for the disease. Contemporary policy contributes to societal understandings of individuals with type 2 diabetes as morally inadequate. Our study shows that group-based self-management support may counteract blame and contribute in negotiations of identity for individuals with type 2 diabetes. This mechanism makes participation in groups beneficial for some but stigma inducing for others. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
contends that social relationships influence health through the prevention or lessening of responses to stress. Cohen and Wills (1985) describe that...Sheffield, D., Jaumdally, R., & Lip, G. Y. H. (2010). Anger rumination , social support, and cardiac symptoms in patients undergoing angiography
Väyrynen, Sai; Kesälahti, Essi; Pynninen, Tanja; Siivola, Jenny; Flotskaya, Natalia; Bulanova, Svetlana; Volskaya, Olga; Usova, Zoya; Kuzmicheva, Tatyana; Afonkina, Yulia
We argue that a key aspect of inclusive pedagogy is the interaction between the learners, their teachers and the environment. For effective interaction, learners need to develop social competence. This study explores how teachers support the development of the key social skills in schools in Finland and in Russia. The data were collected by…
Everyone needs adjustment to get along or survive ones social and physical environment. The widows in this part of the world need it more than anyone due to the hardship culture has placed on them. The study examined the psychological and social support being rendered to the widows for adjustment. One hundred and ...
Full Text Available This paper aims to present the elements of novelty in the documents and acts issued by the representative institutions of the European Union in order to support social enterprises. The paper also analyzed the actions taken to date to implement the plan of measures proposed by the European Commission to stimulate the development of social enterprises.
Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane
As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…
Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael
Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.
Bender, Jacqueline L; Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria-Carolina; Jadad, Alejandro R
Social network sites have been growing in popularity across broad segments of Internet users, and are a convenient means to exchange information and support. Research on their use for health-related purposes is limited. This study aimed to characterize the purpose, use, and creators of Facebook groups related to breast cancer. We searched Facebook (www.Facebook.com) using the term breast cancer. We restricted our analysis to groups that were related to breast cancer, operated in English, and were publicly available. Two of us independently extracted information on the administrator and purpose of the group, as well as the number of user-generated contributions. We developed a coding scheme to guide content analysis. We found 620 breast cancer groups on Facebook containing a total of 1,090,397 members. The groups were created for fundraising (277/620, 44.7%), awareness (236, 38.1%), product or service promotion related to fundraising or awareness (61, 9%), or patient/caregiver support (46, 7%). The awareness groups as a whole contained by far the most members (n = 957,289). The majority of groups (532, 85.8%) had 25 wall posts or fewer. The support oriented groups, 47% (27/57) of which were established by high school or college students, were associated with the greatest number of user-generated contributions. Facebook groups have become a popular tool for awareness-raising, fundraising, and support-seeking related to breast cancer attracting over one million users. Given their popularity and reach, further research is warranted to explore the implications of social network sites as a health resource across various health conditions, cultures, ages, and socioeconomic groups.
DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L
Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.
Chou, Chih-Chin; Robb, Jayci Lynn; Clay, Matthew Christopher; Chronister, Julie Ann
In this study, 51 individuals from online substance abuse support groups were surveyed to investigate the mediating role of social support on the relationship between internalized stigma and coping. Regression and bootstrapping were conducted to perform mediation analysis. Findings suggest that social support mediates the negative impact of…
Evelina Ravilevna Galieva
Full Text Available Social exclusion is both a scientific theory and a socio-political discourse. This paper deals with the study of social exclusion of deprived groups such as drug users, which is based on an analysis of complex issues arising from the spread and use of psychoactive substances. The spread of drug abuse as a phenomenon is the cause of the stigmatization of communities and the exclusion of drug users from societies. The problem carriers are not only patients with drug addiction, but also those who have experience of one-time, episodic experiments with drugs and psychotropic substances. This paper is based on the results of empirical studies, which the subject was the study of drug use practices in modern society. The combination of a quantitative and qualitative strategy for data collection and analysis represented a dynamic accumulation of information at different levels about the object under study – social exclusion of drug users: methods of document analysis were applied such as regulatory legal acts, interviews with drug users and experts in the field of drug use and questionnaire survey, as well as secondary analysis of data from all-Russian sociological research. The social exclusion of deprived groups and ways to overcome it directly depend on the nature of the scenarios for social exclusion, which is the result of the stigmatization of deprived groups.
Richards, P Scott; Berrett, Michael E; Hardman, Randy K; Eggett, Dennis L
Spiritual interventions are rarely used in contemporary treatment programs and little empirical evidence is available concerning their effectiveness. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a spiritual group intervention for eating disorder inpatients. We compared the effectiveness of a Spirituality group with Cognitive and Emotional Support groups using a randomized, control group design. Participants were 122 women receiving inpatient eating disorder treatment. Patients in the Spirituality group tended to score significantly lower on psychological disturbance and eating disorder symptoms at the conclusion of treatment compared to patients in the other groups, and higher on spiritual well-being. On weekly outcome measures, patients in the Spirituality group improved significantly more quickly during the first four weeks of treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that attending to eating disorder patients' spiritual growth and well-being during inpatient treatment may help reduce depression and anxiety, relationship distress, social role conflict, and eating disorder symptoms.
Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M
The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Den Oudsten, Brenda L; Van Heck, Guus L; Van der Steeg, Alida F W; Roukema, Jan A; De Vries, Jolanda
This study examines the relationships between personality, on the one hand, and perceived availability of social support (PASS) and satisfaction with received social support (SRSS), on the other hand, in women with early stage breast cancer (BC). In addition, this study examined whether a stressful event (i.e., diagnosis) is associated with quality of life (QOL), when controlling for PASS and SRSS. Women were assessed on PASS and SRSS (World Health Organization QOL assessment instrument-100) before diagnosis (time 1) and 1 (time 2), 3 (time 3), 6 (time 4), 12 (time 5), and 24 months (time 6) after surgical treatment. Personality (neuroticism extraversion openness five-factor inventory and state trait anxiety inventory-trait scale) and fatigue (fatigue assessment scale) were assessed at time 1. Agreeableness and fatigue predicted PASS and SRSS at time 5 and time 6. Trait anxiety had a negative effect on SRSS (ss = -0.22, p personality factors substantially influence the way women with early stage BC perceive social support. Knowledge about these underlying mechanisms of social support is useful for the development of tailor-made interventions. Professionals should be aware of the importance of social support. They should check whether patients have sufficient significant others in their social environment and be sensitive to potential discrepancies patients might experience between availability and adequacy of social support.
Hill, Patrick L; Payne, Brennan R; Jackson, Joshua J; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Roberts, Brent W
This study examined whether perceived social support predicted adaptive personality change in older adulthood, focusing on the trait of conscientiousness. We tested this hypothesis both at the broad domain level and with respect to the specific lower order facets that comprise conscientiousness: order, self-control, industriousness, responsibility, and traditionalism. A sample of 143 older adults (aged 60-91) completed measures of conscientiousness and social support during 2 assessments 7 months apart. Social support and conscientiousness were positively correlated among older adults. Moreover, older adults who perceived greater social support at baseline were more likely to gain in conscientiousness over time. The magnitude of this effect was relatively similar across the order, self-control, and industriousness facets. Perceived social support provides multiple benefits later in life, and the current results add to this literature by showing that it also promotes conscientiousness. As conscientiousness is linked to a variety of positive outcomes later in life, including health, future research should examine whether conscientiousness change may be an important mechanism through which social support enhances resilience in older adulthood. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Crookes, Danielle M; Shelton, Rachel C; Tehranifar, Parisa; Aycinena, Corina; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel R; Greenlee, Heather
Little is known about Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks or their perceived social support to achieve and maintain a healthy diet. This paper describes the social networks and perceived support for healthy eating in a sample of breast cancer survivors of predominantly Dominican descent living in New York City. Spanish-speaking Latina breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored dietary intervention. Social networks were assessed using Cohen's Social Network Index and a modified General Social Survey Social Networks Module that included assessments of shared health promoting behaviors. Perceived social support from family and friends for healthy, food-related behaviors was assessed. Participants' networks consisted predominantly of family and friends. Family members were more likely than other individuals to be identified as close network members. Participants were more likely to share food-related activities than exercise activities with close network members. Perceived social support for healthy eating was high, although perceived support from spouses and children was higher than support from friends. Despite high levels of perceived support, family was also identified as a barrier to eating healthy foods by nearly half of women. Although friends are part of Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks, spouses and children may provide greater support for healthy eating than friends. Involving family members in dietary interventions for Latina breast cancer survivors may tap into positive sources of support for women, which could facilitate uptake and maintenance of healthy eating behaviors.
Mundell, Jonathan P; Visser, Maretha J; Makin, Jennifer D; Kershaw, Trace S; Forsyth, Brian W C; Jeffery, Bridget; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The authors of this study evaluated a structured 10-session psychosocial support group intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed pregnant South African women. Participants were expected to display increases in HIV disclosure, self-esteem, active coping and positive social support, and decreases in depression, avoidant coping, and negative social support. Three hundred sixty-one pregnant HIV-infected women were recruited from four antenatal clinics in Tshwane townships from April 2005 to September 2006. Using a quasi-experimental design, assessments were conducted at baseline and two and eight months post-intervention. A series of random effects regression analyses were conducted, with the three assessment points treated as a random effect of time. At both follow-ups, the rate of disclosure in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p<0.001). Compared to the comparison group at the first follow-up, the intervention group displayed higher levels of active coping (t=2.68, p<0.05) and lower levels of avoidant coping (t=-2.02, p<0.05), and those who attended at least half of the intervention sessions exhibited improved self-esteem (t=2.11, p<0.05). Group interventions tailored for newly HIV positive pregnant women, implemented in resource-limited settings, may accelerate the process of adjusting to one's HIV status, but may not have sustainable benefits over time.
Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Bamberger, Peter A; Bacharach, Samuel B
Seeking to explain divergent empirical findings regarding the direct effect of social support on well-being, the authors posit that the pattern of supportive exchange (i.e., reciprocal, under-, or over-reciprocating) determines the impact of receiving support on well-being. Findings generated on the basis of longitudinal data collected from a sample of older blue-collar workers support the authors' predictions, indicating that receiving emotional support is associated with enhanced well-being when the pattern of supportive exchange is perceived by an individual as being reciprocal (support received equals support given), with this association being weaker when the exchange of support is perceived as being under-reciprocating (support given exceeds support received). Moreover, receiving support was found to adversely affect well-being when the pattern of exchange was perceived as being over-reciprocating (support received exceeds support given). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Banbury, Annie; Nancarrow, Susan; Dart, Jared; Gray, Leonard; Parkinson, Lynne
Group therapy and education and support sessions are used within health care across a range of disciplines such as chronic disease self-management and psychotherapy interventions. However, there are barriers that constrain group attendance, such as mobility, time, and distance. Using videoconferencing may overcome known barriers and improve the accessibility of group-based interventions. The aim of this study was to review the literature to determine the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness, and implementation of health professional-led group videoconferencing to provide education or social support or both, into the home setting. Electronic databases were searched using predefined search terms for primary interventions for patient education and/or social support. The quality of studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. We developed an analysis framework using hierarchical terms feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness, and implementation, which were informed by subheadings. Of the 1634 records identified, 17 were included in this review. Home-based groups by videoconferencing are feasible even for those with limited digital literacy. Overall acceptability was high with access from the home highly valued and little concern of privacy issues. Some participants reported preferring face-to-face groups. Good information technology (IT) support and training is required for facilitators and participants. Communication can be adapted for the Web environment and would be enhanced by clear communication strategies and protocols. A range of improved outcomes were reported but because of the heterogeneity of studies, comparison of these across studies was not possible. There was a trend for improvement in mental health outcomes. Benefits highlighted in the qualitative data included engaging with others with similar problems; improved accessibility to groups; and development of health knowledge, insights, and skills. Videoconference groups were able to
Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen
How do we conceptualize social awareness, and what support is needed to develop and maintain social awareness in flexible work settings? The paper begins by arguing the relevance of designing for social awareness in flexible work. It points out how social awareness is suspended in the field...... of tension that exists between the ephemerality and continuity of social encounters, exploring ways to construct identity through relationships by means of social encounters - notably those that are accidental and unforced. We probe into this issue through design research: In particular, we present three......, to belonging, and to care. Analyzing these three prototypes in their microcosmic usage setting results in specific recommendations for the three types of applications with respect to social awareness. The experiences indicate that the metaphors a ‘shared mirror' and ‘breadcrumbs' are promising foundations...
Gordon, Wayne A; Cantor, Joshua; Kristen, Dams-O'Connor; Tsaousides, Theodore
TBI often results in reduced social participation. This decrease in social participation is independent of injury severity and time since injury. Thus, it is one of the many stable hallmarks of TBI. Changes in social participation have been related to many factors, including emotional dysregulation and disturbance and executive dysfunction. While there are evidenced-based treatments available to improve mood and executive functioning, none of the research has examined the impact of the various treatments on social participation or social integration. Therefore, while it is reasonable to expect that individuals who are feeling better about themselves and who improve their approach to day-to-day function will also experience increased social contact, there is no evidence to support this claim. This chapter reviews the literature on post-TBI social integration and its relationship to depression and executive dysfunction. In addition the intervention research in this area is briefly examined. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Holtz, Bree; Smock, Andrew; Reyes-Gastelum, David
Research addressing online social support, especially for new mothers, has typically focused on forums and dedicated Web sites, and not on social networking sites like Facebook. Here we expand on this existing body of work by addressing a Facebook page, Ask the Chicks, themed around questions and answers related to motherhood. Using the uses and gratification lens, we explore motivations for participation as they relate to engagement with the page. Individuals were recruited to participant in an online survey through posts on the Ask the Chicks Facebook page made by the page owner over a 1-week period. To be eligible to complete the survey, participants had to be 18 years old or older, female, and pregnant or have at least one child under the age of 5 years. Analyses of survey data collected from users of the page (n=647) revealed that engagement has a positive relationship with the motives of relaxing entertainment, expressive information sharing, social interaction, and information seeking. Online support groups, and especially Facebook, appear to be a more convenient method than traditional online support groups for people who want to obtain information about certain topics, in this case, about motherhood and raising kids. Having this type of social support tool is important, as social support has been found to reduce levels of stress, which can improve overall health and quality of life. This study provides a better understanding of why people use this type of social support group for questions about parenting.
Todd, David M.
The Support Development Group is an approach which explores and develops a theory for the relationship between network characteristics and notions of psychosocial adaptation. The approach is based on the assumption that teaching people to view their social world in network terms can be helpful to them. The Support Development Workshop is presented…
Suurmeijer, Theo P; Doeglas, Dirk M; Briancon, Serge; Krijnen, Wim P
Investigated if the SSQT allows for meaningful comparisons between patients with rheumatoid arthritis from different countries and explored the dimensionality and invariance of the SSQT dimensions. Based on types of social support, the authors formulated a series of items to measure actual
Matoba, Tomoyuki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu
Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo): head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.
Full Text Available Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo: head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.
Scott E. Wilks
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.
Donovan, T.; Bowler, S.; Hanneman, R.; Karp, J.A.
Many prominent social theorists contend that memberships in voluntary associations make major contributions to making citizens more engaged with democracy. Although substantial attention has been directed at the potential role of sports groups, previous studies using survey data have not found
Cruwys, Tegan; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A
In this research, we introduce Social Identity Mapping (SIM) as a method for visually representing and assessing a person's subjective network of group memberships. To provide evidence of its utility, we report validating data from three studies (two longitudinal), involving student, community, and clinical samples, together comprising over 400 participants. Results indicate that SIM is easy to use, internally consistent, with good convergent and discriminant validity. Each study also illustrates the ways that SIM can be used to address a range of novel research questions. Study 1 shows that multiple positive group memberships are a particularly powerful predictor of well-being. Study 2 shows that social support is primarily given and received within social groups and that only in-group support is beneficial for well-being. Study 3 shows that improved mental health following a social group intervention is attributable to an increase in group compatibility. In this way, the studies demonstrate the capacity for SIM to make a contribution both to the development of social-psychological theory and to its practical application. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
De la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Díaz-Pernas, Francisco Javier; Antón-Rodríguez, Míriam
Research on the use of social networks for health-related purposes is limited. This study aims to characterize the purpose and use of Facebook and Twitter groups concerning colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and diabetes. We searched in Facebook ( www.facebook.com ) and Twitter ( www.twitter.com ) using the terms "colorectal cancer," "breast cancer," and "diabetes." Each important group has been analyzed by extracting its network name, number of members, interests, and Web site URL. We found 216 breast cancer groups, 171 colorectal cancer groups, and 527 diabetes groups on Facebook and Twitter. The largest percentage of the colorectal cancer groups (25.58%) addresses prevention, similarly to breast cancer, whereas diabetes groups are mainly focused on research issues (25.09%). There are more social groups about breast cancer and diabetes on Facebook (around 82%) than on Twitter (around 18%). Regarding colorectal cancer, the difference is less: Facebook had 62.23%, and Twitter 31.76%. Social networks are a useful tool for supporting patients suffering from these three diseases. Regarding the use of these social networks for disease support purposes, Facebook shows a higher usage rate than Twitter, perhaps because Twitter is newer than Facebook, and its use is not so generalized.
Rehman, Uzma; Lund-Thomsen, Peter
In this article, we analyze the various types of social support – informational, instrumenmental, and emotional/psychological help – that are provided at a Sufi lodge in southern Punjab, Pakistan. We argue that the lodge has become an important factor in securing the well-being of individuals...... and families in a context where the state has largely failed in terms of providing social services for its citizens. We conclude that future research in this area could delve deeper into the question of whether, and if so how, such institutions may be a source of social support on a wider basis in Pakistan...
Rizzo, Michael T; Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie
Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm. Groups held either moral (equal or unequal resource allocation) or social-conventional (traditional or nontraditional) norms. In the moral contexts, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the moral concern for equality regardless of the peer's group membership or their group's specific norm. In the social-conventional contexts, however, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the conventional concern for maintaining traditions but only at the group-specific level. Furthermore, with age children increasingly based their inclusion decisions on normative concerns, rather than on group membership concerns, and differed in their inclusion decisions for ingroups and outgroups. Finally, children reasoned about their decisions by referencing concerns for fairness, group norms, and group membership, suggesting that preschool children weigh multiple concerns when deciding whom to include in their groups. Overall, the current study revealed differences in how preschool children weigh moral and social-conventional concerns in intergroup contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gale, Nicola K; Kenyon, Sara; MacArthur, Christine; Jolly, Kate; Hope, Lucy
Levels of social support are strongly associated with health outcomes and inequalities. The use of lay health workers (LHWs) has been suggested by policy makers across the world as an intervention to identify risks to health and to promote health, particularly in disadvantaged communities. However, there have been few attempts to theorize the work undertaken by LHWs to understand how interventions work. In this article, the authors present the concept of 'synthetic socialsupport' and distinguish it from the work of health professionals or the spontaneous social support received from friends and family. The authors provide new empirical data to illustrate the concept based on qualitative, observational research, using a novel shadowing method involving clinical and non-clinical researchers, on the everyday work of 'pregnancy outreach workers' (POWs) in Birmingham, UK. The service was being evaluated as part of a randomized controlled trial. These LHWs provided instrumental, informational, emotional and appraisal support to the women they worked with, which are all key components of social support. The social support was 'synthetic' because it was distinct from the support embedded in spontaneous social networks: it was non-reciprocal; it was offered on a strictly time-limited basis; the LHWs were accountable for the relationship, and the social networks produced were targeted rather than spontaneous. The latter two qualities of this synthetic form of social support may have benefits over spontaneous networks by improving the opportunities for the cultivation of new relationships (both strong and weak ties) outside the women's existing spontaneous networks that can have a positive impact on them and by offering a reliable source of health information and support in a chaotic environment. The concept of SSS can help inform policy makers about how deploying lay workers may enable them to achieve desired outcomes, specify their programme theories and evaluate
Schmitt, Michael T; Branscombe, Nyla R; Kappen, Diane M
In five studies we explored how the context in which people think about the social structure and the implications of the social structure for one's in-group affect attitudes toward inequality. In Studies 1 and 2 we found that social dominance orientation (SDO) scores reflect attitudes toward specific types of inequality that are salient in context. Consistent with social identity theory, in Studies 3 to 5 we found that SDO scores reflected the interests of specific group identities. Indeed, when we compared existing privileged and disadvantaged groups, and when we manipulated in-group status, we found that participants held more positive attitudes toward inequality when the in-group was privileged, compared to when the in-group was disadvantaged. Across all of our studies, results were consistent with the contention that attitudes toward inequality are group-specific and depend on the social-structural position of salient in-groups. We discuss the implications of our findings for social dominance theory.
Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H
In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Strang, Louise; And Others
Predictions from social comparison theory and group reference theory were tested in two experiments assessing the impact of half-day mainstreaming upon the self-concepts of academically handicapped children. The results supported the theoretical viability of social comparison theory and group reference theory in educational settings. (Author/BH)
Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin; Krick, Kathrin
Social development may vary depending on contextual factors, such as attending a day school or a boarding school. The present study compares students from these school types with regard to the achievement of specific social goals, perceived social support, and reported prosocial behaviour. A sample of 701 students was examined. Students from…
This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…