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Sample records for social studies test

  1. Reliability of two social cognition tests: The combined stories test and the social knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaudeau, Élisabeth; Cellard, Caroline; Legendre, Maxime; Villeneuve, Karèle; Achim, Amélie M

    2018-04-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common in psychiatric disorders. Validated social cognition measures with good psychometric properties are necessary to assess and target social cognitive deficits. Two recent social cognition tests, the Combined Stories Test (COST) and the Social Knowledge Test (SKT), respectively assess theory of mind and social knowledge. Previous studies have shown good psychometric properties for these tests, but the test-retest reliability has never been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and the inter-rater reliability of the COST and the SKT. The COST and the SKT were administered twice to a group of forty-two healthy adults, with a delay of approximately four weeks between the assessments. Excellent test-retest reliability was observed for the COST, and a good test-retest reliability was observed for the SKT. There was no evidence of practice effect. Furthermore, an excellent inter-rater reliability was observed for both tests. This study shows a good reliability of the COST and the SKT that adds to the good validity previously reported for these two tests. These good psychometrics properties thus support that the COST and the SKT are adequate measures for the assessment of social cognition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Talebi Rezaabadi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scale and a newly developed Foreign Language Social Anxiety Scale. The potential correlation between social anxiety and listening-test perfor...

  3. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaabadi, Omid Talebi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening…

  4. The Trier Social Stress Test as a paradigm to study how people respond to threat in social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Johanna U.; Häusser, Jan A.; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress response. In order to study this complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses, a paradigm is needed that (a) reliably induces high levels of social-evaluative threat and (b) is extremely adaptable to the needs of the researcher. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established paradigm in biopsychology that induces social-evaluative threat in the laboratory by subjecting participants to a mock job-interview. In this review, we aim at demonstrating the potential of the TSST for studying the complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses. PMID:25698987

  5. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test.

  6. Light phase testing of social behaviors: not a problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich repertoire of mouse social behaviors makes it possible to use mouse models to study neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits. The fact that mice are naturally nocturnal animals raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments should be strictly conducted in the dark phase and whether light phase testing is a major methodologically mistake. Although mouse social tasks have been performed in both phases in different laboratories, there seems to be no general consensus on whether testing phase is a critical factor or not. A recent study from our group showed remarkably similar social scores obtained from inbred mice tested in the light and the dark phase, providing evidence that light phase testing could yield reliable results as robust as dark phase testing for the sociability test. Here we offer a comprehensive review on mouse social behaviors measured in light and dark phases and explain why it is reasonable to test laboratory mice in experimental social tasks in the light phase.

  7. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Explicit versus Implicit Social Cognition Testing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents…

  9. Online social networks for crowdsourced multimedia-involved behavioral testing: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho eChoi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks have emerged as effective crowdsourcing media to recruit participants in recent days. However, issues regarding how to effectively exploit them have not been adequately addressed yet. In this paper, we investigate the reliability and effectiveness of multimedia-involved behavioral testing via social network-based crowdsourcing, especially focused on Facebook as a medium to recruit participants. We conduct a crowdsourcing-based experiment for a music recommendation problem. It is shown that different advertisement methods yield different degrees of efficiency and there exist significant differences in behavioral patterns across different genders and different age groups. In addition, we perform a comparison of our experiment with other multimedia-involved crowdsourcing experiments built on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk, which suggests that crowdsourcing-based experiments using social networks for recruitment can achieve comparable efficiency. Based on the analysis results, advantages and disadvantages of social network-based crowdsourcing and suggestions for successful experiments are also discussed. We conclude that social networks have the potential to support multimedia-involved behavioral tests to gather in-depth data even for long-term periods.

  10. Online Social Networks for Crowdsourced Multimedia-Involved Behavioral Testing: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Online social networks have emerged as effective crowdsourcing media to recruit participants in recent days. However, issues regarding how to effectively exploit them have not been adequately addressed yet. In this paper, we investigate the reliability and effectiveness of multimedia-involved behavioral testing via social network-based crowdsourcing, especially focused on Facebook as a medium to recruit participants. We conduct a crowdsourcing-based experiment for a music recommendation problem. It is shown that different advertisement methods yield different degrees of efficiency and there exist significant differences in behavioral patterns across different genders and different age groups. In addition, we perform a comparison of our experiment with other multimedia-involved crowdsourcing experiments built on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which suggests that crowdsourcing-based experiments using social networks for recruitment can achieve comparable efficiency. Based on the analysis results, advantages and disadvantages of social network-based crowdsourcing and suggestions for successful experiments are also discussed. We conclude that social networks have the potential to support multimedia-involved behavioral tests to gather in-depth data even for long-term periods. PMID:26793137

  11. Online Social Networks for Crowdsourced Multimedia-Involved Behavioral Testing: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Online social networks have emerged as effective crowdsourcing media to recruit participants in recent days. However, issues regarding how to effectively exploit them have not been adequately addressed yet. In this paper, we investigate the reliability and effectiveness of multimedia-involved behavioral testing via social network-based crowdsourcing, especially focused on Facebook as a medium to recruit participants. We conduct a crowdsourcing-based experiment for a music recommendation problem. It is shown that different advertisement methods yield different degrees of efficiency and there exist significant differences in behavioral patterns across different genders and different age groups. In addition, we perform a comparison of our experiment with other multimedia-involved crowdsourcing experiments built on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which suggests that crowdsourcing-based experiments using social networks for recruitment can achieve comparable efficiency. Based on the analysis results, advantages and disadvantages of social network-based crowdsourcing and suggestions for successful experiments are also discussed. We conclude that social networks have the potential to support multimedia-involved behavioral tests to gather in-depth data even for long-term periods.

  12. Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups.

  13. Knowing One's Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Stefan; Rudert, Selma C; Marksteiner, Tamara; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    First-generation students (i.e., students whose parents did not attend university) often experience difficulties fitting in with the social environment at universities. This experience of personal misfit is supposedly associated with an impaired social identification with their aspired in-group of academics compared to continuing-generation students (i.e., students with at least one parent with an academic degree. In this article, we investigate how the postulated differences in social identification with the group of academics affect first-generation students' satisfaction with studying and test anxiety over time. We assume that first-generation students' impaired social identification with the group of academics leads to decreased satisfaction with studying and aggravated test anxiety over the course of the first academic year. In a longitudinal study covering students' first year at a German university, we found that continuing-generation students consistently identified more strongly with their new in-group of academics than first-generation students. The influence of social identification on test anxiety and satisfaction with studying differed between groups. For continuing-generation students, social identification with the group of academics buffered test anxiety and helped them maintain satisfaction with studying over time. We could not find these direct effects within the group of first-generation students. Instead, first-generation students were more sensitive to effects of test anxiety on satisfaction with studying and vice versa over time. The results suggest that first-generation students might be more sensitive to the anticipation of academic failure. Furthermore, continuing-generation students' social identification with the group of academics might have buffered them against the impact of negative experiences during the entry phase at university. Taken together, our findings underscore that deficit-driven approaches focusing solely on first

  14. Means-Tested Public Assistance Programs and Adolescent Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Carolyn Y; Hope, Elan C

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, scholars have pointed to the politically demobilizing effects of means-tested assistance programs on recipients. In this study, we bridge the insights from policy feedback literature and adolescent political socialization research to examine how receiving means-tested programs shapes parent influence on adolescent political participation. We argue that there are differences in pathways to political participation through parent political socialization and youth internal efficacy beliefs for adolescents from households that do or do not receive means-tested assistance. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 536 Black, Latino, and White adolescents (50.8% female), we find that adolescents from means-tested assistance households report less parent political socialization and political participation. For all youth, parent political socialization predicts adolescent political participation. Internal political efficacy is a stronger predictor of political participation for youth from a non-means-tested assistance household than it is for youth from a household receiving means-tested assistance. These findings provide some evidence of differential paths to youth political participation via exposure to means-tested programs.

  15. Knowing One’s Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Janke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available First-generation students (i.e., students whose parents did not attend university often experience difficulties fitting in with the social environment at universities. This experience of personal misfit is supposedly associated with an impaired social identification with their aspired in-group of academics compared to continuing-generation students (i.e., students with at least one parent with an academic degree. In this article, we investigate how the postulated differences in social identification with the group of academics affect first-generation students’ satisfaction with studying and test anxiety over time. We assume that first-generation students’ impaired social identification with the group of academics leads to decreased satisfaction with studying and aggravated test anxiety over the course of the first academic year. In a longitudinal study covering students’ first year at a German university, we found that continuing-generation students consistently identified more strongly with their new in-group of academics than first-generation students. The influence of social identification on test anxiety and satisfaction with studying differed between groups. For continuing-generation students, social identification with the group of academics buffered test anxiety and helped them maintain satisfaction with studying over time. We could not find these direct effects within the group of first-generation students. Instead, first-generation students were more sensitive to effects of test anxiety on satisfaction with studying and vice versa over time. The results suggest that first-generation students might be more sensitive to the anticipation of academic failure. Furthermore, continuing-generation students’ social identification with the group of academics might have buffered them against the impact of negative experiences during the entry phase at university. Taken together, our findings underscore that deficit-driven approaches

  16. Knowing One’s Place: Parental Educational Background Influences Social Identification with Academia, Test Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Studying at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Stefan; Rudert, Selma C.; Marksteiner, Tamara; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    First-generation students (i.e., students whose parents did not attend university) often experience difficulties fitting in with the social environment at universities. This experience of personal misfit is supposedly associated with an impaired social identification with their aspired in-group of academics compared to continuing-generation students (i.e., students with at least one parent with an academic degree. In this article, we investigate how the postulated differences in social identification with the group of academics affect first-generation students’ satisfaction with studying and test anxiety over time. We assume that first-generation students’ impaired social identification with the group of academics leads to decreased satisfaction with studying and aggravated test anxiety over the course of the first academic year. In a longitudinal study covering students’ first year at a German university, we found that continuing-generation students consistently identified more strongly with their new in-group of academics than first-generation students. The influence of social identification on test anxiety and satisfaction with studying differed between groups. For continuing-generation students, social identification with the group of academics buffered test anxiety and helped them maintain satisfaction with studying over time. We could not find these direct effects within the group of first-generation students. Instead, first-generation students were more sensitive to effects of test anxiety on satisfaction with studying and vice versa over time. The results suggest that first-generation students might be more sensitive to the anticipation of academic failure. Furthermore, continuing-generation students’ social identification with the group of academics might have buffered them against the impact of negative experiences during the entry phase at university. Taken together, our findings underscore that deficit-driven approaches focusing solely on first

  17. Testing as social practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author challenges the implicit assumptions of tests as a neutral tool for measuring the individual’s learning achievement. Instead, testing is explored as a social practice which becomes part of children’s conduct of everyday life. The theoretical foundation for the analysis...

  18. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  19. Medidas de rede e apoio social no Estudo Pró-Saúde: pré-testes e estudo piloto Social network and social support measures from the Pró-Saúde Study: pre-tests and pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Chor

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, relatamos a metodologia de seleção de perguntas sobre rede e apoio social, incluídas em um estudo de coorte de 4.030 funcionários de uma universidade pública no Rio de Janeiro. Em primeiro lugar, a adequação de conceitos foi explorada em discussões de grupos de voluntários. Em seguida, o questionário do Medical Outcomes Study foi submetido a procedimentos padronizados de tradução e versão. As perguntas foram a seguir avaliadas em cinco etapas de pré-testes e estudo piloto. Nenhuma pergunta apresentou proporção de não-resposta acima de 5%. Os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson entre os itens foram distantes de zero e da unidade; a correlação entre cada item e o escore de sua dimensão foi superior a 0,80 em quase todos os casos. Finalmente, os coeficientes Alpha de Cronbach foram superiores a 0,70 em todas as dimensões. Os resultados sugerem que aspectos de rede e apoio social serão mensurados adequadamente, permitindo a investigação de suas associações com desenlaces relacionados à saúde em um grupo populacional no Brasil.We describe methodological steps in the selection of questions on social networks and support for a cohort study of 4,030 employees from a public university in Rio de Janeiro. First, group discussions with volunteers were conducted to explore the adequacy of related concepts. Next, questions in the Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire were submitted to standard "forward-" and "back-translation" procedures. The questions were subsequently evaluated through five stages of pre-tests and a pilot study. No question had a proportion of non-response greater than 5%. Pearson correlation coefficients between questions were distant from both zero and unity; correlation between all items and their dimension score was higher than 0.80 in most cases. Finally, Cronbach Alpha coefficients were above 0.70 within each dimension. Results suggest that social networks and support will be adequately

  20. Role of Academic Self-efficacy and Social Support on Nursing Students' Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawski, Sigalit; Bar-Lev, Oshra; Barnoy, Sivia

    2018-05-25

    Associations between test anxiety, academic self-efficacy (ASE), and social support through social media have not been fully explored. The purposes were to explore associations between test anxiety, ASE, and social support from social media and to examine differences in test anxiety by students' year of studies and cultural background. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design. The sample comprised first- and fourth-year nursing students (n = 240) attending a baccalaureate nursing program in Israel. Higher ASE and support through social media were related to lower test anxiety. Fourth-year students and Jewish students had higher ASE than first-year and Arab students, who received more support on social media than Jewish students. Developing learning strategies designed to increase students' ASE and reduce test anxiety is warranted. Social media as an educational tool can be adopted for this purpose.

  1. The role of social support on HIV testing and treatment adherence: A qualitative study of HIV-infected refugees in southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Shada A; O'Laughlin, Kelli N; Faustin, Zikama M; Tsai, Alexander C; Kasozi, Julius; Ware, Norma C

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the factors that encourage or discourage refugees to test for HIV, or to access and adhere to HIV care. In non-refugee populations, social support has been shown to influence HIV testing and utilisation of services. The present study enrolled HIV-infected refugees on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda, who participated in qualitative interviews on HIV testing, treatment, and adherence. Interviews were analysed for themes about four types of social support: emotional, informational, instrumental, and appraisal support. A total of 61 interviews were analysed. Four roles for these types of social support were identified: (1) informational support encouraged refugees to test for HIV; (2) emotional support helped refugees cope with a diagnosis of HIV; (3) instrumental support facilitated adherence to ART and (4) after diagnosis, HIV-infected refugees provided informational and emotional support to encourage other refugees to test for HIV. These results suggest that social support influences HIV testing and treatment among refugees. Future interventions should capitalise on social support within a refugee settlement to facilitate testing and treatment.

  2. HIV testing among social media-using Peruvian men who have sex with men: correlates and social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Evan A; Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Luis A; Young, Sean D

    2016-10-01

    HIV remains concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru, and homophobia and AIDS-related stigmas have kept the epidemic difficult to address. Gay self-identity has been associated with increased HIV testing, though this relationship has not been examined extensively. Social media use has been rapidly increasing in Peru, yet little is known about MSM social media users in Peru. This study sought to investigate the demographic, behavioral, and stigma-related factors associated with HIV testing among social media-using Peruvian MSM. Five hundred and fifty-six MSM from Lima and surrounding areas were recruited from social networking websites to complete a survey on their sexual risk behaviors. We examined the demographic and social correlates of HIV testing behavior among this sample. Younger age and non-gay identity were significantly associated with lower likelihood of getting tested in univariate analysis. After controlling for key behaviors and AIDS-related stigma, younger age remained significantly associated with decreased testing. Participants who engaged in discussions online about HIV testing were more likely to get tested, while AIDS-related stigma presented a significant barrier to testing. Stigma severity also varied significantly by sexual identity. Youth appear to be significantly less likely than older individuals to test for HIV. Among Peruvian MSM, AIDS-related stigma remains a strong predictor of willingness to get tested. Social media-based intervention work targeting Peruvian youth should encourage discussion around HIV testing, and must also address AIDS-related stigma.

  3. A social work plan to promote HIV testing: A social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Siebe, J P

    2017-03-01

    Many people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) do not know that they are infected. It is important for infected persons to get tested for HIV in order to be diagnosed and medically treated. HIV has no known cure, but it can be controlled and sometimes prevented with proper medical care. The social work profession has ideal positioning to be extraordinarily helpful in work that promotes HIV testing, leading to reducing then eliminating new HIV diagnoses. Social marketing interventions, along with audience segmenting are explained. Specific attention is given to two separate subjects-minority health disparities and impulsive and/or sensation seeking sex practices-to showcase the versatility of social marketing in the promotion of HIV testing. Further ideas about how social workers can participate in these interprofessional social marketing campaigns are provided.

  4. Mindfulness Facets, Social Anxiety, and Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety: Testing Mediators of Drinking Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Sarfan, Laurel D.; Parsons, E. Marie; Magee, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants (N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness...

  5. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments.

  6. Object relations, reality testing, and social withdrawal in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Charlotte Fredslund; Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Romm, Kristin Lie; Andreassen, Ole Andreas; Bell, Morris D; Melle, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between observed social withdrawal (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance), subjectively experienced social withdrawal (Social Functioning Scale [SFS] Withdrawal and SFS Interpersonal Behavior), and their associations to the underlying psychological patterns of Object Relations and Reality Testing. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 55) and bipolar disorder (n = 51) from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis project, Oslo University Hospital, Norway, were evaluated using the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory, the PANSS, and the SFS. Object relations and reality testing subscales related differentially to PANSS Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance. These two measures, together with the level of alienation, explained a significant amount of variance in self-experienced social dysfunction. Findings reveal the multidimensional nature of social dysfunction in severe mental disorders.

  7. SOCIAL INTEGRATION: TESTING ANTECEDENTS OF TIME SPENT ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Suriani Mohd Arif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the relationship of social integration and time spent onlineprovides conflicting evidence of the relationship of social integration with timespent online. The study identifies and highlightsthe controversy and attempts toclarify the relationship of social integration withtime spent online bydecomposing the construct social integration into its affective and behavioraldimensions . Thestudy tests antecedents and effects of time spent online in arandom sample of senior level undergraduate students at a public university inMalaysia. The findings indicated that while self-report measures of behavioralsocial integration did not predict time spent online, and, the affective socialintegration had an inverse relationship with time spent online.

  8. Confiabilidade teste-reteste de aspectos da rede social no Estudo Pró-Saúde Test-retest reliability of measures of social network in the "Pró-Saúde" Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Harter Griep

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis de confiabilidade teste-reteste de informações relativas à rede social no Estudo Pró-saúde. MÉTODOS: Foi estimada a confiabilidade pelo estudo teste-reteste por meio de questionário multidimensional aplicado a uma coorte de trabalhadores de uma universidade. O mesmo questionário foi preenchido duas vezes por 192 funcionários não efetivos da universidade, com duas semanas de intervalo entre as aplicações. A concordância foi estimada pela estatística Kappa (variáveis categóricas, estatística Kappa ponderado e modelos log-lineares (variáveis ordinais, e coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (variáveis discretas. RESULTADOS: As medidas de concordância situaram-se acima de 0,70 para a maioria das variáveis. Estratificando-se as informações segundo gênero, idade e escolaridade, observou-se que a confiabilidade não apresentou padrão consistente de variabilidade. A aplicação de modelos log-lineares indicou que, para as variáveis ordinais do estudo, o modelo de melhor ajuste foi o de "concordância diagonal mais associação linear por linear". CONCLUSÕES: Os altos níveis de confiabilidade estimados permitem concluir que o processo de aferição dos itens sobre rede social foi adequado para as características investigadas. Estudos de validação em andamento complementarão a avaliação da qualidade dessas informações.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate test-retest reliability of social network-related information of the" Pró-Saúde" study. METHODS: A test-retest reliability study was conducted using a multidimensional questionnaire applied to a cohort of university employees. The same questionnaire was filled out twice by 192 non-permanent employees with two weeks apart. Agreement was estimated using kappa statistics (categorical variables, weighted kappa statistics, log-linear models (ordinal variables, and intraclass correlation coefficient (discrete variables. RESULTS: Estimates of reliability

  9. Psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the medical outcomes study social support survey (MOS-SSS-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Doris S F; Lee, Diana T F; Woo, Jean

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS-C) in a sample of 110 patients. Criterion-related and construct validities of the MOS-SSS-C were evaluated by correlations with the Chinese version of the Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Survey (r =.82) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (r = -.58). Confirmatory factor analysis affirmed the four-factor structure of the MOS-SSS-C in measuring the functional aspects of perceived social support. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales ranged from.93 to.96, whereas the alpha for the overall scale was.98. The 2-week test-retest reliability of the MOS-SSS-C as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient was.84. The MOS-SSS-C is a psychometrically sound multidimensional measure for the evaluation of functional aspects of perceived social support by Chinese patients with chronic disease. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Panel manipulation in social stress testing: The Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Tara J; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Whilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors. Thirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C). Based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), it comprises a shortened six-minute public speaking task and four-minute maths challenge. It differs from previous stress tests by using age-matched children on the panel, pre-recorded and presented as a live feed, and includes an expanded manipulation check of subjective experience. Salivary cortisol was assessed at four time points, pre-post stress testing; life events, daily hassles and coping strategies were measured through questionnaires. A simple numerical coding scheme was applied to post-test interview data. The BEST-C generated a typical stress and adaptation response in salivary cortisol (p=.032). Age and gender differences were observed during recovery. Cortisol responses mapped directly onto three distinct subjective response patterns: (i) expected response and recovery; (ii) expected response, no recovery; (iii) no response. The BEST-C, utilising child confederates of participant target age is a meaningful social stress test for children. This is the first social stress test developed specifically for children that manipulates panel characteristics by using child confederates and a pre-recorded sham panel. Greater cortisol responses to the test were also found to match subjective verbal accounts of the experience. It offers a meaningful acute stress paradigm with potential applications to other child and adolescent age groups. Furthermore, it leads the way in the use of panel manipulation

  11. THE SIMULATED SOCIAL-INTERACTION TEST - A PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION WITH DUTCH SOCIAL PHOBIC PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERSCH, PPA; BREUKERS, P; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1992-01-01

    The Simulated Social Interaction Test (SSIT) was translated and adjusted for use on a population of Dutch males and females. Seventy-four social phobic patients were assessed with the SSIT, a conversation test, and an interview with an independent observer. Results show that the SSIT is a relatively

  12. Social Media Interventions to Promote HIV Testing, Linkage, Adherence, and Retention: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somya; Wang, Jiangtao; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tang, Weiming; Pan, Stephen; Pendse, Razia; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Background Social media is increasingly used to deliver HIV interventions for key populations worldwide. However, little is known about the specific uses and effects of social media on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions. Objective This systematic review examines the effectiveness of social media interventions to promote HIV testing, linkage, adherence, and retention among key populations. Methods We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist and Cochrane guidelines for this review and registered it on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO. We systematically searched six databases and three conference websites using search terms related to HIV, social media, and key populations. We included studies where (1) the intervention was created or implemented on social media platforms, (2) study population included men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender individuals, people who inject drugs (PWID), and/or sex workers, and (3) outcomes included promoting HIV testing, linkage, adherence, and/or retention. Meta-analyses were conducted by Review Manager, version 5.3. Pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by random-effects models. Results Among 981 manuscripts identified, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. We found 18 studies from high-income countries, 8 in middle-income countries, and 0 in low-income countries. Eight were randomized controlled trials, and 18 were observational studies. All studies (n=26) included MSM; five studies also included transgender individuals. The focus of 21 studies was HIV testing, four on HIV testing and linkage to care, and one on antiretroviral therapy adherence. Social media interventions were used to do the following: build online interactive communities to encourage HIV testing/adherence (10 studies), provide HIV testing services (9 studies), disseminate HIV information (9 studies), and develop

  13. Social networks, migration, and HIV testing among Latinos in a new immigrant destination: Insights from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Clare; Gandhi, Anisha; Gill, Adrienne; Villa Torres, Laura; Brietzke, Maria Priscila; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa

    2017-12-03

    Latinos in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV and are more likely than non-Latinos to present with a late diagnosis, which delays engagement in HIV care and treatment. Social networks may provide normative influence and social support for HIV testing, but a contextualised understanding of networks is needed in order to maximise these social resources. We conducted qualitative interviews with foreign-born Latino men and transgender women (n = 17) in a new immigrant destination to explore their social networks. Most participants described having smaller social networks after migrating. Networks included both local and transnational ties, but most participants had few close ties. Contextual factors including stigma and geographic dispersion limited the re-construction of networks with close ties after migration. HIV testing was not a common topic of discussion with social network ties. Efforts to improve early uptake of HIV testing among Latino immigrants may benefit from engaging with social networks, but such efforts need to address how the context in which networks operate enables access to testing.

  14. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    Penetration tests on IT systems are sometimes coupled with physical penetration tests and social engineering. In physical penetration tests where social engineering is allowed, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not

  15. Development of Social Media Addiction Test (SMAT17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esgi, Necmi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a test for assessing individuals' social media addiction; and conducting a reliability and validity study of this scale. Sample for this study was composed of 285 college students between the ages of 18 and 25. Reliability coefficients Cronbach's alpha value was 0.94 and Spearman Brown value was 0.91 for our…

  16. Social Media Interventions to Promote HIV Testing, Linkage, Adherence, and Retention: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bolin; Gupta, Somya; Wang, Jiangtao; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tang, Weiming; Pan, Stephen; Pendse, Razia; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-11-24

    Social media is increasingly used to deliver HIV interventions for key populations worldwide. However, little is known about the specific uses and effects of social media on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions. This systematic review examines the effectiveness of social media interventions to promote HIV testing, linkage, adherence, and retention among key populations. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist and Cochrane guidelines for this review and registered it on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO. We systematically searched six databases and three conference websites using search terms related to HIV, social media, and key populations. We included studies where (1) the intervention was created or implemented on social media platforms, (2) study population included men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender individuals, people who inject drugs (PWID), and/or sex workers, and (3) outcomes included promoting HIV testing, linkage, adherence, and/or retention. Meta-analyses were conducted by Review Manager, version 5.3. Pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by random-effects models. Among 981 manuscripts identified, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. We found 18 studies from high-income countries, 8 in middle-income countries, and 0 in low-income countries. Eight were randomized controlled trials, and 18 were observational studies. All studies (n=26) included MSM; five studies also included transgender individuals. The focus of 21 studies was HIV testing, four on HIV testing and linkage to care, and one on antiretroviral therapy adherence. Social media interventions were used to do the following: build online interactive communities to encourage HIV testing/adherence (10 studies), provide HIV testing services (9 studies), disseminate HIV information (9 studies), and develop intervention materials (1 study). Of the

  17. Is intuition really cooperative? Improved tests support the social heuristics hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Ozan; Maule, John; Starmer, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Understanding human cooperation is a major scientific challenge. While cooperation is typically explained with reference to individual preferences, a recent cognitive process view hypothesized that cooperation is regulated by socially acquired heuristics. Evidence for the social heuristics hypothesis rests on experiments showing that time-pressure promotes cooperation, a result that can be interpreted as demonstrating that intuition promotes cooperation. This interpretation, however, is highly contested because of two potential confounds. First, in pivotal studies compliance with time-limits is low and, crucially, evidence shows intuitive cooperation only when noncompliant participants are excluded. The inconsistency of test results has led to the currently unresolved controversy regarding whether or not noncompliant subjects should be included in the analysis. Second, many studies show high levels of social dilemma misunderstanding, leading to speculation that asymmetries in understanding might explain patterns that are otherwise interpreted as intuitive cooperation. We present evidence from an experiment that employs an improved time-pressure protocol with new features designed to induce high levels of compliance and clear tests of understanding. Our study resolves the noncompliance issue, shows that misunderstanding does not confound tests of intuitive cooperation, and provides the first independent experimental evidence for intuitive cooperation in a social dilemma using time-pressure.

  18. Received social support and exercising: An intervention study to test the enabling hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Received social support is considered important for health-enhancing exercise participation. The enabling hypothesis of social support suggests an indirect association of social support and exercising via constructs of self-regulation, such as self-efficacy. This study aimed at examining an expanded enabling hypothesis by examining effects of different kinds of social support (i.e., emotional and instrumental) on exercising not only via self-efficacy but also via self-monitoring and action planning. An 8-week online study was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention comprised finding and then exercising regularly with a new exercise companion. Intervention and control group effects were compared by a manifest multigroup model. Received emotional social support predicted self-efficacy, self-monitoring, and action planning in the intervention group. Moreover, received emotional social support was indirectly connected with exercise via the examined mediators. The indirect effect from received emotional social support via self-efficacy mainly contributed to the total effect. No direct or indirect effect of received instrumental social support on exercise emerged. In the control group, neither emotional nor instrumental social support was associated with any of the self-regulation constructs nor with exercise. Actively looking for a new exercise companion and exercising together seems to be beneficial for the promotion of received emotional and instrumental social support. Emotional support in turn promotes exercise by enabling better self-regulation, in particular self-efficacy. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? With the 'enabling hypothesis', Benight and Bandura (2004, Behav. Res. Ther., 42, 1129) claimed that social support indirectly affects behaviour via self-efficacy. Research in the domain of physical exercise has provided evidence for this enabling hypothesis on a

  19. Social-, age- and gender differences in testing and positive rates for Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection – a register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John Sahl; Andersen, John Sahl

    2014-01-01

    the association between age, gender, social status, and testing and positive rates is investigated in the age group 15-24 years. Design: Case-control study linked to data from Statistics Denmark. Methods: Data from the Department of Microbiology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen was used and included 21......Background: Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) is suspected of causing female infertility. It is the most widespread STD with an estimated general prevalence of about 5-10 % with a peak in younger individuals.CT infection is more prevalent among lower social classes. Objective: In this study......,887 people tested by general practitioners (GPs) and 3,177 people tested at a venereological clinic (VC). The age range was 15-24 years in 2011. These data were linked with the parental educational status delivered by Statistics Denmark, which also delivered a matched control group. The data were analyzed...

  20. Self-Concealment, Social Network Sites Usage, Social Appearance Anxiety, Loneliness of High School Students: A Model Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ugur; Çolak, Tugba Seda

    2016-01-01

    This study was tested a model for explain to social networks sites (SNS) usage with structural equation modeling (SEM). Using SEM on a sample of 475 high school students (35% male, 65% female) students, model was investigated the relationship between self-concealment, social appearance anxiety, loneliness on SNS such as Twitter and Facebook usage.…

  1. Mindfulness Facets, Social Anxiety, and Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety: Testing Mediators of Drinking Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Sarfan, Laurel D; Parsons, E Marie; Magee, Joshua C

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants ( N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire , which assesses mindfulness facets of accepting without judgment, acting with awareness, not reacting to one's internal experiences, observing and attending to experiences, and labeling and describing. As predicted, the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and drinking problems was mediated by social anxiety coping motives across each of the models. Further, the relationship between specific mindfulness facets (acting with awareness, accepting without judgment, and describe) and drinking problems was serially mediated by social anxiety symptoms and drinking to cope with social anxiety. This research builds upon existing studies that have largely been conducted with college students to evaluate potential mediators driving drinking problems. Specifically, individuals who are less able to act with awareness, accept without judgment, and describe their internal experiences may experience heightened social anxiety and drinking to cope with that anxiety, which could ultimately result in greater alcohol-related problems.

  2. Internet-based cohort study of HIV testing over 1 year among men who have sex with men living in England and exposed to a social marketing intervention promoting testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Ford; Tomlin, Keith; Hargreaves, James; Bonell, Chris; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Increasing HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) is a major policy goal in the UK. Social marketing is a common intervention to increase testing uptake. We used an online panel of MSM to examine rates of HIV testing behaviour and the impact of a social marketing intervention on them. MSM in England were recruited to a longitudinal internet panel through community websites and a previous survey. Following an enrolment survey, respondents were invited to self-complete 13 surveys at monthly intervals throughout 2011. A unique alphanumeric code linked surveys for individuals. Rates of HIV testing were compared relative to prompted recognition of a multi-part media campaign aiming to normalise HIV testing. Of 3386 unique enrolments, 2047 respondents were included in the analysis, between them submitting 15,353 monthly surveys (equivalent to 1279 years of follow-up), and recording 1517 HIV tests taken, giving an annual rate of tests per participant of 1.19 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.25). Tests were highly clustered in individuals (61% reported no test during the study). Testing rates were higher in London, single men and those aged 25-34 years. Only 7.6% recognised the intervention when prompted. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to other health promotion campaigns, intervention recognition was not associated with increased likelihood of testing. Higher rates of testing were strongly associated with higher number of casual sexual partners and how recently men had HIV tested before study enrolment. This social marketing intervention was not associated with increased rates of HIV testing. More effective promotion of HIV testing is needed among MSM in England to reduce the average duration of undiagnosed infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Is it possible to develop a cross-country test of social interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Brett; Atler, Karen; Fisher, Anne G

    2017-11-01

    The Evaluation of Social Interaction (ESI) is used in Asia, Australia, North America and Europe. What is considered to be appropriate social interaction, however, differs amongst countries. If social interaction varies, the relative difficulty of the ESI items and types of social exchange also could vary, resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) and test bias in the form of differential test functioning (DTF). Yet, because the ESI scoring criteria are designed to account for culture, the ESI should be free of DIF and DTF. The purpose, therefore, was to determine whether the ESI demonstrates DIF or DTF related to country. A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study of 9811 participants 2-102 years, 55% female, from 12 countries was conducted using many-facet Rasch analyses. DIF analyses compared paired item and social exchange type values by country against a critical effect size (±0.55 logit). DTF analyses compared paired ESI measures by country to 95% confidence intervals. All paired social exchange types and 98.3% of paired items differed by less than ±0.55 logit. All persons fell within 95% confidence intervals. Minimal DIF resulted in no test bias, supporting the cross-country validity of the ESI.

  4. Persistent Confusions about Hypothesis Testing in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Thron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes common confusions involving basic concepts in statistical hypothesis testing. One-third of the social science statistics textbooks examined in the study contained false statements about significance level and/or p-value. We infer that a large proportion of social scientists are being miseducated about these concepts. We analyze the causes of these persistent misunderstandings, and conclude that the conventional terminology is prone to abuse because it does not clearly represent the conditional nature of probabilities and events involved. We argue that modifications in terminology, as well as the explicit introduction of conditional probability concepts and notation into the statistics curriculum in the social sciences, are necessary to prevent the persistence of these errors.

  5. On the Directionality Test of Peer Effects in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    One interesting idea in social network analysis is the directionality test that utilizes the directions of social ties to help identify peer effects. The null hypothesis of the test is that if contextual factors are the only force that affects peer outcomes, the estimated peer effects should not differ, if the directions of social ties are…

  6. Social cognition on the Internet: testing constraints on social network size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R I M

    2012-08-05

    The social brain hypothesis (an explanation for the evolution of brain size in primates) predicts that humans typically cannot maintain more than 150 relationships at any one time. The constraint is partly cognitive (ultimately determined by some aspect of brain volume) and partly one of time. Friendships (but not necessarily kin relationships) are maintained by investing time in them, and failure to do so results in an inexorable deterioration in the quality of a relationship. The Internet, and in particular the rise of social networking sites (SNSs), raises the possibility that digital media might allow us to circumvent some or all of these constraints. This allows us to test the importance of these constraints in limiting human sociality. Although the recency of SNSs means that there have been relatively few studies, those that are available suggest that, in general, the ability to broadcast to many individuals at once, and the possibilities this provides in terms of continuously updating our understanding of network members' behaviour and thoughts, do not allow larger networks to be maintained. This may be because only relatively weak quality relationships can be maintained without face-to-face interaction.

  7. Depression in adolescence:testing a social skills deficit theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107292300

    2017-01-01

    C145. DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENCE:TESTING A SOCIAL SKILLS DEFICIT THEORYVan Beek, Y. Utrecht University, NetherlandsThe Social Skill Deficit Model for depression suggeststhat less optimal social skills lead to negativefeedback of others, which in turn results in negativeself-views and depression.

  8. Social Studies Education and a New Social Studies Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Tarman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze theoretically the need to improve Social Studies Education in Turkey in a pedagogical manner and on the basis of the intended contributions and goals of a New Social Studies Movement to the field.Social Studies Education is an important teaching discipline to equip individuals with the necessary knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to operate efficiently in a knowledge society.The New Social Studies movement of 1960s in the USA contributed to the development of Social Studies Education.This movement tried to establish a constructivist approach. They emphasized on the importance of an inquiry based approach, and rich and real life situation in the classrooms and skills such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, cooperation and collaboration in Social Studies Education. However, the movement diminished in a short while due to the lack of research to support their theoretically sound ideas, appropriate teaching resources for teachers and students and ill-equipped teachers while their ideas were and still are gaining impetus in many countries in the world.Social Studies Education is relatively new in Turkey. Social Studies Education in Turkey has weaknesses in terms of both in theoretically and practically. The quality of teaching resources and materials and teacher qualifications are not up-to-standards to carry out a constructivist Social Studies Education.A new movement has started in Turkey to improve Social Studies Education. This new Social Studies movement aims to do research in the field on the area, print books and teaching resource for both teachers and students, develop policies, hold academic meetings, publish high quality journals for both academics and practitioners, to create opportunities and gateways for networking. This article critically argues the proposed contribution of the new Social Studies movement to the field in Turkey drawing upon the experiences of the movement of 1960s in

  9. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods.

  10. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes biphasic social dominance abnormalities in the tube test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, A E; Filiano, A J; Warmus, B A; Hall, A M; Roberson, E D

    2016-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted. Progranulin-insufficient mice, both Grn(+/-) and Grn(-/-) , are used as models of FTD due to GRN mutations, with Grn(+/-) mice mimicking the progranulin haploinsufficiency of FTD patients with GRN mutations. Grn(+/-) mice have increased social dominance in the tube test at 6 months of age, although this phenotype has not been reported in Grn(-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated how the tube test phenotype of progranulin-insufficient mice changes with age, determined its robustness under several testing conditions, and explored the associated cellular mechanisms. We observed biphasic social dominance abnormalities in Grn(+/-) mice: at 6-8 months, Grn(+/-) mice were more dominant than wild-type littermates, while after 9 months of age, Grn(+/-) mice were less dominant. In contrast, Grn(-/-) mice did not exhibit abnormal social dominance, suggesting that progranulin haploinsufficiency has distinct effects from complete progranulin deficiency. The biphasic tube test phenotype of Grn(+/-) mice was associated with abnormal cellular signaling and neuronal morphology in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. At 6-9 months, Grn(+/-) mice exhibited increased mTORC2/Akt signaling in the amygdala and enhanced dendritic arbors in the basomedial amygdala, and at 9-16 months Grn(+/-) mice exhibited diminished basal dendritic arbors in the prelimbic cortex. These data show a progressive change in tube test dominance in Grn(+/-) mice and highlight potential underlying mechanisms by which progranulin insufficiency may disrupt social behavior. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. The Impact of ICT on Pupils’ Achievement and Attitudes in Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Cener

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of teaching social studies with the help of CT on pupils’ achievement in social studies. A history, geography and culture oriented theme was selected from the social studies curriculum for the research, Turks on the Silk Road. A multimedia CD, documentaries, PowerPoint and so on were used to teach social studies to 6th graders. The research design of the study is quasi experimental. Three different research tools were used to collect data: an academic achievement test, an attitude measurement scale on social studies education and an attitude measurement scale on ICT. When achievement post test scores were treated as dependent variable in blockwise regression analysis the followings are found: Pupils’ attitudes towards the subject and ICT do not have an effect on their post-test achievement scores. However, their prior knowledge on the subject and the treatment i.e. teaching social studies with ICT have a positive effect on their achievement. Teaching social studies with ICT do not have any statistically significant effect on pupils’ attitudes toward social studies lesson. Thus, it is recommended that teachers and policy makers should find ways to formulate effective ICT integration applications for social studies.

  12. Social Media Monitoring of Discrimination and HIV Testing in Brazil, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, René Clausen; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Mello, Maeve B; Paz, Josi; Pantin, Colin; Erkkola, Taavi

    2017-07-01

    Big data can be used to assess perceptions about public health issues. This study assessed social media data from Twitter to inform communication campaigns to promote HIV testing and reduce discrimination related to HIV/AIDS or towards key populations to the HIV epidemic, and its potential utility to evaluate such campaigns through HIV testing uptake. Tweets from Brazil were collected from January 2014 to March 2015 and filtered by four categories of keywords including discrimination, HIV prevention, HIV testing, and HIV campaigns. In total over 100,000 geo-located tweets were extracted and analyzed. A dynamic online dashboard updated daily allowed mapping trends, anomalies and influencers, and enabled its use for feedback to campaigns, including correcting misconceptions. These results encourage the use of social networking data for improved messaging in campaigns. Clinical HIV test data was collected monthly from the city of Curitiba and compared to the number of tweets mapped to the city showing a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.39). Results are limited due to the availability of the HIV testing data. The potential of social media as a proxy for HIV testing uptake needs further validation, which can only be done with higher frequency and higher spatial granularity of service delivery data, enabling comparisons with the social media data. Such timely information could empower early response immediate media messaging to support programmatic efforts, such as HIV prevention, testing, and treatment scale up.

  13. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  14. Selection and Analysis of Social Studies Concepts for Inclusion in Tests of Concept Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, B. Robert; And Others

    Major social studies concepts taught to fourth graders in Madison, Wisconsin, were identified by examining the school district course of study and social studies textbooks and by consulting central office supervisors and teachers. The concepts identified in this manner fell into three major categories: Geographic Region, Man and Society, and Map…

  15. Implementing a Standardized Social Networks Testing Strategy in a Low HIV Prevalence Jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Casey; Kahn, Danielle; Broaddus, Michelle; Dougherty, Jacob; Elderbrook, Megan; Vergeront, James; Westergaard, Ryan

    2018-05-15

    Alternative HIV testing strategies are needed to engage individuals not reached by traditional clinical or non-clinical testing programs. A social networks recruitment strategy, in which people at risk for or living with HIV are enlisted and trained by community-based agencies to recruit individuals from their social, sexual, or drug-using networks for HIV testing, demonstrates higher positivity rates compared to other non-clinical recruitment strategies in some jurisdictions. During 2013-2015, a social networks testing protocol was implemented in Wisconsin to standardize an existing social networks testing program. Six community-based, non-clinical agencies with multiple sites throughout the state implemented the protocol over the 2-year period. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The new positivity rate (0.49%) through social networks testing did not differ from that of traditional counseling, testing, and referral recruitment methods (0.48%). Although social networks testing did not yield a higher new positivity rate compared to other testing strategies, it proved to be successful at reaching high risk individuals who may not otherwise engage in HIV testing.

  16. Loneliness, social integration and consumption of sugar-containing beverages: testing the social baseline theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Roger Ekeberg; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2014-01-01

    Social Baseline Theory (SBT) proposes that close relationships aid in metabolic resource management and that individuals without significant relationships may experience more demands on their own neural metabolic resources on a daily basis when solving problems, remaining vigilant against potential threats and regulating emotional responses. This study tests a hypothesised consequence derived from SBT: relative social isolation leads to increased levels of sugar intake. Based on cross-sectional, self-reported data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 90 084), information on social integration and the consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened sodas and juices was obtained from a large number of women in early pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether loneliness, marital status, relationship satisfaction, advice from others than partner, and cohesion at work is associated with consumption of sodas and juices. Perceived loneliness was associated with elevated intake of all sugary beverages, while relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with all sugary beverages. Being married or cohabitating, having supportive friends, and having a sense of togetherness at work were associated with lower intake of two out of three sugar-containing beverages. These associations were significant, even after controlling for factors such as body mass index, weight related self-image, depression, physical activity, educational level, age and income. In comparison, a statistically significant relationship emerged between relationship satisfaction and artificially sweetened cola. No other predictor variables were significantly associated with any type of artificially sweetened beverage. This study indicates that loneliness and social integration influence the level of consumption of sugary beverages. The results support the hypothesis derived from the Social Baseline Theory that relative social isolation leads

  17. Panel manipulation in social stress testing:The Bath experimental stress test for children (BEST-C)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheetham, Tara J.; Turner-Cobb, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundWhilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors.MethodsThirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath E...

  18. Mouse Social Interaction Test (MoST): a quantitative computer automated analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Restif, Christophe; O'Rourke, Joseph R; Lam, Chiu Yin; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used preclinical model of human disease assessing the mechanism(s) involved as well as the role of genetics, epigenetics, and pharmacotherapy on this disease as well as identifying vulnerability factors and risk assessment for disease critical in the development of improved treatment strategies. Unfortunately, the majority of rodent preclinical studies utilize single housed approaches where animals are either entirely housed and tested in solitary environments or group housed but tested in solitary environments. This approach, however, ignores the important contribution of social interaction and social behavior. Social interaction in rodents is found to be a major criterion for the ethological validity of rodent species-specific behavioral characteristics (Zurn et al. 2007; Analysis 2011). It is also well established that there is significant and growing number of reports, which illustrates the important role of social environment and social interaction in all diseases, with particularly significance in all neuropsychiatric diseases. Thus, it is imperative that research studies be able to add large-scale evaluations of social interaction and behavior in mice and benefit from automated tracking of behaviors and measurements by removing user bias and by quantifying aspects of behaviors that cannot be assessed by a human observer. Single mouse setups have been used routinely, but cannot be easily extended to multiple-animal studies where social behavior is key, e.g., autism, depression, anxiety, substance and non-substance addictive disorders, aggression, sexual behavior, or parenting. While recent efforts are focusing on multiple-animal tracking alone, a significant limitation remains the lack of insightful measures of social interactions. We present a novel, non-invasive single camera-based automated tracking method described as Mouse Social Test (MoST) and set of measures designed for estimating the interactions of multiple mice at the

  19. Protective Factors, Coping Appraisals, and Social Barriers Predict Mental Health Following Community Violence: A Prospective Test of Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Felix, Erika D; Benight, Charles C; Jones, Russell T

    2017-06-01

    This study tested social cognitive theory of posttraumatic adaptation in the context of mass violence, hypothesizing that pre-event protective factors (general self-efficacy and perceived social support) would reduce posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression severity through boosting post-event coping self-efficacy appraisals (mediator). We qualified hypotheses by predicting that post-event social support barriers would disrupt (moderate) the health-promoting indirect effects of pre-event protective factors. With a prospective longitudinal sample, we employed path models with bootstrapping resampling to test hypotheses. Participants included 70 university students (71.4% female; 40.0% White; 34.3% Asian; 14.3% Hispanic) enrolled during a mass violence event who completed surveys one year pre-event and 5-6 months post-event. Results revealed significant large effects in predicting coping self-efficacy (mastery model, R 2 = .34; enabling model, R 2 = .36), PTSS (mastery model, R 2 = .35; enabling model, R 2 = .41), and depression severity (mastery model, R 2 = .43; enabling model, R 2 = .46). Overall findings supported study hypotheses, showing that at low levels of post-event social support barriers, pre-event protective factors reduced distress severity through boosting coping self-efficacy. However, as post-event social support barriers increased, the indirect, distress-reducing effects of pre-event protective factors were reduced to nonsignificance. Study implications focus on preventative and responsive intervention. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. Influence of Social Cognitive and Gender Variables on Technological Academic Interest among Spanish High-School Students: Testing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª

    2016-01-01

    This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…

  1. An Experimental Test of How Selfies Change Social Judgments on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel Hardman; Hinck, Alexandra S; Lim, Hajin

    2017-10-01

    Selfies are everywhere on social media. Research has focused only on who is posting selfies and has not addressed the audience members viewing selfies. This study aims to fill this gap by analyzing the judgments people make of selfies posted on Facebook. Using an online experiment, we test how including a selfie on a Facebook status update changes people's appraisals of narcissism, message appropriateness, and social attraction. We also consider how the valence and intimacy of the status update text interplay with the selfie to change social judgments. Participants rated posts with selfies as more narcissistic and inappropriate, and less socially attractive. Selfie evaluations also depended upon the valence and intimacy of the status update text. Gender of the selfie poster did not influence evaluation of posts. One implication from these results is that posting selfies on social media may lead to negative judgments about the poster.

  2. Testing the effectiveness of a mentoring intervention to improve social participation of adolescents with visual impairments: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppe, Eline C M; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-11-05

    Social participation is challenging for people with visual impairments. As a result, on average, social networks are smaller, romantic relationships formed later, educational achievements lower, and career prospects limited. Adolescents on their way towards achieving these goals may benefit from the knowledge and experience of adults who have overcome similar difficulties. Therefore, a mentoring intervention, called Mentor Support, will be set up and studied in which adolescents with visual impairments are matched with successfully social participating adults with and without visual impairments. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mentor Support. Secondary aims are to distinguish the importance of the disability-specific experience of mentors, predictors of success, and mediating factors. The effect of Mentor Support will be tested in a randomized clinical trial, using pre-test one week before starting, post-test after 12 months, and follow-up after 18 months. Participants will be referred to one of the experimental groups or the control group, and this randomization will be stratified according to country region. Three groups are included in the trial: 40 participants will receive Mentor Support by mentors with a visual impairment in combination with care-as-usual, 40 participants will receive Mentor Support by mentors without visual impairments in combination with care-as-usual, and 40 participants will receive care-as-usual only. Mentor Support consists of 12 face-to-face meetings of the mentee with a mentor with an overall time period of one year. On a weekly basis, dyads have contact via email, the Internet, or telephone. The primary outcome measure is improved social participation within three domains (work/school, leisure activities, and social relationships). Mediator variables are psychosocial functioning and self-determination. Predictors such as demographics and personality are also investigated in order to distinguish

  3. Intact social cognitive processes in outpatients with anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Katarzyna; Jeschke, Julia; Mafi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess social cognition in community patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy controls. 25 women diagnosed with AN and 25 women matched for education level and age were involved in the study. Both subject groups were assessed using a set of validated experimental tasks, such as the facial expression recognition test, short recognition memory test for faces, 'Reading the mind in the eyes' test. Patients were assessed for symptoms of: eating disorder (the eating attitudes test-EAT-26), OCD (the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale-Y-BOCS) and depression (Beck depression inventory-BDI). The research hypothesis indicated that patients suffering from anorexia represent no significant difference in social cognitive functioning in comparison to the healthy controls. These assessment scales were used to identify whether there are any problems according to social cognitive functioning especially emotion recognition and theory of mind (ToM). The primary outcome assessment was to identify social cognitive deficits in anorexic outpatients and secondary outcome was to verify whether these problems in emotional functioning found in women in acute phase of AN are state or trait effects. Anorexic patients showed significantly higher scores on EAT-26, BDI and Y-BOCS. No significant differences were found in performance of social cognitive tests and facial perception test. No marked alterations were found in social cognitive functioning in community patients with average body mass index (BMI) of 17.6. This may indicate that social cognition is a very complex construct to be reliably measured in anorexia nervosa considering relatively limited psychometric data for many social cognitive tasks. Further longitudinal studies are needed to untangle ongoing controversy whether social cognitive deficits in AN could be state or trait related.

  4. A Delphi Technology Foresight Study: Mapping Social Construction of Scientific Evidence on Metagenomics Tests for Water Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Birko

    Full Text Available Access to clean water is a grand challenge in the 21st century. Water safety testing for pathogens currently depends on surrogate measures such as fecal indicator bacteria (e.g., E. coli. Metagenomics concerns high-throughput, culture-independent, unbiased shotgun sequencing of DNA from environmental samples that might transform water safety by detecting waterborne pathogens directly instead of their surrogates. Yet emerging innovations such as metagenomics are often fiercely contested. Innovations are subject to shaping/construction not only by technology but also social systems/values in which they are embedded, such as experts' attitudes towards new scientific evidence. We conducted a classic three-round Delphi survey, comprised of 107 questions. A multidisciplinary expert panel (n = 24 representing the continuum of discovery scientists and policymakers evaluated the emergence of metagenomics tests. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first Delphi foresight study of experts' attitudes on (1 the top 10 priority evidentiary criteria for adoption of metagenomics tests for water safety, (2 the specific issues critical to governance of metagenomics innovation trajectory where there is consensus or dissensus among experts, (3 the anticipated time lapse from discovery to practice of metagenomics tests, and (4 the role and timing of public engagement in development of metagenomics tests. The ability of a test to distinguish between harmful and benign waterborne organisms, analytical/clinical sensitivity, and reproducibility were the top three evidentiary criteria for adoption of metagenomics. Experts agree that metagenomic testing will provide novel information but there is dissensus on whether metagenomics will replace the current water safety testing methods or impact the public health end points (e.g., reduction in boil water advisories. Interestingly, experts view the publics relevant in a "downstream capacity" for adoption of

  5. Understanding how social enterprises can benefit from supportive legal frameworks : a case study report on social enterpreneurial models in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.a; Blomme, R.J.; Lambooy, T.E.; Kievit, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test how legal factors affect the corporate structure of a social enterprise. The current article focuses on the legal factor of governance as the decision-making power of stakeholders within the social enterprise. The authors conducted a case study and examined a major social

  6. Does children's moral compass waver under social pressure? Using the conformity paradigm to test preschoolers' moral and social-conventional judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elizabeth B; Chen, Chuansheng; Smetana, Judith G; Greenberger, Ellen

    2016-10-01

    The current study tested whether preschoolers' moral and social-conventional judgments change under social pressure using Asch's conformity paradigm. A sample of 132 preschoolers (Mage=3.83years, SD=0.85) rated the acceptability of moral and social-conventional events and also completed a visual judgment task (i.e., comparing line length) both independently and after having viewed two peers who consistently made immoral, unconventional, or visually inaccurate judgments. Results showed evidence of conformity on all three tasks, but conformity was stronger on the social-conventional task than on the moral and visual tasks. Older children were less susceptible to pressure for social conformity for the moral and visual tasks but not for the conventional task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Media Engagement and HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bolin; Liu, Chuncheng; Durvasula, Maya; Tang, Weiming; Pan, Stephen; Saffer, Adam J; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-07-19

    Many interventions find that social media engagement with health promotion materials can translate into behavioral changes. However, only a few studies have examined the ways in which specific actions on various social media platforms are correlated with health behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine the association between social media use and HIV testing behaviors among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). In July 2016, a Web-based survey was conducted to recruit MSM in 8 Chinese cities through Blued (Blue City Holdings Ltd.), the world's largest gay mobile phone app. Data on sociodemographic variables, social media use platforms and behaviors, sexual behaviors, and HIV testing histories were collected. HIV testing-related social media use was defined as having ever engaged with HIV testing content on social media, which was further divided into observing (ie, receiving), endorsing (eg, liking and sharing), and contributing (eg, posting or commenting on HIV testing materials). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to determine the best division of HIV testing-related social media use. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the association between HIV testing-related social media use and HIV testing behaviors. A total of 2105 individuals participated in the survey. Among them, 46.75% (984) were under the age of 24 years, 35.43% (746) had high school education or less, and 47.74% (587) had condomless sex in the last 3 months. More than half of the respondents (58.14%, 1224/2105) reported HIV testing-related social media use. Additionally, HIV testing-related social media use, especially on multifunctional platforms such as WeChat, was found to be associated with recent HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.32, 95% CI 1.66-3.24). Contributing on social media was correlated with recent HIV testing (aOR 2.10, 95% CI 1.40-3.16), but neither observing (aOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.38-1.15) nor endorsing (aOR 1.29, 95

  8. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p social support, inversely (β = -.16, p social support as a predicting factor in the model. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  9. Social position, social ties and adult's oral health: 13 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettore, Mario Vianna; Faerstein, Eduardo; Baker, Sarah Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This study explored different pathways by which social position and social ties influence adult's oral health over a 13-year period. A cohort investigation (Pro-Saúde Study) was conducted of non-faculty civil servants at a university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (N=1613). Baseline data collected in 1999 included age, social position, social ties, and access to dental care. Psychological factors and smoking were assessed in 2001, whereas tooth loss and self-rated oral health (SROH) were collected in 2012. A hypothesised model exploring different direct and indirect pathways was developed and tested using structural equation modelling. The model was a good fit to the data and accounted for 40% and 27% of the variance in tooth loss and SROH, respectively. A greater social position was linked to more social ties (β=0.31), health insurance (β=0.48), low psychological distress (β=0.07), less smoking (β=-0.21), more regular dental visiting (β=0.30), less tooth loss (β=-0.44) and better SROH (β=-0.25) over time. Social position (β=0.0005) and social ties (β=-0.0015) were linked indirectly with psychological distress, smoking and tooth loss. Social position was linked indirectly with social ties, psychological distress and SROH (β=-0.0071). Poor social position and weak social ties were important predictors for tooth loss and poor SROH in adults over the 13-year period. Direct and indirect pathways via psychological factors and smoking on the aforementioned relationships were identified, suggesting different areas of intervention to promote adults' oral health. Adult's oral health is influenced by social conditions through direct and indirect pathways, including via psychological factors and smoking. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Is it possible to replace stimulus animals by scent-filled cups in the social discrimination test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud; van der Horst, Klaske J; Baars, Annemarie M; Spruijt, Berry M

    2002-01-01

    A study in which the rat social discrimination test was refined is described. This test measures social memory by using, in general, juvenile rats as stimulus animals. Rats are offered a first juvenile to investigate (learning trial), and after a specified interval, the rats are offered the same rat and a second juvenile rat to investigate again (retrieval trial). When the rats sniff the second juvenile in the retrieval trial more than the first, social memory for the second juvenile is said to be present. This test is mainly based on scents from the juvenile. Attempts were made to refine the test to reduce the number of animals used, to enhance the scope of the test, and to improve its validity. Firstly, the stimulus animals were replaced by the scent of juveniles, in the form of cups filled with sawdust taken from cages of juvenile rats. Similar results to those in the original test were obtained when using these scents. Furthermore, male and female scents were tested, and showed the same results as for the juvenile scents. Secondly, rats were also given two cups (one scent-filled and one filled with plain sawdust) in the learning trial, to determine which allowed a more-precise delineation of motivational, discriminatory and memory components. Overall, it is possible to replace stimulus animals by scent-filled cups in the social discrimination test, to enhance the scope of the test, and to draw more-valid conclusions with respect to social memory.

  11. Neighborhood social capital and adult health: an empirical test of a Bourdieu-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiano, Richard M

    2007-09-01

    Drawing upon Bourdieu's [1986. The forms of capital. In: Richardson, J.G. (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Greenwood, New York, pp. 241-258.] social capital theory, I test a conceptual model of neighborhood conditions and social capital - considering relationships between neighborhood social capital forms (social support, social leverage, informal social control, and neighborhood organization participation) and adult health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking) and perceived health, as well as interactions between neighborhood social capital and individuals' access to that social capital. Analyzing Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data linked with tract level census data, results suggest that specific social capital forms were directly associated with both positive and negative health outcomes. Additionally, residents' neighborhood attachment moderated relationships between various social capital forms and health. Future studies should consider social capital resources and the role of differential access to such resources for promoting or compromising health.

  12. Making work safer: testing a model of social exchange and safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M; Della, Lindsay J; Vandenberg, Robert J; Wilson, Mark G

    2010-04-01

    This study tests a conceptual model that focuses on social exchange in the context of safety management. The model hypothesizes that supportive safety policies and programs should impact both safety climate and organizational commitment. Further, perceived organizational support is predicted to partially mediate both of these relationships. Study outcomes included traditional outcomes for both organizational commitment (e.g., withdrawal behaviors) as well as safety climate (e.g., self-reported work accidents). Questionnaire responses were obtained from 1,723 employees of a large national retailer. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques, all of the model's hypothesized relationships were statistically significant and in the expected directions. The results are discussed in terms of social exchange in organizations and research on safety climate. Maximizing safety is a social-technical enterprise. Expectations related to social exchange and reciprocity figure prominently in creating a positive climate for safety within the organization. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Reliability and Validity of the Social-Moral Awareness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Alexandra; Dodd, Karen; Pote, Helen; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to explore the validity of the social-moral awareness test (SMAT) a measure designed for assessing socio-moral rule knowledge and reasoning in people with learning disabilities. Comparisons between Theory of Mind and socio-moral reasoning allowed the exploration of construct validity of the tool. Factor…

  14. Gratitude facilitates private conformity: A test of the social alignment hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jomel W X; Tong, Eddie M W; Sim, Dael L Y; Teo, Samantha W Y; Loy, Xingqi; Giesbrecht, Timo

    2017-03-01

    Past research has established clear support for the prosocial function of gratitude in improving the well-being of others. The present research provides evidence for another hypothesized function of gratitude: the social alignment function, which enhances the tendency of grateful individuals to follow social norms. We tested the social alignment hypothesis of gratitude in 2 studies with large samples. Using 2 different conformity paradigms, participants were subjected to a color judgment task (Experiment 1) and a material consumption task (Experiment 2). They were provided with information showing choices allegedly made by others, but were allowed to state their responses in private. Supporting the social alignment hypothesis, the results showed that induced gratitude increased private conformity. Specifically, participants induced to feel gratitude were more likely to conform to the purportedly popular choice, even if the option was factually incorrect (Experiment 1). This effect appears to be specific to gratitude; induction of joy produced significantly less conformity than gratitude (Experiment 2). We discuss whether the social alignment function provides a behavioral pathway in the role of gratitude in building social relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Social Studies Fresh Frontier for Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Feeling that social studies has been sidelined by a test-driven focus on math and English/language arts, subject-matter specialists from more than a dozen states met last week with representatives of content-area groups to brainstorm ways to improve academic standards in that subject. The two-day gathering in Charlotte, N.C., is the third convened…

  16. Using a social marketing framework to evaluate recruitment of a prospective study of genetic counseling and testing for the deaf community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Boudreault, Patrick; Hill, Karin; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Palmer, Christina G S

    2013-11-25

    Recruiting deaf and hard-of-hearing participants, particularly sign language-users, for genetics health service research is challenging due to communication barriers, mistrust toward genetics, and researchers' unfamiliarity with deaf people. Feelings of social exclusion and lack of social cohesion between researchers and the Deaf community are factors to consider. Social marketing is effective for recruiting hard-to-reach populations because it fosters social inclusion and cohesion by focusing on the targeted audience's needs. For the deaf population this includes recognizing their cultural and linguistic diversity, their geography, and their systems for information exchange. Here we use concepts and language from social marketing to evaluate our effectiveness to engage a U.S. deaf population in a prospective, longitudinal genetic counseling and testing study. The study design was interpreted in terms of a social marketing mix of Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. Price addressed linguistic diversity by including a variety of communication technologies and certified interpreters to facilitate communication; Place addressed geography by including community-based participation locations; Promotion addressed information exchange by using multiple recruitment strategies. Regression analyses examined the study design's effectiveness in recruiting a culturally and linguistically diverse sample. 271 individuals were enrolled, with 66.1% American Sign Language (ASL)-users, 19.9% ASL + English-users, 12.6% English-users. Language was significantly associated with communication technology, participation location, and recruitment. Videophone and interpreters were more likely to be used for communication between ASL-users and researchers while voice telephone and no interpreters were preferred by English-users (Price). ASL-users were more likely to participate in community-based locations while English-users preferred medically-based locations (Place). English-users were

  17. Social media in adolescent health literacy education: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Carrie Kw; Bridges, Susan M; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda Ss

    2015-03-09

    While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual's approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents' oral health literacy (OHL) education. A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants' sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further analyses with a larger study group is warranted.

  18. Origin of differences between Serbian and Roma children in social intelligence test's achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đigić Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the presented research is to identify the origin of differences between Serbian (N=166 and Roma children (N=169 of primary school age in achievement on Modified Rosenzweig Test, used as a measure of social intelligence (Roma children had lower results than Serbian children. Results show that these differences can be partly explained with extreme inviolable socio-economic and cultural status of Roma children. Social intelligence test's scores are significantly correlated with socio-economic and cultural status; this correlation is more apparent in Roma than in Serbian sample. Differences between Serbian and Roma children become less apparent when we control the influence of socio-economic and cultural status. Parent's educational level is recognized as the most important indicator of socio-economic and cultural status. Another way to identify the origin of differences was directed to investigation of adequacy of used test as a measure of social intelligence of Roma children. Our assumption that some items make whole test unfair for Roma children is not confirmed. However, results concerning the relation between experience with particular social situations and success in particular test items, and results concerning the different structures of implicite understanding of social intelligence by Serbian and Roma parents, point out that test key favors responses that Serbian people accept as optimal in task situation, while the responses according to Roma implicite understanding of social intelligence are less valued.

  19. Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints of the Social Studies Lesson "Sample of Turkey and Afghanistan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the perceptions of history, geography and social studies teachers giving the social studies lesson at primary schools in Turkey and Afghanistan towards the social studies lesson. The working group of the study involves history, geography and social studies teachers rendering service in Tokat and Kayseri provinces…

  20. Social problems on Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Zhdanov, N.A.; Tumenova, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the report main stages of National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan activity in the field of scientific information obtain about consequences of conducted nuclear tests, radioecological and medical and biological researches, restoration of natural environment and people's health in Republic of Kazakhstan are reflected. Chronicle and results of joint works within frameworks of international programs in these field are given as well. Analysis of up-to-date social problems of population of the region is carried out

  1. Left hemisphere dysfunction during verbal dichotic listening tests in patients who have social phobia with or without comorbid depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Schneier, Franklin R; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J; Quitkin, Frederic

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral, electrophysiological, and imaging studies have found evidence that anxiety disorders are associated with left hemisphere dysfunction or higher than normal activation of right hemisphere regions. Few studies, however, have examined hemispheric asymmetries of function in social phobia, and the influence of comorbidity with depressive disorders is unknown. The present study used dichotic listening tests to assess lateralized cognitive processing in patients with social phobia, depression, or comorbid social phobia and depression. The study used a two-by-two factorial design in which one factor was social phobia (present versus absent) and the second factor was depressive disorder (present versus absent). A total of 125 unmedicated patients with social phobia, depressive disorder, or comorbid social phobia and depressive disorder and 44 healthy comparison subjects were tested on dichotic fused-words, consonant-vowel syllable, and complex tone tests. Patients with social phobia with or without a comorbid depressive disorder had a smaller left hemisphere advantage for processing words and syllables, compared with subjects without social phobia, whereas no difference between groups was found in the right hemisphere advantage for processing complex tones. Depressed women had a larger left hemisphere advantage for processing words, compared with nondepressed women, but this difference was not seen among men. The results support the hypothesis that social phobia is associated with dysfunction of left hemisphere regions mediating verbal processing. Given the importance of verbal processes in social interactions, this dysfunction may contribute to the stress and difficulty experienced by patients with social phobia in social situations.

  2. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  3. The individual-oriented and social-oriented Chinese bicultural self: testing the theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2008-06-01

    The author proposes a bicultural self theory for contemporary Chinese individuals, encompassing 2 main components: the individual-oriented self and the social-oriented self. The social orientation is rooted in traditional Chinese conceptualization of the self, whereas the individual orientation has evolved and developed under Western influences along with recent societal modernization. The author conducted a series of 5 studies to test the theory and relate the model to important issues in current personality and social psychological research, such as cultural individualism-collectivism, self-construals, motivation, cognition, emotion, and well-being. A total of 977 university students in Taiwan participated. The author found that contrasting self-aspects were differentially associated with the aforementioned constructs, as theoretically predicted. This evidence thus generally supported the bicultural self model.

  4. Designing and Testing an Inventory for Measuring Social Media Competency of Certified Health Education Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Julia M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Stellefson, Michael; Weiler, Robert M; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Miller, M David; MacInnes, Jann

    2015-09-23

    Social media can promote healthy behaviors by facilitating engagement and collaboration among health professionals and the public. Thus, social media is quickly becoming a vital tool for health promotion. While guidelines and trainings exist for public health professionals, there are currently no standardized measures to assess individual social media competency among Certified Health Education Specialists (CHES) and Master Certified Health Education Specialists (MCHES). The aim of this study was to design, develop, and test the Social Media Competency Inventory (SMCI) for CHES and MCHES. The SMCI was designed in three sequential phases: (1) Conceptualization and Domain Specifications, (2) Item Development, and (3) Inventory Testing and Finalization. Phase 1 consisted of a literature review, concept operationalization, and expert reviews. Phase 2 involved an expert panel (n=4) review, think-aloud sessions with a small representative sample of CHES/MCHES (n=10), a pilot test (n=36), and classical test theory analyses to develop the initial version of the SMCI. Phase 3 included a field test of the SMCI with a random sample of CHES and MCHES (n=353), factor and Rasch analyses, and development of SMCI administration and interpretation guidelines. Six constructs adapted from the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and the integrated behavioral model were identified for assessing social media competency: (1) Social Media Self-Efficacy, (2) Social Media Experience, (3) Effort Expectancy, (4) Performance Expectancy, (5) Facilitating Conditions, and (6) Social Influence. The initial item pool included 148 items. After the pilot test, 16 items were removed or revised because of low item discrimination (r.90), or based on feedback received from pilot participants. During the psychometric analysis of the field test data, 52 items were removed due to low discrimination, evidence of content redundancy, low R-squared value, or poor item infit or outfit

  5. Social isolation after spinal cord injury: Indicators from the Longitudinal Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Susan D; Li, Chao; Krause, James S

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a conceptual model of social isolation, incorporating social disconnectedness (objective measures) and perceived isolation (subjective appraisals) in an aging sample of participants with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study used cross-sectional data from 768 participants from the most recent administration of the SCI Longitudinal Aging Study, which was initiated in 1973. Measures included the revised version of the Life Situation Questionnaire, items from the Craig Handicap Assessment Reporting Technique, and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Indicators of social isolation were combined into scales assessing social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. We tested the hypothesized model of social isolation, including both social disconnectedness and perceived isolation, after SCI using structural equation modeling. Results of structural equation modeling indicated good fit between the hypothesized model and data (root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.073, 90% confidence interval [0.070, 0.075]; comparative fit index = 0.949; Tucker Lewis Index = 0.946). Perceived isolation was significantly related with social disconnectedness (standardized coefficient [r] = .610). Several exogenous factors were significantly related to social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. Older participants were more likely to report lower levels of perceived isolation. Time since injury demonstrated an inverse relationship with both social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. Higher level and severity of injury were associated with higher levels of social disconnectedness. Our study establishes a stable model of social isolation to guide future research exploring the effect of social isolation on health after SCI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. MDMA does not alter responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Miller, Melissa A; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-07-01

    ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task. We hypothesized that the drug would reduce responses to the stressful task. Volunteers (N = 39) were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 13), 0.5 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13), or 1.0 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13) during a stress and a no-stress session. Dependent measures included subjective reports of drug effects and emotional responses to the task, as well as salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure. The stress task produced its expected increase in physiological responses (cortisol, heart rate) and subjective ratings of stress in all three groups, and MDMA produced its expected subjective and physiological effects. MDMA alone increased ratings of subjective stress, heart rate, and saliva cortisol concentrations, but contrary to our hypothesis, it did not moderate responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Despite its efficacy in PTSD and anxiety, MDMA did not reduce either the subjective or objective responses to stress in this controlled study. The conditions under which MDMA relieves responses to negative events or memories remain to be determined.

  7. THE STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (CASE STUDY: ARDABIL REGIONAL WATER COMPANY'S MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ebrahimpoor‎

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among dimensions of social intelligence, social skills, social information processing, social awareness, social desirability of organizational performance. Methods: This research was a descriptive study. The population in this study comprised all experts, assistants and managers of regional water companies in Ardabil province, and was about 164 randomly selected people. And to gather data from field methods the means of questionnaires were used. Tromso questionnaire was chosen and designed to measure social intelligence and organizational performance by assessing specific questions about Balanced Scorecard as independent variable. To achieve the multiplier effect of each variable on the dependent variable, Pearson correlation test was performed. Results indicated that social skills, social information processing, social awareness and social desirability of improving organizational performance had the most important part in social information processing, and social awareness and social skills played a secondary role in improving performance.

  8. Social Desirability and Self-Reports: Testing a Content and Response-Style Model of Socially Desirable Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Dodaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Personality assessment as a pre-employment screening procedure receives great interest from both researchers and practitioners. One key concern for selection specialists is represented by the response distortion among job applicants completing personality inventories. There are different operationalizations of socially desirable responding. One of the most accepted operationalizations was provided by Paulhus who distinguished between two social desirability factors (the egoistic and moralistic bias as well as their conscious and unconscious aspects (management and enhancement. The aim of the study reported here is to test the basic assumption of the Paulhus model of socially desirable responding. A convenience sample of 200 students (N = 21.61; SD = 1.46 completed the Comprehensive Inventory of Desirable Responding (Paulhus, 2006 and the International Personality Item Pool Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1999; by Goldberg et al., 2006. Questionnaires were applied in three conditions: honest responding, responding as an ideal manager job applicant, and as an ideal teacher applicant. Results give partial support to the existence of egoistic and moralistic bias. However, conscious and unconscious aspects of distortion were not found. In conclusion it could be said that Paulhus’ model doesn’t provide a full answer to the problem of the nature of socially desirable responding.

  9. Environmental Social Stress, Paranoia and Psychosis Liability : A Virtual Reality Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van Os, Jim; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The impact of social environments on mental states is difficult to assess, limiting the understanding of which aspects of the social environment contribute to the onset of psychotic symptoms and how individual characteristics moderate this outcome. This study aimed to test sensitivity to

  10. Longitudinal Test of a Social Cognitive Model of Academic and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singley, Daniel B.; Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested a social cognitive model of academic and overall life satisfaction in a sample of 769 university students. The predictors, drawn from Lent's unifying perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment, included social cognitive (academic self-efficacy, goal progress, social support) and personality (trait positive affect)…

  11. Perceived stress and resilience in Alzheimer's disease caregivers: testing moderation and mediation models of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Croom, Beth

    2008-05-01

    The study examined whether social support functioned as a protective, resilience factor among Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers. Moderation and mediation models were used to test social support amid stress and resilience. A cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data was conducted. Measures of demographics, perceived stress, family support, friend support, overall social support, and resilience were administered to caregiver attendees (N=229) of two AD caregiver conferences. Hierarchical regression analysis showed the compounded impact of predictors on resilience. Odds ratios generated probability of high resilience given high stress and social supports. Social support moderation and mediation were tested via distinct series of regression equations. Path analyses illustrated effects on the models for significant moderation and/or mediation. Stress negatively influenced and accounted for most variation in resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience, and caregivers with high family support had the highest probability of elevated resilience. Moderation was observed among all support factors. No social support fulfilled the complete mediation criteria. Evidence of social support as a protective, moderating factor yields implications for health care practitioners who deliver services to assist AD caregivers, particularly the promotion of identification and utilization of supportive familial and peer relations.

  12. Using a social marketing framework to evaluate recruitment of a prospective study of genetic counseling and testing for the deaf community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting deaf and hard-of-hearing participants, particularly sign language-users, for genetics health service research is challenging due to communication barriers, mistrust toward genetics, and researchers’ unfamiliarity with deaf people. Feelings of social exclusion and lack of social cohesion between researchers and the Deaf community are factors to consider. Social marketing is effective for recruiting hard-to-reach populations because it fosters social inclusion and cohesion by focusing on the targeted audience’s needs. For the deaf population this includes recognizing their cultural and linguistic diversity, their geography, and their systems for information exchange. Here we use concepts and language from social marketing to evaluate our effectiveness to engage a U.S. deaf population in a prospective, longitudinal genetic counseling and testing study. Methods The study design was interpreted in terms of a social marketing mix of Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. Price addressed linguistic diversity by including a variety of communication technologies and certified interpreters to facilitate communication; Place addressed geography by including community-based participation locations; Promotion addressed information exchange by using multiple recruitment strategies. Regression analyses examined the study design’s effectiveness in recruiting a culturally and linguistically diverse sample. Results 271 individuals were enrolled, with 66.1% American Sign Language (ASL)-users, 19.9% ASL + English-users, 12.6% English-users. Language was significantly associated with communication technology, participation location, and recruitment. Videophone and interpreters were more likely to be used for communication between ASL-users and researchers while voice telephone and no interpreters were preferred by English-users (Price). ASL-users were more likely to participate in community-based locations while English-users preferred medically

  13. Socialism in High School Social Studies Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns textbook analysis regarding the presentation of socialism in four leading high school social studies books, one in each of the following subjects: United States history, world history, United States government, and economics. Findings indicate that students relying on these texts to gain understanding of socialism and…

  14. Can We Learn to Treat One Another Better? A Test of a Social Intelligence Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Carmen Ecija; Velasco, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the first test of the value of an online curriculum in social intelligence (SI). Built from current social and cognitive neuroscience research findings, the 50 session SI program was administered, with facilitation in Spanish by classroom instructors, to 207 students from Universidad Rey Juan Carlos in Madrid as part of their undergraduate classes. All materials were translated into Castilian Spanish, including outcome measures of SI that have been used in prior studies to provide valid estimates of two key components of social intelligence: 1) Sensitivity to others and 2) confidence in one’s capacity to manage social situations. Pre- and Posttest were administered to participants in the SI training, and also to 87 students in similar classes who did not receive the program who served as the control group. Gender and emotional intelligence levels at pretest also were examined as potential individual differences that might affect the impact of the program on study outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVAs on study outcomes revealed significant increases, from pre to post, in most measures of social intelligence for program participants in comparison to controls, with no effects of gender or age on program effectiveness. Prior scores on emotional intelligence were not a prerequisite for learning from the program. Some findings suggest ways the program may be improved to have stronger effects. Nonetheless, the findings indicate that the SI program tested here shows considerable promise as a means to increase the willingness of young adults to take the perspective of others and enhance their efficacy for initiating and sustaining positive social connections. PMID:26076133

  15. Can We Learn to Treat One Another Better? A Test of a Social Intelligence Curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva K Zautra

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the first test of the value of an online curriculum in social intelligence (SI. Built from current social and cognitive neuroscience research findings, the 50 session SI program was administered, with facilitation in Spanish by classroom instructors, to 207 students from Universidad Rey Juan Carlos in Madrid as part of their undergraduate classes. All materials were translated into Castilian Spanish, including outcome measures of SI that have been used in prior studies to provide valid estimates of two key components of social intelligence: 1 Sensitivity to others and 2 confidence in one's capacity to manage social situations. Pre- and Posttest were administered to participants in the SI training, and also to 87 students in similar classes who did not receive the program who served as the control group. Gender and emotional intelligence levels at pretest also were examined as potential individual differences that might affect the impact of the program on study outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVAs on study outcomes revealed significant increases, from pre to post, in most measures of social intelligence for program participants in comparison to controls, with no effects of gender or age on program effectiveness. Prior scores on emotional intelligence were not a prerequisite for learning from the program. Some findings suggest ways the program may be improved to have stronger effects. Nonetheless, the findings indicate that the SI program tested here shows considerable promise as a means to increase the willingness of young adults to take the perspective of others and enhance their efficacy for initiating and sustaining positive social connections.

  16. Can We Learn to Treat One Another Better? A Test of a Social Intelligence Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zautra, Eva K; Zautra, Alex J; Gallardo, Carmen Ecija; Velasco, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the first test of the value of an online curriculum in social intelligence (SI). Built from current social and cognitive neuroscience research findings, the 50 session SI program was administered, with facilitation in Spanish by classroom instructors, to 207 students from Universidad Rey Juan Carlos in Madrid as part of their undergraduate classes. All materials were translated into Castilian Spanish, including outcome measures of SI that have been used in prior studies to provide valid estimates of two key components of social intelligence: 1) Sensitivity to others and 2) confidence in one's capacity to manage social situations. Pre- and Posttest were administered to participants in the SI training, and also to 87 students in similar classes who did not receive the program who served as the control group. Gender and emotional intelligence levels at pretest also were examined as potential individual differences that might affect the impact of the program on study outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVAs on study outcomes revealed significant increases, from pre to post, in most measures of social intelligence for program participants in comparison to controls, with no effects of gender or age on program effectiveness. Prior scores on emotional intelligence were not a prerequisite for learning from the program. Some findings suggest ways the program may be improved to have stronger effects. Nonetheless, the findings indicate that the SI program tested here shows considerable promise as a means to increase the willingness of young adults to take the perspective of others and enhance their efficacy for initiating and sustaining positive social connections.

  17. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Pathological Gamblers During the Trier Social Stress Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maniaci, G.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Cannizzaro, C.; van Holst, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)

  18. Determinants of physical activity among people with spinal cord injury: a test of social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Kathleen A Martin; Latimer, Amy E; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Bassett, Rebecca L; Wolfe, Dalton L; Hanna, Steven E

    2011-08-01

    Little theory-based research has focused on understanding and increasing physical activity among people with physical disabilities. Testing a social cognitive theory-based model of determinants is important for identifying variables to target in physical activity-enhancing interventions. The aim of this study is to examine Social Cognitive Theory variables as predictors of physical activity among people living with spinal cord injury. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of Social Cognitive Theory predictors of physical activity (n=160). The model explained 39% of the variance in physical activity. Self-regulation was the only significant, direct predictor. Self-regulatory efficacy and outcome expectations had indirect effects, mediated by self-regulation. Social Cognitive Theory is useful for predicting physical activity in people with spinal cord injury. Self-regulation is the most potent Social Cognitive Theory predictor of physical activity in people with spinal cord injury. Self-regulation and its determinants should be targeted in physical activity-enhancing interventions.

  19. Assessment of Social Capital in terms of Participation, Knowledge, Trust, and Social Cohesion: Zahedan Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karimian Bostani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that the urban population in developing countries increases more than double from 2000 to 2030. This rapid population transformation to cities will be difficult. Therefore, the municipal administration will be involved in numerous challenges in cities. For this purpose, social capital as a bottom-up planning is one of the appropriate ways of management and dealing with these challenges. The aim of this study was to measure the social capital in four aspects of knowledge, participation, social cohesion, and trust in Zahedan. The research method of this research is descriptive-analytic in an applied type. Library studies and surveying (questionnaire were used to collect the required data. The questions in this survey were designed based on four indicators of social capital. The statistical population of the present study is 575,116 people residing in Zahedan in 2011. One sample T- test was used for calculations. The results of the analysis show that the social capital criteria in the city of Zahedan are undesirable in all four criteria.

  20. [Direct-to-consumer genetic testing through Internet: marketing, ethical and social issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducournau, Pascal; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Bulle, Alexandre; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We probably did not anticipate all the consequences of the direct to consumer genetic tests on Internet, resulting from the combined skills of communication and genomic advances. What are the commercial strategies used by the companies offering direct-to-consumer genetic tests on Internet and what are the different social expectations on which they focus? Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the web sites offering such tests, it seems that these companies target a triple market based on: the "healthism" which raises health and hygiene to the top of the social values; the contemporary demands of the users to become actual actors of health decisions; and finally on the need for bio-social relationships. These three commercial strategies underlie various ethical and societal issues justifying a general analysis.

  1. Social phobia and self-concept: a correlational study with physical activity practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi Noriko Sonoo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze social phobia in teenagers aged 14 to 20 years and its possiblerelationship with regular practice of physical activity and their self-concept. This study enrolled 191 students from privateand public schools and the measurement instruments used were a test of social phobia, a test of self-concept and a physicalactivity questionnaire. The results indicate that students from private schools are shyer than students from public schools. Inrelation to self-concept, there were significant differences in security factor for boys and moral factor for girls. This indicatesthat boys are more stable, brave and secure, while girls are more influenced by moral and ethical rules. These resultsdemonstrate that no relationship was detected between social phobia and physical activity, but it was possible to observea relationship between social phobia and some of the self-concept factors, and a relationship between physical activityand some of the self-concept factors. It is therefore concluded that the negative influence of high levels of social phobia onthe receptivity and security factors of men and women suggests a need for further studies in the area, which could help inthe prevention and treatment of social phobia, which could worsen over the years and compromise these young people’sability to socialize.

  2. The need to control for regression to the mean in social psychology studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun eYu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is common in repeated measurements for extreme values at the first measurement to approach the mean at the subsequent measurement, a phenomenon called regression to the mean (RTM. If RTM is not fully controlled, it will lead to erroneous conclusions. The wide use of repeated measurements in social psychology creates a risk that an RTM effect will influence results. However, insufficient attention is paid to RTM in most social psychological research. Notable cases include studies on the phenomena of social conformity and unrealistic optimism. In Study 1, 13 university students rated and re-rated the facial attractiveness of a series of female faces as a test of the social conformity effect. In Study 2, 15 university students estimated and re-estimated their risk of experiencing a series of adverse life events as a test of the unrealistic optimism effect. Although these studies used methodologies similar to those used in earlier research, the social conformity and unrealistic optimism effects were no longer evident after controlling for RTM. Based on these findings we suggest several ways to control for the RTM effect in social psychology studies.

  3. Perfectionistic Self-Presentation, Socially Prescribed Perfectionism, and Suicide in Youth: A Test of the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxborough, Heather M.; Hewitt, Paul L.; Kaldas, Janet; Flett, Gordon L.; Caelian, Carmen M.; Sherry, Simon; Sherry, Dayna L.

    2012-01-01

    The role of interpersonal components of perfectionism in suicide outcomes among youth was assessed and the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM) was tested by determining whether the links between socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) and perfectionistic self-presentation (PSP) and suicide outcomes are mediated by experiences of social…

  4. Testing the social dog hypothesis: are dogs also more skilled than chimpanzees in non-communicative social tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian

    2009-07-01

    Relative to non-human primates, domestic dogs possess a number of social skills that seem exceptional-particularly in solving problems involving cooperation and communication with humans. However, the degree to which dogs' unusual skills are contextually specialized is still unclear. Here, we presented dogs with a social problem that did not require them to use cooperative-communicative cues and compared their performance to that of chimpanzees to assess the extent of dogs' capabilities relative to those of non-human primates. We tested the abilities of dogs and chimpanzees to inhibit previously learned responses by using a social and a non-social version of a reversal learning task. In contrast to previous findings in cooperative-communicative social tasks, dogs were not more skilled on the social task than the non-social task, while chimpanzees were significantly better in the social paradigm. Chimpanzees were able to inhibit their prior learning better and more quickly in the social paradigm than they were in the non-social paradigm, while dogs took more time to inhibit what they had learned in both versions of the task. These results suggest that the dogs' sophisticated social skills in using human social cues may be relatively specialized as a result of domestication.

  5. TAT – Thematic Apperception Test (Murray test as Cross-cultural Studies Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ungureanu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three images of the TAT were used to elicit answers from a sample of around one hundred teenagers from different countries and cultural backgrounds. The goal of the research was to identify possible cultural differences in perception of social and family relationships, differences in associating emotions with a social context. Our study was inspired by the ones conducted by Bert Kaplan in Kansas and Ivano Rinaldi in rural Lucania, at the request of Edward Banfield (The Moral Basis of a Backward Society, 1958. It was the first one to use the Thematic Apperception Test for a cross-cultural comparison.

  6. Stress Reactivity to an Electronic Version of the Trier Social Stress Test: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage E Hawn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Social stressors that rely on the inclusion of confederates (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST are often used in clinical laboratory research paradigms to elicit a measurable stress response in participants. Although effective, the TSST is labor intensive and may introduce error variance as a function of confederate race, gender, and/or response characteristics. The present study aimed to develop and validate an electronic version of the TSST (e-TSST. The primary aim was to compare the e-TSST to an e-neutral control condition; the exploratory aim was to compare the magnitude of stress response elicited by the e-TSST to that elicited by the traditional TSST. Forty-three healthy adults were randomized to the e-TSST or e-neutral condition. Subjective (participant-rated distress and objective (cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure indices of stress were collected prior to, and multiple times following, the stressor. Using archival data collected from 19 healthy participants exposed to the traditional TSST in a prior study, stress reactivity was compared between the electronic and traditional versions of the TSST. The e-TSST elicited significant increases in all measures of stress reactivity compared to the e-neutral condition, with the exception of heart rate (HR. Results showed that the magnitude of subjective distress, BP, and HR responses elicited by the e-TSST did not differ significantly from that elicited by the traditional TSST. The traditional TSST elicited significantly higher cortisol than the e-TSST. Although these findings provide initial support for the development of electronic versions of the TSST, further refinement of the e-TSST is warranted prior to broad adoption of this technology. A refined, reliable e-TSST could allow for increased utilization of the TSST by enhancing convenience, reducing labor costs, and limiting potential error variance introduced by human confederates.

  7. The Power of Social and Motivational Relationships for Test-Anxious Adolescents' Academic Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances; Schneeweiss, David; Wood, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and organismic integration theory (OIT)--both sub-theories of self-determination theory (SDT)--the present study examined whether the academic self-regulation of youth with test anxiety can be strengthened through social and motivational relationships with peers and teachers. This study employed a large…

  8. Teaching Study Skills and Test-Taking Strategies to Elementary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.; Taylor-Ferreira, Jill C.

    1999-01-01

    Presents and evaluates a pilot program to reduce test anxiety and related social-evaluative concerns. The Testbusters program teaches effective study habits, study skills, and test-taking strategies for children in grades 4 through 7. Results indicate that Testbusters decreased general levels of test anxiety and improved overall grade point…

  9. [Internet addiction disorder and social networks: statistical analysis of correlation and study of the association with social interaction anxiousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Anna Carlotta; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Carlone, Cristiano; Raimondo, Pasquale; Quartini, Adele; Coccanari de' Fornari, Maria Antonietta; Biondi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) is an emerging psychiatric disorder, assimilable to impulse control problems and related to maladaptive use of new networks and social and virtual technologies. Our study aims to analyze the presence of IAD among adolescents and to study the correlation with social interaction anxiousness. We investigated also the possibility that the Social Network (SN) represent a source of risk for the development of IAD. The test group was composed of 250 subjects, aged between 14 and 18 years. They were administered: Young's IAT; IAS (Interaction Anxiousness Scale), AAS (Audience Anxiousness Scale) and SISST (Social Interaction Self-Statement Test) to analyze the dimension of social interaction anxiousness. We found a rate of 2% of the IAD. The SN are the most common use of the Net in our sample, but not the most clicked sites by subjects with IAD. It should be noted, finally, a correlation between social interaction anxiety and IAD, but not a significant difference in scores of social anxiousness scales based on the SN use/non-use. The use of SN intended as single variable doesn't correlate with increased risk for IAD, or for increased social interaction anxiousness. However, if associated with prolonged use of the net for 5-6 hours or more, or concomitant use of chat rooms and/or net gambling, we find a more significant risk of psychopathology. The data presented require further investigations, in order to guide new pathogenetic models and appropriate intervention strategies.

  10. Testing the Social Interaction Learning Model's Applicability to Adolescent Substance Misuse in an Australian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Christopher J; Doty, Jennifer; Chan, Gary; Kelly, Adrian B; Hemphill, Sheryl; Toumbourou, John; McMorris, Barbara J

    2018-03-06

    Parents and peers both influence the development of adolescent substance misuse, and the Social Interaction Learning (SIL) model provides a theoretical explanation of the paths through which this occurs. The SIL model has primarily been tested with conduct outcomes and in US samples. This study adds to the literature by testing the SIL model with four substance use outcomes in a sample of Australian youth. We used structural equation modeling to test the fit of the SIL model to a longitudinal sample (n = 907) of students recruited in grade 5 in Victoria, Australia participating in the International Youth Development Study, who were resurveyed in grades 6 and 10. The model fit was good (χ2(95) = 248.52, p role in the formation of adolescent peer relations that influence substance misuse and identifies etiological pathways that can guide the targets of prevention. The SIL pathways appear robust to the Australian social and policy context.

  11. Childhood trauma, psychosis liability and social stress reactivity : a virtual reality study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, W.; Counotte, J.; Pot-Kolder, R.; van Os, J.; van der Gaag, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social

  12. Effects of the medial or basolateral amygdala upon social anxiety and social recognition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Shanshan; Liu, Xu; Fu, Qunying

    2014-01-01

    Though social anxiety and social recognition have been studied extensively, the roles of the medial or basolateral amygdala in the control of social anxiety and social recognition remain to be determined. This study investigated the effects of excitotoxic bilateral medial or basolateral amygdala lesions upon social anxiety and social recognition in-mice. Animals at 9 weeks of age were given bilateral medial or basolateral amygdala lesions via infusion of N-methyl- D-aspartate and then were used for behavioral tests: anxiety-related tests (including open-field test, light-dark test, and elevated-plus maze test), social behavior test in a novel environment, social recognition test, and flavor recognition test. Medial or basolateral amygdala-lesioned mice showed lower levels of anxiety and increased social behaviors in a novel environment. Destruction of the medial or basolateral amygdala neurons impaired social recognition but not flavor recognition. The medial or basolateral amygdala is involved in the control of anxiety-related behavior (social anxiety and social behaviors) in mice. Moreover, both the medial and the basolateral amygdala are essential for social recognition but not flavor recognition in mice.

  13. Dominance Testing of Social Sector Expenditures and Taxes in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    David E. Sahn; Stephen D. Younger

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the progressivity of social sector expenditures and taxes in eight sub-Saharan African countries. It uses dominance tests to determine whether health and education expenditures redistribute resources to the poor. The paper finds that social services are poorly targeted. Among the services examined, primary education tends to be most progressive, and university education is least progressive. The paper finds that many taxes are progressive as well as efficient, including so...

  14. A randomized controlled trial testing a social network intervention to promote physical activity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woudenberg, Thabo J; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Burk, William J; Smit, Crystal R; Buijs, Laura; Buijzen, Moniek

    2018-04-23

    The current study examined the effectiveness of a social network intervention to promote physical activity among adolescents. Social network interventions utilize peer influence to change behavior by identifying the most influential individuals within social networks (i.e., influence agents), and training them to promote the target behavior. A total of 190 adolescents (46.32% boys; M age = 12.17, age range: 11-14 years) were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control condition. In the intervention condition, the most influential adolescents (based on peer nominations of classmates) in each classroom were trained to promote physical activity among their classmates. Participants received a research smartphone to complete questionnaires and an accelerometer to measure physical activity (steps per day) at baseline, and during the intervention one month later. A multilevel model tested the effectiveness of the intervention, controlling for clustering of data within participants and days. No intervention effect was observed, b = .04, SE = .10, p = .66. This was one of the first studies to test whether physical activity in adolescents could be promoted via influence agents, and the first social network intervention to use smartphones to do so. Important lessons and implications are discussed concerning the selection criterion of the influence agents, the use of smartphones in social network intervention, and the rigorous analyses used to control for confounding factors. Dutch Trial Registry (NTR): NTR6173 . Registered 5 October 2016 Study procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Radboud University (ECSW2014-100614-222).

  15. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  16. An fMRI Study of the Social Competition in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosan, M.; Baciu, M.; Cousin, E.; Perrone, M.; Pichat, C.; Bougerol, T.

    2011-01-01

    Social interaction requires the ability to infer another person's mental state (Theory of Mind, ToM) and also executive functions. This fMRI study aimed to identify the cerebral correlates activated by ToM during a specific social interaction, the human-human competition. In this framework, we tested a conflict resolution task (Stroop) adapted to…

  17. Choking under social pressure: social monitoring among the lonely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Megan L; Lucas, Gale M; Baumeister, Roy F; Gardner, Wendi L

    2015-06-01

    Lonely individuals may decode social cues well but have difficulty putting such skills to use precisely when they need them--in social situations. In four studies, we examined whether lonely people choke under social pressure by asking participants to complete social sensitivity tasks framed as diagnostic of social skills or nonsocial skills. Across studies, lonely participants performed worse than nonlonely participants on social sensitivity tasks framed as tests of social aptitude, but they performed just as well or better than the nonlonely when the same tasks were framed as tests of academic aptitude. Mediational analyses in Study 3 and misattribution effects in Study 4 indicate that anxiety plays an important role in this choking effect. This research suggests that lonely individuals may not need to acquire social skills to escape loneliness; instead, they must learn to cope with performance anxiety in interpersonal interactions. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    During a penetration test on the physical security of an organization, if social engineering is used, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not done properly can upset the employees, violate their privacy or damage

  19. Selling the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Gerald R.; Harmon, Gerald R.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains school-aged children would prefer not to study social studies. Presents several strategies to help encourage positive attitudes. Strategies include persuasion, reinforcement, enthusiasm, personalized contact. Stresses that negative attitudes must be changed in order for social studies to achieve its fundamental citizenship goals. (BR)

  20. Putting social impact assessment to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombes, Lucy; Vanclay, Frank; Evers, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    The discourse on the social impacts of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual practice to embed the management of tourism's social impacts into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social impact assessment (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development practice, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a practical method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test case tourism business to better understand their social impacts on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social impacts of tourism. • Our adapted Social impact Assessment (SIA) method has value as a practical method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context

  1. Putting social impact assessment to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCombes, Lucy, E-mail: l.mccombes@leedsbeckett.ac.uk [International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality (ICRETH), Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Macaulay Hall 103, Leeds LS6 3QS (United Kingdom); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Professor of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands); Evers, Yvette, E-mail: y.evers@tft-earth.org [The Forest Trust, Chemin de Chantavril 2, 1260 Nyon (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    The discourse on the social impacts of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual practice to embed the management of tourism's social impacts into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social impact assessment (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development practice, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a practical method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test case tourism business to better understand their social impacts on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social impacts of tourism. • Our adapted Social impact Assessment (SIA) method has value as a practical method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context.

  2. Genetic Thinking in the Study of Social Relationships: Five Points of Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, David

    2010-09-01

    For nearly a generation, researchers studying human behavioral development have combined genetically informed research designs with careful measures of social relationships such as parenting, sibling relationships, peer relationships, marital processes, social class stratifications, and patterns of social engagement in the elderly. In what way have these genetically informed studies altered the construction and testing of social theories of human development? We consider five points of entry where genetic thinking is taking hold. First, genetic findings suggest an alternative scenario for explaining social data. Associations between measures of the social environment and human development may be due to genes that influence both. Second, genetic studies add to other prompts to study the early developmental origins of current social phenomena in midlife and beyond. Third, genetic analyses promise to shed light on understudied social systems, such as sibling relationships, that have an impact on human development independent of genotype. Fourth, genetic analyses anchor in neurobiology individual differences in resilience and sensitivity to both adverse and favorable social environments. Finally, genetic analyses increase the utility of laboratory simulations of human social processes and of animal models. © The Author(s) 2010.

  3. A checklist to facilitate objective hypothesis testing in social psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony N; Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Social psychology is not a very politically diverse area of inquiry, something that could negatively affect the objectivity of social psychological theory and research, as Duarte et al. argue in the target article. This commentary offers a number of checks to help researchers uncover possible biases and identify when they are engaging in hypothesis confirmation and advocacy instead of hypothesis testing.

  4. Teaching Secondary Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Everett

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book, instructional strategies for middle and high school social studies: Methods, assessment, and classroom management, by Bruce E. Larson. The book has two goals: It situates the learning of social studies within the broader developmental context of learning and also focuses on “Instructional Strategies.” “Instructional Strategies for Middle and High School Social Studies: Methods, Assessment, and Classroom Management.” 2nd Edition. By Bruce E. Larson. New York: Routledge, 2017. ISBN: 978-1-138-84678-4

  5. [Formula: see text]Determination of the smoking gun of intent: significance testing of forced choice results in social security claimants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Laurence M; Chafetz, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Significantly below-chance findings on forced choice tests have been described as revealing "the smoking gun of intent" that proved malingering. The issues of probability levels, one-tailed vs. two-tailed tests, and the combining of PVT scores on significantly below-chance findings were addressed in a previous study, with a recommendation of a probability level of .20 to test the significance of below-chance results. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of below-chance findings in a Social Security Disability claimant sample using the previous recommendations. We compared the frequency of below-chance results on forced choice performance validity tests (PVTs) at two levels of significance, .05 and .20, and when using significance testing on individual subtests of the PVTs compared with total scores in claimants for Social Security Disability in order to determine the rate of the expected increase. The frequency of significant results increased with the higher level of significance for each subtest of the PVT and when combining individual test sections to increase the number of test items, with up to 20% of claimants showing significantly below-chance results at the higher p-value. These findings are discussed in light of Social Security Administration policy, showing an impact on policy issues concerning child abuse and neglect, and the importance of using these techniques in evaluations for Social Security Disability.

  6. Development in attention functions and social processing: Evidence from the Attention Network Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Francesca; Marotta, Andrea; Martella, Diana; Casagrande, Maria

    2017-06-01

    According to the attention network approach, attention is best understood in terms of three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct networks - alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Recent findings showed that social information influences the efficiency of these networks in adults. Using some social and non-social variants of the Attentional Network Test (ANT), this study was aimed to evaluate the development of the three attention networks in childhood, also assessing the development of the ability to manage social or non-social conflicting information. Sixty-six children (three groups of 6, 8, and 10 years of age) performed three variants of the original ANT, using fish, schematic, or real faces looking to the left or right as target and flanker stimuli. Results showed an improvement from 6 to 8 and 10 years of age in reaction time (RT) and accuracy, together with an improvement of executive control and a decrement in alerting. These developmental changes were not unique to social stimuli, and no differences were observed between social and no-social variants of the ANT. However, independently from the age of the children, a real face positively affected the executive control (as indexed by RTs) as compared to both a schematic face and a fish. Findings of this study suggest that attentional networks are still developing from 6 to 10 years of age and underline the importance of face information in modulating the efficiency of executive control. Statement of contribution What is already known? Younger children made more errors and slower reaction times (RTs) than older children, in line with the majority of the past selective attention studies. Younger children showed both greater conflict and alerting effect than older children. The prediction that younger children would display larger interference effects than older children was supported. What does this study add? Extending the findings observed in adults and children, independently from their age

  7. Experimental Study of Middle-Term Training in Social Cognition in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    In an experimental design, we examined the effects of middle-term training in social information processing (SIP) and in Theory of Mind (ToM) on preschoolers' social cognition and social adjustment. 48 preschoolers took part in a pre-test and post-test session involving cognitive, socio-cognitive and social adjustment (direct and indirect)…

  8. Testing the association between the incidence of schizophrenia and social capital in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, J B; Boydell, J; Ploubidis, G B; Morgan, C; Dazzan, P; McKenzie, K; Murray, R M; Jones, P B

    2008-08-01

    Social capital has been considered aetiologically important in schizophrenia but the empirical evidence to support this hypothesis is absent. We tested whether social capital, measured at the neighbourhood level, was associated with the incidence of schizophrenia (ICD-10 F20). MethodWe administered a cross-sectional questionnaire on social capital to 5% of the adult population in 33 neighbourhoods (wards) in South London (n=16 459). The questionnaire contained items relating to two social capital constructs: social cohesion and trust (SC&T) and social disorganization (SocD). Schizophrenia incidence rates, estimated using data from the Aetiology and Ethnicity in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (AESOP) study, provided the outcome. We used multi-level Poisson regression to test our hypothesis while controlling for individual- and neighbourhood-level characteristics. We identified 148 cases during 565 576 person-years at-risk. Twenty-six per cent of the variation in incidence rates was attributable to neighbourhood-level characteristics. Response from the social capital survey was 25.7%. The association between SC&T and schizophrenia was U-shaped. Compared with neighbourhoods with medial levels of SC&T, incidence rates were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with low [incidence rates ratio (IRR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.3] and high (IRR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.8) levels of SC&T, independent of age, sex, ethnicity, ethnic density, ethnic fragmentation and socio-economic deprivation. ConclusionNeighbourhood variation in SC&T was non-linearly associated with the incidence of schizophrenia within an urban area. Neighbourhoods with low SC&T may fail to mediate social stress whereas high SC&T neighbourhoods may have greater informal social control or may increase the risk of schizophrenia for residents excluded from accessing available social capital.

  9. What Factors Lead Companies to Adopt Social Media in their processes: Proposal and Test of a Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozé Braz de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand which factors lead companies to use social media to achieve results. For that, a theoretical model was proposed and tested. Data was collected using a survey of 237 companies. In the analysis we analysis used the structural eq uation modeling technique. The results show that the social media relative advantage and its observability were important factors to social media organizational adoption. We also found that big companies with more formalized organizational structure (OS t end to adopt social media more than small ones with no formal OS. The companies studied showed strong organizational disposition for innovation adoption.

  10. Social Studies Teachers’ Perceptions and Experiences of Social Justice

    OpenAIRE

    BURSA, Sercan; ERSOY, Arife Figen

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Social justice addresses inequality in society, including economic inequality, global migration, racism, xenophobia, prejudice against disabled people, and class discrimination. In Turkey, social studies curriculum aims to cultivate active, democratically minded citizens who value justice, independence, peace, solidarity, tolerance, freedom, and respect and demonstrate critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, social participation, and empathy. Purpose: Since social...

  11. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Hock

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  12. A Test of Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Men's Physical Activity During a Gender-Tailored Weight Loss Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m 2 ). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ 2 = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p social support. This study provides some evidence supporting the tenets of SCT when examining PA behavior in overweight and obese men. Future PA and weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. An Old Fad of Great Promise: Reverse Chronology History Teaching in Social Studies Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misco, Thomas; Patterson, Nancy C.

    2009-01-01

    This article revisits and explores the promises and challenges of reverse chronology history instruction within the social studies. In response to student disinterest in social studies, changes in our educational culture that often value content knowledge exclusively, and marginalization of instructional time stemming from testing burdens, reverse…

  14. A study on effects of demographic variables on success of social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mohammadreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, social media have developed significantly and their usages have become main activities of internet users. The proposed study of this paper considers the effects of personal characteristics such as age, gender and marital status on social media. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes 385 questionnaires among students who are enrolled in different educational levels in governmental university named Allameh Tabatabayi university located in Tehran, Iran during the year of 2011. Because of abnormality of data, non-parametric test were used. In this research, we studied the effects of demographic variables on success of social media. The results showed that success of social media is more important among female students. Marriage situation shows that social media success variable is more important among married than single ones and, finally, this variable is more important among older people.

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profitability: A Case Study on Dutch Bangla Bank Ltd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraiya Mahbuba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, the banking sector has a glorious history of getting engaged themselves in different kinds of social activities which is formally known as CSR (Corporate Social Responsibilities. The paper examines the relationship between CSR and profitability of Dutch Bangla Bank Ltd (DBBL which is the initiator of CSR activities in the banking sector of Bangladesh. The study used annual reports of DBBL for the year 2002 to 2011. Ordinary least square (OLS model of regression was analyzed using SPSS 16. to assess the impact as well as test the hypothesis of the study whether there is a relationship and the extent of the relationship between the independent variable (corporate social responsibility expenditure and the dependent variable (profit after tax. Above all, the analysis revealed that 90.7% of the variance of profit after tax of DBBL has been explained by the benefit accrued from corporate social responsibility. The hypothesis that was formulated was tested and the result shows that there is significant positive relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability in case of DBBL.

  16. Feminism, Neoliberalism, and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Mardi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the sparse presence of women in social studies education and to consider the possibility of a confluence of feminism and neoliberalism within the most widely distributed National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) publication, "Social Education." Using poststructural conceptions of discourse, the author…

  17. Social Identity, Social Ties and Social Capital: A Study in Gaming Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This work will focus on how different social relationships, namely shared identity and personal tie, will impact cooperative behavior, a form of social capital. I designed and conducted an economic game study to show that shared identity and personal ties work differently on cooperation among people and resource flow in social groups. Many factors…

  18. Censorship in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferth, Berniece B.

    In order to determine how much censorship was taking place in Illinois social studies classes, 200 principals were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding censorship of teaching methods and social studies textbooks. The principals were asked to respond to the following topics concerning the degree of censorship encountered for each item:…

  19. Social Media Engagement and HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Bolin; Liu, Chuncheng; Durvasula, Maya; Tang, Weiming; Pan, Stephen; Saffer, Adam J; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Background Many interventions find that social media engagement with health promotion materials can translate into behavioral changes. However, only a few studies have examined the ways in which specific actions on various social media platforms are correlated with health behaviors. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between social media use and HIV testing behaviors among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods In July 2016, a Web-based survey was c...

  20. Utilized social support and self-esteem mediate the relationship between perceived social support and suicide ideation. A test of a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Evan M; Riskind, John H

    2013-01-01

    While perceived social support has received considerable research as a protective factor for suicide ideation, little attention has been given to the mechanisms that mediate its effects. We integrated two theoretical models, Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide and Leary's (Leary, Tambor, Terdal, & Downs, 1995) sociometer theory of self-esteem to investigate two hypothesized mechanisms, utilization of social support and self-esteem. Specifically, we hypothesized that individuals must utilize the social support they perceive that would result in increased self-esteem, which in turn buffers them from suicide ideation. Participants were 172 college students who completed measures of social support, self-esteem, and suicide ideation. Tests of simple mediation indicate that utilization of social support and self-esteem may each individually help to mediate the perceived social support/suicide ideation relationship. Additionally, a test of multiple mediators using bootstrapping supported the hypothesized multiple-mediator model. The use of a cross-sectional design limited our ability to find true cause-and-effect relationships. Results suggested that utilized social support and self-esteem both operate as individual moderators in the social support/self-esteem relationship. Results further suggested, in a comprehensive model, that perceived social support buffers suicide ideation through utilization of social support and increases in self-esteem.

  1. Aged Tg2576 mice are impaired on social memory and open field habituation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, R M J; Koros, E; Bornemann, K D; Rawlins, J N P

    2009-02-11

    In a previous publication [Deacon RMJ, Cholerton LL, Talbot K, Nair-Roberts RG, Sanderson DJ, Romberg C, et al. Age-dependent and -independent behavioral deficits in Tg2576 mice. Behav Brain Res 2008;189:126-38] we found that very few cognitive tests were suitable for demonstrating deficits in Tg2576 mice, an amyloid over-expression model of Alzheimer's disease, even at 23 months of age. However, in a retrospective analysis of a separate project on these mice, tests of social memory and open field habituation revealed large cognitive impairments. Controls showed good open field habituation, but Tg2576 mice were hyperactive and failed to habituate. In the test of social memory for a juvenile mouse, controls showed considerably less social investigation on the second meeting, indicating memory of the juvenile, whereas Tg2576 mice did not show this decrement.As a control for olfactory sensitivity, on which social memory relies, the ability to find a food pellet hidden under wood chip bedding was assessed. Tg2576 mice found the pellet as quickly as controls. As this test requires digging ability, this was independently assessed in tests of burrowing and directly observed digging. In line with previous results and the hippocampal dysfunction characteristic of aged Tg2576 mice, they both burrowed and dug less than controls.

  2. Some children with autism have latent social skills that can be tested

    OpenAIRE

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Urbanek, Tomas; Vacova, Maria; Beranova, Stepanka; Dudova, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Michal Hrdlicka,1 Tomas Urbanek,2 Maria Vacova,1 Stepanka Beranova,1 Iva Dudova1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, 2Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Background: The idea of latent social skills in autism emerged as a possible interpretation of the rapid (but temporary) improvement of autistic subjects in oxytocin studies. We tested a hypothesis that a normal response to Item...

  3. Personality and Behavior in Social Dilemmas: Testing the Situational Strength Hypothesis and the Role of Hypothetical Versus Real Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, José H

    2016-02-01

    Previous research aimed at testing the situational strength hypothesis suffers from serious limitations regarding the conceptualization of strength. In order to overcome these limitations, the present study attempts to test the situational strength hypothesis based on the operationalization of strength as reinforcement contingencies. One dispositional factor of proven effect on cooperative behavior, social value orientation (SVO), was used as a predictor of behavior in four social dilemmas with varying degree of situational strength. The moderating role of incentive condition (hypothetical vs. real) on the relationship between SVO and behavior was also tested. One hundred undergraduates were presented with the four social dilemmas and the Social Value Orientation Scale. One-half of the sample played the social dilemmas using real incentives, whereas the other half used hypothetical incentives. Results supported the situational strength hypothesis in that no behavioral variability and no effect of SVO on behavior were found in the strongest situation. However, situational strength did not moderate the effect of SVO on behavior in situations where behavior showed variability. No moderating effect was found for incentive condition either. The implications of these results for personality theory and assessment are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Online Big Blue Test for Promoting Exercise: Health, Self-Efficacy, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zúñiga, Beni; Pousada, Modesta; Hernandez, Manny M; Colberg, Sheri; Gabarrón, Elia; Armayones, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Recent articles have documented the influence of self-efficacy and social support on exercising. Simultaneously, insulin use is also related to the perception of self-efficacy and social support in patients with diabetes. We combine these two ideas through the Big Blue Test experience in a social networking site and propose to analyze whether a change in blood sugar levels after completion of the Big Blue Test and insulin use are related to the perception of self-efficacy and social support in patients with diabetes. To undergo the Big Blue Test, 3,926 participants voluntarily joined the Diabetes Hands Foundation. Responses were analyzed using descriptive analysis. The participants who reduced their blood glucose after exercise the least were those with lower self-efficacy and also with lower perceived social support. There seems to have been no relationship between changes in blood sugar level and the explicit intention of doing exercise in the future. Insulin-dependent participants demonstrated a lower perception of self-efficacy and social support than non-insulin-dependent participants. Change in blood glucose level or being insulin-dependent or not do not explain completely a health behavior such as exercise. Hence, self-efficacy and social support have an impact on behavioral change such as exercise to become a habit in people with diabetes, and this experience through a social networking site is an important tool for this behavioral change. For exercise to become a habit in people with diabetes, it is necessary to consider not only the crucial physiological variables, but also those psychological variables that clearly have an impact on behavioral change.

  5. Face and voice as social stimuli enhance differential physiological responding in a Concealed Information Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eAmbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Attentional, intentional, and motivational factors are known to influence the physiological responses in a Concealed Information Test (CIT. Although concealing information is essentially a social action closely related to motivation, CIT studies typically rely on testing participants in an environment lacking of social stimuli: Subjects interact with a computer while sitting alone in an experimental room. To address this gap, we examined the influence of social stimuli on the physiological responses in a CIT.Seventy-one participants underwent a mock-crime experiment with a modified CIT. In a between-subjects design, subjects were either questioned acoustically by a pre-recorded male voice presented together with a virtual male experimenter’s uniform face or by a text field on the screen, which displayed the question devoid of face and voice. Electrodermal activity (EDA, respiration line length (RLL, phasic heart rate (pHR, and finger pulse waveform length (FPWL were registered. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R was administered in addition. The differential responses of RLL, pHR, and FPWL to probe vs. irrelevant items were greater in the condition with social stimuli than in the text condition; interestingly, the differential responses of EDA did not differ between conditions. No modulatory influence of the PPI-R sum or subscale scores was found.The results emphasize the relevance of social aspects in the process of concealing information and in its detection. Attentional demands as well as the participants’ motivation to avoid detection might be the important links between social stimuli and physiological responses in the CIT.

  6. Social conditioning and extinction paradigm: A translational study in virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eShiban

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In human beings, experiments investigating fear conditioning with social stimuli are rare. The current study aims at translating an animal model for social fear conditioning (SFC to a human sample using an operant SFC paradigm in virtual reality (VR. Forty participants actively (using a joystick approached virtual male agents that served as conditioned stimuli (CS. During the acquisition phase, unconditioned stimuli (US, a combination of an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms and a female scream (95 dB, 40 ms, were presented when participants reached a defined proximity to the agent with a contingency of 75% for CS+ agents and never for CS- agents. During the extinction and the test phases, no US was delivered. Outcome variables were pleasantness ratings and physiological reactions in heart rate and fear-potentiated startle. Additionally, the influence of social anxiety, which was measured with the Social Phobia Inventory scale, was evaluated. As expected after the acquisition phase the CS+ was rated clearly less pleasant than the CS-. This difference vanished during extinction. Furthermore, the HR remained high for the CS+, while the HR for the CS- was clearly lower after than before the acquisition. Furthermore, a clear difference between CS+ and CS- after the acquisition indicated successful conditioning on this translational measure. Contrariwise extinction was not observed on the physiological variables. Importantly, at the generalization test, higher socially fearful participants rated pleasantness of all agents as low whereas the lower socially fearful participants rated pleasantness as low only for the CS+. SFC was successfully induced and extinguished confirming operant conditioning in this SFC paradigm. These findings suggest that the paradigm is suitable to expand the knowledge about the learning and unlearning of social fears. Further studies should investigate the operant mechanisms of development and treatment of social anxiety disorder.

  7. Social conditioning and extinction paradigm: a translational study in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiban, Youssef; Reichenberger, Jonas; Neumann, Inga D; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In human beings, experiments investigating fear conditioning with social stimuli are rare. The current study aims at translating an animal model for social fear conditioning (SFC) to a human sample using an operant SFC paradigm in virtual reality. Forty participants actively (using a joystick) approached virtual male agents that served as conditioned stimuli (CS). During the acquisition phase, unconditioned stimuli (US), a combination of an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms) and a female scream (95 dB, 40 ms), were presented when participants reached a defined proximity to the agent with a contingency of 75% for CS+ agents and never for CS- agents. During the extinction and the test phases, no US was delivered. Outcome variables were pleasantness ratings and physiological reactions in heart rate (HR) and fear-potentiated startle. Additionally, the influence of social anxiety, which was measured with the Social Phobia Inventory scale, was evaluated. As expected after the acquisition phase the CS+ was rated clearly less pleasant than the CS-. This difference vanished during extinction. Furthermore, the HR remained high for the CS+, while the HR for the CS- was clearly lower after than before the acquisition. Furthermore, a clear difference between CS+ and CS- after the acquisition indicated successful conditioning on this translational measure. Contrariwise no CS+/CS- differences were observed in the physiological variables during extinction. Importantly, at the generalization test, higher socially fearful participants rated pleasantness of all agents as low whereas the lower socially fearful participants rated pleasantness as low only for the CS+. SFC was successfully induced and extinguished confirming operant conditioning in this SFC paradigm. These findings suggest that the paradigm is suitable to expand the knowledge about the learning and unlearning of social fears. Further studies should investigate the operant mechanisms of development and treatment of social anxiety

  8. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  9. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jin-Kyoung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rural areas. Information on participants' tobacco use, stress, social support, and social networks was collected using structured questionnaires. The chi-square test, the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The overall smoking prevalence in the study was 17.4% (men, 38.8%; women, 5.1%. Overall, stress was high among women, and social support was high among men. Smokers had high levels of social support (t = -2.90, p = .0038 and social networks (t = -2.22, p = .0271, as compared to non- and former smokers. Those in the high social support group were likely to be smokers (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.26. Women with moderate social ties were less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.61. Conclusion There was a protective role of a moderate social network level among women, and a high level of social support was associated with smoking behaviors in rural areas. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of social contextual factors including social support and social networks in order to conduct more effective anti-smoking interventions in rural areas.

  10. Social marketing interventions to increase HIV/STI testing uptake among men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chongyi; Herrick, Amy; Raymond, H Fisher; Anglemyer, Andrew; Gerbase, Antonio; Noar, Seth M

    2011-09-07

    Social marketing interventions have been shown to both promote and change many health-related behaviours and issues. As the HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect MSM and transgender women around the world, social marketing interventions have the potential to increase HIV/STI testing uptake among these populations. To assess the impact of social marketing interventions on HIV/STI testing uptake among men who have sex with men and transgender women compared to pre-intervention or control group testing uptake in the same population. We searched the following electronic databasesfor results from 01 January 1980 to the search date, 14 July 2010: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, LILACS (Latin America and Brazil), PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science/Web of Social Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and CQ VIP (China). We also searched for conference abstracts in the Aegis archive of HIV/AIDS conference abstracts and the CROI and International AIDS Society websites. In addition to searching electronic databases, we searched the following sources of grey literature: Australasian Digital Theses Program, Canadian Evaluation Society,  Eastview: China Conference Proceedings, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and World Health Organization Library Information System  (WHOLIS). We contacted individual researchers, experts working in the field, and authors of major trials for suggestions of any relevant manuscripts that were in preparation or in press. References of published articles from the databases above were searched for additional, pertinent materials. All languages were included in this search. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that compared social marketing interventions with a control were included. Interrupted time series and pretest-posttest design studies (controlled or uncontrolled) that compared social marketing interventions with no intervention or a control were also

  11. Social Studies Oriented Achievement Goal Scale (SOAGS: Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehat GEZER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring students' social studies achievement goal. The research was conducted on a study group consisted of 374 middle school students studying in the central district of Diyarbakır in 2014-2015 school year fall semester. Expert opinion was consulted with regard to the scale's content and face validity. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA were performed in order to measure the scale's construct validity. As a result of EFA, a 29-item and a six-factor structure model which explains 50.82% of the total variance was obtained. The emerging factors were called as a self-approach, task-approach, other-approach, task-avoidance, other-avoidance and self-avoidance respectively. The findings acquired CFA indicated that the 29-item and six-factor structure related to social studies oriented achievement goal scale have acceptable goodness of fit indices. The scale's reliability coefficients were calculated by means of internal consistency method. As a result of reliability analysis, it was determined that the reliability coefficients were within admissible limits. The finding of the item correlation and 27% of upper and lower group comparisons demonstrated that all of the items in the scale should remain. In light of these results, it could be argued that the scale is reliable and valid instrument and can be used in order to test students' social studies achievement goals.

  12. 'No man is an island'. Testing the specific role of social isolation in formal thought disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Paulo; Spray, Amy; Sellwood, William; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-12-15

    Recent work has focused on the role of the environment in psychosis with emerging evidence that specific psychotic experiences are associated with specific types of adversity. One risk factor that has been often associated with psychosis is social isolation, with studies identifying isolation as an important feature of prodromal psychosis and others reporting that social networks of psychotic patients are smaller and less dense than those of healthy individuals. In the present study, we tested a prediction that social isolation would be specifically associated with formal thought disorder. 80 patients diagnosed with psychosis-spectrum disorder and 30 healthy participants were assessed for formal thought disorder with speech samples acquired during an interview that promoted personal disclosure and an interview targeting everyday topics. Social isolation was significantly associated with formal thought disorder in the neutral interview and in the salient interview, even when controlling for comorbid hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness. Hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness were not associated with social isolation when formal thought disorder was controlled for. Formal thought disorder is robustly and specifically associated with social isolation. Social cognitive mechanisms and processes are discussed which may explain this relationship as well as implications for clinical practice and future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social desirability bias in personality testing: Implications for astronaut selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, Gro M.; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert. L.; Gravdal, Lene

    2005-07-01

    The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory (PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD may be a negative predictor for performance under stress.

  14. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Teaching Social Interaction Skills in Social Studies Classroom and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a survey which was carried out with 110 sandwich students of university of Nigeria Nsukka. The focus was to ascertain the relevance of social studies programme of Nigerian universities in inculcating social interaction skills for maintaining peace and managing conflicts in the family. Four research questions ...

  16. Some children with autism have latent social skills that can be tested

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdlička, M.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Vacová, M.; Beranová, Š.; Dudová, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, March (2017), s. 827-833 ISSN 1178-2021 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism * latent social skills * Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised * Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule * prediction Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2016 https://www.dovepress.com/some-children-with- autism -have-latent-social-skills-that-can-be-tested-peer-reviewed-article-NDT

  17. Some children with autism have latent social skills that can be tested

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdlička, M.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Vacová, M.; Beranová, Š.; Dudová, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, March (2017), s. 827-833 ISSN 1178-2021 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism * latent social skills * Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised * Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule * prediction Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2016 https://www.dovepress.com/some-children-with-autism-have-latent- social -skills-that-can-be-tested-peer-reviewed-article-NDT

  18. Self-Control, Social Factors, and Delinquency: A Test of the General Theory of Crime among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.; Cheung, Yuet W.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the predictive power of self-control theory for delinquency in a Chinese context, and to explore if social factors as predicted in social bonding theory, differential association theory, general strain theory, and labeling theory have effects on delinquency in the presence of self-control. Self-report data…

  19. Social identity modifies face perception: an ERP study of social categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Belle; Stedehouder, Jeffrey; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-05-01

    Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of Muslims and non-Muslims in an evaluative priming task while ERPs were measured and implicit evaluative bias was assessed. Study 1 revealed that non-Muslims showed stronger differentiation between ingroup and outgroup faces in both early (N200) and later processing stages (implicit evaluations) when they identified more strongly with their ethnic group. Moreover, identification effects on implicit bias were mediated by intergroup differentiation in the N200. In Study 2, social identity threat (vs control) was manipulated among Muslims. Results revealed that high social identity threat resulted in stronger differentiation of Muslims from non-Muslims in early (N200) and late (implicit evaluations) processing stages, with N200 effects again predicting implicit bias. Combined, these studies reveal how seemingly bottom-up early social categorization processes are affected by individual and contextual variables that affect the meaning of social identity. Implications of these results for the social identity perspective as well as social cognitive theories of person perception are discussed. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Some children with autism have latent social skills that can be tested

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrdlicka M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Michal Hrdlicka,1 Tomas Urbanek,2 Maria Vacova,1 Stepanka Beranova,1 Iva Dudova1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, 2Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Background: The idea of latent social skills in autism emerged as a possible interpretation of the rapid (but temporary improvement of autistic subjects in oxytocin studies. We tested a hypothesis that a normal response to Item No 59 “Secure Base” from the third version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised (ADIR-59 could indicate the presence of latent social skills in autism.Methods: We examined 110 autistic children (88 boys and 22 girls with a mean age of 6.0±2.5 years (range: 2.2–14.8 years using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS – Generic. A diagnosis of mental retardation was established in 68 autistic children (62%.Results: The difference in the ADOS social domain between children aged ≤5 years on one side and children older than 5 years on the other side was significant in subjects with normal responses to ADIR-59 (9.60 vs 6.47; P=0.031 but not in those with abnormal responses to ADIR-59 (10.62 vs 9.63; P=0.537. In a predictive model, lower ADOS social domain scores were predicted by older age (P=0.001, lower scores on the ADIR-59 (P=0.01, and the absence of mental retardation (P=0.049.Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that the normal response to item ADIR-59 “Secure Base” indicates the presence of latent social skills in autism that might foretell further social growth in older autistic subjects. Keywords: autism, latent social skills, Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, prediction

  1. Social and genetic structure of paper wasp cofoundress associations: tests of reproductive skew models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J; Solís, C R; Queller, D C; Strassmann, J E

    1998-06-01

    Recent models postulate that the members of a social group assess their ecological and social environments and agree a "social contract" of reproductive partitioning (skew). We tested social contracts theory by using DNA microsatellites to measure skew in 24 cofoundress associations of paper wasps, Polistes bellicosus. In contrast to theoretical predictions, there was little variation in cofoundress relatedness, and relatedness either did not predict skew or was negatively correlated with it; the dominant/subordinate size ratio, assumed to reflect relative fighting ability, did not predict skew; and high skew was associated with decreased aggression by the rank 2 subordinate toward the dominant. High skew was associated with increased group size. A difficulty with measuring skew in real systems is the frequent changes in group composition that commonly occur in social animals. In P. bellicosus, 61% of egg layers and an unknown number of non-egg layers were absent by the time nests were collected. The social contracts models provide an attractive general framework linking genetics, ecology, and behavior, but there have been few direct tests of their predictions. We question assumptions underlying the models and suggest directions for future research.

  2. Cognitive bias modification and CBT as early interventions for adolescent social and test anxiety : Two-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, Eva; Sportel, B. Esther; Nauta, Maaike H.; de Jong, Peter J.

    Background and Objectives: This two-year follow-up study evaluated the long-term outcomes of two early interventions that aimed at reducing social and test anxiety in young adolescents at risk for developing social anxiety disorder. Methods: In this RCP, moderately socially anxious adolescents

  3. Ethical, legal and social implications of prenatal and preimplantation genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-W; Hui, E C

    2009-01-01

    With the progress in cancer genetics and assisted reproductive technologies, it is now possible for cancer gene mutation carriers not only to reduce cancer mortality through the targeting of surveillance and preventive therapies, but also to avoid the birth of at-risk babies through the choice of different means of reproduction. Thus, the incidence of hereditary cancer syndromes may be decreased in the future. The integration of cancer genetic testing and assisted reproductive technologies raises certain ethical, legal and social issues beyond either genetic testing or assisted reproductive technology itself. In this paper, the reproductive decisions/choices of at-risk young couples and the ethical, legal and social concerns of prenatal genetic testing and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for susceptibility to hereditary cancer syndromes are discussed. Specifically, three ethical principles related to the integration of cancer genetic testing and assisted reproductive technologies, i.e. informed choice, beneficence to children and social justice, and their implications for the responsible translation of these medical techniques into common practice of preventive medicine are highlighted.

  4. Predicting the Job and Life Satisfaction of Italian Teachers: Test of a Social Cognitive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ginevra, Maria C.; Duffy, Ryan D.; Brown, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a social cognitive model of work and life satisfaction (Lent & Brown, 2006, 2008) in a sample of 235 Italian school teachers. The model offered good overall fit to the data, though not all individual path coefficients were significant. Three of five predictors (favorable work conditions, efficacy-relevant supports, and…

  5. Psychopathological symptoms, social skills, and personality traits: a study with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazabal, Maite Garaigordobil

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to study the concomitant relationships between psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and other personality traits; and (b) to identify the predictive variables of psychopathological symptoms. The sample consists of 322 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old. This study uses correlational methodology. In order to assess psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and personality traits, the following scales are used: the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1983), the Cooperativeness Scale (CS; Rigby, Cox, and Black, 1997), the MESSY social skills scale (Matson, Rotatori, and Helsel, 1983), and the TPT Personality Test (Corral, Pamos, Pereña, and& Seisdedos, 2002). Pearson coefficients suggest that adolescents with many psychopathological symptoms have low levels of cooperative behaviors and social skills. They also score high in inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, overconfidence, and jealousy-withdrawal and have low levels of emotional stability, sociability, and responsibility. Through multiple regression analyses, the following variables were identified as predictors of psychopathological symptoms: jealousy-withdrawal, low social integration, impulsiveness, and low self-concept. The role played by intervention programs promoting socio-emotional development to prevent psychopathological symptoms and enhance mental health is discussed.

  6. Social capital and the course of depression: six-month prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Martin; Huxley, Peter; Harris, Tirril

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has found an inverse cross-sectional relationship between an individual's access to social capital (defined as resources embedded within social networks) and depression, but this relationship has not been rigorously tested in prospective research. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate the effect of social capital on the course of depression and subjective quality of life in a clinical population. This was a six-month prospective cohort study of people with depression in primary care achieving a follow-up rate of 91.3% (n=158). Depression was measured with the HAD-D and social capital using the Resource Generator-UK. Potential confounding variables including socio-demographics, socio-economic status, depression history, social support, life events and attachment style were also measured. Social capital had no independent effect on the course of depression, though an interaction of access to social capital and attachment style was significantly related to change in quality of life alongside multiple covariates. The study used a small sample; a short follow-up period; no measure of ecological social capital; no genetic components; and only two time points. Emotional support is important for the alleviation of depression. Additionally, people with depression may require a secure attachment style to derive the full benefit of their social capital. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scale and tests for its reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-hong TANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To develop Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scaleand verify its reliability and validity. Methods  The Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalewas initiated, organized and compiled based upon open-ended questionnaire survey done in a systematic manner, and previous researches were taken as references. A total of 630 military personnel were chosen by random cluster sampling and tested with the Scale, among them 50 were tested with Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS and Chinese Military Psychosomatic Health Scale(CMPHS simultaneously, and the test was done solely a second time with CMPHS 2 weeks later. The reliability and validity were assessed and verified by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis. Results  The Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalecomprised three factors, namely subjective support, objective support and utility of social support. Eighteen items were left in official scale after amendment by factor analysis, and one lying subscale was added. The correlation coefficients between the public factors ranged from 0.477 to 0.589 (P<0.01, and the correlation coefficients between factors and total scale ranged from 0.721 to 0.823 (P<0.01. The test-retest correlation coefficients of total scale and subscales ranged from 0.622 to 0.803 (P<0.01, the Cronbach α coefficients ranged from 0.624 to 0.874, and the split-half correlation coefficients ranged from 0.551 to 0.828. Significant correlation existed between this Scale and two criterion scales, namely SSRS and CMPHS. Conclusion  It is verified that the Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scalehas excellent reliability and validity, and complying with psychometric standards, it may be used to evaluate the social support level of Chinese military personnel.

  8. Development and Validation of a Video-Based Social Knowledge Test for Junior Commissioned Army Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, R. J; Johnson, J. W

    2004-01-01

    Social knowledge/skill are increasingly critical to the success of U.S. Army officers. In this paper, we describe development and criterion-related validation of an experimental video-based social knowledge test...

  9. Social Entrepreneurship in India: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemantkumar P. Bulsara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Entrepreneurship is an all-encompassing nomenclature, used for depicting the process of, bringing about social change on a major and impactful scale compared to a traditional Non-Governmental Organization (NGO.  It is an increasingly important concept in the study of voluntary, non-profit and not-for -profit organizations. Earlier, organizations addressing key social issues were assumed to be idealistic, philanthropic with entrepreneurial skills. Social Entrepreneurship in India is emerging primarily because the government is very keen on its promotion, not necessarily by funding it or by advising on it but by enabling it. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of the private sector with clearly earmarked funds and full-fledged action teams have played an important role in sprucing up the image of Social Entrepreneurship. The focus of the paper is to study the growing trends of Social Entrepreneurship in India and the new initiatives taken by various Social Entrepreneurs. It also gives a brief idea of different Theories of Social Entrepreneurship. Efforts are made to provide information and an exploratory study, related to the support activities of Social Entrepreneurship and Social Entrepreneurial ventures in India. This may be beneficial in future empirical studies of the subject. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneur, NGO, Corporate Social Responsibility, India.

  10. Self-verification and social anxiety: preference for negative social feedback and low social self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentiner, David P; Skowronski, John J; McGrath, Patrick B; Smith, Sarah A; Renner, Kerry A

    2011-10-01

    A self-verification model of social anxiety views negative social self-esteem as a core feature of social anxiety. This core feature is proposed to be maintained through self-verification processes, such as by leading individuals with negative social self-esteem to prefer negative social feedback. This model is tested in two studies. In Study 1, questionnaires were administered to a college sample (N = 317). In Study 2, questionnaires were administered to anxiety disordered patients (N = 62) before and after treatment. Study 1 developed measures of preference for negative social feedback and social self-esteem, and provided evidence of their incremental validity in a college sample. Study 2 found that these two variables are not strongly related to fears of evaluation, are relatively unaffected by a treatment that targets such fears, and predict residual social anxiety following treatment. Overall, these studies provide preliminary evidence for a self-verification model of social anxiety.

  11. Social Studies Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences of Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursa, Sercan; Ersoy, Arife Figen

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Social justice addresses inequality in society, including economic inequality, global migration, racism, xenophobia, prejudice against disabled people, and class discrimination. In Turkey, social studies curriculum aims to cultivate active, democratically minded citizens who value justice, independence, peace, solidarity,…

  12. A study on the social risk comparison for various power systems: focusing on the social acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Soo; Kim, Young Pyung; Lee, Jae Eun

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop measurement indices for social risk acceptance of various power systems(nuclear, coal, oil, LNG, hydro, wind, solar) and compare them empirically. In order to measure social risk acceptance of various power systems, four measurement fields and twelve measurement indices were developed. Measurement areas contains rationality, emotion, trust, communication. Each measurement field has two or three measurement indices. Rationality field has indices of amount of knowledge, recognition of technological utility, risk controllability. Emotion field has indices of experiences, risk recognition. Trust field has indices of openness, sincerity, willingness of sharing knowledge and experiences. Communication field has indices of scientist's roll, media's roll, public relations. Based on these measurement field and indices, this study made questionnaire and surveyed citizens to compare deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems. Questionnaire respondents were sampled from six different groups, including power system specialists, highschool students, university students, general citizen, professors and environmental NGOs. The methodologies used to analyze the deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems were frequency analysis, cross-tab analysis, t-test and ANOVA analysis. AHP method was used to analyze power system specialists' perception on relative severance and priority among measurement fields and indices

  13. A study on the social risk comparison for various power systems: focusing on the social acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Soo [Myongji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Pyung [Korea Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Eun [Chungbuk Nat. Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop measurement indices for social risk acceptance of various power systems(nuclear, coal, oil, LNG, hydro, wind, solar) and compare them empirically. In order to measure social risk acceptance of various power systems, four measurement fields and twelve measurement indices were developed. Measurement areas contains rationality, emotion, trust, communication. Each measurement field has two or three measurement indices. Rationality field has indices of amount of knowledge, recognition of technological utility, risk controllability. Emotion field has indices of experiences, risk recognition. Trust field has indices of openness, sincerity, willingness of sharing knowledge and experiences. Communication field has indices of scientist's roll, media's roll, public relations. Based on these measurement field and indices, this study made questionnaire and surveyed citizens to compare deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems. Questionnaire respondents were sampled from six different groups, including power system specialists, highschool students, university students, general citizen, professors and environmental NGOs. The methodologies used to analyze the deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems were frequency analysis, cross-tab analysis, t-test and ANOVA analysis. AHP method was used to analyze power system specialists' perception on relative severance and priority among measurement fields and indices.

  14. Social and Behavioural Correlates of HIV Testing Among Australian Gay and Bisexual Men in Regular Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Evelyn; Murphy, Dean; Mao, Limin; de Wit, John; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; Holt, Martin

    In this study we sought to identify the social and behavioural characteristics of Australian gay and bisexual men who had and had not tested for HIV during their current relationship. The results were based on 2012 and 2013 data collected from ongoing cross-sectional and community-based surveys held

  15. Testing questionnaires “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale” and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale” (short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Grigorieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety has a negative impact on individual’s daily life and disturbs his or hers social adaptation. Socially anxious people are often lonely, have difficulties in meeting new people and communicating with others. Social anxiety can also be a serious obstacle to professional growth and career development, can interfere with obtaining new skills and knowledge. Severe social anxiety is often associated with a variety of disorders, including depression, alcohol and drug addiction, eating disorders. However, social anxiety has a high prevalence among population. In this regard, it is becoming increasingly important to diagnose social anxiety. Therefore, the aim of our study was the validation of two questionnaires measuring social anxiety “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale“. The validation was conducted on 179 people (65 men and 114 women, aged from 18 to 35 years. “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ measures the degree of anxiety and a tendency to avoidance occurring in various social situations: situations of social interaction and performance situations. «Fear of negative evaluation (brief version» measures the central construct underlying social anxiety - the fear of negative evaluation. As a result of factor analysis of the data it is demonstrated, that “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ has three-factor structure. Single-factor structure of the «Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale» is confirmed. It is shown that all the subscale “Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale“ and “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (brief version“ has good internal consistency, high test-retest reliability and external validity.

  16. Measuring the impact of spatial network layout on community social cohesion: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crispin H V; Fone, David L; Chiaradia, Alain J F

    2014-04-11

    There is now a substantial body of research suggesting that social cohesion, a collective characteristic measured by the levels of trust, reciprocity and formation of strong social bonds within communities, is an important factor in determining health. Of particular interest is the extent to which factors in the built environment facilitate, or impede, the development of social bonds. Severance is a characteristic of physical environments which is hypothesized to inhibit cohesion. In the current study we test a number of characteristics of spatial networks which could be hypothesized to relate either to severance, or directly to community cohesion. Particular focus is given to our most promising variable for further analysis (Convex Hull Maximum Radius 600 m). In the current study we analysed social cohesion as measured at Enumeration District level, aggregated from a survey of 10,892 individuals aged 18 to 74 years in the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Cohort Study, 2001. In a data mining process we test 16 network variables on multiple scales. The variable showing the most promise is validated in a test on an independent data set. We then conduct a multivariate regression also including Townsend deprivation scores and urban/rural status as predictor variables for social cohesion. We find convex hull maximum radius at a 600 m scale to have a small but highly significant correlation with social cohesion on both data sets. Deprivation has a stronger effect. Splitting the analysis by tertile of deprivation, we find that the effect of severance as measured by this variable is strongest in the most deprived areas. A range of spatial scales are tested, with the strongest effects being observed at scales that match typical walking distances. We conclude that physical connectivity as measured in this paper has a significant effect on social cohesion, and that our measure is unlikely to proxy either deprivation or the urban/rural status of communities. Possible

  17. Doping Among Professional Athletes in Iran: A Test of Akers's Social Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Saeed; Cochran, John K; Stewart, Bernadette J; Sharepour, Mahmoud; Rahmati, Mohammad Mahdi; Shadmanfaat, Syede Massomeh

    2018-04-01

    The use of performance-enhancing drugs (PED) is common among Iranian professional athletes. As this phenomenon is a social problem, the main purpose of this research is to explain why athletes engage in "doping" activity, using social learning theory. For this purpose, a sample of 589 professional athletes from Rasht, Iran, was used to test assumptions related to social learning theory. The results showed that there are positive and significant relationships between the components of social learning theory (differential association, differential reinforcement, imitation, and definitions) and doping behavior (past, present, and future use of PED). The structural modeling analysis indicated that the components of social learning theory accounts for 36% of the variance in past doping behavior, 35% of the variance in current doping behavior, and 32% of the variance in future use of PED.

  18. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, R.; Mortensen, E. L.; Nordgaard, J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty......-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting...... for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance. Healthy controls performed better than patients on all types of social cognitive tests, particularly on “psychological understanding.” However, after adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became...

  19. Social anxiety and suicidal ideation: Test of the utility of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Lemke, Austin W; Jeffries, Emily R; Shah, Sonia M

    2017-01-01

    Social anxiety is related to greater suicidality, even after controlling for depression and other psychopathology. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005) proposes that people are vulnerable to wanting to die by suicide if they experience both perceived burdensomeness (sense that one is a burden to others) and thwarted belongingness (a greater sense of alienation from others). Socially anxious persons may be especially vulnerable to these interpersonal factors. The current study tested whether interpersonal IPTS components independently and additively mediate the social anxiety-suicidal ideation (SI) relation among 780 (80.5% female) undergraduates. Social anxiety was significantly, robustly related to SI and to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Social anxiety was indirectly related to SI via thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. The sum of these indirect effects was significant. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that perceived burdensomeness only mediated the relation between social anxiety and SI at higher levels of thwarted belongingness. Findings highlight that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which social anxiety may lead to greater suicidality. Findings highlight that difficulties in interpersonal functioning may serve as potential pathways through which social anxiety may lead to greater suicidality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of social media on customer experiences in restaurants: A South African study

    OpenAIRE

    Mhlanga, Oswald; Tichaawa, Tembi Maloney

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of social media on customers' experiences in restaurants in South Africa. Using the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality as a case study area, structured survey questionnaires were distributed at selected formal full-service restaurants to customers. The data analysis consisted of the experiences of respondents with different social media types and t-tests. The results indicated that on a 5 point Likert scale, customers who used Ins...

  1. Relationship between perceived social support and self-care behavior in type 2 diabetics: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, Siamak; Parham, Mahmoud; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Gharlipour, Zabihollah; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Rajati, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Social support is one of the most effective factors on the diabetic self-care. This study aimed to assess social support and its relationship to self-care in type 2 diabetic patients in Qom, Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 325 diabetics attending the Diabetes Mellitus Association. Patients who meet inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected using random sampling method. Data were collected by the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, with hemoglobin A 1 C test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent t -test, analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, and linear regression test, using 0.05 as the critical significance level, provided by SPSS software. The mean and standard deviation of self-care and social support scores were 4.31 ± 2.7 and 50.32 ± 11.09, respectively. The mean level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1 C) of patients was 7.54. There was a significant difference between mean score of self-care behaviors and social support according to gender and marital status ( P social support significantly correlated ( r = 0.489, P > 0.001) and also predictive power of social support was 0.28. Self-care was significantly better in diabetics with HbA 1 C ≤7%. Patients who had higher HbA 1 C felt less, but not significant, social support. This study indicated the relationship between social support and self-care behaviors in type 2 diabetic patients. Interventions that focus on improving the social support and self-care of diabetic control may be more effective in improving glycemic control.

  2. Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 19) compared to a comparison group (n = 11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to…

  3. A lottery incentive system to facilitate dialogue and social support for workplace HIV counselling and testing: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite South African mid-sized companies' efforts to offer HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in the workplace, companies report relatively poor uptake rates. An urgent need for a range of different interventions aimed at increasing participation in workplace HCT has been identified. The aim of this study was to explore qualitatively the influence of a lottery incentive system (LIS) as an intervention to influence shop-floor workers' workplace HIV testing behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted among 17 shop-floor workers via convenience sampling in two mid-sized South African automotive manufacturing companies in which an LIS for HCT was implemented. The in-depth interviews employed a semi-structured interview schedule and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The interviews revealed that the LIS created excitement in the companies and renewed employees' personal interest in HCT. The excitement facilitated social interactions that resulted in a strong group cohesion pertaining to HCT that mitigated the burden of HIV stigma in the workplace. Open discussions allowed for the development of supportive social group pressure to seek HCT as a collective in anticipation of a reward. Lotteries were perceived as a supportive and innovative company approach to workplace HCT. The study identified important aspects for consideration by companies when using an LIS to enhance workplace HIV testing. The significance of inter- and intra-player dialogue in activating supportive social norms for HIV testing in collectivist African contexts was highlighted.

  4. Design of the Steps to Health Study of Physical Activity in Survivors of Endometrial Cancer: Testing a Social Cognitive Theory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Carmack, Cindy L; Perkins, Heidi; Hughes, Daniel; Serice, Susan; Scruggs, Stacie; Pinto, Bernardine; Waters, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity has been shown to benefit cancer survivors' physical functioning, emotional well-being, and symptoms. Physical activity may be of particular benefit to survivors of endometrial cancer because they are more likely to be obese and sedentary than the general population, as these are risk factors for the disease, and thus experience a number of related co-morbid health problems. However, there is little research systematically studying mechanisms of physical activity adherence in cancer survivor populations. This paper describes the design of the Steps to Health study, which applies a Social Cognitive Theory-based model of endometrial cancer survivors' adoption and maintenance of exercise in the context of an intervention to increase walking or other moderate intensity cardiovascular activity. In Steps to Health we will test the influence of self-efficacy and outcome expectations on adherence to exercise recommendations, as well as studying the determinants of self-efficacy. Endometrial cancer survivors who are at least 6 months post-treatment are provided with an intervention involving print materials and telephone counseling, and complete assessments of fitness, activity, self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and determinants of self-efficacy every two months for a six month period. In addition to testing an innovative model, the Steps to Health study employs multiple assessment methods, including ecological momentary assessment, implicit tests of cognitive variables, and ambulatory monitoring of physical activity. The study results can be used to develop more effective interventions for increasing physical activity in sedentary cancer survivors by taking into account the full complement of sources of self-efficacy information and outcome expectations.

  5. Social-cognitive functioning and social skills in patients with early treated phenylketonuria: a PKU-COBESO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francjan J; de Sonneville, Leo M J; van der Meere, Jaap J; Bosch, Annet M; Hollak, Carla E M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Hofstede, Floris C; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Langendonk, Janneke G; Huijbregts, Stephan C J

    2016-05-01

    Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Ninety five PKU-patients (mean age 21.6 ± 10.2 years) and 95 healthy controls (mean age 19.6 ± 8.7 years) were compared on performance of computerized and paper-and-pencil tasks measuring social-cognitive abilities and on parent- and self-reported social skills, using multivariate analyses of variance, and controlling for general cognitive ability (IQ-estimate). Further comparisons were made between patients using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, N = 30) and patients not using BH4. Associations with Phe-levels on the day of testing, during childhood, during adolescence and throughout life were examined. PKU-patients showed poorer social-cognitive functioning and reportedly had poorer social skills than controls (regardless of general cognitive abilities). Quality of social-cognitive functioning was negatively related to recent Phe-levels and Phe-levels between 8 and 12 years for adolescents with PKU. Quality of social skills was negatively related to lifetime phenylalanine levels in adult patients, and specifically to Phe-levels between 0 and 7, and between 8 and 12 years. There were no differences with respect to social outcome measures between the BH4 and non-BH4 groups. PKU-patients have Phe-related difficulties with social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Problems seem to be more evident among adolescents and adults with PKU. High Phe-levels during childhood and early adolescence seem to be of greater influence than current and recent Phe-levels for these patients.

  6. Ability Grouping in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a position statement of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Reports that the NCSS objects to ability grouping in social studies. Argues that ability grouping disadvantages minority, handicapped, and low ability students. Suggests that ability grouping undermines the democratic ideals that should be the basis of the social…

  7. A study on the impact of Facebook usage on student’s social capital and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Vishal; Subramanian, Sankara; Rouis, Sana; Limyaem, Moez

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has focused on the benefits of usage of social media such as Facebook in terms of the social capital gains they bring. Other research has studied the adverse impact of such usage on academic performance. In this study we try to understand both the beneficial and adverse aspects of Facebook usage in the case of U.S. undergraduate students. Basing on social capital theory and system usage in hedonic context, we tested the dual effect of the usage of Facebook on social capital and...

  8. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  9. STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER UNDERSTANDING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY LITERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to: (1 know the teacher's understanding about the concept of Geography as a platform in Social Studies learning; (2 know the teacher's understanding about geography literacy as a platform in Social Studies learning; and (3 study the right literacy concept as platform for Social Studies lesson. This research uses survey method. The subjects of the study were Social Studies teachers in Surakarta City. Sampling using startified random sampling. The results showed: 1 76% of respondents do not understand about Geography as a platform in Social Studies learning; 2 80% of respondents have not understood geography literacy; 3 Edelson's geography literature which consist of interaction, interconnection, and implication components can be used as an alternative to the implementation of Geography policy as a Platform in Social Studies.

  10. A Parent's Guide to the Social Studies. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselle, Daniel; Singleton, Laurel R.

    This guide for parents seeks to answer seven questions concerning the social studies: (1) What is social studies? (2) Why is social studies important at every grade level? (3) What kinds of materials are used to teach social studies? (4) What teaching strategies are used in social studies classes? (5) What have the national reports on education…

  11. Testing social acoustic memory in rats: effects of stimulus configuration and long-term memory on the induction of social approach behavior by appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Markus; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2012-09-01

    Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which serve as situation-dependent affective signals. In appetitive situations, such as rough-and-tumble-play, high-frequency 50-kHz USVs occur, whereas low-frequency 22-kHz USVs can be observed in aversive situations, such as social defeat. USVs serve distinct communicative functions and induce call-specific behavioral responses in the receiver. While aversive 22-kHz USVs serve as alarm calls and induce behavioral inhibition, appetitive 50-kHz USVs have a pro-social communicative function and elicit social approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls to (re)establish or maintain contact among conspecifics. The aim of the present study was to use the rat's ability to communicate in the ultrasonic range via high-frequency 50-kHz USVs in order to develop a test for social acoustic memory in rats with relevance for human verbal memory. Verbal learning and memory is among the seven cognitive domains identified as commonly deficient in human schizophrenia patients, but particularly difficult to model. We therefore tested whether the induction of social approach behavior by playback of appetitive 50-kHz USVs is dependent on (1) acoustic stimulus configuration and (2) social long-term memory, and whether (3) social long-term memory effects can be blocked by the administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine antagonist producing amnesia. Results show that social approach behavior in response to playback of natural 50-kHz USVs depends on acoustic stimulus configuration and occurs only when sound energy is concentrated to a critical frequency band in the ultrasonic range. Social approach behavior was detected during the first exposure to playback of 50-kHz USVs, whereas no such response was observed during the second exposure 1week later, indicating a stable memory trace. In contrast, when memory formation was blocked by i.p. administration of scopolamine (0.5mg/kg or

  12. Employees' Job Satisfaction: A Test of the Job Characteristics Model Among Social Work Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanz, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The present article describes an investigation of the Job Characteristics Model (JCM) by Hackman and Oldham (1976) for the prediction of job satisfaction of employees in social work areas. While there is considerable evidence for the JCM with respect to profit-oriented organizations, it was tested whether it can also be applied to the non-profit sector. The present study surveyed 734 holders of jobs in social work in Germany in order to assess their job satisfaction and the core variables of the JCM (i.e., the five job characteristics and the three psychological states). Regression and mediation analyses were used to examine the relations between these variables. The results showed that the expected relations were remarkably in accordance with the findings from the for-profit sector. All model variables correlated positively with job satisfaction, with the psychological states showing higher coefficients than the job characteristics. In addition, the influence of job characteristics on job satisfaction was significantly mediated through the psychological states. These findings were supported by a replication study. Implications of the JCM for practice, in particular for assessment and interventions in social work organizations, are discussed.

  13. Social network usage, shame, guilt and pride among high school students: Model testing

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, Uğur; Çelik, Eyüp; Karakaş, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at testing a model which applies structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain social networking sites (SNS) usage. Performing SEM with a sample of 500 high school students (40% male, 60% female), the model examined the relationships among shame, guilt and pride on SNS, such Facebook and Twitter. It was hypothesized that SNS usage was predicted directly by shame and indirectly by pride and guilt. The SEM showed that shame affected SNS usage directly and positively, while ...

  14. Social identity modifies face perception: an ERP study of social categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Belle; Stedehouder, Jeffrey; Ito, T.

    Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of

  15. Developing a Social Autopsy Tool for Dengue Mortality: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauz, María José; Ridde, Valéry; Hernández, Libia Milena; Charris, Yaneth; Carabali, Mabel; Villar, Luis Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a public health problem in the tropical and sub-tropical world. Dengue cases have grown dramatically in recent years as well as dengue mortality. Colombia has experienced periodic dengue outbreaks with numerous dengue related-deaths, where the Santander department has been particularly affected. Although social determinants of health (SDH) shape health outcomes, including mortality, it is not yet understood how these affect dengue mortality. The aim of this pilot study was to develop and pre-test a social autopsy (SA) tool for dengue mortality. Methods and Findings The tool was developed and pre-tested in three steps. First, dengue fatal cases and ‘near misses’ (those who recovered from dengue complications) definitions were elaborated. Second, a conceptual framework on determinants of dengue mortality was developed to guide the construction of the tool. Lastly, the tool was designed and pre-tested among three relatives of fatal cases and six near misses in 2013 in the metropolitan zone of Bucaramanga. The tool turned out to be practical in the context of dengue mortality in Colombia after some modifications. The tool aims to study the social, individual, and health systems determinants of dengue mortality. The tool is focused on studying the socioeconomic position and the intermediary SDH rather than the socioeconomic and political context. Conclusions The SA tool is based on the scientific literature, a validated conceptual framework, researchers’ and health professionals’ expertise, and a pilot study. It is the first time that a SA tool has been created for the dengue mortality context. Our work furthers the study on SDH and how these are applied to neglected tropical diseases, like dengue. This tool could be integrated in surveillance systems to provide complementary information on the modifiable and avoidable death-related factors and therefore, be able to formulate interventions for dengue mortality reduction. PMID:25658485

  16. Contraceptive social marketing: a continuous cycle of planning, testing and evaluating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This article outlines the contraceptive marketing process used by the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project. The 1st stage of the process involves analysis of the market, the consumer, and the social marketing organization's capabilities. In the 2nd stage, planning, data collected in the analysis stage are used to define objectives, segment target markets, and devise strategies for each element in the marketing mix. In the 3rd stage, all the elements in the marketing mix are developed and tested (e.g. product concepts, pricing, packaging, communication messages) and refined on the basis of test results. In stage 4, the action plan is implemented and marketing progress and institutional performance are monitored. Stage 5 includes an assessment of in-market effectiveness in terms of responses from consumers, retailers, and health professionals. The last stage feeds back to the 1st. All the reviewed data are recycled into analysis to begin again the continuous process of refinement and improvement.

  17. Evaluating the Social Media Performance of Hospitals in Spain: A Longitudinal and Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Millana, Antonio; Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Basagoiti Bilbao, Ignacio; Traver Salcedo, Manuel; Traver Salcedo, Vicente

    2017-05-23

    Social media is changing the way in which citizens and health professionals communicate. Previous studies have assessed the use of Health 2.0 by hospitals, showing clear evidence of growth in recent years. In order to understand if this happens in Spain, it is necessary to assess the performance of health care institutions on the Internet social media using quantitative indicators. The study aimed to analyze how hospitals in Spain perform on the Internet and social media networks by determining quantitative indicators in 3 different dimensions: presence, use, and impact and assess these indicators on the 3 most commonly used social media - Facebook, Twitter, YouTube. Further, we aimed to find out if there was a difference between private and public hospitals in their use of the aforementioned social networks. The evolution of presence, use, and impact metrics is studied over the period 2011- 2015. The population studied accounts for all the hospitals listed in the National Hospitals Catalog (NHC). The percentage of hospitals having Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube profiles has been used to show the presence and evolution of hospitals on social media during this time. Usage was assessed by analyzing the content published on each social network. Impact evaluation was measured by analyzing the trend of subscribers for each social network. Statistical analysis was performed using a lognormal transformation and also using a nonparametric distribution, with the aim of comparing t student and Wilcoxon independence tests for the observed variables. From the 787 hospitals identified, 69.9% (550/787) had an institutional webpage and 34.2% (269/787) had at least one profile in one of the social networks (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) in December 2015. Hospitals' Internet presence has increased by more than 450.0% (787/172) and social media presence has increased ten times since 2011. Twitter is the preferred social network for public hospitals, whereas private hospitals

  18. Can competing diversity indices inform us about why ethnic diversity erodes social cohesion? A test of five diversity indices in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Merlin

    2013-05-01

    An ever-growing number of studies investigates the relation between ethnic diversity and social cohesion, but these studies have produced mixed results. In cross-national research, some scholars have recently started to investigate more refined and informative indices of ethnic diversity than the commonly used Hirschman-Herfindahl Index. These refined indices allow to test competing theoretical explanations of why ethnic diversity is associated with declines in social cohesion. This study assesses the applicability of this approach for sub-national analyses. Generally, the results confirm a negative association between social cohesion and ethnic diversity. However, the competing indices are empirically indistinguishable and thus insufficient to test different theories against one another. Follow-up simulations suggest the general conclusion that the competing indices are meaningful operationalizations only if a sample includes: (1) contextual units with small and contextual units with large minority shares, as well as (2) contextual units with diverse and contextual units with polarized ethnic compositions. The results are thus instructive to all researchers who wish to apply different diversity indices and thereby test competing theories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing: Review of Ethical, Legal and Social Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar, Hazar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA from maternal blood has recently entered clinical practice in many countries, including Canada. This test can be performed early during pregnancy to detect Down syndrome and other conditions. While NIPT promises numerous benefits, it also has challenging ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI. This paper reviews concerns currently found in the literature on the ELSI of NIPT. We make four observations. First, NIPT seems to exacerbate some of the already existing concerns raised by other prenatal tests (amniocentesis and maternal serum screening such as threats to women’s reproductive autonomy and the potential for discrimination and stigmatization of disabled individuals and their families. This may be due to the likely upcoming large scale implementation and routinization of NIPT. Second, the distinction between NIPT as a screening test (as it is currently recommended and as a diagnostic test (potentially in the future, has certain implications for the ELSI discussion. Third, we observed a progressive shift in the literature from initially including mostly conceptual analysis to an increasing number of empirical studies. This demonstrates the contribution of empirical bioethics approaches as the technology is being implemented into clinical use. Finally, we noted an increasing interest in equity and justice concerns regarding access to NIPT as it becomes more widely implemented.

  20. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context) Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; Uitewaal, Paul J M; Geraci, Diana; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Nijpels, Giel; Stronks, Karien

    2012-03-19

    Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1) and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3), N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the participants' immediate social environments. With this

  1. Depersonalization/derealization during acute social stress in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Juergen; Braeuer, David; Crawcour, Stephen; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating how frequently and intensely depersonalization/derealization symptoms occur during a stressful performance situation in social phobia patients vs. healthy controls, as well as testing hypotheses about the psychological predictors and consequences of such symptoms. N=54 patients with social phobia and N=34 control participants without mental disorders were examined prior to, during, and after a standardized social performance situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). An adapted version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale was applied along with measures of social anxiety, depression, personality, participants' subjective appraisal, safety behaviours, and post-event processing. Depersonalization symptoms were more frequent in social phobia patients (92%) than in controls (52%). Specifically in patients, they were highly positively correlated with safety behaviours and post-event-processing, even after controlling for social anxiety. The role of depersonalization/derealization in the maintenance of social anxiety should be more thoroughly recognized and explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies into the anxiolytic actions of agomelatine in social isolation reared rats: Role of corticosterone and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenass, Wilmie; Möller, Marisa; Harvey, Brian H

    2018-02-01

    Anxiety disorders are severely disabling, while current pharmacological treatments are complicated by delayed onset, low remission rates and side-effects. Sex is also noted to contribute towards illness severity and treatment response. Agomelatine is a melatonin (MT 1 /MT 2 ) agonist and serotonin (5-HT 2C ) antagonist purported to be anxiolytic in clinical and some pre-clinical studies. We undertook a detailed analysis of agomelatine's anxiolytic activity in a neurodevelopmental model of anxiety, the social isolation reared rat. Rats received sub-chronic treatment with vehicle or agomelatine (40 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally at 16:00 h for 16 days), with behaviour analysed in the open field test, social interaction test and elevated plus maze. The contribution of corticosterone and sex was also studied. Social isolation rearing increased locomotor activity and reduced social interaction in the social interaction test, and was anxiogenic in the elevated plus maze in males and females. Agomelatine reversed these behaviours. Male and female social isolation reared rats developed anxiety-like behaviours to a similar degree, although response to agomelatine was superior in male rats. Social isolation rearing decreased plasma corticosterone in both sexes and tended to higher levels in females, although agomelatine did not affect corticosterone in either sex. Concluding, agomelatine is anxiolytic in SIR rats, although correcting altered corticosterone could not be implicated. Sex-related differences in the response to agomelatine are evident.

  3. Correlates of requesting home HIV self-testing kits on online social networks among African-American and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    High levels of HIV stigma are one of the main difficulties in engaging African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV testing. The availability of home HIV test and the possibility of self-testing in private may improve uptake and counteract stigma. This paper sought to determine the correlates of requesting home HIV test kits among a sample of MSM social media users. The odds of participants requesting a test kit were significantly associated with using social networks to seek sexual partners (aOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-6.06) and thinking it is easier to use social networks for seeking sexual partners (1.87, 1.2-3.12), uncertain HIV status (4.29, 1.37-14.4), and having sex under the influence of alcohol (2.46, 1.06-5.77). Participants who had not been tested for more than 6 months were more likely to request a test kit than those who were tested in the past 6 months (2.53, 1.02-6.37). Participants who frequently talked to others about having sex with men online were less likely to request a test kit (0.73, 0.56-0.92). By reaching people over social media and offering them access to test kits, we were able to reach at-risk individuals who were uncertain about their HIV status and had not been regularly tested. The findings of the study will help to inform future HIV testing interventions.

  4. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment.

  5. Change Processes in Residential Cognitive and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Social Phobia: A Process-Outcome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were…

  6. Social Capital and School Performance: A Local-Level Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagens, Gregory K.

    Scholars theorize that social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups. Robert Putnam claims to have found support for this theory in his studies of Italy and the United States. In each case he concludes that the presence of social capital generalized norms of trust and reciprocity is sufficient to predict progress on a variety…

  7. Association between social capital and health in women of reproductive age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Majdzadeh, Reza; Hosseni, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Women's health is a public health priority. The origins of health inequalities are very complex. The present study was conducted to determine the association between social capital and health status in reproductive-age women in Tehran, Iran. In this population-based, cross-sectional study, the Social Capital Integrated Questionnaire, the SF-36 and socio-demographic questionnaires were used. Analysis of data by one-way ANOVA test and stepwise multiple linear regression showed that the manifestation dimensions of social capital (groups and networks, trust and solidarity, collective action and cooperation) can potentially lead to the outcome dimensions of social capital (social cohesion and inclusion, and empowerment and political action), which in turn affect health inequities after controlling for socio-demographic differences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Structural social relations and cognitive ageing trajectories: evidence from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Sommerlad, Andrew; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2017-11-07

    Social relations are important for health, particularly at older ages. We examined the salience of frequency of social contacts and marital status for cognitive ageing trajectories over 21 years, from midlife to early old age. Data are from the Whitehall II cohort study, including 4290 men and 1776 women aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-88). Frequency of social contacts and marital status were measured in 1985-88 and 1989-90. Assessment of cognitive function on five occasions (1991-94, 1997-99, 2003-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13) included the following tests: short-term memory, inductive reasoning, verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic) and a combined global score. Cognitive trajectories over the study period were analysed using longitudinal latent growth class analyses, and the associations of these latent classes (trajectory memberships) with social relations were analysed using multinominal logistic regression. More frequent social contacts [relative risk (RRR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 - 0.98] and being married (RRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58 - 0.84) were associated with lower probability of being on a low rather than high cognitive performance trajectory over the subsequent 21 years. These associations persisted after adjustment for covariates. Of the sub-tests, social relations variables had the strongest association with phonemic fluency (RRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94 - 0.97 for frequent contact; RRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48 - 0.71 for being married). More frequent social contacts and having a spouse were associated with more favourable cognitive ageing trajectories. Further studies are needed to examine whether interventions designed to improve social connections affect cognitive ageing. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  9. What Does It Mean to Be in Touch With Oneself? Testing a Social Character Model of Self-congruence

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Kennon M.; Gunz, Alexander; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to be in or out of touch with oneself? Using undergraduate samples we tested a new conception and measure of self-congruence, based on the social character that people inhabit in their interpersonal lives. The measure quantifies whether the Big Five traits of a person's typical social character are consistent with the traits of his/her unguarded self. Study 1 (N = 135) showed that the non-discrepant character measure predicted subjective well-being (SWB), independently of th...

  10. Repeated Strains, Social Control, Social Learning, and Delinquency: Testing an Integrated Model of General Strain Theory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wan-Ning; Haas, Ain; Chen, Xiaojin; Pi, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    In Agnew's general strain theory, repeated strains can generate crime and delinquency by reducing social control and fostering social learning of crime. Using a sample of 615 middle-and high-school students in China, this study examines how social control and social learning variables mediate the effect of repeated strains in school and at home on…

  11. Organisational learning capabilities as determinants of social innovation: An empirical study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A critical reading of the human resource management (HRM literature finds limited contributions to understanding the organisational determinants of social enterprises and how these may contribute to higher levels of social innovativeness. Although innovation is a key theme in organisational research it has been acknowledged that the field needs more theory-based examinations of different types of innovativeness. Research purpose: To determine how different organisational capabilities are related to social innovation. Motivation for the study: Many social enterprises in developing countries do not have the requisite capabilities to efficiently manage all their programmes, which presents a major threat to organisational sustainability. Research design, approach and method: The empirical analysis is a cross-sectional study based on primary survey data. Hypotheses are tested using correlational and regression analysis. Main findings: The results show that the organisational learning capabilities of knowledge conversion, risk management, organisational dialogue and participative decision-making all have a significant and positive relationship with social innovation. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and practitioners can leverage the different organisational learning capabilities to improve social innovations in their social enterprises. Contribution/value-add: The study is one of the first in an African market context to empirically investigate social enterprises in terms of social innovation and organisational learning perspectives.

  12. Childhood trauma, psychosis liability and social stress reactivity: a virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, W; Counotte, J; Pot-Kolder, R; van Os, J; van der Gaag, M

    2016-12-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social stress, in interaction with psychosis liability and level of social stress exposure. Seventy-five individuals with higher psychosis liability (55 with recent onset psychotic disorder and 20 at ultra-high risk for psychosis) and 95 individuals with lower psychosis liability (42 siblings and 53 controls) were exposed to a virtual café in five experiments with 0-3 social stressors (crowded, other ethnicity and hostility). Paranoid ideation was measured after each experiment. Subjective distress was self-rated before and after experiments. Multilevel random regression analyses were used to test main effects of childhood trauma and interaction effects. Childhood trauma was more prevalent in individuals with higher psychosis liability, and was associated with higher level of (subclinical) psychotic and affective symptoms. Individuals with a history of childhood trauma responded with more subjective distress to virtual social stress exposures. The effects of childhood trauma on paranoia and subjective distress were significantly stronger when the number of virtual environmental stressors increased. Higher psychosis liability increased the effect of childhood trauma on peak subjective distress and stress reactivity during experiments. Childhood trauma is associated with heightened social stress sensitivity and may contribute to psychotic and affective dysregulation later in life, through a sensitized paranoid and stress response to social stressors.

  13. The effects of initial testing on false recall and false recognition in the social contagion of memory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mark J; Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In three experiments, participants studied photographs of common household scenes. Following study, participants completed a category-cued recall test without feedback (Exps. 1 and 3), a category-cued recall test with feedback (Exp. 2), or a filler task (no-test condition). Participants then viewed recall tests from fictitious previous participants that contained erroneous items presented either one or four times, and then completed final recall and source recognition tests. The participants in all conditions reported incorrect items during final testing (a social contagion effect), and across experiments, initial testing had no impact on false recall of erroneous items. However, on the final source-monitoring recognition test, initial testing had a protective effect against false source recognition: Participants who were initially tested with and without feedback on category-cued initial tests attributed fewer incorrect items to the original event on the final source-monitoring recognition test than did participants who were not initially tested. These data demonstrate that initial testing may protect individuals' memories from erroneous suggestions.

  14. Neural androgen receptors modulate gene expression and social recognition but not social investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Karlsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of sex and androgen receptors (ARs for social preference and social memory is rather unknown. In this study of mice we compared males, females and males lacking ARs specifically in the nervous system, ARNesDel, with respect to social preference, assessed with the three-chambered apparatus test, and social recognition, assessed with the social discrimination procedure. In the social discrimination test we also evaluated the tentative importance of the sex of the stimulus animal. Novel object recognition and olfaction were investigated to complement the results from the social tests. Gene expression analysis was performed to reveal molecules involved in the effects of sex and androgens on social behaviors. All three test groups showed social preference in the three-chambered apparatus test. In both social tests an AR-independent sexual dimorphism was seen in the persistence of social investigation of female conspecifics, whereas the social interest towards male stimuli mice was similar in all groups. Male and female controls recognized conspecifics independent of their sex, whereas ARNesDel males recognized female but not male stimuli mice. Moreover, the non-social behaviors were not affected by AR deficiency. The gene expression analyses of hypothalamus and amygdala indicated that Oxtr, Cd38, Esr1, Cyp19a1, Ucn3, Crh and Gtf2i were differentially expressed between the three groups. In conclusion, our results suggest that ARs are required for recognition of male but not female conspecifics, while being dispensable for social investigation towards both sexes. In addition, the AR seems to regulate genes related to oxytocin, estrogen and William’s syndrome.

  15. The social affirmation use of social media as a motivator of collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kende, Anna; van Zomeren, Martijn; Ujhelyi, Adrienn; Lantos, Nóra Anna

    The mobilizing potential of the internet has been widely recognized but also sharply criticized. We propose and test in two studies that the social affirmation use of social media motivates individuals for collective action to achieve social change. In Study 1, we surveyed participants of a

  16. The Investigation of the Social Entrepreneurship Characteristics of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Kubilay; Uslu, Salih; Arik, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the social entrepreneurship characteristics of social studies pre-service teachers in terms of various variables (gender, defining oneself as a social entrepreneur and grade). The data of the research were obtained on a volunteer basis from 253 pre-service teachers studying at the departments of social…

  17. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marttila Anneli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual´s own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Methods Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Conclusions Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation

  18. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Anneli; Johansson, Eva; Whitehead, Margaret; Burström, Bo

    2012-07-12

    Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual's own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation between different authorities.

  19. Social anxiety and Internet socialization in Indian undergraduate students: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnekeri, Bianca S; Goel, Akhil; Umate, Maithili; Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash

    2017-06-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a globally prevalent, chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting youth. With comorbidities including major depression, substance abuse, lower educational and work attainment, and increased suicide risk, it has a significant public health burden. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of SAD in urban Indian undergraduate students and to study their Facebook (FB) usage patterns. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, 316 undergraduate students were screened for social anxiety using validated instruments, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and divided into two groups based on scores obtained. The groups were then compared with regards to behaviors and attitudes toward Facebook, obtained from a self-report questionnaire. SAD was estimated to be a significant, prevalent (7.8%) disorder in otherwise productive youth, and showed female preponderance. Higher specific social phobia scores were associated with the inability to reduce Facebook use, urges toward increasing use, spending more time thinking about Facebook, negative reactions to restricting use, and using it to forget one's problems. SAD was estimated to have a prevalence of 7.8% in our study, and was associated with stronger FB usage attitudes and patterns. We recommend that the relationship between social anxiety and Internet use be explored further, to study the possibility of Internet-based screening and intervention strategies having wider reach and appeal in socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2017-01-01

    This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience ...... social entrepreneurship electives students enroll in is predicted by social entrepreneurial intentions.......This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience...... predicts social entrepreneurial intentions. This effect is mediated by the antecedents suggested by Mair and Noboa. Social entrepreneurial self-efficacy has both the largest impact on intentions as well as being itself most responsive to prior experience. Lastly, the study shows that the amount of optional...

  1. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty......-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg...

  2. Testing the social identity relative deprivation (SIRD) model of social change: the political rise of Scottish nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Grant, Peter R

    2012-12-01

    We tested a social-identity relative deprivation (SIRD) model predicting Scottish nationalist beliefs and intention to vote for the separatist Scottish Nationalist Party (SNP). Data were from a survey of a large and representative sample of Scottish teenagers administered in the late 1980s. The SIRD model distinguishes effects of group-based and personal relative deprivation, which should be independent of one another. Importantly, social change beliefs should mediate the effects of both collective relative deprivation and group identification on protest intentions (in this case intention to vote for the SNP). Egoistic relative deprivation should be the strongest predictor of feelings of depression. Using structural equation modelling, the results strongly support this model and replicate in two different cohorts. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Testing declarative memory in laboratory rats and mice using the nonconditioned social discrimination procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia

    2011-07-14

    Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete.

  4. Political Socialization and Social Studies Education: Reassessing the Conventional Wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Murry R.

    1989-01-01

    Critically examines the political socialization research over the past 30 years as to method, sample, size, and results. Reassesses studies that have been most cited and those that have been ignored. Raises questions about political socialization that have not been addressed or have been inadequately addressed. (KO)

  5. Ethical, social, and cultural issues related to clinical genetic testing and counseling in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Adrina; Darren, Benedict; Dimaras, Helen

    2017-07-11

    There has been little focus in the literature on how to build genetic testing and counseling services in low- and middle-income countries in a responsible, ethical, and culturally appropriate manner. It is unclear to what extent this area is being explored and what form further research should take. The proposed knowledge synthesis aims to fill this gap in knowledge and mine the existing data to determine the breadth of work in this area and identify ethical, social, and cultural issues that have emerged. An integrated knowledge translation approach will be undertaken by engaging knowledge users throughout the review to ensure relevance to their practice. Electronic databases encompassing various disciplines, such as healthcare, social sciences, and public health, will be searched. Studies that address clinical genetic testing and/or counseling and ethical, social, and/or cultural issues of these genetic services, and are performed in low- and middle-income countries as defined by World Bank will be considered for inclusion. Two independent reviewers will be involved in a two-stage literature screening process, data extraction, and quality appraisal. Studies included in the review will be analyzed by thematic analysis. A narrative synthesis guided by the social ecological model will be used to summarize findings. This systematic review will provide a foundation of evidence regarding ethical, social, and cultural issues related to clinical genetic testing and counseling in low- and middle-income countries. Using the social ecological model as a conceptual framework will facilitate the understanding of broader influences of the sociocultural context on an individual's experience with clinical genetic testing and counseling, thereby informing interdisciplinary sectors in future recommendations for practice and policy. PROSPERO CRD42016042894.

  6. Development of a Partner Preference Test that Differentiates between Established Pair Bonds and Other Relationships in Socially Monogamous Titi Monkeys (Callicebus cupreus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, Sarah B.; Rothwell, Emily S.; Bourdon, Alexis; Freeman, Sara M.; Ferrer, Emilio; Bales, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Partner preference, or the selective social preference for a pair mate, is a key behavioral indicator of social monogamy. Standardized partner preference testing has been used extensively in rodents but a single test has not been standardized for primates. The goal of this study was to develop a partner preference test with socially monogamous titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) adapted from the widely used rodent test. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the test with pairs of titi monkeys (N=12) in a three-chambered apparatus for three hours. The subject was placed in the middle chamber, with grated windows separating it from its partner on one side and an opposite sex stranger on the other side. Subjects spent a greater proportion of time in proximity to their partners’ windows than the strangers’, indicating a consistent preference for the partner over the stranger. Touching either window did not differ between partners and strangers, suggesting it is not a reliable measure of preference. Subjects chose their partner more than the stranger during catch and release sessions at the end of the test. In Experiment 2, we compared responses of females with current partners (N=12) in the preference test with other relationship types representing former attachment bonds (N=13) and no attachment bond (N=8). Only females from established pair bonds spent significantly more time near their partner’s window compared to the stranger indicating that this measure of preference is unique to current partners. Other measures of preference did not differentiate behavior toward a current partner and other relationship types. This test reproduces behavioral patterns found in previous studies in titi monkeys highlighting the accuracy of this new partner preference test. This test can be used as a standardized measure of partner preference in titi monkeys to quantitatively study pair bonding and evaluate factors influencing partner preference. PMID:26235811

  7. Model of Islamic Social Entrepreneurship: A Study on Successful Muslim Social Entrepreneur in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulven Mohd Adib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since research effort in the area is minimal, there is a clear need to examine the practice of Islamic social entrepreneurship among successful Muslim social entrepreneurs in Malaysia. One such practice is to organize charitable activities to benefit the community through the gains made from entrepreneurial activities that are based on social mission and vision. The research problem is lacking of model on Islamic social entrepreneurship. The main objective of this paper is to develop a Model of Islamic Social Entrepreneurship based on successful Muslim social entrepreneur in Malaysia. The research method used in this study is literature review, content analysis, and interview with 14 participants constituting nine successful Muslim social entrepreneurs and five experts with religious academic backgrounds participated in the study. The research finding shows that model of Islamic social entrepreneurship is the major contribution of the study which could serve as guidelines for successful Muslim social entrepreneurs, particularly young entrepreneurs.

  8. A Study of State Social Studies Standards for American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Connor K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author surveys social studies standards from 14 U.S. states seeking to answer: (a) what social studies knowledge about American Indians is deemed essential by those states mandating the development of American Indian Education curricula for all public K-12 students? and (b) at what grade levels is this social studies content…

  9. Getting acquainted through social networking sites: testing a model of online uncertainty reduction and social attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2010-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine which uncertainty reduction strategies members of social network sites used to gain information about a person who they had recently met online. The second aim was to investigate whether and how these uncertainty reduction strategies resulted in social

  10. Getting acquainted through social networking sites: Testing a model of online uncertainty reduction and social attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2008-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine which uncertainty reduction strategies members of social networking sites used to gain information about a person who they had recently met online. The second aim was to investigate whether and how these uncertainty reduction strategies resulted in social

  11. Teaching Social Studies with Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancic, Polona; Hus, Vlasta

    2018-01-01

    Social studies is a class students encounter in the fourth and fifth grades of primary school in Slovenia. It includes goals from the fields of geography, sociology, history, ethnology, psychology, economy, politics, ethics, aesthetics, and ecology. Among other didactic recommendations in the national curriculum for teaching, social studies…

  12. Avoidance temperament and social-evaluative threat in college students' math performance: a mediation model of math and test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Jeffrey; Lench, Heather C; Kao, Grace; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Kwok, Oi-man

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing has become a common form of student evaluation with high stakes, and limited research exists on understanding the roles of students' personality traits and social-evaluative threat on their academic performance. This study examined the roles of avoidance temperament (i.e., fear and behavioral inhibition) and evaluative threat (i.e., fear of failure and being viewed as unintelligent) in standardized math test and course grades in college students. Undergraduate students (N=184) from a large public university were assessed on temperamental fear and behavioral inhibition. They were then given 15 minutes to complete a standardized math test. After the test, students provided data on evaluative threat and their math performance (scores on standardized college entrance exam and average grades in college math courses). Results indicate that avoidance temperament was linked to social-evaluative threat and low standardized math test scores. Furthermore, evaluative threat mediated the influence of avoidance temperament on both types of math performance. Results have educational and clinical implications, particularly for students at risk for test anxiety and underperformance. Interventions targeting emotion regulation and stress management skills may help individuals reduce their math and test anxieties.

  13. Personality Traits and Social Media Use in 20 Countries: How Personality Relates to Frequency of Social Media Use, Social Media News Use, and Social Media Use for Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil de Zúñiga, Homero; Diehl, Trevor; Huber, Brigitte; Liu, James

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between peoples' personality traits and social media uses with data from 20 societies (N = 21,314). A measure of the "Big Five" personality traits is tested on key social media dimensions: frequency of use, social interaction, and news consumption. Across diverse societies, findings suggest that while extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are all positive predictors of different types of social media use, emotional stability and openness are negatively related to them.

  14. A National Study Predicting Licensed Social Workers' Levels of Political Participation: The Role of Resources, Psychological Engagement, and Recruitment Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    The social work literature is replete with studies evaluating social workers' direct practice interventions, but strikingly few have assessed how well social workers are faring in the political arena. This study tests a major theoretical model, the civic voluntarism model, developed to explain why some citizens become involved in politics, whereas…

  15. Teaching Social Studies with Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguth, Brad M.; List, Jonathan S.; Wunderle, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Today's youth have grown up immersed in technology and are increasingly relying on video games to solve problems, engage socially, and find entertainment. Yet research and vignettes of teachers actually using video games to advance student learning in social studies is scarce (Hutchinson 2007). This article showcases how social studies…

  16. Does the Social Functioning Scale reflect real-life social functioning? An experience sampling study in patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder and healthy control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Reininghaus, U; van Nierop, M; Janssens, M; Myin-Germeys, I

    2017-12-01

    The ecological validity of retrospective measures of social functioning is currently unknown in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychosis were compared with controls on two measures of social functioning: the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and daily-life measures collected with the Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). The associations between both measures were examined in each group of participants to test for the ecological validity of the SFS. A total of 126 participants with a non-affective psychotic disorder and 109 controls completed the SFS and a 6-day momentary ESM protocol assessing various aspects of social functioning. Multiple linear and multilevel regression analyses were performed to test for group differences in social functioning level and examine associations between the two assessment techniques. Lower social functioning was observed in patients compared with controls on retrospective and momentary measures. The SFS interpersonal domain (social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions) was associated with the percentage of time spent alone and negative appraisal of social interactions. The SFS activity domain (pro-social and recreational activities dimensions) was negatively associated with time spent in leisure activities. The SFS showed some degree of ecological validity at assessing broad aspects of social functioning. Low scores on the SFS social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions captured social isolation and social avoidance in daily life, but not lack of interest in socializing. Ecological validity of the SFS activity domain was low. ESM offers a rich alternative to classical assessment techniques of social functioning.

  17. An Empirical Study Of User Acceptance Of Online Social Networks Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumayowa Mulero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of Internet usage has drawn the attention of researchers towards online Social Networks Marketing (SNM. Research has shown that a number of the Internet users are distrustful and indecisive, when it comes to the use of social networks marketing system. Therefore, there is a need for researchers to identify some of the factors that determine users’ acceptance of social networks marketing using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model theoretical framework to predict consumer acceptance of social networks marketing within Western Cape Province of South Africa. The research model was tested using data collected from 470 questionnaires and analysed using linear regression. The results showed that user intentions to use SNM are strongly and positively correlated with user acceptance of using SNM systems. Empirical results confirmed that perceived credibility and perceived usefulness are the strongest determinant in predicting user intentions to use SNM system.

  18. Adulthood Social Class and Union Interest: A First Test of a Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Steven

    2016-10-02

    A serial mediation model of union interest was tested. Based on theoretical notes provided by Mellor and Golay (in press), adulthood social class was positioned as a predictor of willingness to join a labor union, with success/failure attributions at work and willingness to share work goals positioned as intervening variables. Data from U.S. nonunion employees (N = 560) suggested full mediation after effects were adjusted for childhood social class. In sequence, adulthood social class predicted success/failure attributions at work, success/failure attributions at work predicted willingness to share work goals, and willingness to share work goals predicted willingness to join. Implications for socioeconomic status (SES) research and union expansion are discussed.

  19. Assessment of Social Information Processing in early childhood: development and initial validation of the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing-Preliminary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David; Ambike, Archana; Logie, Sean Kevin; Bohner, Katherine E; Stapleton, Laura M; Vanderwalde, Holly; Min, Christopher B; Betkowski, Jennifer A

    2010-07-01

    Crick and Dodge's (Psychological Bulletin 115:74-101, 1994) social information processing model has proven very useful in guiding research focused on aggressive and peer-rejected children's social-cognitive functioning. Its application to early childhood, however, has been much more limited. The present study responds to this gap by developing and validating a video-based assessment tool appropriate for early childhood, the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing-Preliminary Version (STEP-P). One hundred twenty-five Head Start preschool children participated in the study. More socially competent children more frequently attributed sadness to the victims of provocation and labeled aggressive behaviors as both morally unacceptable and less likely to lead to positive outcomes. More socially competent girls labeled others' emotions more accurately. More disruptive children more frequently produced physically aggressive solutions to social provocations, and more disruptive boys less frequently interpreted social provocations as accidental. The STEP-P holds promise as an assessment tool that assesses knowledge structures related to the SIP model in early childhood.

  20. Usability testing of gaming and social media applications for stroke and cerebral palsy upper limb rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Bulmaro A; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Hung, Chai-Ting; Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2014-01-01

    As part of the FEATHERS (Functional Engagement in Assisted Therapy Through Exercise Robotics) project, two motion tracking and one social networking applications were developed for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors and teenagers with cerebral palsy. The project aims to improve the engagement of clients during therapy by using video games and a social media platform. The applications allow users to control a cursor on a personal computer through bimanual motions, and to interact with their peers and therapists through the social media. The tracking applications use either a Microsoft Kinect or a PlayStation Eye camera, and the social media application was developed on Facebook. This paper presents a usability testing of these applications that was conducted with therapists from two rehabilitation clinics. The "Cognitive Walkthrough" and "Think Aloud" methods were used. The objectives of the study were to investigate the ease of use and potential issues or improvements of the applications, as well as the factors that facilitate and impede the adoption of technology in current rehabilitation programs.

  1. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Bianca Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85. Bonding social capital (positive interaction was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91. Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain.

  2. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissenberg Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. Methods/Design We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1 and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3, N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the

  3. The study of bodily socialization of adolescents, whose families are experiencing divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechulina A.E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of the sociogenesis of corporeality adolescents whose parents are in high conflict relationships and experiencing divorce. The main group consisted of families that have undergone the examination of parent-child relations in the Centre for forensic examinations and studies, the control group – families with prosperous spousal relationship (a total of 28 parents and 16 adolescents aged 13-15 years. To assess qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the bodily sphere of the adolescents used the methodology of "the Volume and structure intercepting background", "Scale of assessment of skin" and test "body Shape", especially the parent-child relationship was assessed using questionnaires "the Behavior and attitudes of parents of adolescents to them." Statistically significant intergroup differences (U-Mann–Whitney test on a number of parameters that characterize the bodily socialization of adolescents. Adolescents from families undergoing divorce, revealed violations of individual (lability of borders and social (reflection, metaphoric levels of physicality in the type of retardation.

  4. Environmental Social Stress, Paranoia and Psychosis Liability: A Virtual Reality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Wim; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van Os, Jim; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The impact of social environments on mental states is difficult to assess, limiting the understanding of which aspects of the social environment contribute to the onset of psychotic symptoms and how individual characteristics moderate this outcome. This study aimed to test sensitivity to environmental social stress as a mechanism of psychosis using Virtual Reality (VR) experiments. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis, and 53 controls walked 5 times in a virtual bar with different levels of environmental social stress. Virtual social stressors were population density, ethnic density and hostility. Paranoia about virtual humans and subjective distress in response to virtual social stress exposures were measured with State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS) and self-rated momentary subjective distress (SUD), respectively. Pre-existing (subclinical) symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale (GPTS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Paranoia and subjective distress increased with degree of social stress in the environment. Psychosis liability and pre-existing symptoms, in particular negative affect, positively impacted the level of paranoia and distress in response to social stress. These results provide experimental evidence that heightened sensitivity to environmental social stress may play an important role in the onset and course of psychosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Brand interactions and social media: enhancing user loyalty through social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Nisar, T.M.; Whitehead, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how user loyalty can be achieved and maintained through social networking sites. More specifically, we intend to test the relationships between brands, user loyalty and social media. The research thus provides insights into user-brand relationships through social media and argues how loyal customers can be through social networking websites. Although there are considerable numbers of studies about loyalty; there exists very limited work studying user loyalty thr...

  6. A study on the social behavior and social isolation of the elderly Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Eun-Surk; Hwang, Hee-Joung

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed at presenting what factors are to predict the social isolation of the elderly as an element to prevent the problem of why various matters related to old people are inevitably taking place by carefully examining the meaning of social isolation and the conditions of social isolation that the South Korean senior citizens go through after working on previous studies. This section discusses the results obtained through document analysis. First, the aspects of the elderly's social isolation arising from the changes of the South Korean society are changes of family relationship, the social structure, the economic structure and the culture. Second, the social isolation and social activity of the elderly are problems (suicide, criminals, dementia, depression and medical costs) of the elderly, change trend of the elderly issues related to social isolation and prediction factors that personal and regional. Lastly, as a role and challenges of the field of rehabilitation exercise aimed at resolving social isolation should be vitalized such as the development and provision of various relationship-building programs.

  7. Childhood social class and cognitive aging in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Malin; Lundholm, Cecilia; Fors, Stefan; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Zavala, Catalina; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2017-07-03

    In this report we analyzed genetically informative data to investigate within-person change and between-person differences in late-life cognitive abilities as a function of childhood social class. We used data from nine testing occasions spanning 28 y in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging and parental social class based on the Swedish socioeconomic index. Cognitive ability included a general factor and the four domains of verbal, fluid, memory, and perceptual speed. Latent growth curve models of the longitudinal data tested whether level and change in cognitive performance differed as a function of childhood social class. Between-within twin-pair analyses were performed on twins reared apart to assess familial confounding. Childhood social class was significantly associated with mean-level cognitive performance at age 65 y, but not with rate of cognitive change. The association decreased in magnitude but remained significant after adjustments for level of education and the degree to which the rearing family was supportive toward education. A between-pair effect of childhood social class was significant in all cognitive domains, whereas within-pair estimates were attenuated, indicating genetic confounding. Thus, childhood social class is important for cognitive performance in adulthood on a population level, but the association is largely attributable to genetic influences.

  8. Teaching Social Studies Through Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long discussed methods for improving student achievement in the social studies and history. Research on student attitudes reveals that the social studies suffers from a lack of interest among students. Common complaints among students are that the subject is tedious, does not relate to their lives, is not particularly useful for their future careers, is repetitive, or that it is simply boring (Schug et al., 1982}. Even when students recognize the utilitarian val...

  9. Social Relationships and Allostatic Load in the MIDUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kathryn P.; Gruenwald, Tara; Karlamanga, Arun; Hu, Peifung; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examines how the social environment is related to allostatic load (AL), a multi-system index of biological risk. METHODS A national sample of adults (N = 949) aged 34-84 rated their relationships with spouse, family, and friends at two time points 10 years apart. At the second time point, participants completed a biological protocol in which indices of autonomic, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic function were obtained and used to create an AL summary score. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations among three aspects of social relationships – social support, social negativity, and frequency of social contact – and AL. RESULTS Higher levels of spouse negativity, family negativity, friend contact, and network level contact were each associated with higher AL, and higher levels of spouse support were associated with lower AL, independent of age, sociodemographic factors, and health covariates. Tests for age interactions suggested that friend support and network support were each associated with higher AL among older adults, but at younger ages there appeared to be no association between friend support and AL and a negative association between network support and AL. For network negativity, there was a marginal interaction such that network negativity was associated with higher AL among younger adults but there was no association among older adults. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrate that structural and functional aspects of the social environment are associated with AL, and extend previous work by demonstrating that these associations vary based on the type of relationship assessed and by age. PMID:24447186

  10. Social contract theory and just decision making: lessons from genetic testing for the BRCA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Jones, Bryn; Burgess, Michael M

    2004-06-01

    Decisions about funding health services are crucial to controlling costs in health care insurance plans, yet they encounter serious challenges from intellectual property protection--e.g., patents--of health care services. Using Myriad Genetics' commercial genetic susceptibility test for hereditary breast cancer (BRCA testing) in the context of the Canadian health insurance system as a case study, this paper applies concepts from social contract theory to help develop more just and rational approaches to health care decision making. Specifically, Daniel's and Sabin's "accountability for reasonableness" is compared to broader notions of public consultation, demonstrating that expert assessments in specific decisions must be transparent and accountable and supplemented by public consultation.

  11. Me, us, and them: Testing sociometer theory in a socially diverse real-life context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anne K; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B

    2016-06-01

    Although numerous studies have emphasized the role evaluations by others play for people's self-esteem, the perspective of others and the social diversity of real-life contexts have largely been ignored. In a large-scale longitudinal study, we examined the link between adolescents' self-esteem and their self- and peer-perceived popularity in socially diverse classrooms. First, we tested the competing directions of effects predicted by sociometer theory (i.e., peer-perceived popularity affects self-esteem, mediated by self-perceived popularity) and the self-broadcasting perspective (i.e., self-esteem affects peer-perceived popularity). Second, we examined differential effects of popularity in the own social group ("us") versus others ("them") by using immigrant status groups (i.e., immigrants versus host-nationals). We examined 1,057 13-year-old students in 3 annual waves. Cross-lagged analyses revealed that popularity among peers of the in-group but not among peers of the out-group prospectively predicted self-esteem, which was mediated by self-perceived popularity. Self-esteem in turn prospectively predicted self- but not peer-perceived popularity. In sum, the findings provide support for sociometer theory and a conscious sociometer mechanism but no support for the self-broadcasting perspective. The findings further demonstrate that the sociometer was more responsive to popularity in immigrant status in- than out-groups. In conclusion, the findings underscore the need to consider the perspective of others and their social group memberships to better understand the complexities of the link between self-esteem and popularity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Ethnic reasoning in social identity of Hebrews: A social-scientific study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Kissi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity reasoning offers one way of looking at social identity in the letter to the Hebrews. The context of socio-economic abuse and hardships of the audience creates a situation in which ethnicity in social identity becomes an important issue for the author of Hebrews to address. This article is a social-scientific study which explores how the author establishes the ethnic identity of the audience as people of God. While this ethnic identity indicates the more privileged position the readers occupy in relation to the benefits of God accessible to them, it also provides the author with the appropriate social institutions and scripts by which his demand for appropriate response to God and the Christian group becomes appreciable and compelling. The article involves the definition of social-scientific criticism, ethnicity and social identity, and discusses the social context of the letter to the Hebrews. It then explains how some social scripts within specific ethnic institutions give meaning to the demands the author makes from his readers.

  13. Project EASE: a study to test a psychosocial model of epilepsy medication managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiIorio, Collen; Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Letz, Richard; Henry, Thomas R; Schomer, Donal L; Yeager, Kate

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a psychosocial model of medication self-management among people with epilepsy. This model was based primarily on social cognitive theory and included personal (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goals, stigma, and depressive symptoms), social (social support), and provider (patient satisfaction and desire for control) variables. Participants for the study were enrolled at research sites in Atlanta, Georgia, and Boston, Massachusetts and completed computer-based assessments that included measures of the study variables listed above. The mean age of the 317 participants was 43.3 years; about 50% were female, and 81%white. Self-efficacy and patient satisfaction explained the most variance in medication management. Social support was related to self-efficacy; stigma to self-efficacy and depressive symptoms; and self-efficacy to outcome expectations and depressive symptoms. Findings reinforce that medication-taking behavior is affected by a complex set of interactions among psychosocial variables.

  14. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Directory of Research in Social Studies/Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Anna R.; Carnett, George S.

    Described are current trends in the social and behavioral sciences intended to meet the needs of the educational community. The projects listed include studies in anthropology, sociology, political science, history, geography, foreign area studies, economics, international relations, and environmental education. Part I of the directory lists…

  16. Social Studies Within A Global Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniep, Willard M.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the extraordinary privileges and responsibilities attached to contemporary and future United States citizenship demands a more global approach to social studies. Proposes four essential elements and three major themes to set the boundary for the scope of the social studies. Provides an illustrative example of appropriate grade level…

  17. Undergraduates' intentions to take a second language proficiency test: a comparison of predictions from the theory of planned behavior and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bih-Jiau; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-06-01

    English competency has become essential for obtaining a better job or succeeding in higher education in Taiwan. Thus, passing the General English Proficiency Test is important for college students in Taiwan. The current study applied Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and the notions of outcome expectancy and self-efficacy from Bandura's social cognitive theory to investigate college students' intentions to take the General English Proficiency Test. The formal sample consisted of 425 undergraduates (217 women, 208 men; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.3). The theory of planned behavior showed greater predictive ability (R2 = 33%) of intention than the social cognitive theory (R2 = 7%) in regression analysis and made a unique contribution to prediction of actual test-taking behavior one year later in logistic regression. Within-model analyses indicated that subjective norm in theory of planned behavior and outcome expectancy in social cognitive theory are crucial factors in predicting intention. Implications for enhancing undergraduates' intentions to take the English proficiency test are discussed.

  18. Socialism. Grade Ten, Unit Two, 10.2. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Helen

    The socialism unit of the tenth grade level of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) explores a selected history of socialist thought and the theoretical model of socialism. Three case studies of socialism are explored: Great Britain, Sweden, and Israel. The case studies are designed to answer questions concerning…

  19. Study of Application for Excursion Observation Method in Primary School 2nd Grade Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali GAZEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how field trips are conducted at 2nd grade of primary schools as a part of social studies course. Data for this research is compiled from 143 permanent Social Studies teachers working throughout 2011–2012 Education Year in the primary schools of central Kütahya and its districts. Data is compiled by using descriptive search model. In the research, after taking expert opinions, a measuring tool developed by the researcher is used. Data obtained from the research were transferred to computer, and analyses were made. In the analysis of the data, frequency and percentage values have been used to determine the distribution. Also a single factor variance analysis and t-test for independent samples have been used to determine the significance of difference between the variables. As a result of the research, it has been realized that insufficient importance is given to field trip method in Social Studies lessons. Most of the teachers using this method apply it in spring months. Teachers usually make use of field trips independent from unit/topic to increase the students’ motivation, and they generally use verbal expression in the class after tours. The biggest difficulty teachers encounter while using tour-observation method is the students’ undisciplined behavior.

  20. The Social Consequences of Poverty: An Empirical Test on Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    Poverty is commonly defined as a lack of economic resources that has negative social consequences, but surprisingly little is known about the importance of economic hardship for social outcomes. This article offers an empirical investigation into this issue. We apply panel data methods on longitudinal data from the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey 2000 and 2010 (n = 3089) to study whether poverty affects four social outcomes-close social relations (social support), other social relations (friends and relatives), political participation, and activity in organizations. We also compare these effects across five different poverty indicators. Our main conclusion is that poverty in general has negative effects on social life. It has more harmful effects for relations with friends and relatives than for social support; and more for political participation than organizational activity. The poverty indicator that shows the greatest impact is material deprivation (lack of cash margin), while the most prevalent poverty indicators-absolute income poverty, and especially relative income poverty-appear to have the least effect on social outcomes.

  1. Predictors of physical activity in persons with mental illness: Testing a social cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, Michelle R; Gill, Kenneth J

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the social cognitive theory (SCT) model can be used to explain the variance in physical exercise among persons with serious mental illnesses. A cross-sectional, correlational design was employed. Participants from community mental health centers and supported housing programs (N = 120) completed 9 measures on exercise, social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and goal-setting. Hierarchical regression tested the relationship between self-report physical activity and SCT determinants while controlling for personal characteristics. The model explained 25% of the variance in exercise. Personal characteristics explained 18% of the variance in physical activity, SCT variables of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and goals were entered simultaneously, and they added an r2 change value of .07. Gender (β = -.316, p = .001) and Brief Symptom Inventory Depression subscale (β = -2.08, p exercise. In a separate stepwise multiple regression, we entered only SCT variables as potential predictors of exercise. Goal-setting was the single significant predictor, F(1, 118) = 13.59, p exercise in persons with mental illnesses. Goal-setting practices, self-efficacy, outcome expectations and social support from friends for exercise should be encouraged by psychiatric rehabilitation practitioners. People with more depressive symptoms and women exercise less. More work is needed on theoretical exploration of predictors of exercise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Complex and Unequal Impact of High Stakes Accountability on Untested Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Judith L.

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to research on the impact of high stakes accountability on social studies teaching where it is "not" tested by the state, and addresses the question of what is happening in middle and higher performing versus struggling schools (Wills, 2007). The author presents complex findings from a qualitative study in five…

  3. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  4. Testing the utility of three social-cognitive models for predicting objective and self-report physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lubans, David R; Penfold, Chris M; Courneya, Kerry S

    2014-05-01

    Theory-based interventions to promote physical activity (PA) are more effective than atheoretical approaches; however, the comparative utility of theoretical models is rarely tested in longitudinal designs with multiple time points. Further, there is limited research that has simultaneously tested social-cognitive models with self-report and objective PA measures. The primary aim of this study was to test the predictive ability of three theoretical models (social cognitive theory, theory of planned behaviour, and protection motivation theory) in explaining PA behaviour. Participants were adults with type 2 diabetes (n = 287, 53.8% males, mean age = 61.6 ± 11.8 years). Theoretical constructs across the three theories were tested to prospectively predict PA behaviour (objective and self-report) across three 6-month time intervals (baseline-6, 6-12, 12-18 months) using structural equation modelling. PA outcomes were steps/3 days (objective) and minutes of MET-weighted PA/week (self-report). The mean proportion of variance in PA explained by these models was 6.5% for objective PA and 8.8% for self-report PA. Direct pathways to PA outcomes were stronger for self-report compared with objective PA. These theories explained a small proportion of the variance in longitudinal PA studies. Theory development to guide interventions for increasing and maintaining PA in adults with type 2 diabetes requires further research with objective measures. Theory integration across social-cognitive models and the inclusion of ecological levels are recommended to further explain PA behaviour change in this population. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Social-cognitive theories are able to explain partial variance for physical activity (PA) behaviour. What does this study add? The testing of three theories in a longitudinal design over 3, 6-month time intervals. The parallel use and comparison of both objective and self-report PA measures in testing these

  5. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    This paper tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions and behavior. This study tests the Mair and Noboa model and extends it by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable...... entrepreneurial behavior of master students such as evidenced in the number of electives selected which have a social entrepreneurial profile....

  6. The Conceptual Idea of Online Social Media Site (SMS) User Account Penetration Testing System

    OpenAIRE

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Lallie, Harjinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Social Media Site (SMS) usage has grown rapidly in the last few years. This sudden increase in SMS usage creates an opportunity for data leakage which could compromise personal and/or professional life. In this work, we have reviewed traditional penetration testing process and discussed the failures of traditional penetration testing process to test the 'People' layer of Simple Enterprise Security Architecture (SESA) model. In order to overcome these failures, we have developed the conceptual...

  7. Effects of sex and gonadectomy on social investigation and social recognition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Sara A; Haziri, Kaltrina; Hansson, Evelyn; Kettunen, Petronella; Westberg, Lars

    2015-11-25

    An individual's ability to recognise and pay attention to others is crucial in order to behave appropriately in various social situations. Studies in humans have shown a sex bias in sociability as well as social memory, indicating that females have better face memory and gaze more at the eyes of others, but information about the factors that underpin these differences is sparse. Our aim was therefore to investigate if sociability and social recognition differ between female and male mice, and if so, to what extent gonadal hormones may be involved. Intact and gonadectomised male and female mice were assessed for sociability and social recognition using the three-chambered sociability paradigm, as well as the social discrimination test. Furthermore, we conducted a novel object recognition test, a locomotor activity test and an odour habituation/dishabituation test. The present study showed that the ability to recognise other individuals is intact in males with and without gonads, as well as in intact females, whereas it is hampered in gonadectomised females. Additionally, intact male mice displayed more persistent investigatory behaviour compared to the other groups, although the intact females showed elevated basal locomotor activity. In addition, all groups had intact object memory and habituated to odours. Our results suggest that intact male mice investigate conspecifics more than females do, and these differences seem to depend upon circulating hormones released from the testis. As these results seem to contrast what is known from human studies, they should be taken into consideration when using the three-chambered apparatus, and similar paradigms as animal models of social deficits in e.g. autism. Other behavioural tests, and animal models, may be more suitable for translational studies between patients and experimental animals.

  8. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  9. Testing the impact of a social skill training versus waiting list control group for the reduction of disruptive behaviors and stress among preschool children in child care: the study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Sylvana M; Larose, Marie-Pier; Geoffroy, Marie Claude; Laurin, Julie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    Most preschoolers growing up in western industrialized countries receive child care services (CCS) during the day, while their parents are at work. Meta-analytic data suggest that CCS represent a stressful experience for preschoolers. This may be because preschoolers have not yet developed the social skills necessary to cope with the new and rapidly fluctuating social contexts of CCS. We tested the effectiveness of a child care-based social skill training program aiming to improve children's social behaviors and reduce the stress they experience. We used a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) to compare children's social behaviors and stress levels in pre- and post-intervention according to whether they received a social skill training intervention or not. Nineteen (n = 19) public CCS (n = 362, 3-years-old preschoolers) of underprivileged neighborhoods (Montreal, Canada) were randomized to one of two conditions: 1) social skills training (n = 10 CCS); or 2) waiting list control group (n = 9 CCS). Educators in the intervention group conducted bi-weekly social skills training sessions over a period of 8 months. The intervention covered four topics: making social contacts, problem solving, emotional self-regulation, as well as emotional expression and recognition. Main outcome measures included preschoolers' disruptive (e.g. aggression, opposition, conflicts) and prosocial behaviors (e.g. sharing toys, helping another child), and stress levels assessed by salivary cortisol sampling at pre and post intervention assessments. Educators' practices will be tested as potential mediators of the expected changes in behaviors and neuroendocrine stress. To our knowledge, this is the first cRCT to test the effectiveness of a child care based social skill training program on the reduction of disruptive behaviors and levels of stress. Significant challenges include the degree of adherence to the intervention protocol as well educators and preschoolers' turnover

  10. Integrating social science and behavioral genetics: testing the origin of socioeconomic disparities in depression using a genetically informed design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuk, Briana; Myers, John M; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2013-10-01

    We tested 3 hypotheses-social causation, social drift, and common cause-regarding the origin of socioeconomic disparities in major depression and determined whether the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and major depression varied by genetic liability for major depression. Data were from a sample of female twins in the baseline Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders interviewed between 1987 and 1989 (n = 2153). We used logistic regression and structural equation twin models to evaluate these 3 hypotheses. Consistent with the social causation hypothesis, education (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 0.93; P social mobility was associated with lower risk of depression. There was no evidence that childhood SES was related to development of major depression (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.09; P > .1). Consistent with a common genetic cause, there was a negative correlation between the genetic components of major depression and education (r(2) = -0.22). Co-twin control analyses indicated a protective effect of education and income on major depression even after accounting for genetic liability. This study utilized a genetically informed design to address how social position relates to major depression. Results generally supported the social causation model.

  11. Integrating Moral and Social Development within Middle School Social Studies: A Social Cognitive Domain Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Larry; Creane, Michael W.; Powers, Deborah W.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven teachers and 254 urban middle-school students comprised the sample of this study examining the social and moral development outcomes of the integration of social cognitive domain theory within regular classroom instruction. Participating teachers were trained to construct and implement history lessons that stimulated students' moral…

  12. Cultural values and random breath tests as moderators of the social influence on drunk driving in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami; Assailly, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    The social influence on drunk driving has been previously observed in several countries. It is noteworthy, however, that the prevalence of alcohol in road fatalities is not the same in all countries. The present study aimed to explore whether cultural values and the number of roadside breath tests moderate the link between the perceived drunk driving of one's peers and self-reported behavior. Based on the European survey SARTRE 4, the responses of 10,023 car drivers from 15 countries were analyzed. Two cultural values, "tradition" and "conformism," were identified as possibly being linked to social influence. Country scores for these values were taken from the European Social Survey. The number of random roadside breath tests per inhabitant was used as an indicator of drunk-driving enforcement in each country. A hierarchical multilevel modeling analysis confirmed the link between friends' drunk driving and one's own drunk driving in all countries, but the strength of the link was much stronger in some countries (e.g., Italy, Cyprus, and Israel) than in others (e.g., Finland, Estonia, and Sweden). Both the measured value of "tradition" and the number of alcohol breath tests were found to moderate the link between friends' and one's own drunk driving. European stakeholders should take into account cultural specificities of target countries when designing campaigns against drunk driving. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effects of child development accounts on early social-emotional development: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Sherraden, Michael; Kim, Youngmi; Clancy, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    This study, based on Oklahoma's statewide Child Development Accounts (CDAs) program, presents findings from the first experimental test of the hypothesis that creating lifelong savings accounts for children at birth promotes their long-term well-being. To examine the effects of CDAs, an innovative social policy to encourage lifelong saving and asset building for long-term development, on parent-reported social-emotional development in early childhood. A statewide randomized experiment of CDAs was conducted in 2008, drawing a probability sample of 7328 children from all infants born in two 3-month periods in Oklahoma (April 1 through June 30 and August 1 through October 31, 2007). After agreeing to participate in the experiment, caregivers of 2704 infants completed a baseline survey and were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 1358) and control groups (n = 1346). Approximately 84% of participants completed a follow-up survey in the spring of 2011. The intervention offered CDAs, built on the existing Oklahoma 529 college-savings plan, to treatment participants. It also provided additional financial incentives and information. The primary outcome-child social-emotional development-is measured by scores from a 17-item version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional. Caregivers completed it in the 3-year follow-up survey. Lower scores indicate better functioning. The CDAs have positive effects on social-emotional development for children at approximately age 4 years. The nonweighted treatment-control difference is -1.56 (90% CI, -2.87 to -0.22; P = .06), but the weighted difference is nonsignificant. The effects appear to be greater for disadvantaged subsamples, such as low-income households (weighted mean difference, -2.21; 90% CI, -4.01 to -0.42; P = .04). As a complement to other early education and health interventions, CDAs may improve social-emotional development in early childhood. Their effects may be explained as a mediating

  14. Seventh-Grade Social Studies versus Social Meliorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Jeff A.

    2016-01-01

    The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), in the state of North Carolina, has gone through considerable recent effort to revise, support, and assess their seventh-grade social studies curriculum in an effort to serve three goals: comply with the Common Core State Standards (Common Core), comply with the North Carolina Essential Standards…

  15. Social support among heterogeneous partners : an experimental test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Sonja; Weesie, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies how dyadic social support is affected by heterogeneity of the partners.We distinguish heterogeneity with respect to three parameters: the likelihood of needing support; the benefits from receiving support; and the costs of providing support. Hypotheses are based on a

  16. Integrating Ethics into the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Urges incorporation of ethics into social studies curriculum. Provides an overview of ethical theory including principle-based theories of utilitarianism and deontology and virtue-based theories. Discusses philosophies of social science including positivism, interpretivism, and critical social science. Suggests teaching methods and curriculum…

  17. Asian Studies/Global Studies: Transcending Area Studies and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The post–World War II growth of area studies, and Asian studies in particular, posed a serious challenge to the mainstream social sciences. Yet the epistemic and institutional foundations of area studies were never well articulated or justified, and the post–Cold War years brought a pervasive sense of crisis to its intellectual mission and justification. In particular, the author focuses on the tensions, if not contradictions, between social science disciplines and area studies. In advocating a more integrated human science, which depends more on mobile networks of scholars than on fixed fields of discipline-bound professors, the author suggests global studies as a fitting field of inquiry in the age of globalization.

  18. Life satisfaction and its correlates among college students in China: a test of social reference theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Sibo; Lester, David; Zhou, Chengchao

    2014-08-01

    To study life satisfaction and to test the role of social reference in determining the degree of life satisfaction, we examined a large sample of undergraduate students in China for the correlates of campus life satisfaction. A questionnaire survey was administered at a university and the final sample consisted of 439 respondents aged between 17 and 24 years, from all over the country, and studying different subjects. It was found that freshman students tended to score higher on their life satisfaction than students in other grades and the college students' life satisfaction was positively related to female gender, self-esteem, social support, and the liberal attitudes on female gender roles, but negatively correlated with depression and suicidal ideation. Contrary to common beliefs, students from an urban area or from better-off families were not necessarily more satisfied with current life than those students coming from the countryside or low income families. The findings were accounted for by the social reference theory and in this case college students' campus life satisfaction is basically affected by their pre-college life quality as a reference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge Transmission versus Social Transformation: A Critical Analysis of Purpose in Elementary Social Studies Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brandon M.; Suh, Yonghee; Scott, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate the extent to which 9 elementary social studies methods textbooks present the purpose of teaching and learning social studies. Using Stanley's three perspectives of teaching social studies for knowledge transmission, method of intelligence, and social transformation; we analyze how these texts prepare…

  20. Parents and the media. A study of social differentiation in parental media socialization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N = 2608), and analysed respondents’ reports of socialization practices in their parental

  1. Parents and the media: A study of social differentiation in parental media socialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N = 2608), and analysed respondents' reports of socialization practices in their parental

  2. Evaluation of social competencies in chemical engineering: Application and results of the pilot test (academic year 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Suñé Grande

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria Química has a long tradition in the deployment of social competencies in engineering curricula through Integrated Projects (IP carried out in structured teams. Social competencies are taught and practiced during the development of the IPs. We conceptually introduce a methodology for a 360o assessment of the students’ social competencies, as a tool to foster the improvement of their competency levels. In this article we analyze the results of the pilot test where the aforementioned methodology has been implemented in the Bachelor studies of Chemical Engineering. The results indicate that it is possible to objectively obtain the student’s competency level discriminating among different social competencies, as well as among different students in the same team. The application of this tool fosters the development of specific educative actions to help the students with low competency profile, to reach acceptable levels for a successful insertion in the labor market.

  3. Social comparison and prosocial behavior: an applied study of social identity theory in community food drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Social Identity Theory and the concept of social comparison have inspired research on individuals, addressing effects of personal and environmental factors in directing social attention. The theory's conceptual origins, however, suggest that social comparison may have behavioral implications as well. Such behaviors may include attempts by an individual to enhance the relative status of his ingroup on a salient dimension of comparison. Such behavior is referred to as "social competition." In two studies, the effects of social comparison and social competition were measured in the real-world environment of community food drives. Participants were aggregated by household; 600 households in upper middle-class neighborhoods in Eugene and Salem, Oregon, were contacted. In Study 1 of 300 households, it was hypothesized that inclusion of a social competition cue in requests for donation would significantly increase the likelihood of donation. This hypothesis was supported. Study 2 was done to clarify the possible role in a social comparison of perceived ingroup inferiority in the prior observed increase in donations. The inclusion of a social comparison cue in the donation request significantly increased donations in households of the second study. The findings suggest that researchers should expand study of the theory's behavioral implications, including the role of social comparison in prosocial behavior.

  4. The Sociological Study of the Effect of Family Structure on Social Health of Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Mohammadi

    Full Text Available Social health depends on different social and cultural factors. One of the most important suppliers of individual’s health is family structures and relations. In recent years due to functional changes in polygamous structure, there are threats against social health of men in Sarbaz city. In this research, to compare the rate of social health of men in polygamous and monogamous families in Sarbaz city we use a standard questionnaire of Shapiro & Keyes (2007. The population of this study consisted of 300 males who are residents of this city. They selected by using cluster sampling method. Gathered data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22. Findings from independent T-Test revealed that the average of social Coherence, Integration, Contribution and Actualization between men in polygamous families were significantly lower than monogamous. Based on these findings, we can conclude however a lot of traditional social customs were useful, functional and compatible and provide social acceptance, but today have become dysfunctional and threated social health of family members and community system face with crisis.

  5. IknowUshould2: Feasibility of a Youth-Driven Social Media Campaign to Promote STI and HIV Testing Among Adolescents in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowshen, Nadia; Lee, Susan; Matty Lehman, B; Castillo, Marné; Mollen, Cynthia

    2015-06-01

    A youth-driven, social media-based campaign aimed at improving knowledge about and increasing testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV among youth 13-17 years old was assessed by: tracking website/social media use throughout the campaign; online survey of knowledge of and attitudes towards STI testing 9 months after campaign launch; and comparing rates of STI testing at affiliated family planning clinics during the 1 year period immediately prior versus 1 year immediately after campaign launch. Over 1,500 youth were reached via social media. Survey results showed 46 % of youth had never been tested, but 70 % intended to test in the next 6 months. While the total number of GC/CT tests conducted and positive results were not significantly different pre- and post-campaign, there was a large increase in the proportion of visits at which Syphilis (5.4 vs. 18.8 %; p campaign launch. Future campaigns should incorporate lessons learned about engaging younger adolescents, social media strategies, and specific barriers to testing in this age group.

  6. Social Support for Divorced Fathers' Parenting: Testing a Stress-Buffering Model*

    OpenAIRE

    DeGarmo, David S.; Patras, Joshua; Eap, Sopagna

    2008-01-01

    A stress-buffering hypothesis for parenting was tested in a county-representative sample of 218 divorced fathers. Social support for parenting (emergency and nonemergency child care, practical support, financial support) was hypothesized to moderate effects of stress (role overload, coparental conflict, and daily hassles) on fathers’ quality parenting. No custody fathers relied more on relatives compared with custodial fathers, who relied more on new partners for parenting support. No differe...

  7. The Field Trip Book: Study Travel Experiences in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for social studies adventures to help students find connections to democratic citizenship? Look no further! This book provides just the answer teachers need for engaging students in field trips as researching learners with emphasis on interdisciplinary social studies plus skills in collecting and reporting data gathered from field…

  8. Strengthening the Social Information-Processing Skills of Children: A Controlled Test of the "Let's Be Friends" Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Fraser, Mark W.; Guo, Shenyang; Day, Steven H.; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study had two objectives (a) to adapt for Chinese children an intervention designed to strengthen the social information--processing (SIP) skills of children in the United States, and (b) to pilot test the adapted intervention in China. Methods: Adaptation of the "Making Choices" program involved reviewing Chinese…

  9. Standards for Certification/Preparation of Social Studies Teachers: A Fifty State Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Weible, Tom

    A national survey determined minimum certification requirements for secondary social studies teachers in general education, professional education, and history/social science. Data were obtained through questionnaires completed by social studies education curriculum specialists and by officials in the certification divisions of state education…

  10. Parents and the media. A study of social differentiation in parental media socialization.

    OpenAIRE

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analysed the effects of parental social background and family composition on various types of parental media socialization. We employed the Family Survey Dutch Population 1998, 2000 and 2003 (N = 2608), and analysed respondents’ reports of socialization practices in their parental home. Respondents from high-status families report more extensive parental media socialization in all highbrow and guidance activities. In contrast, a parental example of popular television viewing ...

  11. A Large Scale Test of the Effect of Social Class on Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korndörfer, Martin; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2015-01-01

    Does being from a higher social class lead a person to engage in more or less prosocial behavior? Psychological research has recently provided support for a negative effect of social class on prosocial behavior. However, research outside the field of psychology has mainly found evidence for positive or u-shaped relations. In the present research, we therefore thoroughly examined the effect of social class on prosocial behavior. Moreover, we analyzed whether this effect was moderated by the kind of observed prosocial behavior, the observed country, and the measure of social class. Across eight studies with large and representative international samples, we predominantly found positive effects of social class on prosociality: Higher class individuals were more likely to make a charitable donation and contribute a higher percentage of their family income to charity (32,090 ≥ N ≥ 3,957; Studies 1-3), were more likely to volunteer (37,136 ≥N ≥ 3,964; Studies 4-6), were more helpful (N = 3,902; Study 7), and were more trusting and trustworthy in an economic game when interacting with a stranger (N = 1,421; Study 8) than lower social class individuals. Although the effects of social class varied somewhat across the kinds of prosocial behavior, countries, and measures of social class, under no condition did we find the negative effect that would have been expected on the basis of previous results reported in the psychological literature. Possible explanations for this divergence and implications are discussed.

  12. A Test of the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model among Ethnic Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goya Arce, Ana B; Polo, Antonio J

    2017-08-01

    Perfectionistic self-presentation (PSP) has been identified as a vulnerability factor in the development of depressive disorders during early adolescence. The Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM) offers a theoretical framework suggesting PSP leads to depressive symptoms via interpersonal problems and social disconnection. Previous studies have supported the role of social disconnection as a mediator in the relation between PSP and suicidal ideation, but have not evaluated interpersonal problems in the model. Furthermore, the generalizability of the model has not been established for community and ethnic minority samples. Using cross-sectional data, the present study addresses these gaps by evaluating the PSDM and including social anxiety and loneliness as indicators of interpersonal problems and social disconnection, respectively, as predictors of youth depressive symptoms. The sample includes 289 (51.2% females) predominately low income and Latino and African American youth in fifth through seventh grade in three public schools. As predicted, social anxiety mediates the relationship between both PSP and loneliness and PSP and depressive symptoms. Moreover, mediational analyses indicate that social anxiety accounts for the relation between PSP and depression. Consistent with the PSDM model, the relationship between PSP and youth depressive symptoms is mediated sequentially through both social anxiety and loneliness, but primarily among the Latino sample.

  13. Citizens’ Perceptions on Social Responsibility in Public Administration Organizations: A Case Study on Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis VÁZQUEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes citizens’ expectations on social responsibility of public administration organizations in comparison to other public and private organizations, and argues that the mission attributed to different institutions in society might guide citizens’ perceptions and thresholds of satisfaction with sustainability standards. Three different survey studies were carried out to analyze citizens’ expectations of social responsibility of public administration organizations, private companies and a public university in the same Spanish region. A list of indicators defining internal and external social responsibility practices was developed to compare expectations in the three institutional contexts, and MANOVA was used to test differences between participants in the three surveys. Results support the notion that citizens’ expectations of social responsibility are related to perceived organizational goals in private and public contexts and the specific dimension of responsibility considered. Particularly, participants displayed higher expectations of external social responsibility in public administration organizations than in private companies and the public university analyzed, whereas citizens’ expectations of internal social responsibility were more homogeneous in public and private contexts. Implications of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  14. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  15. Evaluation of the UNREST questionnaire for testing the social resistance framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Roni; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, David R

    2013-07-01

    The recently developed social resistance framework addresses a widespread pattern whereby non-dominant minority groups, such as ethnic/racial minorities and people of low socioeconomic status, often engage in unhealthy and risky behaviours at higher rates compared with society at large. The framework suggests that power relations within society may encourage members of non-dominant minority groups to actively engage in acts of everyday resistance, which may include risky and unhealthy behaviours. The current paper develops and psychometrically evaluates a research tool to test this innovative framework. The UNREST questionnaire measures the key concepts of the framework, along with four high-risk and unhealthy behaviours, as well as demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. A pilot survey was conducted among representative subsamples of a non-dominant group (African-Americans) and a dominant group (Caucasians). Consistent with the general premises of the framework, the evaluation of the questionnaire produced six valid and reliable scales, which were significantly correlated with some criterion-related items as well as unhealthy and risky behaviours. The preliminary results of our pilot study suggest that the new tool may be useful for testing the framework. The results also provide support for the framework in general.

  16. A genome-wide association study of social genetic effects in Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joon Ki; Jeong, Yong Dae; Cho, Eun Seok; Choi, Tae Jeong; Kim, Yong Min; Cho, Kyu Ho; Lee, Jae Bong; Lim, Hyun Tae; Lee, Deuk Hwan

    2018-06-01

    The genetic effects of an individual on the phenotypes of its social partners, such as its pen mates, are known as social genetic effects. This study aims to identify the candidate genes for social (pen-mates') average daily gain (ADG) in pigs by using the genome-wide association approach. Social ADG (sADG) was the average ADG of unrelated pen-mates (strangers). We used the phenotype data (16,802 records) after correcting for batch (week), sex, pen, number of strangers (1 to 7 pigs) in the pen, full-sib rate (0% to 80%) within pen, and age at the end of the test. A total of 1,041 pigs from Landrace breeds were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 v2 BeadChip panel, which comprised 61,565 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After quality control, 909 individuals and 39,837 markers remained for sADG in genome-wide association study. We detected five new SNPs, all on chromosome 6, which have not been associated with social ADG or other growth traits to date. One SNP was inside the prostaglandin F2α receptor ( PTGFR ) gene, another SNP was located 22 kb upstream of gene interferon-induced protein 44 ( IFI44 ), and the last three SNPs were between 161 kb and 191 kb upstream of the EGF latrophilin and seven transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 ( ELTD1 ) gene. PTGFR, IFI44, and ELTD1 were never associated with social interaction and social genetic effects in any of the previous studies. The identification of several genomic regions, and candidate genes associated with social genetic effects reported here, could contribute to a better understanding of the genetic basis of interaction traits for ADG. In conclusion, we suggest that the PTGFR, IFI44, and ELTD1 may be used as a molecular marker for sADG, although their functional effect was not defined yet. Thus, it will be of interest to execute association studies in those genes.

  17. Motivation and Test Anxiety in Test Performance across Three Testing Contexts: The CAEL, CET, and GEPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Klinger, Don; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study examined test-takers' motivation, test anxiety, and test performance across a range of social and educational contexts in three high-stakes language tests: the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment in Canada, the College English Test (CET) in the People's Republic of China, and the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT)…

  18. A study on relationship between social capital and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Fotovvat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social capital components, social trust, social cohesion, social participation and social security, and sustainable development in city of Salmas, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 384 randomly selected people who live in this city. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.92, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression technique, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between three components of social capital and sustainable development including social cohesion, social participation and social security. However, the study does not confirm the relationship between social trust and sustainable development.

  19. Law and Behaviours in Social Dilemmas : Testing the Effect of Obligations on Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galbiati, R.; Vertova, P.

    2005-01-01

    Laws consist of two components: the 'obligations' they express and the 'incentives' designed to enforce them.In this paper we run a public good experiment to test whether or not obligations have any independent effect on cooperation in social dilemmas.The results show that, for given marginal

  20. Rural households’ social capital and welfare: A case study of Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd James Segun Baiyegunhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a household or nations production system, social capital has been recognized as an input having major implications for project design as well as policy development. Using a structured questionnaire, household level data was obtained from a representative sample of 300 rural households in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. This study employed the conventional household economic behaviour model under constrained utility maximisation to examine the effect of social capital on the welfare of household, testing the hypothesis that the possession of social capital improves household welfare. The result shows that social capital endowments have a statistically significant positive effect on household welfare, in addition to the some household’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study concluded that, access to social capital among other factors, is very crucial for improved rural household welfare and poverty reduction. It is therefore important for government to have knowledge of existing social groups and networks as this will improve the effectiveness of the present strategies aimed at reducing poverty.

  1. Addressing social issues in a universal HIV test and treat intervention trial (ANRS 12249 TasP) in South Africa: methods for appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Larmarange, Joseph; Boyer, Sylvie; Iwuji, Collins; McGrath, Nuala; Bärnighausen, Till; Zuma, Thembelile; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno; Rochat, Tamsen; Lert, France; Imrie, John

    2015-03-01

    The Universal HIV Test and Treat (UTT) strategy represents a challenge for science, but is also a challenge for individuals and societies. Are repeated offers of provider-initiated HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) socially-acceptable and can these become normalized over time? Can UTT be implemented without potentially adding to individual and community stigma, or threatening individual rights? What are the social, cultural and economic implications of UTT for households and communities? And can UTT be implemented within capacity constraints and other threats to the overall provision of HIV services? The answers to these research questions will be critical for routine implementation of UTT strategies. A social science research programme is nested within the ANRS 12249 Treatment-as-Prevention (TasP) cluster-randomised trial in rural South Africa. The programme aims to inform understanding of the (i) social, economic and environmental factors affecting uptake of services at each step of the continuum of HIV prevention, treatment and care and (ii) the causal impacts of the TasP intervention package on social and economic factors at the individual, household, community and health system level. We describe a multidisciplinary, multi-level, mixed-method research protocol that includes individual, household, community and clinic surveys, and combines quantitative and qualitative methods. The UTT strategy is changing the overall approach to HIV prevention, treatment and care, and substantial social consequences may be anticipated, such as changes in social representations of HIV transmission, prevention, HIV testing and ART use, as well as changes in individual perceptions and behaviours in terms of uptake and frequency of HIV testing and ART initiation at high CD4. Triangulation of social science studies within the ANRS 12249 TasP trial will provide comprehensive insights into the acceptability and feasibility of the TasP intervention package at

  2. Financial Strain and Regional Unemployment as Barriers to Job Search Self-Efficacy: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahling, Jason J.; Melloy, Robert; Thompson, Mindi N.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) emphasizes the potential impact of contextual barriers on vocational self-efficacy, interests, and goals. However, most tests of SCCT to date have focused exclusively on person-level, perceptual barriers rather than objective, macroeconomic barriers that may influence large groups of people. In this study, we…

  3. Study of the Psychological Profile in Diabetic Patient and its Relationship with their Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Atadokht

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that has negative effect on physical function, psychological condition, interpersonal, family and social relationship and in general, on psychological well being. The aim of this study was to investigate of psychological profile in diabetic patients and it's relatioship with social support.   Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 120 diabetic patients have been selected among of those that systematically refered to Diabetes Clinic of Emam Khomeini Hospital in order to follow their therapeutic process in Ardabil . Data gathering was accomplished by two tests: SCL-90-R and Social Support Scale. Finally data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test on SPSS-17 software and p-value less than 0.05 considered as significant.   Results: Results showed that 70% of diabetic patients had problems in somatic complaint and obsession, 62.5% in sensitivity, 72.5% in depression, 62.5% in anxiety, 55% in hostility, 67.5% in paranoid thoughts, 27.5% in phobia and 37.5% in psychosis. Correlations between social support with somatic complaint, obsession, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility and paranoid thoughts were negatively significant. Family support associated significantly with all of the psychological variables but friend Support had no significant correlation with them.   Conclusion: The range of psychological problems experienced by diabetic patients is more extensive and these problems have significant relationship with social support. Thus, attention to different dimensions of psychological health is necessary and social support-based interventions can be more effective.

  4. A Large Scale Test of the Effect of Social Class on Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korndörfer, Martin; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C.

    2015-01-01

    Does being from a higher social class lead a person to engage in more or less prosocial behavior? Psychological research has recently provided support for a negative effect of social class on prosocial behavior. However, research outside the field of psychology has mainly found evidence for positive or u-shaped relations. In the present research, we therefore thoroughly examined the effect of social class on prosocial behavior. Moreover, we analyzed whether this effect was moderated by the kind of observed prosocial behavior, the observed country, and the measure of social class. Across eight studies with large and representative international samples, we predominantly found positive effects of social class on prosociality: Higher class individuals were more likely to make a charitable donation and contribute a higher percentage of their family income to charity (32,090 ≥ N ≥ 3,957; Studies 1–3), were more likely to volunteer (37,136 ≥N ≥ 3,964; Studies 4–6), were more helpful (N = 3,902; Study 7), and were more trusting and trustworthy in an economic game when interacting with a stranger (N = 1,421; Study 8) than lower social class individuals. Although the effects of social class varied somewhat across the kinds of prosocial behavior, countries, and measures of social class, under no condition did we find the negative effect that would have been expected on the basis of previous results reported in the psychological literature. Possible explanations for this divergence and implications are discussed. PMID:26193099

  5. Social architecture and the emergence of power laws in online social games

    OpenAIRE

    Kirman, Ben; Collovà, Francesco; Davide, Fabrizio; Ferrari, Eva; Freeman, Jonathan; Lawson, Shaun; Linehan, Conor; Ravaja, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of the “social architecture” of games, and tests the theory that it is possible to analyse game mechanics based on the effect they have on the social behaviour of the players. Using tools from Social Network Analysis, these studies confirm that social activity in games reliably follows a power distribution: a few players are responsible for a disproportionate amount of social interactions. Based on this, the scaling exponent is highlighted as a simple measur...

  6. Effects of Social Exclusion on Cardiovascular and Affective Reactivity to a Socially Evaluative Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Timothy J; Thomas, KaMala S; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Stanton, Annette L

    2018-04-03

    Socially disconnected individuals have worse health than those who feel socially connected. The mechanisms through which social disconnection influences physiological and psychological outcomes warrant study. The current study tested whether experimental manipulations of social exclusion, relative to inclusion, influenced subsequent cardiovascular (CV) and affective reactivity to socially evaluative stress. Young adults (N = 81) were assigned through block randomization to experience either social exclusion or inclusion, using a standardized computer-based task (Cyberball). Immediately after exposure to Cyberball, participants either underwent a socially evaluative stressor or an active control task, based on block randomization. Physiological activity (systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR)) and state anxiety were assessed throughout the experiment. Excluded participants evidenced a significant increase in cardiovascular and affective responses to a socially evaluative stressor. Included participants who underwent the stressor evidenced similar increases in anxiety, but systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate did not change significantly in response to the stressor. Results contribute to the understanding of physiological consequences of social exclusion. Further investigation is needed to test whether social inclusion can buffer CV stress reactivity, which would carry implications for how positive social factors may protect against the harmful effects of stress.

  7. Once hurt, twice shy: Social pain contributes to social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Klint; Alden, Lynn E

    2017-03-01

    Social rejection has been consistently linked to the development of social anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying the relation have been largely unexplored, which presents an obstacle to fully understanding the origins of social anxiety and to the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that the emotion of social pain following rejection promotes the development of social anxiety in subsequent situations. In Study 1, undergraduate participants were exposed to 2 social situations (Cyberball) 2 days apart. Participants who were rejected in the first situation reported higher social anxiety before and during the second situation relative to those who were included. This effect was fully mediated by initial social pain intensity. In Study 2, all participants were initially rejected. Using double-blinded drug administration, participants were randomly assigned to ingest acetaminophen to alleviate the social pain from rejection, or a sugar placebo. As predicted, the acetaminophen group reported lower social anxiety before and during the second situation. Approximately half of the effect was mediated by reduction in social pain. Notably, the immediate effect of acetaminophen was specific to social pain rather than social anxiety. Results were discussed in the context of literature on the etiology of social anxiety and social pain. Future directions were suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Social disorganization, social capital, collective efficacy and the spatial distribution of crime and offenders: An empirical test of six neighbourhood models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, G.J.N.; Pauwels, L.J.R; Weerman, F.M.; Bernasco, W.

    2013-01-01

    Six different social disorganization models of neighbourhood crime and offender rates were tested using data from multiple sources in the city of The Hague, in the Netherlands. The sources included a community survey among 3,575 residents in 86 neighbourhoods measuring the central concepts of the

  9. Class relations and all-cause mortality: a test of Wright's social class scheme using the Barcelona 2000 Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Solà, Judit; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Chung, Haejoo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; Rocha, Kátia B; Ng, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the effects of neo-Marxian social class and potential mediators such as labor market position, work organization, material deprivation, and health behaviors on all-cause mortality. The authors use longitudinal data from the Barcelona 2000 Health Interview Survey (N=7526), with follow-up interviews through the municipal census in 2008 (95.97% response rate). Using data on relations of property, organizational power, and education, the study groups social classes according to Wright's scheme: capitalists, petit bourgeoisie, managers, supervisors, and skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled workers. Findings indicate that social class, measured as relations of control over productive assets, is an important predictor of mortality among working-class men but not women. Workers (hazard ratio = 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.35) but also managers and small employers had a higher risk of death compared with capitalists. The extensive use of conventional gradient measures of social stratification has neglected sociological measures of social class conceptualized as relations of control over productive assets. This concept is capable of explaining how social inequalities are generated. To confirm the protective effect of the capitalist class position and the "contradictory class location hypothesis," additional efforts are needed to properly measure class among low-level supervisors, capitalists, managers, and small employers.

  10. Social Connectedness, Discrimination, and Social Status as Mediators of Acculturation/Enculturation and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Hewitt, Amber; Abrams, Matthew; Cleary, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposed and tested a conceptual model of acculturation/enculturation and subjective well-being (SWB) by including social connectedness in mainstream society, social connectedness in the ethnic community, perceived discrimination, and expected social status as mediators. Survey data from 273 Asian American college students in the…

  11. Theory of Mind and social relationships in older adults: the role of social motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Serena; Ceccato, Irene; Bianco, Federica; Rosi, Alessia; Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has shown that individual differences in Theory of Mind (ToM) are crucial for people's social relationships. However, very few studies have investigated this issue in ageing. The present study was designed to fill this gap and examine the associations between ToM and social relationships in elderly adults. In doing so, this study considered people's relationships with their relatives and friends, and examined the possible moderating role of social motivation. The study involved 53 healthy older adults (age: M = 67.91; SD = 6.93; range: 60--85 years). All participants were tested collectively during a 2-hr session and completed a demographic questionnaire as well as a battery of tests assessing verbal ability (vocabulary and word fluency), ToM and social relationships. They also answered a social motivation question. Results showed that individual differences in older people's ToM were overall significantly associated with those in relationships with friends, but not relatives. In addition, the Hayes moderating procedure showed that individual differences in ToM were related to those in friendships only for those people who had a high or medium level of social motivation. These findings underline the importance of motivation in guiding the use of ToM in everyday social interactions.

  12. Changing Attitudes Through Social Influence: Does Social Distance Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Amanda L; Bryan, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    To test the effects of social influence and social distance on attitudes, we assessed judgments of gay and lesbian targets in various contexts over three studies (n = 814, 51% female). We compared the impact of a derogatory message to a relatively favorable message ostensibly written by another participant. Participants were robustly moved by the feedback; social influence was a significant predictor in final evaluations of the target, as was social distance. Discrimination against gay men and lesbian women appears not to be a fixed behavior; seemingly anyone can be persuaded to discriminate or not to discriminate by mere peer suggestion.

  13. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Methods on Academic Success in Social Studies Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ŞENTÜRK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Jigsaw and Ask Together Learn Together technique used in the application of cooperative learning model on the academic success of social studies of 6th degree students. Experimental research design, including pretest and post-test, was used in the study. Work group of the study consisted of 54 6th grade students studying in three different classes of a secondary school in Trabzon between 2015-2016 school years. The study was conducted with two experimental groups and one control group. The related unit was taught via the related techniques for four weeks with experimental groups. Academic Success Test (AST was used as data collection tool of the study. The pre-test and post test scores of experimental and control groups from AST were analysed by using ANOVA and ANCOVA. According to the AST pre-test and posttest results of research groups, there was no significant difference between pre-test and posttest scores of Jigsaw and Ask Together Learn Together technique students in experimental groups, while significant difference was measured between experimental groups and control group.

  14. Social skills training with early adolescents : Effects on social skills, well-being, self-esteem and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijstra, J.O.; Jackson, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study discusses the educational effects of a social skills training on adolescents' social skills, self-esteem, well-being and coping. A group of 14- to 16-year-old normal adolescents followed a social skills training based on social learning principles. A pre-tear experiment - post-test design

  15. Awareness of social influence on food intake. An analysis of two experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Field, Matt

    2015-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that the amount of food we consume can be influenced by the eating behaviour of other people. Some previous experimental studies reported that consumers are unaware of this influence on their behaviour. The present research tested whether people may be more aware of social influence on their eating than previously assumed. In two studies, participants (total n = 160) were exposed to information about the amount of snack food other people had been eating shortly before being served the same snack food and eating as much as they liked. After this, participants responded to questions regarding whether they thought their food intake had been socially influenced, and reported the reasons why they believed they had or had not been influenced. Of the 160 participants, 34% reported that they had been influenced, 10% were unsure and 56% reported they had not been influenced. Crucially, participants' reports of social influence appeared to be accurate; the food intake of participants reporting social influence was significantly affected by the amount of food other people had been eating, whereas the food intake of participants denying social influence was unaffected. Individuals may be more aware of the effect that social influence has on their eating behaviour than previously assumed. Further work is needed to identify the factors which determine whether people are susceptible to social influence on eating behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family, and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of interrelations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M = 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures of community discord, family relations, and children's regulatory processes (i.e., emotional security) and outcomes. Historical political violence in neighborhoods based on objective records (i.e., politically motivated deaths) were related to family members' reports of current sectarian antisocial behavior and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. Interparental conflict and parental monitoring and children's emotional security about both the community and family contributed to explanatory pathways for relations between sectarian antisocial behavior in communities and children's adjustment problems. The discussion evaluates support for social ecological models for relations between political violence and child adjustment and its implications for understanding relations in other parts of the world.

  17. The use of Social Networks for Educational Purposes - Case Study: Polytechnic Nikola Tesla in Gospic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Skendžić

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are a way of mass communication between users, but they are also applied for educational purposes. The aim of this paper is to analyze the way that students use social networks for educational purposes, to find out how students come to information, do they use social networks for access to information related to teaching and exams, and what they think about the quality of information obtained from social networks. The relationship between the use of social networks for educational purposes and demographic indicators is examined. χ2 test for testing independence of the two characteristics was conducted.

  18. Social media infleunce - a case study of LUSH's social media marketing strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Belowska, Martyna; Løyche, Tanja Blomgaard; Szewczykowska, Karolina; Shore, Jonna Ellinor; Krejci, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    This research project is a case study of LUSH Cosmetics which aims to understand theinfluence in social media on consumers through the social media marketing strategy ofLUSH. This is done by first, explaining the social media marketing strategy of LUSH throughThe Theory of Influence by Robert Cialdini (1984) which has formed the theoreticalframework in this project. Second, an online individual survey has been conducted to deeperunderstand how potential consumers perceive the influence from L...

  19. Social Studies Teachers’ Perceptions of Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Türe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Tolerance is one of the values which citizens should have in today's multicultural and democratic society. Educational system should teach tolerance to the individuals in a democratic society. Tolerance can be given through curricula in educational process. Social studies is one of the courses for conducting tolerance education. Skills and perspectives of teachers are important for tolerance education in social studies. The purpose of this study is to understand social studies teachers' perceptions of tolerance. Method: In the study, qualitative research method and phenomenology that is one of the qualitative research designs was employed. The participants were determined using criterion sampling. 10 social studies teachers graduated from social studies education departments working at schools of Eskisehir Provincial Directorate of National Education participated in the study. The research process consisted of two phases. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. The interviews were conducted in two steps in order to make an in-depth analysis. In Phase I of the study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 teachers in December and January months during the 2012-2013 school year. The data obtained from the first interviews were also the base for the questions in the second interviews. In Phase II of the study, semi-structured interviews were again conducted with 10 teachers who participated in the first interviews in April and May months during the 2012-2013 school year. Teacher Interview Form-1 in the first interviews and Teacher Interview Form-2 in the second interviews were used for data collection. As for data analysis, thematic analysis technique was used. The data were analysed, the findings were defined and interpreted based on the research questions. Findings: The findings of the study revealed that the social studies teachers described tolerance as respecting ideas, values, beliefs and behaviors

  20. The Effects of Social Anxiety and State Anxiety on Visual Attention: Testing the Vigilance-Avoidance Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J Suzanne; Capozzoli, Michelle C; Dodd, Michael D; Hope, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    A growing theoretical and research literature suggests that trait and state social anxiety can predict attentional patterns in the presence of emotional stimuli. The current study adds to this literature by examining the effects of state anxiety on visual attention and testing the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis, using a method of continuous visual attentional assessment. Participants were 91 undergraduate college students with high or low trait fear of negative evaluation (FNE), a core aspect of social anxiety, who were randomly assigned to either a high or low state anxiety condition. Participants engaged in a free view task in which pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented and eye movements were continuously monitored. Overall, participants with high FNE avoided angry stimuli and participants with high state anxiety attended to positive stimuli. Participants with high state anxiety and high FNE were avoidant of angry faces, whereas participants with low state and low FNE exhibited a bias toward angry faces. The study provided partial support for the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis. The findings add to the mixed results in the literature that suggest that both positive and negative emotional stimuli may be important in understanding the complex attention patterns associated with social anxiety. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  1. Associations between social capital and depression: A study of adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Beresford, Shirley Aa; Barrington, Wendy; Matsueda, Ross; Wakefield, Jon; Duncan, Glen E

    2018-03-01

    Social capital is associated with depression independently of individual-level risk factors. We used a sample of 1586 same-sex twin pairs to test the association between seven measures of social capital and two related measures of neighborhood characteristics with depressive symptoms accounting for uncontrolled selection factors (i.e., genetics and shared environment). All measures of cognitive social capital and neighborhood characteristics were associated with less depressive symptoms in between-twin analysis. However, only measures of cognitive social capital were significantly associated with less depressive symptoms within-pairs. These results demonstrate that cognitive social capital is associated with depressive symptoms free of confounding from genetic and environmental factors shared within twins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social Support, Social Strain, and Cognitive Function Among Community-Dwelling U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoqing; Wu, Bei; Bailey, Donald E; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Limited research is available on the relationship between social support, social strain, and cognitive function among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine the associations between social support/strain and cognitive outcomes. Data were drawn from the Population-Based Study of Chinese Elderly (N = 3,159). Cognitive function was measured by a battery of tests including the East Boston Memory Test, the Digit Span Backwards assessment, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Social support and strain were measured by the scales drawn from the Health and Retirement study. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Social support was significantly associated with global cognitive function (β = .11, SE = .02, p function (β = 1.44, SE = .37, p cognitive function (β = .23, SE = .05, p function (β = 2.75, SE = .85, p cognitive function (β = .04, SE = .02, p function (β = .71, SE = .29, p cognitive function (β = .10, SE = .03, p function (β = 1.28, SE = .49, p function (β = 3.59, SE = 1.17, p cognitive outcomes. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Location and social context does matter when conducting consumer studies!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Kraggerud, Hilde; Bruun Brockhoff, Per

    2015-01-01

    an adequate level of research conducted in realistic eating contexts. In the aim to study how location and social context affected consumers’ feeling of food satisfaction and physical well-being a study was set up with, combined yoghurt with muesli products in two settings; a) in a sensory lab facility (n...... of food satisfaction. Test products were two variants of yoghurt (differing in protein content) and two variants of muesli (a berry and a nut variant) eaten as combined products. An effect of location context (lab- vs. natural context) was found for immediate post intake rating of hunger, fullness...

  4. Do social relationships buffer the effects of widowhood? A prospective study of adaptation to the loss of a spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusic, Ivana; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-10-01

    The idea that strong social relationships can buffer the negative effects of stress on well-being has received much attention in existing literature. However, previous studies have used less than ideal research designs to test this hypothesis, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding the buffering effects of social support. In this study, we examined the buffering hypothesis in the context of reaction and adaptation to widowhood in three large longitudinal datasets. We tested whether social relationships moderated reaction and adaptation to widowhood in samples of people who experienced loss of a spouse from three longitudinal datasets of nationally representative samples from Germany (N = 1,195), Great Britain (N = 562), and Australia (N = 298). We found no evidence that social relationships established before widowhood buffered either reaction or adaptation to the death of one's spouse. Similarly, social relationships that were in place during the first year of widowhood did not help widows and widowers recover from this difficult event. Social relationships acquired prior to widowhood, or those available in early stages of widowhood, do not appear to explain individual differences in adaptation to loss. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Integration of a Social Skills Training: A Case Study of Children with Low Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Hwa; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2011-01-01

    This study explores changes in children's social skills after a cognitive-social skills model intervention. The intervention was conducted over a period of 12 weeks within a regular preschool setting. Sixteen children including four considered to have low social skills participated in the study. Data analysis revealed that the four children with…

  6. The effect of combined treatment with risperidone and antidepressants on the MK-801-induced deficits in the social interaction test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Rogóż, Zofia

    2015-12-01

    Several clinical reports have suggested that augmentation of atypical antipsychotics' activity by antidepressants may efficiently improve the treatment of negative and some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant mirtazapine or escitalopram and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic), given separately or jointly, on the MK-801-induced deficits in the social interaction test in rats. Antidepressants and risperidone were given 60 and 30 min before the test, respectively. The social interaction of male Wistar rats was measured for 10 min, starting 4 h after MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) administration. In the social interaction test, MK-801-induced deficits in the parameters studied, i.e. the number of episodes and the time of interactions. Risperidone at a higher dose (0.1 mg/kg) reversed that effect. Co-treatment with an ineffective dose of risperidone (0.01 mg/kg) and mirtazapine (2.5 or 5 mg/kg) or escitalopram only at a dose of 5 mg/kg (but not 2.5 and 10 mg/kg) abolished the deficits evoked by MK-801. The obtained results suggest that especially mirtazapine, and to a smaller degree escitalopram may enhance the antipsychotic-like effect of risperidone in the animal test modeling some negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of Social Studies Teachers at Major Research Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of the preparation of secondary social studies teachers at major state-supported research universities. Finds relatively few institutions have followed the Holmes Group recommendations and many continue to prepare broad field social studies teachers leaving them deficient in some social science fields. (CFR)

  8. Social Studies, Social Competence and Citizenship in Early Childhood Education: Developmental Principles Guide Appropriate Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the nature of appropriate social studies education in the Kindergarten and Pre-Kindergarten years. The importance of social competence development as a basic foundation of the social studies in the early years of schooling is examined, with particular attention to the commonalities shared between goals and…

  9. How do Rumination and Social Problem Solving Intensify Depression? A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Haruki; Matsuda, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    In order to examine how rumination and social problem solving intensify depression, the present study investigated longitudinal associations among each dimension of rumination and social problem solving and evaluated aspects of these constructs that predicted subsequent depression. A three-wave longitudinal study, with an interval of 4 weeks between waves, was conducted. Japanese university students completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Ruminative Responses Scale, Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version, and Interpersonal Stress Event Scale on three occasions 4 weeks apart ( n  = 284 at Time 1, 198 at Time 2, 165 at Time 3). Linear mixed models were analyzed to test whether each variable predicted subsequent depression, rumination, and each dimension of social problem solving. Rumination and negative problem orientation demonstrated a mutually enhancing relationship. Because these two variables were not associated with interpersonal conflict during the subsequent 4 weeks, rumination and negative problem orientation appear to strengthen each other without environmental change. Rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms, after controlling for the effect of initial depression. Because rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were not concurrently and longitudinally associated with each other, rumination and impulsive/careless problem solving style appear to be independent processes that serve to intensify depression.

  10. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  11. Exploring the reliability and validity of the social-moral awareness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Alexandra; Dodd, Karen; Pote, Helen; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the validity of the social-moral awareness test (SMAT) a measure designed for assessing socio-moral rule knowledge and reasoning in people with learning disabilities. Comparisons between Theory of Mind and socio-moral reasoning allowed the exploration of construct validity of the tool. Factor structure, reliability and discriminant validity were also assessed. Seventy-one participants with mild-moderate learning disabilities completed the two scales of the SMAT and two False Belief Tasks for Theory of Mind. Reliability of the SMAT was very good, and the scales were shown to be uni-dimensional in factor structure. There was a significant positive relationship between Theory of Mind and both SMAT scales. There is early evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the SMAT. Further assessment of the validity of the SMAT will be required. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Study of social responsibilities of Hubei seed enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangren Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the current development situation of social responsibilities of Hubei seed enterprises in accordance with the specific features of them. Furthermore, it will also propose countermeasures and suggestions to improve the social responsibility level of Hubei seed enterprises. This study mainly applied document research method and questionnaire survey approach as the means to analyze the reason why there’s lack of social responsibilities among seed enterprises in Hubei. It also reached conclusions about how to improve the social responsibility level of Hubei seed enterprises from four aspects: enterprise, laws & regulations, social supervision, and government guidance & supervision, so as to provide theoretical reference for better development of Hubei seed industry.

  13. Childhood trauma and social stress reactivity in psychosis : A virtual reality study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Van Os, Jim; Van Der Gaag, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Childhood trauma may be related to risk for psychosis by the mechanism of sensitization to social stress. Virtual Reality (VR) provides the opportunity to test this mechanism by controlled experimental exposure to different social environments. Methods: Fifty-five patients with recent

  14. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...... for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...

  15. Investigation of Social Studies Teachers' Intended Uses of Social Networks in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine Social Studies teacher candidates' intended uses of social networks in terms of various variables. The research was carried out by using screening model of quantitative research methods. In the study, "The Social Network Intended Use Scale" was used as a data collection tool. As a result of the…

  16. A social work study to investigate the relationships between women’s personal characteristics and employment status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Basity

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measures the reflection of repliers to different social factors including social position, popularity, socialize, social manners, self-reliance, speech abilities, responsibility, etc. Data were gathered from a sample of 300 people using random sampling and analyzed using descriptive mono factor statistics, Spearman correlation, Kramer correlation coefficient, Chi-square, regression and path analysis. The validity of questionnaire is tested by using Cronbach alpha (%75. The results indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between woman’s educational level, age, residency status, socialization capability, urbanity, skill & ability and their employment. The study, however, does not find any relationship between marital status and number of children and outcome of woman’s employment.

  17. VARIATIONS IN RECRUITMENT YIELD, COSTS, SPEED AND PARTICIPANT DIVERSITY ACROSS INTERNET PLATFORMS IN A GLOBAL STUDY EXAMINING THE EFFICACY OF AN HIV/AIDS AND HIV TESTING ANIMATED AND LIVE-ACTION VIDEO AMONG ENGLISH- OR SPANISH-SPEAKING INTERNET OR SOCIAL MEDIA USERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Winnie; Guan, Wentao; Clark, Melissa A; Liu, Tao; Santelices, Claudia; Cortés, Dharma E; Merchant, Roland C

    For a world-wide, Internet-based study on HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge, we compared the yields, speed and costs of recruitment and participant diversity across free postings on 13 Internet or social media platforms, paid advertising or postings on 3 platforms, and separate free postings and paid advertisements on Facebook. Platforms were compared by study completions (yield), time to completion, completion to enrollment ratios (CERs), and costs/ completion; and by participants' demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and health literacy levels. Of the 482 English-speaking participants, Amazon Mechanical Turk yielded the most participants, recruited participants at the fastest rate and had the highest CER (0.78) and lowest costs / completion. Of the 335 Spanish-speaking participants, Facebook yielded the most participants and recruited participants at the fastest rate, although Amazon Mechanical Turk had the highest CER (0.72) and lowest costs/completion. Across platforms participants differed substantially according to their demographic characteristics, HIV testing history and health literay skills. The study results highlight the need for researchers to strongly consider choice of Internet or social media plaforms when conducting Internet-based research. Because of the sample specifications and cost restraints of studies, specific Internet/ social media or participant selection plaforms will be much more effective or appropriate than others.

  18. Variations in recruitment yield, costs, speed and participant diversity across Internet platforms in a global study examining the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS and HIV testing animated and live-action video among English- or Spanish-speaking Internet or social media users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Shao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For a world-wide, Internet-based study on HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge, we compared the yields, speed and costs of recruitment and participant diversity across free postings on 13 Internet or social media platforms, paid advertising or postings on 3 platforms, and separate free postings and paid advertisements on Facebook. Platforms were compared by study completions (yield, time to completion, completion to enrollment ratios (CERs, and costs/completion; and by participants’ demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and health literacy levels. Of the 482 English-speaking participants, Amazon Mechanical Turk yielded the most participants, recruited participants at the fastest rate and had the highest CER (0.78 and lowest costs/completion. Of the 335 Spanish-speaking participants, Facebook yielded the most participants and recruited participants at the fastest rate, although Amazon Mechanical Turk had the highest CER (0.72 and lowest costs/completion. Across platforms participants differed substantially according to their demographic characteristics, HIV testing history and health literacy skills. The study results highlight the need for researchers to strongly consider choice of Internet or social media platforms when conducting Internet-based research. Because of the sample specifications and cost restraints of studies, specific Internet/social media or participant selection platforms will be much more effective or appropriate than others.

  19. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social networking policies in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Blake; Culley, Joan M; Hein, Laura C; Williams, Amber; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2014-03-01

    Social networking use has increased exponentially in the past few years. A literature review related to social networking and nursing revealed a research gap between nursing practice and education. Although there was information available on the appropriate use of social networking sites, there was limited research on the use of social networking policies within nursing education. The purpose of this study was to identify current use of social media by faculty and students and a need for policies within nursing education at one institution. A survey was developed and administered to nursing students (n = 273) and nursing faculty (n = 33). Inferential statistics included χ², Fisher exact test, t test, and General Linear Model. Cronbach's α was used to assess internal consistency of social media scales. The χ² result indicates that there were associations with the group and several social media items. t Test results indicate significant differences between student and faculty for average of policies are good (P = .0127), policies and discipline (P = .0315), and policy at the study school (P = .0013). General Linear Model analyses revealed significant differences for "friend" a patient with a bond, unprofessional posts, policy, and nursing with class level. Results showed that students and faculty supported the development of a social networking policy.

  1. A novel escapable social interaction test reveals that social behavior and mPFC activation during an escapable social encounter are altered by post-weaning social isolation and are dependent on the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Dayton J.; Ahern, Megan A.; Baynard, Jessica; Wall, Vanessa L.; Bland, Sondra T.

    2016-01-01

    Post-weaning social isolation (PSI) has been shown to increase aggressive behavior and alter medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function in social species such as rats. Here we developed a novel escapable social interaction test (ESIT) allowing for the quantification of escape and social behaviors in addition to mPFC activation in response to an aggressive or nonaggressive stimulus rat. Male rats were exposed to 3 weeks of PSI (ISO) or group (GRP) housing, and exposed to 3 trials, with either no trial, all trials, or the last trial only with a stimulus rat. Analysis of social behaviors indicated that ISO rats spent less time in the escape chamber and more time engaged in social interaction, aggressive grooming, and boxing than did GRP rats. Interestingly, during the third trial all rats engaged in more of the quantified social behaviors and spent less time escaping in response to aggressive but not nonaggressive stimulus rats. Rats exposed to nonaggressive stimulus rats on the third trial had greater c-fos and ARC immunoreactivity in the mPFC than those exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. Conversely, a social encounter produced an increase in large PSD-95 punctae in the mPFC independently of trial number, but only in ISO rats exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. The results presented here demonstrate that PSI increases interaction time and aggressive behaviors during escapable social interaction, and that the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat in a social encounter is an important component of behavioral and neural outcomes for both isolation and group-reared rats. PMID:27633556

  2. Using Mobile Sensing to Test Clinical Models of Depression, Social Anxiety, State Affect, and Social Isolation Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Philip I; Fua, Karl; Huang, Yu; Bonelli, Wesley; Xiong, Haoyi; Barnes, Laura E; Teachman, Bethany A

    2017-03-03

    Research in psychology demonstrates a strong link between state affect (moment-to-moment experiences of positive or negative emotionality) and trait affect (eg, relatively enduring depression and social anxiety symptoms), and a tendency to withdraw (eg, spending time at home). However, existing work is based almost exclusively on static, self-reported descriptions of emotions and behavior that limit generalizability. Despite adoption of increasingly sophisticated research designs and technology (eg, mobile sensing using a global positioning system [GPS]), little research has integrated these seemingly disparate forms of data to improve understanding of how emotional experiences in everyday life are associated with time spent at home, and whether this is influenced by depression or social anxiety symptoms. We hypothesized that more time spent at home would be associated with more negative and less positive affect. We recruited 72 undergraduate participants from a southeast university in the United States. We assessed depression and social anxiety symptoms using self-report instruments at baseline. An app (Sensus) installed on participants' personal mobile phones repeatedly collected in situ self-reported state affect and GPS location data for up to 2 weeks. Time spent at home was a proxy for social isolation. We tested separate models examining the relations between state affect and time spent at home, with levels of depression and social anxiety as moderators. Models differed only in the temporal links examined. One model focused on associations between changes in affect and time spent at home within short, 4-hour time windows. The other 3 models focused on associations between mean-level affect within a day and time spent at home (1) the same day, (2) the following day, and (3) the previous day. Overall, we obtained many of the expected main effects (although there were some null effects), in which higher social anxiety was associated with more time or greater

  3. Socially dominant mice in C57BL6 background show increased social motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thaddeus; Wang, Hongbing

    2018-01-15

    A series of behavioral tests measuring social dominance, social motivation, and non-social motivation are examined in adult male C57BL6 mice. By using the well-known tube dominance test to determine social dominance and rank, we find that, in the absence of competition for resource and mating, group-housed mouse cage-mates display stable and mostly linear and transitive social hierarchies. Mice with top and bottom social ranks are subjected to a three-chamber social interaction test to measure social motivation. The top ranked mice spend more time interacting with a stranger mouse than the bottom ranked mice, suggesting that social dominance may positively influence social motivation. When subjected to a novel environment, mice with different social ranks show similar locomotion and exploring activity in the open field test, suggesting no detectable difference in certain aspects of non-social motivation. These results demonstrate a behavioral correlation between social dominance and social motivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Testing knowledge sharing effectiveness: trust, motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and social network embedded model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Muhammad Sabbir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this inquiry is to investigate the relationships among the antecedents of knowledge sharing effectiveness under the position of non-academic staff of higher learning institutions through an empirical test of a conceptual model consisting of trust, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and online social network. This study used the respondents from the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions in Malaysia (n = 200, utilizing a self-administered survey questionnaire. The structural equation modeling approach was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The outcomes indicate that all the antecedents play a substantial function in knowledge sharing effectiveness. In addition, perceived risk plays a mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing effectiveness. On the other hand, this research also proved the communication skill also plays a mediating role between leadership style and knowledge sharing effectiveness. This study contributes to pioneering empirical findings on knowledge sharing literature under the scope of the non-academic staff perspective.

  5. HIV/AIDS, social capital, and online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drushel, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The prospects for online social networks as sites of information-gathering and affiliation for persons with AIDS and others concerned about HIV/AIDS not only represent the latest development in a trend toward circumventing traditional media and official information sources, but also may offer hope for a revitalization of HIV/AIDS discourse in the public sphere. This article provides an overview of three decades of information-seeking on the pandemic and its social and personal implications, as well as case studies of three examples of social networking surrounding HIV/AIDS. It finds preliminary evidence of the formation of strong and weak ties as described in Social Network Theory and suggests that the online accumulation of social capital by opinion leaders could facilitate dissemination of messages on HIV/AIDS awareness and testing.

  6. HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gari

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

  7. A Sample Application for Use of Biography in Social Studies; Science, Technology and Social Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Harun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the opinions of social studies teacher candidates on use of biography in science, technology and social change course given in the undergraduate program of social studies education. In this regard, convergent parallel design as a mixed research pattern was used to make use of both qualitative and quantitative…

  8. Comparing lifecourse models of social class and adult oral health using the 1958 National Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, E K; Bernabé, E

    2015-03-01

    To identify the lifecourse model that best describes the association between social class and adult oral health. Data from 10,217 participants of the 1958 National Child Development Study were used. Social class at ages 7, 16 and 33 years were chosen to represent socioeconomic conditions during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, respectively. Two subjective oral health indicators (lifetime and past-year prevalence of persistent trouble with gums or mouth) were measured at age 33. The critical period, accumulation and social trajectories models were tested in logistic regression models and the most appropriate lifecourse model was identified using the structured modelling approach. The critical period model showed that only adulthood social class was significantly associated with oral health. For the accumulation model, a monotonic gradient was found between the number of periods in manual social class and oral health; and four out of eight social trajectories were found to be distinctive. Finally, the social trajectories model was not significantly different from the saturated model indicating that it provided a good fit to the data. This study shows the social trajectories model was the most appropriate, in terms of model fit, to describe the association between social class and oral health.

  9. Social capital calculations in economic systems: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurov, E. G.; Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Nazarova, Yu. Yu.; Chekmarev, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes the social capital study for a system where actors are engaged in an economic activity. The focus is on the analysis of communications structural parameters (transactions) between the actors. Comparison between transaction network graph structure and the structure of a random Bernoulli graph of the same dimension and density allows revealing specific structural features of the economic system under study. Structural analysis is based on SNA-methodology (SNA - Social Network Analysis). It is shown that structural parameter values of the graph formed by agent relationship links may well characterize different aspects of the social capital structure. The research advocates that it is useful to distinguish the difference between each agent social capital and the whole system social capital.

  10. Promoting HIV risk awareness and testing in Latinos living on the U.S.-Mexico border: the Tú No Me Conoces social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshefsky, Alisa M; Zive, Michelle M; Scolari, Rosana; Zuñiga, María

    2007-10-01

    Increased incidence of HIV/AIDS in Latinos warrants effective social marketing messages to promote testing. The Tú No Me Conoces (You Don't Know Me) social marketing campaign promoted awareness of HIV risk and testing in Latinos living on the California-Mexico border. The 8-week campaign included Spanish-language radio, print media, a Web site, and a toll-free HIV-testing referral hotline. We documented an increase in HIV testing at partner clinics; 28% of testers who heard or saw an HIV advertisement specifically identified our campaign. Improved understanding of effective social marketing messages for HIV testing in the growing Latino border population is warranted.

  11. Internet and social network recruitment: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathy A; Peace, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment of study participants is a significant research challenge. The Internet, with its ability to reach large numbers of people in networks connected by email, Facebook and other social networking mechanisms, appears to offer new avenues for recruitment. This paper reports recruitment experiences from two research projects that engaged the Internet and social networks in different ways for study recruitment. Drawing from the non-Internet recruitment literature, we speculate that the relationship with the source of the research and the purpose of the engaged social network should be a consideration in Internet or social network recruitment strategies.

  12. Uncovering noisy social signals : Using optimization methods from experimental physics to study social phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Maurits; Van Emden, Robin; Iannuzzi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out

  13. Uncovering noisy social signals: Using optimization methods from experimental physics to study social phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Emden, R. van; Iannuzzi, D.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out

  14. Social Change and Anomie: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruohui; Cao, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    We apply Durkheim's social transitional theory to explain the variation of anomie in 30 nations in the world. Combining data from two sources--the 1995 "World Values Survey and the United Nations University's World Income Inequality Database" or WIID--we test the hypothesis that rapid sociopolitical change at the structural level disrupts social…

  15. Tradition and Change in the Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald O.

    1980-01-01

    The historical development of curriculum materials in the social studies is outlined. Principles offering the potential to effect major changes are described and a set of guidelines for a rational social studies curriculum is established. (JMF)

  16. Social Neworking Sites Usage of Students Studying in the S.P.E.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Atali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is the determination of the intended use of social networking sites of students studying in the School of Physical Education and Sports (S.P.E.S. and demonstration of the current situation. In line with this purpose, answers were sought for the questions 'What are the intentions and aims of students studying in the School of Physical Education and Sports to use social networking sites?' and 'Do intended uses of students studying in the School of Physical Education and Sports differentiate in accordance with their demographic characteristics (gender, department, grade?' The study population consists of students of the Schools of Physical Education and Sports of Kocaeli University and Sakarya University who have been studying in these schools in 2013-2014 academic year. 672 students were chosen from the study population by use of convenience sampling method. "Social Networking Sites Intended Use Scale" is the general screening model because of the reason that the existing situation was determined as a result of analysis of the obtained data with quantitative method. Frequency measurement, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis test techniques were used for the analysis of data obtained from students. Consequently, the findings of this study have shown that gender and grade do not create a significant difference in the intended use of social networking sites of students who are studying in the Schools of Physical Education and Sports and the intended use of students can be classified in the issues including communication, shar- ing, publicity, recognition, education and enlightenment.

  17. Psychometric validation of the Persian Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale using classic test theory and Rasch models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Broström, Anders; Nilsen, Per; Griffiths, Mark D; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), a six-item self-report scale that is a brief and effective psychometric instrument for assessing at-risk social media addiction on the Internet. However, its psychometric properties in Persian have never been examined and no studies have applied Rasch analysis for the psychometric testing. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian BSMAS using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch models among 2,676 Iranian adolescents. Methods In addition to construct validity, measurement invariance in CFA and differential item functioning (DIF) in Rasch analysis across gender were tested for in the Persian BSMAS. Results Both CFA [comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.993; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.989; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.057; standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.039] and Rasch (infit MnSq = 0.88-1.28; outfit MnSq = 0.86-1.22) confirmed the unidimensionality of the BSMAS. Moreover, measurement invariance was supported in multigroup CFA including metric invariance (ΔCFI = -0.001; ΔSRMR = 0.003; ΔRMSEA = -0.005) and scalar invariance (ΔCFI = -0.002; ΔSRMR = 0.005; ΔRMSEA = 0.001) across gender. No item displayed DIF (DIF contrast = -0.48 to 0.24) in Rasch across gender. Conclusions Given the Persian BSMAS was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess how an adolescent is addicted to social media on the Internet. Moreover, users of the instrument may comfortably compare the sum scores of the BSMAS across gender.

  18. Social Isolation and Mental Health at Primary and Secondary School Entry: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Objective We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. Method We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers’ and teachers’ reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers’ and teachers’ ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. Results At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Conclusion Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. PMID:25721188

  19. Social isolation and mental health at primary and secondary school entry: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-03-01

    We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers' and teachers' reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers' and teachers' ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Use of Art Activities in Social Studies Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Nadire Emel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure how effective the use of art activities is at achieving the goals of social studies program and to introduce a model practice that social studies teachers can follow. Accordingly, certain objectives were selected from among the main objectives of social studies program and the activities prepared for a…

  1. Social Studies Fail on Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the costs of protectionism and the benefits of specialization and trade and concludes that current popular support for protectionist policies suggests a poor performance by social studies educators. (GEA)

  2. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  3. Enhancing tolerability of a measure of social perception in schizophrenia: comparison of short and long Norwegian versions of the Relationships Across Domains test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Fiske, Alan P; Green, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    Relationship perception focuses on social interactions, is reduced in schizophrenia and is related to daily functioning. It can be assessed with the Relationships Across Domains (RAD) test, built on Relational Models Theory which states that people use four relational models to interpret social interaction. RAD is time consuming, low on tolerability and only used in English-speaking countries. We evaluated the psychometric properties of a translated, abbreviated Norwegian version. Sixty-two schizophrenia participants and 56 healthy controls underwent assessments of social and non-social cognition. The schizophrenia group completed functional and clinical measures. RAD's internal consistency was investigated with Cronbach's alphas, group differences with logistic regressions and associations between study variables with Pearson's correlations. RAD was reduced from 25 (Cronbach's alpha = .809) to 12 vignettes (Cronbach's alpha = .815). Schizophrenia participants had significant impairments, with larger effect sizes for the full version. Associations of RAD with study variables were similar for the two versions: smaller for clinical measures and larger for functional and cognitive measures. Results were comparable to results for the English version. The length of the Norwegian RAD was reduced while retaining its psychometric properties, which were similar to the English version. This suggests the test's cross-cultural utility.

  4. Danish Approaches in Social Studies of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    1995-01-01

    Danish contribution to a EU-COST A4 action analysing the emergence of social studies of technology, the Science-Technology-Society field and the 'new sociology' of technology in Europe.......Danish contribution to a EU-COST A4 action analysing the emergence of social studies of technology, the Science-Technology-Society field and the 'new sociology' of technology in Europe....

  5. Lessons learned from use of social network strategy in HIV testing programs targeting African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCree, Donna H; Millett, Gregorio; Baytop, Chanza; Royal, Scott; Ellen, Jonathan; Halkitis, Perry N; Kupprat, Sandra A; Gillen, Sara

    2013-10-01

    We report lessons derived from implementation of the Social Network Strategy (SNS) into existing HIV counseling, testing, and referral services targeting 18- to 64-year-old Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). The SNS procedures used in this study were adapted from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded, 2-year demonstration project involving 9 community-based organizations (CBOs) in 7 cities. Under the SNS, HIV-positive and HIV-negative men at high risk for HIV (recruiters) were enlisted to identify and recruit persons from their social, sexual, or drug-using networks (network associates) for HIV testing. Sites maintained records of modified study protocols for ascertaining lessons learned. The study was conducted between April 2008 and May 2010 at CBOs in Washington, DC, and New York, New York, and at a health department in Baltimore, Maryland. Several common lessons regarding development of the plan, staffing, training, and use of incentives were identified across the sites. Collectively, these lessons indicate use of SNS is resource-intensive, requiring a detailed plan, dedicated staff, and continual input from clients and staff for successful implementation. SNS may provide a strategy for identifying and targeting clusters of high-risk Black MSM for HIV testing. Given the resources needed to implement the strategy, additional studies using an experimental design are needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of SNS compared with other testing strategies.

  6. The social media participation framework: studying the effects of social media on nonprofit communities

    OpenAIRE

    Effing, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline community effects of social media use. Therefore, the main question of this study is: “How does the use of social media by members of nonprofit communities affect their offline participation?” The Social...

  7. Patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men living in Scotland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Nicola; Buston, Katie; McDaid, Lisa Margaret

    2017-08-17

    Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18-29) in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: 'habitual', 'reactive' and ' ad hoc'. This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and 'community' in shaping young men's approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and 'community' responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with 'transitional moments' such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase rates of HIV testing and testing frequency among young gay and bisexual men should include a

  8. Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

  9. A test of the stress-buffering model of social support in smoking cessation: is the relationship between social support and time to relapse mediated by reduced withdrawal symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D

    2015-05-01

    Social support has been linked to quitting smoking, but the mechanisms by which social support affects cessation are poorly understood. The current study tested a stress-buffering model of social support, which posits that social support protects or "buffers" individuals from stress related to quitting smoking. We hypothesized that social support would be negatively associated with risk of relapse, and that this effect would be mediated by reduced withdrawal and depressive symptoms (i.e., cessation-related stress) over time. Further, we predicted that trait neuroticism would moderate this mediational effect, such that individuals high in negative affectivity would show the greatest stress-buffering effects of social support. Participants were weight-concerned women (n = 349) ages 18-65 enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial of bupropion and cognitive behavioral therapy. Social support was assessed at baseline, and biochemically-verified abstinence, withdrawal-related symptoms, and depressive symptoms were assessed at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Social support was negatively related to risk of relapse in survival models and negatively related to withdrawal symptoms and depression in mixed effects models. These relationships held after controlling for the effects of pre-quit day negative affect and depression symptoms, assignment to treatment condition, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. A temporal mediation model showed that the effect of social support on risk of relapse was mediated by reductions in withdrawal symptoms over time but not by depression over time. Contrary to hypotheses, we did not find that neuroticism moderated this mediation effect. Increased social support may buffer women from the harmful effects of cessation-related withdrawal symptoms, which in turn improve cessation outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  10. Glancing up or down: Mood management and selective social comparisons on social networking sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, B.K.; Knobloch-Westerwick, S.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) provide opportunities for mood management through selective exposure. This study tested the prediction that negative mood fosters self-enhancing social comparisons to SNS profiles. Participants were induced into positive or negative moods and then browsed manipulated

  11. Adolescent Internet addiction: testing the association between self-esteem, the perception of Internet attributes, and preference for online social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Giulia; Dèttore, Davide; Casale, Silvia

    2012-06-01

    There is a general consensus that Internet addiction (IA) is mainly related to social aspects of the Web, especially among adolescents. The empirical link between poor social skills and IA is well documented; however, theoretical explanations for this relationship are less developed. One possibility is that people with poor social skills are especially prone to develop a preference for online social interaction (POSI), which, in turn, predicts problematic usage. This hypothesis has been tested for loneliness and social anxiety, but not for self-esteem (SE; one of the main antecedents of IA). Furthermore, the mediating role of the perceived relevance of some Internet features (e.g., anonymity) in the relationship between SE and POSI has never been investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 257 adolescents. Using mediation analyses, we found evidence among females for the mediating role of (a) POSI in the relationship between SE and IA, and (b) the subjective relevance of some Internet features in the association between SE and POSI. No significant effects were found for males.

  12. Social identity, social networks and recovery capital in emerging adulthood: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, E; Best, D; Beckwith, M; Dingle, G A; Lubman, D I

    2015-11-11

    It has been argued that recovery from substance dependence relies on a change in identity, with past research focused on 'personal identity'. This study assessed support for a social identity model of recovery in emerging adults through examining associations between social identity, social networks, recovery capital, and quality of life. Twenty participants aged 18-21 in residential treatment for substance misuse were recruited from four specialist youth drug treatment services - three detoxification facilities and one psychosocial rehabilitation facility in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a detailed social network interview exploring the substance use of groups in their social networks and measures of quality of life, recovery capital, and social identity. Lower group substance use was associated with higher recovery capital, stronger identification with non-using groups, and greater importance of non-using groups in the social network. Additionally, greater identification with and importance of non-using groups were associated with better environmental quality of life, whereas greater importance conferred on using groups was associated with reduced environmental quality of life. Support was found for the role of social identity processes in reported recovery capital and quality of life. Future research in larger, longitudinal samples is required to improve understanding of social identity processes during treatment and early recovery and its relationship to recovery stability.

  13. Motivation and Social Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Social cognition, referring to one's ability to perceive and process social cues, is an important domain in schizophrenia. Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia have poorer performance on tests assessing social cognition relative to healthy comparison participants. However, whether variables such as motivation are related to performance on these tests in patients with schizophrenia is unclear. One thousand three-hundred and seventy-eight patients with schizophrenia completed the Facial Emotion Discrimination Task as a measure of emotional processing, a key facet of social cognition. Level of motivation was also evaluated in these patients using a derived measure from the Quality of Life Scale. The relationship between motivation and task performance was examined using bivariate correlations and logistic regression modeling, controlling for the impact of age and overall severity of psychopathology, the latter evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Motivation was positively related to performance on the social cognition test, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for potential confounding variables such as age and illness severity. Social cognition was also related to functioning, and the relationship was mediated by level of motivation. The present study found a significant relationship between motivation and performance on a test of social cognition in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that amotivation undermines task performance, or alternatively that poor social cognitive ability impedes motivation. Future studies evaluating social cognition in patients with schizophrenia should concurrently assess for variables such as effort and motivation.

  14. Introducing RISC: A New Video Inventory for Testing Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermich, Kathrin; Pell, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Indirect forms of speech, such as sarcasm, jocularity (joking), and 'white lies' told to spare another's feelings, occur frequently in daily life and are a problem for many clinical populations. During social interactions, information about the literal or nonliteral meaning of a speaker unfolds simultaneously in several communication channels (e.g., linguistic, facial, vocal, and body cues); however, to date many studies have employed uni-modal stimuli, for example focusing only on the visual modality, limiting the generalizability of these results to everyday communication. Much of this research also neglects key factors for interpreting speaker intentions, such as verbal context and the relationship of social partners. Relational Inference in Social Communication (RISC) is a newly developed (English-language) database composed of short video vignettes depicting sincere, jocular, sarcastic, and white lie social exchanges between two people. Stimuli carefully manipulated the social relationship between communication partners (e.g., boss/employee, couple) and the availability of contextual cues (e.g. preceding conversations, physical objects) while controlling for major differences in the linguistic content of matched items. Here, we present initial perceptual validation data (N = 31) on a corpus of 920 items. Overall accuracy for identifying speaker intentions was above 80% correct and our results show that both relationship type and verbal context influence the categorization of literal and nonliteral interactions, underscoring the importance of these factors in research on speaker intentions. We believe that RISC will prove highly constructive as a tool in future research on social cognition, inter-personal communication, and the interpretation of speaker intentions in both healthy adults and clinical populations.

  15. Measuring Social Studies Concept Attainment: Boys and Girls. Report from the Project on A Structure of Concept Attainment Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret L.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    This paper describes test development efforts for measuring achievement of selected concepts in social studies. It includes descriptive item and test statistics for the tests developed. Twelve items were developed for each of 30 concepts. Subject specialists categorized the concepts into three major areas: Geographic Region, Man and Society, and…

  16. A novel escapable social interaction test reveals that social behavior and mPFC activation during an escapable social encounter are altered by post-weaning social isolation and are dependent on the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Dayton J; Ahern, Megan A; Baynard, Jessica; Wall, Vanessa L; Bland, Sondra T

    2017-01-15

    Post-weaning social isolation (PSI) has been shown to increase aggressive behavior and alter medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function in social species such as rats. Here we developed a novel escapable social interaction test (ESIT) allowing for the quantification of escape and social behaviors in addition to mPFC activation in response to an aggressive or nonaggressive stimulus rat. Male rats were exposed to 3 weeks of PSI (ISO) or group (GRP) housing, and exposed to 3 trials, with either no trial, all trials, or the last trial only with a stimulus rat. Analysis of social behaviors indicated that ISO rats spent less time in the escape chamber and more time engaged in social interaction, aggressive grooming, and boxing than did GRP rats. Interestingly, during the third trial all rats engaged in more of the quantified social behaviors and spent less time escaping in response to aggressive but not nonaggressive stimulus rats. Rats exposed to nonaggressive stimulus rats on the third trial had greater c-fos and ARC immunoreactivity in the mPFC than those exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. Conversely, a social encounter produced an increase in large PSD-95 punctae in the mPFC independently of trial number, but only in ISO rats exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. The results presented here demonstrate that PSI increases interaction time and aggressive behaviors during escapable social interaction, and that the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat in a social encounter is an important component of behavioral and neural outcomes for both isolation and group-reared rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Students’ Motivations for Social Media Enhanced Studying and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Silius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of social media enhanced learning are widely studied in Hypermedia Laboratory at Tampere University of Technology (TUT. In recent years Web 2.0 based social media services (e.g., Facebook®, LinkedIn®, Last.fm®, etc. have become popular, especially among young people. Based on this phenomenon TUT Hypermedia researchers have developed a social networking site for TUT freshmen aiming to provide convenient tools for interaction and study support. The first idea was to offer a free-of-charge social web site in the context of learning Basic Engineering Mathematics at TUT. This was thought to be an efficient tool to get new students studies off to a good start as mathematics courses play a significant role. However, the prediction failed, which caused us to study students‟ motivations for social network site usage in the study context. This paper describes research conducted in 2009. Moreover, a description of subsequent measures accomplished (e.g., web site development and social network analysis at TUT is included.

  18. An Analysis of Social Studies Education Faculty Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Linda; Scholes, Roberta; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the responsibilities and qualifications of social studies education faculty positions as listed in The Chronicle of Higher Education during the 2004-2005 academic year. Many of the listings conveyed expectations for social studies educators to teach undergraduate courses, supervise interns, write grants…

  19. Social Customer Relationship Management: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliouras Konstantinos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Customer Relationships Management (CRM is a current business trend providing new channels of two-way communication with customers through social media sites, such as Facebook, Twitter etc. Social CRM enables companies to interact in an easy and contemporary way directly with customers as well as to track customer interactions and their social influence. In this paper we examine the importance of CRM, e-CRM and Social CRM for businesses. We provide perspectives on objectives and types of CRM, the working cycle of CRM, the stages of a CRM Strategy and technology tools that are used in CRM. Social CRM is in particularly analyzed, since this new trend requires active engagement by customers and other stakeholders. The engagement process is essential to successful Social CRM and to successful social business practices. Finally, we describe experiences from three family businesses that introduced Social CRM as a result of a project carried out as an assignment in the ‘Social Media Networking’ module of the MSc course in ‘Web Intelligence’ at the Department of Informatics of Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. The assignment of the groups was to create a Social CRM Strategy in collaboration with a company. This study is a follow-up of the outcome of the projects carried out in the autumn semester 2014 and 2015. The results show that all three companies consider that Social CRM is an excellent tool for obtaining real time valuable data about customers and a cheap way to reach them.

  20. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  1. Performance-based vs socially supportive culture : A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ute, S.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a cross-national study testing a framework relating cultural descriptive norms to entrepreneurship in a sample of 40 nations. Based on data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, we identify two higher-order dimensions of culture – socially

  2. Effects of attractiveness and social status on dating desire in heterosexual adolescents: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, P.T.; Overbeek, G.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent dating desire is based on attractiveness and social status of a potential short-term partner. Further, we tested whether self-perceived mate value moderated the relationship between dating desire and attractiveness of a potential partner. Data

  3. Social dominance orientation and opinions about what is America's most serious social problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Wendy J

    2005-08-01

    This study tested whether a measure of Social Dominance Orientation was associated with opinions about America's most serious social problem. 150 undergraduates enrolled in social problems classes responded to the 14-item scale and to an open-ended question, "In your opinion, what is the most serious social problem in our country today?". Analysis shows that mean scale scores differed significantly across social problem responses. Correspondence analysis, plotting association between scale scores and social problem responses, was interpreted as support for social dominance theory. Higher scale scores were associated with problems of crime and negative values and lower scores with problems of education and racism.

  4. Adolescents as Readers of Social Studies: Examining the Relationship between Youth's Everyday and Social Studies Literacies and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdill, Darin B.; Moje, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between student engagement and social studies literacy, exploring the possible connections between students' reading interests and practices and social studies learning. With a sample of 802 secondary students from five schools in one urban community, we use complementary methods to explore survey and…

  5. Investigation of the Effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the Social Skill Development of 5-6 Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the social skill development of 5-6 year-old children. In the study, the pre-test/post-test and retention test experimental design with a control group was used. 5-6 year-old 60 (30 experimental, 30 control) preschool children participated in the…

  6. Note-Making in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Note-making is one excellent method for helping students retain important points made by the teacher. Techniques that elementary and secondary social studies teacher can use to teach note-making skills are described. (RM)

  7. New information technologies in social studies: postnonclassical paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ya. Menshikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses topical issues of virtual reality technologies in social research, particularly when studying the processes of ethnic cultural identity, development of ethnic and racial attitudes using «virtual avatars» for managing ethnic conflicts, development of communication skills in representatives of different cultures using virtual collaboration and video conferencing. One of the key issues of the paper to discuss the necessity of post-non-classical paradigm as a conceptual framework for social research. Contemporary social studies require developing new methods, technologies and techniques at all levels of the research: from task setting to the development of new methods and result analysis. One of the most promising methods rapidly developed in recent years is virtual reality technology. The paper presents the analysis of more than 40 experimental studies performed using CAVE and HMD virtual reality systems. Their application is considered hereunder for the studies of verbal and nonverbal cues in communication, social skills training, treatment of social anxiety disorders and the development of new methods of cognitive behavioural therapy. Studies on interpersonal communication with virtual partners (i.e. «avatars» are considered. Factors affecting the communication quality of avatars, its visual and behavioural realism, problems of seeing virtual human as real partners for social interaction are discussed. Special attention is paid to the studies of racial and ethnic attitudes performed using virtual reality systems. The possibilities of practical applications of the VR technologies for shaping positive attitudes and development of communication skills in a sociocultural context are emphasized.

  8. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Opinions about Digital Citizenship and Its Place in Social Studies Teacher Training Program: A Comparison between the USA and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Hidir

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine and compare what social studies teacher candidates living in two different countries think about digital citizenship and its place within social studies and social studies teacher training program and to produce suggestions concerning digital citizenship education. Having a descriptive design, this research has…

  9. A Guide to Curriculum Planning in Social Studies Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, H. Michael

    Designed to provide social studies educators with specific information for the development of local school district K-12 curriculum, this guide is organized into eight sections. Following an introduction, section 1 provides a rationale, goals, and major themes for the social studies and social sciences. Section 2 presents a scope and sequence…

  10. The Interplay among Environmental Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behavior, Social Identity, and Pro-Environmental Institutional Climate. A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…

  11. Semiconductors: A 21st Century Social Studies Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the reasons for exploring semiconductor technology and organic semiconductors in schools for either middle school or secondary students in an interdisciplinary social studies and science environment. Provides background information on transistors and semiconductors. Offers three social studies lessons and related science lessons if an…

  12. Social Media Use: An Exploratory Test of Effects on the Daily Lives of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Barbara; Cothern, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This study covers the effects that social media use has on the daily lives of college students. More specifically, the current study focuses on college students' academic success, study habits, social interaction, and family interaction. Social media is a source of online tools that allow people from across the world to communicate with others.…

  13. Social communication in mice--are there optimal cage conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain-Thibeault Ferhat

    Full Text Available Social communication is heavily affected in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Accordingly, mouse models designed to study the mechanisms leading to these disorders are tested for this phenotypic trait. Test conditions vary between different models, and the effect of these test conditions on the quantity and quality of social interactions and ultrasonic communication is unknown. The present study examines to which extent the habituation time to the test cage as well as the shape/size of the cage influence social communication in freely interacting mice. We tested 8 pairs of male mice in free dyadic social interactions, with two habituation times (20 min and 30 min and three cage formats (rectangle, round, square. We tested the effect of these conditions on the different types of social contacts, approach-escape sequences, follow behavior, and the time each animal spent in the vision field of the other one, as well as on the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations and their contexts of emission. We provide for the first time an integrated analysis of the social interaction behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations. Surprisingly, we did not highlight any significant effect of habituation time and cage shape/size on the behavioral events examined. There was only a slight increase of social interactions with the longer habituation time in the round cage. Remarkably, we also showed that vocalizations were emitted during specific behavioral sequences especially during close contact or approach behaviors. The present study provides a protocol reliably eliciting social contacts and ultrasonic vocalizations in adult male mice. This protocol is therefore well adapted for standardized investigation of social interactions in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Contextualizing and assessing the social capital of seniors in congregate housing residences: study design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Therese

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article discusses the study design and methods used to contextualize and assess the social capital of seniors living in congregate housing residences in Calgary, Alberta. The project is being funded as a pilot project under the Institute of Aging, Canadian Institutes for Health Research. Design/Methods Working with seniors living in 5 congregate housing residencies in Calgary, the project uses a mixed method approach to develop grounded measures of the social capital of seniors. The project integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods in a 3-phase research design: 1 qualitative, 2 quantitative, and 3 qualitative. Phase 1 uses gender-specific focus groups; phase 2 involves the administration of individual surveys that include a social network module; and phase 3 uses anamolous-case interviews. Not only does the study design allow us to develop grounded measures of social capital but it also permits us to test how well the three methods work separately, and how well they fit together to achieve project goals. This article describes the selection of the study population, the multiple methods used in the research and a brief discussion of our conceptualization and measurement of social capital.

  15. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Attentional bias and drinking to cope with social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Maureen H; Drobes, David J; Randall, Carrie L

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of the emotional Stroop test for identifying individuals who reported drinking to cope with social fears. Community volunteers completed a modified Stroop task during which social threat, alcohol-related, and control words were presented. High scores on drinking-to-cope measures were hypothesized to be associated with longer response latencies to both social threat and alcohol-related words. Consistent with previous studies, alcohol dependence was correlated with latencies for alcohol-related words, and level of social anxiety was correlated with response latency to social threat words. As expected, drinking-to-cope measures predicted response latency to alcohol-related and social threat words. These results suggest that the emotional Stroop test is useful in studying the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption. Copyright 2005 APA.

  17. Social positions and political recruitment: a study of Brazilian senators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Codato

    Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses the methodology for the definition, classification, and measurement of social positions of the parliamentary political elite. We present some theoretical and methodological strategies for classifying the variable “occupation held prior to political career”, and suggest the use of more than one indicator for this measurement. We argue that a typology of both social and political characteristics of parliament members is the best way to grasp the transformations on the patterns of political recruitment throughout the 20th century. The first model we tested classified Brazilian senators elected between 1918 and 2010 among occupations conventionally used in studies on political elites. The second applied model seeks to change the coding of occupations so as to grasp this group’s sociopolitical transformations over time. We conclude with a new classification suggestion, which results from a typology sensitive to the varying values ascribed to professional occupations throughout history.

  18. Introducing RISC: A New Video Inventory for Testing Social Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rothermich

    Full Text Available Indirect forms of speech, such as sarcasm, jocularity (joking, and 'white lies' told to spare another's feelings, occur frequently in daily life and are a problem for many clinical populations. During social interactions, information about the literal or nonliteral meaning of a speaker unfolds simultaneously in several communication channels (e.g., linguistic, facial, vocal, and body cues; however, to date many studies have employed uni-modal stimuli, for example focusing only on the visual modality, limiting the generalizability of these results to everyday communication. Much of this research also neglects key factors for interpreting speaker intentions, such as verbal context and the relationship of social partners. Relational Inference in Social Communication (RISC is a newly developed (English-language database composed of short video vignettes depicting sincere, jocular, sarcastic, and white lie social exchanges between two people. Stimuli carefully manipulated the social relationship between communication partners (e.g., boss/employee, couple and the availability of contextual cues (e.g. preceding conversations, physical objects while controlling for major differences in the linguistic content of matched items. Here, we present initial perceptual validation data (N = 31 on a corpus of 920 items. Overall accuracy for identifying speaker intentions was above 80% correct and our results show that both relationship type and verbal context influence the categorization of literal and nonliteral interactions, underscoring the importance of these factors in research on speaker intentions. We believe that RISC will prove highly constructive as a tool in future research on social cognition, inter-personal communication, and the interpretation of speaker intentions in both healthy adults and clinical populations.

  19. Work-place social capital and smoking cessation: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Väänänen, Ari; De Vogli, Roberto; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Leka, Stavroula; Cox, Thomas; Kivimäki, Mika

    2008-11-01

    To examine whether high social capital at work is associated with an increased likelihood of smoking cessation in baseline smokers. Prospective cohort study. Finland. A total of 4853 employees who reported to be smokers in the baseline survey in 2000-2002 (response rate 68%) and responded to a follow-up survey on smoking status in 2004-2005 (response rate 77%). Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. Control variables included sex, age, socio-economic position, marital status, place of work, heavy drinking, physical activity, body mass index and physician-diagnosed depression. In multi-level logistic regression models adjusted for all the covariates, the odds for being a non-smoker at follow-up were 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03-1.55] times higher for baseline smokers who reported high individual-level social capital than for their counterparts with low social capital. In an analysis stratified by socio-economic position, a significant association between individual-level social capital and smoking cessation was observed in the high socio-economic group [odds ratio (OR) (95% CI)=1.63 (1.01-2.63)], but not in intermediate [(OR=1.10 (0.83-1.47)] or low socio-economic groups [(OR=1.28 (0.86-1.91)]. Work unit-level social capital was not associated with smoking cessation. If the observed associations are causal, these findings suggest that high perceived social capital at work may facilitate smoking cessation among smokers in higher-status jobs.

  20. Tabla de Especificaciones e Instructivo sobre Elaboracion de Pruebas Objetivas en la Ensenanza Primaria, para las asignaturas de Estudios Sociales, Idioma Espanol, Matematicas y Ciencias Naturales (Specification Tables and Instructions for the Construction of Objective Tests in the Primary Grades in Social Studies, Spanish, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Direccion de Bienestar Estudiantil y Educacion Especial.

    This booklet presents specification tables illustrating the relative importance given to topics on tests within a particular subject area. The general subject areas are social studies, Spanish, mathematics, and natural sciences. Tables are provided for final exams in each of these areas for several primary grades, illustrating the importance of…

  1. Participatory Learning through Social Media: How and Why Social Studies Educators Use Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutka, Daniel G.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The microblogging service Twitter offers a platform that social studies educators increasingly use for professional development, communication, and class activities, but to what ends? The authors drew on Deweyan conceptions of participatory learning and citizenship aims of the field as lenses through which to consider social media activities. To…

  2. What Would He Say? Harold O. Rugg and Contemporary Issues in Social Studies Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle-Baise, Marilynne; Goodman, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the continued saliency of the ideas of Harold O. Rugg, particularly for social studies education. Given the conservative political times in which we work, and the current educational emphases on academic standards, high-stakes standardized testing, and mastery of specified knowledge, and the impact of these…

  3. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...

  4. Invited commentary: recruiting for epidemiologic studies using social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E

    2015-05-15

    Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Strategies for Integrating Peace Education into Social Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings also identified co-curricular and instructional strategies for use in teaching the identified peace education concepts. It was recommended that the identified peace education concepts could be added to the Social Studies curriculum and the thematic approach should be used in restructuring the Social Studies ...

  6. [The social marketing models and policy advices for HIV rapid testing initiated by non-govermental organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Cai, L P; Xue, H; Zhao, Y; Wu, D; Zhang, D P; Yin, W Y; Sun, J P

    2016-10-06

    Currently, a growing number of community-based organizations are providing rapid HIV testing service in various forms, some people with specific needs also purchase HIV rapid test papers through online sales channels, those imply that the demand of HIV self-test is in increasing year by year.In this paper, aims to understand the current situation of HIV rapid test led by CBOs and the approach, strategies and results of social marketing by means of expert interviews and site visits. Hope to illustrate the current situation, and make recommendations for future work.

  7. Social network analysis of study environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Divjak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Student working environment influences student learning and achievement level. In this respect social aspects of students’ formal and non-formal learning play special role in learning environment. The main research problem of this paper is to find out if students' academic performance influences their position in different students' social networks. Further, there is a need to identify other predictors of this position. In the process of problem solving we use the Social Network Analysis (SNA that is based on the data we collected from the students at the Faculty of Organization and Informatics, University of Zagreb. There are two data samples: in the basic sample N=27 and in the extended sample N=52. We collected data on social-demographic position, academic performance, learning and motivation styles, student status (full-time/part-time, attitudes towards individual and teamwork as well as informal cooperation. Afterwards five different networks (exchange of learning materials, teamwork, informal communication, basic and aggregated social network were constructed. These networks were analyzed with different metrics and the most important were betweenness, closeness and degree centrality. The main result is, firstly, that the position in a social network cannot be forecast only by academic success and, secondly, that part-time students tend to form separate groups that are poorly connected with full-time students. In general, position of a student in social networks in study environment can influence student learning as well as her/his future employability and therefore it is worthwhile to be investigated.

  8. Social class, social mobility and risk of psychiatric disorder--a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkaja, Sanna; Sandin, Sven; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär; Hultman, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990) was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24,659) from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 person-years and relative risks (RR) by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate). The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class) to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class). Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility.

  9. Children Rights in Social Studies Curricula in Elementary Education: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merey, Zihni

    2012-01-01

    Social studies classes educate students as citizens who are expected to adopt democratic values and apply their information and richness to their life. Social studies classes are the ones that include human rights education in the first place. The purpose of this study is to make a comparison of inclusion levels of children's rights issues in…

  10. How Turkish Middle School Students Use the Internet to Study Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikalin, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has become one of the most common educational tools used by teachers and students in social studies education worldwide. Although there are extensive studies on how the Internet is used by teachers as an instructional tool in social studies classes, less work has been done to explain how students themselves use and interact with…

  11. The Social Media Disorder Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.; Lemmens, Jeroen; Valkenburg, Patti

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that social media addiction is an evolving problem, particularly among adolescents. However, the absence of an instrument measuring social media addiction hinders further development of the research field. The present study, therefore, aimed to test the reliability and

  12. The Social Media Disorder Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.; Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    There is growing evidence that social media addiction is an evolving problem, particularly among adolescents. However, the absence of an instrument measuring social media addiction hinders further development of the research field. The present study, therefore, aimed to test the reliability and

  13. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY SCORE: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PUBLIC And PRIVATE COMPANIES, BASED In ibase SOCIAL stamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Reis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to arguing the existing differences and similarities between Social Responsibility actions and praticals developed by the private and public companies. This comparative study of exploring character was carried with the companies owners of Social Stamp IBASE, wich published its Social Balances in the model considered for the institute in the year of 2004. For such, beyond the documentary research involving the published balances, a conceptual revision over the main subjects was necessary and also it constitutes part of the study. The joined results supply measurable and representative information about the main characteristics of social action of the companies, propitiating a comparative analysis and the emission of critical considerations, that do not finish themselves, but establishes a possibility of different readings concerning the models of social responsible management undertaken by companies from public and private segments.

  14. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  15. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  16. Behavioral and social cognitive processes in preschool children's social dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Roseth, Cary; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine; Dupuis, Danielle; Hickey, Meghan; Peshkam, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, naturalistic study addressed behavioral and social cognitive processes implicated in preschool children's social dominance. In the first objective, we examined the degree to which peer aggression, affiliation, and postaggression reconciliation predicted social dominance across a school year. Consistent with predictions, all three predicted dominance early in the year while only affiliation predicted dominance later in the year, suggesting that aggression, affiliation, and reconciliation were used to establish social dominance where affiliation was used to maintain it. In the second, exploratory, objective we tested the relative importance of social dominance and reconciliation (the Machiavellian and Vygotskian intelligence hypotheses, respectively) in predicting theory of mind/false belief. Results indicated that social dominance accounted for significant variance, beyond that related to reconciliation and affiliation, in predicting theory of mind/false belief status. Results are discussed in terms of specific behavioral and social cognitive processes employed in establishing and maintaining social dominance. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Sex-specific mechanism of social hierarchy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Wouter E; Lamballais, Sander; Kushner, Steven A

    2015-05-01

    The establishment of social hierarchies is a naturally occurring, evolutionarily conserved phenomenon with a well-established impact on fitness and health. Investigations of complex social group dynamics may offer novel opportunities for translational studies of autism spectrum disorder. Here we describe a robust behavioral paradigm using an automated version of the tube test. Isogenic groups of male and female mice establish linear social hierarchies that remain highly stable for at least 14 days, the longest interval tested. Remarkably, however, their social strategy is sex-specific: females primarily utilize intrinsic attributes, whereas males are strongly influenced by prior social experience. Using both genetic and pharmacological manipulations, we identify testosterone as a critical sex-specific factor for determining which social strategy is used. Males inheriting a null mutation of the sex-determining region Y (Sry) gene used a similar social cognitive strategy as females. In contrast, females with transgenic expression of Sry utilized a typically male social strategy. Analogously, castration of males and testosterone supplementation of females yielded similar outcomes, with a reversal of their social cognitive strategy. Together, our results demonstrate a sex-specific mechanism underlying social hierarchy, in which both males and females retain the functional capacity to adapt their social strategy. More generally, we expect the automated tube test to provide an important complementary approach for both fundamental and translational studies of social behavior.

  18. Social Studies Review, Numbers 1-12, 1989-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Gilbert T., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This documents consists of 12 issues of a journal that seeks to provide information and reviews concerning social studies textbooks; each issue consists of 16 pages. Contents in the 12 issues include: (1) California control over textbook content; (2) "skills" teaching in elementary-level social studies texts; (3) readability formulas;…

  19. A Cultural Interpretation of a Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, John H.

    Social studies documents were collected from teachers in the Tucson, Arizona area and examined using three theories of culture as a way to explore the interrelationships between social studies curriculum and United States society. Malinowski's functionalist position suggests that culture is composed of traits each of which provide a specific…

  20. Are Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Social Studies Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Related to Their Learning Approaches in a Social Studies Teaching Methods Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the growing literature on learning approaches and teacher self-efficacy beliefs by examining associations between prospective elementary school teachers' learning approaches in a social studies teaching methods course and their social studies teaching efficacy beliefs. One hundred ninety-two prospective elementary…

  1. Social Support, Religious Endorsement, and Career Commitment: A Study on Saudi Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Mohammad T; Islam, Mazharul M

    2018-01-10

    The present study investigates the effect of perceived social support (PSS) and perceived religious endorsement (PRE) on career commitment (CC) of Saudi nurses. The investigation also extends to the moderating role of different demographic and organizational factors in the extent of PSS, and career commitment these nurses report. Data required for meeting these study objectives were collected from male and female Saudi nurses through a structured questionnaire. Multiple regressions using Partial Least Squares based Structural Equation Model, Smart-PLS version 3.0, and independent sample t -test using SPSS version 22.0, were used to analyze data. The study findings reveal that both perceived social support and perceived religious endorsement are important antecedents of career commitment of Saudi nurses. However, private-sector nurses are found to exhibit a significantly higher level of career commitment compared to their public-sector counterparts. Nurses with greater educational attainment perceive higher level of social support and express greater career commitment than their less educated peers. These findings suggest that nursing as a profession should be more openly discussed in both secular and religious contexts, to ensure an adequate level of respect and compassion on behalf of the public. In particular, endorsement from the individual nurses' social networks is vital in maintaining their wellbeing and career commitment. Given the religious influence in all aspects of life in the Saudi society, the current practice of gender-based segregation in Saudi hospitals and clinics seems to be meaningful for sustaining the career commitment of the nurses.

  2. Social Support, Religious Endorsement, and Career Commitment: A Study on Saudi Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. Azim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of perceived social support (PSS and perceived religious endorsement (PRE on career commitment (CC of Saudi nurses. The investigation also extends to the moderating role of different demographic and organizational factors in the extent of PSS, and career commitment these nurses report. Data required for meeting these study objectives were collected from male and female Saudi nurses through a structured questionnaire. Multiple regressions using Partial Least Squares based Structural Equation Model, Smart-PLS version 3.0, and independent sample t-test using SPSS version 22.0, were used to analyze data. The study findings reveal that both perceived social support and perceived religious endorsement are important antecedents of career commitment of Saudi nurses. However, private-sector nurses are found to exhibit a significantly higher level of career commitment compared to their public-sector counterparts. Nurses with greater educational attainment perceive higher level of social support and express greater career commitment than their less educated peers. These findings suggest that nursing as a profession should be more openly discussed in both secular and religious contexts, to ensure an adequate level of respect and compassion on behalf of the public. In particular, endorsement from the individual nurses’ social networks is vital in maintaining their wellbeing and career commitment. Given the religious influence in all aspects of life in the Saudi society, the current practice of gender-based segregation in Saudi hospitals and clinics seems to be meaningful for sustaining the career commitment of the nurses.

  3. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.

  4. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychosocial work conditions, social participation and social capital: a causal pathway investigated in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Social capital is often claimed to be promoted by stable social structures such as low migration rates between neighbourhoods and social networks that remain stable over time. However, stable social structures may also inhibit the formation of social capital in the form of social networks and social participation. One example is psychosocial conditions at work, which may be determined by characteristics such as demand and control in the work situation. The study examines the active workforce subpopulation within the Swedish Malmö Shoulder Neck Study. A total of 7836 individuals aged 45-69 years, were interviewed at baseline between 1992 and 1994, and at a 1-year follow-up. Four groups of baseline psychosocial work conditions categories defined by the Karasek-Theorell model (jobstrain, passive, active, relaxed) were analysed according to 13 different social participation items during the past year reported at the 1-year follow-up. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with the jobstrain group as a reference were estimated. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess differences in different aspects of social participation between the four psychosocial work conditions groups. The results show that the respondents within the active category in particular but also the relaxed category, have significantly higher participation in many of the 13 social participation items, even after multivariate adjustments. The results strongly suggest that psychosocial work conditions may be an important determinant of social capital measured as social participation, a finding of immediate public health relevance because of the well known positive association between social participation and health-related behaviours.

  6. The social role of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescription in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenssgen, Marco J; Charoenboon, Nutcha; Althaus, Thomas; Greer, Rachel C; Intralawan, Daranee; Lubell, Yoel

    2018-04-01

    New and affordable point-of-care testing (POCT) solutions are hoped to guide antibiotic prescription and to help limit antimicrobial resistance (AMR)-especially in low- and middle-income countries where resource constraints often prevent extensive diagnostic testing. Anthropological and sociological research has illuminated the role and impact of rapid point-of-care malaria testing. This paper expands our knowledge about the social implications of non-malarial POCT, using the case study of a C-reactive-protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) clinical trial with febrile patients at primary-care-level health centres in Chiang Rai province, northern Thailand. We investigate the social role of CRP POCT through its interactions with (a) the healthcare workers who use it, (b) the patients whose routine care is affected by the test, and (c) the existing patient-health system linkages that might resonate or interfere with CRP POCT. We conduct a thematic analysis of data from 58 purposively sampled pre- and post-intervention patients and healthcare workers in August 2016 and May 2017. We find widespread positive attitudes towards the test among patients and healthcare workers. Patients' views are influenced by an understanding of CRP POCT as a comprehensive blood test that provides specific diagnosis and that corresponds to notions of good care. Healthcare workers use the test to support their negotiations with patients but also to legitimise ethical decisions in an increasingly restrictive antibiotic policy environment. We hypothesise that CRP POCT could entail greater patient adherence to recommended antibiotic treatment, but it could also encourage riskier health behaviour and entail potentially adverse equity implications for patients across generations and socioeconomic strata. Our empirical findings inform the clinical literature on increasingly propagated point-of-care biomarker tests to guide antibiotic prescriptions, and we contribute to the anthropological and

  7. Social cognitive and neurocognitive deficits in inpatients with unilateral thalamic lesions — pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkos E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ewelina Wilkos,2 Timothy JB Brown,3 Ksenia Slawinska,1 Katarzyna A Kucharska2,3 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroses, Personality and Eating Disorders Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Medical Education, Hull York Medical School, Hull, UK Background: The essential role of the thalamus in neurocognitive processes has been well documented. In contrast, relatively little is known about its involvement in social cognitive processes such as recognition of emotion, mentalizing, or empathy. The aim of the study: This study was designed to compare the performance of eight patients (five males, three females, mean age ± SD: 63.7±7.9 years at early stage of unilateral thalamic lesions and eleven healthy controls (six males, five females, 49.6±12.2 years in neurocognitive tests (CogState Battery: Groton Maze Learning Test, GML; Groton Maze Learning Test-Delayed Recall, GML-DR; Detection Task, DT; Identification Task, IT; One Card Learning Task, OCLT; One Back Task, OBT; Two Back Task, TBT; Set-Shifting Task, S-ST and other well-known tests (Benton Visual Retention Test, BVRT; California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT; The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCF; Trail Making Test, TMT part A and B; Color – Word Stroop Task, CWST; Verbal Fluency Test, VFT, and social cognitive tasks (The Penn Emotion Recognition Test, ER40; Penn Emotion Discrimination Task, EmoDiff40; The Penn Emotional Acuity Test, PEAT40; Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version II; Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20. Methods: Thalamic-damaged subjects were included if they experienced a single-episode ischemic stroke localized in right or left thalamus. The patients were examined at 3 weeks after the stroke onset. All were right handed. In addition, the following clinical scales were used: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II. An inclusion

  8. Social Capital in the Classroom: A Study of In-Class Social Capital and School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Vermande, Marjolijn; Völker, Beate; Baerveldt, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Social capital is generally considered beneficial for students' school adjustment. This paper argues that social relationships among pupils generate social capital at both the individual and the class levels, and that each has its unique effect on pupils' performance and well-being. The sample in this study consists of 1036 children in 60…

  9. Historical Development of Social Studies in Nigeria | Ogunbiyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made in this paper to analyze the development of Social Studies education in Nigeria. It examines how Social Studies was introduced as an experimental subject and later as a compulsory one in the primary and junior secondary school. The paper identifies those organizations that were responsible for ...

  10. Patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men living in Scotland: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Boydell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18–29 in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men’s accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: ‘habitual’, ‘reactive’ and ‘ ad hoc’. Results This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and ‘community’ in shaping young men’s approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and ‘community’ responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with ‘transitional moments’ such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase

  11. Moving Toward a Humanistic Social Studies and History Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Berg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current reflective practices in the social studies are examined in light of how these strategies can add value and meaning to social studies curriculums. Many of these reflective practices were introduced within teacher education programs’ social studies methods courses, to expose pre-service teachers to innovative teaching practices that could be used in the classroom. An ineffective textbook-centered curriculum has dominated education in the United States for over a century. The researchers in this article argue for a new, reflective approach to teaching history and social studies curricula. New pedagogical models are needed to revive an ailing social studies program in the public school system. This article includes a selective examination of some traditional and non-traditional methods for promoting student learning and growth through reflective practices. Those considered in this article include dialogue journals, textbooks, culturally responsive texts (CRT, the Persona Doll Project, mask-making, primary source documents, and co-teaching. Each reflective practice strategy has its merits and could be easily implemented to improve pedagogical practice.

  12. 128 THE SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THE SOCIALLY OPPRESSED IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    subject to a series of rigorous testing, self-scrutiny and the verification of facts as ... the social sciences cannot be subject to such tests and verification. The social sciences ... until such a time when that hypothesis or theory is scrutinized and.

  13. Social class, social mobility and risk of psychiatric disorder--a population-based longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Tiikkaja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960 and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990 was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24,659 from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 person-years and relative risks (RR by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate. The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. RESULTS: The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class. Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility.

  14. Social Class, Social Mobility and Risk of Psychiatric Disorder - A Population-Based Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkaja, Sanna; Sandin, Sven; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär; Hultman, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. Material and Methods In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990) was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24 659) from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100 000 person-years and relative risks (RR) by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate). The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. Results The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class) to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class). Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. Conclusions Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility. PMID:24260104

  15. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozana Meinhardt-Injac

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM, understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009. To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  16. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Daum, Moritz M; Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte

    2018-01-01

    According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related) and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related) path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  17. Social Media Marketing in a Small Business: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In today’s social media driven environment, it is essential that small businesses understand Facebook, Twitter, and the strategies behind using social media for growing their business. Unfortunately, many small businesses do not have a strategy when they begin using social media. The purpose of this study is to understand how the owner of a small business, recognized for using social media to grow the business, uses social media to engage consumers. A case study is presented, followed by an i...

  18. Perfectionistic Concerns, Social Negativity, and Subjective Well-Being: A Test of the Social Disconnection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P; Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Leonard, Kenneth E; Fraser, Ronald; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-06-01

    Partner-specific perfectionistic concerns (PC) include concern over mistakes, self-criticism, and socially prescribed perfectionism as it pertains to one's partner. The social disconnection model proposes that PC influences well-being indirectly through interpersonal problems. Thus, we hypothesized that social negativity (expressed anger, hostility, and rejection) would mediate the relationship between dyadic PC and subjective well-being. Data from 203 romantic dyads (92.1% heterosexual) were collected using self-report surveys and a four-wave, 4-week longitudinal design. Participants were predominantly female (53.1%), young (M = 22.69 years), and Caucasian (82.3%). Data were analyzed using an actor-partner interdependence model with multilevel structural equation modeling. There were significant actor effects at the between-subjects and within-subjects levels, and significant partner effects for the relationship between PC and social negativity at the within-subject level. Social negativity mediated the relationships between PC and both negative affect and life satisfaction. However, positive affect was more weakly related to PC and social negativity. The social disconnection model was supported. PC was positively associated with one's own social negativity and evoked hostile behaviors from one's partner. Hostile, rejecting behaviors reduced the well-being of the actor, but not the partner. Results suggest perfectionism may be best understood within an interpersonal context. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Relationship between Impulsivity, Social Media Usage and Loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Savci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between impulsivity, social media usage, and loneliness and to test the structural hypothetical model developed based on the literature. The study was conducted on 307 (164 female, 143 male university students. Data collection instruments of the study were the Barratt Impulsivity Scale Short Form (BIS-11-SF, Social Media Usage Scale (SMUS, and UCLA Loneliness Scale Short Form (ULS-8. The measurement models of the latent variables were tested initially and it was observed that the scales of the latent variables were efficient enough to be included in the structural equation model. In addition, the suggested hypothetical model was tested. According to the analysis, it was observed that impulsivity directly, positively and significantly predicts social media usage, that social media usage directly, positively and significantly predicts loneliness, and that impulsivity indirectly, positively and significantly predicts loneliness.

  20. Social Networks and the Building of Learning Communities: An Experimental Study of a Social MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Mariana; Zorrilla, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the student's behaviour in relation to their degree of commitment, participation, and contribution in a MOOC based on a social learning approach. Interaction data was collected on the learning platform and in social networks, both of which were used in the third edition of a social MOOC course. This data was then…

  1. Visual analytics for multimodal social network analysis: a design study with social scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Sohaib; Kwon, Bum Chul; Lee, Seungyoon; Yi, Ji Soo; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2013-12-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is becoming increasingly concerned not only with actors and their relations, but also with distinguishing between different types of such entities. For example, social scientists may want to investigate asymmetric relations in organizations with strict chains of command, or incorporate non-actors such as conferences and projects when analyzing coauthorship patterns. Multimodal social networks are those where actors and relations belong to different types, or modes, and multimodal social network analysis (mSNA) is accordingly SNA for such networks. In this paper, we present a design study that we conducted with several social scientist collaborators on how to support mSNA using visual analytics tools. Based on an openended, formative design process, we devised a visual representation called parallel node-link bands (PNLBs) that splits modes into separate bands and renders connections between adjacent ones, similar to the list view in Jigsaw. We then used the tool in a qualitative evaluation involving five social scientists whose feedback informed a second design phase that incorporated additional network metrics. Finally, we conducted a second qualitative evaluation with our social scientist collaborators that provided further insights on the utility of the PNLBs representation and the potential of visual analytics for mSNA.

  2. Science, Technology and Social Change Course's Effects on Technological Literacy Levels of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, E. Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Social studies curricula are required in order to prepare to educate children who continue to learn after their formal training, and it is vital that teachers receive an education properly. In Social Studies Education Departments of Education Faculties Science, Technology and Social Change course is convenient to this aim and it contributes to…

  3. Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Testing: Current and Emerging Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, Mollie A; Alessi, Stephanie; Allyse, Megan; Michie, Marsha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) for chromosomal aneuploidy involving the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA became commercially available in 2011. The low false-positive rate of NIPT, which reduces unnecessary prenatal invasive diagnostic procedures, has led to broad clinician and patient adoption. We discuss the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by rapid and global dissemination of NIPT. The number of women using NIPT is anticipated to expand, and the number of conditions being tested for will continue to increase as well, raising concerns about the routinization of testing and negative impacts on informed decision making. Ensuring that accurate and balanced information is available to all pregnant women and that access to NIPT is equitable will require policy guidance from regulators, professional societies, and payers. Empirical evidence about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences will continue to be essential in guiding policy development so that advances in NIPT can be used effectively and appropriately to improve prenatal care.

  4. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Views on Historical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study aimed to present Social Studies teacher candidates' views on historical thinking skills. Study was conducted using qualitative design and working group was composed of a total of 121 teacher candidates (62 females and 59 males) attending Social Studies Teaching Department of Karadeniz Technical University and Adiyaman University…

  5. Relativism and the social scientific study of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjord, M

    1993-04-01

    Does the social scientific study of medicine require a commitment to relativism? Relativism claims that some subject (e.g., knowledge claims or moral judgments) is relative to a background (e.g., a culture or conceptual scheme) and that judgments about the subject are incommensurable. Examining the concept of success as it appears in orthodox and nonorthodox medical systems, we see that judgments of success are relative to a background medical system. Relativism requires the social scientific study of medicine to be value free in the sense that a medical system must be described without evaluating its elements. When social scientists do evaluate the successfulness of a nonorthodox medical system, they give a crucial role to the nonorthodox conception of success. This strategy does not vitiate value-freedom and it entails a relativism about success. The social scientific study of medicine, therefore, does require relativism in the form of a relativism about success.

  6. Your Health Buddies Matter: Preferential Selection and Social Influence on Weight Management in an Online Health Social Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of online social networks are designed with the intention to promote health by providing virtual space wherein individuals can seek and share information and support with similar others. Research has shown that real-world social networks have a significant influence on one's health behavior and outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on how individuals form social networks in virtual space and whether such online social networks exert any impact on individuals' health outcomes. Built on the Multi-Theoretical Multilevel (MTML) framework and drawing from literature on social influence, this study examined the mechanisms underlying the formation of an online health social network and empirically tested social influence on individual health outcomes through the network. Situated in a weight management social networking site, the study tracked a health buddy network of 709 users and their weight management activities and outcomes for 4 months. Actor-based modeling was used to test the joint dynamics of preferential selection and social influence among health buddies. The results showed that baseline, inbreeding, and health status homophily significantly predicted preferential selection of health buddies in the weight management social networking site, whereas self-interest in seeking experiential health information did not. The study also found peer influence of online health buddy networks on individual weight outcomes, such that an individual's odds of losing weight increased if, on average, the individual's health buddies were losing weight.

  7. Testing Social-driven Forces on the Evolution of Sahelian Rural Systems: A Combined Agent-based Modeling and Anthropological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Saqalli , Mehdi; Gérard , B.; Bielders , C.; Defourny , Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This article presents the results of a methodology combining an extensive fieldwork, a formalization of field-based individual rules and norms into an agent-based model and the implementation of scenarios analyzing the effects of social and agro-ecological constraints on rural farmers through the study of three different sites in Nigerien Sahel. Two family transition processes are here tested, following field observations and literature-based hypotheses: family organiz...

  8. [Predictors of social isolation among older people living in urban area: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Manami; Kawai, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ihara, Kazushige; Hirano, Hirohiko; Kojima, Motonaga; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate the predictors of social isolation among older people living in urban area.Methods A mail survey was sent out to 7,015 elderly subjects living in nine districts of Itabashi ward. At baseline (2012), 3,696 subjects and at follow-up (2014) 2,375 replied to the self-administered questionnaire. We defined social isolation as seeing friends or relatives less than two or three times a month. Gender, age, self-rated health, present illnesses, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), frequency of going out, frequency of social participation, family structure, and perceived financial status were also investigated. A t-test, a chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were conducted to examine the predictors of social isolation in a follow-up study.Results Of the 1,791 subjects who were analyzed for social isolation, 348 (19.4%) were found to be socially isolated in 2014. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that men (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-2.50) were significantly more likely to be isolated than women. Being older (1.03, 1.01-1.06) was also a significant predictor of isolation. Subjects who participated in group activities one to three times a month (1.62, 1.04-2.53) were significantly more likely to be isolated than those who participated in them more than once a week. Subjects who rated their financial status as low (1.67, 1.20-2.32) were more likely to be isolated than those who rated it as high. Subjects who were isolated (10.24, 7.60-13.81), and those who did not respond to questions about isolation (8.15, 3.76-17.67), were significantly more likely to be isolated than those who were not isolated at baseline. Among the subjects who were not isolated at baseline, being male (2.39, 1.57-3.64) and lower self-rated health (3.99, 1.33-11.94) were predictors of social isolation.Conclusion Participation in social activities is effective in preventing social isolation among

  9. Cannabidiol exhibits anxiolytic but not antipsychotic property evaluated in the social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Valéria; Levin, Raquel; Peres, Fernanda Fiel; Niigaki, Suzy T; Calzavara, Mariana B; Zuardi, Antônio W; Hallak, Jaime E; Crippa, José A; Abílio, Vanessa C

    2013-03-05

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic compound of the Cannabis sativa, has been reported to have central therapeutic actions, such as antipsychotic and anxiolytic effects. We have recently reported that Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs) present a deficit in social interaction that is ameliorated by atypical antipsychotics. In addition, SHRs present a hyperlocomotion that is reverted by typical and atypical antipsychotics, suggesting that this strain could be useful to study negative symptoms (modeled by a decrease in social interaction) and positive symptoms (modeled by hyperlocomotion) of schizophrenia as well as the effects of potential antipsychotics drugs. At the same time, an increase in social interaction in control animals similar to that induced by benzodiazepines is used to screen potential anxiolytic drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CBD on social interaction presented by control animals (Wistar) and SHRs. The lowest dose of CBD (1mg/kg) increased passive and total social interaction of Wistar rats. However, the hyperlocomotion and the deficit in social interaction displayed by SHRs were not altered by any dose of CBD. Our results do not support an antipsychotic property of cannabidiol on symptoms-like behaviors in SHRs but reinforce the anxiolytic profile of this compound in control rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social norms and cooperation in real-life social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two...

  11. Studying and researching with social media

    CERN Document Server

    Poore, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Wondering what your lecturers are looking for in a blog post? Asking yourself how that's different from writing an essay (or a wiki page)? Unsure if Twitter really can be used to build your online profile as a researcher? If you want -- or need -- to integrate social media tools into your studies and research, this practical book is your one-stop shop. Megan Poore shares the secrets of how to harness the power of social media tools to improve your academic productivity. Inside, you'll find out how to: ...write a good blog post ...contribute to a wiki ...maximise your grades when creating an audio-visual presentation ...find and share the latest research via Twitter ...keep safe online. Featuring handy illustrations and exercises, as well as guidance on broader issues such as copyright, avoiding plagiarism, and cyberbullying, you'll find out all you need to successfully use social media to support your study and research. Megan Poore is Assistant Professor in Teacher Education at the University of Canberra.

  12. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  13. A study of the Healthy Growth Charter in socially disadvantaged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Musicco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Growth Charter is an educational and health-promoting project aimed at an active involvement of the primary school children in health surveillance and protection. Being duly acquainted of the matter, scholars are asked to fill by their own a questionnaire on height, weight, sport attendance and other items of medical and demographic interest. According to the project, problems suitable of corrective measures, such as amblyopia, are signalled to the families and dealt individually. The project has been previously tested on about 1500 boys and girls from various Italian regions, showing that, despite the limits of self-reported data, it provides information in line with literature. Health inequalities in children remain an important problem also in Italy, and a second test of the Healthy Growth Charter was launched in a group of socially disadvantaged children. As reported in this paper, overweight, reduced physical activity, visual problems and other items markedly differed in this with respect to the previous study. These results provide some indication on the potential role of social disadvantage and poverty on health status of children. To better tackle the problem of health inequalities, the actual surveillance systems should be empowered, preferably with an active educational involvement of children, translating the information into public health intervention policies.

  14. Social phobia and sexual problems: A comparison of social phobic, sexually dysfunctional and normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Valentina; Stravynski, Ariel

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to test the putative link between social phobia and sexual functioning. Three groups consisting of 106 social phobic, 164 sexually dysfunctional and 111 normal participants were assessed in terms of sexual functioning, social anxiety, social functioning and general psychopathology. Although social phobic men were less sexually active than normal men, they were as sexually satisfied. Social phobic women were alike their normal counterparts in all respects. Overall, social phobic individuals were not more prone to report sexual problems than normal individuals despite reporting the severest levels of social anxiety. Theoretically, our results are best understood as supporting an interpersonal conception of social phobia and a related socio-cultural perspective regarding sexual roles.

  15. Gender differences in the association of perceived social support and social network with self-rated health status among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Silvana C; Silva, Cosme M F P; Vettore, Mario V

    2013-11-15

    Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16-2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16-2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in older men, whereas low perceived social

  16. Synthesis across social innovation case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Avelino, Flor; Dorland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Part 1 is an overview and a comparative analysis of the findings from the 20 case study reports in TRANSIT about aspects of transformative social innovation (TSI). Each of the 20 reports, which the report is based on, includes an analysis of a transnational social innovation network and at least...... two local social innovation initiatives. Part 2 consists of extended abstracts of 8 papers which either focus on empirical phenomena surfacing in different TRANSIT cases (e.g. alternative economic arrangements), take a societal or methodological issue as starting point (e.g. inclusivity or research...... relations), address propositions from TRANSIT proto-theory (institutionalization dialectics, responses to crisis), build upon thematic clusters used for case selection (e.g. spaces for/of innovation, inclusive society, new economy, transformative science) or inductively develop specific sensitizing concepts...

  17. Alone Is a Crowd: Social Motivations, Social Withdrawal, and Socioemotional Functioning in Later Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Weeks, Murray; Kingsbury, Adam; Kingsbury, Mila; Bullock, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The primary goals of this study were to test a conceptual model linking social approach and avoidance motivations, socially withdrawn behaviors, and peer difficulties in later childhood and to compare the socioemotional functioning of different subtypes of withdrawn children (shy, unsociable, avoidant). Participants were 367 children, aged 9-12…

  18. Trajectories of Social Anxiety during Adolescence and Relations with Cognition, Social Competence, and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miers, A. C.; Blote, A. W.; de Rooij, M.; Bokhorst, C. L.; Westenberg, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    This cohort-sequential study examined developmental trajectories of social anxiety in a nonclinical sample (N = 331, 161 girls) aged 9 to 17 years at initial and 12 to 21 years at final assessment. We tested whether variables assessing cognition, social competence, and temperament discriminated between the trajectories. Variables were collected…

  19. Assessing Social Cognition of Persons with Schizophrenia in a Chinese Population: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panmi M. T. Lo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is a core limiting factor of functional recovery among persons with schizophrenia. However, there is a lack of standardized and culturally relevant assessment tools for evaluating social cognitive performance in Chinese persons with schizophrenia. The purposes of this study were to (1 develop and validate two social cognitive instruments, the Chinese Facial Emotion Identification Test (C-FEIT and the Chinese Social Cognition and Screening Questionnaire (C-SCSQ, that assess three key domains of social cognition and (2 to evaluate preliminary psychometric properties of the two assessments. The results demonstrated that the C-FEIT and the social cognitive subscales of C-SCSQ possess satisfactory content-related validity and test–retest reliability (ICC ranging from 0.76 to 0.85. Subscales of the C-FEIT and the C-SCSQ showed low to medium correlation with two concurrent neurocognitive measures (absolute values of r ranging from 0.22 to 0.45 and concurrent measures of functional performance (absolute values of r ranging from 0.22 to 0.46. Our findings generally support the use of the C-FEIT and the C-SCSQ as reliable and valid tools for assessing emotion perception, theory of mind (intention-inferencing, and hostile attributional style, which are the key outcome indicators of social cognitive interventions for persons with schizophrenia.

  20. Stigma's Effect on Social Interaction and Social Media Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyns, Vanessa; Himelboim, Itai; Hansen, Derek L; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatized topics, such as HIV/STD, likely constrain related information sharing in ways that should be apparent in social interactions both on and off the Internet. Specifically, the authors predicted that the more people perceive an issue as stigmatized, the less likely they are to talk about the issue both privately (with sexual partners and peers) and publicly (on Twitter). Study 1 tested the effect of stigma on conversations at the individual level: The authors asked a group of participants (N = 138) about perceived STD-testing stigma, interactions with a sexual partner, and conversations with peers about STD testing. Study 2 assessed whether health conditions, in the aggregate, were less likely to generate social media activity as a function of current stigmatization. Using 259,758 archived Twitter posts mentioning 13 medical conditions, the authors tested whether level of stigma predicted the volume of relevant social media conversation, controlling for each condition's amount of advocacy and Google search popularity from a user's perspective. Findings supported our hypotheses. Individuals who reported perceiving a given health conditions in more stigmatic ways also reported interacting less with others about that topic; Twitter results showed a similar pattern. Results also suggest a more complex story of influence, as funding from the National Institutes of Health (i.e., each conditions amount of advocacy) associated with the examined health conditions also predicted Twitter activity. Overall, these results indicated that stigma had a similar, dampening effect on face-to-face and Twitter interactions. Findings hold theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed.

  1. Proposal for health effects studies related to nuclear weapon testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.E.; Weinberg, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Populations that resided and who now resid in and the Semipalatinsk Test Site have emained there for decades and experienced little in and out migration. Semipalatinsk City was literally a secret city until the dissolution of the USSR. The urban population of the city of Semipalatinsk has steadily grown from several hundred thousand to about 1 million people in the area. Although current urban and rural levels of exposure from environmental radiocontamination are not markedly increased beyond natural background, there are many villagers who resided near the Semipalatinsk Test Site whose cumulative lifetime doses are on the order of 0.8-2 Sv. Over the course of 40 years, more than 470 nuclear weapons were tested at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan. From 1949 to 1963, 38 detonations occured on the ground and 128 in the air. Radionuclides emanating from there tests resulted in atmospheric and enviromental contamination leading to varios levels of acute and chronic radiation exposure. The medical, scientific and social ramifications of the nuclear testing pose serius challenges to the Kazakhstan Repubic and its scientific and health care systems. The release of radionuclides over a long period of time and their spread in the enveronment posed major problems to the Kazakhstan authorities. Efforts to study the association between fallout radiation and radiation-induced health effects were prevented by official decree until 1980. Initially, efforts to address the medical and scientific challenges of the radioactive contamination which was classified in the FSU. After the dissolution of the FSU, efforts to study populations aroud STS were hampered and further encumbered by the political and social changes that increased sharply in the FSU soon after test suspension

  2. Reduction of Perceived Social Distance as an Explanation for Media's Influence on Personal Risk Perceptions: A Test of the Risk Convergence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Nabi, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The risk convergence model proposes reduction of perceived social distance to a mediated personality as a mechanism through which the mass media can influence audiences' personal risk perceptions. As an initial test of the model, this study examined whether 5 audience variables known to facilitate media effects on personal risk…

  3. Social disadvantage and borderline personality disorder: A study of social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Hallquist, Michael N; Clifton, Allan D; Lazarus, Sophie A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2018-01-01

    Examining differences in social integration, social support, and relationship characteristics in social networks may be critical for understanding the character and costs of the social difficulties experienced of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We conducted an ego-based (self-reported, individual) social network analysis of 142 participants recruited from clinical and community sources. Each participant listed the 30 most significant people (called alters) in their social network, then rated each alter in terms of amount of contact, social support, attachment strength and negative interactions. In addition, measures of social integration were determined using participant's report of the connection between people in their networks. BPD was associated with poorer social support, more frequent negative interactions, and less social integration. Examination of alter-by-BPD interactions indicated that whereas participants with low BPD symptoms had close relationships with people with high centrality within their networks, participants with high BPD symptoms had their closest relationships with people less central to their networks. The results suggest that individuals with BPD are at a social disadvantage: Those with whom they are most closely linked (including romantic partners) are less socially connected (i.e., less central) within their social network. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Do you use social media? A study into new nursing and midwifery graduates' uptake of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, Anthony; Turner, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Social media use is expanding rapidly, so too is its use within hospitals and amongst healthcare professionals. This study describes the use of social media by Australian and New Zealand nursing and midwifery graduates of the Graduate e-Cohort study; there were 112 (93%) respondents from a 2014 sample of 121 nurses and midwives. Findings suggest that the professional peak body goal of using social media as a vehicle for professional education requires consideration of the social media platforms that are actually being used by new graduates. We recommend that work by the respective professions at both an undergraduate and graduate level needs to focus on the implications of social media use or policy and practice to ensure that everyone is aware of when and how to engage in social media platforms and what to do and how to behave when using social media. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Unexpected Acceptance? Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Manifest their Social Expectancy in ERPs During Social Feedback Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianqin; Gu, Ruolei; Bi, Xuejing; Zhu, Xiangru; Wu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs) during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive ΔFRN (ΔFRN = negative – positive). Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with ΔFRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) score correlated positively with the ΔFRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and ΔFRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2). However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy. PMID:26635659

  6. Unexpected Acceptance? Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Manifest their Social Expectancy in ERPs During Social Feedback Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianqin; Gu, Ruolei; Bi, Xuejing; Zhu, Xiangru; Wu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs) during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive ΔFRN (ΔFRN = negative - positive). Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with ΔFRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) score correlated positively with the ΔFRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and ΔFRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2). However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy.

  7. Unexpected acceptance? Patients with social anxiety disorder manifest their social expectancy in ERPs during social feedback processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin eCao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control (HC participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger FRN to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive △FRN (△FRN = negative - positive. Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with △FRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS score correlated positively with the △FRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and △FRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2. However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy.

  8. Individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance depends on a functional circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L; Weinert, D

    2016-11-01

    In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated. Wild type (WT) animals show a clear and well-synchronized daily activity rhythm, whereas in arrhythmic (AR) hamsters, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) do not generate a circadian signal. The aim of the study was to investigate putative consequences of these deteriorations in the circadian system for animalś cognitive abilities. Hamsters were bred and kept under standardized housing conditions with food and water ad libitum and a 14l/10 D lighting regimen. Experimental animals were assigned to different groups (WT and AR) according to their activity pattern obtained by means of infrared motion sensors. Before the experiments, the animals were given to develop a dominant-subordinate relationship in a dyadic encounter. Experiment 1 dealt with individual recognition of social rank. Subordinate and dominant hamsters were tested in an open arena for their behavioral responses towards a familiar (known from the agonistic encounters) or an unfamiliar hamster (from another agonistic encounter) which had the same or an opposite social rank. The investigation time depended on the social rank of the WT subject hamster and its familiarity with the stimulus animal. Both subordinate and dominant WT hamsters preferred an unfamiliar subordinate stimulus animal. In contrast, neither subordinate nor dominant AR hamsters preferred any of the stimulus animals. Thus, disruptions in circadian

  9. Juvenile social defeat stress exposure persistently impairs social behaviors and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Akihiro; Ukai, Mayu; Uchida, Mizuki; Hasegawa, Sho; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ito, Takahiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yoshimi, Akira; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Kunimoto, Shohko; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2018-05-01

    Adverse juvenile experiences, including physical abuse, often have negative health consequences later in life. We investigated the influence of social defeat stress exposure as juveniles on neuropsychological behaviors, and the causal role of glucocorticoids in abnormal behaviors and impairment of neurogenesis in mice exposed to the stress. The juvenile (24-day-old) and adult (70-day-old) male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress induced by an aggressive ICR mouse. Social defeat stress exposure as juveniles, even for 1 day, induced persistent social avoidance to the unfamiliar ICR mouse in the social interaction test, but that was not observed in mice exposed to the stress as adults. Social avoidance by the stress exposure as juveniles for 10 consecutive days was observed, when the target mouse was not only unfamiliar ICR but also another C57BL/J mouse, but not an absent or an anesthetized ICR mouse. The stress exposure did not induce anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in spontaneous locomotor activity, elevated plus-maze test, marble-burying test, forced swimming test, or sucrose preference test. Serum corticosterone levels increased immediately after the stress exposure. The hippocampal neurogenesis was suppressed 1 day and 4 weeks after the stress exposure. Administration of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, prior to each stress exposure, blocked the persistent social avoidance and suppression of neurogenesis. In conclusion, social avoidance induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles are more persistent than that as adults. These social avoidances are associated with suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis via glucocorticoid receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Textbook vs. Historical Fiction: Impact on Social Studies Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adding historical fiction novels as a supplement to the textbook in an eighth grade social studies course. This qualitative study focused on student interest and feedback as their social studies class was altered through the addition of historical fiction novels. The research questions were…

  11. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, C; Smit, Filip; de Graaf, R; van Straten, A; Ten Have, M; Cuijpers, P

    2009-06-01

    Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based prospective study (n=4,789). Costs related to health service uptake, patients' out-of-pocket expenses, and costs arising from production losses were calculated for the reference year 2003. The costs for people with social phobia were compared with the costs for people with no mental disorder. The annual per capita total costs of social phobia were euro 11,952 (95% CI=7,891-16,013) which is significantly higher than the total costs for people with no mental disorder, euro 2957 (95% CI=2690-3224). When adjusting for mental and somatic co-morbidity, the costs decreased to euro 6,100 (95% CI=2681-9519), or 136 million euro per year per 1 million inhabitants, which was still significantly higher than the costs for people with no mental disorder. The costs of subthreshold social phobia were also significantly higher than the costs for people without any mental disorder, at euro 4,687 (95% CI=2557-6816). The costs presented here are conservative lower estimates because we only included costs related to mental health services. The economic costs associated with social phobia are substantial, and those of subthreshold social phobia approach those of the full-blown disorder.

  12. Teaching to and beyond the Test: The Influence of Mandated Accountability Testing in One Social Studies Teacher's Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: The nature of the impact of state-mandated accountability testing on teachers' classroom practices remains contested. While many researchers argue that teachers change their teaching in response to mandated testing, others contend that the nature and degree of the impact of testing on teaching remains unclear. The research on…

  13. A social work study on family patterns and street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between various family characteristics and street children in rural area as well as city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 150 street children, 75 from city and 75 from rural area, and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, place of residency and family size on street children. The results indicate that the city residence had more street children than rural residence did. In addition, there was a meaningful difference between the number of street children in low-income families and high-income families. Finally, the survey results indicate that big size families more likely suffered from street children than low size families did.

  14. On the relationships between DSM-5 dysfunctional personality traits and social cognition deficits: A study in a sample of consecutively admitted Italian psychotherapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena

    2017-11-01

    This study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) alternative model of personality disorder (AMPD) traits may be significantly associated with deficits on 2 different social cognition tasks, namely, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, in a sample of consecutively admitted inpatients and outpatients. The sample was composed of 181 consecutively admitted participants (57.5% women; mean age = 38.58 years). Correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients were computed in order to assess the associations among social cognition tasks, DSM-5 AMPD traits, and dimensionally assessed DSM-5 Section II personality disorders. Specific maladaptive traits listed in the DSM-5 AMPD were significantly associated with Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test scores and Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition scores, even when the effect of selected DSM-5 Section II personality disorders was controlled for. Our results support the relevance of studying social cognitive functioning in subjects suffering from personality disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Social and ethical considerations in the NWMO study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.

    2006-01-01

    NWMO has attempted to build social and ethical considerations into both the determination of its study process and the study outcome. Through implementing an iterative and reflective process, guided by societal input and direction at key decision points and informed by the knowledge of scientific and technical experts, NWMO has attempted to identify a holistic and integrative framework to assess the appropriateness of each of the management approach choices. NWMO believes that the management approach which may be regarded by Canadians as socially acceptable, is the approach which responds most fully to the key values and objectives articulated by the citizens who have participated in our process of collaborative development. This paper briefly outlines NWMO's efforts to incorporate social and ethical considerations in to its study process, and lessons learned part-way through the study. (author)

  16. Pre-Service Teachers’ Opinions Regarding Using Films in Social Studies Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cengelci

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental knowledge, skills, attitudes and values for community life are taught students through various courses in elementary school. Social studies course play an important role in teaching process of mentioned knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to students in primary education level. Various learning resources are used in social studies course for introducing students past, today and future with people, places and cultures. Films are powerful pedagogical tools for social studies teachers. Films play an important role in introducing historical, cultural, geographical, social, politic issues, perspectives and characteristics belong to people, society, or nations. This study was aimed at examining advantages and disadvantages of using film in social studies education from the perspective of social studies pre-service teachers.The purpose of the study is to examine pre-service teachers’ understandings about using films in social studies course. Within the scope of the main purpose of the present study, the following research questions were addressed:•What do pre-service teachers think about using film in social studies? •What do pre-service teachers think about contributions of films to social studies education?•What do pre-service teachers think about problems can be encountered when using film in social studies? •What are pre-service teachers’ recommendations about using film in social studies?Qualitative research methods were used in the study. Participants of the study were 3rd and 4th grade pre-service teachers enrolled in social studies teacher training program. Focus group interview was used in the study. First group consisted of 8 pre-service teachers from the 3rd grade, and second group had 6 pre-service teachers from the 4th grade. In the analysis of data, content analysis technique was used.Findings were examined under the four main themes which were classified as “using film in social studies”,

  17. Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  19. The social side of shame: approach versus withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hooge, Ilona E; Breugelmans, Seger M; Wagemans, Fieke M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-01-05

    At present, the consequences and functions of experiences of shame are not yet well understood. Whereas psychology literature typically portrays shame as being bad for social relations, motivating social avoidance and withdrawal, there are recent indications that shame can be reinterpreted as having clear social tendencies in the form of motivating approach and social affiliation. Yet, until now, no research has ever put these alternative interpretations of shame-motivated behaviours directly to the test. The present paper presents such a test by studying the extent to which shame motivates a preference for social withdrawal versus a preference for social approach. Two studies (N = 148 and N = 133) using different shame inductions both showed people experiencing shame to prefer to be together with others (social approach) over being alone (social withdrawal). In addition, the preference for a social situation was found to be unique for shame; it was not found for the closely related emotion of guilt. Taken together, these findings provide direct empirical support for the idea that shame can have positive interpersonal consequences.

  20. Social Studies by Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Hugh

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that electronic mail provides opportunities to engage students actively in cross-cultural contact with students in other nations. Discusses advantages and problems with using electronic mail in the social studies classroom. Describes electronic mail projects that link students in New Zealand, England, and the United States. (CFR)

  1. Social phobia and perceived friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2009-10-01

    Although it is clear that people with social phobia have interpersonal impairment, evidence that social phobia (as opposed to other mental disorders) affects friendship in particular is lacking. Two large epidemiological datasets were used to test whether diagnosis of social phobia is related to perceived friendship quality above and beyond perceived family relationship quality, diagnosis of other mental disorders, and a variety of demographic variables. After Bonferroni correction, social phobia was the only diagnosis related to perceived friendship quality above and beyond other factors, such that people with social phobia reported more impaired friendship quality. Social phobia's effect was similar in magnitude to demographic characteristics in both samples. The current study demonstrates that social phobia is specifically related to perceived friendship quality, suggesting that this aspect of social phobia's effects is worthy of further study.

  2. Social Impact of Stigma Regarding Tuberculosis Hindering Adherence to Treatment: A Cross Sectional Study Involving Tuberculosis Patients in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Rocky Khan; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Sayem, Abu; Billah, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Stigma, considered a social disease, is more apparent in developing societies which are driven by various social affairs, and influences adherence to treatment. The aim of the present study was to examine levels of social stigma related to tuberculosis (TB) in sociodemographic context and identify the effects of sociodemographic factors on stigma. The study sample consisted of 372 TB patients. Data were collected using stratified sampling with simple random sampling techniques. T tests, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis were performed to examine correlations between stigma and sociodemographic variables. Approximately 85.9% of patients had experienced stigma. The most frequent indicator of the stigma experienced by patients involved problems taking part in social programs (79.5%). Mean levels of stigma were significantly higher in women (55.5%), illiterate individuals (60.8%), and villagers (60.8%) relative to those of other groups. Chi-square tests revealed that education, monthly family income, and type of patient (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) were significantly associated with stigma. Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that stigma was influenced by sex, education, and type of patient. Stigma is one of the most important barriers to treatment adherence. Therefore, in interventions that aim to reduce stigma, strong collaboration between various institutions is essential.

  3. A Sectional Study: The Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Depression in Turkish Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubra Erdem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies conducted on infertile women in the literature investigated some features such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and social support. However, there has been no study examining the relationship between levels of perceived social support and depression in infertile women. Considering this deficiency, the study was conducted to determine the relationship between perceived social support and depression in infertile women. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between perceived social support and depression in infertile women. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and sectional study was conducted between 16 April and 31 October 2012 in in vitro fertilisation (IVF Centre of Fırat University Research Hospital. Sampling formula was used in cases when the number of elements in the population was not known to calculate minimum sample size required to be included in the study. A total of 238 women who applied to the relevant centre between the specified dates constituted the sample group of the study. A Questionnaire Form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS were used to collect the data. A pilot study was carried out on nine infertile women. As a result of the pilot study, we formed the final version of the Questionnaire Form. The data of these nine women were not involved in the research. The data obtained from the study was assessed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 15.0. Percentage distribution, mean, t test, one-way analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation analysis were used to evaluate the data. Results: The women’s total mean score on the BDI was 12.55 ± 8.07. Scores obtained by women on the MSPSS was 15.75 ± 8.53 for the subscale of friend, 21.52 ± 8.20 for the subscale of family, and 15.62 ± 8.45 for the subscale of significant others. The women’s total

  4. Consumer Health-Related Activities on Social Media: Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-10-13

    Although a number of studies have investigated how consumers use social media for health-related purposes, there is a paucity of studies in the Australian context. This study aimed to explore how Australian consumers used social media for health-related purposes, specifically how they identified social media platforms, which were used, and which health-related activities commonly took place. A total of 5 focus groups (n=36 participants), each lasting 60 to 90 minutes, were conducted in the Sydney metropolitan area. The group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded line-by-line and thematically analyzed. Participants used general search engines to locate health-related social media platforms. They accessed a wide range of social media on a daily basis, using several electronic devices (in particular, mobile phones). Although privacy was a concern, it did not prevent consumers from fully engaging in social media for health-related purposes. Blogs were used to learn from other people's experiences with the same condition. Facebook allowed consumers to follow health-related pages and to participate in disease-specific group discussions. Wikipedia was used for factual information about diseases and treatments. YouTube was accessed to learn about medical procedures such as surgery. No participant reported editing or contributing to Wikipedia or posting YouTube videos related to health topics. Twitter was rarely used for health-related purposes. Social media allowed consumers to obtain and provide disease and treatment-related information and social and emotional support for those living with the same condition. Most considered their participation as observational, but some also contributed (eg, responded to people's questions). Participants used a wide range of social media for health-related purposes. Medical information exchange (eg, disease and treatment) and social and emotional support were the cornerstones of their online

  5. The bright side of social economy sector’s projectification: a study of successful social enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Jalocha

    2016-11-01

    -funded projects, which aimed at increasing the level of development and improving the condition of social economy, were implemented. Some of these projects have resulted in the creation of durable, dynamically operating social enterprises, and some of them did not produce any long-term results. In case of successful projects, we can observe an unusual effect of projectification process: the creation of permanent structures, sustainable social economy organizations through the implementation of projects. Although we can identify examples of interesting research on impact of project work on NGOs (Brière, Proulx, Navaro, & Laporte, 2015; Golini, Kalchschmidt, Landoni, 2015 or critical success factors of non-governmental projects (Khang & Moe, 2008, there is a research gap which we would like to address in this paper: lack of research on project management best practices in social enterprises. Thus, the main research question we would like to investigate in the paper is: What are the factors that lead to creation of durable, permanent social economy enterprises from projects? This paper draws on set of qualitative data from broader research on social economy sector conducted in Poland in years 2011-2013 by researchers from the Institute of Public Affairs (IPA. For the purpose of this paper we have conducted multiple case study analysis and analysed 36 case studies of existing social enterprises. One of our research goals was to find out, which factors are critical in the process of creation durable social enterprises from projects. Also, we wanted to understand how projectification, influenced strongly by the EU policies, changes the landscape of social enterprises in Poland and helps them achieve success.

  6. An Analysis of How Building a Collaborative Community of Professional Social Studies Teachers through Targeted Ambient Professional Development Impacts Social Studies Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Brown, Karen; Shaffer, LaShorage; Werner, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a yearlong ambient professional development (PD) program-The Wayne Schools Global Geography Project (WSGG-project)-that focused on improving teacher quality through PD and classroom observations for in-service social studies teachers. The project targeted middle and high school social studies teachers and used…

  7. COOPERATIVE PLAY AFFECTS SOCIAL INTERACTION OF CHILDREN WHO HAVE INTROVERT PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Rahmawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of school age children may developing task is learning to interact with their peer groups. The introvert have problem with their social interaction. One ways that can increase the social skill is play activities with social situation. So social play activities: cooperative play can be one of alternative solution to increase social interaction of children with introvert symptom. This study was aimed to explain effect of social play activities: cooperative play on social interaction of children with introvert symptom. Method: Quasy experiment design was used in this study. The population was school aged children with introvert symptom in SDN Kendangsari III/278 Surabaya. Total sample was 23 respondents consist of 12 respondents as treatment group and 11 respondents as controlled group. The independent variable was social play activities: cooperative play. The dependent was social interaction of children with introvert symptom. The Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with level significance ofα ≤ 0.005. Result: Result showed that social play activities: cooperative play had significant effect on social interaction of children with introvert symptom (increased. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test showed treatment group had p = 0.002 and controlled group had p = 1.00. Mann Whitney U Test showed p = 0.002. Discussion: It concluded that social play activities: cooperative play can be one way to change social interaction of children with introvert symptom. Further studies should involve larger respondents and better measurement tools to obtain more accurate results.

  8. The role of social comparison in social judgments of dental appearance: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kharboush, Ghada H; Asimakopoulou, Koula; AlJabaa, AlJazi H; Newton, J Tim

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of social comparison on social judgments of dental malalignment in a sample of females. In a Repeated measures design, N=218 female participants of which N=128 were orthodontic patients (mean age 31.4) and N=90 controls (mean age 26.1) rated their satisfaction with their facial appearance after viewing stereotypically beautiful images of faces (experimental condition) or houses (neutral condition). After 4-6 weeks participants returned to view an image of a female with severe crowding and were asked to make judgments of social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA) and attractiveness (A). The comparison of social judgments between high comparers (High SocComp) and low comparers (Low SocComp) was not statistically significant; (SC (t (204)=0.30, p=0.76), IA (t (204)=0.14, p=0.89) PA (t (204)=0.004, p=0.996), A (t(204)=1.26, (p=0.209). However, dentally induced social judgments (DISJ) was statistically significant in the clinical sample than the non-clinical sample SC (t (204)=0.784, p=0.434), IA (t (204)=0.2.15, p=0.033) PA (t (204)=-0.003, p=0.997) A (t (204)=1.58, p=0.116). Social comparison has little impact on DISJ. However, there are differences in DISJs between individuals who seek treatment for their malocclusion versus the nonclinical population; the reason for this is unclear but does not appear to be the result of adoption of societal standards of beauty and instead suggests individual ranking of important 'beauty areas' may play a role. This paper uses social comparison theory to investigate the basis of judgments in regards to dental appearance. The findings of this research may help to identify individuals who are more susceptible to societal pressures towards non-ideal dentitions. This will help clinicians become more aware of the patient's comparison orientation, which seems to have an impact on satisfaction with treatment outcomes. This study may form the

  9. Examining the Relationship between Corporate Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    this study, we explore and test the relationship between financial ... initiatives into their corporate culture and business operations because increases ... Corporate social responsibility (CSR for short and also called corporate social ..... with the inclusion criteria. ...... financial performance: Evidence from the banking industry.

  10. Implications of Common Core State Standards on the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William B., III.

    2014-01-01

    Social studies teachers have often been on the outside looking in during much of the era billed as the standards-based educational reform (SBER), but with the adoption and implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), social studies teachers seem to have been invited back inside. Yet, how will the standards impact social studies…

  11. Social dysfunction in bipolar disorder: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Rocca, Cristiana Castanho; de Macedo-Soares, Marcia Britto; Gorenstein, Clarice; Tamada, Renata Sayuri; Issler, Cilly Kluger; Dias, Rodrigo Silva; Schwartzmann, Angela Maria; Lafer, Beny

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the social skills of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. A group of 25 outpatients with bipolar disorder type I were evaluated in comparison with a group of 31 healthy volunteers who were matched in terms of level of education, age, sex and intelligence. Both groups were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, the Brazilian Inventario de Habilidades Sociais (IHS, Social Skills Inventory). Two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests (Picture Arrangement and Comprehension) were also used in order to assess subject ability to analyse social situations and to make judgements, respectively. Patients with bipolar disorder had lower IHS scores for the domains that assessed conversational skills/social self-confidence and social openness to new people/situations. Patients with anxiety disorders had high scores for the domain that assessed self-confidence in the expression of positive emotions. No differences were found between patients and controls in performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Picture Arrangement and Comprehension subtests. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder present inhibited and overattentive behaviour in relation to other people and their environment. This behaviour might have a negative impact on their level of social functioning and quality of life.

  12. Social Integration and Sleep Disturbance: A Gene-Environment Interaction Study

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    David A. Sbarra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low levels of perceived social integration, or loneliness, are associated with increased risk for a range of poor health outcomes. Sleep disturbance plays a central role in the evolutionary theory of loneliness, which provides a mechanistic account of how low levels of social integration may negatively impact health. No studies, however, have examined whether the association between social integration and sleep disturbance is consistent with a causal effect after accounting for genes that are common to both variables.  Method: Using twin data ('N' = 905 twin pairs from the nationally-representative Midlife in the United States (MIDUS survey, I evaluated a series of bivariate twin models exploring whether the phenotypic association between low social integration and sleep disturbance can be explained by shared genetics. In addition, the current study specified a series of quantitative models for studying gene x environment (G X E interactions to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on sleep disturbance differ as a function of social integration. Results: The phenotypic association between social integration and sleep disturbance was fully accounted for by genes that are common between the two variables, suggesting that within-twin pair differences in social integration do not exert a causal influence on sleep disturbance. Social integration, however, moderated the non-shared environmental influence on sleep disturbances, with the greatest environmental influences observed at the lowest levels of social integration. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that an essential feature of the evolutionary model of loneliness may need refinement or elaboration. The moderation findings are discussed in terms of the fit with a stress-buffering model of social support in which environmental influences on sleep disturbance are strongest when social resources are low.

  13. High School Social Studies Teachers' Beliefs and Education for Democratic Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Stuart Beall

    2010-01-01

    This study explores secondary social studies teachers' beliefs about the concept of citizenship. The development of citizenship in young people is an often-stated goal for schooling in the USA. The most prominent social studies professional organization, the National Council for the Social Studies, describes education for citizenship as the…

  14. A test of the Social Identity Model of Cessation Maintenance: The content and role of social control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Daniel; Collins, Michael; Long, Gavin; Pinto, Isabel R; Albery, Ian P

    2016-06-01

    Engagement with self-help groups is a predictor of positive outcomes for those attempting to control their addictive behaviours. In common with other groups, self-help groups have to manage non-normative ('deviant') behaviour to ensure the social values of the group remain preserved, and the group can fulfil its aims. These processes may protect group members from relapse. Drawing on the Social Identity Model of Cessation Maintenance, the current study asked a number ( n  = 44) of attendees of fellowship (AA/NA/CA) and of SMART groups to list behaviours they saw as normative and deviant, and rate a variety of responses to deviant behaviours. Costs of relapse to both the self and the group were also measured alongside self-efficacy regarding cessation and identity as both an active addict and as a member of a self-help group. Results suggest that social control responses to deviance grouped into education, punishment and avoidant type responses. More social control was perceived by highly identifying self-help group members. Educational responses were seen as used by groups more extensively than other responses. Punishment responses were mediated by the perceived costs an individual's relapse incurred on the rest of the group. These findings inform our understanding of what standards of normative and deviant behaviour self-help groups hold, and how they react to violations of such norms. They also have a number of implications for practitioners and facilitators in regard to using social identities as part of the treatment process.

  15. Participation in Social Media: Studying Explicit and Implicit Forms of Participation in Communicative Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Villi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The diverse forms of participation in social media raise many methodological and ethical issues that should be acknowledged in research. In this paper, participation in social media is studied by utilising the framework of explicit and implicit participation. The focus is on the communicative and communal aspects of social media. The aim of the paper is to promote the reconsideration of what constitutes participation when online users create connections rather than content. The underlying argument is that research on social media and the development of methods should concentrate more on implicit forms of participation.

  16. Social Factors in Aesthetics: Social Conformity Pressure and a Sense of Being Watched Affect Aesthetic Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesslinger, Vera M; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hecht, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    The present study is a first attempt to experimentally test the impact of two specific social factors, namely social conformity pressure and a sense of being watched, on participants' judgments of the artistic quality of aesthetic objects. We manipulated conformity pressure with a test form in which a photograph of each stimulus was presented together with unanimously low (downward pressure) or high quality ratings (upward pressure) of three would-be previous raters. Participants' sense of being watched was manipulated by testing each of them in two settings, one of which contained an eyespots stimulus. Both social factors significantly affected the participants' judgments-unexpectedly, however, with conformity pressure only working in the downward direction and eyespots leading to an overall downward shift in participants' judgments. Our findings indicate the relevance of including explicit and implicit social factors in aesthetics research, thus also reminding us of the limitations of overly reductionist approaches to investigating aesthetic perception and experience.

  17. Development of a Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Settings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Basavarajappa, Chethan; Guruprasad, Deepti; Hegde, Gayatri; Khanam, Fatema; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS). Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) for a subset of 94 inpatients. The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t -tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric dia