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Sample records for social studies concepts

  1. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  2. Selection and Analysis of Social Studies Concepts for Inclusion in Tests of Concept Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, B. Robert; And Others

    Major social studies concepts taught to fourth graders in Madison, Wisconsin, were identified by examining the school district course of study and social studies textbooks and by consulting central office supervisors and teachers. The concepts identified in this manner fell into three major categories: Geographic Region, Man and Society, and Map…

  3. Social phobia and self-concept: a correlational study with physical activity practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi Noriko Sonoo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze social phobia in teenagers aged 14 to 20 years and its possiblerelationship with regular practice of physical activity and their self-concept. This study enrolled 191 students from privateand public schools and the measurement instruments used were a test of social phobia, a test of self-concept and a physicalactivity questionnaire. The results indicate that students from private schools are shyer than students from public schools. Inrelation to self-concept, there were significant differences in security factor for boys and moral factor for girls. This indicatesthat boys are more stable, brave and secure, while girls are more influenced by moral and ethical rules. These resultsdemonstrate that no relationship was detected between social phobia and physical activity, but it was possible to observea relationship between social phobia and some of the self-concept factors, and a relationship between physical activityand some of the self-concept factors. It is therefore concluded that the negative influence of high levels of social phobia onthe receptivity and security factors of men and women suggests a need for further studies in the area, which could help inthe prevention and treatment of social phobia, which could worsen over the years and compromise these young people’sability to socialize.

  4. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleki, Mohammadreza; Yazdani, Shahram; Momeni, Sedigheh; Momtazmanesh, Nader

    2017-07-01

    Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. In this study, the modified version of McKenna's approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system.

  5. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDOLMALEKI, MOHAMMADREZA; YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; MOMENI, SEDIGHEH; MOMTAZMANESH, NADER

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. Methods: In this study, the modified version of McKenna’s approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. Results: By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. Conclusion: According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system. PMID:28761884

  6. [Differences between proposals for implementation of the social class concept in epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solla

    1996-07-01

    This article compares different proposals for the implementation of the concept of social class and analyzes the alternatives used in each proposal, considering previous epidemiological studies on this issue and the potential of such a concept as a central category in studies on social determination in the health/disease process. Seven basic differences were identified, pertaining to the following aspects: class structure; research objective; the social class concept as a reference; the decision as to which individual has his/her occupational activity taken as defining the family's social class; the class status of the unemployed, housewives, and the retired; class status of students; and criteria for distinguishing between the "bourgeoisie", "petty bourgeoisie", "new petty bourgeoisie", and "proletariat" and whether there is a specific flow in certain population groups. Given the observed differences and underlying theoretical models, this study discusses problems related to the fact that the use of a specific concept of social class can have various implementation models.

  7. Social anxiety and self-concept in children with epilepsy: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana E; Blocher, Jacquelyn B; Jackson, Daren C; Sung, Connie; Fujikawa, Mayu

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) anxiety intervention on social phobia, social skill development, and self-concept. Fifteen children with epilepsy and a primary anxiety disorder participated in a CBT intervention for 12 weeks plus a 3-month follow-up visit. Children were assessed at baseline, week 7, week 12, and 3 months post treatment to measure changes in social phobia using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Self-concept was also assessed by using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale II (Piers-Harris 2). There was a significant reduction in symptoms of social phobia and improved self-concept at the end of the 12-week intervention and at the 3 month follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVA's of child ratings revealed significant change over time on the SCARED-Social Phobia/Social Anxiety subscale score (p=0.024). In terms of self-concept, significant change over time was detected on the Piers-Harris 2-Total score (p=0.015) and several subscale scores of Piers-Harris 2, including: Physical Appearance and Attributes (p=0.016), Freedom from Anxiety (p=0.005), and Popularity (p=0.003). This pilot investigation utilized an evidenced based CBT intervention to reduce symptoms of social phobia, which in turn provided a vehicle to address specific social skills improving self-concept in children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring Social Studies Concept Attainment: Boys and Girls. Report from the Project on A Structure of Concept Attainment Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret L.; Tabachnick, B. Robert

    This paper describes test development efforts for measuring achievement of selected concepts in social studies. It includes descriptive item and test statistics for the tests developed. Twelve items were developed for each of 30 concepts. Subject specialists categorized the concepts into three major areas: Geographic Region, Man and Society, and…

  9. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taking Gerring’s work on concept evaluation as the starting point, the paper first presents a set of criteria for conceptual ‘goodness’ and discusses how social capital...... performs on these criteria. It is argued that social capital eventually may be a good concept if it can be shown empirically to be a unidimensional concept. An empirical section therefore explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption and rejects it in four separate tests at both the individual...... and aggregate level. We conclude that even if social capital has been a remarkably productive idea, it is not a good concept as most popular conceptualizations define social capital as several distinct phenomena or as phenomena that already have been conceptualized under other labels....

  10. The structure of the Social Self-Concept (SSC Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Fernández-Zabala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the factorial structure of the newly-created Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Social - AUSO (from here on the Social Self-concept Questionnaire, or AUSO, which consists of two scales measuring social responsibility and social competence. The theoretical proposal which posits that social self-concept is the result of the combination of two basic self-perceptions: competence in social relations and response to the demands of social functioning, is based on a review of human social development theories and previous attempts to measure social self-concept. Participants were 818 students aged between 17 and 52. The results obtained though confirmatory factor analyses support the hypothesis of a structure made up of two correlated factors. In addition to providing a new measurement instrument with appropriate psychometric characteristics and valid criteria that justify its use in both applied practice and research, this study also enhances our understanding of the internal nature of the social domain of self-concept.

  11. Meaning That Social Studies Teacher Candidates Give to Value Concept and Their Value Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysegül, Tural

    2018-01-01

    This work determines the role that value education plays in shaping people's personal and social life. This research aims to put forward meaning that social studies teacher candidates give to value concept and its value ranking. To achieve this aim, the opinions of 12 social studies teacher candidates were obtained. During the data collection…

  12. An exploratory study of consumers' attitude towards unethical corporate\\ud practices and the concept of consumer social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Festus Adeolu

    2014-01-01

    2014 dissertation for MSc in International Business Management. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. This study is an exploration of consumers’ attitudes towards unethical\\ud corporate practices and the concept of consumer social responsibility. The\\ud study among other things evaluated the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR), consumers’ social responsibility (CNSR) and sought to\\ud understand the relationship between both concepts. Havin...

  13. Possible Major Influences of Children Learning Social Studies on Academic Self Concept and Achievement

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    Laurens Kaluge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at finding the best model to explain pupil academic attainment in learning social studies. The data came from pupils learning Social Studies at grade 3 and 4 of primary schools. The structural equation model contained 2 exogenous constructs–attitudes toward school and locus of control–and 2 endogenous constructs–self-concept and academic achievement. It was confirmed that the academic self-concept and achievement related to each other and both were influenced by attitudes toward school and internal locus of control. The model was fitting differently for different grade.

  14. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    The aim of this paper is to explore whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taken Gerring’s and Adcock and Collier’s work on concept formation and measurement validity as the starting point, the paper first discusses necessary...... conditions for concepts to be good in a strict sense. Afterwards, an empirical section explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption of most definitions of social capital. This assumption is rejected in four separate tests at both the micro and macro level. A final section therefore discusses...

  15. Social inclusion of the poor: Concept for reaffirmation of social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jagoda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no universal definition of poverty, but there universal the poverty problem. It is present throughout human history and is present in all contemporary societies. An integral part of poverty in contemporary developed societies are different forms of social exclusion. Social exclusion, as a consequence of material deprivation (poverty in the strict sense becomes a factor in the survival and deepening poverty. That is why the concept of social exclusion, adequate analytical tool for understanding the problems of poverty. Analogously, the concept of social inclusion is a suitable instrument for combating this problem. This concept is particularly important in societies that do not have the ability to fast economic prosperity overcome poverty. In such societies, social work is facing new challenges. These challenges are an opportunity for the reaffirmation of social work and taking a respectable role in the overall reaction to the social problem of poverty. Accepting the modern definition of poverty through the concept of social inclusion is particularly important for social work, whose epistemological and pragmatic polyvalence corresponds with multidimensional character of poverty.

  16. Self-concept in adolescence: a longitudinal study on reciprocal effects of self-perceptions in academic and social domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preckel, Franzis; Niepel, Christoph; Schneider, Marian; Brunner, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Fostering social and academic self-concepts are central educational goals. During mid-adolescence academic engagement and success seem to be devalued by peers and to be negatively associated with students' social standing. For this age group, is the development of a positive academic self-concept compatible with the development of a positive social self-concept? We investigated relations among academic self-concept, social self-concept, and academic achievement. 1282 students (47.60% female) participated in three-waves of measurement in Grade 5, 6, and 8. Earlier social self-concept of acceptance negatively predicted changes in academic self-concept over time while earlier social self-concept of assertion positively predicted changes in academic self-concept. There were no significant relations between social self-concepts and achievement but positive reciprocal relations between academic self-concept and achievement. Results indicate that fostering adolescents self-concept in social and academic domains are compatible goals. However, some students need support in managing the challenge to coordinate social and academic goals. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Concepts of social epidemiology in health services research

    OpenAIRE

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Background Social epidemiologists aim to identify social characteristics that affect the pattern of disease and health distribution in a society and to understand its mechanisms. Some important concepts of social epidemiology are: social inequalities, social relationships, social capital, and work stress. Discussion Concepts used in social epidemiology can make a useful contribution to health services research because the underlying social factors do not only influence health but are also rel...

  18. Definition of the concept of «social temporality»

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    Yana S. Cherkun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article is realized the theoretical analysis of the concepts of «temporality», «social» and «social temporality». Include such attributes of temporality: temporality as an internal time; temporality as a sequence; temporality as temporary; temporality as the length of time a certain point; temporality as a current event. Demarcation with similar concepts and definitions of the semantic aspects of the concept of «social temporality» had conducted. The author notes, that there are many definitions of «temporality», each of which has a right to exist, but the integration of existing social senses to determine temporality as a concept which indicates the rate of turnover in the time of the events that occur in the vital functions of humans in society. It is emphasized that in the presented interpretation of the concept of «social temporality» integrated internalization and exteriorization, and combined the discreteness and integrity. The author analyzes the relationship of the concept of «social temporality» with the concepts «social time», «social space» and «chronotops». The relationship of these concepts is represented by the fact that social time-space trajectory is represented by the flow of events that occur in the social space and move in social time and social temporality stress determines the speed of events. Thus, in the article the connection between the semantic aspects of social temporality and the definition of temporary and spatial specificity of global conflicts had established.

  19. The Concept of Socialization in Nursing Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dimitriadou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education is a specialized form of socialization. The concept of socialization indicates the systemic effects of the old to the new generation, in order to develop those characteristics that society deems necessary for the integration of young people in this.The professional socialization is a developmental process in adult socialization and is of central importanceAim: the aim of the present study is the presentation of professional socialization in nursing educationResults: The socialization into the profession is a process of transforming a beginner to a professional and the newcomers adopt ethical standards and even lifestyle team who seek to become members. The socialization the individual adopts social group's mission, organizational goals and underpin knowledge, learning technology and language of the profession, and finally integrates the professional role in identity. The educational system is the official institution in which society disseminates-instills-perpetuates the prevailing values and conceptions, creating citizens and professionals neededfor maintenance operations and meeting its needs.Conclusions: The existence of both factors, without taking drastic measures in education and the organizational characteristics of the exercise areas of nursing, will feedback the crisis in the nursing profession and mainly will undermine any effort to change and improve the quality of the supplied project.

  20. Improving learning with science and social studies text using computer-based concept maps for students with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Falcomata, Terry S; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen; Billingsley, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Concept maps have been used to help students with learning disabilities (LD) improve literacy skills and content learning, predominantly in secondary school. However, despite increased access to classroom technology, no previous studies have examined the efficacy of computer-based concept maps to improve learning from informational text for students with LD in elementary school. In this study, we used a concurrent delayed multiple probe design to evaluate the interactive use of computer-based concept maps on content acquisition with science and social studies texts for Hispanic students with LD in Grades 4 and 5. Findings from this study suggest that students improved content knowledge during intervention relative to a traditional instruction baseline condition. Learning outcomes and social validity information are considered to inform recommendations for future research and the feasibility of classroom implementation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Participation and social participation: are they distinct concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Daniëls, Ramon; Jongmans, Marian J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Smeets, Rob J E M; Norton, Meghan; Beurskens, Anna J H M

    2014-03-01

    The concept of participation has been extensively used in health and social care literature since the World Health Organization introduced its description in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in 2001. More recently, the concept of social participation is frequently used in research articles and policy reports. However, in the ICF, no specific definition exists for social participation, and an explanation of differences between the concepts is not available. The central question in this discussion article is whether participation, as defined by the ICF, and social participation are distinct concepts. This article illustrates the concepts of participation and social participation, presents a critical discussion of their definitions, followed by implications for rehabilitation and possible future directions. A clear definition for participation or social participation does not yet exist. Definitions for social participation differ from each other and are not sufficiently distinct from the ICF definition of participation. Although the ICF is regarded an important conceptual framework, it is criticised for not being comprehensive. The relevance of societal involvement of clients is evident for rehabilitation, but the current ICF definition of participation does not sufficiently capture societal involvement. Changing the ICF's definition of participation towards social roles would overcome a number of its shortcomings. Societal involvement would then be understood in the light of social roles. Consequently, there would be no need to make a distinction between social participation and participation.

  2. Self-concept clarity and the management of social conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Zapf, Dieter

    2010-04-01

    In 4 studies we examined the relationship between self-concept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher self-concept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with contending or yielding. The positive relationship with cooperative behavior was mediated by less rumination (Study 2) and moderated by conflict intensity (Study 3). Specifically, it applied to relatively mild conflicts (Study 3). Finally, Study 4 extended these findings to the group level: Dyad members with higher self-concept clarity engaged in problem solving, whereas dyad members with lower self-concept clarity did not. We conclude that higher self-concept clarity associates with proactive problem solving in social conflict.

  3. Students’ Understanding of the Concept of Democracy and Implications for Teacher Education in Social Studies

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    Nora Elise Hesby Mathé

    2016-04-01

    be actively encouraged and maintained also in successful democracies. Little is known, however, about how students understand and explain democracy as a subject-specific concept. Such knowledge may be valuable for social studies teachers and teacher educators to fulfil the purpose of the social studies curriculum. The present article investigates 16-year-old students’ understanding of the concept of democracy. In social studies, the concept of democracy is essential not only for disciplinary understanding and discourse, but also for students’ out-of-school democratic participation. To investigate students’ understanding of this concept, semi-structured group interviews were conducted with a total of 23 students at three different Norwegian upper secondary schools. A central finding is that students primarily expressed a liberal understanding of democracy focusing on voting in elections as the main political activity. Students also demonstrated more or less limited or elaborate understanding. In addition to presenting and discussing students’ understandings of the concept of democracy, this article considers implications for teacher education in social studies. One implication is that teacher educators need to engage actively in discussing and defining core concepts with their students. This is related to supporting student teachers’ professional development and in turn developing adolescents’ opportunities for democratic participation. Such a dual focus can provide a knowledge base to help student teachers in their professional development in their first years as practicing teachers.Keywords: democracy, concepts, understanding, teacher education, social studies, democratic theory

  4. Theoretical Insights for Developing the Concept of Social Technologies

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    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Social technologies continue to grow in popularity in society. Even though the term “social technology” is most commonly used to refer to new social media such as Twitter and Facebook, a redefinition of this concept based on the original definition is needed. Nowadays the concept of “social technology” has several aspects, which destabilize the dominant image of technology. It emphasizes the social sciences and the humanities as shapers of society, reconsiders the strength of “soft technologies.” The aim of this paper is to provide rich insight into the concept of social technologies’ and to develop the meaning of social technologies in information and knowledge society by analysing new needs and application forms of social technologies. Findings—the research contributed to the understanding of the concept of social technologies. Based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature, a theoretical framework for defining social technologies was developed. Research limitations/implications—the research is limited in a few aspects. For a deeper understanding of social technologies and for developing technological perspectives in social sciences a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. In order to generalise the research findings, further research should include different dimensions from the perspective of other sciences. Article Type: conceptual paper.

  5. Theoretical Insights for Developing the Concept of Social Technologies

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    Monika Skaržauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Social technologies continue to grow in popularity in society. Even though the term “social technology” is most commonly used to refer to new social media such as Twitter and Facebook, a redefinition of this concept based on the original definition is needed. Nowadays the concept of “social technology” has several aspects, which destabilize the dominant image of technology. It emphasizes the social sciences and the humanities as shapers of society, reconsiders the strength of “soft technologies.” The aim of this paper is to provide rich insight into the concept of social technologies’ and to develop the meaning of social technologies in information and knowledge society by analysing new needs and application forms of social technologies.Findings—the research contributed to the understanding of the concept of social technologies. Based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature, a theoretical framework for defining social technologies was developed.Research limitations/implications—the research is limited in a few aspects. For a deeper understanding of social technologies and for developing technological perspectives in social sciences a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. In order to generalise the research findings, further research should include different dimensions from the perspective of other sciences.

  6. Social responsibility as modern conception of business

    OpenAIRE

    Vorona, E.

    2010-01-01

    Research of social responsibility is conducted in the context of theory of socialization of the economic systems. Approaches are considered to essence of concept «Social responsibility». The positive consequences of realization of social responsibility and its connection are certain with a competitiveness and efficiency

  7. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social

  8. Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite the swift spread of social network concepts and their applications and the rising use of network analysis in social science, there is no book that provides a thorough general introduction for the serious reader. "Understanding Social Networks" fills that gap by explaining the big ideas that underlie the social network phenomenon.…

  9. Congruence and Performance of Value Concepts in Social Research

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    Tilo Beckers

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two value concepts are dominant in the social sciences: (1 Schwartz's theory of basic human values, measured through the Portrait Values Questionnaire (ESS and (2 Inglehart's postmaterialism and Welzel's extension to the self-expression values scale (WVS/EVS. To advance research in values, two questions need to be addressed: (1 Are the concepts and measurements of values in the different approaches interchangeable? (2 Which of the concepts performs better for explaining moral and social attitudes? This study contributes to the discussion on value concepts by comparing these value instruments using individual level data from an online access panel (n = 762 and assessing the performance of values instruments for microexplanations of moral (end-of-life attitudes and sexual morality and social attitudes (xenophobia. Overall, the measurement model of basic human values with the PVQ provides a sound basis for comparing the Schwartz values to postmaterialism and self-expression values. In both cases, there are positive correlations with universalism and self-direction and negative correlations with tradition/conformity and security, which do not exceed 0.4. Regarding the performance, it turns out that the Schwartz values are in toto a more powerful tool than both Inglehart's postmaterialism and Welzel's self-expression values, in terms of explained variance as well as in terms of standardized effects.

  10. Virtual Reality-Based Attention Bias Modification Training for Social Anxiety: A Feasibility and Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Antoine; Krieger, Tobias; Chesham, Alvin; Mast, Fred W; Berger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Attention bias modification (ABM) programs have been considered as a promising new approach for the treatment of various disorders, including social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, previous studies yielded ambiguous results regarding the efficacy of ABM in SAD. The present proof-of-concept study investigates the feasibility of a newly developed virtual reality (VR)-based dot-probe training paradigm. It was designed to facilitate attentional disengagement from threatening stimuli in socially anxious individuals (N = 15). The following outcomes were examined: (a) self-reports of enjoyment, motivation, flow, and presence; (b) attentional bias for social stimuli; and (c) social anxiety symptoms. Results showed that ABM training is associated with high scores in enjoyment, motivation, flow, and presence. Furthermore, significant improvements in terms of attention bias and social anxiety symptoms were observed from pre- to follow-up assessment. The study suggests that VR is a feasible and presumably a promising new medium for ABM trainings. Controlled studies will need to be carried out.

  11. Virtual Reality-Based Attention Bias Modification Training for Social Anxiety: A Feasibility and Proof of Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eUrech

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Attention bias modification (ABM programs have been considered as a promising new approach for the treatment of various disorders, including social anxiety disorder (SAD. However, previous studies yielded ambiguous results regarding the efficacy of ABM in SAD. The present proof-of-concept study investigates the feasibility of a newly developed virtual reality (VR-based dot-probe training paradigm. It was designed to facilitate attentional disengagement from threatening stimuli in socially anxious individuals (N=15. The following outcomes were examined: (a self-reports of enjoyment, motivation, flow and presence, (b attentional bias for social stimuli, and (c social anxiety symptoms. Results showed that ABM training is associated with high scores in enjoyment, motivation, flow and presence. Furthermore, significant improvements in terms of attention bias and social anxiety symptoms were observed from pre- to follow-up assessment. The study suggests that VR is a feasible and presumably a promising new medium for ABM trainings. Controlled studies will need to be carried out.

  12. Social Entrepreneurship: Framework for feasibility analysis of social business concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Ida Eikvåg; Magnussen, Line

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACTPURPOSEWith the increased interest in social entrepreneurship demonstrated within business schools and academic environments, the adaption of existing academic entrepreneurial constructs for social entrepreneurship applications becomes relevant. The purpose of this thesis is to develop additional tools to the traditional feasibility analysis. The tools will be specifically directed at technology-based concepts, due to the increased employment of technology-based products to solve soci...

  13. Key concepts in social pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker

    2011-01-01

    and activities around key social pedagogical concepts, such as the Common Third, the 3 P’s, the Zone of Proximal Development and the Learning Zone model. In the article we explore how a joint activity, for example playing soccer, can be seen as a pedagogical activity and with what intentions it is undertaken......“Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions...

  14. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  15. How Urban Youth Perceive Relationships Among School Environments, Social Networks, Self-Concept, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Perez-Aguilar, Giselle; Kim, Grace; Wong, Mitchell D; Chung, Paul J

    2017-03-01

    Studies suggest adolescent substance use aligns with academic and behavioral self-concept (whether teens think of themselves as good or bad students and as rule followers or rule breakers) as well as peer and adult social networks. Schools are an important context in which self-concept and social networks develop, but it remains unclear how school environments might be leveraged to promote healthy development and prevent substance use. We sought to describe how youth perceive the relationships among school environments, adolescent self-concept, social networks, and substance use. Semistructured interviews with 32 low-income minority youth (aged 17-22 years) who participated in a prior study, explored self-concept development, school environments, social networks, and substance use decisions. Recruitment was stratified by whether, during high school, they had healthy or unhealthy self-concept profiles and had engaged in or abstained from substance use. Youth described feeling labeled by peers and teachers and how these labels became incorporated into their self-concept. Teachers who made students feel noticed (eg, by learning students' names) and had high academic expectations reinforced healthy self-concepts. Academic tracking, extracurricular activities, and school norms determined potential friendship networks, grouping students either with well-behaving or misbehaving peers. Youth described peer groups, combined with their self-concept, shaping their substance use decisions. Affirming healthy aspects of their self-concept at key risk behavior decision points helped youth avoid substance use in the face of peer pressure. Youth narratives suggest school environments shape adolescent self-concept and adult and peer social networks, all of which impact substance use. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Promoting Self-Concept, Social Skills, and Interpersonal Relations: The Tootling Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patti; Rhymer, Katrina; Landis, Julie; Skinner, Christopher

    A project was undertaken to investigate the effects of tootling on social skills, self-concept, interpersonal relations, and classroom environment. The tootling intervention reinforces students for engaging in acts of kindness. Two fifth-grade classes participated in the study over a seven-week period. The Social Skills Rating System, the…

  17. Career Practitioners' Conceptions of Social Media in Career Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Sampson, James P., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the outcomes of a study, undertaken from a phenomenographic perspective, of career practitioners' conceptions of social media usage in career services. Fifteen Finnish career practitioners--representing comprehensive, secondary and higher education as well as public employment services--were interviewed in focus groups. The…

  18. Concepts of social inclusion, exclusion and mental health: a review of the international literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Stickley, T

    2013-02-01

    Social inclusion and exclusion are concepts which have been widely associated with politics and policy in the first decade of the 2000s. People with mental health problems have become the focus of a range of social inclusion initiatives. A literature review was conducted to explore the peer-reviewed evidence relating social inclusion/exclusion and mental health. In total 36 papers were included in the review from the UK, Canada, Australia and Scandinavia. The papers had used a range of different approaches to research and evaluation. The included papers associated being socially included to: social roles and responsibilities such as employment, participation in social activities, environmental work and voting. Although some papers engaged in a critical discussion of the concept, many offered only simplistic accounts or definitions. Social inclusion is such a widely used term within political and policy discourses that it is surprising so little research is available within the mental health realm. There was a lack of clarity related to the concept of social exclusion and the qualitative studies focused entirely on the experiences of being excluded within an institutional or semi-institutional setting. The relationship between exclusion, inequality and injustice is identified and the relevance of the concept to current and future mental health policy is questioned. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  19. The adoption of the materiality concept in social and environmental reporting assurance:A field study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Edgley, Carla; Jones, Michael; Atkins, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the logics or values that shape the social and environmental reporting (SER) and SER assurance (SERA) process. The influence of logics is observed through a study of the conceptualisation and operationalisation of the materiality concept by accounting and non-accounting assurors and their assurance statements. We gathered qualitative data from interviews with both accounting and non-accounting assurors. We analysed the interplay between old and new logics that are shap...

  20. Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems: the Career of a Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Etienne

    The concept of community of practice was not born in the systems theory tradition. It has its roots in attempts to develop accounts of the social nature of human learning inspired by anthropology and social theory (Lave, 1988; Bourdieu, 1977; Giddens, 1984; Foucault, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978). But the concept of community of practice is well aligned with the perspective of systems traditions. A community of practice itself can be viewed as a simple social system. And a complex social system can be viewed as constituted by interrelated communities of practice. In this essay I first explore the systemic nature of the concept at these two levels. Then I use this foundation to look at the applications of the concept, some of its main critiques, and its potential for developing a social discipline of learning.

  1. Children’s social self-concept and internalizing problems: the influence of peers and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L; van Lier, Pol A C; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children’s social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported internalizing problems were assessed longitudinally in the fall and spring of Grades 2 and 3. Teacher reports of support to the child were assessed in Grade 2. Results showed that peer rejection impeded children’s social self-concept, which in turn affected the development of internalizing problems. Partial support was found for individual (but not classroom-level) teacher support to buffer the adverse effects of peer problems on children’s self-concept, thereby mitigating its indirect effects on internalizing problems.

  2. Applied data-centric social sciences concepts, data, computation, and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2014-01-01

    Applied data-centric social sciences aim to develop both methodology and practical applications of various fields of social sciences and businesses with rich data. Specifically, in the social sciences, a vast amount of data on human activities may be useful for understanding collective human nature. In this book, the author introduces several mathematical techniques for handling a huge volume of data and analysing collective human behaviour. The book is constructed from data-oriented investigation, with mathematical methods and expressions used for dealing with data for several specific problems. The fundamental philosophy underlying the book is that both mathematical and physical concepts are determined by the purposes of data analysis. This philosophy is shown throughout exemplar studies of several fields in socio-economic systems. From a data-centric point of view, the author proposes a concept that may change people’s minds and cause them to start thinking from the basis of data. Several goals underlie ...

  3. Feminism, Neoliberalism, and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Mardi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the sparse presence of women in social studies education and to consider the possibility of a confluence of feminism and neoliberalism within the most widely distributed National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) publication, "Social Education." Using poststructural conceptions of discourse, the author…

  4. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  5. Quantifying Salient Concepts Discussed in Social Media Content: A Case Study using Twitter Content Written by Radicalized Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Ghajar-Khosravi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Media has become an important source for information about people and real-world events. Its importance is driven largely by the enormous number of people generating and updating content in Social Media platforms. In this report, we measure the extent to which we can accurately measure the salience of topics/concepts that might be of interest to an analyst, and evaluate whether concepts like positive and negative sentiment can be meaningfully extracted from Social Media content. As a test case, we examined Twitter content generated by female users who are sympathetic to the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS. The basic technique proposed here can be developed further to create a more fine-grained exanimation of Social Media content.

  6. Teaching Map Concepts in Social Science Education; an Evaluation with Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdayci, Ilkay; Zahit Selvi, H.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most important aim of the geography and social science courses is to gain the ability of reading, analysing and understanding maps. There are a lot of themes related with maps and map concepts in social studies education. Geographical location is one of the most important theme. Geographical location is specified by geographical coordinates called latitude and longitude. The geographical coordinate system is the primary spatial reference system of the earth. It is always used in cartography, in geography, in basic location calculations such as navigation and surveying. It’s important to support teacher candidates, to teach maps and related concepts. Cartographers also have important missions and responsibilities in this context. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of undergraduate students, about the geographical location. For this purpose, a research has been carried out on questions and activities related to geographical location and related concepts. The details and results of the research conducted by the students in the study are explained.

  7. Children's Social Self-Concept and Internalizing Problems: The Influence of Peers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children's social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported…

  8. The Double Contingency as a Key to Redifine the Concept of Social Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gonnet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The double contingency represents a key concept in Niklas Luhmann’s theory of social systems by giving rise to a new treatment of the problem of social order. From its consideration, it is possible to explain social order without blocking the contingency of both individual action and social structures. However, something that has remained out of discussion is precisely what concept of “order” is implied in the author's proposal. In principle, we identify a frequently assumed conception of order in social theory, which is related to the limitation (or conditioning of individual action/communication/selection. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the double contingency would also allow us to problematize and redefine this conception.

  9. A critic revision of the social marketing concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcelo Nomura

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a reflection on the Social Marketing concept, by means of its definition and application in Brazilian reality. Thus, we present the main defi­nitions of marketing, social issues and Social Marketing, quoting some authors of the area. All analysis is done under a critic view of some authors that contributed very much for the marketing evolution: Philip Kotler, Marcos Cobra e Francisco Alberto Madia.

  10. Consumers' Use of UMLS Concepts on Social Media: Diabetes-Related Textual Data Analysis in Blog and Social Q&A Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Sook; He, Zhe; Chen, Zhiwei; Oh, Sanghee; Bian, Jiang

    2016-11-24

    The widely known terminology gap between health professionals and health consumers hinders effective information seeking for consumers. The aim of this study was to better understand consumers' usage of medical concepts by evaluating the coverage of concepts and semantic types of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) on diabetes-related postings in 2 types of social media: blogs and social question and answer (Q&A). We collected 2 types of social media data: (1) a total of 3711 blogs tagged with "diabetes" on Tumblr posted between February and October 2015; and (2) a total of 58,422 questions and associated answers posted between 2009 and 2014 in the diabetes category of Yahoo! Answers. We analyzed the datasets using a widely adopted biomedical text processing framework Apache cTAKES and its extension YTEX. First, we applied the named entity recognition (NER) method implemented in YTEX to identify UMLS concepts in the datasets. We then analyzed the coverage and the popularity of concepts in the UMLS source vocabularies across the 2 datasets (ie, blogs and social Q&A). Further, we conducted a concept-level comparative coverage analysis between SNOMED Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) and Open-Access Collaborative Consumer Health Vocabulary (OAC CHV)-the top 2 UMLS source vocabularies that have the most coverage on our datasets. We also analyzed the UMLS semantic types that were frequently observed in our datasets. We identified 2415 UMLS concepts from blog postings, 6452 UMLS concepts from social Q&A questions, and 10,378 UMLS concepts from the answers. The medical concepts identified in the blogs can be covered by 56 source vocabularies in the UMLS, while those in questions and answers can be covered by 58 source vocabularies. SNOMED CT was the dominant vocabulary in terms of coverage across all the datasets, ranging from 84.9% to 95.9%. It was followed by OAC CHV (between 73.5% and 80.0%) and Metathesaurus Names (MTH) (between 55.7% and 73.5%). All of the social

  11. STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER UNDERSTANDING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY LITERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to: (1 know the teacher's understanding about the concept of Geography as a platform in Social Studies learning; (2 know the teacher's understanding about geography literacy as a platform in Social Studies learning; and (3 study the right literacy concept as platform for Social Studies lesson. This research uses survey method. The subjects of the study were Social Studies teachers in Surakarta City. Sampling using startified random sampling. The results showed: 1 76% of respondents do not understand about Geography as a platform in Social Studies learning; 2 80% of respondents have not understood geography literacy; 3 Edelson's geography literature which consist of interaction, interconnection, and implication components can be used as an alternative to the implementation of Geography policy as a Platform in Social Studies.

  12. Children's social self-concept and internalizing problems: The influence of peers and teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Leflot, G.; Onghena, P.; Colpin, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children's social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social

  13. Abstract concepts, language and sociality: from acquisition to inner speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Barca, Laura; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Tummolini, Luca

    2018-08-05

    The problem of representation of abstract concepts, such as 'freedom' and 'justice', has become particularly crucial in recent years, owing to the increased success of embodied and grounded views of cognition. We will present a novel view on abstract concepts and abstract words. Since abstract concepts do not have single objects as referents, children and adults might rely more on input from others to learn them; we, therefore, suggest that linguistic and social experience play an important role for abstract concepts. We will discuss evidence obtained in our and other laboratories showing that processing of abstract concepts evokes linguistic interaction and social experiences, leading to the activation of the mouth motor system. We will discuss the possible mechanisms that underlie this activation. Mouth motor system activation can be due to re-enactment of the experience of conceptual acquisition, which occurred through the mediation of language. Alternatively, it could be due to the re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner speech. Finally, it can be due to a metacognitive process revealing low confidence in the meaning of our concepts. This process induces in us the need to rely on others to ask/negotiate conceptual meaning. We conclude that with abstract concepts language works as a social tool: it extends our thinking abilities and pushes us to rely on others to integrate our knowledge.This article is part of the theme issue 'Varieties of abstract concepts: development, use, and representation in the brain'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. On a new concept of community: social networks, personal communities and collective intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério da Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This text essentially deals with the transmutation of the concept of "community" into "social networks". This change is due largely to the boom of virtual communities in cyberspace, a fact that has generated a number of studies not only on this new way of weaving a society, but also on the dynamic structure of communication networks. At the core of this transformation, concepts such as social capital, trust and partial sympathy are called upon, to enable us to think about the new forms of association that regulate human activity in our time.

  15. Can social tagged images aid concept-based video search?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setz, A.T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to unravel whether commonly available social tagged images can be exploited as a training resource for concept-based video search. Since social tags are known to be ambiguous, overly personalized, and often error prone, we place special emphasis on the role of disambiguation. We

  16. Strategies for Integrating Peace Education into Social Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings also identified co-curricular and instructional strategies for use in teaching the identified peace education concepts. It was recommended that the identified peace education concepts could be added to the Social Studies curriculum and the thematic approach should be used in restructuring the Social Studies ...

  17. Capitalizing on Bourdieu: How Useful Are Concepts of "Social Capital" and "Social Field" for Researching "Marginalized" Young Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Andrea C.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and "social fields", comparing and contrasting his use of these concepts with that of James Coleman and Robert Putnam. It examines how Bourdieu's ideas offer a different way of understanding the lives of economically disadvantaged young women designated as "at…

  18. Description and Recognition of the Concept of Social Capital in Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkaboni, Forouzan; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2013-01-01

    The current research is intended to describe and recognize the concept of social capital in higher education based on theoretical method in a descriptive-analytical approach. Description and Recognition of the data, gathered from theoretical and experimental studies, indicated that social capital is one of the most important indices for…

  19. Theoretical aspect of the development of 'corporate social responsibility' concept

    OpenAIRE

    Milanović, Vesna M.; Bučalina, Andrea D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical aspect of the development of 'corporate social responsibility' concept from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day, with the focus on the following periods: up to 1950, between 1950 an 1970, from 1970 to 1990 and from 1990 to now. We employed historical approach. We had an insight into the results of theoretical research on 'corporate social responsibility' concept, which were mostly presented in scientific papers in the English language. The ab...

  20. LEVEL SOCIAL SELF CONCEPT AND IMPLICATION IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Kartika Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teenager consider themselves based on the perception others and one of the element which affecting the maturation in self concept is how the assessment and social environment revenue toward it self .This study purpose to describe the self concept of teens and the implications in guidance and counseling .The research type descriptive quantitative methods. The Research was done to teenagers of simple  orphanage in  bengkulu with a population about 103 teenagers .The total of the  research about 82 survey youth to the sample used purposive sampling techniqul  instrument was used  the closed of  scale likert model  with validity 0.873 , reliability ( 0,931 self concept .The findings of this research shows that: ( 1 self concept as of teens tend to be low category. (2  implications finding for service counseling guidance the basic of arranging the guidance counseling program service which can formed  and improved the self concept of teens positively.

  1. Bio-psycho-social concept of ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodović Tanja T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses thematically on one of the essential issues of human existence, a complex and a mysterious phenomenon of ageing. The old people with their biological and psychological features, with their social position and other aspects, are the inexhaustible source of professional research of doctors and sociologists. As opposed to the usual pessimistic attitude of ageing and the old age, the paper points, within the humanist and social work frame, to man's awareness of overcoming the transience of human existence by cultivating a sense and a beauty of life. By elaborating on the concept of ageing, the authors stress the length and the quality of life, which could be advanced by the interaction of three groups of factors: social engagement and participation, the reduction of illness and the improvement of the high level of psychological and mental functions.

  2. ADOLESCENTS’ SELF-CONCEPT AND SOCIAL STATUS IN THEIR SCHOOL CLASS AND PEER CLIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Ļevina, Jeļena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relations between multiple aspects of adolescents’ self-concept and various dimensions of their social status in the classroom and in the peer clique. It was found that there was a positive relationship (1) between physical abilities selfconcept and social preference, perceived popularity, and social dominance; (2) between physical appearance self-concept and perceived popularity and social dominance; (3) between oppositesex ...

  3. Mass Media Influences on Public Conceptions of Social Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Explores possible relationships between the mass media of communication and social problems by three-way comparisons between the incidence of social problems suggested in media portrayals, conceptions of the incidence of these problems held by the public, and the relative frequency of such problems reflected in statistics accumulated by official…

  4. A model integrating social-cultural concepts of nature into frameworks of interaction between social and natural systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhar, Andreas; Raymond, Christopher M.; van den Born, Riyan J.G.

    2018-01-01

    relationship at both individual and collective levels. We highlight the relevance of individual and collective understandings of the human-nature relationship as influencing factors for environmental behaviour, which may be reflected in natural resource management conflicts, and review the diversity......Existing frameworks for analysing interactions between social and natural systems (e.g. Social-Ecological Systems framework, Ecosystem Services concept) do not sufficiently consider and operationalize the dynamic interactions between people's values, attitudes and understandings of the human-nature....... Integrating this model into existing frameworks provides a tool for the exploration of how social-cultural concepts of nature interact with existing contexts to influence governance of social-ecological systems....

  5. Self-Concept in Arab American Adolescents: Implications of Social Support and Experiences in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…

  6. Bio-psycho-social factors affecting sexual self-concept: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potki, Robabeh; Ziaei, Tayebe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, it is believed that mental and emotional aspects of sexual well-being are the important aspects of sexual health. Sexual self-concept is a major component of sexual health and the core of sexuality. It is defined as the cognitive perspective concerning the sexual aspects of 'self' and refers to the individual's self-perception as a sexual creature. The aim of this study was to assess the different factors affecting sexual self-concept. English electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar as well as two Iranian databases including Scientific Information Database and Iranmedex were searched for English and Persian-language articles published between 1996 and 2016. Of 281 retrieved articles, 37 articles were finally included for writing this review article. Factors affecting sexual self-concept were categorized to biological, psychological and social factors. In the category of biological factors, age gender, marital status, race, disability and sexual transmitted infections are described. In the psychological category, the impact of body image, sexual abuse in childhood and mental health history are present. Lastly, in the social category, the roles of parents, peers and the media are discussed. As the development of sexual self-concept is influenced by multiple events in individuals' lives, to promotion of sexual self-concept, an integrated implementation of health policies is recommended.

  7. Social Coping and Self-Concept among Young Gifted Students in Ireland and the United States: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jennifer Riedl; O'Reilly, Colm; Kim, Mihyeon; Mammadov, Sakhavat; Cross, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Social coping and self-concept were explored among Irish (n = 115) and American (n = 134) grades 3-8 students. Denying one's giftedness or the impact it has on peer relationships were associated with poor self-concept in both samples. Among Irish students, denying giftedness was associated with more positive self-concept when paired with a high…

  8. Social capital for industrial development: operationalizing the concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Knorringa (Peter); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe present report on Social capital for industrial development: operationalizing the concept is part of the broader Combating Marginalization and Poverty through Industrial Development (COMPID), research programme of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO),

  9. Inter-relationship of intelligence-quotient and self-concept with dental caries amongst socially handicapped orphan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Pks; Jain, R L; Pathak, A; Sharma, U; Rajput, J S

    2012-01-01

    India has been the focus of many health surveys among normal, physically, and mentally handicapped children. However, the data, concerning oral health conditions of socially handicapped children living in orphanages, are scanty. To study the effect of parental inadequacy, environmental deprivation, and emotional disturbances on dental caries through intelligence quotient (IQ) and self-concept in orphan children and also to co-relate dental caries with different levels of IQ and self-concept. The study was carried out amongst socially handicapped children living in orphanages. 100 children in the age group of 10-14 years from orphanages were selected. Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC) was used to assess the intelligence quotient; self-concept questionnaire to assess self-concept of the child and recording of dental caries status of children was done as per WHO Index (1997). To assess the relationship of dental caries with IQ, student's unpaired t-test was used and; to find the relationship between self-concept and dental caries, Karl-Pearson's coefficient of co-relation was applied. the children in orphanages had a lower IQ and high caries experience but had an above average self-concept. There was also no co-relation between dental caries and self-concept. Orphan children, being socially handicapped, are at an increased risk for dental caries due to a lower IQ level, parental deprivation, and institutionalization. Moreover, lack of co-relation between dental caries and self-concept could be explained by the fact that dental caries is a lifelong process whereas different dimensions of self-concept are in a state of constant flux.

  10. Reciprocal influences of victimization, perceived social preference, and self-concept in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellmore, A.D.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand self-concept development, the association between adolescents' social self-perceptions and their peers' perceptions of them was examined in a three-year longitudinal study of 491 middle school students. Each spring for three years, adolescents' peer-perceived

  11. A Critical Review on the Concept of Social Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Leibetseder

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—A critical analysis of the term social technology from a social science point of view.Design/Methodology/Approach—Review of the term “social technology” from a social science point of perspective in connection to the study of governmentality and power in a Foucauldian way.Findings—The article covers the perspective that social technology provides social science knowledge for a purpose. Such a notion allows an in depth debate about the meaning of social order in modern societies. Establishing distinctive techniques now forms the basis of the modern state and governance. Social technology forms the basis of governmental decisions; it allows for a use of social theories and methods for a purpose in politics and introduces a specific conception of power between the individual and public powers. Therefore, it alters government in three ways: It provides expert power to define solutions for social problems based on social science knowledge. It transforms government. Social technology exemplifies a support system for an ordered method of the way of government, it allows for the conduct of others and self based on scientific expertise. It can define new areas of problems in need of a change of government.Research limitations/implications—Consequently, social technology requests a critical analysis using a governmental approach. Such an approach focuses on problems on the governed subject and how governing works and why it has evolved in that way towards the subject and what kind of ideas and thinking lies within the discourse.Research type—general review.

  12. Social-class differences in self-concept clarity and their implications for well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; Chan, Micaela Y; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Park, Denise C

    2018-06-01

    A consistent/stable sense of the self is more valued in middle-class contexts than working-class contexts; hence, we predicted that middle-class individuals would have higher self-concept clarity than working-class individuals. It is further expected that self-concept clarity would be more important to one's well-being among middle-class individuals than among working-class individuals. Supporting these predictions, self-concept clarity was positively associated with higher social class. Moreover, although self-concept clarity was associated with higher life satisfaction and better mental health, the association significantly attenuated among working-class individuals. In addition, self-concept clarity was not associated with physical health and its association with physical health did not interact with social class.

  13. Cool Girls, Inc. and Self-Concept: The Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Jessica D.; Kuperminc, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Social capital was examined as a mediator of the association between youth development program participation and gains in self-concept in a sample of 86 primarily African American female adolescents in the Cool Girls, program, and 89 comparisons. Two dimensions of social capital (the diversity of girls' social networks and the number of life…

  14. Perceptions of Pre-Service Social Sciences Teachers Regarding the Concept of "Geography" by Mind Mapping Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk Demirbas, Cagri

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the perceptions of preservice social sciences teachers regarding the concept of geography. In the study, the study group consists of 46 preservice social sciences teachers, who receive education at Ahi Evran University. The data were collected in December, 2010. Mind maps were used as data collection tools…

  15. Analysis of Social and Emotional Development of Orphaned Youth in terms of Self Concept and Resilience: Study at Child Care Children's Home (PSAA Tunas Bangsa Pati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso Santoso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the development of the Young Social da Emotional Self-concept and in terms of resilience in the PSAA Tunas Bangsa Pati. The method used is descriptive research with this type of development studies dab data obtained will be analyzed by cross sectional method. The results showed that the concept of self-possessed teenager PSAA is not good, it can be seen from the description of several indicators show that the concept of self-assessment of her teenage less well because many feel insecure and inferiority. Judging from the resilience, the general adolescent PSAA good enough. It can be seen from the emotion management capabilities of any events that are considered less menyengakan life. So overall it can be concluded that the social development of adolescents PSAA poorly and emotional development PSAA pretty good when viewed from the concept of self and resilience.

  16. Mediating effects of social support and self-concept on depressive symptoms in adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-Y; Chen, W-K; Lu, C-Y; Tsai, C-C; Lai, H-L; Lin, H-Y; Guo, S-E; Wu, L-M; Chen, C-I

    2015-05-01

    Cross-sectional, correlational design. To examine the effects of individual demographics, activities of daily living, social support, and self-concept on depressive symptoms in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). A convenience sample of 135 adults with SCI was recruited from medical and rehabilitation centres in Taiwan. Face-to-face, structured interviews were employed to collect information. Study questionnaires included a demographic sheet, the Barthel scale, the modified Social Support Inventory, the Huang self-concept scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Data were analysed by structural equation modelling (SEM). The average age of the participants was 43.3 years (±11.98), the mean duration of injury was 114 months (±93.78), and most were males. Emotional support (r=-0.173, Pself-concept as significant predictors of depressive symptoms, with self-concept acting as a mediator in this relationship. Participants' characteristics and social support both contributed substantial indirect effects on depressive symptoms via self-concept. Self-concept also mediated the relationship between education, income, physical functioning and participants' depressive symptoms. For this sample, the more negative that individuals perceived themselves, the more likely they were to report worsening depressive symptoms. The more social support that individuals have, the more likely they were to report less depressive symptoms. Further longitudinal research will help clarify the direction of these relationships.

  17. The Social Science Teacher. 1972. Collected Conference Papers: Social Science Concepts Classroom Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    Papers in this publication are collected from a conference on social science concepts and classroom methods which focused on the theories of Jerome Bruner. The first article, entitled "Jerome Bruner," outlines four of Bruner's themes--structure, readiness, intuition, and interest--which relate to cognitive learning. Three…

  18. Associating Human-Centered Concepts with Social Networks Using Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    The rapidly growing global interconnectivity, brought about to a large extent by the Internet, has dramatically increased the importance and diversity of social networks. Modern social networks cut across a spectrum from benign recreational focused websites such as Facebook to occupationally oriented websites such as LinkedIn to criminally focused groups such as drug cartels to devastation and terror focused groups such as Al-Qaeda. Many organizations are interested in analyzing and extracting information related to these social networks. Among these are governmental police and security agencies as well marketing and sales organizations. To aid these organizations there is a need for technologies to model social networks and intelligently extract information from these models. While established technologies exist for the modeling of relational networks [1-7] few technologies exist to extract information from these, compatible with human perception and understanding. Data bases is an example of a technology in which we have tools for representing our information as well as tools for querying and extracting the information contained. Our goal is in some sense analogous. We want to use the relational network model to represent information, in this case about relationships and interconnections, and then be able to query the social network using intelligent human-centered concepts. To extend our capabilities to interact with social relational networks we need to associate with these network human concepts and ideas. Since human beings predominantly use linguistic terms in which to reason and understand we need to build bridges between human conceptualization and the formal mathematical representation of the social network. Consider for example a concept such as "leader". An analyst may be able to express, in linguistic terms, using a network relevant vocabulary, properties of a leader. Our task is to translate this linguistic description into a mathematical formalism

  19. Best Practices for Learning Video Concept Detectors from Social Media Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning video concept detectors from social media sources, such as Flickr images and YouTube videos, has the potential to address a wide variety of concept queries for video search. While the potential has been recognized by many, and progress on the topic has been impressive, we argue that key

  20. Exploiting Rating Abstention Intervals for Addressing Concept Drift in Social Network Recommender Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisis Margaris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems that social networks face is the continuous production of successful, user-targeted information in the form of recommendations, which are produced exploiting technology from the field of recommender systems. Recommender systems are based on information about users’ past behavior to formulate recommendations about their future actions. However, as time goes by, social network users may change preferences and likings: they may like different types of clothes, listen to different singers or even different genres of music and so on. This phenomenon has been termed as concept drift. In this paper: (1 we establish that when a social network user abstains from rating submission for a long time, it is a strong indication that concept drift has occurred and (2 we present a technique that exploits the abstention interval concept, to drop from the database ratings that do not reflect the current social network user’s interests, thus improving prediction quality.

  1. Landscape services as boundary concept in landscape governance: Building social capital in collaboration and adapting the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, Judith; Opdam, Paul; Rooij, Van Sabine; Steingröver, Eveliene

    2017-01-01

    The landscape services concept provides a lens to study relations within the social-ecological networks that landscapes are, and to identify stakeholders as either providers or beneficiaries. However, landscape services can also be used as a boundary concept in collaborative landscape governance. We

  2. The holistic concepts of disaster management and social cohesion - statistics and method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses a multidisciplinary approach to underline the importance of some holistic concepts like social cohesion and human ecology, and also to assess environmental and economic specificity of these new ecological and social terms. The structure of the paper consists of an introduction describing the transition from mythological existence to the contemporary holistic view and four sections. While, the first section details the vital elements of the ecosphere in the new holistic sense, the second describes the holistic concept of human ecology, and the third details the significance, importance and impact of the contemporary management disasters and some global statistics. The last section summarize a statistical method known as the social cohesion evaluation, applied by the author in our country, during Romania’s admission period to EU, that in conjunction with holistic concept of human ecology represent new necessary analysis in this decade. Some final remarks underline the importance of a new approach in economics based on holistic principle and reciprocity.

  3. Compassion and Caring: Missing Concepts in Social Studies Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliner, Pearl

    1979-01-01

    Current social studies programs do not include the study of prosocial behaviors such as altruism, generosity, and compassion. This omission legitimizes the view that human behaviors are self-serving. Curriculum developers should fashion programs which provide prosocial models and opportunities for students to conceptualize such behaviors and…

  4. Adler's Concept of Social Interest: Theory, Measurement, and Implications for Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of a new, short measure of social interest and examines its relations to a variety of measures of adjustment and psychological well-being. Also summarizes the meaning of Adler's concept of social interest and his theorizing concerning its influence on adjustment. (Author/SS)

  5. Evaluating and integrating corporate social responsibility standards: Implications for CSR concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Stiglbauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Standards play a major role when concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR ought to be implemented and corporate social performance (CSP ought to be assessed. Ethical reasoning and stakeholders’ expectations help to measure companies’ intentions to implement CSR standards and to measure their efficiency. With different standards of CSR (company standards, industry standards, multi-stakeholder standards and independent standards companies may implement we categorize and еvaluate those standards and give advice which opportunities but also threats may arise for companies when implementing such codes within firm-specific CSR concepts. We suggest a combination of different standards and replenish them with firm-specific codes of conduct.

  6. Buyer social responsibility: a general concept and its implications for marketing management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of sustainability concerns in consumer decision-making poses new challenges to marketing. The existing literature contains a variety of concepts and definitions that pertain to social issues in consumption but lacks an overarching conceptualisation of buyer social responsibility (BSR)

  7. The Key Conceptions of Social Security: the International Practice and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dluhopolska Tetiana I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide globalization processes and the political-military conflicts have exacerbated the problem of social security of the people of various world countries, which is usually seen from the perspective of both the State and the individual citizen. The article is aimed at analyzing the existing conceptions of social security from different perspectives – political, economic efficiency, and narrative. An analysis of political theories of social security (majority rational voting; pressure groups has determined that they are based on the redistribution processes, and winning of the individual economic agents is achieved in the political struggle for various «social prizes». An analysis of theories of efficiency (optimal redistribution; optimal retirement insurance; prodigal father; misguided Keynesian; longevity insurance; government economizes on administration costs; return on human capital investment has determined that they rely on market «fiasco» and can help in understanding which from the social protection programs minimize market failures. An analysis of the descriptive (narrative theories (chain letters; lump of labor; monopoly capitalism; nearly rational policy has determined that they are difficult subject to the mathematical interpretation and partially repeat ideas of the previous concepts.

  8. Social Concepts and Judgments: A Semantic Differential Analysis of the Concepts Feminist, Man, and Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, W. David; Sydie, R. A.; Stratkotter, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Male and female participants (N = 274) made judgments about the social concepts of "feminist," "man," and "woman" on 63 semantic differential items. Factor analysis identified three basic dimensions termed evaluative, potency, and activity as well as two secondary factors called expressiveness and sexuality. Results for the evaluative dimension…

  9. [The concept of social marketing--potential and limitations for health promotion and prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Lang, K; Ultsch, S; Eichhorn, C; Nagel, E

    2006-07-01

    "Social marketing" is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programmes to promote socially beneficial behaviour changes. In the field of health promotion and prevention, the systematic planning process of social marketing can offer new ideas and perspectives to the traditions of social science. Major characteristics of social marketing encompass continuous market research focussing on attitudes, motives and behavioural patterns of the target group, an integrated mix of strategic key elements, and the perpetual evaluation of all procedures. So far, however, it is unclear in how far social marketing is actually more effective than other concepts of programme planning. Furthermore, it has to be discussed whether the underlying philosophy of social marketing and its implicit understanding of relationships to the public are reconcilable with health promotion principles. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the social marketing concept has achieved widespread application and is subject to controversial scientific discussions, whereas this approach is hardly considered in German health promotion research and practice. Given the increasing call for quality management and evaluation of health promotion interventions, the social marketing concept may contribute useful insights at an operational level and thus add to a discussion on effective approaches for programme planning.

  10. The Sociology and Social Science of ‘Evil’: Is the Conception of Pedophilia ‘Evil’?

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper approaches 'evil' from sociological and social science perspectives, using them to increase our insight into the concept of 'evil' since they have long neglected direct analyses of 'evil'. For example, sociology has focused on questions of the good, treating its other as an absence or a residual category. Durkheim suggested to avoid using common sense categorisations, without exploring their social construction as social fact. Therefore, because 'evil' is a common sense conception,...

  11. Participatory Learning through Social Media: How and Why Social Studies Educators Use Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutka, Daniel G.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The microblogging service Twitter offers a platform that social studies educators increasingly use for professional development, communication, and class activities, but to what ends? The authors drew on Deweyan conceptions of participatory learning and citizenship aims of the field as lenses through which to consider social media activities. To…

  12. Social Context in Usability Evaluations: Concepts, Processes and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul

    social context is considered important, only little research has been done to identify how it influences usability evaluations. In this thesis I explore how social context affects the process and product of a usability evaluation and explain the findings in terms of the theory of behaviour settings...... leader) and non-operatives (members, spectators, neutrals and potentials) from the theory of behaviour settings to usability evaluations generates an understanding and create an awareness of the level of power possessed by each of the participants in the social context. 2. On the operative level...... and a field experiment. Findings from these activities are presented in five published paper contributions. I furthermore introduce the theory of behaviour settings as a tool to help characterise the key concepts of social context which, together with an understanding of usability evaluations, provide...

  13. Social Situation of Development: Parents Perspectives on Infants-Toddlers' Concept Formation in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    The social situation of development (SSD) specific to each age determines regularly the whole picture of the child's life. Therefore, we need to learn about the whole context surrounding children relevant to their development. The focus of the study is to understand parent's views on infant-toddler's science concept formation in the family…

  14. Teaching L2 Spanish Sociopragmatics through Concepts: A Classroom-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Gomez-Laich, Maria Pia; Weber, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the teaching of second language (L2) Spanish sociopragmatics through concept-based pragmatics instruction (van Compernolle, 2014). The concepts of self-presentation, social distance, and power were the focus of a pedagogical enrichment program in 2 sections of a beginning-level Spanish class at a northeastern U.S. university.…

  15. Enhancing Lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with Social Network-based Concepts and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of enhancing the social dimension of lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with social network-based concepts and tools. Our premise is that through a combination of social network visualization tools, simulations, stimulus agents and management

  16. Relativism and the social scientific study of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjord, M

    1993-04-01

    Does the social scientific study of medicine require a commitment to relativism? Relativism claims that some subject (e.g., knowledge claims or moral judgments) is relative to a background (e.g., a culture or conceptual scheme) and that judgments about the subject are incommensurable. Examining the concept of success as it appears in orthodox and nonorthodox medical systems, we see that judgments of success are relative to a background medical system. Relativism requires the social scientific study of medicine to be value free in the sense that a medical system must be described without evaluating its elements. When social scientists do evaluate the successfulness of a nonorthodox medical system, they give a crucial role to the nonorthodox conception of success. This strategy does not vitiate value-freedom and it entails a relativism about success. The social scientific study of medicine, therefore, does require relativism in the form of a relativism about success.

  17. Surfacing the Structures of Patriarchy: Teaching and Learning Threshold Concepts in Women's Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Holly; Reddinger, Amy; van Slooten, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Patriarchy is a threshold concept in women's studies--a significant, defining concept that transforms students' understanding of the discipline. This article reviews our design, implementation, and findings of a lesson study crafted to teach women's studies students the complex idea of patriarchy as a social system. We analyze the lesson using…

  18. Validity as a social imperative for assessment in health professions education: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Mélanie; Gallagher, Frances; Young, Meredith; St-Onge, Christina

    2018-06-01

    Assessment can have far-reaching consequences for future health care professionals and for society. Thus, it is essential to establish the quality of assessment. Few modern approaches to validity are well situated to ensure the quality of complex assessment approaches, such as authentic and programmatic assessments. Here, we explore and delineate the concept of validity as a social imperative in the context of assessment in health professions education (HPE) as a potential framework for examining the quality of complex and programmatic assessment approaches. We conducted a concept analysis using Rodgers' evolutionary method to describe the concept of validity as a social imperative in the context of assessment in HPE. Supported by an academic librarian, we developed and executed a search strategy across several databases for literature published between 1995 and 2016. From a total of 321 citations, we identified 67 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Two team members analysed the texts using a specified approach to qualitative data analysis. Consensus was achieved through full team discussions. Attributes that characterise the concept were: (i) demonstration of the use of evidence considered credible by society to document the quality of assessment; (ii) validation embedded through the assessment process and score interpretation; (iii) documented validity evidence supporting the interpretation of the combination of assessment findings, and (iv) demonstration of a justified use of a variety of evidence (quantitative and qualitative) to document the quality of assessment strategies. The emerging concept of validity as a social imperative highlights some areas of focus in traditional validation frameworks, whereas some characteristics appear unique to HPE and move beyond traditional frameworks. The study reflects the importance of embedding consideration for society and societal concerns throughout the assessment and validation process, and may represent a

  19. Adolescents’ identity experiments on the internet: consequences for social competence and self-concept unity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adolescents' online identity experiments on their social competence and self-concept unity. An online survey was conducted among 1,158 Dutch adolescents between 10 and 17 years of age. Using structural equation modeling, the authors

  20. Modern Social Science Concepts, Proportionate Reciprocity, Modesty, and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos T. SOLDATOS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proportionate Reciprocity, Modesty, and Democracy, are the key concepts in Aristotle’s economics of exchange. The following correspondence of these concepts with modern social science may be contemplated: (a Ideally, reciprocal justice in bilateral bargaining to minimize expenditure given utility levels results in Pareto-efficient, envy-free, equitable outcomes. (b Practically, bargaining under the threat or actual recontracting may act as a surrogate of reciprocal justice, leading to an N-person contract topology. (c But, recontracting is subject to practical limitations too, in which case near-reciprocal justice/general equilibrium outcomes may be fostered if, as a surrogate of recontracting, modesty in interaction is exhibited in an evolutionarily-stable-strategy fashion. (d That is, incomplete recontracting amounts to asymmetric agent-type information, which in turn lays the ground for injustices; the same lack of information prevents rectificatory justice from being efficient and hence, modesty can be efficient only if it operates as a social norm and hence, only in a modest polity, which can be no other than democracy.

  1. Organic Production Business Model and the Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina ARABSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR considering competitiveness and sustainability issues in contemporary globalizing world is closely linked to organic production being a production system applying holistic approaches in the overall management and production activities and assurance of the highest degree of conformability to sustainable use and preservation of resources. The paper examines the organic production as a business model corresponding to the spheres of CSR regarding society, environment, human capital and work conditions, knowledge and education. The focus in on sustainable business practices in organic production assessed in the study from the point of view of management, environment, human resources, public relations and business environment considered in five dimensions: economic, social, environmental, cultural and accountability.

  2. [A Swiss medical-social institution and the Snoezelen concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Terrail, Caroline; Kemken, Lucie Marigo; Makamwe, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with six student nurses from the Geneva Haute École de Santé, the Les Franchises medical-social institution in Geneva has launched an innovative project: the integration of the Snoezelen concept into its care programme, which will benefit residents with moderate or advanced dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Caring Disposition and Subordination. Swedish Health and Social Care Teachers' Conceptions of Important Vocational Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Helena; Eliasson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Based on the increasing demands for vocational training in upper secondary school to adapt to workplace conditions, the aim of this article is to explore vocational teachers' conceptions regarding vocational knowledge. Drawing on a social constructionist perspective, this study analysed data from 17 interviews. The study showed how power dynamics,…

  4. Politicizing science: conceptions of politics in science and technology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.

  5. Measuring social science concepts in pharmacy education research: From definition to item analysis of self-report instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, M Ken

    Interpreting results from quantitative research can be difficult when measures of concepts are constructed poorly, something that can limit measurement validity. Social science steps for defining concepts, guidelines for limiting construct-irrelevant variance when writing self-report questions, and techniques for conducting basic item analysis are reviewed to inform the design of instruments to measure social science concepts in pharmacy education research. Based on a review of the literature, four main recommendations emerge: These include: (1) employ a systematic process of conceptualization to derive nominal definitions; (2) write exact and detailed operational definitions for each concept, (3) when creating self-report questionnaires, write statements and select scales to avoid introducing construct-irrelevant variance (CIV); and (4) use basic item analysis results to inform instrument revision. Employing recommendations that emerge from this review will strengthen arguments to support measurement validity which in turn will support the defensibility of study finding interpretations. An example from pharmacy education research is used to contextualize the concepts introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Out of sight, out of mind: racial retrieval cues increase the accessibility of social justice concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Phia S; Kelley, Nicholas J; Molina, Ludwin E; Thai, Luyen T

    2017-09-01

    Photographs provide critical retrieval cues for personal remembering, but few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. In this research, we examined the psychological consequences of visual attention to the presence (or absence) of racially charged retrieval cues within American racial segregation photographs. We hypothesised that attention to racial retrieval cues embedded in historical photographs would increase social justice concept accessibility. In Study 1, we recorded gaze patterns with an eye-tracker among participants viewing images that contained racial retrieval cues or were digitally manipulated to remove them. In Study 2, we manipulated participants' gaze behaviour by either directing visual attention toward racial retrieval cues, away from racial retrieval cues, or directing attention within photographs where racial retrieval cues were missing. Across Studies 1 and 2, visual attention to racial retrieval cues in photographs documenting historical segregation predicted social justice concept accessibility.

  7. Quantifying social norms: by coupling the ecosystem management concept and semi-quantitative sociological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Xu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over recent decades, human-induced environmental changes have steadily and rapidly grown in intensity and impact to where they now often exceed natural impacts. As one of important components of human activities, social norms play key roles in environmental and natural resources management. But the lack of relevant quantitative data about social norms greatly limits our scientific understanding of the complex linkages between humans and nature, and hampers our solving of pressing environmental and social problems. In this study, we built a quantified method by coupling the ecosystem management concept, semi-quantitative sociological methods and mathematical statistics. We got the quantified value of social norms from two parts, whether the content of social norms coincide with the concept of ecosystem management (content value) and how about the performance after social norms were put into implementation (implementation value) . First, we separately identified 12 core elements of ecosystem management and 16 indexes of social norms, and then matched them one by one. According to their matched degree, we got the content value of social norms. Second, we selected 8 key factors that can represent the performance of social norms after they were put into implementation, and then we got the implementation value by Delph method. Adding these two parts values, we got the final value of each social norms. Third, we conducted a case study in Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river in China, by selecting 12 official edicts related to the river basin ecosystem management of Heihe River Basin. By doing so, we first got the qualified data of social norms which can be directly applied to the research that involved observational or experimental data collection of natural processes. Second, each value was supported by specific contents, so it can assist creating a clear road map for building or revising management and policy guidelines. For example, in this case study

  8. High School Social Studies Teachers' Beliefs and Education for Democratic Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Stuart Beall

    2010-01-01

    This study explores secondary social studies teachers' beliefs about the concept of citizenship. The development of citizenship in young people is an often-stated goal for schooling in the USA. The most prominent social studies professional organization, the National Council for the Social Studies, describes education for citizenship as the…

  9. The relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Dadarigashti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study conducted to examine the relationship between psychological adjustment and social protection with academic self-concept and academic achievement among high school female students in Rasht. The research is descriptive correlational. The target population includes all female students studying in Rasht in 2015. By random cluster sampling method and based on the variables, 180 subjects selected. In this study, to collect data, psychological adjustment and social support, academic self-concept and academic achievement questionnaire are used. To test the hypothesis of this research, the parametric statistical Pearson correlation and regression tests are used. Moreover, all statistical operations were analyzed by using SPSS software. The research results showed that the correlation values between psychological adjustment and social support with academic self-concept and academic achievement of high school female students is statistically significant ( 01/0 > p.

  10. Family Relationships and Adolescent Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Catherine J.

    Previous research relating the quality of the relationship with the mother, father, and sibling to adolescent self-concept only investigated social and general self-concept and not various social and cognitive dimensions of self-concept. This study investigated family relationships and their link to the several domains of self-concept.…

  11. Day Care and Children's Conceptions of Moral and Social Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Storey, Rebecca McDonald

    1985-01-01

    Day care has a significant effect on children's conceptions of social rules that is not related to egocentrism or a lack of stimulus familiarity. Moral transgressions were regarded as equally serious by veterans and newly enrolled, while the distinction between morality and convention was unclear for the newly enrolled. (RH))

  12. SOCIAL ROBOT: DEFINING THE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Nikolaevna Zilberman

    2016-11-01

    Practical implications. The results of the study contribute toьthe theoretical basis of the cross-disciplinary research field of social robotics and may be used by researchers. They may also be used as educational aid in teaching academic courses in social studies, robotics, ethics of technology, artificial intelligence, etc.

  13. Clarifying the concept of social capital through its three perspectives: individualistic, communitarian and macrosocial

    OpenAIRE

    Matías Membiela-Pollán; José Atiano Pena-López

    2017-01-01

    The concept of social capital has received increasing attention in recent years. The complexity and multidimensionality that accompany the variable of social capital have caused confusion and ambiguity. This article presents a synthesis of social capital in three perspectives. From the individualistic or micro-social perspective, social capital is an "individual resource" that consists of the networks of relations of the focal subject that bring it a set of instrumental and expressive resourc...

  14. University Teachers' Conceptions of "Changemaker": A Starting Point for Embedding Social Innovation in Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden Rivers, Bethany; Nie, Ming; Armellini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study aimed at understanding the different conceptions that University of Northampton teachers hold of "Changemaker", an institutional initiative to develop capacities for social innovation. Design/methodology/approach: The study took a phenomenographic approach to identify a small…

  15. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - (NOT A FAMILIAR CONCEPT FOR THE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Jonoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the success of any legal entity exceeds the limits that were laid almost two centuries ago when the company and its owners were interested only on the creation of profit and focused on climbing on the ladder of wealth and profitability. Achieving of these interests was beneficial only for few persons, most often represented in the persons of owners. Namely, taking into account social changes and environment in which corporations operate today, socially responsible operations, the inclusion of a social community, environmental concerns have become one of the general criteria without can not be evaluated the success of the company’s work. Just as important is the nature of ownership of capital assets with which operate the public enterprises (corporations of the same meaning is and the way of managing and its impact on the environment. Although almost unknown notion of corporate governance in the transition period of Macedonia, good and responsible corporate management nowadays is considered as an essential pre-condition for the creation of an attractive investment climate, which is characterized by competitive oriented companies and efficient financial markets where social responsible operations and the concept of social responsibility takes its significant place.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN TRADE UNDER CONDITIONS OF MARKET GLOBALISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Sokolov Mladenovic, Djordje Cuzovic,

    2015-01-01

    Under contemporary business conditions, market globalisation has become inevitable. Such relationships on the market make trade companies use different means to acquire and maintain long-term competitive advantage. One of them is the concept of corporate social responsibility, which is, under conditions of globalisation, seen as a redesign of the classic marketing concept. The aim of this paper is to highlight the development of corporate social responsibility in trade, in the context of mark...

  17. Inuit Social Studies: A Variant on a Common Theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolforth, John

    1998-01-01

    A social studies methods course for preservice Inuit student teachers in Canada mediated between the knowledge and professional skills required of social studies teachers as presented in the textbook and the knowledge brought by the Inuit students. Using genealogy, concept webs, and timelines, the instructor gave Inuit knowledge as much weight as…

  18. La psicología social y el concepto de cultura Social psychology and the concept of culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Vera Noriega

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una revisión de las teorías contemporáneas de la psicología social, observando en sus métodos experimentales y los datos de investigación, las diferentes maneras de medir, evaluar y teorizar sobre el uso del concepto de cultura. Se estudian las teorías de individualismo-colectivismo, capital social, identidad social y étnica, sistemas concéntricos y adaptativos. El análisis se lleva a cabo desde la perspectiva teórica que supone al constructo sociológico y antropológico de cultura como una categoría no psicológica que integra los aspectos sociales vinculados a la formación de valores y representaciones que cortan transversalmente el comportamiento social.O objetivo deste artigo é realizar uma revisão das teorias contemporâneas da psicologia social, observando em seus métodos experimentais e apresentação de dados de pesquisa, as diferentes maneiras de medir, avaliar e teorizar sobre o uso que fazem do conceito de cultura. Analisam-se as teorias de individualismo - coletivismo, capital social, identidade étnica, sistemas concêntricos e adaptativos. A análise é feita desde a perspectiva teórica que pressupõe o constructo sociológico e antropológico da cultura como uma categoria não psicológica que integra os aspectos sociais vinculados à formação de valores e representações que cortam transversalmente o comportamento social.The objective of this critic review related to the cultural concept is to review the contemporary theories of social psychology; taking in count its experimental designs and data, and its way to assume, to measure and to evaluate the cultural concept. There were analyzed the theories: individualism-collectivism, social capital, social and ethnic identity as well as the concentric and adaptive systems. Both of them were analyzed from the theoretical perspective of culture (sociological-anthropological construct as a non-psychological category that

  19. Barriers and opportunities in realising sustainable energy concepts--an analysis of two Swiss case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Christian; Gisler, Priska

    2003-01-01

    What assists and what hinders sustainable energy use in being put into effect? Two case studies of sustainable energy concepts--the Zurich Solarstromboerse, where electricity can be purchased that is produced by solar panels, and the Swiss CO 2 -law, a consensus oriented implementation of the Kyoto-protocol--were analysed in order to investigate this question. In both case studies the unfolding of the sustainable energy concepts is reconstructed as a process starting with an abstract idea moving to a concrete realisation. This process passes through a series of different social worlds and is, in turn, affected by them. These social worlds are e.g. those of the concerned scientists, the professional investors, energy suppliers or governmental agencies. The case studies reveal three neuralgic challenges that have to be met when a concept advances from idea to realisation through the social worlds: Firstly, the translation between social worlds changes the content of the idea. Secondly, the way each social world looks at things (socially) constructs best solutions to problems and hides others. Thirdly, the actual dynamics of the social world within which it is finally implemented must be adopted by the idea. In order to integrate these neuralgic points, scientists as well as other inventors have to retain responsibility for their sustainable energy ideas and are requested to follow them through the social worlds in order to critically survey and eventually influence their 'content in flux'

  20. The social accountability of doctors: a relationship based framework for understanding emergent community concepts of caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Thompson, Lionel P; McInerney, Patricia; Woollard, Bob

    2017-04-12

    Social accountability is defined as the responsibility of institutions to respond to the health priorities of a community. There is an international movement towards the education of health professionals who are accountable to communities. There is little evidence of how communities experience or articulate this accountability. In this grounded theory study eight community based focus group discussions were conducted in rural and urban South Africa to explore community members' perceptions of the social accountability of doctors. The discussions were conducted across one urban and two rural provinces. Group discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial coding was done and three main themes emerged following data analysis: the consultation as a place of love and respect (participants have an expectation of care yet are often engaged with disregard); relationships of people and systems (participants reflect on their health priorities and the links with the social determinants of health) and Ubuntu as engagement of the community (reflected in their expectation of Ubuntu based relationships as well as part of the education system). These themes were related through a framework which integrates three levels of relationship: a central community of reciprocal relationships with the doctor-patient relationship as core; a level in which the systems of health and education interact and together with social determinants of health mediate the insertion of communities into a broader discourse. An ubuntu framing in which the tensions between vulnerability and power interact and reflect rights and responsibility. The space between these concepts is important for social accountability. Social accountability has been a concept better articulated by academics and centralized agencies. Communities bring a richer dimension to social accountability through their understanding of being human and caring. This study also creates the connection between ubuntu and social

  1. Social Entrepreneurship in India: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemantkumar P. Bulsara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Entrepreneurship is an all-encompassing nomenclature, used for depicting the process of, bringing about social change on a major and impactful scale compared to a traditional Non-Governmental Organization (NGO.  It is an increasingly important concept in the study of voluntary, non-profit and not-for -profit organizations. Earlier, organizations addressing key social issues were assumed to be idealistic, philanthropic with entrepreneurial skills. Social Entrepreneurship in India is emerging primarily because the government is very keen on its promotion, not necessarily by funding it or by advising on it but by enabling it. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of the private sector with clearly earmarked funds and full-fledged action teams have played an important role in sprucing up the image of Social Entrepreneurship. The focus of the paper is to study the growing trends of Social Entrepreneurship in India and the new initiatives taken by various Social Entrepreneurs. It also gives a brief idea of different Theories of Social Entrepreneurship. Efforts are made to provide information and an exploratory study, related to the support activities of Social Entrepreneurship and Social Entrepreneurial ventures in India. This may be beneficial in future empirical studies of the subject. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneurship, Social Entrepreneur, NGO, Corporate Social Responsibility, India.

  2. The Empirical Measurement of a Theoretical Concept: Tracing Social Exclusion among Racial Minority and Migrant Groups in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luann Good Gingrich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an in-depth description and case application of a conceptual model of social exclusion: aiming to advance existing knowledge on how to conceive of and identify this complex idea, evaluate the methodologies used to measure it, and reconsider what is understood about its social realities toward a meaningful and measurable conception of social inclusion. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s conceptual tools of social fields and systems of capital, our research posits and applies a theoretical framework that permits the measurement of social exclusion as dynamic, social, relational, and material. We begin with a brief review of existing social exclusion research literature, and specifically examine the difficulties and benefits inherent in quantitatively operationalizing a necessarily multifarious theoretical concept. We then introduce our conceptual model of social exclusion and inclusion, which is built on measurable constructs. Using our ongoing program of research as a case study, we briefly present our approach to the quantitative operationalization of social exclusion using secondary data analysis in the Canadian context. Through the development of an Economic Exclusion Index, we demonstrate how our statistical and theoretical analyses evidence intersecting processes of social exclusion which produce consequential gaps and uneven trajectories for migrant individuals and groups compared with Canadian-born, and racial minority groups versus white individuals. To conclude, we consider some methodological implications to advance the empirical measurement of social inclusion.

  3. Concept Mapping: An "Instagram" of Students' Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurie O.

    2016-01-01

    Minimal research has been accumulated in the field of social studies education for Novakian concept mapping, yet there are many benefits from adding this learning tool to a teacher's instructional toolbox. The article defines Novakian concept mapping and invites readers to adopt digital Novakian concept mapping into the social studies classroom as…

  4. Physiotherapy students' conceptions of skill at the beginning of their Bachelor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurunsaari, Merja; Piirainen, Arja; Tynjälä, Päivi

    2015-05-01

    Skills have recently received widespread attention in education policy documents and discussions. This article reports the results of research on Bachelor's degree physiotherapy students' conceptions of skill at the beginning of their studies. The aim of the present study was to examine how beginning students understand skill, and the focus was on conceptions of skill in general rather than on any particular skills. The participants of the study were 35 physiotherapy students. The data were gathered within the first two weeks of their university studies. Specifically, requested essays written by the students were analyzed using the phenomenographic approach. The data-driven analysis yielded four descriptive categories which reflect the students' conceptions of skill: (1) Talents; (2) Skills requiring individual practice; (3) Skills requiring social practice; and (4) Competence requiring collaboration. The categories form a hierarchy. The differences between the categories are described along seven themes of variation. The themes were named: (1) Acquisition; (2) Emotions; (3) Motivation; (4) Reflection; (5) Evaluation; (6) Agency; and (7) Social Environment. This hierarchical system of categories sheds new light on students' understanding of the skill. The findings can be used as a basis for planning physiotherapy curricula, especially for designing skills education and training, and for supporting students along their educational path, especially in offering opportunities for students to reflect on their skill conceptions. Ultimately, physiotherapy students' awareness of different skill conceptions and developing their skills to advise and treat will benefit patients.

  5. Social Comparison and Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effects on Self-Concept and Other Self-Belief Constructs: Role of Generalized and Specific Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Koller, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Two studies integrate the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE; negative effects of class-average achievement on academic self-concept, ASC), which is based upon educational psychological research, with related social psychological research that is based on social comparison theory. Critical distinctions are the nature of the social comparison…

  6. Medical Concept Normalization in Social Media Posts with Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutubalina, Elena; Miftahutdinov, Zulfat; Nikolenko, Sergey; Malykh, Valentin

    2018-06-12

    Text mining of scientific libraries and social media has already proven itself as a reliable tool for drug repurposing and hypothesis generation. The task of mapping a disease mention to a concept in a controlled vocabulary, typically to the standard thesaurus in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), is known as medical concept normalization. This task is challenging due to the differences in the use of medical terminology between health care professionals and social media texts coming from the lay public. To bridge this gap, we use sequence learning with recurrent neural networks and semantic representation of one- or multi-word expressions: we develop end-to-end architectures directly tailored to the task, including bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory, Gated Recurrent Units with an attention mechanism, and additional semantic similarity features based on UMLS. Our evaluation against a standard benchmark shows that recurrent neural networks improve results over an effective baseline for classification based on convolutional neural networks. A qualitative examination of mentions discovered in a dataset of user reviews collected from popular online health information platforms as well as a quantitative evaluation both show improvements in the semantic representation of health-related expressions in social media. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Night-school students (1° state: a study of his/her social identity and of his/her self-concept Aluno do curso noturno (1° grau: um estudo de sua identidade social e de seu auto-conceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Vanzolini da Silva Leme

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was meant to investigate the social identity of night-school students and to establish which elements of such an identity are part of their self-concept. Some students from two state schools in a city in the North of Paraná were selected as subjects. The experimental procedure, which explains the contents of self-concept and was developed by Zavalloni, was used in this work. Sixteen night-school students and sixteen day-time students were selected as subject-groups. Each member of these two groups was supposed to establish characteristics for his/her in-group and out-group and point out those which were part of his/her own self-concept. The difference between 'We" and 'they" was outstanding. Each subject, by means of comparison, rated "We" more positively than "they" and presented more positive than negative characteristics for his/her own self-concept. The prevailing and essential characteristic for the social indent and sell-concept of the night-school student was "interested in studying", for s/he sees it as a "way for social advancement'. The data support the need for comparison between the groups in order to form their social identity and also support the role of this identity in the formation of sell-concept. O presente trabalho teve como principal objetivo investigar a identidade social de alunos de curso noturno e identificar os elementos dessa identidade que fazem parte do auto-conceito desses estudantes. Como sujeitos, foram selecionados estudantes de dois colégios estaduais de um município do Norte do Paraná. Fez-se uso do procedimento experimental que elucida os conteúdos do auto-conceito -desenvolvido por Zavalloni, selecionando-se para isso dois grupos de sujeitos: dezesseis estudantes do curso noturno e dezesseis do diurno. Cada elemento teve como tarefa atribuir características para seu "in group" e para o “out-group", apontando as que fazem parte de seu auto-conceito. FICOU evidenciada a diferença entre

  8. Corporate social responsibility concept in the ice cream industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jílková, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on the corporate social responsibility concept in the ice cream industry and in Ben & Jerry's company. Ben & Jerry's ice cream is Vermont- based company and subsidiary of Unilever and produces high quality ice cream while striving to serve to greater good. Collected data about the company that were used in analyses of the internal environment and CSR environment revealed some unique techniques of how company Ben & Jerry's deals with CSR. These analyses were equa...

  9. Parental Overprotection: Effects on Self-Concept and Social and School Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Susan Y.; And Others

    Relationships between parental overprotection and fifth-graders' self-concept and level of social and school functioning were examined by means of systematic observations of parent-child interactions in the home, parent and child self-reports, teacher and peer ratings, grades, and achievement scores. Subjects were 43 middle-to-upper-middle income…

  10. Qualifications of an Ideal Teacher According to Social Studies Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencturk, Ebru; Akbas, Yavuz; Kaymakci, Selahattin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the question of what kind of qualifications an ideal social studies teacher has tried to be investigated. For this purpose, freshman social studies preservice teachers' perceptions about the concept of "ideal teacher" were explored. This study was designed with document analysis, one of the methods of qualitative approach.…

  11. Innovative Culture of the Organization and Its Role in the Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility ‒ Czech Republic Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Mohelska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rivalry among companies is increasing nowadays. Companies try to gain every possible advantage over their rivals and this very often means using a creative approach, for example, drawing from such resources as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. The CSR strategy is based on three fundamental pillars - economic, social and environmental (triplebottom-line, which express the key themes, programs, through which the strategy is implemented. Although, the key corporate responsibility is profit making, the CSR implementation in corporate vision contributes to company’s development. CSR can help increase business credibility, but it can also have significant internal effects due to innovation, readiness for future customer demands, employee motivation and loyalty. The primary objective of the paper is to explore organizational culture in connection with the implementation of the Corporate Social Responsibility concept in companies in the Czech Republic. The outputs are supported by the results of an extensive studies conducted in 2013 and 2015, exploring the organizational culture of companies in the Czech Republic. The results obtained are interpreted and compared in the context of development trends described in domestic and foreign scientific publications.

  12. Social Sustainability and Its Indicators through a Disability Studies and an Ability Studies Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Rybchinski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present journal recently stated in the call for a special issue on social sustainability, “[t]hough sustainable development is said to rest on ‘three pillars’, one of these—social sustainability—has received significantly less attention than its bio-physical environmental and economic counterparts”. The current issue promises to engage the concepts of “development sustainability”, “bridge sustainability” and “maintenance sustainability” and the tensions between these different aspects of social sustainability. The aim of the present study is to identify the visibility of disabled people in the academic social sustainability literature, to ascertain the impact and promises of social sustainability indicators put forward in the same literature and to engage especially with the concepts of “development sustainability”, “bridge sustainability” and “maintenance sustainability” through disability studies and ability studies lenses. We report that disabled people are barely covered in the academic social sustainability literature; of the 5165 academic articles investigated only 26 had content related to disabled people and social sustainability. We also conclude that social sustainability indicators evident in the 1909 academic articles with the phrase “social sustainability” in the abstract mostly focused on products and did not reflect yet the goals outlined in the “development sustainability” aspect of social sustainability proposed by Vallance such as basic needs, building social capital, justice and so on. We posit that if the focus within the social sustainability discourse shifts more toward the social that an active presence of disabled people in this discourse is essential to disabled people. We showcase the utility of an ability studies lens to further the development and application of the “development sustainability”, “bridge sustainability” and “maintenance sustainability

  13. The dialogue between social capital and “civil society”: redefining this concept applied to a new institutional form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lima Rocha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article debates the social capital concept as an essential analytical variable to understand what happens on the urban and metropolitan social area. In the text, it is done both kinds of analysis, an incidence analysis and a theoretical critic to the concept of social capital. The article approaches an aspect of this operational standard when a city government public relationship office takes some initiatives. Those techniques are viewed in a case study of public relationships applied on mobilizing lower classes that live in popular neighborhoods in Porto Alegre city (capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This phenomenon occurs when the worldwide recognized public politic name as Orçamento Participativo (OP, Participative Budget has took place during the first municipal administrations (1989-1992/1992-1996 commanded by a huge reformist party, the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT, Workers Party, that governed the state capital for sixteen years (1989-2004. This instrument, public relations communication effort, resumed social bows partially, generating a relative upgrade on citizen’s empowerment.

  14. Working the Dialectic: Teaching and Learning Teacher Research in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Christopher C.; Sequenzia, Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two narratives of teaching and learning teacher research in social studies. Organized around the concept of working the dialectic, two social studies educators discuss their experiences as teachers and learners of teacher research. This article highlights the power of practitioner research to transform teaching and teacher…

  15. Application of simplified Complexity Theory concepts for healthcare social systems to explain the implementation of evidence into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jacqueline; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Hawkes, Claire; Noyes, Jane

    2016-02-01

    To examine the application of core concepts from Complexity Theory to explain the findings from a process evaluation undertaken in a trial evaluating implementation strategies for recommendations about reducing surgical fasting times. The proliferation of evidence-based guidance requires a greater focus on its implementation. Theory is required to explain the complex processes across the multiple healthcare organizational levels. This social healthcare context involves the interaction between professionals, patients and the organizational systems in care delivery. Complexity Theory may provide an explanatory framework to explain the complexities inherent in implementation in social healthcare contexts. A secondary thematic analysis of qualitative process evaluation data informed by Complexity Theory. Seminal texts applying Complexity Theory to the social context were annotated, key concepts extracted and core Complexity Theory concepts identified. These core concepts were applied as a theoretical lens to provide an explanation of themes from a process evaluation of a trial evaluating the implementation of strategies to reduce surgical fasting times. Sampled substantive texts provided a representative spread of theoretical development and application of Complexity Theory from late 1990's-2013 in social science, healthcare, management and philosophy. Five Complexity Theory core concepts extracted were 'self-organization', 'interaction', 'emergence', 'system history' and 'temporality'. Application of these concepts suggests routine surgical fasting practice is habituated in the social healthcare system and therefore it cannot easily be reversed. A reduction to fasting times requires an incentivised new approach to emerge in the surgical system's priority of completing the operating list. The application of Complexity Theory provides a useful explanation for resistance to change fasting practice. Its utility in implementation research warrants further attention and

  16. Social Constructionism and Ludology: Implications for the Study of Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montola, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This article combines the paradigm of social constructionism with the developing field of ludology. As games are intersubjective meaning-making activities, their study requires understanding of the nature of social constructions, and how such constructions are produced and interpreted: The formalist nature of ludological core concepts such as game…

  17. Longitudinal relationships between self-concept for physical activity and neighborhood social life as predictors of physical activity among older African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Allison M; Wilson, Dawn K; Lee Van Horn, M

    2017-05-22

    Engaging in regular physical activity (PA) as an older adult has been associated with numerous physical and mental health benefits. The aim of this study is to directly compare how individual-level cognitive factors (self-efficacy for PA, self-determined motivation for PA, self-concept for PA) and neighborhood perceptions of the social factors (neighborhood satisfaction, neighborhood social life) impact moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) longitudinally among older African American adults. Data were analyzed from a sub-set of older African American adults (N = 224, M age  = 63.23 years, SD = 8.74, 63.23% female, M Body Mass Index  = 32.01, SD = 7.52) enrolled in the Positive Action for Today's Health trial. MVPA was assessed using 7-day accelerometry-estimates and psychosocial data (self-efficacy for PA, self-determined motivation for PA, self-concept for PA, neighborhood satisfaction, neighborhood social life) were collected at baseline, 12-, 18-, and 24-months. Multilevel growth modeling was used to examine within- and between-person effects of individual-level cognitive and social environmental factors on MVPA. At the between-person level, self-concept (b = 0.872, SE = 0.239, p self-concept (b = 0.294, SE = 0.145, p = 0.043) and neighborhood social life (b = 0.270, SE = 0.113, p = 0.017) were associated with increased MVPA. These results suggest that people with a higher average self-concept for PA and a more positive social life engaged in greater average MVPA. Additionally, changes in perceptions of one's neighborhood social life and one's self-concept for PA were associated with greater MVPA over 2 years. These factors may be particularly relevant for future interventions targeting long-term change and maintenance of MVPA in older African Americans. ClinicalTrials.Gov # NCT01025726 registered 1 December 2009.

  18. Assets and Affect in the Study of Social Capital in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Shucksmith (2012) has recently suggested that rural research might be refreshed by incorporating theoretical insights that have emerged through a renewal of class analysis. This article seeks to advance this proposed research agenda by exploring the concept of asset‐based class analysis and its association with the concept of social capital. The article explores connections between social capital, class analysis and understandings of community, noting how all have been associated with long running and unresolved debates. Attention is drawn to the problems of modernist legislative approaches to these debates and the value of adopting more interpretive perspectives. A distinction between ‘infrastructural’ and ‘culturalist’ interpretations of social capital is explored in relation to ‘asset‐based’ theorisations of class and culture. It is argued that an infrastructural conception of social capital might usefully be employed in association with a disaggregated conception of cultural capital that includes consideration of emotion and affect, as well as institutional, objectified and technical assets. These arguments are explored using studies of rural communities, largely within Britain. PMID:27563158

  19. A Critique on the Concept of Social Accountability in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza Flores, René; Villalobos Monroy, Guadalupe; Reyes Fabela, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a critique of the concept and meaning of the term social accountability at university level from a critical point of view. The main objective is to analyze and re-build the term accountability in order to contextualize it for public universities. First, we present the importance of the idea of accountability in…

  20. Relationships between social skills and self-esteem in nurses: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; López López, Daniel; Rodriguez Vazquez, Rocío; Becerro de Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    Our study attempts to evaluate whether nurses' social skills are related to their self-concept and self-esteem. A descriptive survey study was developed to 464 nurses who had worked for a minimum of one year in adult or pediatric services. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Scale of Social Skills (SSS) by Gismero were used to measure nurses' self-esteem and social skills, respectively. Evaluation of self-esteem and social skills revealed no significant associations between sex and specific nursing speciality, (p > .05). Significant differences were observed based on the marital status for RSE and SSS Factor 1 (RSE, p = .013; SSS-F1, p = .033). Correlation and regression analyses demonstrated a significant correlation between nurse self-esteem and some social skills factors. This study shows that there exists a relationship between higher self-esteem and self-concept among nurses and this issue can affect effective communication with patients.

  1. Conception of bullying and its connection to the Social Services. Voices from future Primary Education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Rodríguez Otero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study on bullying and cyberbullying from social work and from Social Services. This concept is described through a qualitative research taking as context Spanish Elementary School students. We present a qualitative research with the aim of knowing the imaginary around bullying, based on the interpretive paradigm and a design based on grounded theory. The results presented prove how bullying is recorded as a rejection, abuse, direct or indirect attack by one or more individuals. The reflected causes that influence the person to take an aggressive or defensive attitude are manifested. Finally, it presents preventive measures from the school, and the figure of Social Services that is unknown by any sector.

  2. Self-Concept and Social Anxiety as Predictor Variables of Academic Performance of Spanish Adolescents with Divorced Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Johnson, Blair T.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: According to previous studies, when parents divorce it may increase the vulnerability of children to develop personal problems, such as lowering academic performance. This research examines the academic performance of Spanish children with divorced parents and its relation to academic self-concept and social anxiety. Method: The…

  3. The Concept of Social Responsibility in the Business Model of a Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurovs Jevgenijs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a research topic focused on the issues relating to corporate social responsibility (CSR, which is a component of company’s business model. The fact that it is a relatively novel trend in the scope of economics inspired us to raise the aforementioned problem of social responsibility in business, since that area of study is still subject to systematization. The existing interpretation of the concept mainly refers to the questions connected with the commercial sector. CSR is said to be an idea, thanks to which enterprises freely take into account the need for social environmental protection and also relations with various groups of stakeholders at the stage of developing their strategy. Therefore, there is a demand for new scientific studies in that scope. Considering the methodological premises of the article, the author carried out an analysis and evaluation of heating companies in Poland and in Latvia between 2002 and 2014. The analysis was conducted in a dynamic perspective with the use of statistical and econometric tools in order to verify the research hypothesis and achieve the purpose of the thesis. It should be highlighted that a survey questionnaire was the main source of the research data. The study covers 212 out of 445 enterprises operating in the heating sector in Poland and 26 out of 45 operating in Latvia.

  4. An analysis of the concept of competence in individuals and social systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, P T

    1982-01-01

    This paper has attempted to present a unified conceptual model of positive mental health or competence from the perspective of individuals and from the perspective of social systems of varying degrees of complexity, such as families, organizations, and entire communities. It has provided a taxonomy of the elements of competence which allows the application of a common framework to the analysis of competence and to the planning and evaluation of competence building interventions at any level of social organization. Community Mental Health Centers can apply the model which has been presented in a number of different ways. At whatever level(s) the CMHCs' efforts are directed, the competence model presents a framework for analysis, intervention, and evaluation which enriches and expands upon more typical disorder-based formulations. By providing a framework which encompasses all levels of social organization, the model provides the conceptual tools for going beyond the individual and microsystem levels which have often constituted the boundaries of CMHC concern, and allows the CMHC to approach the organizational and community levels which must be encompassed by a competently comprehensive center. Application of the concept of competence to social organizations and to communities allows the CMHC to analyze and intervene at these levels. Finally, the concept of organizational competence separated into its various elements provides the CMHC with a tool for analyzing and evaluating its own environment and the competence of various aspects of its own functioning within that environment.

  5. Ecocultural effects on self-concept. A study with young indigenous people from different sociodemographic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Guitart, Moisès; Borke, Jörn; Monreal-Bosch, Pilar

    2015-08-01

    This study explores self-concept among indigenous young people from different ecocultural niches in Chiapas (Mexico) through a particular self-concept task. Previous theory and research has described 3 cultural models linked with specific sociodemographic settings that foster particular psychologies. Our aim was to compare the results of the self-concept test among indigenous groups from different sociodemographic settings in order to observed possible differences. We predicted that individuals from rural communities with little formal education (hypothesised to be Interdependent) would have self-concepts with more social and less personal components than would those with an urban, highly educated (hypothesised to be Independent), and we expected a third group of highly educated young people living in an urban context but with a rural background (hypothesised to be autonomous-related group) to value social and personal components equally. The results supported this hypothesis. Based on ecocultural theory, it is suggested that sociodemographic contexts affect the self-concept. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. A Model of Academic Self-Concept: Perceived Difficulty and Social Comparison among Academically Accelerated Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hope E.; Siegle, Del; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Reis, Sally M.

    2014-01-01

    Academic self-concept predicts students' future goals and is affected by a student's relative success compared with his or her peer group. This exploratory study used structural equation modeling to examine the contributions of the perceived level of difficulty of the curriculum, in addition to the contributions of social comparison and…

  7. Social Responsibility At The Academic Level. Study Case: The University Of Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marinescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the corporate social responsibility (CSR has been a major subject both for universities, civil society and businesses. Although the CSR concept is especially promoted by large multinational and transnational corporations, it has become also a prominent issue for universities. Social responsibility represents more than a challenge for universities. It has to be a purpose of the universities, taking into account that young people formation also means creating a high level of awareness about the need to involve members of society in solving social problems. Our paper contributes for better clarifying the CSR concept and presents as a study case some of initiatives of the University of Bucharest related to the social responsibility.

  8. Clarifying the concept of social capital through its three perspectives: individualistic, communitarian and macrosocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Membiela-Pollán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has received increasing attention in recent years. The complexity and multidimensionality that accompany the variable of social capital have caused confusion and ambiguity. This article presents a synthesis of social capital in three perspectives. From the individualistic or micro-social perspective, social capital is an "individual resource" that consists of the networks of relations of the focal subject that bring it a set of instrumental and expressive resources. For the communitarian or meso-social perspective, social capital is a "community resource" or set of attributes and properties present in the social structure (shared norms and values, private trust, closure ... that facilitate its functioning and collective action. Finally, for the macrosocial perspective, social capital is a "macrosocial and macroinstitutional resource" resting on aspects such as civic-mindedness, general trust and social cohesion, which favors the functioning of the economy and society in general.

  9. Social polarisation in Aarhus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    This paper is connected to the phd. project: “Social polarisation in Aarhus” and will discuss the concept of social polarisation and related concepts as poverty, marginalization and social exclusion in developing a research strategy in studying social polarisation in the city....

  10. Teachers and Coaches in Adolescent Social Networks Are Associated With Healthier Self-Concept and Decreased Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Chung, Paul J; Wong, Mitchell D

    2017-01-01

    Poor academic (eg, "I am a bad student") and behavioral (eg, "I am a troublemaker") self-concepts are strongly linked to adolescent substance use. Social networks likely influence self-concept. However, little is understood about the role teachers and athletic coaches play in shaping both academic and behavioral self-concepts. We analyzed cross-sectional surveys of 929 9th-12th grade low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles assessing self-concept, social networks, and 30-day use of alcohol, marijuana and other drugs. We performed generalized estimating equations, accounting for clustering at the school level and controlling for family and peer influences and contextual factors. We also tested whether self-concept-mediated associations between relationships with teachers or coaches and 30-day substance use. More perceived teacher support was associated with lower odds of marijuana and other drug use and better academic and behavioral self-concepts. Behavioral self-concept mediated the associations between teacher support and substance use. By facilitating relationships with adults and improving teachers' capacity to build supportive environments, schools may positively shape how adolescents see themselves, which might help reduce adolescent substance use. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  11. Designing the Self: The Transformation of the Relational Self-Concept through Social Encounters in a Virtual Immersive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzen, K. Brant; Kennedy, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a 3-month study on how social encounters mediated by an online Virtual Immersive Environment (VIE) impacted on the relational self-concept of adolescents. The study gathered data from two groups of students as they took an Introduction to Design and Programming class. Students in group 1 undertook course…

  12. Online social network sites and social capital: a case of facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Naseri, Samaneh

    2017-01-01

    The present study is a theoretical and literary review of online social network sites and their impact on social capital. In this review, the Facebook is selected as one popular and important online social networking site in the world today. To This end, first two main concepts of social capital, bridging and bonding social capital has been provided. Next, the concept of online social networks and the impact of FB on social networks are discussed.

  13. Whose Sense of Place? Re-thinking Place Concept and Urban Heritage Conservation in Social Media Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dameria, Christin; Akbar, Roos; Natalivan Indradjati, Petrus

    2018-05-01

    A change in a conservation approach that is now more focused on the conservation of a place than on a single object has placed an understanding of a place as an important concept that must be understood in urban heritage planning. However, the urban place perspective has been shifted, as a result of the change of attitude of people living in the urban area due to the rising of social media. This paper argues the concept of place in the heritage conservation planning, especially in the area designed to be tourism objects, which needs to be revisited. The very dynamic urban people as a result of technology and information must be considered. In order to understand the man-place relationship, the sense of place concept is the most common concept used and in the current context of heritage conservation, the review of place concept could be traced by understanding who is the owner of a sense of place in the social media era. In the current academic literature, the common discourse says the local community as the owner of the sense of place because visitors have limited chance to own the sense of place. This paper also argues that the shift of place perspective due to social media could be the catalyst in creating a strong sense of place for visitors. To support the argument, this paper uses the study of Concept of Mediatization and Concept of Parochial that have successfully explained how social media provides indirect experience based on people-place interaction and a sense of familiarity of an unknown or strange place. Therefore, this paper states that in the sense of place context: (1) the experience factor, as one of the factors in the creation of a sense of place, does not need to be physically experienced but it can be built based on other person’s personal reflection. It also gives an opportunity to make a self-interpretation about the value of the heritage place; (2) sense of familiarity, which is believed to be owned by the locals only due to the period of

  14. The role of the concept of corporate social responsibility in building relationships and in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Urbaniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The aim of this article is to determine the importance of the concept of corporate social responsibility in building partnerships in the supply chain. In the recent period, one could notice that more and more international companies implementing their strategies based on the concept of sustainable development are evaluating and qualifying their suppliers basing on standards of ethics in business. Methods: This paper analyzed the requirements of the multinationals companies towards their suppliers in implementing elements of the concept of corporate social responsibility. Results: The results of the analyzes which were presented on practical examples show that buyers define to suppliers, very often detailed, standards for ethical conduct for suppliers (Supplier Conduct Principles, Principles and Standards of Ethical Supply Management Conduct and guides for their implementation (Supply Chain CSR Deployment guidebook, Purchasing Way, Supplier Sustainability program Manual, organizing programs (Supply Chain Social Responsibility programs, implementing the Supplier Responsibility projects and developing a checklist (Supply Chain CSR Checklist for self-evaluation of providers. Conclusions: When observing global trends one could notice that recently more and more suppliers are evaluated in terms of the fulfillment of the principles of sustainable development, guided by the economic aspects (requiring high technical quality, reliability of supply, competitive price, stable financial position, compliance with legal requirements, environmental aspects, as well as social aspects (principles based on the idea of the Global Compact. One could also perceive that many international companies signing contracts with suppliers require them to sign a declaration, obligating them to introduce the concept of corporate social responsibility by applying the principles contained in Statement on Business Practices and in compliance with the requirements

  15. Synthesis across social innovation case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Avelino, Flor; Dorland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Part 1 is an overview and a comparative analysis of the findings from the 20 case study reports in TRANSIT about aspects of transformative social innovation (TSI). Each of the 20 reports, which the report is based on, includes an analysis of a transnational social innovation network and at least...... two local social innovation initiatives. Part 2 consists of extended abstracts of 8 papers which either focus on empirical phenomena surfacing in different TRANSIT cases (e.g. alternative economic arrangements), take a societal or methodological issue as starting point (e.g. inclusivity or research...... relations), address propositions from TRANSIT proto-theory (institutionalization dialectics, responses to crisis), build upon thematic clusters used for case selection (e.g. spaces for/of innovation, inclusive society, new economy, transformative science) or inductively develop specific sensitizing concepts...

  16. Social comparison and prosocial behavior: an applied study of social identity theory in community food drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Social Identity Theory and the concept of social comparison have inspired research on individuals, addressing effects of personal and environmental factors in directing social attention. The theory's conceptual origins, however, suggest that social comparison may have behavioral implications as well. Such behaviors may include attempts by an individual to enhance the relative status of his ingroup on a salient dimension of comparison. Such behavior is referred to as "social competition." In two studies, the effects of social comparison and social competition were measured in the real-world environment of community food drives. Participants were aggregated by household; 600 households in upper middle-class neighborhoods in Eugene and Salem, Oregon, were contacted. In Study 1 of 300 households, it was hypothesized that inclusion of a social competition cue in requests for donation would significantly increase the likelihood of donation. This hypothesis was supported. Study 2 was done to clarify the possible role in a social comparison of perceived ingroup inferiority in the prior observed increase in donations. The inclusion of a social comparison cue in the donation request significantly increased donations in households of the second study. The findings suggest that researchers should expand study of the theory's behavioral implications, including the role of social comparison in prosocial behavior.

  17. The Constant Gardener revisited: the effect of social blackmail on the marketing concept, innovation, and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Morgan P; Munilla, Linda S; Covin, Jeffrey G

    2002-12-01

    This paper discusses how adoption of the social dimensions of the marketing concept may unintentionally restrict innovation and corporate entrepreneurship, ultimately reducing social welfare. The impact of social marketing on innovation and entrepreneurship is discussed using the case of multinational pharmaceutical firms that are under pressure when marketing HIV treatments in poor countries. The argument this paper supports is that social welfare may eventually be diminished if forced social responsibility is imposed. The case of providing subsidized AIDS medication to less developed nations is used to illustrate how social blackmail may result in less innovation, entrepreneurship, and product development efforts by the pharmaceutical industry, ultimately reducing social welfare.

  18. The management of interaction networks. The ???in-between??? concept within social work and counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Hern??ndez-Aristu, Jes??s

    2015-01-01

    We are familiar with the field of group interaction through the traditional work of Kurt Lewin and also systemic thinking talks about network interaction that builds up the system. Martin Buber also discusses the ???in-between??? concept as the third element.The therapist or counselor, social worker and clients are part of an interaction network, representing therapeutic and social working situations. Success in treatment and reflective processes, depends on the perception and managemen...

  19. Self-Concept Clarity and the Management of Social Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Zapf, Dieter

    In 4 studies we examined the relationship between self-concept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher self-concept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with

  20. A THEORETICAL APPROACH OF THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN SUPPORTING ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldea Monica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Any activity requires the presence of labor resources. If centuries ago the concept was that their presence was enough, now it takes a lot more. Moreover, since Aristotle the issue was taking into consideration all aspects of the community life that can lead to a "better life". In the current conditions we may consider resources in the broader context of the human factor and of the relations established within a society. Thus social capital was conceptualized. As opportunities of economic growth - based purely on the quantitative aspects of the determinants – were limited, the need occurred to reconsider the qualitative and structural components. Social capital considers a number of the integrative components of social life. These refer to the relations established at family level up to the level of societal institutions. It is necessary that these relationships be well established, and for the proper performance it is necessary that aspects of education and health should be properly valued and assessed. This helps setting up strong institutions. Developed countries have the ability to create a proper environment for the manifestations of social capital; in these countries one can observe the growing importance of formal and more impersonal relations. But this just reinforces the occurrence and development of economic activities based on efficiency criteria leading to the countries’ economic development. The interpretations of economic development issues have undergone changes in recent decades. If previously it was considered that the essential difference between rich and poor countries is reflected in the amount of physical capital per person, later on the concept of capital has been expanded to include as well human capital, the lack of which was considered a serious obstacle to development, particularly in the case of poor countries. And given the fact that the transactions within an economic system take place in an

  1. [The role of workplace health promotion in the concept of corporate social responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaszczyk, Patrycja

    2008-01-01

    Workplace health promotion (WHP) is an idea that was conceived over 25 years ago. At its very core is the wellbeing of employees. The development and dissemination of this notion, as well as the implementation of its basic principles have always been challenged by various theories and practices derived from the field of human resources management. The corporate social responsibility (CSR) is one of such new concepts promulgated within the European Union Based on the literature review, especially European Commission documents, articles retrieved in the EBSCO database, guidelines and guidebooks published by the CSR Forum, other NGOs active in the field, and the publications of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, the author makes an attempt to compare these two ideas and discuss the coherence between their assumptions. The primary hypothesis was that WHP is an element of CSR. The comparison between CSR and WHP concepts confirm a hypothesis that the latter is an element of the former, which means that activities aimed at taking care of health and well-being of employees contribute to the creation of a socially responsible company. It indicates that the implementation of both ideas requires multidisciplinary and holistic approach. In addition, the role of social dialog and workers' participation in the company management are strongly emphasized.

  2. Teachers and Coaches in Adolescent Social Networks Are Associated with Healthier Self-Concept and Decreased Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Chung, Paul J.; Wong, Mitchell D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Poor academic (eg, "I am a bad student") and behavioral (eg, "I am a troublemaker") self-concepts are strongly linked to adolescent substance use. Social networks likely influence self-concept. However, little is understood about the role teachers and athletic coaches play in shaping both academic and behavioral…

  3. The Importance of Adolescents' Sexually Outgoing Self-Concept: Differential Roles of Self- and Other-Generated Sexy Self-Presentations in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; de Vries, Dian A; Peter, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between (exposure to) sexy self-presentations on social network sites (SNSs) and adolescents' sexual self-concept over time. Results from a three-wave panel study among 1,288 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17 years) showed that more frequent engagement in sexy self-presentation, rather than exposure to sexy self-presentations of others, on SNSs positively predicted the importance of being sexually outgoing (e.g., sexy, seductive, and wild) in adolescents' self-concept 6 months later.

  4. The Social Stigma Experience in Patients With Hepatitis B Infection: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Leila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Bayani, Masomeh; Zabihi, Ali

    The social stigma in patients with hepatitis B virus infection has caused several complications for both the patients and the associated medical system. This study aimed at demonstrating the social stigma experienced by these patients in Iran. This is a qualitative study using a content analysis approach with references to primary and secondary sources. The data were collected through 15 unstructured and in-depth interviews conducted in 2014. By analyzing the data, two main themes were noted: extrinsic concepts of social stigma (causing reprehension, embarrassment, and discrimination) and intrinsic concepts of social stigma (sense of rejection, isolation, and frustration). The analysis of participants' experiences showed that social stigma is a simple lack of knowledge among the patients and society and it is more intense in the first days after the diagnosis. Stigma is prevalent among patients with hepatitis B virus, causes them to hide the disease, and provokes various complications for them as well as society. This study emphasizes the necessity of implementing health education programs about hepatitis B and its associated stigma, especially considering the potential impact of a mass media campaign.

  5. Social media for intelligence: research, concepts, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Ulrik; Rosell, Magnus

    2016-05-01

    When sampling part of the enormous amounts of social media data it is important to consider whether the sample is representative. Any method of studying the sampled data is also prone to bias. Sampling and bias aside the data may be generated with malicious intent, such as deception. Deception is a complicated (broad, situational, vague) concept. It seems improbable that an automated computer system would be able to find deception as such. Instead, we argue that the role of a system would be to aid the human analyst by detecting indicators, or clues, of (potential) deception. Indicators could take many forms and are typically neither necessary nor sufficient for there to be an actual deception. However, by using one or combining several of them a human may reach conclusions. Indicators are not necessarily dependent and will be added to or removed from the analysis depending on the circumstances. This modularity can help in counteracting/alleviating attacks on the system by an adversary. If we become aware that an indicator is compromised we can remove it from the analysis and/or replace it with a more sophisticated method that give us a similar indication.

  6. A qualitative study of conceptions and attitudes regarding maternal mortality among traditional birth attendants in rural Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    Rööst, Mattias; Johnsdotter, Sara; Liljestrand, Jerker; Essén, Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore conceptions of obstetric emergency care among traditional birth attendants in rural Guatemala, elucidating social and cultural factors. STUDY: design Qualitative in-depth interview study. SETTING: Rural Guatemala. SAMPLE: Thirteen traditional birth attendants from 11 villages around San Miguel Ixtahuacán, Guatemala. METHOD: Interviews with semi-structured, thematic, open-ended questions. Interview topics were: traditional birth attendants' experiences and conceptions...

  7. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  8. Transformative social innovation and (dis)empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelino, Flor; Wittmayer, Julia; Pel, Bonno

    2017-01-01

    This article responds to increasing public and academic discourses on social innovation, which often rest on the assumption that social innovation can drive societal change and empower actors to deal with societal challenges and a retreating welfare state. In order to scrutinise this assumption......, this article proposes a set of concepts to study the dynamics of transformative social innovation and underlying processes of multi-actor (dis)empowerment. First, the concept of transformative social innovation is unpacked by proposing four foundational concepts to help distinguish between different pertinent...... ‘shades’ of change and innovation: 1) social innovation, (2) system innovation, (3) game-changers, and (4) narratives of change. These concepts, invoking insights from transitions studies and social innovations literature, are used to construct a conceptual account of how transformative social innovation...

  9. Physicians' Self-Conceptions of Their Expertise in Statutory Health Insurance and Social Security Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Wolfgang; Nüchtern, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    Medical experts who practice social medicine have a strong ethical approach for their professional positions. Their reports must reflect an objective, independent, high-quality assessment of interactions between health status and the disability of individuals. However, they must simultaneously consider the societal involvement of these individuals when determining the framework of the Statutory Health Insurance and Social Security Systems. Their task is to recommend sociomedical benefits that are tailored to suit personal needs and that respect the individual life situations of the persons involved, thus complementing the efforts of healthcare professionals in clinical settings. The editorial describes the self-conception of this medical specialty on behalf of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP). Policy makers in social insurances and social security systems generally must respect independent sociomedical recommendations as a crucial point for further realistic development activities.

  10. The Nature and Scope of Social Studies Education for the 21 st ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social studies is an innovative concept with an eclectic field involving the arts, sciences, technology and social sciences. To be a successful teacher, one needs ... The philosophy behind this subject was to make it help solve the numerous problems associated with nation building in Nigeria. Today, there are burning global ...

  11. The importance of adolescents' sexually outgoing self-concept: Differential roles of self- and other-generated sexy self-presentations in social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; de Vries, D.A.; Peter, J.

    The present study investigated the relationships between (exposure to) sexy self-presentations on social network sites (SNSs) and adolescents' sexual self-concept over time. Results from a three-wave panel study among 1,288 Dutch adolescents (aged 13–17 years) showed that more frequent engagement in

  12. A new concept of relatedness and its significance to the theory of social evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Drummond

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on primitively social groups of Hymenoptera have been somewhat contradictory with respect to kin recognition, degree of relatedness and social evolution. This study presents a new concept of "relatedness coefficient". Called "aggregated relatedness", the hypothesis here introduced proposes that genes shared by any two individuals affect formation of family units to an extent dependent on their frequency and manner of dispersion in neighboring populations.Dados de campo de espécies de Hymenoptera primitivamente sociais têm se mostrado contraditórios quanto ao papel do reconhecimento de parentes e do grau de parentesco na evolução social. Nesse trabalho um novo conceito de "coeficiente de parentesco" foi desenvolvido. Esta nova hipótese foi chamada de "parentesco agregado". Nesse conceito, genes compartilhados por dois indivíduos quaisquer têm importância significativa na formação das unidades familiares, dependendo de suas freqüências e da forma como estão distribuídos na população circunvizinha a esta unidade familiar.

  13. Social Comparison, Multiple Reference Groups, and the Self-Concepts of Academically Handicapped Children Before and After Mainstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Louise; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Predictions from social comparison theory and group reference theory were tested in two experiments assessing the impact of half-day mainstreaming upon the self-concepts of academically handicapped children. The results supported the theoretical viability of social comparison theory and group reference theory in educational settings. (Author/BH)

  14. Different meanings of the social dominance orientation concept: predicting political attitudes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Iyer, Aarti

    2010-06-01

    We examined predictors of political attitude change by assessing the independent and interactive effect of social dominance orientation (SDO) as a context-dependent versus an individual difference construct. In a longitudinal study, British students' political orientation was assessed before entering university (T1) and after being at university for 2 months (T2) and 6 months (T3; N=109). Results showed that initial SDO (T1) did not predict political attitudes change nor did it predict self-selected entry into course with hierarchy enhancing or hierarchy-attenuating ideologies. More support was obtained for a contextually determined model whereby SDO (T2) mediated the relationship between social class (T1) and political attitude change (T3). We also found support for mediated moderation in accounting for effects of initial SDO on political attitude change. Findings suggest that SDO as a concept that is sensitive to group dynamics is best suited to explain shifts in political attitudes.

  15. Truly included? A literature study focusing on the social dimension of inclusion in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Social participation of students with special educational needs (SEN) is a key issue in the inclusion debate. However, the meaning of concepts like social integration, social inclusion and social participation used in current literature is often unclear. Recently, these concepts were clarified based

  16. The Study on the Core Concepts of Contemporary Sociology of Education and Its Theoretical Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Min-hui

    2006-01-01

    Within the sphere of contemporary social sciences, the terms "modernity," "post-modernity" and "globalization" have penetrated, as the core concepts, into various fields of social sciences in a logical way. In constituting the concept of "modernity," sociology of education develops the educational theory, as sociological theory does, into a "grand…

  17. Concept of radiological, medical and social protection of the population of Russia affected by accidental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osechinski, I.V.; Ivanov, E.V.; Ramzaev, P.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Main principles of population radiation protection from various accidental exposure, including the Chernobyl accident, have been implemented in officially approved Concept ''On radiological, medical, social protection and rehabilitation of the Russian Federation population affected by accidental radiation exposure''. The concept includes basic principles of radiation protection, designation of regional radionuclide contaminated territories, records and registers of exposed persons, health protection and rehabilitation, socio-economic and legal aspects

  18. Mini Literature Review of Self-Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrad, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review is to focus on individuals´ self-concept. The results of the present study reveal that self-concept assumed as an important factor for each and can change his or her belief, attitude, and reaction toward personal and social life. This study likewise explained the beginning of self-concept, different views toward this vital factor, the role of introspection, and multicultural. Furthermore, this paper supported the imperative of self-concept; additiona...

  19. Overcoming Social Pathologies in Education: On the Concept of Respect in R. S. Peters and Axel Honneth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Krassimir

    2009-01-01

    The concept of respect plays a central role in several recent attempts to re-actualise the programme of a critical social theory. In Axel Honneth's most prominent version of that concept, respect is closely tied to the sphere of law, and it is limited to the recognition of a Kantian-type moral autonomy of the individual. So interpreted, the…

  20. The Construction of Social Class in Social Work Education: A Study of Introductory Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Roni; Feldman, Guy; Shdaimah, Corey

    2012-01-01

    Social work introductory textbooks reflect myriad practical interests, pedagogical concerns, and theoretical considerations. However, they also present students with accepted views, dominant perspectives, and main discourses of knowledge. In light of this centrality, the present article examines the representation of the concept of "social class"…

  1. Relationship between Social Networks Adoption and Social Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Semseddin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to set forth the relationship between the individuals' states to adopt social networks and social intelligence and analyze both concepts according to various variables. Research data were collected from 1145 social network users in the online media by using the Adoption of Social Network Scale and Social Intelligence…

  2. Self-Concept Changes in Multiple Self-Concept Domains of Gifted Students Participating in a Summer Residential School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preckel, Franzis; Rach, Hannah; Scherrer, Vsevolod

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated changes in self-esteem, academic self-concept, intellectual self-concept, and social self-concepts of acceptance, assertion, relations with same-sex peers and relations with other-sex peers with 177 gifted students participating in a 16-day summer school in Germany. Students were assessed three times by self-report…

  3. Family Communication about Donor Conception: A Qualitative Study with Lesbian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parys, Hanna; Wyverkens, Elia; Provoost, Veerle; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido; Buysse, Ann

    2016-03-01

    In this qualitative study of 10 lesbian couples who built their families through anonymous donor conception, we explore how lesbian parents experience communication about the donor conception within the family. While for these families "disclosure" of donor conception is often seen as evident, the way parents and children discuss this subject and how this is experienced by the parents themselves has not received much research attention. To meet this gap in the literature, in-depth interviews with lesbian couples were conducted. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis showed that this family communication process can be understood within the broader relational context of parent-child relationships. Even though parents handled this family communication in many different ways, these were all inspired by the same motives: acting in the child's best interest and-on a more implicit level-maintaining good relations within the family. Furthermore, parents left the initiative for talking about the DC mostly to the child. Overall, parents aimed at constructing a donor conception narrative that they considered acceptable for both the children and themselves. They used different strategies, such as gradual disclosure, limiting the meaning of the donor, and justifying the donor conception. Building an acceptable donor conception narrative was sometimes challenged by influences from the social environment. In the discussion, we relate this qualitative systemic study to the broader issues of selective disclosure and bidirectionality within families. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  4. Ecosystem Services as a Boundary Concept: Arguments from Social Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schleyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are defined as the interdependencies between society and nature. Despite several years of conceptual discussions, some challenges of the ES concept are far from being resolved. In particular, the usefulness of the concept for nature protection is questioned, and a strong critique is expressed concerning its contribution towards the neoliberal commodification of nature. This paper argues that these challenges can be addressed by dealing more carefully with ES as a boundary concept between different disciplines and between science and society. ES are neither about nature nor about human wellbeing, but about the mutual dependencies between nature and human wellbeing. These mutual interdependencies, however, create tensions and contradictions that manifest themselves in the boundary negotiations between different scientific disciplines and between science and society. This paper shows that approaches from Social Ecology can address these boundary negotiations and the power relations involved more explicitly. Finally, this implies the urgent need for more inter- and transdisciplinary collaboration in ES research. We conclude (1 that the social–ecological nature of ES must be elaborated more carefully while explicitly focussing on the interdependencies between nature and society; (2 to better implement inter- and transdisciplinary methods into ES research; and (3 that such ES research can—and to some extent already does—substantially enhance international research programmes such as Future Earth.

  5. Cultural Capital: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Taguchi, Atsuko; Omori, Junko; Ozaki, Akiko

    2017-07-01

    Harnessing community assets may help public health nurses address health inequalities. Cultural factor is one such asset, which is assumed to be capital in a community. Cultural capital is a key concept for understanding the causes of public health issues. This paper provided an in-depth analysis of "cultural capital" as a concept. Rodgers' evolutionary methodology was used for concept analysis. Forty-two studies published in English between 1998 and 2015 were retrieved from MEDLINE by searching for "cultural capital" in the title field. Antecedents of cultural capital included "educational environment," "belongingness in one's social group," "existing health/social inequalities," and "daily behavior." Cultural capital's identified attributes were "social cultivation," "reproductive rubric," "practical knowledge," and "autogenic ability." Cultural capital's consequences were "improving productivity," "reducing health/social inequality," and "enhancing well-being." Cultural capital is defined as capital characterized by cultivation, rubric, knowledge, and ability. These aspects of cultural capital are typically autogenic, and accumulate and reproduce through lifelong community membership. Cultural capital reduces inequality and ultimately enhances the well-being of individuals and the community through bonding, bridging, and linking economic and social capital. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Reformed perspective on the concept of the ‘common good’ and its relevance for social action in South Africa today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobus M. Vorster

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the idea of the ‘common good’ from a Classic Reformed perspective and the possibilities raised by a fresh approach to the concept for social action by civil society in South Africa today. The central theoretical argument of this article is that the new interest in the concept of natural law, as became evident in modern-day moral reflection in the Classic Reformed moral teaching, can indeed contribute to a new positive assessment of the concept common good and can provide a valuable framework for the foundation of reformed social action in cooperation with civil society in South Africa today. Firstly, the concept is discussed within the framework of the reformed idea of ‘natural law’ and the argument concludes with the finding that the concept can be accommodated in Reformed Theology. Secondly, a case is made for the cooperation between churches, other religious institutions and the broader civil society to cooperate on the basis of the common good and global ethics to address three areas of serious concern in the South African society. These are the promotion of the idea of human dignity within the social sphere with special reference to racism, xenophobia and sexism as well as the development of family life and family values, and the advancement of the idea of neighbourliness as a core ingredient of social healing and reconciliation.

  7. Social Capital or Social Cohesion: What Matters for Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of the concepts of social capital and of social cohesion shows that social capital should be considered as a micro concept whereas social cohesion, being a broader concept than social capital, is a more appropriate concept for macro analysis. Therefore, we suggest that data on the individual level should only be used to…

  8. A Dream and a Bus: Black Critical Patriotism in Elementary Social Studies Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Christopher L.; Walker, Irenea

    2017-01-01

    Extant conceptions of patriotism in social studies curricula are centered upon blind allegiance to the state or a belief in ideals of a liberal democracy. Yet these conceptions fail to account for the complex racial experiences that mediate citizenship and civic action, especially for Black persons. In this article, we advance a theory of Black…

  9. Promoting a Positive Middle School Transition: A Randomized-Controlled Treatment Study Examining Self-Concept and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Jimerson, Shane R

    2017-03-01

    The middle school transition is a salient developmental experience impacting adolescents around the world. This study employed a randomized-controlled treatment design, with randomization at the school level, to investigate the impact of a school adjustment program for middle school transition and potential gender differences. Participants included 1147 students (M age  = 9.62; SD = 0.30, 45.7 % girls), who were assessed at four time points during the transition, regarding five dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, emotional, physical and family) and self-esteem. Parallel growth curves were employed to analyze the evolution of self-concept. Following the transition to middle school, students reported lower levels of self-concept (academic, emotional and physical) and self-esteem, while participation in the intervention led to increases in self-esteem and gains in social self-concept. No gender differences were found. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting such interventions in early middle school transitions.

  10. Seeding Social Capital? Urban Community Gardening and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital...... is an increasingly important concept in international research and measures of social capital have been associated with various measures of health. In a meta-analysis of literature published between 2000 and 2016 regarding community gardens’ social advantages, through the lens of the concept of social capital......, it is demonstrated that several studies substantiate that urban community gardens create social capital, both bonding and bridging, and exhibit indications of linking. It is moreover identified how there is much to be learned from future research, illuminating how urban community gardens can foster social capital...

  11. Social interactions in virtual reality exposure therapy: A proof-of-concept pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-01-01

    Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction might prove effective in treating psychological complaints that involve social interactions, such as social anxiety. A VRET system specifically designed to expose clients with social anxiety disorder to anxiety provoking social situations was applied to 16 and 18 individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety, respectively. Participants engaged in two exposure sessions in several free speech dialogues with virtual humans while being monitored by a therapist. Participants with high levels of social anxiety reported significantly lower levels of social anxiety three months after exposure to two virtual reality interaction sessions than before treatment (p anxiety, no significant change of social anxiety was reported between pre-treatment and follow-up. Additionally, participants in both groups reported higher self-efficacy three months after treatment than before treatment (ps ≤ 0.001). These findings indicate that virtual reality technology that incorporates social interactions may be successfully applied for therapeutic purposes.

  12. Theory for the Public Good? Social Capital Theory in Social Work Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryAnn Overcamp-Martini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available As a concept, social capital is both relatively recent and highly controversial. This analysis overviews the history of social capital theory and the three main theoretical frameworks related to the concept. The components of social capital are discussed, as well as the controversy over its conceptualization. A review of recent studies is provided, particularly in the relationship between social capital and mental health. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the heuristic usefulness of social capital theory in the human behavior and social environment sequence in social work education, opening discourse in civic engagement and participation, collectivity, and the value of social networking.

  13. Social order, subjectivity and collective action. Notes for the study of the social movements Orden social, subjetividad y acción colectiva. Notas para el estudio de los movimientos sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Retamozo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the concept of subjectivity to illuminate the study of social movements. Subjectivity can be seen as a mediator between social sructure and collective action. The article explores how the concept of subjectivity can be useful in the study of those social movements that question the established social order.

    El artículo presenta la categoría de subjetividad colectiva como herramienta para indagar en la constitución de los movimientos sociales. La concepción de subjetividad como un proceso de articulación de sentidos frente situaciones específicas nos conduce a plantear una serie de asuntos ligados a su lógica de conformación y su funcionamiento como una instancia de mediación entre la estructuración del orden social y la acción colecita. El artículo explora, además, algunos campos que se vinculan a la subjetividad y que sirven para una investigación de los movimientos que disputan la conformación del oren social., tales como la voluntad colectiva, los proyectos, los imaginarios y las demandas sociales.

     

     

     

     

  14. Economic and social effects of novel supply chain concepts and virtual enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Kovács

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing market globalization, increasing global competition, more complex products results in application of new technologies, methods and business processes – due to the abovementioned tendencies novel supply chain strategies (Lean, Agile and Leagile Supply Chains are established. In this study these supply chain concepts are being described and compared. Virtual enterprise is a temporary alliance of enterprises that come together to share their skills, core competencies, costs and resources in order to better respond to rapidly changing market environment and dynamic customer demands. Economic and social benefits and effects of virtual enterprises for customers and production companies and service providers are also described. Optimization software has been developed for optimal formation of virtual enterprise networks and is also introduced in this study. The aim of this software application is to define virtual enterprise as the optimal combination of supply chain members.

  15. On the Concepts of Disorder, Retraditionalization, and Crisis in African Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasereka Kavwahirehi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, concepts of “disorder as political instrument in Africa,” “politics of belly,” and “re-traditionalization” (Chabal, Daloz, 199 have been used and reused in African studies by European and African scholars to describe the African social and political condition of the last decades. However, despite their canonization, one can question their efficiency and relevance to the analysis and understanding of what is really happening in postcolonial Africa. One might even wonder if these analytical concepts are not reawakening the imaginary of the colonial anthropology which pathologized the “Dark Continent” in order to enclose it in its difference and represent it as the absolute alterity as Hegel did in his philosophical ethnography.

  16. Self-socialization: a case study of a parachute child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Philip R; Newman, Barbara M

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical concept of self-socialization suggests that an individual is able to reflect on the self, formulate a vision of a future self, set goals, and take actions that create or alter the developmental trajectory. This case study of a parachute child illustrates how a person constructs her life from a very young age, drawing on a profound capacity for personal agency to overcome obstacles, identify resources, and internalize values to build a life structure. A model of the psychosocial process of self-socialization emerges from this case. Following the disruption of a well-defined trajectory, self-socialization is observed as a sequence of actions, reflection, correction, and new actions. Self-socialization is possible when a strong sense of self-efficacy is applied to attaining internalized values and goals.

  17. THE STUDY OF SELF-CONCEPT BETWEEN VOLUNTEER AND NON-VOLUNTEER STUDENTS IN SPORT OF UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Andam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding personality characteristics of volunteers are important for their recruitment and retention in sport associations. This study compared self-concept as a personality characteristic between volunteer and non-volunteer students in sport associations. The method of this research was survey and descriptive. The statistical population consisted of volunteer and non-volunteer students in sport associations of Iran universities. Two hundred and fifty two students (120 volunteers and 132 non-volunteers from 10 universities were selected as subjects by using random clustered sampling method. Pyryt and Mandaglio Self Perceived Survey (PMSPS was used to collect the data. The content and face reliability of questionnaire was checked and confirmed. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire (alfa=0.90. Independent t test and U Mann-Whitney test were used for comparison of the factors between volunteers and non-volunteers. Findings of this study indicated that there was a significant difference between volunteer and non-volunteer students in social and athletic self-concept. The mean of scientific and value factors were higher in volunteers than non-volunteers, however, they were not statistically significant. We concluded that the nature of sport (active and sport volunteering (social encourage students who have higher self-concept for volunteering. Moreover, the characteristics of sport associations can increase self-concept in sport volunteers.

  18. Mini Literature Review of Self-Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mehrad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current literature review is to focus on individuals´ self-concept. The results of the present study reveal that self-concept assumed as an important factor for each and can change his or her belief, attitude, and reaction toward personal and social life. This study likewise explained the beginning of self-concept, different views toward this vital factor, the role of introspection, and multicultural. Furthermore, this paper supported the imperative of self-concept; additionally, it has an essential role in individual advance.

  19. On the Question of Studying the Role of Social Capital under the Conditions of the Socio-Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii Vladimirovich Afanas’ev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has gained considerable popularity in the social sciences, as well as in practical politics on a national and international scale. Its heuristic potential is confirmed by numerous studies demonstrating the positive impact of the level and types of social capital on a wide range of economic, social and political phenomena, and especially the use of the concept of social capital to study economic growth and development issues. However, there is no universally accepted definition of social capital, and there is no unanimous opinion concerning the ways of measuring it. The paper contains a review of the current status of the theoretical field of the concept; it shows that researchers from different countries are interested in the impact of social capital on economic growth and development at the regional level. Specific comparative studies in different countries and regions strongly support the presence of a correlation that proves social capital is one of the powerful driving forces of development. However, since the majority of studies on the effects of social capital on economic development are concentrated in the developed countries of Western Europe and the USA, it is important to evaluate the potential of this approach in the countries of post-Communist development that have different experience, in particular, in Russia. In this regard, the article points out that there is a clear lack of such studies with regard to Russia’s regions, where there are only occasional fragmentary attempts to study social capital. The aim of the paper is to substantiate on the theoretical basis and to indicate the prerequisites for empirical studies on the effects of social capital of regions on their economic growth and development, especially under the conditions of the general economic and structural crisis

  20. «COLLECTIVE RIGHTS» OF ETHNIC COMMUNITIES: EXAMINATION OF SOCIAL AND LEGAL CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Yuzhanin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attitude to so-called «collective rights» of ethnic groups as to a basis of ethno-national politics of every progressive state and of the whole global social community has lately become popular. Social and legal aspects of this notion are examined along with «pro» and «contra» its practicalimplementation. «Collective rights» notion allows at least five contradicting readings. Arguments for «ethno-group rights» are speculative and easily contested. If spread, «collective rights» of ethnic groups may essentially undermine system integration bases of multiethnic nations. Ethnosocialproblems that do exist in the world may be solved in democratic ways on the basis of already available and broadly accepted human and civil rights concepts and by applying «collective measurement» of individual rights.

  1. Concept mapping applied to the intersection between older adults' outdoor walking and the built and social environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Heather M; Schiller, Claire; Winters, Meghan; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Clarke, Philippa; Curran, Eileen; Donaldson, Meghan G; Pitman, Beverley; Scott, Vicky; McKay, Heather A; Ashe, Maureen C

    2013-12-01

    For older adults, the ability to navigate walking routes in the outdoor environment allows them to remain active and socially engaged, facilitating community participation and independence. In order to enhance outdoor walking, it is important to understand the interaction of older adults within their local environments and the influence of broader stakeholder priorities that impact these environments. Thus, we aimed to synthesize perspectives from stakeholders to identify elements of the built and social environments that influence older adults' ability to walk outdoors. We applied a concept mapping approach with the input of diverse stakeholders (N=75) from British Columbia, Canada in 2012. A seven-cluster map best represented areas that influence older adults' outdoor walking. Priority areas identified included sidewalks, crosswalks, and neighborhood features. Individual perceptions and elements of the built and social environments intersect to influence walking behaviors, although targeted studies that address this area are needed. © 2013.

  2. Self-concept and ego development in deaf adolescents: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W; Knoors, Harry E T; Westenberg, P Michiel; Treffers, Philip D A

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents. Denver, CO: University of Denver) multidimensional measure of self-concept and Loevinger's (1998, Technical foundations for measuring ego development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) measure of ego development. Compared to hearing norm groups, deaf adolescents showed lower levels of self-perceived social acceptance, close friendships and ego development and higher physical appearance. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables showed positive associations of global self-worth with support for signing during childhood and quality of parent-child communication and of ego development with attending a regular school. Cluster analysis identified three social competence profiles: uniformly low competence, uniformly high competence, and low social acceptance with high physical appearance. Cluster membership was associated with school type, ego development, and (past) neurological disorder. The results are discussed in reference to interventions aimed at the well-being of deaf youth.

  3. 3. THE NATIONAL ACADEMIC UNCONSCIOUS IN QUESTION. HISTORY OF CONCEPTS, HISTORICAL SEMANTICS, CRITICAL SOCIOLOGY OF LEXICAL USAGE WITHIN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Christin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, together with Franz Schultheis, of the University of Saint-Gallen and coordinator of the social sciences network ESSE, we chose to study the international circulation of the categories and concepts that are in use in European social sciences. With the publication of the Dictionnaire des concepts  nomades (“Dictionary of nomadic concepts”, that includes only a small number of quite lengthy entries, what we tried to propose were not ready-made solutions, or vademecums for the comparative academic, but a series of questions, or rather the means to ask crucial questions for anyone who practises history, political science, history of economic ideas, or comparative sociology. We did so with two considerations in mind: one political, and the other academic, both of which I will evoke in turn in this paper.

  4. The New Wave of Childhood Studies: Breaking the Grip of Bio-Social Dualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin William

    2012-01-01

    The article takes as its starting point a new wave of researchers who use concepts such as "hybridity" and "multiplicity" in a bid to move the study of childhood beyond the strictures of what Lee and Motzkau call "bio-social dualism", whereby the division between the "natural child" of developmental psychology and the "social child" of…

  5. A concept analysis of befriending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaam, Marie-Clare

    2015-01-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of befriending. Befriending is an intervention used in a range of nursing, health and social care settings to provide support for individuals who are socially isolated or lack social support. However, in many cases befriending and its impact remains poorly understood and under researched. Concept analysis provides clarification of the concept and basis for further research and development. Concept analysis. AMED, Psyc Articles, Psych Info, Medline, MedlinePlus, Social Science Index and CINHAL databases were searched for literature published between 1993-2013 using the search term Befriending. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was chosen. This combined with insights from Risjord's work produced a theoretical concept analysis which focused on the concept in peer reviewed academic literature. There are currently several ways the mechanisms of befriending and its effects on individuals and communities are understood. It is possible however to identify key attributes which define the concept and differentiate it from related concepts, such as peer support and mentoring. Key attributes are that it is an organised intervention, involving the creation of an emotionally connected friend-like relationship, where there is a negotiation of power. This concept analysis has clarified current understandings and uses of befriending. It provides the basis for widening the focus of research into the effectiveness and impact of befriending on those who are befriended, those who befriend and the communities where befriending takes place. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A comparative study on undergraduate students' academic motivation and academic self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksal, Mine

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish and American undergraduate students' academic motivation and academic self-concept scores regarding the years that they spent in university. The analysis was based on 566 (284 Turkish, 282 American) undergraduate students where, Academic Motivation Scale and Academic Self-Concept Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results showed that there was a statistical significant effect of nationality and number of years spent in university on undergraduate students' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-concept scores. Turkish students had higher intrinsic scores whereas American students had higher extrinsic scores and more positive academic-self concept compared to Turkish partners. Regarding grade level, senior students from both cultures had higher intrinsic motivation and academic self-concept scores compared to other grade levels. In terms of extrinsic motivation, there is steady decline in American students' scores as grade level increases. On the other hand, Turkish undergraduates' extrinsic scores decrease in the second year but increase in the third and fourth year of university education. Results were discussed by taking into consideration the social and cultural differences between two nations.

  7. Social Justice, Education and School Social Work in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir, Ural; Aktan, Mehmet Can

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on welfare state, social justice and school social work interaction. In this paper, these three concepts' reflections in Turkey were mentioned. Researchers aimed to discuss how school social work (which is brought to the agenda recently) is important in the provision of social justice in Turkish public service delivery. [For the…

  8. The Impact of Vision Impairment on Students' Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Poulomee; Talukdar, Joy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the self-concept of students with vision impairment who were placed in specialist and mainstream educational settings in South Australia. Self-Concept was explored across six dimensions, namely Physical, Moral, Personal, Family, Social and Academic Self-Concepts and the Total Self-Concept. The "Tennessee Self-Concept…

  9. NASA's Gravitational - Wave Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons. the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines. and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility. to define a conceptual design evaluate kt,y performance parameters. assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.

  10. Social Studies Education and a New Social Studies Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Tarman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze theoretically the need to improve Social Studies Education in Turkey in a pedagogical manner and on the basis of the intended contributions and goals of a New Social Studies Movement to the field.Social Studies Education is an important teaching discipline to equip individuals with the necessary knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to operate efficiently in a knowledge society.The New Social Studies movement of 1960s in the USA contributed to the development of Social Studies Education.This movement tried to establish a constructivist approach. They emphasized on the importance of an inquiry based approach, and rich and real life situation in the classrooms and skills such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, cooperation and collaboration in Social Studies Education. However, the movement diminished in a short while due to the lack of research to support their theoretically sound ideas, appropriate teaching resources for teachers and students and ill-equipped teachers while their ideas were and still are gaining impetus in many countries in the world.Social Studies Education is relatively new in Turkey. Social Studies Education in Turkey has weaknesses in terms of both in theoretically and practically. The quality of teaching resources and materials and teacher qualifications are not up-to-standards to carry out a constructivist Social Studies Education.A new movement has started in Turkey to improve Social Studies Education. This new Social Studies movement aims to do research in the field on the area, print books and teaching resource for both teachers and students, develop policies, hold academic meetings, publish high quality journals for both academics and practitioners, to create opportunities and gateways for networking. This article critically argues the proposed contribution of the new Social Studies movement to the field in Turkey drawing upon the experiences of the movement of 1960s in

  11. Understanding Situated Social Interactions: A Case Study of Public Places in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    these and their situated interactions. In response, this paper addresses the challenge of informing design of mobile services for fostering social connections by using the concept of place for studying and understanding peoples’ social activities in a public built environment. We present a case study of social experience...... of a physical place providing an understanding of peoples’ situated social interactions in public places of the city derived through a grounded analysis of small groups of friends socialising out on the town. Informed by this, we describe the design and evaluation of a mobile prototype system facilitating......Ubiquitous and mobile computer technologies are increasingly being appropriated to facilitate people’s social life outside the work domain. Designing such social and collaborative technologies requires an understanding of peoples’ physical and social context, and the interplay between...

  12. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  13. Social innovation, the new challenge for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Vaas, F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This study sets out to describe activities within The Netherlands Centre for Social Innovation, one of the earliest national bodies to promote and develop the concept of social innovation. Design/methodology/approach - The paper describes the concept of social innovation and then

  14. Conceptions About Social Violence and Violence Against Women: Community Participatory Diagnosis at Manchay, Lima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Tesania; Fernández, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    This article is the result of a participatory diagnosis about social violence and violence against women carried out with both female and male inhabitants of San Pablo Mirador (SPM), an urban neighborhood located in the upper area of Manchay, Lima. It was requested by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Ruwasunchis, and was carried out by a group of faculties and students of the Master Program in Community Psychology at the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. This article reports the conceptions and the dynamics of social violence in SPM, specifically violence against women, and the resources used by its members in order to address this violence in the community.

  15. The social life of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards a ‘patient-centred’ operationalisation of the new dynamic concept of health: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, M; van Vliet, M; Giezenberg, M; Winkens, B; Heerkens, Y; Dagnelie, P C; Knottnerus, J A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate among stakeholders the support for the new, dynamic concept of health, as published in 2011: ‘Health as the ability to adapt and to self-manage’, and to elaborate perceived indicators of health in order to make the concept measurable. Design A mixed methods study: a qualitative first step with interviews and focus groups, followed by a quantitative survey. Participants Representatives of seven healthcare stakeholder domains, for example, healthcare providers, patients with a chronic condition and policymakers. The qualitative study involved 140 stakeholders; the survey 1938 participants. Results The new concept was appreciated, as it addresses people as more than their illness and focuses on strengths rather than weaknesses. Caution is needed as the concept requires substantial personal input of which not everyone is capable. The qualitative study identified 556 health indicators, categorised into six dimensions: bodily functions, mental functions and perception, spiritual/existential dimension, quality of life, social and societal participation, and daily functioning, with 32 underlying aspects. The quantitative study showed all stakeholder groups considering bodily functions to represent health, whereas for other dimensions there were significant differences between groups. Patients considered all six dimensions almost equally important, thus preferring a broad concept of health, whereas physicians assessed health more narrowly and biomedically. In the qualitative study, 78% of respondents considered their health indicators to represent the concept. Conclusions To prevent confusion with health as ‘absence of disease’, we propose the use of the term ‘positive health’ for the broad perception of health with six dimensions, as preferred by patients. This broad perception deserves attention by healthcare providers as it may support shared decision-making in medical practice. For policymakers, the broad perception of

  17. A novel, online social cognitive training program for young adults with schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor Nahum

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study provides an initial proof of concept for online social cognition training in schizophrenia. This form of training demonstrated feasibility and resulted in within-subject gains in social functioning and motivation. This pilot study represents a first step towards validating this training approach; randomized controlled trials, now underway, are designed to confirm and extend these findings.

  18. SOCIAL MEDIA – A THEORETICAL CORRELATION WITH SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Rita O'Brien

    2017-01-01

    The present paper envisages to understand the concept of social media in sociological context. It introduces the meaning and types of social media as well as brings about some clarity with regard to the grey area of whether somethings could be categorized as social media or not. Although social media is a relatively new concept, with its presence being felt in every sphere of our lives, its inter-relation with society can somehow be traced through the theories and writings of social psycholo...

  19. The Social psychology of citizenship: Engagement with citizenship studies and future research

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Clifford; Hopkins, Nick; Luyt, Russell; Dixon, John

    2015-01-01

    In this article we review the argument outlined in the opening article in this special thematic section: that the current social psychology of citizenship can be understood as the development of longstanding conceptualisations of the concept within the discipline. These conceptualisations have contributed to the current social psychological study of the constructive, active and collective (but often exclusive) understandings of citizenship in people’s everyday lives, as evidenced by contribut...

  20. In-session behaviours and adolescents' self-concept and loneliness: A psychodrama process-outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod; Azoulay, Bracha; Snir, Sharon; Regev, Dafna

    2017-11-01

    As adolescents spend many hours a day in school, it is crucial to examine the ways in which therapeutic practices in schools promote their well-being. This longitudinal pilot study examined the contribution of school-based psychodrama group therapy to the self-concept dimensions and perceived loneliness of 40 Israeli adolescents (aged 13-16, 60% boys) in public middle schools. From a process-outcome perspective, we also examined the understudied trajectory of adolescents' in-session behaviours (process variables) and its associations with changes in their self-concepts and loneliness (outcome variables). Psychodrama participants reported increases in global, social, and behavioural self-concepts and a decrease in loneliness compared to the control group. In-session productive behaviours increased and resistance decreased throughout the therapy, but varied process-outcome relationships were found. The study suggests that conducting further research into the process-outcome relationships in psychodrama group therapy is warranted to pinpoint specific mechanisms of change. Suggestions for future studies are provided. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Nursing Students’ Understanding of the Concept of Self-Esteem: a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Badri Gargari, Rahim; Ghahramanian, Akram; Jabbarzadeh Tabriz, Faranak; Crowley, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The concept of self-esteem has several definitions in different paradigms. Nursing has a unique and combined paradigm; therefore it is necessary to explore nursing students’ understanding of the concept of self-esteem. The present study aimed to discover the extent and characteristics of the concept of self-esteem from the perspective of Iranian nursing students through a qualitative approach. Methods: This study was conducted using the conventional content analysis method with the participation of 14 nursing students. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants and data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews and analyzed simultaneously. Results: Study findings showed that the nursing students’ self-esteem is related to the sense of worthy they perceived as being a nursing student. Nursing students’ self-esteem was determined through sense of worthy related to their perceived professionalism level, socialization into the profession, and enthusing of them about being a nursing student. Conclusion: If a nursing student was proud of her or his nursing role, then he or she would enjoy the nursing course and all that entailed; such as communication with colleagues, performing the tasks and, generally her or his career. PMID:26989664

  2. Concept, measurement and use of acculturation in health and disease risk studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Bandana M; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2010-12-01

    Acculturation, a concept with its root in social science and cultural anthropology, is a process intimately related to health behavior and health status of minority populations in a multicultural society. This paper provides a brief review of the subject of acculturation as it relates to health research, showing that this concept has a potential to identify risk factors that underlie increased prevalence of chronic diseases, particularly in immigrant populations. A proper understanding of this is helpful in designing intervention programs to reduce the burden of such diseases and to increase the quality of life in such populations. The concept is defined with an outline of its history showing its evolution over time. Criteria for measuring acculturation are described to illustrate the need of accommodating its multidimensional features. Drawing examples from health research in US Hispanics, the role of acculturation on health behavior is discussed to document that the discordant findings are at least partially due to either use of incomplete dimensions of the concept, or not accounting for the dynamic aspect of its process. Finally, with illustration of a finding from a study among overweight Mexican American women of South Texas, a model of acculturation study is proposed that may be used in other immigrant populations undergoing the acculturation process.

  3. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful.

  4. Social frailty in older adults: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, S; Steverink, N; Olthof, J; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2017-09-01

    Social frailty is a rather unexplored concept. In this paper, the concept of social frailty among older people is explored utilizing a scoping review. In the first stage, 42 studies related to social frailty of older people were compiled from scientific databases and analyzed. In the second stage, the findings of this literature were structured using the social needs concept of Social Production Function theory. As a result, it was concluded that social frailty can be defined as a continuum of being at risk of losing, or having lost, resources that are important for fulfilling one or more basic social needs during the life span. Moreover, the results of this scoping review indicate that not only the (threat of) absence of social resources to fulfill basic social needs should be a component of the concept of social frailty, but also the (threat of) absence of social behaviors and social activities, as well as (threat of) the absence of self-management abilities. This conception of social frailty provides opportunities for future research, and guidelines for practice and policy.

  5. Social capital of organizations : from social structure to the management of corporate social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbay, Shaul M.; Leenders, Roger Th.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Social capital in general and the study of social capital in the context of organizations has gained considerable attention in recent years. Despite the promise in the potency of the concept, its useful application suffers from the plethora of different definitions and approaches—both theoretical

  6. SOCIAL MEDIA – A THEORETICAL CORRELATION WITH SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Rita O'Brien

    2016-01-01

    The present paper envisages to understand the concept of social media in sociological context. It introduces the meaning and types of social media as well as brings about some clarity with regard to the grey area of whether some things could be categorized as social media or not. Although social media is a relatively new concept, with its presence being felt in every sphere of our lives, its inter-relation with society can somehow be traced through the theories and writings of social psychol...

  7. Concepts of body and health in physiotherapy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia

    2000-01-01

    The concept of the body which highlights the social and the cultural aspects of life and open concepts of health, served as the theory for this study as well as the inspiration from two models of clinical practice. The data consists of observations of the practice of physiotherapy of seven hip...... to comply with the physiotherapy regimen. The physiotherapists gave a much higher priority to the physical capability of the patients than to social/cultural aspects. As experts, the physiotherapists legitimised the dialogue with the patients. The physiotherapists were not able to conform clinical practice...... according to the above mentioned concepts of body and health since they had not have enough information about cultural/social aspects. The patients had little or no direct influence upon the contents of the physiotherapy regimen. Finally, the author discusses this rather paternalistic clinical practice....

  8. Enhancing the concept of corporate diplomacy : encompassing political corporate social responsibility, international relations, and peace through commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann-Behaylo, M.K.; Rehbein, K.; Fort, T.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate diplomacy is an emerging concept within the management literature. It describes corporate conduct in the international arena, particularly in challenging political and social environments. Management scholarship and practitioner literature have focused on the communication processes and

  9. Social Capital and Walkability as Social Aspects of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon H. Rogers

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of sustainability and sustainable development are frequently described as having three main components, sometimes referred to as the three pillars or the triple bottom line: environmental, economic, and social. Because of an historical focus in the sustainability field on correcting environmental problems, much consideration has been given to environmental issues, especially how they interface with economic ones. Frequently mentioned but rarely examined, the social aspects of sustainability have been considered the weakest and least described pillar. After a brief review of existing concepts and theories, this paper uses a case study approach to examine the third pillar more comprehensively and offers social capital as one measure of social sustainability. Specifically, social capital was used to measure the social-environmental interface of communities. The positive correlation between aspects of the built environment, specifically walkability, and social capital suggests that measuring a social aspect of sustainability may be feasible, especially in the context of community development.

  10. Towards a 'patient-centred' operationalisation of the new dynamic concept of health: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, M; van Vliet, M; Giezenberg, M; Winkens, B; Heerkens, Y; Dagnelie, P C; Knottnerus, J A

    2016-01-12

    To evaluate among stakeholders the support for the new, dynamic concept of health, as published in 2011: 'Health as the ability to adapt and to self-manage', and to elaborate perceived indicators of health in order to make the concept measurable. A mixed methods study: a qualitative first step with interviews and focus groups, followed by a quantitative survey. Representatives of seven healthcare stakeholder domains, for example, healthcare providers, patients with a chronic condition and policymakers. The qualitative study involved 140 stakeholders; the survey 1938 participants. The new concept was appreciated, as it addresses people as more than their illness and focuses on strengths rather than weaknesses. Caution is needed as the concept requires substantial personal input of which not everyone is capable. The qualitative study identified 556 health indicators, categorised into six dimensions: bodily functions, mental functions and perception, spiritual/existential dimension, quality of life, social and societal participation, and daily functioning, with 32 underlying aspects. The quantitative study showed all stakeholder groups considering bodily functions to represent health, whereas for other dimensions there were significant differences between groups. Patients considered all six dimensions almost equally important, thus preferring a broad concept of health, whereas physicians assessed health more narrowly and biomedically. In the qualitative study, 78% of respondents considered their health indicators to represent the concept. To prevent confusion with health as 'absence of disease', we propose the use of the term 'positive health' for the broad perception of health with six dimensions, as preferred by patients. This broad perception deserves attention by healthcare providers as it may support shared decision-making in medical practice. For policymakers, the broad perception of 'positive health' is valuable as it bridges the gap between healthcare and the

  11. Risk for Researchers Studying Social Deviance or Criminal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Brougham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Researchers often encounter dangerous situations while conducting social research. The concept of risk to researchers refers to the possible harm that may occur to researchers while in the field or after leaving a research project. This study explores issues experienced by social scientists engaged in research on social deviance or criminal behavior. The goal of this research was to discover the types of risk experienced by social scientists and any mediating factors affecting the experience of risk. An online survey was conducted to gather data on issues experienced by social scientists. This study found that researchers experienced a variety of risks within the categories of physical/health, emotional, legal, and personal/professional. Each of the survey options for risk were reported by at least one respondent; however, the greatest number of risks reported were of an emotional or personal/professional nature. There were no mediating factors found to be significant in relation to the experience of risk. This was a surprising finding especially for the variable of gender as it is suggested that gender plays a role in the experience of difficulties.

  12. Deconstructing flexicurity and developing alternative approaches: towards new concepts and approaches for employment and social policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, M.; Serrano, A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of flexicurity has come to occupy a central place in political and academic debates regarding employment and social policy. It fosters a view in which the need for continuously increasing flexibility is the basic assumption, and the understanding of security increasingly

  13. Student Connections of Linear Algebra Concepts: An Analysis of Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Douglas A.; Nyman, Melvin A.; Berry, John S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the connections of linear algebra concepts in a first course at the undergraduate level. The theoretical underpinnings of this study are grounded in the constructivist perspective (including social constructivism), Vernaud's theory of conceptual fields and Pirie and Kieren's model for the growth of mathematical understanding.…

  14. Generations in Analysis of Costumer Behaviors: A Study On Social Media Using

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıtaş, Emel; Barutçu, Süleyman

    2016-01-01

    In this study, generation concept is analyzed and social media was investigated by level of use varies according to generation in terms of marketing management and consumer behavior. The face to face survey conducted on 397 people from different generation. According to results; X-Y-Z generation that important tool grouping customer behavior, don’t show great difference for the purpose of social media, especially disappear difference “start communication, share the content, entertainment”. Ho...

  15. Exploring the self-concepts of persons with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Eria Ping-Ying; Tam, Alan Sing-Fai; Man, David Wai-Kwong

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the self-concepts of Hong Kong Chinese with intellectual disabilities. Face-to-face and individual interviews were conducted in Cantonese, using the Chinese version of the Adult Source of Self-Esteem Inventory (ASSEI) together with three open-ended questions to explore the participants' self-conceptions in different life domains. An opportunity sample of 135 young adults with intellectual disabilities was interviewed. The findings showed that the family self, the social self and achievement in school and work were the self-concept attributes most important to the participants. The participants of this study had a higher total self-concept than that of a comparison group of people without disabilities when the participants used the in-group social comparison to maintain positive self-perception. The importance of partnership with family, self-concept enhancement strategies and quality employment service are discussed in order to facilitate people with intellectual disabilities to develop more positive self-concepts and thus achieve better community integration.

  16. The relationship between self-concept of children with and without learning problems, their perceived social support and literature achievement in Greek secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampilis, Theodoros; Minnaert, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a comparison of students with and without learning problems in Greek secondary education. In general, self-concept of students and their perceived social support was found to be of importance for achievement in the first years of secondary education. In literature, less

  17. Market Potential Study for Standing Cabin Concept for Domestic Low-Cost Commercial Airlines in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz I.; Dasuki, Norhafizah; Yazdi Harmin, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    An affordable air transportation has become the operational aim of many airlines these days. This is to cater the growing air travel demands from people of different social and economic status. One of the revolutionary proposals to reduce the operational costs, hence the flight ticket price, is by introducing the so-called standing cabin concept. This concept involves transporting passengers during the entire flight in their standing position with a proper support of a vertical seat. As can be expected with many new inventions, despite its clear advantages, the concept has been met with mixed reactions from the public. This study intends to establish whether the standing cabin concept has a market potential to be implemented for domestic flights in Malaysia. The public perception is determined from collected data through a survey done at two major local low-cost airport terminals. It can be concluded from the results that the concept has a good market potential for application on flights with duration of less than two hours.

  18. Social phobia, anxiety, oppositional behavior, social skills, and self-concept in children with specific selective mutism, generalized selective mutism, and community controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela E; Boyle, Michael H

    2006-08-01

    We compared social phobia, anxiety, oppositional behavior, social skills, and self-concept in three groups: (1) 28 children with specific mutism (who did not speak to teachers but were more likely to speak to parents and peers at home and school); (2) 30 children with generalized mutism (whose speaking was restricted primarily to their homes); and (3) 52 community controls. Children with generalized mutism evidenced higher anxiety at school, and more separation anxiety, OCD, and depressive symptoms at home. Parents and teachers reported that the social phobia and anxiety scores of children in both the specific and generalized mutism subgroups were higher than controls. Children in both the specific and generalized mutism groups evidenced greater deficits in verbal and nonverbal social skills at home and school than controls. Teachers and parents did not report differences in nonverbal measures of social cooperation and conflict resolution and we found no evidence that selective mutism was linked to an increase in externalizing problems such as oppositional behavior or ADHD. Although children with specific mutism speak in a wider range of situations and appear less anxious to their teachers than children with generalized mutism, significant socially phobic behavior and social skills deficits are present in both groups.

  19. Evaluation of social capital in historic urban tissue (Case Study: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today Social Capital as one of the most important comprehensive development factors is a key concept in new attitude to urban planning and management. In this attitude, planning is based on human resources, social capitals and collaborative participation. The social capital in historic tissue is considered from two ...

  20. Where Do We Go from Here? Making Sense of Prospective Social Studies Teachers' Memories, Conceptions, and Visions of Social Studies Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Todd S.; Crowe, Alicia R.; Brooks, Elizabeth W.

    2012-01-01

    Like most teacher educators, the authors are aware that prospective teachers enter programs with many experiences in schools, and social studies classrooms in particular, that influence their beliefs about schooling, what it means to teach, their subject, and students. These experiences and beliefs inform how they then experience their program…

  1. Self-concept and Ego Development in Deaf Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, T. van; Goedhart, A.W.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Westenberg, P.M.; Treffers, P.D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept and ego development, two intertwined aspects of self-indicating well-being and social-cognitive maturation, respectively, were examined in a representative sample of deaf adolescents of normal intelligence (N = 68), using translated and adapted versions of Harter's (1988, Manual for the

  2. The Role of Aberrant Salience and Self-Concept Clarity in Psychotic-Like Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Docherty, Anna R.; Kerns, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of social-cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two social-cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and over-sampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be due to neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict to other schizotypal personality disorder criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several social-cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms. PMID:22452775

  3. Dynamics of Conceptions of Health and Illness Among Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I B Bovina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the theory of social studies of the conceptions of health and illness among young people these conceptions undergo a research analysis. The comparison of the actual results with the results of the similar study conducted in 2002 allows us to talk about the dynamics of these conceptions.

  4. Self-Concept Research: A Historical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Morris

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the history of self-concept research. Suggests that self-concept research was long neglected due to major hostile scientific paradigms: psychology's behaviorist paradigm, sociology's social factist and social behaviorist paradigms, and the Freudian paradigm in psychoanalysis. Contains 46 references. (SV)

  5. The Effectiveness of Interactive Computer Assisted Modeling in Teaching Study Strategies and Concept Mapping of College Textbook Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, Larry

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of a series of print materials and interactive computer-guided study programs designed to lead undergraduate students to apply basic textbook reading and concept mapping strategies to the study of science and social science textbooks. Following field testing with 25 learning skills students, 50 freshman biology…

  6. The NASA X-Ray Mission Concepts Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Robert; Ptak, A.; Bookbinder, J.; Garcia, M.; Smith, R.; Bautz, M.; Bregman, J.; Burrows, D.; Cash, W.; Jones-Forman, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Astrophysics Decadal Survey recommended a significant technology development program towards realizing the scientific goals of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). NASA has undertaken an X-ray mission concepts study to determine alternative approaches to accomplishing IXO's high ranking scientific objectives over the next decade given the budget realities, which make a flagship mission challenging to implement. The goal of the study is to determine the degree to which missions in various cost ranges from $300M to $2B could fulfill these objectives. The study process involved several steps. NASA released a Request for Information in October 2011, seeking mission concepts and enabling technology ideas from the community. The responses included a total of 14 mission concepts and 13 enabling technologies. NASA also solicited membership for and selected a Community Science Team (CST) to guide the process. A workshop was held in December 2011 in which the mission concepts and technology were presented and discussed. Based on the RFI responses and the workshop, the CST then chose a small group of notional mission concepts, representing a range of cost points, for further study. These notional missions concepts were developed through mission design laboratory activities in early 2012. The results of all these activities were captured in the final X-ray mission concepts study report, submitted to NASA in July 2012. In this presentation, we summarize the outcome of the study. We discuss background, methodology, the notional missions, and the conclusions of the study report.

  7. Methodology for studying social advertising: A sociological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S B Kalmykov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the author’s dynamic processual methodology for the sociological study of social advertising that combines the multiversion paradigmatic approach, legitimization procedures, methodological principles of interconnection, multilevel analysis and the principles of sociological data formalization developed by P. Lazarsfeld. The author explains the multi-stage strategy of the methodology and the research procedures that provide new sociological knowledge about the processes of social advertising. The first stage involves analysis of the social advertising as a number of institutional, communicative, socio-cultural and socio-technological processes. The second stage consists of the development of the substantive aspects of social advertising dynamics and its dependence on the features of different socio-demographic groups. The third stage of the methodology includes a comparative analysis of the social advertising theoretical and empirical aspects and the subsequent assessment of its fundamental and applied capabilities. The author identifies two types of research practices: the first one consists of three levels of complexity - the first one is to design the social advertising categories and concepts; the second one requires a higher level of generalization; the third one supposes justification of the universal categorization and the social advertising conceptualization for different social areas as well as a comparative analysis of the theory of the social advertising impact developed by O.O. Savel’eva with the research results for the aims of the promotion of the sociology of advertising. The article concludes with the demonstration of the proposed methodology universality for different spheres of social reality.

  8. A Concept of Location-Based Social Network Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis

    2012-01-01

    A stimulus-response model of location-based social network marketing is conceptualized based on an exploratory investigation. Location-based social network applications are capable of generating marketing stimuli from merchant, competition-based, and connection-based rewards resulted from relevance...... and connectivity. Depending on consumption situations, consumer characteristics, and social network structure, these rewards lead to actual behavior that manifests in variety behavior (i.e., patronage to new places) and loyalty behavior (i.e., increased frequency of patronage to familiar places). This behavior...... implies changes in patterns of mobility, making this marketing approach particularly relevant for tourism and hospitality businesses. Managerial implications and recommendations for further studies are provided....

  9. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  10. Concept-Cartoons as a Tool to Evoke and Analyze Pupils Judgments in Social Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fenske

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The following contribution makes an effort to place the concept-cartoon-method into the context of social science education. Concept-cartoons (CCs enable teachers to use the everyday life experiences and individual thoughts of the pupils as a positive enrichment tool within the learning processes. In this context, CCs are very suitable to function as a method to gain information about both the existing mental conceptions and the individual political judgment strategies. Through this, it is possible to put everyday life concepts and scientific knowledge in a constructive relationship, which finally enhances new learning objectives. First the article highlights the relevance of pupils’ and teachers` concepts for judgment processes. On this basis the method of CCs is introduced and evaluated.Der folgende Artikel beschäftigt sich mit den Möglichkeiten des methodischen Einsatzes von Concept-Cartoons im Rahmen sozialwissenschaftlichen Unterrichts. Als Instrumentarium zur Diagnose von Schülervorstellungen und individuellen Urteilsstrategien, bieten Comic-Cartoons den Lehrkräften die Möglichkeit, den Unterricht entlang dieser lernrelevanten Perspektiven zu gestalten. Durch die konstruktive Verknüpfung von Alltagskonzepten und Fachkonzepten können auf diese Weise neue Chancen für nachhaltige Lehr- und Lernprozesse erschlossen werden. Innerhalb dieses Beitrags wird zunächst die Bedeutung von Schülervorstellungen und vorfachlichen Urteilsstrategien für wirksamen sozialwissenschaftlichen Unterricht geklärt. Im Anschluss erfolgt eine Einführung in die Methode „Concept-Cartoons“. Abschließend werden exemplarisch drei von den Autoren gestaltete Cartoons vorgestellt.

  11. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study's goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry-including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets-was used to assess the students' musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students' perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students' sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  12. The concept of collaborative health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Håkan

    2010-11-01

    Based on empirical research about teamwork in human service organizations in Sweden, the concept of collaborative health (CH) encapsulates the physical, psychological and social health resources the individual uses in teamwork; resources which at the same time are influenced by the teamwork. My argument built on empirical research leading up to identifying and defining the core concept in this article, is that teamwork affects team members' health and this in turn affects the teamwork and its outcome. In this paper collaborative health is viewed from a social constructionism perspective and discussed in relation to earlier concepts developed in social psychology and working life research, including psychosocial stress and burnout. The paper also introduces the concept of functional synergy, which in this context is defined as the simultaneous presence of sharp goal-orientation and synergy in teamwork. The need for a holistic team theory is emphasized as a tool in research on teamwork. Such a theory relies on identifying sound and illuminating constituent concepts. I suggest that collaborative health could be a useful concept for better understanding the complex collaborative and co-operative teamwork of human service organizations of today.

  13. Social description or social-scientific interpretation? A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elements of social-scientific theory and method actually ... essence of life; A social-scientiric study of the religious symbolic universe .... literary or redaktionsgeschichtliche concepts are of no consequence in this approach. .... In his work entitled Sociology o f early Palestinian Christianity (1978) .... or balance of forces. To this ...

  14. Harvesting social images for bi-concept search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Searching for the co-occurrence of two visual concepts in unlabeled images is an important step towards answering complex user queries. Traditional visual search methods use combinations of the confidence scores of individual concept detectors to tackle such queries. In this paper we introduce the

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility Management System: A Beverage Industry Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Rita; David, Fátima; Abreu, Rute

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to analyse policies inherent to the Corporate Social Responsibility Management System (CSRMS) of a company that produce diet and light beverage, iced teas, juice drinks and bottled waters. This management system is based on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as “concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis” (EC, Green paper – Promotin...

  16. Social Innovation Policies with the Involvement of Social Economy Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassi, Andrea; Ecchia, Giulio; Guerra, Alice

    In this paper, we investigate significant social innovation policies (related to the concept of social investment) involving the role of Social Economy organizations, and we discuss some relevant national and regional social innovation experiences by relying upon the current national...... and international literature, reports and website information. During the 1990s and the first half of the 2000s, the concept of “social economy” has evolved from one where the emphasis was on the social (social outcomes and collective action) to a neo-liberal one with more emphasis on the economic and individual...... actors (social entrepreneurs). Nowadays we are facing a transition period nevertheless in the recent developments of the policy orientation at European level, there are some slight but significant clues of a move back towards a more ‘social’ concept. We will assume as operating definition of Social...

  17. Towards a concept of Communicative Competence in Health: a qualitative study in medical residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo A. Cabrales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of literature surrounding the importance of effective communication in the clinical practice, there is a dearth of consensus in the literature on what communicative competence in health (CCH is, and the practices of meaningful health communication. Seventeen residents (17 were invited to share their thoughts on the concept of communicative competence in health and on difficulties they encounter during their clinical practice related with communication. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of CCH with emphasis on the implications in the medical curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment. Three focus group discussions were conducted with the clinical supervisor. The results were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using principles from grounded theory for qualitative data analysis. The 135 open codes and defined axial codes were discussed and a number of conceptual frameworks were utilized to disentangle the concept of CCH. The focus group themes related to the concept of communication in health, its importance and difficulties, the role of the physician and health personnel. The participants felt their own training did not prepare them to establish effective communication with patients and relatives. Some barriers include lack of time and lack of institutional priority given to communication issues. The techniques originating from grounded theory permitted to define a broader concept of CCH with the following three specific scopes: biological perspective (objective world, social (social world and subjective world (expressive-aesthetic. This new concept of CCH is central to understanding how the health communication process occurs, where a myriad of individual (physician, patient, staff, relatives, organizational and societal interrelated factors influence health decisions and practice. These components need to be addressed by medicine schools, health institutions and other stakeholders in

  18. Evidence that a simpático self-schema accounts for differences in the self-concepts and social behavior of Latinos versus Whites (and Blacks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Renee A; Waldrip, Amy M; Ickes, William

    2009-05-01

    On the basis of the assumption that Latino Americans use a simpático self-schema more than White Americans do, the authors predicted that the effects of this difference would be evident in the participants' self-concepts and social behavior. As predicted, Studies 1 and 2 revealed that Latino participants reported significantly more simpático-related terms in their spontaneous self-concepts than did White participants. Complementing these findings, Study 3a revealed that the level of interactional involvement and the perceived quality of initial same-sex interactions was significantly enhanced by the presence of Latino dyad members. Study 3b tested the prediction that the content of the dyad members' thoughts and feelings would reveal a greater use of the simpático self-schema by the Latino participants. This prediction was confirmed, and follow-up analyses indicated that a simpático self-schema plays an important mediating role in the subjective experience and social behavior of Latino individuals. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Concept-Based Curricula: A National Study of Critical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussow, Jennifer A; Roberts, Karin; Scaruto, Matthew; Sommer, Sheryl; Mills, Christine

    2018-02-22

    As nursing education struggles to address a rapidly changing health care system, overcrowded curricula, and an increased focus on clinical reasoning skills, many programs have adopted or transitioned to concept-based curricula (CBCs), which are structured around key concepts and exemplars. Despite CBC's promised benefits, the process of developing a CBC framework may pose a challenge to programs. To address this barrier, a national study was conducted to develop a representative list of concepts and exemplars. This initiative expands on prior work by suggesting a leveled approach to positioning exemplars within a curricular sequence.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  20. [Self-concept and erectile dysfunction in 45-year-old men : Results of a corollary study of the PROBASE trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögel, A M; Dinkel, A; Marten-Mittag, B; Baron, J; Albers, P; Arsov, C; Hadaschik, B; Hohenfellner, M; Imkamp, F; Kuczyk, M; Gschwend, J E; Herkommer, K

    2016-10-01

    Self-concept consists of self-perceptions and is influenced by the life course of the person. This study investigated associations between self-concept and erectile dysfunction (ED) in 45-year-old German men. Forty-five-year-old, heterosexual men who had participated in the PROBASE-study were included. Erectile Function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-6). The presence of ED was defined by IIEF-6 score ≤ 25. Self-concept was assessed using the facets "body image" (three items from the Dresden Body Image Inventory, DKB-35), "perception of masculinity" (three items from the Male Role Norms Scale, MRNS), "perceived social pressure with regard to sexual performance" (four newly constructed items), and "sexual self-esteem" (three newly constructed items). Scores for these facets of self-concept can range from 1 to 5. Higher scores indicate a more positive body image, higher sexual self-esteem, a more modern understanding of masculinity, and greater perceived social pressure. Differences in self-concept between men with ED and without ED were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney-U-test. Furthermore, Cohen's d effect sizes (ES d) were calculated. The responses of 3143 men were analyzed. Men with ED (16.2 %) have significantly lower scores regarding body image (mean 3.6 ± 0.6 vs 3.8 ± 0.5; p self-esteem (mean 3.6 ± 0.6 vs 3.9 ± 0.5; p self-esteem, and greater perceived social pressure with regard to sexual performance than men without ED.

  1. Psychopathological symptoms, social skills, and personality traits: a study with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazabal, Maite Garaigordobil

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to study the concomitant relationships between psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and other personality traits; and (b) to identify the predictive variables of psychopathological symptoms. The sample consists of 322 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old. This study uses correlational methodology. In order to assess psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and personality traits, the following scales are used: the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1983), the Cooperativeness Scale (CS; Rigby, Cox, and Black, 1997), the MESSY social skills scale (Matson, Rotatori, and Helsel, 1983), and the TPT Personality Test (Corral, Pamos, Pereña, and& Seisdedos, 2002). Pearson coefficients suggest that adolescents with many psychopathological symptoms have low levels of cooperative behaviors and social skills. They also score high in inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, overconfidence, and jealousy-withdrawal and have low levels of emotional stability, sociability, and responsibility. Through multiple regression analyses, the following variables were identified as predictors of psychopathological symptoms: jealousy-withdrawal, low social integration, impulsiveness, and low self-concept. The role played by intervention programs promoting socio-emotional development to prevent psychopathological symptoms and enhance mental health is discussed.

  2. Benchmarking Controlled Trial—a novel concept covering all observational effectiveness studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a novel concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess effectiveness. BCTs provide evidence of the comparative effectiveness between health service providers, and of effectiveness due to particular features of the health and social care systems. BCTs complement randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as the sources of evidence on effectiveness. This paper presents a definition of the BCT; compares the position of BCTs in assessing effectiveness with that of RCTs; presents a checklist for assessing methodological validity of a BCT; and pilot-tests the checklist with BCTs published recently in the leading medical journals. PMID:25965700

  3. Benchmarking Controlled Trial--a novel concept covering all observational effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2015-06-01

    The Benchmarking Controlled Trial (BCT) is a novel concept which covers all observational studies aiming to assess effectiveness. BCTs provide evidence of the comparative effectiveness between health service providers, and of effectiveness due to particular features of the health and social care systems. BCTs complement randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as the sources of evidence on effectiveness. This paper presents a definition of the BCT; compares the position of BCTs in assessing effectiveness with that of RCTs; presents a checklist for assessing methodological validity of a BCT; and pilot-tests the checklist with BCTs published recently in the leading medical journals.

  4. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Social exclusion anxiety is a term which builds on a social-psychological concept of human beings as existentially dependent on social embeddedness. This entry explores the concept in relation to bullying among children, which is a widespread and serious problem in schools and institutions. Social...... exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging are both central aspects of the affects and processes that enact and challenge social groups. Social exclusion anxiety should not be confused with ‘social phobia’, which is a concept within clinical psychology that focuses on the individual and refers to a phobic...... psychological condition. Social exclusion anxiety instead points to a distributed affect which circulates and smolders in all social groups. This is the result of an ever-present risk of someone being judged unworthy to belong to, or deemed not a legitimate participant in, a social group. Such anxiety may...

  5. Social Sustainability of Shopping Streets in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge YALÇINER ERCOŞKUN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shopping streets are integral parts of public spaces in traditional shopping areas of Central Business Districts (CBD. Furthermore, as modern shopping venues, shopping centers offer advantages for modern lifestyles with spacious shopping areas, variety of commercial and social activities, and economic value of their investments. These advantages act in favor of shopping centers and improve the level of shopping street social sustainability and its relevant concepts. The aim of this study is to analyze the main shopping streets of Ankara, using the concepts of social sustainability. In this study, these concepts, such as locality, identity, vitality, viability, sense of place, conviviality, meaning and local characteristics of the shopping streets are investigated. For the first time, the retail unit locations in Ankara, their brands and their business types, are illustrated on thematic land use maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS software. Next, population activities and consumer spatial behavior are observed and marked on maps that are also referred to as social sustainability maps. The results of the study can be useful in formulating strategies within the framework of social sustainability, which is a relatively new concept.

  6. Aspects Regarding the Development and the Integration of the Corporate Social Responsibility Concept in Firms’ Behaviour. Particularities for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintila

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, the purpose of this article is to highlight some of the particularities, at Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs level, regarding: socially responsible behaviour and participation in actions related to CSR; type of CSR strategies adopted by SMEs as compared to larger firms; the motivations, benefits and constraints of the social involvement. The ultimate question refers to the existence, nature and implications of a link between the firm size and the aspects mentioned above. These aspects will be presented according to the conclusions of the previous studies conducted in this area of research, the present paper representing therefore a theoretical synthesis of the existant literature.

  7. [(Inter)national and regional health goals in academic social-medical education conception for teaching medical students at the Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, E; Hildenbrand, S; Rieger, M A

    2012-07-01

    Social medicine deals with the specific interactions between medicine and society within a constantly changing social environment. The Institute of Occupational and Social Medicine, University Hospital Tuebingen, focuses on this relationship within the academic teaching of the Medical Faculty. Many of the issues thus directly affect the national health objectives and especially the health targets of the state of Baden-Württemberg, summarised in the Health Strategy Baden-Wuerttemberg. In addition to the recommendations of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) for the social medicine curriculum and the specific definition of the content by the Tuebingen medical faculty, national and regional health-care goals are also taken into account in the teaching conception. Classes are increasingly offered as training courses in small groups (seminars, group work with practical training), instead of classic lectures. These teaching methods allow the students to take part more actively in social medicine issues and to think and act within a comprehensive understanding of health management based on societal goals and the needs of a good health system. The concept is supported by the curriculum design element "log-book skills" of the Medical Faculty of Tuebingen. Feedback elements for teachers and students shape the further development of the concept. In dealing with real system data, practical experience on site and case vignettes, the students experience the links between societal influences, political objectives and medical action as well as the importance of accessibility of medical services for equity in health chances. The fact that advice and expertise play a crucial role in accessibility is a component to which too little attention is paid and calls for emphasis in the teaching concept. This teaching approach will deepen the understanding of the influence of psychosocial context factors and the conditions of the structural framework on the medical

  8. The use of Pierre Bourdieu's distinction concepts in scientific articles studying food and eating: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Gittelsohn, Joel; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Roble, Odilon José; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews and discusses scientific papers on eating practices that have used Pierre Bourdieu's concepts presented in Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It aims to synthesize and analyze theoretical and empirical studies on the theme in order to present Bourdieu's contributions to the field, advances in his theories, and directions for future research. Exclusion criteria were: not written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French; not published in a peer-reviewed journal; not analyzing food or eating; and not using Bourdieu's concepts as presented in Distinction as the main theoretical framework. In this narrative review, we found 38 articles, which were categorized main themes: food choice and provisioning, taste, social class, food symbolism, the body, and the scientific field of food and eating. The taste of luxury and the taste of necessity were broadly applied on the works found in this review and were observed among the lower and upper classes, manifesting differently in each class. These studies show that while Bourdieu's theories are still highly relevant to understanding contemporary social groups, they may be improved when combined with other frameworks and theorists. We highlight as directions for future research manners in which gender and the environment interact with the habitus and food choices. Finally, this review points to new areas of investigation that may help improve the use of Bourdieu's concepts in exploring health inequalities, such as differences in eating practices and habitus within populations with low socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding Social Situations (USS): A proof-of-concept social-cognitive intervention targeting theory of mind and attributional bias in individuals with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszdon, Joanna M; Roberts, David L; Penn, David L; Choi, Kee-Hong; Tek, Cenk; Choi, Jimmy; Bell, Morris D

    2017-03-01

    In this proof-of-concept trial, we examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of Understanding Social Situations (USS), a new social-cognitive intervention that targets higher level social-cognitive skills using methods common to neurocognitive remediation, including drill and practice and hierarchically structured training, which may compensate for the negative effects of cognitive impairment on learning. Thirty-eight individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the same baseline assessment of cognitive and social-cognitive functioning twice over a 1-month period to minimize later practice effects, then received 7-10 sessions of USS training, and then completed the same assessment again at posttreatment. USS training was well tolerated and received high treatment satisfaction ratings. Large improvements on the USS Skills Test, which contained items similar to but not identical to training stimuli, suggest that we were effective in teaching specific training content. Content gains generalized to improvements on some of the social-cognitive tasks, including select measures of attributional bias and theory of mind. Importantly, baseline neurocognition did not impact the amount of learning during USS (as indexed by the USS Skills Test) or the amount of improvement on social-cognitive measures. USS shows promise as a treatment for higher level social-cognitive skills. Given the lack of relationship between baseline cognition and treatment effects, it may be particularly appropriate for individuals with lower range cognitive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Place-Based Education: What Is Its Place in the Social Studies Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resor, Cynthia Williams

    2010-01-01

    Place-based education is a growing trend in education. This article defines place-based education and briefly examines its use across the disciplines. So as to better understand the wider concept, meanings of the geographical term "place" are analyzed. Place-based education in a social studies classroom is examined using two hypothetical…

  11. Redefining smart city concept with resilience approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafah, Y.; Winarso, H.

    2017-06-01

    The smart city concept originally aimed at dealing with various urban problems, in particular, those related to the urban environment and infrastructure, such as modeling transport flow in a city. As it developed, the concept is now widely used to accelerate the process of urban management by using IT technology and by the availability of big data. However, the smart city discourses are still debated. There is a number of critical literature on the discourses; some are more concerned with the use and development of information communication technology (ICT). ICT and modern technology are considered the key aspect of the smart city concept. Meanwhile, others emphasize the importance of the people who operate the technology. Very few, if any, literature emphasizes the importance of resilience in the smart city discourse. The city as a complex system should have the ability to be resilient, especially when technology fails either due to technical/man-made or natural disasters. This paper aims to redefine the smart city concept in urban planning through a literature study in the context of planning using a resilience approach. This paper describes and defines what the smart city concept is, what it means, as well as explains the relation and linkage of the importance of using resilience approach in defining the smart city. Factors of resilience will lead to a soft infrastructure approach, such as enhancement in many aspects, e.g. community capacity, social and human capital, knowledge inclusion, participation, social innovation, and social equity. Discussion and analysis are conducted through a deep literature study using systematic literature review methodology.

  12. From the rhetoric to the real: A critical review of how the concepts of recovery and social inclusion may inform mental health nurse advanced level curricula - The eMenthe project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore; Higgins, Agnes; Meade, Oonagh; Sitvast, Jan; Doyle, Louise; Ellilä, Heikki; Jormfeldt, Henrika; Keogh, Brian; Lahti, Mari; Skärsäter, Ingela; Vuokila-Oikkonen, Paivi; Kilkku, Nina

    2016-02-01

    This critical review addresses the question of how the concepts of recovery and social inclusion may inform mental health nurse education curricula at Master's level in order to bring about significant and positive change to practice. This is a literature-based critical review incorporating a rapid review. It has been said that if done well, this approach can be highly relevant to health care studies and social interventions, and has substantial claims to be as rigorous and enlightening as other, more conventional approaches to literature (Rolfe, 2008). In this review, we have accessed contemporary literature directly related to the concepts of recovery and social inclusion in mental health. We have firstly surveyed the international literature directly related to the concepts of recovery and social inclusion in mental health and used the concept of emotional intelligence to help consider educational outcomes in terms of the required knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to promote these values-based approaches in practice. A number of themes have been identified that lend themselves to educational application. International frameworks exist that provide some basis for the developments of recovery and social inclusion approaches in mental health practice, however the review identifies specific areas for future development. This is the first article that attempts to scope the knowledge, attitudes and skills required to deliver education for Master's level mental health nurses based upon the principles of recovery and social inclusion. Emotional intelligence theory may help to identify desired outcomes especially in terms of attitudinal development to promote the philosophy of recovery and social inclusive approaches in advanced practice. Whilst recovery is becoming enshrined in policy, there is a need in higher education to ensure that mental health nurse leaders are able to discern the difference between the rhetoric and the reality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Self-concept and gender effects in Korean adolescents with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ahm; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kwon, Soonhak; Eom, Soyong

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to determine whether adolescents with epilepsy (AWE) have a compromised self-concept, whether a lower self-concept is related to mental health, and whether there are sex differences in self-concept in AWE. A total of 179 AWE and 259 control adolescents without epilepsy participated in this cross-sectional, multicenter study. Self-concept was measured using the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children. Depressive symptoms and anxiety were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). A group-by-sex interaction was evaluated using an analysis of covariance controlling for age. Adolescents with epilepsy had a lower level of self-concept, especially in domains of behavioral conduct (partial eta(2): 0.257) and social acceptance (partial eta(2): 0.116), than controls (pself-concept did not differ by sex in the group with epilepsy. A group-by-sex interaction effect was found on social acceptance (p=0.042). Unlike the control group, age was not correlated with self-concept in AWE. Physical appearance was negatively correlated with HADS-anxiety scores (r=-0.291, pself-concept, especially in the domains of behavioral conduct and social acceptance, than controls. Sex differences in self-concept were identified in the control group but not in the group with epilepsy. Physical appearance was negatively correlated with anxiety in girls with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring South African high school teachers' conceptions of the nature of scientific inquiry: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington T Dudu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores conceptions of the nature ofscientific inquiry (NOSI held by five teachers who were purposively and conveniently sampled. Teachers' conceptions of the NOSI were determined using a Probes questionnaire. To confirm teachers' responses, a semi-structured interview was conducted with each teacher. The Probes questionnaire was based on six tenets of the nature of scientific inquiry but only three tenets are presented in this paper, namely: (1 scientists use a variety of methods to conduct scientific investigations; (2 scientific knowledge is socially and culturally embedded; and (3 scientific knowledge is partly the product of human creativity and imagination. The study found that the teachers held mixed NOSI conceptions. These conceptions werefluid and lacked coherence, ranging from static, empiricist-aligned to dynamic, constructivist-oriented conceptions. Although all participants expressed some views that were consistent with current, acceptable conceptions of NOSI, some held inadequate (naïve views on the crucial three NOSI tenets. The significance of this study rests in recommending explicit teaching of NOSI duringpre-service and in-service training which enables teachers to possess informed conceptions about NOSI. With these informed conceptions, teachers may internalise the instructional importance of the NOSI which, in turn, may help avoid the lack of attention to NOSI currently evidenced in teachers' instructional decisions. This might result in teachers' orientations shifting towards an explicit inquiry-based approach from that of an implicit science process and discovery approach.

  15. To Nail a Pudding: Metaphorical Analysis of the Social Studies Education Discourse Community on Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the abundance of studies on globalization in educational research, globalization is often approached as a monolithic and standardized concept. Focusing on the social studies education in the USA, this study explores how the various metaphors through which globalization is framed embrace particular perspectives on how to conceive and…

  16. The conception of Social Pedagogy in the training of Social Educators in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Ribas Machado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This text presents research data developed in a doctoral study from the methodological perspective of Comparative Education (GARCIA GARRIDO, 1986. In order to achieve the thesis objective, we opted for the analysis of the Social Pedagogy disciplines syllabus that compose the curricular proposal of the Undergraduate Course in Social Education of ten Spanish universities, namely: 1. National University of Distance Education; 2. Autonomous University of Barcelona; 3. University of Castilla-La Mancha; 4. Santiago de Compostela University; 5. University of Salamanca; 6. University of Deusto; 7. University of León; 8. University of Valencia; 9. University of Las Palmas de Gran Canarias; 10. University of Málaga. We also opted to combine the content analysis with comparative methodology (PEREZ SERRANO, 2003. The analysis of the syllabuses permitted to verify a persistent attempt to characterize Social Pedagogy as a Science that should articulate theory and practice as essence for the formation of the Social Educator.

  17. Metaphysical Concept of Secularization versus Islamic Concept of Secularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan ERTİT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In early 21st century, the question “Is Turkey becoming secularized contrary to popular belief?” was one of the discussions occupying Turkish public opinion. These discussions led to the encounter of two different concepts of secularization, “theological (Islamic” and "metaphysical", and to put forward different claims using the same concept. Hence, it became evidentwas understood that a discussion was necessary to understand what secularization is and what it is not before starting any debate on Turkey's secularization. That is because the metaphysical discussion that defines secularization as the decline in the social influence of metaphysical realm (religion, religion-like mechanisms, folk religions, superstitious beliefs, etc. is overshadowed by the Islamic definition describing secularization as "irreligiousness" or "non-Islamism". Therefore, discussingTo understand the social transformation in Turkey, this article attempts to explain that metaphysical rather than theological definition of secularization is necessary for understanding the social implications of the process of modernization.

  18. Social capital: theory, evidence, and implications for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxel, Patrick L; Heilmann, Anja; Aida, Jun; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, there has been increasing application of the concept of social capital in various fields of public health, including oral health. However, social capital is a contested concept with debates on its definition, measurement, and application. This study provides an overview of the concept of social capital, highlights the various pathways linking social capital to health, and discusses the potential implication of this concept for health policy. An extensive and diverse international literature has examined the relationship between social capital and a range of general health outcomes across the life course. A more limited but expanding literature has also demonstrated the potential influence of social capital on oral health. Much of the evidence in relation to oral health is limited by methodological shortcomings mainly related to the measurement of social capital, cross-sectional study designs, and inadequate controls for confounding factors. Further research using stronger methodological designs should explore the role of social capital in oral health and assess its potential application in the development of oral health improvement interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Local Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits...... in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social communication system. Particularly, the preliminary architecture and the prototype of local social networks...

  20. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

  1. Comparative Study of Features of Social Intelligence and Speech Behavior of Children of Primary School Age with Impaired Mental Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban D.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of social intelligence and its characteristics in children of primary school age with impaired mental functions. The concept and main features, including speech, are discussed, delays of mental development, the importance of detained development for social intelligence and speech behavior are also considered. Also, the concept of speech behavior is analyzed, the author defines the phenomenon, describes its specific features, which are distinguish its structure, and consist of six components: verbal, emotional, motivational, ethical (moral, prognostic, semantic (cognitive. Particular attention is paid to the position of social intelligence in the structure of speech behavior of children of primary school age with a impaired mental functions. Indicators of social intelligence were analyzed from the point of view of speech behavior of children with different rates of mental development and compared with its components at a qualitative level. The study used both author's and well-known techniques.

  2. The effect of social capital on organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of employees in Mashhad Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Amintojjar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is one of the key concepts in the success of employees and organizations in the third millennium. This study aimed to investigate whether there was a meaningful relation between social capital and different dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB including helpful behavior, magnanimity, loyalty, obedience, self initiative, civil behavior, and self development. The study followed a descriptive and statistical method. The data for the present study was gathered through library research and using standard OCB questionnaire and social capital questionnaire. The findings of the research indicated that there was a direct relation between social capital and organizational citizenship behavior among employees of Mashhad Municipality.

  3. Madison Public Schools. La Follette Careers Program. Tenth Grade Social Studies Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Jim; Waity, Charles

    A social studies course for a tenth grade career program is outlined in this curriculum and teaching guide. A calendar plots the time sequence for the nine units which cover prehistory to the present. The format of each unit is in three sections. The interrelated concepts, behavior goals, and teaching methods and learning activities are presented,…

  4. SOCIAL, HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF TUBERCULOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul H; Roy, Anupom; Spillane, Jayden; Singh, Puneet

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) researchers and clinicians, by virtue of the social disease they study, are drawn into an engagement with ways of understanding illness that extend beyond the strictly biomedical model. Primers on social science concepts directly relevant to TB, however, are lacking. The particularities of TB disease mean that certain social science concepts are more relevant than others. Concepts such as structural violence can seem complicated and off-putting. Other concepts, such as gender, can seem so familiar that they are left relatively unexplored. An intimate familiarity with the social dimensions of disease is valuable, particularly for infectious diseases, because the social model is an important complement to the biomedical model. This review article offers an important introduction to a selection of concepts directly relevant to TB from health sociology, medical anthropology and social cognitive theory. The article has pedagogical utility and also serves as a useful refresher for those researchers already engaged in this genre of work. The conceptual tools of health sociology, medical anthropology and social cognitive theory offer insightful ways to examine the social, historical and cultural dimensions of public health. By recognizing cultural experience as a central force shaping human interactions with the world, TB researchers and clinicians develop a more nuanced consideration of how health, illness and medical treatment are understood, interpreted and confronted.

  5. Engage key social concepts for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. C. Hicks; A. Levine; A. Agrawal; X. Basurto; S. J. Breslow; C. Carothers; Susan Charnley; S. Coulthard; N. Dolsak; J. Donatuto; C. Garcia-Quijano; M. B. Mascia; K. Norman; M. R. Poe; T. Satterfield; K. St. Martin; P. S. Levin

    2016-01-01

    With humans altering climate processes, biogeochemical cycles, and ecosystem functions (1), governments and societies confront the challenge of shaping a sustainable future for people and nature. Policies and practices to address these challenges must draw on social sciences, along with natural sciences and engineering (2). Although various social science approaches...

  6. Basic Concepts for rethinking environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ladron de Guevara, Francisco Jose; Valencia Cuellar, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review of the fundamental concepts from which environmental problems have been explained and solved during the last decades. Environment is understood as an encounter between nature and culture that is a social construct that reflects the interaction between human beings and the biophysical space in which they live. On the other hand, development is conceived as the ability that societies have to develop their potentialities, being a notion of a totalizing and ethical political nature, which incorporates the biophysical and social heritage of a certain society. Regarding the concept of culture, it must be said that it is built upon the basis that this is an adaptive strategy of the human species. Finally, the relationships between the concepts of culture, environment and development are studied in order to formulate a new perspective for rethinking the environmental issue, so that, in turn, it could be used to redirect survival strategies that human beings currently apply in their interaction with the environment.

  7. Famous Georgians and Their Homes: A Social Studies Unit for Upper Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, Susan B.

    This upper-elementary level social studies curriculum guide is designed to: (1) teach students to understand and appreciate the built (man made) environment; (2) instruct students about Georgia's history and heritage; and (3) introduce the basic concepts of historic preservation. The unit highlights 10 architectural styles of the homes of famous…

  8. Philosophical Thinking and the Concept of Security in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper seeks to unpack the essentially contested concept of security, exposing its deep philosophical bases, for a better understanding of the concept by theorists involved in its interrogation. Relying on analytic and reflectively interrogative methods of social inquiry, the study has two inter-related objectives. First ...

  9. Social Networks and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Videras

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses empirical research on social networks and the environment; it summarizes findings from representative studies and the conceptual frameworks social scientists use to examine the role of social networks. The article presents basic concepts in social network analysis, summarizes common challenges of empirical research on social networks, and outlines areas for future research. Finally, the article discusses the normative and positive meanings of social networks.

  10. KEY CONCEPTS OF AGROECOLOGY SCIENCE. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Gómez-Echeverri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted with the objective of determining the key concepts that are currently used in theoretical work in agroecology. They were obtained from titles and keywords of theoretical articles and books that included the term agroecology in the title. Fifteen terms with occurrences higher than three were obtained. They show that agroecology revolves around the concept of integral sustainability, and that there is agreement on neither its object of study nor goal. As a result, most key concepts concern the object of study or the goal of agroecology. Other key concepts are food sovereignty, agriculture, ecofeminism, climate change, family farming, and social movements.

  11. How Children Construct Views of Themselves : A Social-Developmental Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander

    2017-01-01

    As they grow up, children construct views of themselves and their place in the world, known as their self-concept. This topic has often been addressed by social psychologists (studying how the self-concept is influenced by social contexts) and developmental psychologists (studying how the

  12. Infrastructure: concept, types and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of influence of infrastructure on the economic growth and development of the countries gained currency. However the majority of authors drop the problem of definition of accurate concept of studied object and its criteria out. In the given article various approaches in the definition of «infrastructure» concept, criterion and the characteristics of infrastructure distinguishing it from other capital assets are presented. Such types of infrastructure, as personal, institutional, material, production, social, etc. are considered. Author’s definition of infrastructure is given.

  13. Cross-brain neurofeedback: scientific concept and experimental platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Duan

    Full Text Available The present study described a new type of multi-person neurofeedback with the neural synchronization between two participants as the direct regulating target, termed as "cross-brain neurofeedback." As a first step to implement this concept, an experimental platform was built on the basis of functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and was validated with a two-person neurofeedback experiment. This novel concept as well as the experimental platform established a framework for investigation of the relationship between multiple participants' cross-brain neural synchronization and their social behaviors, which could provide new insight into the neural substrate of human social interactions.

  14. Operationalizing Max Weber's probability concept of class situation: the concept of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2007-03-01

    In this essay I take seriously Max Weber's astonishingly neglected claim that class situation may be defined, not in categorial terms, but probabilistically. I then apply this idea to another equally neglected claim made by Weber that the boundaries of social classes may be determined by the degree of social mobility within such classes. Taking these two ideas together I develop the idea of a non-categorial boundary 'surface' between classes and of a social class 'corridor' made up of all those people who are still to be found within the boundaries of the social class into which they were born. I call social mobility within a social class 'intra-class social mobility' and social mobility between classes 'inter-class social mobility'. I also claim that this distinction resolves the dispute between those sociologists who claim that late industrial societies are still highly class bound and those who think that this is no longer the case. Both schools are right I think, but one is referring to a high degree of intra-class social mobility and the other to an equally high degree of inter-class mobility. Finally I claim that this essay provides sociology with only one example among many other possible applications of how probability theory might usefully be used to overcome boundary problems generally in sociology.

  15. Knowledge of the concept of corporate social responsibility in agribusiness enterprises (based on the example of the SME sector in Malopolska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratajczak Marcin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR initiative in Poland is relatively little known and has not been yet deeply rooted in the consciousness of Polish entrepreneurs especially in the field of SMEs and local communities. CSR is a concept whereby companies at the stage of strategy building voluntarily take into account the social interests and environmental protection, as well as relationships with their stakeholders. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present issues related to the knowledge of the CSR concept in the surveyed agribusiness enterprises. The article presents among other things, statistical relations between knowledge of the above concept and education of owners of the business, company size or business entity year of uprising. The research on opinions of entrepreneurs on the above concepts was carried out at the turn of 2014 and 2015 included 182 micro (0-9 persons, small (10-49 employees and medium (50-249 employees agribusiness companies engaged in business activities in rural areas of Małopolska. The results showed that there is a need for awareness of small and medium enterprises with agribusiness that consumers increasingly pay attention to the aspect of the behavior of responsible practices, let alone to observe their assumptions. Given the nature of the business, the knowledge of the CSR concept prevailed in a group of entrepreneurs from the manufacturing sector.

  16. The hue of concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Malfatti, Michela; Micciolo, Rocco

    2013-01-01

    The study shows a systematic naturally biased association between percepts and concepts. Specifically, it shows that a series of terms pertaining to an abstract semantic field (related to the frame of ethics in social behaviour) has a nonrandom, highly significant, association with colours (hues). This is the first time that consistent associations between abstract terms and colours have been reported in the general population. The main hypothesis, ie that there appear to be 'hues of concepts', was borne out by the results: the abstract terms considered were coloured with blue/green (ie cool) colours as well as their synonyms, while their antonyms were coloured with red/yellow (ie warm) colours. The association provides information about the nature of abstract concepts and their relationship with perception. It also sheds light on the interrelations among words in semantic domains that, to date, have been studied from only a computational viewpoint.

  17. Self-concept deficits in massively multiplayer online role-playing games addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leménager, Tagrid; Gwodz, Alexander; Richter, Anne; Reinhard, Iris; Kämmerer, Nina; Sell, Madlen; Mann, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on Internet addiction point towards a particular constellation of personality traits and deficits in social competence of players addicted to massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), which are hypothesized to result from impairments in self-concept. The aim of this study was to examine differences in self-concept and degree of avatar identification in World of Warcraft addicted, non-addicted and naive (nonexperienced) participants. Participants (n = 45) completed interviews and self-report questionnaires on social, emotional and physical aspects of self-concept. Attributes of participants' 'actual self', 'ideal self' and their avatar were assessed using the Giessen test. The extent of avatar identification was examined by assessing differences between 'ideal self' and avatar evaluations. In contrast to nonaddicted and naive participants, addicted players showed a more negative body appraisal and lower self-esteem as well as lower permeability, social response, general mood and social potency on the Giessen test subscales. They further showed significantly lower discrepancies between 'ideal self' and avatar ratings on nearly all Giessen test subscales. The results point towards impairments in self-concept and a higher degree in avatar identification in addicted MMORPG players compared to the remaining participants. These results could have important implications for the treatment of addicted MMORPG players. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The Social Psychology of Citizenship: Engagement With Citizenship Studies and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Stevenson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the argument outlined in the opening article in this special thematic section: that the current social psychology of citizenship can be understood as the development of longstanding conceptualisations of the concept within the discipline. These conceptualisations have contributed to the current social psychological study of the constructive, active and collective (but often exclusive understandings of citizenship in people’s everyday lives, as evidenced by contributions to this thematic section. We consider how this emerging body of work might fit with current citizenship studies and in particular how it may contribute to the current trend towards conceiving citizenship as an active practice embedded in everyday social life. Specifically, we highlight three areas of future research that we think are particularly promising: citizenship and recognition; displays and enactments of citizenship in public space; citizenship and lived coexistence. Although this is far from an exhaustive list of possibilities, we propose that research in these areas could enable the way for social psychology to articulate a distinct, recognisable and valuable contribution to citizenship studies.

  19. Learning the Attachment Theory with the CM-ED Concept Map Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, U.; Arruarte, A.; Elorriaga, J. A.; Herran, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study carried out at the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU with the aim of evaluating the CM-ED (concept map editor) with social education students. Concept mapping is a widely accepted technique that promotes meaningful learning. Graphically representing concepts of the learning domain and relationships between them…

  20. Public participation for sustainability and social learning. Concepts and lessons from three case studies in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmendia, Eneko [Institute for Environmental Sciences and Technologies (ICTA), Autonomous University of Barcelona (Spain); Environmental Economics Unit, Institute for Public Economics, University of the Basque Country (Spain); Stagl, Sigrid [Department of Socio-Economics, WU Vienna, Vienna University of Economics and Business (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    Shaping change such that it avoids losing potentially useful options for future development is a challenging task in the face of complex, coevolving socio-ecological systems. Sustainability appraisal methods, which open up dialogue and options before closing down and making suggestions, pay attention to the inclusion of various and conflicting points of view and address uncertainty, are increasingly used in the science, environment and energy policy domains. The quality of the process is seen as key to high quality appraisal outcomes. Dimensions of quality include learning opportunities which are seen as ways for addressing complexity and uncertainty. Participatory sustainability appraisal methods intend to support social learning among participants. Despite high expectations, social learning processes in sustainability appraisals are poorly conceptualized and empirically understudied. This paper (1) briefly reviews theories of social learning; (2) develops a conceptual framework for the analysis; and (3) presents an empirical application of the framework by use of data obtained from three energy and natural resource management case studies around Europe. (author)

  1. Games Are Social/Media(ted)/Technology Too . . .

    OpenAIRE

    Casey O’Donnell; Mia Consalvo

    2015-01-01

    In this manifesto, we argue that social media research needs to take the broader field of game studies in the exploration and understanding of social media. Many of the results, theories, and concepts developed in the study of games has significant implications for the study of all social media. Of course, game studies should be paying attention to social media research too.

  2. Self-concept clarity and the management of social conflict.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechtoldt, M.N.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    In 4 studies we examined the relationship between selfconcept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher selfconcept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with

  3. Social Boycott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Paula Andrade Cruz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Based on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR aspects, Social Boycott is presented in this paper as an amplification of the Labor Boycott concept. Design/methodology/approach – A statistical experiment with 240 individuals has been carried out, so that it could verify if consumers’ perceptions related to the Management Context of Corporate Social Responsibility (MCCSR of the fictitious Alpha company has considerable impact on the variable Boycott Efficacy (BE, and on the Boycott Intention (BI. The ANOVA has been used to show causeeffect variable relationship. Findings – MCCSR impacts on BE (H1 and BI (H2. Thus, the Social Consumer’s boycott motivation is driven by the perception of the level of CSR management orientation a company has (anti-corruption internal measures, organizational climate, labor conditions and waste management during production process. While Labor Boycott restricts its analysis to labor conditions, the concept of Social Boycott incorporates all CSR aspects. Originality/value – This study presents Social Boycott definition and its insertion on consumer boycott literature - types of boycott and boycott motivations (ideological dimension. Thus, tangential analysis such as experiential dimension and a theoretical political boycott gap are discussed.

  4. Reactor concepts for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-07-01

    Scoping studies were initiated to identify attractive reactor concepts for producing electric power with laser fusion. Several exploratory reactor concepts were developed and are being subjected to our criteria for comparing long-range sources of electrical energy: abundance, social costs, technical feasibility, and economic competitiveness. The exploratory concepts include: a liquid-lithium-cooled stainless steel manifold, a gas-cooled graphite manifold, and fluidized wall concepts, such as a liquid lithium ''waterfall'', and a ceramic-lithium pellet ''waterfall''. Two of the major reactor vessel problems affecting the technical feasibility of a laser fusion power plant are: the effects of high-energy neutrons and cyclical stresses on the blanket structure and the effects of x-rays and debris from the fusion microexplosion on the first-wall. The liquid lithium ''waterfall'' concept is presented here in more detail as an approach which effectively deals with these damaging effects

  5. Social Thresholds and their Translation into Social-ecological Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Christensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a preliminary discussion of how to improve our conceptualization of social thresholds using (1 a more sociological analysis of social resilience, and (2 results from research carried out in collaboration with the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations of the Yukon Territory, Canada. Our sociological analysis of the concept of resilience begins with a review of the literature followed by placement of the concept in the domain of sociological theory to gain insight into its strengths and limitations. A new notion of social thresholds is proposed and case study research discussed to support the proposition. Our findings suggest that rather than view social thresholds as breakpoints between two regimes, as thresholds are typically conceived in the resilience literature, that they be viewed in terms of collectively recognized points that signify new experiences. Some examples of thresholds identified in our case study include power in decision making, level of healing from historical events, and a preference for small-scale development over large capital intensive projects.

  6. Embeddedness and Empathy: How the Social Network Shapes Adolescents' Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S.; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…

  7. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suse ePetersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry (MUSCI—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N=97. The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  8. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self. PMID:27303337

  9. A Reinterpretation of the sovereignty concept and the Ibero- American Countries : An Analysis of Traditional Concept of Sovereignty as a potential factor in the costs of Social Reproduction in the Ibero - American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Giachini Althaus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assumes that a new concept of sovereignty is necessary, leaving aside the idea of absolute power of the nations of the world, distancing itself from the increasing demands proposed by the globalized society. Analyzing the concept of sovereignty, from of the Second World War, te problems of this traditional view are highlighted in the Ibero-American nations. From this perspective, taking as a basis the neoliberal economic system, initially foreign to Ibero American history, building work was done with this new concept for an economic analysis of law, the factors parallel efficiency and reproduction of the social costs versus populism. The meaningful takes place of meaning.

  10. An Evaluation of the Instruction of Generalization in Elementary School Social Studies Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mükerrem AKBULUT TAŞ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalizations are important content materials that should be instructed in the Social Studies program. The instruction of generalizations and the causal relationships emphasized in generalizations are important for students to have meaningful learning experiences and to gain causal reasoning and critical thinking skills. Social Studies program emphasizes the acquisition of creating scientific generalization skill as a fundamental skill to be instructed directly, and the importance of generalization instruction is highlighted. Therefore, this study is important in that it draws attention to the importance of teaching generalization and creates basis for the future research in the field. In this regard, it aims at evaluating the instruction of the generalizations in the “Our Country and the World” unit in Social Studies program for 6th grades in Primary School. In line with this general purpose, the instruction of the generalizations in the unit was analyzed qualitatively. The study was conducted with three social studies teachers working in three different schools located in Seyhan, Adana. The data were collected through the observation technique with a view to obtaining in depth data about the instruction of generalization in social studies lesson. Semi-structured observation form, prepared in the light of the generalization content elements, was used as the data collection tool. These content elements consisted of four aspects: generalization statement, concepts related to generalization, cause-effect relationships between concepts, and facts about generalization. In addition to observation, document analysis was conducted with a view to supporting results and strengthening the implications. The documentary analysis was performed based on the generalizations and previously identified elements about the generalizations in the scope of the six topics in the “Our Country and the World” unit. The data collected from the observations were

  11. Normality. The Metamorphosis of an Immutable Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petra Marinescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present article discusses the realm of “normality” starting from the paradox standing behind the concept: a bench-mark always on the move. As a social concept, “normality” is based on the word “norm” understood as what is socially acceptable or desirable in terms of looks, attitudes or behaviours. Implications: The individual who doesn’t obey the rule is prone to being considered “deviant”. The present paper deals with the problematic brought by this labelling, with the subjective motivational process that leads to the social exclusion of the individuals who don’t behave in the spirit of the accepted norm and also with the methods people make use of in order to cope with their new status. Value: “Normality”, a concept apparently denoting stability, has to adapt to various contexts and this thesis seems puzzling. The first and most important condition is that of the highly subjective human nature that comes in contradiction with stability and perfection – features defining the Latin “norma”, meaning “right” angle. And still individuals themselves are the ones creating and imposing social norms. Approach: In order to try to find an explanation, the paper makes use of the realm of deviance studies and presents the reader with some paradoxical examples as the biblical one where the ejection from Paradise was caused by the crossing of a norm whereas the word “normality” or “normal” cannot be found in the Christian Holy Book. To further picture the dynamics of “normality”, a case study analysing the women’s social status in three different centuries as reflected in painting was included in the article.

  12. Organisational Social Capital through Corporate Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Henorel Niţu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.

  13. Organisational Social Capital through Corporate Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Niţu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.

  14. Vietnamese mother's conceptions of childhood overweight: findings from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Minh Do

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood overweight and obesity is a new and emerging problem in Vietnam. The so far observed prevalence increases have pointed to the need for public health intervention strategies with parents as crucial resources for change. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand mothers’ conceptions of childhood overweight. Design: Four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 33 mothers of preschool children, 4–6 years old, living in urban and rural districts of Hanoi, Vietnam. The discussions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed using the principles of phenomenography. Results: Four main categories with 13 subcategories emerged in the process of analysis. The first category, called ‘Concept of overweight’, contained mothers’ views on childhood overweight. A major concern was the negative aspects of overweight such as impaired social interaction and health problems. The second category, ‘Identification of overweight’, described the ways mothers use to recognize overweight in children: own experience, growth chart, and public or health care system's information. The third category, ‘Causes of overweight’, showed mothers’ understanding of factors possibly contributing to overweight development: unhealthy food and lifestyle, genetic susceptibility, parent's lack of knowledge, and limited time to take care of children as well as economic improvement. The fourth category, ‘Management of overweight’, described the ways mothers use to manage a child's weight problem: control of their food intake, increasing their physical activity, and encouraging their child self-control. However, they find such strategies difficult to implement and their intentions are sometimes challenged by the child's grandparents. Conclusions: The study gives an understanding of the mothers’ conceptions of four important and practically useful aspects of overweight in children. The findings

  15. The analysis and perspectives of studying basic and special types of self-determination according to A.L. Zhuravlev’s and A.B. Kupreichenko’s concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobieva, A.E.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Russian and foreign ways of understanding the phenomenon of self-determination has been performed. It has been found that the concept of individual and group self-determination by A.L. Zhuravlev and A.B. Kupreichenko is the most developed in modern Russian psychological science. Using the concept as a basis, the conceptual schemes (made by A.E. Vorobieva and A.A. Akbarova of studies of personal, moral, social and economic self-determination were considered as the examples of the basic and special types of self-determination. Moral self-determination was studied with questions about ideas of morality, moral strategies and personality orientation, attitude toward unethical phenomena, ability for self-regulation and emotional intellect. Social and economic self-determination were studied with questions that show one’s social level, satisfaction with economic and social status and their dynamics, a valuation of favorable circumstances for an increase of status and economic activity. Value and anti-value, spheres and forms of showing of social and living personality’s activity were also determined. Fundamental differences (variability, success criteria, implementation in behavior, a level of ability to control a process, the role of external factors and similarities (successfulness, a formation level, a range, dynamics, conceptions, strategy, values, factors between the components of the conceptual schemes of these types of selfdetermination were identified. The principles of studying (proportion of basic and specific types of self-determination, a display of resultative, procedural and formal-dynamic characteristics, consideration of factors of different levels of basic and special types of self-determination were suggested.

  16. A karate program for improving self-concept and quality of life in childhood epilepsy: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Kerry D; Morgan, Amy K; Muzykewicz, David; Clark, Derrick C; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    The potential cognitive and psychosocial effects of childhood epilepsy have significant implications for a child's self-image and academic achievement. This study focuses on a 10-week karate program for children and adolescents with epilepsy aimed at increasing social confidence, self-concept, and quality of life, as well as reducing parental anxiety. Eleven children (8-16 years old) and their parents participated in this questionnaire study, and complete data were available for nine of these families. Measures consisted of the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire, and the Parental Stress Index. By parental report, significant improvement in memory function and largely positive trends in quality of life on multiple subscales were observed. By child report, intellectual self-esteem and social confidence also improved. Parental stress decreased, although not significantly, suggesting a potential benefit and indicating a role for future interventions targeting family anxiety.

  17. The Relationships between Students' Attitudes towards Social Studies and Their Perceptions of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Sabahattin

    2013-01-01

    Social studies is one of the foundation subjects that takes place in curricula of 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th grades. This subject aims to train good citizens. The concept of democracy is an essential topic for the students to comprehend so as to achieve this aim through this subject. Therefore, it is aimed, in this study, to determine the relationship…

  18. [Sexual attraction: a concept analysis using an evolutionary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Chin; Chu, Chun-Hong; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane

    2015-02-01

    Medical technology has transformed the body image of women and altered perceptions of beauty and sexual attraction. While "sexual attraction" is a fundamental concept in sexology, the characteristics of this concept have not been studied in the field of nursing. Because nurses provide advice and health education for women, it is essential to clarify the concept of sexual attraction for the benefit of related nursing research and for the further development of nursing knowledge. This study explores the concept of sexual attraction in a Taiwanese social context using concept analysis based on an evolutionary perspective. Inductive inquiry is used to compare and contrast articles from the academic literature, magazines, and newspapers, and data from participant observation and interviews are used to generate exemplars. The process by which the concept of sexual attraction has evolved over time is captured from three distinct aspects: significance, use, and application. The definitional statement of sexual attraction includes the five dimensions of: 1. sexual-oriented psychological dynamics; 2. personal aesthetics and sensory experience; 3. instinct body forces; 4. body language of self; and 5. social and cultural norms. This study scrutinized the changes in attributes that emphasize the biological, objectified body, and stereotyped gender roles of women. Further directions for research and nursing knowledge development are suggested. Examples include identifying the changes in the concept of sexual attraction that result from technological advancement and further clarifying the experiential knowledge of sexual attraction that represents the selfhood and independence of women in Taiwan.

  19. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Teaching about Islam, "Jihad," and "Shari'ah" Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the controversial curricular and instructional aspects of teaching about Islam in social studies courses. Specifically, the author discusses pedagogically sound approaches to teaching about "jihad" and "Shari'ah" law, two of the most important and controversial concepts in Islam that often generate intense…

  20. Social architecture and the emergence of power laws in online social games

    OpenAIRE

    Kirman, Ben; Collovà, Francesco; Davide, Fabrizio; Ferrari, Eva; Freeman, Jonathan; Lawson, Shaun; Linehan, Conor; Ravaja, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of the “social architecture” of games, and tests the theory that it is possible to analyse game mechanics based on the effect they have on the social behaviour of the players. Using tools from Social Network Analysis, these studies confirm that social activity in games reliably follows a power distribution: a few players are responsible for a disproportionate amount of social interactions. Based on this, the scaling exponent is highlighted as a simple measur...

  1. Games Are Social/Media(ted/Technology Too . . .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey O’Donnell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this manifesto, we argue that social media research needs to take the broader field of game studies in the exploration and understanding of social media. Many of the results, theories, and concepts developed in the study of games has significant implications for the study of all social media. Of course, game studies should be paying attention to social media research too.

  2. The Master model on multi-actor and multilevel social responsibilities: A conceptual framework for policies and governance on stakeholders’ social responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Patricia Almeida

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis working paper contributes to a collective discussion in a workshop occurring in January 2011 at the International Institute of Social Studies, bringing scholars from Europe and Brazil and aiming inter-university research collaboration on linking policies on social responsibility to development and equity. The paper serves as an introductory discussion for reframing the concept of corporate social responsibility into a broader umbrella concept of multi-actor and multilevel soc...

  3. Concept indexing and expansion for social multimedia websites based on semantic processing and graph analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Chuan; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chang, Hangbae

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a human-centric technique for social video expansion based on semantic processing and graph analysis. The objective is to increase metadata of an online video and to explore related information, thereby facilitating user browsing activities. To analyze the semantic meaning of a video, shots and scenes are firstly extracted from the video on the server side. Subsequently, this study uses annotations along with ConceptNet to establish the underlying framework. Detailed metadata, including visual objects and audio events among the predefined categories, are indexed by using the proposed method. Furthermore, relevant online media associated with each category are also analyzed to enrich the existing content. With the above-mentioned information, users can easily browse and search the content according to the link analysis and its complementary knowledge. Experiments on a video dataset are conducted for evaluation. The results show that our system can achieve satisfactory performance, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed idea.

  4. Rethinking trait conceptions of social desirability scales: impression management as an expression of honesty-humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Reinout E; Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2014-06-01

    Numerous researchers have noted that, instead of response sets or styles, most social desirability scales seem to measure personality traits instead. In two studies, we investigated the substantive interpretation of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding in terms of the HEXACO model of personality. Because of its focus on honesty and integrity, the Impression Management (IM) scale was hypothesized to be mainly related to HEXACO Honesty-Humility. In the main study among 1,106 students and well-acquainted others (friends, family, or partners), positive self-other agreement correlations were found for both IM (r = .45) and Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE; r = .34), supporting a trait conception of IM and SDE. In both self- and other ratings, the most important predictors of SDE were (low) Emotionality, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. IM was associated with Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, but Honesty-Humility was by far its most important predictor. In a subsample (n = 465), Honesty-Humility and IM were unrelated to GPA. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Kierkegaard's concepts: Hypocrisy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauth Hansen, Thomas Martin

    2014-01-01

    Kierkegaard’s Concepts is a comprehensive, multi-volume survey of the key concepts and categories that inform Kierkegaard’s writings. Each article is a substantial, original piece of scholarship, which discusses the etymology and lexical meaning of the relevant Danish term, traces the development...... of the concept over the course of the authorship, and explains how it functions in the wider context of Kierkegaard’s thought. Concepts have been selected on the basis of their importance for Kierkegaard’s contributions to philosophy, theology, the social sciences, literature and aesthetics, thereby making...... this volume an ideal reference work for students and scholars in a wide range of disciplines....

  6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, A MULTIDIMENSIONAL CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU ANA MARIA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development imposed itself as a corollary of economic term "development". Sustainable development is meant to be the summation of economic, environmental and social considerations for the present and especially for the future. The concept of sustainable development plays an important role in european and global meetings since 1972, the year it has been set for the first time. Strategies necessary to achieve the objectives of sustainable development have been developed, indicators meant to indicate the result of the implementation of policies have been created, national plans were oriented towards achieving the proposed targets. I wanted to highlight the multidimensional character of the concept of sustainable development. Thus, using specialized national and international literature, I have revealed different approaches of one pillar to the detriment of another pillar depending on the specific field. In the different concepts of sustainable development, the consensus is undoubtedly agreed on its components: economic, social, environmental. Based on this fact, the concept of sustainability has different connotations depending on the specific content of each discipline: biology, economics, sociology, environmental ethics. The multidimensional valence of sustainable development consists of three pillars ability to act together for the benefit of present and future generations. Being a multidimensional concept, importance attached to a pillar over another is directed according to the particularities of each field: in economy profit prevails, in ecology care of natural resources is the most important, the social aims improving human living conditions. The challenge of sustainable development is to combine all the economic, environmental and social benefits and the present generation to come. Ecological approach is reflected in acceptance of limited natural resources by preserving natural capital. In terms of the importance of

  7. APPROACH TO THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA MARÍA GARCÍA ÁLVAREZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make evident the instrumental nature of the concept of culture applied to organization, thisessay develops a comprehension of the concept of organizational culture. This effort is important becausethe concept of organization itself implies a construction of a social order from meanings becominghegemonic in the framework of a particular context. Organizational Psychology, even with its neutralitypretension, is not innocent about the instrumental role that social sciences have had in the organizationalarena; however this essay introduces alternatives from critical approaches that allow ways of comprehensionand why not, intervention from perspectives explicitly political.

  8. Adolescents' perception of the aged, self-concept and locality as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the aged (B=.47, p<.05). The result also showed that self-concept and locality did not significantly predict willingness to help the aged. The implication and limitations were discussed and suggestions were made for further study. Keywords: Bystander-intervention, social –responsibility, self-concept, Gender, Adolescents, ...

  9. Social marketing and breastfeeding: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2013-02-08

    Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. The review indicates that the relationship between social marketing and breastfeeding is complex. There are indications that this relationship is being investigated within three distinct fields of research: psychology/education, public health and marketing. Depending on the research field the emphasis is put on either breastfeeding or social marketing as well as on the other concepts that were discovered to be of importance within this relationship. Namely, group and individual demography as well as behaviour were revealed to be important elements of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding. Based on the results this study concludes that a more multidimensional view on the relationship between the concepts under study is needed since the focus of previous studies is very one-sided and limited to just one element when all elements should be integrated equally.

  10. Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints of the Social Studies Lesson "Sample of Turkey and Afghanistan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the perceptions of history, geography and social studies teachers giving the social studies lesson at primary schools in Turkey and Afghanistan towards the social studies lesson. The working group of the study involves history, geography and social studies teachers rendering service in Tokat and Kayseri provinces…

  11. Entrepreneuriat Social et Participation Citoyenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Larivet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L'entrepreneuriat social est un concept émergeant, notamment dans les sciences de l'administration. Pourtant, en dehors d'une pratique directoriale spécifique, il est aussi une forme de participation citoyenne trop méconnue. L'objectif de cet article, basé sur une revue de la littérature et une approche théorique, est de présenter le concept d'entrepreneuriat social afin de mieux saisir son positionnement par rapport à la participation citoyenne. L'entrepreneuriat social constitue une forme particulière de participation à l'espace public par l'action, les entreprises sociales agissant au quotidien pour transformer le paysage social. En particulier, cet article souligne le contexte de développement de l'entrepreneuriat social, définit le concept et les notions connexes d'entreprise sociale et d'entrepreneur social, et, enfin, présente une réflexion sur la contribution de l'entrepreneuriat social à la participation citoyenne. L'article montre que l'entrepreneuriat social est une façon pour les citoyens d'agir directement et avec maîtrise sur la société. / Social entrepreneurship is an emerging concept, notably in administrative sciences. However, not only is it a specific managerial practice but it is also a type of citizen participation that is not well-known. The objective of this article, based on a literature review and a theoretical approach, is to present the concept of social entrepreneurship in order to better understand its relation to citizen participation. Social entrepreneurship represents a specific type of citizen participation involving actions. Social enterprises act daily to transform the social landscape. More specifically, this article presents the context of development of social entrepreneurship, proposes a definition of the concept and of other connected notions like "social enterprise" and "social entrepreneur", and, finally, analyzes the contribution of social entrepreneurship to citizen participation. It

  12. Storytelling as Methodology: Colombia's Social Studies Textbooks after "La Constitución de 1991"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Stephanie L.

    2013-01-01

    This article posits the concept-metaphor of "storytelling as methodology" for reading a Colombian social studies textbook after the country ratified a new constitution in 1991. It examines temporal interplay and the interplay between visual and written texts in the textbook in order to analyze US imperialism, race/difference, and the…

  13. The Master model on multi-actor and multilevel social responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    This working paper contributes to a collective discussion in a workshop occurring in January 2011 at the International Institute of Social Studies, bringing scholars from Europe and Brazil and aiming inter-university research collaboration on linking policies on social responsibility to development and equity. The paper serves as an introductory discussion for reframing the concept of corporate social responsibility into a broader umbrella concept of multi-actor and multilevel social responsi...

  14. From Sociocultural Disintegration to Community Connectedness Dimensions of Local Community Concepts and Their Effects on Psychological Health of Its Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sørensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of community mental health promotion studies in Lofoten, Norway, the concept of sociocultural integration is used to describe properties of a local community that are related to people's psychological health. Starting with Durkheim's description of a cohesive society, we compare different concepts that are related to sociocultural integration, for example, sense of community, social capital, and social cohesion. We then examine the relationship of various individual oriented social psychological concepts to sociocultural integration. These concepts often share theoretical and operational definitions. The concept of sociocultural integration in the Lofoten studies was proved to be very valuable in understanding how the properties of a community can affect people's mental health and their social psychological properties. It has also shown its value in the planning of mental health services and demonstrating its success in concrete community-based mental health promotion projects. Thus they could make important contributions to further studies and actions in local communities where the intersection between the individual, their social network, and their local community occurs.

  15. STRATEGY OF SOCIALLY-ANTHROPOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN IDEAS AND SYSTEM OF MODERN SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION: INTEGRATION OF MODEL OF THE INSTRUMENTALISM AND THE NEOPRAGMATISM WITH THE CONCEPT «NEW HUMANISM»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zinchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. Explore the major ideological patterns of development of a socially philosophies of education in the context of the problems of institutionalization of knowledge about human and social development. To analyse system-integration aspect of social philosophy and education management in interaction of concepts of an instrumentalism of a pragmatism and a neopragmatism with model of «new humanism» in formation of socially valuable orientations. Methodology. Classification existing in the western philosophy of education and education of directions is spent, proceeding from basic principles of philosophical school or a current, first of all considering those the purpose and means which are really involved by them in process of education, social development and socially-moral education and being based on the basic installations, the purpose expressed by that or other direction, how its supporters imagine the person, its requirement, a social role, модус behaviour which the education system and education urged to form. Scientific novelty. In conditions when against crisis of an education system of the government of the USA and the leading countries of Europe are compelled to begin its long-term reform, its theorists substantially pay attention to democratic workings out of concepts of an instrumentalism of a pragmatism/neopragmatism in modern social philosophy of education, in particular on their aspiration to introduce in process of social development, education and education idea and practical model both educational, and a social equality. Considering growing requirement of a practical embodiment of ideas of freedom, justice, aspiration to realization of the human rights proclaimed a society, supporters of the concept of «new humanism» see the main objective in blocking a way to conformism, to a manipulation behaviour of the person and to create conditions for its free self-expression, for realization by the person of a fundamental

  16. Exploring the social capital grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Patulny, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that numerous studies have advanced social capital research over the past decade. Most studies have accepted the theoretical distinction between bonding and bridging social capital networks. Many, however, tend to agglomerate empirical research under the one...... catch-all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed....

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SOCIAL ETHICS OF LUTERO AND THE CONCEPTION OF WEBER ON THE PROTESTANT ETHICS IN THE EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVORI AHLERT

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This text has as objective to understand the differences between the social ethics of Luther and the conceptions on the protestant ethics developed by Max Weber. The lutheran social ethics do not enroll in the religious ascetism of the pietism and in the ethical vision of the calvinist protestantism of the analysis of Max Weber on the protestant ethics. The thesis of Weber does not allow to credit to the social ethics of Luther bonds with the spirit of the development of the capitalism. The proper Weber, in moment, believes that the spirit of the capitalism if must the influences of the Reformation Lutheran or that the capitalism as system is a product of the Reformation. Therefore, a conception of lutheran ethics, established in the social ethics of Luther, remains as important instrument of critical in a society in which the human being comes losing its ethical referent and its citizencommunitarian base for the absence of the practical learning of these values, for being it delivers to the individualism and he process of coisificação accomplished for the industrial capitalism and its current marketing face that an limited citizenship imposes the majority of the population of the planet, lead for those that they control the economy and the politics (the money and the power and for the ethics of the market.

  18. Social contract theory as a foundation of the social responsibilities of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welie, Jos V M

    2012-08-01

    This paper seeks to define and delimit the scope of the social responsibilities of health professionals in reference to the concept of a social contract. While drawing on both historical data and current empirical information, this paper will primarily proceed analytically and examine the theoretical feasibility of deriving social responsibilities from the phenomenon of professionalism via the concept of a social contract.

  19. Examining social media usage: Technology clusters and social network site membership

    OpenAIRE

    Schrock, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The popularization of “social media” has raised questions of how and why young people use these various technologies in their daily lives. This exploratory study proposes a classification system based on Rogers’ concept of technology clusters, which posits that likelihood of adoption is based around similar perceived characteristics of a technology or medium. Results from a survey administered to 401 undergraduates at a large southern university indicated that social and non-social technology...

  20. Self-concept of children with cerebral palsy measured using the population-specific myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sau Kuan; Lang, Cathryne P; Johnston, Leanne M

    2018-02-01

    Self-concept is an individual's perception of him/herself. Research into the self-concept of children with cerebral palsy (CP) has been sparse due to the lack of a population-specific self-concept instrument. Using the new myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment, this study investigated the self-concept of children with CP in relation to age, gender, motor, communication and cognitive function. Children with CP aged 8-12 years (n = 50; 29 males; mean 10 years 2 months; GMFCS-E&R I = 36, II = 8, III = 5, IV = 1) completed myTREEHOUSE and a standardised intelligence measure. Most children reported positive self-concept from all three myTREEHOUSE Performance Perspectives and over half (60%) fell within the Low range for the Personal Concern Score. Self-concept was not associated with age, gender, motor function, or communication function. However, for cognitive function, associations were observed for Social Skills (Below Average > Average cognitive function; Cohen's d = 1.07) and Learning Skills (Above Average > Average cognitive function; Cohen's d = 0.95) domains when rated from a Personal Performance Perspective. As the first study of the self-concept of children with CP using a CP-specific assessment, this study offers important insights into what children with CP think about themselves. Generally, the self-concept of children with CP was sound. Future research on environmental facilitators and barriers to robust self-concept development is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fostering clinical reasoning in physiotherapy: comparing the effects of concept map study and concept map completion after example study in novice and advanced learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit-Tourangeau, Katherine; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Hudon, Anne; Windsor, Monica; Charlin, Bernard; Mamede, Sílvia; van Gog, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    Health profession learners can foster clinical reasoning by studying worked examples presenting fully worked out solutions to a clinical problem. It is possible to improve the learning effect of these worked examples by combining them with other learning activities based on concept maps. This study investigated which combinaison of activities, worked examples study with concept map completion or worked examples study with concept map study, fosters more meaningful learning of intervention knowledge in physiotherapy students. Moreover, this study compared the learning effects of these learning activity combinations between novice and advanced learners. Sixty-one second-year physiotherapy students participated in the study which included a pre-test phase, a 130-min guided-learning phase and a four-week self-study phase. During the guided and self-study learning sessions, participants had to study three written worked examples presenting the clinical reasoning for selecting electrotherapeutic currents to treat patients with motor deficits. After each example, participants engaged in either concept map completion or concept map study depending on which learning condition they were randomly allocated to. Students participated in an immediate post-test at the end of the guided-learning phase and a delayed post-test at the end of the self-study phase. Post-tests assessed the understanding of principles governing the domain of knowledge to be learned (conceptual knowledge) and the ability to solve new problems that have similar (i.e., near transfer) or different (i.e., far transfer) solution rationales as problems previously studied in the examples. Learners engaged in concept map completion outperformed those engaged in concept map study on near transfer (p = .010) and far transfer (p concept map completion led to greater transfer performance than worked examples study combined with concept map study for both novice and advanced learners. Concept map completion

  2. Managing contradictions of corporate social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has attracted increasing attention in business and research. Studies have documented how management concepts such as diversity management are translated and adapted to differential local sociocultural contexts outside their countries of origin. More research...... is needed concerning how CSR concepts are translated and practiced locally within particular organizations. This research is based on an organizational ethnography of the management of multiple social, ethical and business logics of CSR in a Danish frontrunner firm. The study contributes with insights...... into the ongoing organizational management of potentially opposing logics in CSR. Findings show that managing contradictions of CSR is an ongoing challenge and accomplishment influencing whether ethical, social and business logics collide or reinforce each other. The study shows that when ethics are framed...

  3. Experience of Social Support among Working Mothers: A Concept Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, A. Young; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, categorize, and provide a model for the understanding of social support among Korean working mothers. The participants were interviewed and asked what kind of social support they received that allowed them to maintain work and family life. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering analysis…

  4. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...

  5. Concepts for Contemporary Social Work: Globalization, Oppression, Social Exclusion, Human Rights, Etc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The society wrestles with mass social change congruent with economic globalization and the communications revolution. This change creates new challenges for the social work profession in the areas of social and economic justice. This article analyzes the terminology of the new global era, words that signify a paradigm shift in outlook, most of them a reaction to the new authoritarianism of the age. Globalization, oppression, social exclusion, human rights, harm reduction, and restorative justice are the representative terms chosen.

  6. The Online Social Networking of Cyberspace: A Study on the Development of an Online Social Network Project and the Sport Industry's Perception of Its Relative Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptrap, Timothy John

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined online social networking (OSN), and the perceptions of Sport Marketing students and sport industry professional as to the relative advantage of the OSN tools in the marketplace. The conceptual framework for this study was based on Boyer's (1990) concepts of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), and the…

  7. The concept of corporate social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Lebano, A.

    2010-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR), or the idea that companies should combine economic, social and environmental concerns, seems an unavoidable component of discourses on business and society. Why is this the case? Is it because we are in a post neoliberal era, and in an economic crisis, that we are acknowledging the drawbacks of unrestrained business activity? Or is the opposite true, and the popularity of CSR is the product of the triumph of neoliberal ideology? Both views can be support...

  8. A DISCUSSIN OVER RECIPROCITY PRINCIPLE’S AFFECT ON SOCIAL CAPITAL’S PROLIFICACY

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Latif Emek

    2014-01-01

    In this study two concepts, social capital and reciprocity principles, have been introduced and their reciprocal relationship and affects also been discussed. Social Capital, an indispensable notion for the development of society from all aspects has a close relationship with reciprocity principle which regulates and forms relationship webs. In this study we firstly examined both from emergence point and sources of social capital concept which can also be entitled as social webs. Afterward...

  9. The notion of “Shareholder value” and the theory of the “Stakeholder”: Anglo-American vision of the “social interest” concept from a value creation perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Iván Morgestein Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available By the present article, an exposition is made of what some label as the modern approaches to the concept of “social interest”: The theories of the “shareholder value” and of the “stakeholders”, which are a contribution of the American doctrine to the problem posed by the management of the corporations of our time. A study is offered here of their antecedents, conception, evolution and relation to the listed corporation to determine the consequences of applying one or another in the management of the great society of capitals.

  10. Self-care Concept Analysis in Cancer Patients: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-care is a frequently used concept in both the theory and the clinical practice of nursing and is considered an element of nursing theory by Orem. The aim of this paper is to identify the core attributes of the self-care concept in cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We used Rodgers’ evolutionary method of concept analysis. The articles published in English language from 1980 to 2015 on nursing and non-nursing disciplines were analyzed. Finally, 85 articles, an MSc thesis, and a PhD thesis were selected, examined, and analyzed in-depth. Two experts checked the process of analysis and monitored and reviewed the articles. Results: The analysis showed that self-care concept is determined by four attributes of education, interaction, self-control, and self-reliance. Three types of antecedents in the present study were client-related (self-efficacy, self-esteem), system-related (adequate sources, social networks, and cultural factors), and healthcare professionals-related (participation). Conclusion: The self-care concept has considerably evolved among patients with chronic diseases, particularly cancer, over the past 35 years, and nurses have managed to enhance their knowledge about self-care remarkably for the clients so that the nurses in healthcare teams have become highly efficient and able to assume the responsibility for self-care teams. PMID:27803559

  11. Self-care Concept Analysis in Cancer Patients: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Self-care is a frequently used concept in both the theory and the clinical practice of nursing and is considered an element of nursing theory by Orem. The aim of this paper is to identify the core attributes of the self-care concept in cancer patients. We used Rodgers' evolutionary method of concept analysis. The articles published in English language from 1980 to 2015 on nursing and non-nursing disciplines were analyzed. Finally, 85 articles, an MSc thesis, and a PhD thesis were selected, examined, and analyzed in-depth. Two experts checked the process of analysis and monitored and reviewed the articles. The analysis showed that self-care concept is determined by four attributes of education, interaction, self-control, and self-reliance. Three types of antecedents in the present study were client-related (self-efficacy, self-esteem), system-related (adequate sources, social networks, and cultural factors), and healthcare professionals-related (participation). The self-care concept has considerably evolved among patients with chronic diseases, particularly cancer, over the past 35 years, and nurses have managed to enhance their knowledge about self-care remarkably for the clients so that the nurses in healthcare teams have become highly efficient and able to assume the responsibility for self-care teams.

  12. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ozan Büyükyılmaz; Yahya Fidan

    2016-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility includes the activities performed by enterprises that going beyond the legitimate expectations and carried out on a voluntary basis to improve the social and environmental well-being. In this study, the concept of corporate social responsibility is examined within the frame of definition and content, social responsibility theories, causes that enterprises are moving to social responsibility activities and the scope of social responsibility. It is intended to...

  13. SOCIAL ENTREPRISES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social economy concept is relatively new in Romania, but the interest of specialists and practitioners is growing because significant funds has been allocated to stimulate the development of social economy organizations and numerous supporting statements was made by the European Commission. The present paper realizes an exploratory approach on the concept of social enterprise in Romania and clarifies some notions, given the practices of social economy in recent years. Also, a typology of the Romania's counties in terms of the presence of social enterprises has been obtained. A series of data were collected by accessing sites of specialized institutions or requesting information under the Law regarding the free access to information of public interest. After their processing a territorial distribution of social enterprises in Romania was shaped.

  14. University contributions to the 21st century challenges through social innovation : a case study from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juliani, Douglas; Tamilis da Silva, Ania; Cunha, Jorge; Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Social innovation has emerged as an important concept dealing with social issues related to social change and community development. The aim of this paper is to understand universities’ involvement in the process of social innovation, for the particular case of a Brazilian higher education

  15. Social Capital in Organizations - Beyond Structure and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2003-01-01

    a consistent, bridging theory. Finally, there is a lack of understanding on how social capital develops over time and the potential benefits of taking a life-cycle view of social capital. In conclusion, the field of social capital in organizations still needs a consistent and coordinated research effort......The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and it identifies five main issues that need to be addressed...... in future research before social capital can move definitively beyond being merely a metaphor for advantage. First, the unresolved issue of causality is a barrier in the study of social structure and social capital alike, and hampers both measuring scales and implications drawn from empirical research...

  16. Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations : Capital Accumulation by Social Relationship and Rethinking the Definition of Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    北見, 幸一

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses Corporate Social Capital and Public Relations. This paper overviewed the Social Capital studies, especially early studies in sociology field, proposed the framework to evaluate Social Capital in a capital. Social Capital has the merit to reduce transaction costs, and should be clearly positioned as a component of capital of corporation. Using the concept of the Corporate Social Capital, to rethink the definition of Public Relations, this paper proposed the following defin...

  17. Social science literature on the environment: review and prospects for energy studies. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    Much of the social science literature on environment is of recent origin and represents the response of the social science research community to a complex societal problem in which technology is a major factor. Energy represents another such problem to which the social science research community is now turning its attention. Because energy problems and environment problems have some similarities and because energy-conversion processes have large effects on the environment, a review of the social science literature on environment was undertaken. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the concepts developed in social science research on the environment; (2) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the methodologies utilized in social science research on the environment; and (3) to study the extent to which the results of social science research on the environment have contributed to the development of policy. The first two items above receive major attention in this preliminary literature survey. 50 references.

  18. American social work, corrections and restorative justice: an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumz, Edward J

    2004-08-01

    Social work played an active role in American corrections until the 1980s when the ethic of rehabilitation began to give way to a more conservative doctrine of retribution. Changes in the field of social work, characterized by preference of social workers to work only with certain populations, contributed to social work's diminishment in corrections. Although efforts at rehabilitation continue in corrections, the concept of restorative justice that emphasizes assisting victims, communities, and offenders in dealing with the consequences of crime is gaining acceptance in the field of corrections in the United States and in other countries. This study explored social work's presence in corrections, the decline of that presence, and how the concept of restorative justice can invigorate social work within the field of corrections. Several examples of social work's contemporary efforts to use the concept of restorative justice in the United Kingdom are presented.

  19. Social regulation of emotion: messy layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappas, Arvid

    2013-01-01

    Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008, 2011a,b) to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the “messy layers.” PMID:23424049

  20. Social Regulation of Emotion: Messy Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid eKappas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008. 2011a, 2011b to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the messy layers.

  1. Socialism in High School Social Studies Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns textbook analysis regarding the presentation of socialism in four leading high school social studies books, one in each of the following subjects: United States history, world history, United States government, and economics. Findings indicate that students relying on these texts to gain understanding of socialism and…

  2. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Townsend

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fifty potential threshold concepts, finally settling on six information literacy threshold concepts.

  3. International Social Medicine between the Wars : Positioning a Volatile Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowy, Iris

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available International health work during the 1930s was influenced by several inter-acting developments which caused general attention to turn away from pathogens and individual diseases to social conditions and their impact on the status of public health. Internationally, the League of Nations Health Organisation became the centre of initiatives in social medicine. After 1932, the search for the health implications of the depression invigorated ongoing social studies. Thus, nutrition, housing and rural hygiene became major issues, followed by discussions on sports. All these topics had important political connotations because they touched sensitive questions of welfare, status and the distribution of wealth and poverty within societies. In the process, they opened discussions on abstract issues like social and moral justice and on tangible questions of political systems.

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility in banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Kvasničková Stanislavská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After popularity increase of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility over last century in the USA, with the 21st century the concept comes into the European Union as well, actually into Czech Republic. For the European Union, the concept of social responsibility becomes one of the tool for achieving the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy (Lisbon Strategy, 2000. With the start of the financial and economic crisis, the European Commission sees in the Corporate Social Responsibility a way how to cope with the crisis. Also scientific studies (Ghoul, 2011; Gruz, 2009 indicate the positive influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on financial performance of the company. In the Czech Republic, the implementation of the concept is especially for multinational corporations. For example, Corporate Social Responsibility is very popular in financial sector, which the financial crisis did not damage so perceptible as in other countries of developed economies (Singer, 2009. This article defines on a theoretical level the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility, its development, its present form and the influence on financial performance of the company. Another part of the article focuses on three czech banking subjects (Česká spořitelna, Komerční banka a Československá obchodní banka, which regularly take the leading positions of the official corporate donors chart „TOP Filantrop“. The article explores the evolution of corporate donations and finds the connection between corporate donations and corporate profit and financial and economic crisis.

  5. Social Support in Children With ADHD: An Exploration of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastoras, Sarah M; Saklofske, Donald H; Schwean, Vicki L; Climie, Emma A

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the role of perceived social support in promoting emotional well-being among children with ADHD. Specifically, it examined how children with ADHD perceive support from key individuals in their lives and the relationships between this support and aspects of emotional well-being. Main versus buffering models of social support in the context of social preference status were also explored. Participants were 55 school-age children with ADHD-combined or hyperactive/impulsive (ADHD-C/HI). Parent and child ratings evaluated source-specific social support, social status, and aspects of self-concept, anxiety, and depression. Children with ADHD reported lower social support than normative samples. Social support had moderate positive associations with self-concept, with source-specific differences, but was not associated with internalizing symptoms. Regression models with social preference status supported a main effect model of perceived social support. Social support may provide a target for resilience-based interventions among children with ADHD in promoting their self-concept and well-being.

  6. Self-esteem, general and sexual self-concepts in blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Azarbayejani, Abas; Shafiei, Katayoun; Ziaei, Tayebe; Shayegh, Bahar

    2015-10-01

    People with visual disability have lower self-esteem and social skills than sighted people. This study was designed to describe self-esteem and general and sexual self-concepts in blind people. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013-2014. In this study, 138 visually impaired people participated from Isfahan Province Welfare Organization and were interviewed for measuring of self-esteem and self-concept using Eysenck self-esteem and Rogers' self-concept questionnaires. The correlation between above two variables was measured using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software by Pearson correlation test. Mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of patients was 30.9 ± 8 years. The mean (±SD) of general self-concept score was 11 ± 5.83. The mean (±SD) of self-esteem score was 16.62 ± 2.85. Pearson correlation results showed a significant positive correlation between self-esteem and general self-concept (r = 0.19, P = 0.025). The mean of sexual self-concept scores in five subscales (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear, and sexual depression) were correspondingly 11 ± 4.41, 19.53 ± 4.53, 12.96 ± 4.19, 13.48 ± 1.76, and 5.38 ± 2.36. Self-esteem and self-concept had significant positive correlation with sexual anxiety (r = 0.49; P Self-esteem and self-concept had significant correlation with sexual anxiety and sexual fear; and negative correlation with sexual self-efficacy and sexual-esteem.

  7. Factors associated with self-concept in adolescent survivors of an 8.0-magnitude earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Jiang, Xiaolian; Ho, Kit-Wan; Duan, Lijuan; Zhang, Weiqing

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing a major natural disaster is a stressful event that challenges survival and sense of self. Adolescents are undergoing rapid developmental change in self-concept, and their sense of self is particularly susceptible to such stressful events. Although many studies have investigated adolescent self-concept, few have examined self-concept in relation to experiencing a natural disaster. Following the Great Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China, in 2008, this study aimed to (a) describe disaster experiences; (b) describe social support, coping, and self-support; and (c) identify disaster experiences, social support, and coping factors associated with self-concept of adolescent survivors 3 months after the earthquake. This was a large-scale cross-sectional study. A total of 1,976 adolescents living where the earthquake caused the most severe damage took part. The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale; Coping Styles Scale; and Internality, Powerful Others, and Chance Scales were used to assess self-concept, coping strategy, and locus of control, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics, earthquake experiences, and social support were also obtained by self-report. Three months after the disaster, adolescent self-concept was generally positive. Locus of control centered on powerful others was the strongest predictor of total self-concept. The negative coping strategy, "abreacting," was a positive predictor of negative self-concept (self-criticism). Close attention to adolescents who use negative coping strategies and who tend to lack a sense of control is needed after major disaster events. Studies that examine long-term relationships between earthquake and other major disaster experiences and self-concept of adolescent survivors are needed.

  8. Social trust, interpersonal trust and self-rated health in China: a multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixin; Vlachantoni, Athina; Liu, Xiaoting; Jones, Kelvyn

    2016-11-08

    Trust is important for health at both the individual and societal level. Previous research using Western concepts of trust has shown that a high level of trust in society can positively affect individuals' health; however, it has been found that the concepts and culture of trust in China are different from those in Western countries and research on the relationship between trust and health in China is scarce. The analyses use data from the national scale China General Social Survey (CGSS) on adults aged above 18 in 2005 and 2010. Two concepts of trust ("out-group" and "in-group" trust) are used to examine the relationship between trust and self-rated health in China. Multilevel logistical models are applied, examining the trust at the individual and societal level on individuals' self-rated health. In terms of interpersonal trust, both "out-group" and "in-group" trust are positively associated with good health in 2005 and 2010. At the societal level, the relationships between the two concepts of trust and health are different. In 2005, higher "out-group" social trust (derived from trust in strangers) is positively associated with better health; however, higher "in-group" social trust (derived from trust in most people) is negatively associated with good health in 2010. The cross-level interactions show that lower educated individuals (no education or only primary level), rural residents and those on lower incomes are the most affected groups in societies with higher "out-group" social trust; whereas people with lower levels of educational attainment, a lower income, and those who think that most people can be trusted are the most affected groups in societies with higher "in-group" social trust. High levels of interpersonal trust are of benefit to health. Higher "out-group" social trust is positively associated with better health; while higher "in-group" social trust is negatively associated with good health. Individuals with different levels of educational

  9. Study of workplace: concept and practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varin, J.C.; Casanova, P.; Benjamin, P.; Rey, M.

    2006-01-01

    The order in council published in March 2003 deals with the radiation protection of workers. It completes the French regulation of risks prevention. In this text appears a new item called 'study of workplace'. This new concept does not deal only with radiation risks: in a risks management organization, this concept must be a complementary disposition of the existing procedures. In the La Hague plant, a risks management policy has been developed for many years in respect with OHSAS 18001 referential. This risks management system involves all the departments which work in the risks prevention field: safety department, radiation protection department, health department. Many procedures and quality assurance tools have been crated which comply with the concept of 'work place study'. (author)

  10. Social Innovation in the Hungarian Business Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szegedi, Krisztina; Fülöp, Gyula; Bereczk, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    The development of society in various ways is central to social innovation and corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR involves deliberate acts of companies, and can lead to social innovation either in themselves or through cooperation with other social stakeholders. The aims of this study are: (1) to describe the concepts of corporate social…

  11. Social Sustainability of Provinces in China: A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA Window Analysis under the Concepts of Natural and Managerial Disposability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sueyoshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural and managerial disposability are two important strategic concepts, whose priorities are economic prosperity and environmental protection, respectively. This study defines social sustainability as the simultaneous achievement of economic prosperity and environmental protection, and then assesses the degree of social sustainability across provinces in China. In addition, this study combines the concepts of natural and managerial disposability with Data Envelopment Analysis window analysis. The method allows for frontier shifts among different time periods and thus can provide more stable and reliable results. This method is applied to assess the energy and environmental performances across the provinces of China during 2003–2014, and provides detailed information about provincial variations, which are valuable and important to policy makers (especially for those in local governments. This study identifies three important findings. First, there were no significant improvements in China’s environmental performance during the analysis periods, since, historically, the governments have not paid enough attention to environmental protection. Second, there are increasing trends in the provincial gaps regarding the environmental performance. In this regard, the central government should help the poor provinces to protect the environment. Third, there are significant differences between the results obtained under natural disposability and those obtained under managerial disposability, since they have different priorities regarding the operational and the environmental performances. Thus, significant contributions can be made by eco-technology progress combined with managerial performance improvements by business leaders and policy makers. This can be a new policy direction for the Chinese government.

  12. Approaches to the study of religion in Pierre Bourdieu’s social theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Sitnikov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers Pierre Bourdieu’s approaches to the study of religion: the author analyzes basic concepts of Bourdieu’s sociology of religion and identifies religious spheres and traditions to which his ideas can be applied. The methods developed by Bourdieu, despite their limitations, successfully work in the contemporary studies. Bourdieu’s theory of religion became the starting point for some new approaches, in particular, for the study of ritual practices. His concept of religious habitus allows to analyze the mechanisms by which the religion generates certain practices, conventions, life styles, meanings and values according to its doctrine and experience. Representatives of one denomination usually not only follow the same rules and rituals, but also have a similar taste, life style and perception of religious leaders. The habitus embodies traditions and history of a denomination; it is a means of keeping up practices and their transfer to next generations. At the same time, Bourdieu’s approaches to the study of religion have some weaknesses: his theoretical model is too dependent on the French context and describes mainly the catholic church; his techniques aim to analyze the relationship between the state and the dominant church with its hierarchical structure. Another limitation of Bourdieu’s approach is that he attributes economic logic of supply and demand to the religious activities, and defines religion as determined exclusively to legalize and reproduce unequal and unjust social order. Bourdieu believed that the church was always linked with the mechanisms of social domination, exercise of power and consecration of the ruling classes’ privileges, i.e. with the merits of maintaining social order and legitimizing the power. Thus, Bourdieu credits the producers of religious capital with too much power and capabilities, which they do not really have. In Bourdieu’s theory, religion is an instrument of the struggle

  13. Bio-psycho-social factors affecting sexual self-concept: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Potki, Robabeh; Ziaei, Tayebe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2017-01-01

    Background Nowadays, it is believed that mental and emotional aspects of sexual well-being are the important aspects of sexual health. Sexual self-concept is a major component of sexual health and the core of sexuality. It is defined as the cognitive perspective concerning the sexual aspects of ‘self’ and refers to the individual’s self-perception as a sexual creature. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the different factors affecting sexual self-concept. Methods English electronic...

  14. Empowerment in the Open Innovation Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Pachura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is an attempt to interpret the concept of „empowerment” in the perspective of open innovation issues. The text consists of a brief introduction, four sections, and summary. The main background of the research is related to the importance of the social reality of the organisation to evolving paradigms of innovation. In the face of globalization challenges, the innovation management could be interpreted as a specific system based on interdisciplinary analysis of an organisation’s social potential.

  15. Aerobrake concepts for NTP systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Manuel I.

    1992-01-01

    Design concepts are described for landing large spacecraft masses on the Mars surface in support of manned missions with interplanetary transportation using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Included are the mission and systems analyses, trade studies and sensitivity analyses, design analyses, technology assessment, and derived requirements to support this concept. The mission phases include the Mars de-orbit, entry, terminal descent, and terminal touchdown. The study focuses primarily on Mars surface delivery from orbit after Mars orbit insertion using an NTP. The requirements associated with delivery of logistical supplies, habitats, and other equipment on minimum energy Earth to Mars transfers are also addressed in a preliminary fashion.

  16. Effect of Learning Think-Pair-Share Think through the combined pattern Empowerment Question on Metacognitive Skills, Creative Thinking, Understanding Concepts IPA and retention as well as Social Attitudes Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanti Ekoningtyas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Pembelajaran Think-Pair-Share dipadu Pola Pemberdayaan Berpikir melalui Pertanyaan terhadap Keterampilan Metakognitif, Berpikir Kreatif, Pemahaman Konsep IPA dan Retensinya serta Sikap Sosial Siswa Abstract: cooperative learning is a teaching strategy to raise awareness of student thinking, solve problems together by integrating and applying skills and knowledge, empowering metacognitive learning development, a means to teach social skills students need to live and work together. This study aims to determine the effect pattern combined PBMP TPS learning strategy against metacognitive skills, creative thinking skills, understanding of concepts, understanding of the concept of retention, and social attitudes of students. This study used a quasi-experimental approach (quasi experimental to design non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Analysis of data normality test and homogeneity test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. The study population is class VIII SMPN 1 Pasuruan learning year 2012/2013. Samples were selected at random to determine the experimental class and control class. Results of the study are: (1 no influence on the strategy of metacognitive skills, creative thinking skills, understanding of concepts, and social attitudes among the students who were given a learning strategy with the given TPS PBMP multistrategi learning, (2 there is an influence on the retention of understanding of the concept among students TPS given PBMP learning strategy with a given learning multistrategi. The increase occurred in the class and the class multistrategi PBMP TPS. Key Words: TPS, PBMP, metacognitive skills, creative thinking, understanding of concepts, understanding of the concept of retention, social attitudes Abstrak: Strategi pembelajaran kooperatif merupakan pembelajaran untuk menumbuhkan kesadaran berpikir siswa, menyelesaikan masalah secara bersama dengan mengintegrasikan serta mengaplikasikan kemampuan dan pengetahuan

  17. Development of the Concept of Agroecology in Europe: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gallardo-López

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Agroecology is still not widely discussed in European countries. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present a qualitative and quantitative mixed analysis of this conceptualization based on research papers to provide initial answers to the following questions: How has the agroecology been used in terms of social movement, science and agricultural practice in the European countries? At which scales has it been applied? Which factors have influenced its application? Speech analysis and multivariable techniques are applied to systematized information. According to found results, the concept of agroecology is mainly conceived as science, then as practice and to a lesser degree as a social movement. There is a predominance of studies at plot level, with a tendency to include physical-biological factors; and at agroecosystem, regional and agri-food system levels, including designers, landscapes and consumers. There is a conceptual evolution in extensive quantitative and intensive qualitative standings when the agroecology incorporates more factors, such as economic, social, and, to a lesser extent, cultural and political, and becomes more transdisciplinary as a response to more complex phenomena that support the genesis and development of this concept. In this regard, a greater balance between its conceptions (science, practice and social movement is recommended to achieve a better dialogue between abstract and empirical levels.

  18. Multinational Oil Companies and Corporate Social Responsibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Region, Nigeria), the concept of corporate social responsibility must be fully imbibed by the multinational oil companies. Therefore, this study examines multinational oil companies and corporate social responsibilities with particular ...

  19. Co-creation of innovation: Investment with and in social capital. Studies on collaboration between education - industry - government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlen, Corry

    2017-01-01

    This study unravels the concept of 'CO-CREATION‘ in two large scale inter-organisational innovation programmes. Co-creation becomes internationally recognized as a leading innovative approach for regional collaboration between education, industry and government. 'SOCIAL CAPITAL’ is found to be

  20. Self-concept and delinquency proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F R; Swain, M T

    1977-01-01

    Contrary to the theory of the homeostatic model of self-concept, i.e., the expectancy that engaging in anti-social or pro-social behavior results typically in shifts in the self-concept (Graf, 1968; Deitz, 1970 shifts did not occur. Subjects, 12- 14-year-old boys enrolled in junior high school, delinquent prone (DP) and non-delinquent prone bright (NDPB), reacted to manipulation by engaging in reparative behavior as indicated via an aggression module in a fashion generally expected but the expected shift from chronic self-images did not occur. Both DP and NDPB viewed themselves similarly on self concept. The authors postulated that if shifts would occur for the delinquent prone it would be after they left school with its accompanying identification with a sub-culture outside the school setting.

  1. Social-ecological resilience and geomorphic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Scown, Murray

    2018-03-01

    Governance of coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) and the underlying geomorphic processes that structure and alter Earth's surface is a key challenge for global sustainability amid the increasing uncertainty and change that defines the Anthropocene. Social-ecological resilience as a concept of scientific inquiry has contributed to new understandings of the dynamics of change in SESs, increasing our ability to contextualize and implement governance in these systems. Often, however, the importance of geomorphic change and geomorphological knowledge is somewhat missing from processes employed to inform SES governance. In this contribution, we argue that geomorphology and social-ecological resilience research should be integrated to improve governance toward sustainability. We first provide definitions of engineering, ecological, community, and social-ecological resilience and then explore the use of these concepts within and alongside geomorphology in the literature. While ecological studies often consider geomorphology as an important factor influencing the resilience of ecosystems and geomorphological studies often consider the engineering resilience of geomorphic systems of interest, very few studies define and employ a social-ecological resilience framing and explicitly link the concept to geomorphic systems. We present five key concepts-scale, feedbacks, state or regime, thresholds and regime shifts, and humans as part of the system-which we believe can help explicitly link important aspects of social-ecological resilience inquiry and geomorphological inquiry in order to strengthen the impact of both lines of research. Finally, we discuss how these five concepts might be used to integrate social-ecological resilience and geomorphology to better understand change in, and inform governance of, SESs. To compound these dynamics of resilience, complex systems are nested and cross-scale interactions from smaller and larger scales relative to the system of interest

  2. Rethinking the health consequences of social class and social mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandan, Dragos

    2018-03-01

    The task of studying the impact of social class on physical and mental health involves, among other things, the use of a conceptual toolbox that defines what social class is, establishes how to measure it, and sets criteria that help distinguish it from closely related concepts. One field that has recently witnessed a wealth of theoretical and conceptual research on social class is psychology, but geographers' and sociologists' attitude of diffidence toward this "positivistic" discipline has prevented them from taking advantage of this body of scholarship. This paper aims to highlight some of the most important developments in the psychological study of social class and social mobility that speak to the long-standing concerns of health geographers and sociologists with how social position, perceptions, social comparisons, and class-based identities impact health and well-being. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Concept analysis of workplace bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2011-08-01

    Workplace bullying is a complicated and imprecise concept. Research findings have highlighted it as an important issue in the nursing environment worldwide. Workplace bullying arises due to malfunctions in workplace organizational and cultural related antecedents and manifests in various forms. Many studies have reported that nurses experiencing workplace bullying face increased levels of physical, psychological and social distress, may adopt suicidal thoughts and negativity towards the nursing profession, and may even abandon the nursing profession completely. Although a large number of papers have discussed the antecedents, forms and interventions related to workplace bullying, there has yet been no systematic concept analysis of workplace bullying. This paper applied Walker and Avant's concept analysis process to verify concept definitions, identify defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and provide examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases. Findings can help nursing administrators understand and clarify the meaning of workplace bullying in order to take appropriate measures to improve the working environment for nursing professionals.

  4. Work and vulnerability: the social question on Robert Castel’s thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Maciel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article emphasizes the centrality of the concept of work in the thought of the French sociologist Robert Castel. Despite being best known in Brazil for his concepts of social question and social disaffiliation, the concept of work is crucial in the articulation of the author's thought, notably in his latest writing. The article is divided into four parts. First, it provides a general introduction to the work of Castel. Then, it demonstrates how work can be considered the main social question of contemporary global capitalism. Following, it resumes the relationship between work and social vulnerability. The study concludes by pointing out the importance of understanding work as the main contemporary social issue.

  5. Concepts of intrinsic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A newly introduced Japanese reactor concept, ISER (Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor), is intended to be a reference intrinsically safe light water reactor. ISER is designed similarly to PIUS but with greater economy in mind such that any utility in any country can choose it for its power system. Social assimilation and acceptability in the Asia Pacific Region including the United States are the keys to the ISER with the hope of dramatic reductions of social costs due to safeguards, reliability, financiability, and infrastructure building, particularly in the third world, as well as reactor safety itself. In this respect and others, the ISER proposal is different from other vendor-proposed reactor concepts and is unique

  6. Grounding abstractness: Abstract concepts and the activation of the mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth. While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  7. Failed surrogate conceptions: social and ethical aspects of preconception disruptions during commercial surrogacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sayani; Schicktanz, Silke

    2016-09-19

    During a commercial surrogacy arrangement, the event of embryo transfer can be seen as the formal starting point of the arrangement. However, it is common for surrogates to undergo a failed attempt at pregnancy conception or missed conception after an embryo transfer. This paper attempts to argue that such failed attempts can be understood as a loss. It aims to reconstruct the experiences of loss and grief of the surrogates and the intended parents as a consequence of their collective failure to conceive a surrogate pregnancy. Drawing on a qualitative study conducted over a period of eight months between 2014 and 2015 at two fertility clinics in Delhi and two in Kolkata, India, this paper examines the experiences of the surrogates and the intended parents when faced with missed conceptions or failed conceptions during a surrogacy arrangement. We argue that while the surrogate grieves the non-arrival of a 'good news' as an uncertain loss, the intended parents experience yet another, failure in addition to the losses they might have incurred during their previous fertility treatments. The body of the surrogate becomes a site of 'a lost opportunity'. The surrogate embodies a loss in her quest to achieve social mobility and the intended parents experience a disembodied pregnancy loss. This very emotional experience stands in stark contrast to the conceptualisation of such failed attempts as non-events within the discourse of the surrogacy industry. The experience of loss of the intended parents is recognised but their grief is given no space. We argue that such ambiguity around the nature of losses resulting out of a missed or failed conception during surrogacy is an outcome of lack of interpersonal relationship between the surrogate and the intended parents. Since commercial surrogacy is a relational process, the only way in which the experiences of losses and failures of the actors at the preconception stage can be better addressed is through developing close

  8. The Effects of Place Attachment on Social Well-Being in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Pouya Farokhnezhad; Foroughan, Mahshid; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2017-01-01

    Social well-being and place attachment are two important concepts in health and quality of life of older adults. There are few studies on the relationship between these concepts at the individual level. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of place attachment dimensions on social well-being dimensions in older adults. This study was…

  9. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Mazzuca, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier) on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012), the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT) proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016). Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6) children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years) showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between concrete and

  10. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012, the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016. Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6 children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between

  11. Ethical analysis of the concept of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmas, Simo

    2004-06-01

    The concept of disability from an ethical viewpoint was examined. Whether disability results from the way society is built and the way ideas and judgments considering disability are established in a communal interaction was discussed (i.e., is disability socially created and constructed?). Although views on disability emphasizing its social nature are basically sound, they are also insufficient because they fail to consider the normative dimension attached to the concept of disability. The core of the concept of disability is ethical, which is why a moral philosophical examination of the concept is needed. Three possible ethical theories of disability (universal, objective, subjectivist, and communitarian) are briefly presented and discussed and a preliminary outline of a basis for a sound ethical model of disability presented.

  12. Social pathologies, false developments and the heteronomy of the social: Social theory and the negative side of recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Luiz Gustavo da Cunha de

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore a tension between two concepts designed to expose social discomforts in Axel Honneth’s mature work, namely social pathologies and anomie. Particular emphasis will be given to how they contribute or obstruct Honneth’s apprehension of social tensions. In the first session of this exposition I will show that Honneth’s interpretation of social pathologies is based on a conception of society as an organic whole (I. While this interpretation represents a slight change regarding Honneth’s understanding of social pathologies in Das Recht der Freiheit, it does not change the fact that in his work subsequent to that book the concept of false developments has not been properly theorized. Accordingly, social discomforts related to deviations from expected patterns of a normative reconstruction remain largely ignored. This calls for a perspective more fully able to grasp the heteronomy of social life (II. As a result, in Honneth’s mature work there seems to be a tension between the aims of a normative reconstruction and those of social critique, mainly due to an inability of the author to combine both elements of his social theory. In its final section (III, the paper will address that tension in order to critically contribute to Honneth’s attempt to link normative reconstruction, social analysis and criticism.

  13. Social structure and indirect genetic effects: genetics of social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jonathan; Atallah, Jade; Levine, Joel D

    2017-05-01

    The social environment modulates gene expression, physiology, behaviour and patterns of inheritance. For more than 50 years, this concept has been investigated using approaches that include partitioning the social component out of behavioural heritability estimates, studying maternal effects on offspring, and analysing dominance hierarchies. Recent advances have formalized this 'social environment effect' by providing a more nuanced approach to the study of social influences on behaviour while recognizing evolutionary implications. Yet, in most of these formulations, the dynamics of social interactions are not accounted for. Also, the reciprocity between individual behaviour and group-level interactions has been largely ignored. Consistent with evolutionary theory, the principles of social interaction are conserved across a broad range of taxa. While noting parallels in diverse organisms, this review uses Drosophila melanogaster as a case study to revisit what is known about social interaction paradigms. We highlight the benefits of integrating the history and pattern of interactions among individuals for dissecting molecular mechanisms that underlie social modulation of behaviour. © 2016 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  14. Social Capital in Organizations - Perspectives and Unresolved Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    a consistent, bridging theory. Finally, there is a lack of understanding on how social capital develops over time and the potential benefits of taking a life-cycle view of social capital. In conclusion, the field of social capital in organizations still needs a consistent and coordinated research effort......The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and identifying five main issues that need to be addressed....... Secondly, it is necessary to determine whether social capital can or should be measured. Thirdly, the negative aspects of social capital should be explored and integrated into the existing research. Fourthly, the field between social capital of the individual and organizational social capital lacks...

  15. Social factors affecting education quality of Iranian medical & dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarmand, A Hamid; Sabour, Siamak

    2014-09-01

    Positive social behavior of student is an important factor in the integrity of educational quality. Unbalanced behavior can disrupt the progress of students in learning. The present study evaluates the effect of social factors on education quality of dental and medical students. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 227 randomly selected students (109 dental and 118 medical). The questionnaire contained three domains of cultural collectivism, self-concept, and social adjustment adapted from California Test of Personality. It also included demographic questions like; field of study, gender and home city of residence. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version#19) software. Pearsons' correlation coefficient and independent t-test were used at the P-value of 0.05. Generally, girl students showed higher cultural collectivism (P=0.028) and social adjustment (P=0.04). On the contrary, boys were better in self-concept behavior (P=0.34). Home city of residence evidenced with no significant effect on any aspects of social attitudes of subjects. Pearsons' correlation coefficient test showed a weak correlation between cultural collectivism and self-concept (r=0.134, P=0.04) and between cultural collectivism and social adjustment, as well. (r=0.252, P=0.001) Independent t-test showed a significant difference between male and female students concerning cultural collectivism and social adjustment. Reliability of cultural collectivism, self-concept and social adjustment scales ranged from very good to moderate, α=0.83, α=0.63, and α=0.54 respectively. The results of this study indicated that female students show better cultural collectivism and social adjustment skills. It also proved that home city of residence has no significant effect upon social behavior of either medical or dental students.

  16. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation : A Conceptual Distinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha, Jorge; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Oliveira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, a renewed interest on the concepts of social innovation and social entrepreneurship has emerged. In fact, a large body of theoretical developments that occurred in the fields of innovation, territorial development, social economics, and public governance (among others) have

  17. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation : A Conceptual Distinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha, Jorge; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Oliveira, Pedro; Carmo Farinha, Luis M.; Ferreira, Joao J.M.; Lawton Smith, Helen; Bagchi-Sen, Sharmistha

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, a renewed interest on the concepts of social innovation and social entrepreneurship has emerged. In fact, a large body of theoretical developments that occurred in the fields of innovation, territorial development, social economics, and public governance (among others) have

  18. Resilience of Historical Urban Multi-ethnic Settlement: Entrepreneurship and Religiosity Concept of Gresik City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariestadi, Dian; Antariksa; Dwi Wulandari, Lisa; Surjono

    2017-12-01

    Important aspects in continual development include economic and social developments, as well as environment protection. Social development aspect should concern political aspiration and local socio-culture as resilience of their local wisdom features. A review on urban resilience is more focused on economic and physical concepts, without developing the social concept. Objective of the study was to find out the resilience concept of Gresik City, which was the earliest description of a big trade port city in Indonesia, for example, Jakarta, Surabaya, and Semarang. The study applied morphology approach on spatial settings at historical urban multi-ethnic settlement through physical and non-physical observations, as well as validation through historical records and archives. The descriptive analysis of morphological pattern relates to activities on social, economic, and cultural aspects in order to obtain basic concept of social life. Morphological pattern of Gresik, which is dominated by multi-ethnic settlements, such as Arabs, Chinese, ex-Dutch-colonial, and the natives of Javanese and Madurese, has attracted traders from various nations and ethnics. History of the city as the center of Islamic learning and dissemination has formed the public of Gresik to have basic religious life, which is reflected on Islamic rituals. Settlement domination, which functions as household industries, craftsmanship, and small-scale trading, shows that entrepreneurship activities as socio-economy activities have highly supported daily religious ritual activities. Entrepreneurship and religiosity concept, which is formed and developed through long history of Gresik, represent the resilience of multi-ethnic societies at cities along the North Coast of Java.

  19. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  20. Social Work and Lived Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne; Fahnøe, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Warming and Fahnøe offers, through introduction of the sensitising concept of lived citizenship and a socio-spatial perspective, a much needed renewal of the rights and strength based approach to social work practice and research towards an almost anthropological understanding of the social...... of meaning and power as (re-) producing practices through which clients experience and negotiate rights, responsibilities, participation, identity and belonging, and thereby of dynamics of inclusion and exclusion related to social work....... situation of vulnerable groups. Indeed, they show how the concept of lived citizenship, and four supporting concepts (disciplinary versus inclusive identity shaping; intimate citizenship; space; community governance) enables contextualized analyses of the complexities of social work as a social space...

  1. Social risk, stigma and space: key concepts for understanding HIV vulnerability among black men who have sex with men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Caroline M; Garcia, Jonathan; Philbin, Morgan M; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men in the USA face disproportionate incidence rates of HIV. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study conducted in New York City that explored the structural and socio-cultural factors shaping men's sexual relationships with the goal of furthering understandings of their HIV-related vulnerability. Methods included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 31 Black men who have sex with men (three times each) and 17 key informants. We found that HIV vulnerability is perceived as produced through structural inequalities including economic insecurity, housing instability, and stigma and discrimination. The theoretical concepts of social risk, intersectional stigma, and the social production of space are offered as lenses through which to analyse how structural inequalities shape HIV vulnerability. We found that social risk shaped HIV vulnerability by influencing men's decisions in four domains: 1) where to find sexual partners, 2) where to engage in sexual relationships, 3) what kinds of relationships to seek, and 4) whether to carry and to use condoms. Advancing conceptualisations of social risk, we show that intersectional stigma and the social production of space are key processes through which social risk generates HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men.

  2. A conceptual framework for the study of social capital in new destination immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernosky de Flores, Catherine H

    2010-07-01

    Mexican immigration to the United States is an intragenerational phenomenon. Young adult Mexicans leave their families of origin in search of employment opportunities that pull them to new destination communities. A conceptual framework that defines and relates the concepts of human capital, personal networks, social capital, and resources is introduced. The influence of social capital on the capacity of immigrants to access resources is described. The framework informed the design of a study to examine the approaches used by Mexican immigrant women to access resources for healthy childbearing in the absence of traditional family support systems in a new destination community.

  3. Corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. Definition emphasizes three basic characteristics of CSR. CSR is voluntary concept, it covers environmental issues and interaction with stakeholders, not only shareholders, is taken into account.

  4. An Extension and Test of Sutherland's Concept of Differential Social Organization: The Geographic Clustering of Japanese Suicide and Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Robert D.; Shin, Dong-Joon; Richardson, Kelly K.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to explain the spatial patterning of violence, we expanded Sutherland's (1947) concept of differential social organization to include the level of deviance exhibited by neighboring areas. To test the value of this extension, the geographic clustering of Japanese suicide and homicide rates is assessed using 1985 and 1995 data for…

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethics. Case Study: Vodafone Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everest Haxhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many discussions about ethics beginning with a fair and fundamental question: “What is ethics all about?” It is the same as morality, or is kind of a soft law that imposes values but without enforcing them? What is the contribution of the society in imposing values and ethical standards, and how business is involved? Ethical standards are applied in business word, differing from social responsibilities that business has in the social environment where it operates. To better exemplify those concepts the researcher goes through one of the largest companies that offers wireless communications, Vodafone Albania; also one of the world’s largest mobile telecommunication operators. The bright side of social responsibilities is associated in some cases by regressive informal standards applied to all investors and new businesses in the country. The cost of informality is paid in full by the society diminishing the values of social responsibilities and ethical standards applied by business organizations. Even though, Vodafone has successfully implemented social responsiveness initiatives through cause promotions initiatives, corporate social marketing, cause related marketing, company philanthropy, community volunteering, and socially responsible business practices that support social causes to improve community well-being and protect the environment.

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORPORATE VOLUNTEERING AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: RESULTS OF AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Licandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Volunteering (CV is a phenomenon that emerged in the second half of the 20th century and began to grow and globalize at the beginning of the 21st century. There seems to be a consensus that the recent growth of Corporate Volunteering is related to the development and growing legitimacy of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Nevertheless, the theoretical discussion on how the two concepts (Corporate Volunteering and Corporate Social Responsibility are related is just beginning, while empirical research on how this relationship operates in corporate practice is still incipient. This paper presents preliminary results of a research on this subject carried out in Uruguay in 2016. This is a statistical study that analyses the relationship between the application of corporate volunteering activities and the incorporation of a CSR approach to the management of companies. The incorporation of both types of practices is measured by a self-assessment questionnaire that includes 81 indicators (using a Likert scale to assess them, which were designed based on ISO 26000 Guidance of Social Responsibility. The questionnaire was administered to 96 companies, using a comparative analysis between those that practice Corporate Volunteering and those which do not. The results obtained allow us to support the hypothesis that the application of Corporate Volunteering is positively associated with the incorporation of CSR when managing the relationship between the company and its employees and also with the community. Moreover, these results contribute to a better understanding on how both concepts are related.

  7. Study on Professors’ Perception With Respect to Higher Education Institutions’ Socially Responsible Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Stadler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization’s socially responsible actions integration and stakeholders’ demands is an increasingly encouraged practice by the market (Calabrese, Costa & Rosati, 2016. This article looks at the perception that the professor holds on the Higher Education Institution’s (HEI socially responsible initiatives. Thus, a descriptive quantitative approach with non-probabilistic sample, accessibility and convenience was developed. The literature outlined the corporate social responsibility’s (CSR main concepts, theories applications and stakeholders. Empirical research collected data from the HEI’s professors, through closed questionnaires. Descriptive analysis and multivariate statistics (cluster and factorial analysis provided empirical evidence to the research. Results show the high concordance of professors in relation to the analysis categories: Economic, Legal, Ethical and Philanthropic, all of which are considered in this study, according to Carroll (2011. The sharpest legal dimension is given to the professors’ perception. Philanthropic responsibility showed the lowest agreement, coming out to the Carroll (2011 studies, which have supported this work.

  8. [Social support after traumatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, A; Heim, E; Hecker, T; Thoma, M V

    2017-01-01

    The classical concept of social support has recently become of relevance again, particularly in the context of traumatized patient groups, which include refugees and migrants. This article summarizes the evidence from social support research, e. g. different types of positive effects as well as context, gender and cultural aspects. These aspects are highlighted by means of studies stemming from applied healthcare research and thus describe a wide range of health effects, e.g. increased well-being and reduced depressive symptoms, improved functional abilities, better immune status and longevity. Two new trauma-specific differentiations of the social support concept are introduced: societal acknowledgement as a trauma survivor and disclosure of traumatic experiences. Against this background several implications for working with refugees arise: promotion of self-efficacy and posttraumatic maturation as well as the treatment of mental disorders show considerable benefits from focusing on social support. Finally, possibilities emerging from digital communication media are discussed, which are particularly relevant in this context.

  9. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lori Townsend; Amy R. Hofer; Silvia Lin Hanick; Korey Brunetti

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fift...

  10. [Recovery: systematic review of a concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, Ivana Oliveira Preto; Campos, Rosana Teresa Onocko; Stefanello, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of recovery has been described in papers as a state of psychic, physical and social recuperation of day-to-day functions. The scope of this article is to analyze the concepts of the term in different research methodologies and the paradigmatic evolution of the recovery concept. Systematic bibliographical research was conducted in the Pubmed database using the words "recovery + schizophrenia" limited to freely available full papers published in the previous two years. Nineteen papers were analyzed. The majority of the papers sought associations between characteristic data and recovery; few papers discussed the concept in a way to distinguish it from other words like cure or rehabilitation. Recovery as a state in which people with severe mental illness can feel like the creators of their own itinerary tend to be found in qualitative studies and in bibliographic reviews in which the meaning of recovery is not related to the lack of symptoms and tends to prioritize how participative the life of an individual can be despite the disease. Some quantitative studies detect this conceptual difference. In qualitative research there is an increase in the concept of recovery and in ways of promoting it.

  11. Students' Perceptions on Environmental Management of HEIs and the Role of Social Capital: A Case Study in the University of the Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nikoleta; Roumeliotis, Spiridon; Iosifides, Theodoros; Hatziantoniou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Eleni; Tsigianni, Eleni; Thivaiou, Kalliopi; Biliraki, Athina; Evaggelinos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study is to contribute to the discussion introducing the concept of social capital as a significant parameter influencing students' perceptions concerning greening initiatives in HEIs. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical analysis is presented concerning the possible links of social capital components with…

  12. Delineating Concept Meanings: The Case of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleg, Milton; Mahlios, Marc

    1990-01-01

    Presents a teacher-initiated model for reaching class consensus on the meaning of confusing or interchangeable concepts in social studies classrooms. Illustrates the model by delineating terrorism. Shows procedural steps that involve students in self and small group interviews where definitions are clarified until consensus is reached. Suggests…

  13. Social networking services: technologies and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Puzyrnyy, Oleksandr

    2011-01-01

    Puzyrnyy, Oleksandr. 2011. Social networking services: technologies and applications. Bachelor's Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 52. The aim of this thesis is to describe the concept of social networking, its technological base, business opportunities and future perspectives. The study discovers how social networks are made and which different purposes they might have. In addition, social networking is viewed as a part of business strategy o...

  14. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    1999-11-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published the first R and D progress report in 1992. In which the fruits of the R and D works were compiled. Since then the next step of R and D has been developing progressively in Japan. Now JNC has a plan to make the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste(HLW) will be presented to show the technical reliability and technical basis to contribute for the site selection or the safety-standard developments. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal of international discussions in 1990's, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. For getting social understanding and consensus, it is quite important to present the broad basis background information on the geological disposal of HLW, together with the technical basis and also the international discussion of the issues. In this report, the following studies have been done to help to prepare the background information for the 2nd R and D progress report, based on the recent informations and research and assessment works of last 2 years. These are, (1) As the part of general discussion, characteristics of HLW disposal and several issues to be considered for establishing the measures of the disposal of HLW were identified and analyzed from both practical and logical points of view. Those issues were the concept and image of the long term safety measures, the concept and criteria of geological disposal, and, safety assessment and performance assessment. (2) As the part of specific discussion, questions and concerns frequently raised by the non-specialists were taken up and 10 topics in relation to the geological disposal have been identified based on the discussion. Scientific and technical facts, consensus by the specialists on the issues, and international

  15. Role of connected mobility concept for twenty-first-century cities—Trial approach for conceptualization of connected mobility through case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Nakamura

    2014-07-01

    The author defined the idea of “mobility design” in the scope of urban transportation and explored the concept of connected mobility through case studies that the author has been involved in or researched. Although many important connections in and approaches to urban transportation have come to light, the process of actually working on such projects has uncovered many issues to address such as sharing and social capital. The ability to design mobility as a connected entity and pursue our research topics from that perspective will be vital to overcoming the issues highlighted above and helping the concept of connected mobility flourish.

  16. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  17. F. POLAK’S CONCEPT "THE IMAGE OF THE FUTURE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инга Владиславовна Желтикова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the philosophic concept of the image of the future. The author defines this concept as some general idea of social expectations, existing at definite culture in definite time; he views its significance in the modern Russian science and social and political journalism. The author his particular attention focuses on Polak’s ideas about the image of the future. The article, introduces the Russian reader to with Polak’s conceptions which are set out in his work ‘The image of the future’, the book having been not yet translated into Russian. A study of the role of the image of the future in society is not only of purely academic interests, but it is also of great practical significance since modern culture faces a hard task of forging a positive and constructive vision of Tomorrow so as to realize this vision. Fred Polak was the first to undertake the difficult conceptual endeavour of clarify the role of the image of the future in the social process at the societal level.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-11

  18. The uncanny return of the race concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHeinz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this Hypothesis & Theory is to question the recently increasing use of the race concept in contemporary genetic as well as social studies. We discuss race and related terms used to assign individuals to distinct groups and caution that also concepts such as ethnicity or culture unduly neglect diversity. We suggest that one factor contributing to the dangerous nature of the race concept is that it is based on a mixture of traditional stereotypes about physiognomy and unduly imbued by colonial traditions. Furthermore, the social impact on race classifications will be critically reflected. We then examine current ways to apply the term culture and caution that while originally derived from a fundamentally different background, culture is all too often used as a proxy for race, particularly when referring to the population of a certain national state or wider region. When used in such contexts, suggesting that all inhabitants of a geographical or political unit belong to a certain culture tends to ignore diversity and to suggest a homogeneity, which consciously or unconsciously appears to extend into the realm of biological similarities and differences. Finally, we discuss alternative approaches and their respective relevance to biological and cultural studies.

  19. Establishing cooperation in a mixed-motive social dilemma. An fMRI study investigating the role of social value orientation and dispositional trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonds, Griet; Declerck, Carolyn H; Boone, Christophe; Seurinck, Ruth; Achten, Rik

    2014-02-01

    When people are confronted with social dilemmas, their decision-making strategies tend to be associated with individual social preferences; prosocials have an intrinsic willingness to cooperate, while proselfs need extrinsic motivators signaling personal gain. In this study, the biological roots for the proselfs/prosocials concept are explored by investigating the neural correlates of cooperative versus defect decisions when participants engage in a series of one-shot, anonymous prisoner's dilemma situations. Our data are in line with previous studies showing that prosocials activate several social cognition regions of the brain more than proselfs (here: medial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, and precuneus BA 7 (Brodmann area 7), and that dispositional trust positively affects prosocials' decisions to cooperate. At the neural level, however, dispositional trust appears to exert a greater marginal effect on brain activity of proselfs in three social cognition regions, which does not translate into an increase in cooperation. An event-related analysis shows that cooperating prosocials show significantly more activation in the precuneus (BA 7) than proselfs. Based on previous research, we interpret this result to be consistent with prosocials' enhanced tendency to infer the intentions of others in social dilemma games, and the importance of establishing norm congruence when they decide to cooperate.

  20. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced th...

  1. cohesión social y espacio de aparición: el papel de los espectadores en el concepto de ciudadanía de Hannah Arendt Social Cohesion and Space of Appearance: Spectators Role in the Concept of Citizenship by Hannah Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mesa Arango

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se exploran las categorías de cohesión social y espacio de aparición en el concepto de ciudadanía de Hannah Arendt y más específicamente el papel de los espectadores. En el análisis realizado al concepto de ciudadanía en Arendt se expone la paradoja que señala acerca de lo social y lo político, siendo el primero determinante para la cohesión social y el segundo para la construcción y desarrollo de comunidades políticas, cuyo centro de gravedad es la dignidad humana. El artículo parte de consideraciones generales sobre el concepto de ciudadanía en Arendt a fin de adentrar al lector en el espacio de aparición, compartido por actores, pero sobre todo por espectadores, cuya preponderancia sobre lo social cristaliza en la trama plural de historias tejidas acerca de los hechos en el espacio común en que se aparecen unos a otros, equivalente al ''entre'', base del ejercicio de la ciudadanía con sus consecuentes implicaciones para el concepto mismo y para los planes y programas emergentes de educación para la ciudadanía y de formación ciudadana.In this paper, categories of social cohesion and space of appearance are explored in the concept of citizenship by Hannah Arendt and more specifically about spectators role. In the analysis of citizenship concept in Arendt, the paradox that says about the social and political, being the first factor decisive for social cohesion and the second one for construction and development of political communities, whose basis is human dignity. The article firstly deals with general considerations about Arendt's concept of citizenship in order to go the reader into space of appearance, shared by actors, but mostly by spectators, whose preponderance over the social is defined in the plural plot of developed stories about events in space that are common in each other, equivalent to ''between'', the basis of citizenship practice with its consistent implications for the concept and

  2. Promoting pre-conceptional use of folic acid to Hispanic women: a social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Hauser, Kimberlea; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A; Rodriguez, Nydia Y; Frías, Jaime L

    2006-09-01

    To develop a culturally appropriate communication initiative in an effort to promote the use of pre-conceptional folic acid among Hispanic women of childbearing age. The materials were designed to communicate information about the risks of neural tube defects and the value of folic acid supplementation before conception. The initiative was developed using a social marketing approach. A series of focus groups were conducted with Hispanic women, particularly Mexican and Mexican-American women, to gain an understanding of their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding birth defects and folic acid. Additionally focus groups assessed women's preferences for existing folic acid education materials. Qualitative analysis of coded transcripts revealed key themes which were incorporated into a multi-media initiative. Critical themes of the research highlighted the need to include the role of partners and a sense of family in the promotions aimed at these groups. Another key component was the need to dispel myths which act as barriers to pre-conceptional folic acid use. Other important elements included in the media products were the need for Spanish and English versions, an explanation of neural tube defects, and a reference to the cost of the supplements. The final products of the initiative included Spanish and English versions of a brochure, photo-novella, and radio public service announcement. Pre-testing results showed women understood the message, thought the message was for women like them, and expected to begin taking a folic acid supplement. Results of the overall evaluation of the initiative are on-going.

  3. Association of social support with gratitude and sense of coherence in Japanese young women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Tomoko; Ohara, Kumiko; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Momoi, Katsumasa; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Furutani, Maki; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that perceived social support is associated with gratitude and sense of coherence, but evidence for this concept remains scarce. In the present study, we investigated relationships between social support, gratitude, and sense of coherence, focusing on the construct of and source of social support among young women. The study was conducted in 2014 in Japan. Participants comprised 208 female university students (aged 19.9 ± 1.1 years), who completed a self-administered anonymous questionnaire regarding perceived social support, gratitude, and sense of coherence. Emotional and instrumental social support from acquaintances were found to be lower than those from family and friends. Gratitude was positively correlated with all forms of social support except instrumental social support from acquaintances. However, sense of coherence was positively correlated with both emotional and instrumental social support from family and only emotional social support from acquaintances. Multiple regression analysis showed that emotional support from family and emotional support from acquaintances were positively associated with gratitude whereas emotional support from family was associated with sense of coherence. These results indicate that emotional social support from family was related to both gratitude and sense of coherence.

  4. Academic and Nonacademic Validating Agents on Latinas Mathematics and Science Self Concept A Quantitative Study Utilizing the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jennifer M.

    The purpose of this study is to inform and further the discussion of academic (i.e. teachers and school counselors) and non-academic (i.e. parents, family, friends, etc.) validating agents on Latina students' mathematics and science self-concepts. This study found a relationship between Latina students' interactions with academic and non-academic validating agents and their math and science self-concept at the K-12 level. Through the review of the literature the researcher addresses identifiable factors and strategies that inform the field of education in the areas of validation theory, family characteristics, and access to STEM fields for Latina students. The researcher used an established instrument designed, administered, and validated through the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). For purposes of this study, a categorical subset of participants who self-identified as being a Latina student was used. As a result, the total subset number in this study was N=1,882. To determine if academic and non-academic validating agents had an observable statistically significant relationship with Latina students' math and science self-concept, a series of one-way ANOVAs were calculated to compare differences in students' math and science self-concept based on academic and non-academic validating agents for the weighted sample of Latinas for the HLS:09 survey. A path analysis was also employed to assess the factors involved in Latina students' math and science self-concepts. The findings are consistent with previous research involving the influence that academic and non-academic validating agents have on the math and science self-concept of Latina students. The results indicated that students who had teachers that believed in the students, regardless of family background, social economic status or home environment influences had higher math and science self concepts than those who did not. Similarly, it was found that students who had counselors that set high

  5. THE CONCEPT OF PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS – CASE STUDY ON THE EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN ROMANIAN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    COSMIN OCTAVIAN DOBRIN; GHEORGHE N. POPESCU; VERONICA ADRIANA POPESCU; CRISTINA RALUCA POPESCU

    2012-01-01

    The general economic recession generated by the world financial crisis, with direct implications on funding, economic actors’ interactions, economic and social environment, technological progress and knowledge development, imposes the rethinking of the concept of performance in business organizations worldwide. Our study aims to present the importance held by performance at the level of business organizations in terms of a historical and multidisciplinary approach, in order to determine the b...

  6. Social Network Analysis: a practical measurement and evaluation of Trust in a classroom environment

    OpenAIRE

    Giandini, Roxana Silvia; Kuz, Antonieta

    2012-01-01

    A social network is formed by a set of actors and the relationships established by them. SNA leads to distinct goals and perspectives of social network analysis and computer science. This paper introduces the study of social networks and their relationship with trust. We study the methods of detection and description of structural properties. This covers the concepts, methods and data analysis techniques of social networks analysis. After that, we introduce the concept of trust and its relati...

  7. Determination of the Concepts "Profession" and "Role" in Relation to "Nurse Educator".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennbrant, Sandra

    The aim of this study was to clarify the meanings and dimensions of the concepts "profession" and "role." The results from the concept determination were discussed in relation to the profession "nurse educator." This study is based on Koort's semantic analysis methods, using select parts of Eriksson's approach for concept determination, using dictionaries published between the years 1948 and 2015. The findings underline the complexity of the professional role of nurse educators. The nurse educator profession is based on society's trust and requires integration of ability, attitudes, norms, reflection, and theoretical knowledge, along with individual, organizational, and social conditions. Nurse educators must achieve a sufficient degree of pedagogical competence, subject competence, social competence and organizational competence in order to develop their professional role. When nurse educators define their function, a professional role takes form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Selling the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Gerald R.; Harmon, Gerald R.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains school-aged children would prefer not to study social studies. Presents several strategies to help encourage positive attitudes. Strategies include persuasion, reinforcement, enthusiasm, personalized contact. Stresses that negative attitudes must be changed in order for social studies to achieve its fundamental citizenship goals. (BR)

  9. Persistent Confusions about Hypothesis Testing in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Thron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes common confusions involving basic concepts in statistical hypothesis testing. One-third of the social science statistics textbooks examined in the study contained false statements about significance level and/or p-value. We infer that a large proportion of social scientists are being miseducated about these concepts. We analyze the causes of these persistent misunderstandings, and conclude that the conventional terminology is prone to abuse because it does not clearly represent the conditional nature of probabilities and events involved. We argue that modifications in terminology, as well as the explicit introduction of conditional probability concepts and notation into the statistics curriculum in the social sciences, are necessary to prevent the persistence of these errors.

  10. Social entrepreneurship and social innovation: are both the same?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha, Jorge; Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, a renewed interest on the concepts of social innovation and social entrepreneurship has emerged. In fact, a large body of theoretical developments that occurred in the fields of innovation, territorial development, social economics, and public governance (among others), have

  11. Information and social representations: a study with familiar of mental suffering carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Martins de Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to contribute for a new perspective of empiric studies in Information Science, in the information denominated researches social information or anthropology slope, through the theory utilization and of the phenomenon of the social representations. The transfer model of the adopted information was the denominated diagramático, propose for Teixeira (1997, that we base in a logic relacional. The research group was formed by family of bearers of mental suffering referenced in the Clínica Psicossocial (CLIPS, located in Ipatinga/MG. For the reception process analysis of the information, they were used the theory objectified and anchorage concepts of the social representations. It empiric research developed that the experience of care and to accompany the treatment of a bearer of mental suffering is the lunatic social representations main element former, of the madness and of the madness treatment. It treatment psicossocial approach proposed in the process of psychiatric reform finds reception in the measure in which it gets if anchor in the experience, in the everyday lived by the family of bearers of mental suffering. In this meaning, the theory job of the social representations enabled a new way of seeing the information and knowledge processes cognitive aspect that can open new perspectives for users' studies in Information Science.

  12. A Comparison of Multiple Facets of Self-Concept in Gifted vs. Non-Identified Israeli Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidner, Moshe; Shani-Zinovich, Inbal

    2015-01-01

    This study compares facets of self-concept in gifted and non-identified Israeli adolescent students. The self-concept mean score profile of gifted vs. non-selected Israeli students was significantly different, with gifted students reporting higher mean levels of academic self-concept, but lower mean levels of social, personal, and physical…

  13. Teaching Secondary Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Everett

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book, instructional strategies for middle and high school social studies: Methods, assessment, and classroom management, by Bruce E. Larson. The book has two goals: It situates the learning of social studies within the broader developmental context of learning and also focuses on “Instructional Strategies.” “Instructional Strategies for Middle and High School Social Studies: Methods, Assessment, and Classroom Management.” 2nd Edition. By Bruce E. Larson. New York: Routledge, 2017. ISBN: 978-1-138-84678-4

  14. Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of

  15. Self-concept as a significant determinant of brand choice and consumer buying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to predict consumer behavior outcomes is considered to be a very important issue for marketers. Today, one of the most popular psychological constructs in social sciences and marketing is the self-concept, as the total sum of ideas, thoughts and feelings through which individual can describe themselves in regards to other individuals in socially determined environment. The importance of self-concept in predicting consumer behavior and choice of brands has been recognized by many researchers. People tend to maintain and reinforce their self-concept by consumption of brands that have an image and personality in accordance to their own self-concept. Many studies have confirmed that high level of congruency between brand image/personality and consumer self-concept have positive influence on brand attitudes, preferences, evaluation of brands, buying intentions, satisfaction and brand loyalty. In this study, we have researched how has self-concept, as a psychological construct, gained in importance in the field of marketing research and practice. The concept is analyzed simultaneously as a psychological and marketing construct. By presenting literature review, we have also analysed the consequences of congruence between brand image/brand personality and consumer self-concept on consumer behavior and choice of brands. We have also pointed out the significance and references connected with the use of this concept for practical purposes in the realm of brand management. .

  16. Concept of “Social Success” in Socio-Psychological and Historical Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terelyanskaya I.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author presented a theoretical overview of changing ideas on social success in the writings of philosophers, sociologists and psychologists in different epochs. Based on research by N.V. Lejfrid, the author has identified quality attributed to successful personality in Russian society: nice and friendly family, higher education, fair, professional, persistent, dedicated, honorable, smart, hardworking, kind, well-mannered, considerate, active, talented, charming. From this set, the author chose the one that characterized the intelligence index of the general abilities of the individual and checked as it affects social success. The author in his study takes individual career for one of the components of social success and explores the relationship between common mental abilities and social success of the individual. The author cites the results of empirical research group of managers and their subordinates, where there is a positive correlation between the level of general mental abilities and social success of the individual.

  17. Design for All in Scandinavia - a strong concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Karin; Benktzon, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Design for All is more than an appealing point of view. It is a concept that offers a set of challenges capable of generating innovation and giving design added value and weight. In the Scandinavian tradition, the concept has developed from a purely social dimension to a design topic that is discussed both in terms of its business potential and in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. This article gives a State of the Art of the development of Design for All in the Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland during the past 15 years, beginning with a common review and joint Scandinavian projects, followed by an overall review country by country which include selected case studies over the past 15 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Social entrepreneurship and economy organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    Departing from a brief state of the art on social entrepreneurship in Denmark sketching out how social entrepreneurship and social innovation is introduced referring to partly a more classical approach to entrepreneurship and innovation and partly referring to a specific Danish tradition for social...... of public bodies. Hereby they embody the new arenas of social entrepreneurship that has entered the Danish policy and practical arena in the forms of hybrid types of social service provision in the area of social enterprise and social entrepreneurship. Based on these case studies it is suggested...... that the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship and social economy organizations is a contested concept that caters to different strategies for welfare, democracy, learning and advocacy....

  19. Uses and Gratifications Research and the Study of Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Carl R.

    The uses and gratifications paradigm, like the initial conceptions of media effects, can be viewed as a compatible elaboration of contemporary social and political theory. The fundamental assumptions of the uses and gratifications approach, particularly the assumptions regarding the nature and extent of audience activity and the ability of the…

  20. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborative groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijns, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A; Jochems, Wim; Van Buuren, Hans

    2004-04-01

    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This "one-sided" educational focus largely determines the set of requirements in the design of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments resulting in functional CSCL environments. In contrast, our research is aimed at the design and implementation of sociable CSCL environments which may increase the likelihood that a sound social space will emerge. We use a theoretical framework that is based upon an ecological approach to social interaction, centering on the concept of social affordances, the concept of the sociability of CSCL environments, and social presence theory. The hypothesis is that the higher the sociability, the more likely that social interaction will take place or will increase, and the more likely that this will result in an emerging sound social space. In the present research, the variables of interest are sociability, social space, and social presence. This study deals with the construction and validation of three instruments to determine sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborating groups. The findings suggest that the instruments have potential to be useful as measures for the respective variables. However, it must be realized that these measures are "first steps."

  1. Social phobia with sudden onset--post-panic social phobia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Overlap between social phobia (SP) and panic disorder (PD) has been observed in epidemiological, family, and challenge studies. One possible explanation is that some cases of SP develop as a consequence of a panic attack in a social situation. By definition, these cases of SP have sudden onset...... recruited as part of an etiological study. Patients with SP with sudden onset did, as hypothesized, differ from patients with SP without sudden onset with regard to age of onset and extraversion, but not with regard to symptoms. They did not differ markedly from patients with comorbid SP and PD. The concept...

  2. Ensayos argumentativos en inglés como lengua extranjera y su escritura como una práctica social situada: revisión de conceptos EFL argumentative essay writing as a situated-social practice: review of concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Chala

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo presenta una discusión sobre las tendencias teóricas que ven la escritura de ensayos argumentativos en inglés lengua extranjera como práctica social situada. Los conceptos que se exploran en este documento constituyen la base de una propuesta de investigación que aborda la escritura argumentativa desde una perspectiva innovadora, social, situada, y basada en la enseñanza de géneros que se puede ver como una alternativa para fomentar la escritura de ensayos en inglés lengua extranjera como una práctica social situada que trascienda los límites del salón de clase. La discusión de los conceptos se visualiza primero desde la teoría de aprendizaje de una segunda lengua y los dominios de la lingüística aplicada que fundamentan la propuesta. Luego se presentan, se exploran y se explican los conceptos centrales; éstos incluyen, primero, la escritura como práctica social situada, segundo, la escritura de ensayos argumentativos como un proceso dinámico de creación, y tercero, el género como acción social situada. Finalmente, el artículo presenta una reflexión sobre cómo estos conceptos se pueden entender e interrelacionar para que la escritura de ensayos argumentativos sea abordada como una práctica de alfabetización que contribuya a la formación de estudiantes de inglés lengua extranjera como escritores reflexivos, críticos y sociales.Abstract This article presents a discussion on the theoretical trends that see EFL argumentative essay writing as a situated social practice. The concepts explored in this paper constitute the basis for a research-based proposal that approaches argumentative writing from an innovative social, situated, and genre-based perspective and that can be viewed as an alternative to encourage EFL essay writing as a social practice in and beyond the classroom bounds. The conceptual discussion is first viewed from the second language learning theory and applied linguistics domains

  3. Social health and dementia: a European consensus on the operationalization of the concept and directions for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröes, R M; Chattat, R; Diaz, A; Gove, D; Graff, M; Murphy, K; Verbeek, H; Vernooij-Dassen, M; Clare, L; Johannessen, A; Roes, M; Verhey, F; Charras, K

    2017-01-01

    Because the pattern of illnesses changes in an aging population and many people manage to live well with chronic diseases, a group of health care professionals recently proposed reformulating the static WHO definition of health towards a dynamic one based on the ability to physically, mentally and socially adapt and self-manage. This paper is the result of a collaborative action of the INTERDEM Social Health Taskforce to operationalize this new health concept for people with dementia, more specifically the social domain, and to formulate directions for research and practice to promote social health in dementia. Based on the expertise of the Social Health Taskforce members (N = 54) three groups were formed that worked on operationalizing the three social health dimensions described by Huber et al.: (1) capacity to fulfil potential and obligations; (2) ability to manage life with some degree of independence; (3) participation in social activities. For each dimension also influencing factors, effective interventions and knowledge gaps were inventoried. After a consensus meeting, the operationalizations of the dimensions were reviewed by the European Working Group of People with Dementia (EWGPWD). The social health dimensions could be well operationalized for people with dementia and are assessed as very relevant according to the Social Health Taskforce and EWGPWD. Personal (e.g. sense of coherence, competencies), disease-related (e.g. severity of cognitive impairments, comorbidity), social (support from network, stigma) and environmental factors (e.g. enabling design, accessibility) that can influence the person with dementia's social health and many interventions promoting social health were identified. A consensus-based operationalization of social health in dementia is proposed, and factors that can influence, and interventions that improve, social health in dementia identified. Recommendations are made for research and practice.

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility in banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Kvasničková Stanislavská; K. Margarisová; K. Šťastná

    2012-01-01

    After popularity increase of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility over last century in the USA, with the 21st century the concept comes into the European Union as well, actually into Czech Republic. For the European Union, the concept of social responsibility becomes one of the tool for achieving the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy (Lisbon Strategy, 2000). With the start of the financial and economic crisis, the European Commission sees in the Corporate Social R...

  5. Social Media Impact on Marketing and Operations of Small and Medium Companies: A Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumpopoulou, D; Vlachos, I; San José, J

    2014-01-01

    This research project investigates the impact of social media, in particular the uses of the social media in Spain, the impact of the engagement concept for the companies, the influence of the word of mouth for the businesses and the effectiveness of social media marketing in Spanish companies. Qualitative data has been gathered from five Spanish companies that use social media providing rich and detailed information. The most common use of social media in Spain is branding and promotions but...

  6. How community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity conceive the concept of mental health and factors that may influence it: a phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundberg, Ake; Ebbeskog, Britt; Dahlgren, Madeleine Abrandt; Religa, Dorota

    2012-12-13

    Multimorbidity, that is, the coexistence of chronic diseases, is associated with mental health issues among elderly people. In Sweden, seniors with multimorbidity often live at home and receive care from nursing aides and district nurses. The aim of this study was to describe the variation in how community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity perceive the concept of mental health and what may influence it. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Six qualitatively different ways of understanding the concept of mental health and factors that may influence it, reflecting key variations of meaning, were identified. The discerned categories were: mental health is dependent on desirable feelings and social contacts, mental health is dependent on undesirable feelings and social isolation, mental health is dependent on power of the mind and ability to control thoughts, mental health is dependent on powerlessness of the mind and inability to control thoughts, mental health is dependent on active behaviour and a healthy lifestyle, and mental health is dependent on passive behaviour and physical inactivity. According to the respondents' view, the concept of mental health can be defined as how an individual feels, thinks, and acts and also includes a positive as well as a negative aspect. Social contacts, physical activity, and optimism may improve mental health while social isolation, ageing, and chronic pain may worsen it. Findings highlight the importance of individually definitions of mental health and that community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity may describe how multiple chronic conditions can affect their life situation. It is essential to organize the health care system to provide individual health promotion dialogues, and future research should address the prerequisites for conducting mental health promotion dialogues.

  7. A Study of Social Information Seeking (SIS among LIS Research Scholars in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is ample evidence that students and teachers often seek academic information using participatory online social sites (POSS. The purpose of this study is to explore the intent of social information seeking (SIS among library & information science research students in Pakistan. The study also attempts to examine the relationship between change in information behaviour and information retrieval strategies while seeking information from online social spaces. The influence of online collaboration in the use of social media was also examined. Methodology: Quantitative research method was used to conduct this study. Data was collected from 123 research (MPhil & PhD students currently enrolled in seven postgraduate library schools in Pakistan. The data was gathered using survey questionnaire (using 5-point Likert scale items, administered both in print format and online through Google Form. SPSS version 19 was used to analyse the data. Findings: Major findings of this study were that there is a strong positive correlation between SIS and change in the overall information behaviour of research students. Majority of participants responded that social websites help in reshaping the information behaviour in a collaborative environment thus contributing to upsurge the SIS practices among research students. The study also found that LIS research scholars in Pakistan prefer to consult interactive websites more than social media spaces for academic information. Gender has been an influencing variable in SIS practices, however, time spent and frequency of using POSS does not affect one’s SIS practices. Originality: Social Information helps people to connect with each other and is comparatively a new concept in the field of Information Seeking Behaviour. This is the first study on SIS with respect to LIS research students in Pakistan.

  8. Mercury Lander Mission Concept Study Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Provides a summary of the Mercury Lander Mission Concept Study performed as part of the last Planetary Decadal Survey. The presentation will focus on engineering trades and the challenges of developing a Mercury lander mission.

  9. Transformational Leadership in Education: Concept Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina MORA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leadership has been one of the most studied concepts in the last 50 years in Western countries but has become a buzz word in social sciences in the former communist countries only recently. Transformational leadership theory is of high interest for social researchers especially because of the argument of achieving performance beyond the expectations that it promises. The present paper is focused on offering a short theoretical framing of transformational leadership and discusses from a theoretical standpoint the possibility of a transformational change of the Romanian educational system starting from the transformational leadership paradigm.

  10. An Annotated Bibliography of Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, GNA

    2008-01-01

    A rich narrative-style bibliography of concept mapping (reviewing six articles published between 1992-2005). Articles reviewed include: (1) Cognitive mapping: A qualitative research method for social work (C. Bitoni); (2) Collaborative concept mapping: Provoking and supporting meaningful discourse (C. Boxtel, J. Linden, E. Roelofs, and G. Erkens);…

  11. Study on role structure in social planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimata, Noboru

    1984-01-01

    New proposals are attended with a new set of role-expectation. If we lack attention to this aspect of any proposal, we face a serious difficulty in its implementation stage. The system called as Public Hearring shows us this fact. In this paper, introducing ABC model of communication by Westley and Maclean, we try to describe a set of role-expectation for particitants in social planning systems. And also introducing analytical concepts of role enactment process, we reveal two important problems for any proposal as a subsystem of social planning systems: (i) importance of role negotiation process for role-consensus, and (ii) necessity of supporting systems for role-adaptation. Especially for role-adaptation to Channel-Roles, we indicate the potential of VISMS as its supporting system. (author)

  12. Catalytic models developed through social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    of adolescents placed in out-of-home care and is characterised using three situated cases as empirical data. Afterwards the concept of catalytic processes is briefly presented and then applied in an analysis of pedagogical treatment in the three cases. The result is a different conceptualisation of the social......The article develops the concept of catalytic processes in relation to social work with adolescents in an attempt to both reach a more nuanced understanding of social work and at the same time to develop the concept of catalytic processes in psychology. The social work is pedagogical treatment...

  13. Children's Social Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…

  14. The relationship of social support concept and repeat mammography among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadifar, Fariba; Taymoori, Parvaneh; Bahrami, Mitra; Zarea, Shamsy

    2015-10-24

    Breast cancer ranks as the first most common cancer among the Iranian women. The regular repeat of mammography with 1-2 year intervals leads to the increased efficiency of early detection of breast cancer. The present study examined the predictors of repeat mammography. It was hypothesized that higher social support is connected with mammography repeat. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 400 women 50 years and older in Sanandaj, Iran. Data was collected by the questionnaire including information on socio demographical variables and measuring social support level. Data was analyzed by SPSS16 software. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictive power of demographic variables and dimensions of social support for repeat mammography. Women aged 50-55 years had three times odds of repeat mammography compared to women aged 56-60 years) OR, 3.02). Married women had greater odds of repeat mammography compared to single women (P women with higher social support was 0.93 times greater than the women with lower social support (OR, 0.93; 95 % CI, 0.91-0.95; P women are less likely repeat mammography than other Asian women. Identifying the associations between perceived social support and repeat mammography may offer detailed information to allow for future study and guide the development of interventions not only for Iranian women but also for similar cultural that received pay too little attention to date in the breast cancer literature.

  15. [A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S

    1992-01-01

    Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151

  16. Social autopsy for maternal and child deaths: a comprehensive literature review to examine the concept and the development of the method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Alain K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Social autopsy" refers to an interview process aimed at identifying social, behavioral, and health systems contributors to maternal and child deaths. It is often combined with a verbal autopsy interview to establish the biological cause of death. Two complementary purposes of social autopsy include providing population-level data to health care programmers and policymakers to utilize in developing more effective strategies for delivering maternal and child health care technologies, and increasing awareness of maternal and child death as preventable problems in order to empower communities to participate and engage health programs to increase their responsiveness and accountability. Through a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the concept and development of social autopsy, focusing on the contributions of the Pathway Analysis format for child deaths and the Maternal and Perinatal Death Inquiry and Response program in India to social autopsy's success in meeting key objectives. The Pathway Analysis social autopsy format, based on the Pathway to Survival model designed to support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach, was developed from 1995 to 2001 and has been utilized in studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Adoption of the Pathway model has enriched the data gathered on care seeking for child illnesses and supported the development of demand- and supply-side interventions. The instrument has recently been updated to improve the assessment of neonatal deaths and is soon to be utilized in large-scale population-representative verbal/social autopsy studies in several African countries. Maternal death audit, starting with confidential inquiries into maternal deaths in Britain more than 50 years ago, is a long-accepted strategy for reducing maternal mortality. More recently, maternal social autopsy studies that supported health programming have been conducted in several developing countries

  17. Student-Centered Teaching Meets New Media: Concept and Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holzinger

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available There exists empirical evidence proving that students who are given the freedom to explore areas based on their personal interests, and who are accompanied in their learning by a supportive, understanding facilitator, not only achieve superior academic results but also develop socially and grow personally. However, pure Student-Centered Teaching is more demanding in terms of communication, organization, as well as the provision of learning material. Thus, the basic idea underlying our paradigm is to combine Student-Centered Teaching with eLearning in order to exploit the advantages of the two approaches. We refer to this combined style as Student-Centered eLearning (SCeL. Strongly simplified, the computer takes over the task of providing information, while presence phases can be used for giving the content more meaning by means of transparent, open, respectful and empathic interactions within the group. Our case study indicates that Student-Centered eLearning has the potential of reducing the increased demands of Student-Centered Teaching in the long run, while fully retaining all its benefits, such as deeper learning processes, personal growth, social skills, and a higher degree of flexibility. Furthermore, the maturity for life-long learning is cultivated. In this paper we introduce our concept and derive first hypotheses on the conditions under which our paradigm appears most effective. While potential continuations of our studies are manifold, we intend to employ SCeL in the course of the new curriculum of the medical faculty of GrazUniversity where a Virtual Medical Campus (http://vmc.uni-graz.at is currently being developed.

  18. Concept Elicitation Within Patient-Powered Research Networks: A Feasibility Study in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrier, Kelly P; Bull, Scott; Fleming, Sarah; Simacek, Kristina; Wicks, Paul; Cella, David; Pierson, Renee

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of using social media-based patient networks to gather qualitative data on patient-reported outcome (PRO) concepts relevant to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Between August and November 2013, US-residing members of the PatientsLikeMe online CLL patient community completed open-ended web-based surveys designed to elicit descriptions of CLL symptoms, impacts, and treatment-related perceptions. Qualitative telephone follow-up interviews were conducted with a subsample of respondents. Survey responses and interview transcripts were coded for qualitative analysis using Atlas.ti. Fifty survey responses were included in the analyses. Participants were age 60.5 ± 6.9 years, 54% female, and 96% white. When surveyed, 20% were receiving current treatment, 16% were in remission, and 64% were treatment-naïve. Among respondents, 369 descriptions of CLL symptoms were coded. Fatigue-related symptoms were expressed most frequently, with 54% reporting "fatigue," "tiredness," or both in their responses. These concepts were followed by night sweats (38%), swollen lymph nodes (32%), and frequent infections (28%). Among impacts of CLL, worry and fear (66% of respondents), depressed feelings (52%), and work limitations (50%) were noted most frequently. Survey results identified constitutional symptoms of CLL included in existing PRO instruments and the literature. Although the findings suggest that qualitative data obtained through social media applications can be potentially useful in supporting concept identification for newly developed PRO instruments, they also indicate that online approaches alone may not be sufficient to achieve efficient and exhaustive concept elicitation. Further research is needed to identify whether the results can support content validity in the same way as established qualitative research methods. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Construcción de un índice de arraigo socio-productivo: hacia un concepto amplio de capital social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Toledo, Hugo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Social Capital has taken force in the last years. Nevertheless, the Concept even is to diffuse, including a series of other concepts like associativity, cooperation, confidence, social networks and participation. In order to fortify the Social Capital we propose to operate the concept of socio-productive embeddedness, linking the analysis of social networks to specific productive activities through the construction of index.

  20. Inovação Social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Ferrarini, Adriane

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the process of privatization and marketization of public policy led to the individualization and fragmentation of programs, but it also gave the opportunity for strengthening the structure of civil society and the expansion of its capacity to intervene in social reality....... Social innovation and social entrepreneurship arise as important factors for the renewal of the welfare state. The change in social structure was studied by the EMES-European Research Network from the perspective of the emergence of a new type of social entrepreneurship and social enterprise....... There are studies that define social innovation and social entrepreneurship as distinct concepts, but in this article we will define them almost as synonymous in that they both combine the creation of social value with change and consider the need for integration between process and outcome. In light...

  1. Social Studies Teachers’ Perceptions and Experiences of Social Justice

    OpenAIRE

    BURSA, Sercan; ERSOY, Arife Figen

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Social justice addresses inequality in society, including economic inequality, global migration, racism, xenophobia, prejudice against disabled people, and class discrimination. In Turkey, social studies curriculum aims to cultivate active, democratically minded citizens who value justice, independence, peace, solidarity, tolerance, freedom, and respect and demonstrate critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, social participation, and empathy. Purpose: Since social...

  2. Social security systems in Tanzania: Phase I Overview of social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper starts by examining the concept of social security in Tanzania, showing that there are three key issues in social security which have not been adequately addressed by existing social security schemes and need immediate attention. The paper then examines the nature and forms of social security in Tanzania in a ...

  3. Social phobia and sexual problems: A comparison of social phobic, sexually dysfunctional and normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Valentina; Stravynski, Ariel

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to test the putative link between social phobia and sexual functioning. Three groups consisting of 106 social phobic, 164 sexually dysfunctional and 111 normal participants were assessed in terms of sexual functioning, social anxiety, social functioning and general psychopathology. Although social phobic men were less sexually active than normal men, they were as sexually satisfied. Social phobic women were alike their normal counterparts in all respects. Overall, social phobic individuals were not more prone to report sexual problems than normal individuals despite reporting the severest levels of social anxiety. Theoretically, our results are best understood as supporting an interpersonal conception of social phobia and a related socio-cultural perspective regarding sexual roles.

  4. The pluralistic water research concept - a new human-water system research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Mariele; Höllermann, Britta; Almoradie, Adrian; Taft, Linda; Garcia-Santos, Glenda

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable water resources management has been and still is a main challenge for decision makers even though for the past number of decades integrative approaches and concepts (e.g. Integrated Water Resources Management - IWRM) have been developed to address problems on floods, droughts, water quality, water quantity, environment and ecology. Although somehow these approaches are aiming to address water related problems in an integrative approach and to some extent include or involve society in the planning and management, they still lack some of the vital components in including the social dimensions and their interaction with water. Understanding these dynamics in a holistic way and how they are shaped by time and space may tackle these shortcomings and provide more effective and sustainable management solutions with respect to a set of potential present social actions and values as well as possible futures. This paper aims to discuss challenges to coherently and comprehensively integrate the social dimensions of different human-water concepts like IWRM, socio-hydrology and waterscape. Against this background it will develop criteria for an integrative approach and present a newly developed concept termed pluralistic water research (PWR) concept. PWR is not only a pluralistic but also an integrative and interdisciplinary approach to acknowledge the social and water dimensions and their interaction and dynamics by considering more than one perspective of a water-related issue, hereby providing a set of multiple (future) developments. Our PWR concept will be illustrated by a case study application of the Canary island La Gomera. Furthermore an outlook on further possible developments of the PWR concept will be presented and discussed.

  5. The concept of CSR in accounting theory and practice in Poland: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Macuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Right now, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR lies within the scope of interest of various fields of social science and practice, including the science and practice of accounting. Numerous research works stress how accounting, particularly in terms of corporate reporting, is closely connected to the concept of CSR. The number of studies concerning especially CSR reporting has increased in recent years all over the world, but in Poland CSR reporting is a new field not yet covered by many current research papers. The main purpose of this work is to present the concept of CSR in the theory and practice of accounting. Design/methodology/approach. The research paper comprises a literature review and a content analysis. The literature review was conducted in the first part of the work, which was devoted to the presentation of the idea of corporate social responsibility in the context of accounting and corporate reporting, and also in the second part, which contains an overview of the most well-known and comprehensive global standards related to CSR reporting. The content analysis was used in the final part of the work to examine the disclosures of CSR in annual reports and separate reports (Management commentary, communications on a population of Polish stock exchange companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE Main Market as of 31 October 2013, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index and the RESPECT Index –the first Polish, and one of the few European indexes of socially responsible companies. Findings. It has been determined that among Polish public companies listed on the WSE, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index, only 6% operate in a socially responsible manner according to the RESPECT criteria, and less than 4.6% of all companies listed in the WIG-Poland and 70% of RESPECT index companies prepare separate CSR reports. Out of all the companies that prepare separate CSR reports, 93% prepare ESG

  6. Social determinants approaches to public health: from concept to practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blas, Erik; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Sivasankara Kurup, A

    2011-01-01

    The thirteen case studies presented in this publication describe experiences with implementing public health programs that intend to address social determinants and to have a great impact on health equity...

  7. CONSUMPTION AS A SOCIAL STATUS SYMBOL IN STRUCTURALISM

    OpenAIRE

    N. D. Naydenov; T. A. Kirosova

    2014-01-01

    The article looks at the basic theoretical concepts of the political economy of the sign (structuralism, postmodernity) and their development in the theory of power based on the work by J. Baudrillard ‘For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign’. The study is focused on consumption as the person’s social status symbol, it compares and contrasts basic concepts of structuralism and neo-liberalism.According to structuralism social structure is reproduced through the reproduction of obje...

  8. The construction of a Concept called Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Campanelli Espíndola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following analysis is directed to study “regulation” from the legal, economic and social aspects of compared law minding diverse legal systems and regimes. The methodology of investigation for this exercise begins by comparing the different thesis and main propositions on the concept of regulation in different legal orders and systems.

  9. The concept and institutions of education for democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Zoran M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comprises three sections: (a the concepts and institutions of democracy, (b the concept of education for democracy, and (c the role of school in democratic education. The concept of 'open society' is critical to the strategy of education for democracy. In addition to general conditions for establishing and functioning of democracy, the author points to some of its basic institutions: structured social groups, political parties, leader elections. The concept of 'education' is considered from the standpoint of goals - social, national and individual. It is pointed to tolerance as a key concept of the theory of education for democracy. School, being the most prominent institution in the process of education for democracy, places student and development of his/he; democratic characteristics and capacities in the focus of its strategy. All elements of teaching: curriculum, methods teacher, student, textbook are in the function of the basic idea of democratic education - tolerance and crisscrossed influences (practicing of getting used to differences. Apart from the development and acquisition of thinking in concepts about democracy, education for democracy should encompass knowledge for life at state and social institutions, for private and public life, acquisition of national values, rational decision-making discussion. The framework of strategy in question is certainly exercising of tolerance and getting used to crisscrossed influences.

  10. Outside advantage: can social rejection fuel creative thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sharon H; Vincent, Lynne C; Goncalo, Jack A

    2013-08-01

    Eminently creative people working in fields as disparate as physics and literature refer to the experience of social rejection as fuel for creativity. Yet, the evidence of this relationship is anecdotal, and the psychological process that might explain it is as yet unknown. We theorize that the experience of social rejection may indeed stimulate creativity but only for individuals with an independent self-concept. In 3 studies, we show that individuals who hold an independent self-concept performed more creatively after social rejection relative to inclusion. We also show that this boost in creativity is mediated by a differentiation mind-set, or salient feelings of being different from others. Future research might investigate how the self-concept--for example, various cultural orientations-may shape responses to social rejection by mitigating some of the negative consequences of exclusion and potentially even motivating creative exploration. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF ORGANIZATION. AN EXTENDED LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveanu Tomina Gabriela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we review the general topic of social involvement of organizations, in the light of business-society relationship. For this aim we analyze the extensive international literature of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, social philanthropy, sustainable corporation and other related concepts. In this endeavor we categorize the main body of knowledge in three broad areas: (1 papers investigating the definitions and measures of these concepts, including practitioners’ opinions, (2 predictors of such involvement and actions, (3 effects of social responsibility manifested by organizations. The second section of our paper focuses on the Romanian literature on this topic, as it is less systematized so far. In this section we focus on the main findings of studies conducted on Romanian companies regarding CSR or related concepts. In the final, concluding section we propose a research methodology for CSR in Romania meant to clarify the impact of the most frequently considered predictors.

  12. Social capital and the Danish system of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the concept of social capital and applies it to the Danish national system of innovation. It is argued that social capital is important to the working of the national system of innovation, and that the way in which the concept of social capital informs the study of national...... systems of innovation is in accordance with fundamental contributions in the field. Reviewing a number of approaches to social capital, the paper shows that even though different views exist there seem to be a number of common features that will facilitate research both within individual fields and cross......-disciplinary. Regarding the Danish national system of innovation, social capital plays an important role, and a number of features facilitating social capital prevail. However, a number of challenges are present and calling for political action and future research. The main argument of the paper is that social capital...

  13. Assessing the social dimension of frailty in old age: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Bruno; Ribeiro, Oscar; Coelho, Tiago

    2018-06-18

    Different concepts of frailty have resulted in different assessment tools covering distinct dimensions. Despite the growing recognition that there is an association between frailty and social factors, there's a lack of clarity on what is being assessed in terms of "social aspects" of frailty. This paper provides a review of frailty assessment instruments (screening tools and severity measures) with a special focus on their social components. Systematic review of studies published in English between 2001 and March 2018 in the PubMed database using a combination of MeSH Terms and logical operators through inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 27 assessment tools including at least one social question were identified. Three instruments focuses exclusively on social frailty, whereas the weight of social dimensions in the other instruments ranges between 5% and 43%. Social activities, social support, social network, loneliness and living alone were the social concepts most represented by the social components of the various frailty instruments. Social components of frailty vary from instrument to instrument and cover the concepts of social isolation, loneliness, social network, social support and social participation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  15. Basic statistics for social research

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneman, Robert A; Riddle, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    A core statistics text that emphasizes logical inquiry, notmath Basic Statistics for Social Research teaches core generalstatistical concepts and methods that all social science majorsmust master to understand (and do) social research. Its use ofmathematics and theory are deliberately limited, as the authorsfocus on the use of concepts and tools of statistics in theanalysis of social science data, rather than on the mathematicaland computational aspects. Research questions and applications aretaken from a wide variety of subfields in sociology, and eachchapter is organized arou

  16. Sociocultural dimensions of tuberculosis: an overview of key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P H; Degeling, C; Denholm, J

    2015-10-01

    Biomedical innovations are unlikely to provide effective and ethical tuberculosis (TB) control measures without complementary social science research. However, a strong interest in interdisciplinary work is often undermined by differences in language and concepts specific to each disciplinary approach. Accordingly, biological and social scientists need to learn how to communicate with each other. This article will outline key concepts relating to TB from medical anthropology and health sociology. Distilling these concepts in an introductory framework is intended to make this material accessible to researchers in laboratory, clinical and fieldwork settings, as well as to encourage more social scientists to engage with TB research among target groups critical for successful programmatic interventions. For pedagogical purposes, the relevant concepts are grouped into three categories: 1) structures and settings, which includes overarching themes such as syndemics, local biologies, medicalisation, structural violence and surveillance; 2) practices and processes, encompassing gender, stigma, taboo, and victim blaming; and 3) experience and enculturation, which includes illness narratives, biographical disruption and dynamic nominalism. By helping to navigate this literature, we hope to foster more cross-disciplinary conversations between qualitative and quantitative researchers. TB, a quintessential social disease, will be controlled more effectively using a multistranded research approach.

  17. Exoplanet Yield Estimation for Decadal Study Concepts using EXOSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rhonda; Lowrance, Patrick; Savransky, Dmitry; Garrett, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The anticipated upcoming large mission study concepts for the direct imaging of exo-earths present an exciting opportunity for exoplanet discovery and characterization. While these telescope concepts would also be capable of conducting a broad range of astrophysical investigations, the most difficult technology challenges are driven by the requirements for imaging exo-earths. The exoplanet science yield for these mission concepts will drive design trades and mission concept comparisons.To assist in these trade studies, the Exoplanet Exploration Program Office (ExEP) is developing a yield estimation tool that emphasizes transparency and consistent comparison of various design concepts. The tool will provide a parametric estimate of science yield of various mission concepts using contrast curves from physics-based model codes and Monte Carlo simulations of design reference missions using realistic constraints, such as solar avoidance angles, the observatory orbit, propulsion limitations of star shades, the accessibility of candidate targets, local and background zodiacal light levels, and background confusion by stars and galaxies. The python tool utilizes Dmitry Savransky's EXOSIMS (Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Mission Simulator) design reference mission simulator that is being developed for the WFIRST Preliminary Science program. ExEP is extending and validating the tool for future mission concepts under consideration for the upcoming 2020 decadal review. We present a validation plan and preliminary yield results for a point design.

  18. Twenty years of social capital and health research: a glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Kawachi, I

    2017-05-01

    Research on social capital in public health is approaching its 20th anniversary. Over this period, there have been rich and productive debates on the definition, measurement and importance of social capital for public health research and practice. As a result, the concepts and measures characterising social capital and health research have also evolved, often drawing from research in the social, political and behavioural sciences. The multidisciplinary adaptation of social capital-related concepts to study health has made it challenging for researchers to reach consensus on a common theoretical approach. This glossary thus aims to provide a general overview without recommending any particular approach. Based on our knowledge and research on social capital and health, we have selected key concepts and terms that have gained prominence over the last decade and complement an earlier glossary on social capital and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Recontextualisation of the Concept of Godfatherism: Reflections on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social exchange relations have economic, religious, moral and political implications for both dyadic and group relations. Consequently, some social scientists deploy social exchange theory to explain human actions, behaviour and institutions. The concept of godfatherism, as a form of exchange and clientelist relation, has ...

  20. Mobile social money: an exploratory study of the views of managers of community banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Diniz

    Full Text Available Abstract This article aims to evaluate the adoption potential of a digital social currency model using mobile phones. Despite the significant literature concerning both social currencies and mobile payments, there are few studies with a focus on social currencies being operationalized via mobile payments. An important aspect of the literature on mobile payments and social currencies is the role that both instruments may play in the financial inclusion. Despite the absence of lasting experiences for an empirical analysis in Brazil, we believe that there may be synergy between these two types of payment instruments. To evaluate the potential of a mobile digital social currency, we conducted interviews with community bank managers, focusing on their perceptions of acceptance of this innovative model in their communities. As a theoretical basis, we articulated the concept of transformational framing, originated from the perspective of interpretive frames of collective action. As a result, we identified a transformational discourse by which community bank managers create new meanings and understandings of this emerging payment system model.

  1. Effects of a Tall Ship Sail Training Experience on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Michele; Borsci, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a sail training education programme on the self-concept of a group of 147 adolescents. The Competence and Social domains of Bracken's self-concept scale were assessed by a quasi-experimental design in three phases: before commencement of the activities, on the last day of the voyage, and three months after…

  2. Employees’ Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility: A Focus Group Study in Izmir City

    OpenAIRE

    UGUR, Secil; YARIMOGLU, Emel KURSUNLUOGLU

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this research is to examine how white collar employees working at the Izmir offices of large-sized international companies in Turkey understand and interpret Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) concept. Focus group interview as one of the techniques of qualitative research method was used in this study. The focus group interview that was conducted with eight businesspeople brought out their opinions into light, and thus more profound data regarding CSR was collected and...

  3. [Concept of gender, mainstreaming gender and equal opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesó Curto, M Pilar

    2010-05-01

    The concept of gender is related to the concepts of socially constructed masculinity and femininity Gender Studies that take into account this concept is useful for all disciplines of both health and social, arise in the eighteenth century and incorporated in Spain in the 80s of the twentieth century Agrarian societies with patriarchy changed the social status of women making them dependent. The industrial revolution brought wage employment for women that did not result in positive consequences for overall health or your mental health. The gender mainstreaming boost since 1985 trying to build a future strategy for the advancement of women, the term for the first time at the Third UN World Conference on Women--Nairobi, 1985--where the government's commitment to acquire implementation of the forward-looking strategies for the advancement of women, which include all the organizations under the UN. Will be in Beijing 1995--Fourth World Conference on Women United Nations--where it was found that equality for women was still limited and not fully protected against discrimination. Policies for gender equality since the United Nations, European Union and Spain have been happening since 1975. Spain has been important in the creation of the Women's Institute in 1983 and the four equal opportunity plans that have been happening since 1988 (1988-1990, 1993-1995, 1997-2000, 2003-2006).

  4. The social value of clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Michelle G J L; van Delden, Johannes J M; Bredenoord, Annelien L

    2014-09-05

    International documents on ethical conduct in clinical research have in common the principle that potential harms to research participants must be proportional to anticipated benefits. The anticipated benefits that can justify human research consist of direct benefits to the research participant, and societal benefits, also called social value. In first-in-human research, no direct benefits are expected and the benefit component of the risks-benefit assessment thus merely exists in social value. The concept social value is ambiguous by nature and is used in numerous ways in the research ethics literature. Because social value justifies involving human participants, especially in early human trials, this is problematic. Our analysis and interpretation of the concept social value has led to three proposals. First, as no direct benefits are expected for the research participants in first-in-human trials, we believe it is better to discuss a risk- value assessment instead of a risk - benefit assessment. This will also make explicit the necessity to have a clear and common use for the concept social value. Second, to avoid confusion we propose to limit the concept social value to the intervention tested. It is the expected improvement the intervention can bring to the wellbeing of (future) patients or society that is referred to when we speak about social value. For the sole purpose of gaining knowledge, we should not expose humans to potential harm; the ultimate justification of involving humans in research lies in the anticipated social value of the intervention. Third, at the moment only the validity of the clinical research proposal is a prerequisite for research to take place. We recommend making the anticipated social value a prerequisite as well. In this paper we analyze the use of the concept social value in research ethics. Despite its unavoidable ambiguity, we aim to find a best use of the concept, subject to its role in justifying involving humans in first

  5. Study of radiation protection at the Department of Radiology and Toxicology, Faculty of Health and Social Studies of University of South Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, J.; Kuna, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper authors deals with study of radiation protection at the Department of Radiology and Toxicology, Faculty of Health and Social Studies of University of South Bohemia. This department providing awareness of the concept of radiation protection in persons of different professions, who will come into contact with ionizing radiation sources. These are e.g. specialists in health services, employees in defectoscopy and industry, members of police and fire fighting services, etc. For these persons, the Department of Radiology and Toxicology was established at the Faculty of Health and Social Studies of University of South Bohemia that offer their relevant education in theory and practice of radiation problems that are accredited in following direction: bachelor study in Applied radiobiology and toxicology; bachelor study in Biophysics and medical techniques; and master study in Crisis radiobiology and toxicology. These specified subjects are arranged in such a way that the student can be introduced into the teaching text based on the concept and history of relevant problems, for example: radiation physics, ionizing radiation dosimetry, clinical dosimetry. In accordance with a survey implemented in the field of health services it was found that there is a lack of people with technical education in the field of radiation at the level of Bachelors. These requirements are most properly adhered to by the specialty 'Radiological Technician' that is currently being planned at the Faculty of Health and Social Studies and that will be subjected to the accreditation process. The specialty 'Radiological Assistant' was formerly accredited at the faculty, whose activity is different from that of the 'Radiological Technician', as defined by Law of the Czech Republic No. 96/2004 Sb

  6. Theories of Social Media: Philosophical Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Qi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although many different views of social media coexist in the field of information systems (IS, such theories are usually not introduced in a consistent framework based on philosophical foundations. This paper introduces the dimensions of lifeworld and consideration of others. The concept of lifeworld includes Descartes’ rationality and Heidegger’s historicity, and consideration of others is based on instrumentalism and Heidegger’s “being-with.” These philosophical foundations elaborate a framework where different archetypal theories applied to social media may be compared: Goffman’s presentation of self, Bourdieu’s social capital, Sartre’s existential project, and Heidegger’s “shared-world.” While Goffman has become a frequent reference in social media, the three other references are innovative in IS research. The concepts of these four theories of social media are compared with empirical findings in IS literature. While some of these concepts match the empirical findings, some other concepts have not yet been investigated in the use of social media, suggesting future research directions. Keywords: Social media, Lifeworld, Consideration of others, Rationality, Historicity, Instrumentalism, Being-with, Presentation of self

  7. COMPETING CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  8. Social Trust: Croatia 1995-2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berto Šalaj

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author deals with the concept of social trust. It is the author’s view that this concept has been neglected in past political science research in Croatia; consequently, he wishes to present it to the academic and professional political science public, thus creating a basis for its future use. Moreover, through application of a secondary dana analysis the author describes the state of social trust in Croatia. First, he contextualises the concept of social trust with regard to the dominant research approaches in political science; then he points to the distinctiveness of social trust in relation to other types of trust; fi nally, he provides an overview of the most relevant works on the importance and functions of social trust. In the concluding part of the paper, an analysis of the levels of social trust is conducted, revealing that Croatia is a society with markedly low levels of social trust. In the author’s opinion, this could present an obstacle to further political and economic development.

  9. Corporate social responsibility : legal and semi-legal frameworks supporting CSR : developments 2000-2010 and Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, Tineke Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a nominal term clearly resonates with scholars and practitioners alike. As a scientific concept, however, it has often been criticized for its lack of definitional precision and poor measurement. The upshot of this analysis is that since the CSR concept adds

  10. Concepções de adolescentes de dois contextos sociais sobre a pena de morte Adolescents' conceptions on death penalty from two social contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriane da Silva Santos Barboza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer as concepções sobre a pena de morte de adolescentes de dois contextos sociais diferentes. Participaram da pesquisa 220 adolescentes do sexo masculino, sendo 100 estudantes e 120 adolescentes em situação de exclusão social. Foi aplicado um instrumento que continha, dentre outras, a seguinte questão "O que você acha da pena de morte? Por quê?". De um modo geral, os resultados revelaram o predomínio de respostas desfavoráveis à aplicação da pena de morte. Quando comparados os dois grupos de adolescentes, constatou-se que os estudantes se dividiram entre favoráveis e desfavoráveis à aplicação da pena de morte e os adolescentes em situação de exclusão mostraram-se predominantemente desfavoráveis. No que tange aos argumentos utilizados pelos participantes do presente estudo, a favor ou contra a pena de morte, nota-se que são concepções semelhantes aos que vêm sendo utilizadas no meio científico e filosófico e nos estudos empíricos.This study aimed to discover adolescents' conceptions on the death penalty from two different social contexts. About 220 male adolescents participated of this research, 100 students and 120 adolescents in social exclusion situation. An instrument was used which contained, among others, the following question: "What do you think about the death penalty? Why?" In general, results revealed the predominance of responses against the application of death penalty. When the two adolescent groups were compared, it was discovered that the students were divided in proponents and opponents to the application of death penalty, and the adolescents in exclusion situation demonstrated opposition to this issue. Concerning the arguments in favor or against the death penalty, those used by the participants of this study, it was highlighted that they were similar to scientific and philosophic conceptions and to empirical studies.

  11. Evolution and the American social sciences: An evolutionary social scientist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Bradley A

    2004-03-01

    American social scientists rarely ever use evolutionary concepts to explain behavior, despite the potential of such concepts to elucidate major social problems. I argue that this observation can be understood as the product of three influences: an ideologically narrowed political liberalism; a fear of ''Social Darwinism'' as a scientific idea, rather than a scientific apostasy; and a widely believed criticism of evolutionary thinking as deterministic, reductionistic, and Panglossian. I ask what is to be done to encourage social scientists to learn and to apply evolutionary lessons. I answer with four solutions. First, evolutionary social scientists should more effectively educate their non-evolutionary students and colleagues. Second, they should publicize, even popularize, accessible refutations of perennially misleading criticisms. Third, they should more credibly assure skeptics that evolutionary theory not only keeps the ''social'' in social science but better explains social behavior than can any individual-level theory, such as rational-choice theory. Fourth, they should recall that biology took generations to become Darwinian, and they must understand that the social sciences may take as long to become evolutionary.

  12. Social Identity, Social Ties and Social Capital: A Study in Gaming Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This work will focus on how different social relationships, namely shared identity and personal tie, will impact cooperative behavior, a form of social capital. I designed and conducted an economic game study to show that shared identity and personal ties work differently on cooperation among people and resource flow in social groups. Many factors…

  13. How community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity conceive the concept of mental health and factors that may influence it: A phenomenographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Grundberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity, that is, the coexistence of chronic diseases, is associated with mental health issues among elderly people. In Sweden, seniors with multimorbidity often live at home and receive care from nursing aides and district nurses. The aim of this study was to describe the variation in how community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity perceive the concept of mental health and what may influence it. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Six qualitatively different ways of understanding the concept of mental health and factors that may influence it, reflecting key variations of meaning, were identified. The discerned categories were: mental health is dependent on desirable feelings and social contacts, mental health is dependent on undesirable feelings and social isolation, mental health is dependent on power of the mind and ability to control thoughts, mental health is dependent on powerlessness of the mind and inability to control thoughts, mental health is dependent on active behaviour and a healthy lifestyle, and mental health is dependent on passive behaviour and physical inactivity. According to the respondents’ view, the concept of mental health can be defined as how an individual feels, thinks, and acts and also includes a positive as well as a negative aspect. Social contacts, physical activity, and optimism may improve mental health while social isolation, ageing, and chronic pain may worsen it. Findings highlight the importance of individually definitions of mental health and that community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity may describe how multiple chronic conditions can affect their life situation. It is essential to organize the health care system to provide individual health promotion dialogues, and future research should address the prerequisites for conducting mental health promotion dialogues.

  14. Sensory overload: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheydt, Stefan; Müller Staub, Maria; Frauenfelder, Fritz; Nielsen, Gunnar H; Behrens, Johann; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In the context of mental disorders sensory overload is a widely described phenomenon used in conjunction with psychiatric interventions such as removal from stimuli. However, the theoretical foundation of sensory overload as addressed in the literature can be described as insufficient and fragmentary. To date, the concept of sensory overload has not yet been sufficiently specified or analyzed. The aim of the study was to analyze the concept of sensory overload in mental health care. A literature search was undertaken using specific electronic databases, specific journals and websites, hand searches, specific library catalogues, and electronic publishing databases. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to analyze the sources included in the analysis. All aspects of the method of Walker and Avant were covered in this concept analysis. The conceptual understanding has become more focused, the defining attributes, influencing factors and consequences are described and empirical referents identified. The concept analysis is a first step in the development of a middle-range descriptive theory of sensory overload based on social scientific and stress-theoretical approaches. This specification may serve as a fundament for further research, for the development of a nursing diagnosis or for guidelines. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Censorship in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferth, Berniece B.

    In order to determine how much censorship was taking place in Illinois social studies classes, 200 principals were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding censorship of teaching methods and social studies textbooks. The principals were asked to respond to the following topics concerning the degree of censorship encountered for each item:…

  16. 492 Study Habit, Self-Concept and Science Achievement of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    student study habit and self-concept combined together and singularly predicted science ... Study skills are fundamental to academic success. A student who ... Motivation to engage or not in a task is significantly determined by self- concept or ...

  17. Teaching Mathematics for Social Justice: Examining Preservice Teachers' Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Cindy; Jackson, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Teaching for social justice is a critical pedagogy used to empower students to be social agents in the world they live. This critical pedagogy has extended to mathematics education. Over the last decade, mathematics education researchers have conceptualized what it means to teach mathematics for social justice, but little is known about preservice…

  18. Computational social dynamic modeling of group recruitment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Lee, Marinna; Pickett, Marc; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-01-01

    The Seldon software toolkit combines concepts from agent-based modeling and social science to create a computationally social dynamic model for group recruitment. The underlying recruitment model is based on a unique three-level hybrid agent-based architecture that contains simple agents (level one), abstract agents (level two), and cognitive agents (level three). This uniqueness of this architecture begins with abstract agents that permit the model to include social concepts (gang) or institutional concepts (school) into a typical software simulation environment. The future addition of cognitive agents to the recruitment model will provide a unique entity that does not exist in any agent-based modeling toolkits to date. We use social networks to provide an integrated mesh within and between the different levels. This Java based toolkit is used to analyze different social concepts based on initialization input from the user. The input alters a set of parameters used to influence the values associated with the simple agents, abstract agents, and the interactions (simple agent-simple agent or simple agent-abstract agent) between these entities. The results of phase-1 Seldon toolkit provide insight into how certain social concepts apply to different scenario development for inner city gang recruitment.

  19. Different Conceptions of Mental Illness: Consequences for the Association with Patients†

    OpenAIRE

    Helmchen, Hanfried

    2013-01-01

    Whenever partial knowledge is considered absolute and turned into ideological and dogmatic conceptions, the risk increases that the conditions for the people involved might become dangerous. This will be illustrated by casuistic examples of consequences of one-sided psychiatric conceptions such as social, biological, and psychological ideas about the treatment and care of the mentally ill. Present perspectives of an integrative model, i.e. the bio-psycho-social conception about specific inter...

  20. Theoretical Prerequisites for the Formation of the Concept of Environmentally Responsible Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazieva Tetiana V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the evolution of theoretical approaches to the problems related to the ecological and economic interaction of economic entities and clarify the essential characteristics of the economic component of environmentally responsible marketing. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists, the evolution of marketing concepts is considered, the views of researchers on the definition of the conceptssocial marketing”, “environmental marketing” are systematized. As a result of the research, the advantages and disadvantages of the existing definitions of “green” marketing are highlighted. The main characteristics of the concept “environmentally responsible marketing” are formulated in the context of the concepts of sustainable development and socially responsible marketing. Prospects for further research in this area are: the infrastructure of environmentally responsible marketing; a conceptual justification of the methodology for building an environmentally responsible marketing system; factors and models of modern economic growth with consideration for the environmental factor, etc.