Toth, Amy L; Kantarovich, Sara; Meisel, Adam F; Robinson, Gene E
In many social insects, including honey bees, worker energy reserve levels are correlated with task performance in the colony. Honey bee nest workers have abundant stored lipid and protein while foragers are depleted of these reserves; this depletion precedes the shift from nest work to foraging. The first objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lipid depletion has a causal effect on the age at onset of foraging in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). We found that bees treated with a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor (TOFA) were more likely to forage precociously. The second objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between social interactions, nutritional state and behavioral maturation. Since older bees are known to inhibit the development of young bees into foragers, we asked whether this effect is mediated nutritionally via the passage of food from old to young bees. We found that bees reared in social isolation have low lipid stores, but social inhibition occurs in colonies in the field, whether young bees are starved or fed. These results indicate that although social interactions affect the nutritional status of young bees, social and nutritional factors act independently to influence age at onset of foraging. Our findings suggest that mechanisms linking internal nutritional physiology to foraging in solitary insects have been co-opted to regulate altruistic foraging in a social context.
Henrique Pereira Ramalho
Full Text Available This article deals with the processes of regulation of the exercise of social education as a profession that we consider as emergent (in the portuguese case and diffuse (in the brazilian case. In the first case, we look at an institutional logic of the profession, in which self-regulation processes are more prevalent, although they resort to petitioning procedures through which, and in a subsidiary way, they seek to "fit in" the profession of social educator in the "world” of the segmented professions according to the portuguese norm. In the case of the Brazilian context, a process of regulation that bets on the legitimating preponderance of the State, As a regulatory agency of the regulation of the profession, even though self-regulatory procedures are subsidiarily recognized, without calling into question the medial role of the State as the main regulator. Keywords: regulation; social education; social educator; emergent profession; diffuse profession
Henrique Pereira Ramalho
This article deals with the processes of regulation of the exercise of social education as a profession that we consider as emergent (in the portuguese case) and diffuse (in the brazilian case). In the first case, we look at an institutional logic of the profession, in which self-regulation processes are more prevalent, although they resort to petitioning procedures through which, and in a subsidiary way, they seek to "fit in" the profession of social educator in the "world” of the segmented ...
Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond traditional objective measures of social status, such as education, income and occupation. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on SSS and health. Current studies corroborate associations between low SSS and poor health indicators by extending previous findings to further populations and biological risk factors, providing meta-analytic evidence for adolescents and by demonstrating that negative affect may not confound associations between SSS and self-rated health. Recent findings also highlight the relevance of SSS changes (e.g. SSS loss in immigrants) and the need to consider cultural/ethnical differences in psychological mediators and associations between SSS and health. SSS is a comprehensive measure of one's social position that is related to several poor health outcomes and risk factors for disease. Future investigation, particularly prospective studies, should extend research on SSS and health to further countries/ethnic groups, also considering additional psychological and biological mediators and dynamic aspects of SSS. Recently developed experimental approaches to manipulate SSS may also be promising.
Sakamoto, Izumi; Anastas, Jeane W.; McPhail, Beverly M.; Colarossi, Lisa G.
This invited study sought to determine the current status of women in social work education for the special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education." Analysis of the latest data available indicate that gender differences remain pervasive across many aspects of social work education, including pay, rank, job duties, and tenure.…
Acquah, Emmanuel O.; Palonen, Tuire; Lehtinen, Erno; Laine, Kaarina
The focus of our study is social status among first graders. In particular, we will consider the relationship between acceptance and rejection, and how these are connected to three social behavioral traits: bullying, victimization, and social withdrawal. The data set is from peer nominations of 748 children from 49 classrooms in the southwest of…
Full Text Available Affiliative social relationships (e.g., among spouses, family members, and friends play an essential role in human society. These relationships affect psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. As positive and enduring bonds are critical for the overall well-being of humans, it is not surprising that considerable effort has been made to study the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie social bonding behaviors. The present review details the involvement of the nonapeptides, oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, in the regulation of social bonding in mammals including humans. In particular, we will discuss the role of OT and AVP in the formation of social bonds between partners of a mating pair as well as between parents and their offspring. Furthermore, the role of OT and AVP in the formation of interpersonal bonding involving trust is also discussed.
Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton
The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…
Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E
The status hierarchy is fundamental in the lives of male chimpanzees. This study describes the dominance interactions and social status among adult male chimpanzees of the Sonso community in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, during the period that they were first studied (1994 and 1995). Social dominance is typically measured using the behaviour of either the subordinate or the dominant individual, but a relationship is dependent on the behaviour of both parties and this study explicitly used both subordinate and dominant behaviours to investigate the status hierarchy. Among adult males of the Sonso community, agonistic interactions occurred at a low rate and pant-grunts were rare, but males could be ranked into separate hierarchies of agonistic dominance and pant-grunting (labelled 'respect') using ratios of behaviour performed/behaviour received. These hierarchies were combined to form a single hierarchy of social status that divided the males among five distinct status levels. The highest status level was held by an alliance between two males who replaced the previous alpha male during the first part of the study. Neither male in this alliance partnership pant-grunted to the other, although the reason for cooperative behaviour was unclear. Although the nominally beta male was treated as such by other adult males, he achieved surprisingly little mating success. Budongo Forest chimpanzees do not warrant the sometimes-expressed view that they are non-aggressive and peaceable and the broad pattern of their status interactions matches with that seen in other chimpanzee populations.
Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the conc...
Sørensen, Anne Scott
In this paper, I will document the use of Facebook in a Danish context, taking a mediatisation perspective focused on the network sociality in question (Jensen, 2009; Tække, 2010a/b) and the communication (Miller, 2008) of social media. This discussion is based on a qualitative study from 2010......, consisting of participants recruited from a survey study. The study explores three dilemmas resulting from network media’s communicative paradox, involving the premises of self-representation, use of status updates, and social regulation. These dilemmas are contextualised by recent theories of genre......, such research has not previously been documented (or refined) in a Danish context. The paper’s most important contributions, however, consist of its identification of the three communicative dilemmas, its tentative genre classification of the status update, and its discussion of implicit social regulation...
"The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)
Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao
To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.
Internalizing the costs of environmental and other externalities in electricity prices will, in principle, allocate resources to power generation more efficiently than command-and-control regulation. Recent research has made progress toward developing methods for calculating these full social costs. This research has already proved useful, especially in guiding state-level experiments in the use of social costing. Although difficult methodological issues remain, future research also promises to help policy makers use a variety of policy instruments more precisely and effectively. For this to happen, however, there must be a close link between policy and research communities in defining the research agenda. (author)
Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008, 2011a,b) to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the “messy layers.” PMID:23424049
Full Text Available Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008. 2011a, 2011b to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the messy layers.
O'Toole, Mia S.; Zachariae, Robert; Mennin, Douglas S.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Individuals with social anxiety disorder have often been considered inflexible in their emotion regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate emotion regulation flexibility in socially anxious individuals in response to two contextual factors, namely...... different levels of emotion intensity and emotion type. METHODS: A daily diary approach was employed, investigating emotion regulation (i.e., experiential avoidance, expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal) in college students scoring high (N = 62; HSA) and low (N = 52; LSA) on social anxiety....... RESULTS: Results revealed that HSAs were found to use more experiential avoidance than LSAs, especially at higher levels of negative intensity. The use of this emotion regulation strategy appeared to be driven by guilt, nervousness, and sadness. There were no between-group differences concerning the other...
Jessica J. Vandeleest
Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also
Full Text Available Social hierarchy exists in almost all social species and affects everything from resource allocation to the development of intelligence. Previous studies showed that status within a social hierarchy influences the perceived fairness of income allocation. However, the effect of one’s social status on economic decisions is far from clear, as are the neural processes underlying these decisions. In this study, we dynamically manipulated participants’ social status and analyzed their behavior as recipients in the ultimatum game, during which event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. Behavioral results showed that acceptance rates for offers increased with the fairness level of offers. Importantly, participants were less likely to accept unfair offers when they were endowed with high status than with low status. In addition, cues indicating low status elicited a more positive P2 than cues indicating high status in an earlier time window (170 – 240 ms, and cues indicating high status elicited a more negative N400 than did cues indicating low status in a later time window (350 – 520 ms. During the actual reception of offers, the late positivity potential (LPP, 400 – 700 ms for unfair offers was more positive in the high status condition than in the low status condition, suggesting a decreased arousal for unfair offers during low status. These findings suggest a strong role of social status in modulating individual behavioral and neural responses to fairness.
Holden, A C L
This article looks at the General Dental Council (GDC) and dental regulation from the perspective of social contract theory. Self-regulation is a requirement for the dental profession to exist within such a contract with society and this article seeks to examine the effects of the GDC upon the social contract. The GDC maintains that it is independent of the dental profession and while this may be true when discussing impartiality, the existence and purpose of the GDC is intrinsically intertwined with the dental profession. This article will show that the GDC has acted in a manner that has a negative impact upon the social contract between the dental profession and society and that for the dental profession to maintain its status and ability to place patients first, the GDC needs to re-evaluate its role and attitudes.
Cortes, Kassandra; Kammrath, Lara K; Scholer, Abigail A; Peetz, Johanna
In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos (i.e., engaging in active and effortful behaviors that benefit the self) and in the self-regulation of the social dos (engaging in those same effortful behaviors to benefit someone else). In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else? In Studies 1-3, we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos, even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased (Study 4), but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research (Studies 5-6). The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Mixed waste is waste containing radionuclides regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under the Atomic Energy Act, as well as hazardous waste materials regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This has led to a situation of dual regulation in which both NRC and EPA regulate the same waste under requirements that at times appear conflicting. The NRC has been working with the EPA to resolve the issues associated with the dual regulation of mixed waste. Discussions between the two agencies indicate that dual regulation of mixed wastes appears technically achievable, although the procedures may be complex and burdensome to the regulated community. The staffs of both agencies have been coordinating their efforts to minimize the burden of dual regulation on state agencies and the industry. Three major issues were identified as sources of potential regulatory conflict: (a) definition and identification of mixed waste, (b) siting guidelines for disposal facilities, and (c) design concepts for disposal units
Prislin, Radmila; Shaffer, Emily; Crowder, Marisa
This study examined the effects of social consensus and social status on attitude certainty that is conceptualized multi-dimensionally as perceived clarity and correctness of one's attitude. In a mock opinion exchange about a social issue, participants were either supported (high consensus) or opposed (low consensus) by most of the confederates. They were informed that their opinion (high status) or their opponents' opinion (low status) had the alleged psychological significance indicative of future success. Post-experimental attitude clarity was significantly greater when attitudinal position was associated with high rather than low status. Attitude correctness was interactively affected by social status and social consensus. Supporting the compensatory effect hypothesis, attitude correctness was comparable across the levels of social consensus as long as they were associated with high status, and across the levels of social status as long as they were associated with high social consensus.
Anne Scott Sørensen
Full Text Available In this paper, I will document the use of Facebook in a Danish context, taking a mediatisation perspective focused on the network sociality in question (Jensen, 2009; Tække, 2010a/b and the communication (Miller, 2008 of social media. This discussion is based on a qualitative study from 2010, consisting of participants recruited from a survey study. The study explores three dilemmas resulting from network media’s communicative paradox, involving the premises of self-representation, use of status updates, and social regulation. These dilemmas are contextualised by recent theories of genre and speech-acts (Miller, 2004; Butler, 2005 as well as by existing studies of related issues, such as the composition of personal networks (friend lists and the degree to which personal profiles are open and accessible (privacy. While the study generally confirms recent research in these fields, such research has not previously been documented (or refined in a Danish context. The paper’s most important contributions, however, consist of its identification of the three communicative dilemmas, its tentative genre classification of the status update, and its discussion of implicit social regulation and ethics, which have not been previously been considered.
Tessa K Solomon-Lane; Erica J Crespi; Erica J Crespi; Matthew Scott Grober; Matthew Scott Grober
Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has ...
Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Crespi, Erica J.; Grober, Matthew S.
Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has be...
Full Text Available The history of philosophy and the history of legal doctrines mention and analyze the differences, often categorical, between the existence of man in his natural status and on the other hand, his existence in social status. The doctrine of the social contract is the mainstream of the thought that analyzes the existential status of man in the social environment and the natural environment by arguing, according to the author and the philosophical conception, the historical, social and juridical particularities of the natural status and social status. In our study we support the compatibility between the two existential forms of man, we identify the existential categories in which these can be defined, and emphasize the implications of these categories in realization of the act of justice.
Domondon, D.B.; Valdezco, E.M.; Mateo, A.J.; Parami, V.K.
The science Act of 1958 created the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, presently known as the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The PNRI is tasked with the dual role of promotion and control of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. To carry its mandate of regulation and control on the use of raioisotopes in various fields, the PNRI had promulgated and issued specific regulations known as the Code of PNRI regulations. This paper summarizes the activities undertaken by PNRI in the continuing process of review and subsequent revisions of the Code of PNRI regulations and related guidance documents. It highlights proposed modifications in the present regulations in an attempt to adopt the new international basic safety standards, the practical problems and related issues attendant to the implementation of these new standards, among others. In line with the overall objective of PNRI to ensure the safe application of nuclear energy and radiation technology in various fields, the institute conducted a series of regulatory information conferences to provide an opportunity for members of the regulatory staff of the PNRI and licenses to discuss safety initiatives and regulatory issues. This paper will also provide an in-depth assessment of the lessons learned from these conferences which were conducted by sector or by specific applications for a more focused approach, e.g. radiopharmaceuticals, industrial radiography, research, among others. Licensees' feedback on the PNRI regulatory process are presented as part of the overall objective of enhancing the operational experiences of the licensing, review and evaluation group as well as that of inspection, enforcement and compliance. Several proposed initiatives for consideration of the PNRI to further strengthen its regulatory functions are also briefly outlined. (author)
Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steve W.; Capitanio, John P.; Norman, Greg J.; Cacioppo, John T.
The regulation and function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and glucocorticoids have been well conserved across vertebrate species. Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of physiological functions that include glucose regulation, metabolism, inflammatory control, as well as cardiovascular, reproductive, and neuronal effects. Some of these are relatively quick-acting non-genomic effects, but most are slower-acting genomic effects. Thus, any stimulus that affects HPA function has the potential to exert wide-ranging short-term and long-term effects on much of vertebrate physiology. Here, we review the effects of social isolation on the functioning of the HPA axis in social species, and on glucocorticoid physiology in social mammals in particular. Evidence indicates that objective and perceived social isolation alter HPA regulation, although the nature and direction of the HPA response differs among species and across age. The inconsistencies in the direction and nature of HPA effects have implications for drawing cross-species conclusions about the effects of social isolation, and are particularly problematic for understanding HPA-related physiological processes in humans. The animal and human data are incommensurate because, for example, animal studies of objective isolation have typically not been modeled on, or for comparability with, the subjective experience of isolation in humans. An animal model of human isolation must be taken more seriously if we want to advance our understanding of the mechanisms for the effects of objective and perceived isolation in humans. PMID:22663934
Louvet, Eva; Cambon, Laurent; Milhabet, Isabelle; Rohmer, Odile
Building on the two fundamental dimensions of social judgment distinguishing communion from agency, the purpose of the present work was to show that the strength of the relationship between social status and agency depends on specific components at issue: assertiveness, competence, and effort. Four experimental studies were conducted using two complementary paradigms. In Studies 1 and 2, we manipulated social status, and participants had to rate the target on competence, assertiveness, and effort. In Studies 3 and 4, we reversed the design. Results consistently showed that social status was primarily related to assertiveness, somewhat related to competence, and only slightly related to effort. The present research provides a better understanding of how the dimensions of social judgment are used to explain differences in social status.
Kraus, Michael W; Callaghan, Bennett
Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats - measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender - was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered.
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Kamyla Thais Dias de Freitas
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n5p591 Subjective social status comprises the perception of individuals about their social status. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators (age, educational level, marital status and economic level in athletes from Santa Catharina. A total of 593 athletes of both sexes and mean age of 21.18 (± 5.58 years, 371 men, randomly selected, practitioners of individual and collective sport modalities, federated in clubs in the western region of Santa Catarina participated in the study. Social status perception was assessed using the MacArthur scale version for young people adapted to the sports context. For the association between perceived status and sociodemographic indicators, the Chi-square and Multinomial Logistic Regression tests were used, stratified by gender and adjusted for age variables, educational level, marital status and socioeconomic status. Dissatisfaction with status was found in 85% of the sample. Moreover, 46.9% of participants perceived themselves with low family status and 46% perceived themselves with intermediate status in their clubs. The association between groups showed statistically significant differences according to sex, age, educational level and marital status. The association between sociodemographic variables and status according to sex indicated that younger men, with less education, and single were more likely to be dissatisfied with their status. There is need for greater attention by health professionals regarding younger male athletes, with lower education and single regarding their status perception.
Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy
Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.
Full Text Available Figurative language, the built environment, and our perceptuo-motor experiences frequently associate social status with physical space. Linguistic references such as high status or climbing the corporate ladder, and built places such as the U.S. Capitol building link social and physical hierarchies. In three experiments we examine the source and extent of these associations by testing whether people implicitly associate abstract social status indicators with concrete representations of spatial topography (level versus mountainous land and relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north. Experiment 1 demonstrates speeded performance during an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998 when average social status is paired with level topography and high status with mountainous topography. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate a similar effect but with relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north, with speeded performance when average and powerful social status are paired with south and north coordinate space, respectively. Abstract concepts of social status are perceived and understood in an inherently spatial world, resulting in powerful associations between abstract social concepts and concrete and abstract notions of physical axes. These associations may prove influential in guiding daily judgments and actions.
Chiao, Joan Y
Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mattan, Bradley D; Kubota, Jennifer T; Cloutier, Jasmin
Inferring the relative rank (i.e., status) of others is essential to navigating social hierarchies. A survey of the expanding social psychological and neuroscience literatures on status reveals a diversity of focuses (e.g., perceiver vs. agent), operationalizations (e.g., status as dominance vs. wealth), and methodologies (e.g., behavioral, neuroscientific). Accommodating this burgeoning literature on status in person perception, the present review offers a novel social neuroscientific framework that integrates existing work with theoretical clarity. This framework distinguishes between five key concepts: (1) strategic pathways to status acquisition for agents, (2) status antecedents (i.e., perceptual and knowledge-based cues that confer status rank), (3) status dimensions (i.e., domains in which an individual may be ranked, such as wealth), (4) status level (i.e., one's rank along a given dimension), and (5) the relative importance of a given status dimension, dependent on perceiver and context characteristics. Against the backdrop of this framework, we review multiple dimensions of status in the nonhuman and human primate literatures. We then review the behavioral and neuroscientific literatures on the consequences of perceived status for attention and evaluation. Finally, after proposing a social neuroscience framework, we highlight innovative directions for future social status research in social psychology and neuroscience.
Muscatell, Keely A; Dedovic, Katarina; Slavich, George M; Jarcho, Michael R; Breen, Elizabeth C; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Eisenberger, Naomi I
Social stratification has important implications for health and well-being, with individuals lower in standing in a hierarchy experiencing worse outcomes than those higher up the social ladder. Separate lines of past research suggest that alterations in inflammatory processes and neural responses to threat may link lower social status with poorer outcomes. This study was designed to bridge these literatures to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms linking subjective social status and inflammation. Thirty-one participants reported their subjective social status, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while they were socially evaluated. Participants also provided blood samples before and after the stressor, which were analysed for changes in inflammation. Results showed that lower subjective social status was associated with greater increases in inflammation. Neuroimaging data revealed lower subjective social status was associated with greater neural activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in response to negative feedback. Finally, results indicated that activation in the DMPFC in response to negative feedback mediated the relation between social status and increases in inflammatory activity. This study provides the first evidence of a neurocognitive pathway linking subjective social status and inflammation, thus furthering our understanding of how social hierarchies shape neural and physiological responses to social interactions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Thompson, Lisa M; Murray, Kate A; Jarvis, Sarah; Scarr, Ellen
Relative position in a social hierarchy, or subjective social status, has been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and may be influenced by social connectedness. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between health insurance status and subjective social status, using the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS, community version), in the state of Hawai'i with its highly insured population. The secondary purpose is to examine other social dete...
Volet, Simone; Vauras, Marja; Salonen, Pekka
This article outlines the rationale for an integrative perspective of self- and social regulation in learning contexts. The role of regulatory mechanisms in self- and social regulation models is examined, leading to the view that in real time collaborative learning, individuals and social entities should be conceptualized as self-regulating and…
Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R
Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.
This article explored the sociocultural traditions and legal practices that have contributed to the low status of women in contemporary Tswana society, presenting a state-of-the art literature review of the customary law and marriage act statutes and their adverse impact on the status of women in Botswana. There is evidence ...
Jakab Nóra I.
Full Text Available The essay focuses on the relevance of the labour law regulation's personal scope, what the holistic approach of employee status and its social part mean. There have been discussions in the European Union to which circle of working people shall the protection system of labour law apply, and how the security of employees can be guaranteed under the pressure of flexibility. The debates have been inspired by a changed economic and social environment in the XXth centrury. The essay presents the influence of the changing economic and social environment in the concept of employee status, and more closer in the Hungarian labour law regulation. The decision who is acknowledged to be an employee is made by the legislator. By making this decision the labour law regulation shows a tendency of withdrawal and moving forward in the last decades. The change of employment contract develops at the same time with the expansion of personal scope in Europe and shows a great variety. The legislation, judicial practice, legal practice and the collective bargaining influence the expansion of protection under labour law. The changes of personal scope in the Labour Code of 1992 and 2012 are presented, how it is extended and in which direction. The personal scope is also applied to link the public and private sector by finding a common focal point: the characteristics of employment. While coping with the employment relations on the labour market and trying to fit into the self-employed - employee-like person - employee categories, it is suggested to exceed the contractual framework by means of abstraction and using the concept of personal work relations. Employee status has social part; therefore the essay describes the social consequences of being employee and its relation to the employee status.
Penning, Margaret J; Wu, Zheng
Despite evidence of increasing diversification of family structures, little is known regarding implications of marital and parental status for access to social support in later life. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2007 General Social Survey, this study assessed the impact of marital and parental status intersections on social support among adults aged 60 and older (n = 11,503). Two-stage probit regression models indicated that among those who were currently married or separated/divorced, childless individuals were more likely to report instrumental (domestic, transportation) and emotional support from people outside the household. Conversely, among never-married or widowed older adults, being childless was associated with reduced domestic support but without differences in other support domains. Findings suggest that marital and parental status intersections are not uniformly positive, neutral, or negative regarding implications for extra-household social support. Future work should address complexities of these relationships in order to better understand rapidly changing family structures.
Philip R. Blue
Full Text Available Promises are crucial for maintaining trust in social hierarchies. It is well known that not all promises are kept; yet the effect of social status on responses to promises being kept or broken is far from understood, as are the neural processes underlying this effect. Here we manipulated participants’ social status before measuring their investment behavior as Investor in iterated Trust Game (TG. Participants decided how much to invest in their partners, who acted as Trustees in TG, after being informed that their partners of higher or lower social status either promised to return half of the multiplied sum (4 × invested amount, did not promise, or had no opportunity to promise. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded when the participants saw the Trustees’ decisions in which the partners always returned half of the time, regardless of the experimental conditions. Trustee decisions to return or not after promising to do so were defined as honesty and dishonesty, respectively. Behaviorally, participants invested more when Trustees promised than when Trustees had no opportunity to promise, and this effect was greater for higher status than lower status Trustees. Neurally, when viewing Trustees’ return decisions, participants’ medial frontal negativity (MFN responses (250–310 ms post onset were more negative when Trustees did not return than when they did return, suggesting that not returning was an expectancy violation. P300 responses were only sensitive to higher status return feedback, and were more positive-going for higher status partner returns than for lower status partner returns, suggesting that higher status returns may have been more rewarding/motivationally significant. Importantly, only participants in low subjective socioeconomic status (SES evidenced an increased P300 effect for higher status than lower status honesty (honesty – dishonesty, suggesting that higher status honesty was especially rewarding
Buunk, Abraham P; Stulp, Gert; Ormel, Johan
A study among 1,881 adolescents (52.3% girls) with a mean age of 19.1 years examined the effects of parental social status upon intrasexual competitiveness. Whereas females were consistently more intrasexually competitive the higher the socio-economic status of their parents, males with parents of the lowest socio-economic status tended to be more intrasexually competitive than those with parents of medium socio-economic status, and nearly as intrasexually competitive as those with parents of high socio-economic status. Only among adolescents with parents of low socio-economic status were males more intrasexually competitive than females. Among males and females, higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness were related to a higher family income, to a higher occupational status of the father as well as of the mother, and to a higher educational level of the mother. Only among females were higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness associated with a higher educational level of the father. Males whose fathers had only elementary education had a relatively high level of intrasexual competitiveness. The results are discussed in the context of the multifaceted nature of human status, and the potential relevance of intrasexual competitiveness for individuals of high versus low social status.
Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Travizano, Matías; Makse, Hernán A.
It is commonly believed that patterns of social ties affect individuals' economic status. Here we translate this concept into an operational definition at the network level, which allows us to infer the economic well-being of individuals through a measure of their location and influence in the social network. We analyse two large-scale sources: telecommunications and financial data of a whole country's population. Our results show that an individual's location, measured as the optimal collective influence to the structural integrity of the social network, is highly correlated with personal economic status. The observed social network patterns of influence mimic the patterns of economic inequality. For pragmatic use and validation, we carry out a marketing campaign that shows a threefold increase in response rate by targeting individuals identified by our social network metrics as compared to random targeting. Our strategy can also be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.
Euteneuer, Frank; Mills, Paul J; Rief, Winfried; Ziegler, Michael G; Dimsdale, Joel E
Several poor health outcomes, including cardiovascular risk, have been associated with both subjective social status (SSS) and sympathetic overactivity. Because prolonged sympathetic overactivation down regulates beta adrenergic receptor (β-AR) function, reduced β-AR responsiveness is considered an indicator of sympathetic overactivity and a cardiovascular risk factor. Though prior research has focused on objective social status and β-AR function, no studies have examined the association between SSS and β-AR function. We aimed to learn whether SSS predicts the in vivo responsiveness of β-ARs. We assessed the chronotropic 25 dose (CD25), an in vivo marker of β-AR responsiveness, in 94 healthy participants. The MacArthur scales of subjective social status were used to assess SSS in the U.S.A. (SSS-USA) and in the local community (SSS-C). Objective social status was analyzed by calculating the Hollingshead two-factor index. β-AR responsiveness was reduced (as indicated by higher CD25 values) in participants with lower SSS-USA (p = .007) and lower SSS-C (p social status. Our results indicate that β-AR function may be an important component of the link between SSS and health.
Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck
This dissertation is about distinctions, social status differences and contemporary pupil diversity. It addresses how Copenhagen school children in two different schools use language to handle their social everyday lives and how this organizing involves constructions and ascriptions of identities...... and social stereotypes. My research is driven by an interest in learning more about the experience of being part of today´s diverse school environments. Therefore, I approach my data with an emphasis on the participant perspective and focus analytically on the ways in which the participants in my study enact...... of a connection between the prevalent focus on ethnicity in public debates on schooling and social class relations and then the interplay between these relations of power and prestige and the practices that I analyze. Key words: School children, youth, social interaction, linguistic and social difference, social...
Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Hewitt, Amber; Abrams, Matthew; Cleary, Sarah
The present study proposed and tested a conceptual model of acculturation/enculturation and subjective well-being (SWB) by including social connectedness in mainstream society, social connectedness in the ethnic community, perceived discrimination, and expected social status as mediators. Survey data from 273 Asian American college students in the…
Evers, C.; Fischer, A.H.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Nyklíček, I.; Vingerhoets, A.; Zeelenberg, M.
Men and women differ in the regulation of their anger expressions. As the regulation of anger expressions often occurs in social interactions, where the pressure for emotion regulation is high, the social context can be considered as important in explaining these gender differences. In the present
Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li
To examine the interaction between social income inequality, social integration, and health status among internal migrants (IMs) who migrate between regions in China. We used the data from the 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey in China, which sampled 15,999 IMs in eight cities in China. The Gini coefficient at the city level was calculated to measure social income inequality and was categorized into low (0.2 0.5). Health status was measured based upon self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perceptions of stress and mental health. Social integration was measured from four perspectives (acculturation and integration willingness, social insurance, economy, social communication). Linear mixed models were used to examine the interaction effects between health statuses, social integration, and the Gini coefficient. Factors of social integration, such as economic integration and acculturation and integration willingness, were significantly related to health. Social income inequality had a negative relationship with the health status of IMs. For example, IMs in one city, Qingdao, with a medium income inequality level (Gini = 0.329), had the best health statuses and better social integration. On the other hand, IMs in another city, Shenzhen, who had a large income inequality (Gini = 0.447) were worst in health statues and had worse social integration. Policies or programs targeting IMs should support integration willingness, promote a sense of belonging, and improve economic equality. In the meantime, social activities to facilitate employment and create social trust should also be promoted. At the societal level, structural and policy changes are necessary to promote income equity to promote IMs' general health status.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Today, the role of social capital has been proved to be undeniable in the health . The World Health Organization (WHO in 2000 declared that almost 60% of the causes of disease and mortality were related to the social factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the status of social capital as one of the social determinants of health in Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods: The study participants, who aged over 18 years, lived in 22 districts of Tehran in 2010. The study data were collected on social capital and socioeconomic variables in Iran. Different dimensions of social capital as well as the mean score of social capital was measured in various groups using the SC-IQ. The study data were analyzed using Stata statistical software: release 13.0. Results: In this study, 2.484 participants were selected via multistage random sampling. The mean age of participants was 41.38±17.7, and the mean score of social capital was slightly more in men (31.18 than women (30.41. Social capital was demonstrated to be lower within poor participants than other groups. In terms of marital status, the divorced had the lowest social capital (26.50. The mean social capital in those with university education was higher compared to individuals with other levels of education. Conclusion: Social capital is regarded as one of the factors affecting health. To promote the level of this valuable capital, the factors affecting the social capital level should be identified and all appropriate measures should be taken into account in order to ultimately enhance the level of public health.
Lobera, G; Besné, P; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A; Aristi, I; Díez, J R; Ibisate, A; Larrañaga, A; Elosegi, A; Batalla, R J
River regulation by dams modifies flow regimes, interrupts the transfer of sediment through channel networks, and alters downstream bed dynamics, altogether affecting channel form and processes. So far, most studies on the geomorphic impacts of dams are restricted to single rivers, or even single river stretches. In this paper we analyse the geomorphic status of 74 river sites distributed across four large basins in the Iberian Peninsula (i.e. 47 sites located downstream of dams). For this purpose, we combine field data with hydrological data available from water agencies, and analyse historical (1970) and current aerial photographs. In particular, we have developed a Geomorphic Status (GS) index that allows us to assess the physical structure of a given channel reach and its change through time. The GS encompasses a determination of changes in sedimentary units, sediment availability, bar stability and channel flow capacity. Sites are statistically grouped in four clusters based on contrasted physical and climate characteristics. Results emphasise that regulation changes river's flow regime with a generalized reduction of the magnitude and frequency of floods (thus flow competence). This, in addition to the decrease downstream sediment supply, results in the loss of active bars as they are encroached by vegetation, to the point that only reaches with little or no regulation maintain exposed sedimentary deposits. The GS of regulated river reaches is negatively correlated with magnitude of the impoundment (regulation). Heavily impacted reaches present channel stabilization and, in contrast to the hydrological response, the distance and number of tributaries do not reverse the geomorphic impact of the dams. Stabilization limits river dynamics and may contribute to the environmental degradation of the fluvial ecosystem. Overall, results describe the degree of geomorphological alteration experienced by representative Iberian rivers mostly because of regulation
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the research of theoretical and methodological aspects of social policy as the factor of institutional state statuses. Methodology. The researching in institutional providing of state social policy which may be considered as the base for performance of correspond reforms which are directed to the life level increasing, is enough popular task in scientific, theoretical and practical aspects. The scientific search of social policy as the factor of institutional status of state is carried out at the base of classical, neoclassical and institutional methodology. At the base of classical methodology it were defined the general approaches with help of dialectical analysis tools and synthesis of social relations array as historical action. With the help of system, structurally-functional analysis of social policy tasks, it’s opened its internal nature and ways of institutional providing. Institutional and neoclassical approaches allowed the specials analysing tools in modelling of dynamics and institute of social policy institute results in the conditions of market transformations. Also in the research process it were used the economic articles about the question of analysis in state social policy and given the statistic data about the analytical report to the annual President’s of Ukraine message to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine „About internal and external condition of Ukraine in year 2015”. Research results showed what in the conditions of socially-economic and political instability, the social sphere Ukraine became the hostage of common crisis in economic, catastrophic decreasing of life level, increasing of social confrontation and rough system mistakes in the process of social institution formation. All of this neutralizes the methods efficiency about improvement of socially-economic condition of population and prevents to the implementation of necessary reforms. Practical value lays in the clear definition of
Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Simmons, Zachary L; Anderson, Cameron; Roney, James R
Why are physically formidable men willingly allocated higher social status by others in cooperative groups? Ancestrally, physically formidable males would have been differentially equipped to generate benefits for groups by providing leadership services of within-group enforcement (e.g., implementing punishment of free riders) and between-group representation (e.g., negotiating with other coalitions). Therefore, we hypothesize that adaptations for social status allocation are designed to interpret men's physical formidability as a cue to these leadership abilities, and to allocate greater status to formidable men on this basis. These hypotheses were supported in 4 empirical studies wherein young adults rated standardized photos of subjects (targets) who were described as being part of a white-collar business consultancy. In Studies 1 and 2, male targets' physical strength positively predicted ratings of their projected status within the organization, and this effect was mediated by perceptions that stronger men possessed greater leadership abilities of within-group enforcement and between-group representation. Moreover, (a) these same patterns held whether status was conceptualized as overall ascendancy, prestige-based status, or dominance-based status, and (b) strong men who were perceived as aggressively self-interested were not allocated greater status. Finally, 2 experiments established the causality of physical formidability's effects on status-related perceptions by manipulating targets' relative strength (Study 3) and height (Study 4). In interpreting our findings, we argue that adaptations for formidability-based status allocation may have facilitated the evolution of group cooperation in humans and other primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
N. D. Naydenov; T. A. Kirosova
The article looks at the basic theoretical concepts of the political economy of the sign (structuralism, postmodernity) and their development in the theory of power based on the work by J. Baudrillard ‘For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign’. The study is focused on consumption as the person’s social status symbol, it compares and contrasts basic concepts of structuralism and neo-liberalism.According to structuralism social structure is reproduced through the reproduction of obje...
Full Text Available Impaired expression of selenium-containing proteins leads to perturbed thyroid hormone (TH levels, indicating the central importance of selenium for TH homeostasis. Moreover, critically ill patients with declining serum selenium develop a syndrome of low circulating TH and a central downregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This prompted us to test the reciprocal effect, i.e., if TH status would also regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium levels. To investigate the TH dependency of selenium metabolism, we analyzed mice expressing a mutant TH receptor α1 (TRα1+m that confers a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism. Serum selenium was reduced in these animals, which was a direct consequence of the mutant TRα1 and not related to their metabolic alterations. Accordingly, hyperthyroidism, genetically caused by the inactivation of TRβ or by oral TH treatment of adult mice, increased serum selenium levels in TRα1+m and controls, thus demonstrating a novel and specific role for TRα1 in selenium metabolism. Furthermore, TH affected the mRNA levels for several enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis as well as serum selenoprotein P concentrations and the expression of other antioxidative selenoproteins. Taken together, our results show that TH positively affects the serum selenium status and regulates the expression of several selenoproteins. This demonstrates that selenium and TH metabolism are interconnected through a feed-forward regulation, which can in part explain the rapid parallel downregulation of both systems in critical illness.
The study examined the influence of social capital dimensions on poverty status of rural farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204) rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data ...
A study was conducted to examine adherence to traditional food taboos by women in Imo State, and relate that to social status and food security. Data was collected from 72 women across the three agricultural zones of the State. It was found that age, income and education are some factors affecting adherence to these ...
Strauss, Cyd C.; And Others
Investigated peer social status of 6- through 13-year-olds. Found anxiety-disorder children significantly less liked than normal children, but anxious and conduct-disorder children similarly liked. Conduct disorder children received more "like least" and "fight most" nominations, with anxious and nonreferred groups alike. The anxious group…
Examining belonging at the interface of ethnicity, social status and masculinities in transnational space among foreign African male students at the University of ... finance and production as well as the on going processes of political and economic integration has led to an unprecedented increase in international migration.
agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...
...] Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate... decision and determination on the petition regarding the regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered... regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate based on an...
Marroquín, Brett; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Depression is associated with social dysfunction and maladaptive social environments, but mechanisms through which social relationships affect depressive psychopathology are unclear. We hypothesized that emotion regulation (ER) is such a mechanism, with outcomes of individuals’ ER efforts sensitive to the social context, and individuals’ ER strategy repertoire and use sensitive to social influence. In Study 1, a longitudinal study of community adults (N = 1,319), associations of individuals’ ER strategies with depressive symptoms depended on social connectedness and romantic relationship status (social context hypothesis). Moreover, associations of social connectedness and relationship status with symptoms were accounted for by maladaptive ER concurrently and, for social connectedness, prospectively over 1 year (social influence hypothesis). Study 2a, using a national sample (N = 772), replicated and extended these findings with a broader array of ER strategies, and ruled out alternative explanations regarding social skills and psychological wellbeing. Among participants in romantic relationships (Study 2b; N = 558), intimacy and trust buffered associations of maladaptive ER strategies with symptoms (context), and maladaptive and adaptive ER mediated links between relationship variables and symptoms (influence). Findings suggest that close relationships—and variation in underlying relational processes within relationships— influence the ER strategies people use, and also affect whether individuals’ own ER repertoires contribute to depression when deployed. Results elucidate core social mechanisms of ER in terms of both basic processes and depressive psychopathology, suggest ER is a channel through which social factors affect internal functioning and mental health, and inform relationship pathways for clinical intervention. PMID:26479366
Abreu, Cecilia; Moreno, Pilar; Palacios, Florencia; Borge, Mercedes; Morande, Pablo; Landoni, Ana Inés; Gabus, Raul; Dighiero, Guillermo; Giordano, Mirta; Gamberale, Romina; Oppezzo, Pablo
Among different prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we previously demonstrated that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is associated with an unmutated immunoglobulin profile and clinical poor outcome. Despite the usefulness of LPL for CLL prognosis, its functional role and the molecular mechanism regulating its expression are still open questions. Interaction of CLL B-cells with the tissue microenvironment favors disease progression by promoting malignant B-cell growth. Since tissue methylation can be altered by environmental factors, we investigated the methylation status of the LPL gene and the possibility that overexpression could be associated with microenvironment signals. Our results show that a demethylated state of the LPL gene is responsible for its anomalous expression in unmutated CLL cases and that this expression is dependent on microenvironment signals. Overall, this work proposes that an epigenetic mechanism, triggered by the microenvironment, regulates LPL expression in CLL disease.
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.
Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…
Muñoz, Alejandra; Alleman, Nathan F.
This qualitative study examines the role of college in how undocumented students make meaning of their identity through the concept of status ownership. Using a sociological framework that drew upon Kaufman and Feldman's (2004) work, this study calls attention to the social context in the college experience and offers insight into this student…
Daniel R. PALAMARA
Full Text Available This study examines International Social Survey Programme data from the 1999 social inequality module for evidence of Janteloven (‘the law of Jante’ in Norway – a widely known though often disputed description for aspects of Norwegian (and Scandinavian society relating to equality, norming and envy. Income equality and social status were examined using survey data across 26 countries. Norwegian respondents did not show a marked preference for income equality when asked to consider the actual and deserved income of high- versus low-status occupations. However, they did stand out in reporting a distinctly and significantly smaller mean difference in social status between a high-status occupation (the chairman of a large national corporation and a low-status occupation (an unskilled factory worker. Linear regression shows that the attitude towards social status is affected by the respondent’s level of education, but not by other personal factors. These attitudes could potentially be attributed to Janteloven, and are considered alongside the results of a small (n=30 online survey as well as popular media and academic portrayals.
Melamed, David; Savage, Scott V
Building on a recent theoretical development in the field of sociological social psychology, we develop a formal mathematical model of social influence processes. The extant theoretical literature implies that factions and status should have non-linear effects on social influence, and yet these theories have been evaluated using standard linear statistical models. Our formal model of influence includes these non-linearities, as specified by the theories. We evaluate the fit of the formal model using experimental data. Our results indicate that a one-parameter mathematical model fits the experimental data. We conclude with the implications of our research and a discussion of how it may be used as an impetus for further work on social influence processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sweetman, Joseph; Spears, Russell; Livingstone, Andrew G; Manstead, Antony S R
In four studies, we report evidence that admiration affects intergroup behaviors that regulate social hierarchy. We demonstrate that manipulating the legitimacy of status relations affects admiration for the dominant and that this emotion negatively predicts political action tendencies aimed at social change. In addition, we show that greater warmth and competence lead to greater admiration for an outgroup, which in turn positively predicts deferential behavior and intergroup learning. We also demonstrate that, for those with a disposition to feel admiration, increasing admiration for an outgroup decreases willingness to take political action against that outgroup. Finally, we show that when the object of admiration is a subversive "martyr," admiration positively predicts political action tendencies and behavior aimed at challenging the status quo. These findings provide the first evidence for the important role of admiration in regulating social hierarchy.
Garza, Jeremiah R; Glenn, Beth A; Mistry, Rashmita S; Ponce, Ninez A; Zimmerman, Frederick J
Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.
Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences
Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.
With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…
Thompson, Lisa M; Murray, Kate A; Jarvis, Sarah; Scarr, Ellen
Relative position in a social hierarchy, or subjective social status, has been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and may be influenced by social connectedness. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between health insurance status and subjective social status, using the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS, community version), in the state of Hawai'i with its highly insured population. The secondary purpose is to examine other social determinants that influence social status, including social connectedness. Data were drawn from a convenience sample of 728 O'ahu residents in 2011-12. Social connectedness was measured if participants stated that family, friends, or community were strengths that could address their social and health concerns. In the final adjusted linear regression model, those with Medicaid/Quest insurance (β -0.40; P Social connectedness was highly valued, with over 30% of participants stating strong community and family ties as one of Hawai'i's greatest strengths. However, these strengths were not found to be statistically associated with subjective social status in our sample. Future studies should assess whether reinforcing social connectedness through public health and educational interventions improves subjective social status among low-income and ethnically diverse communities in Hawai'i.
Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R
Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weiner, Robert M.
There is an increase in international laser safety requirements as part of the emphasis on world-wide standardization of products and regulations. In particular the documents which will evolve from the 1992 consolidation efforts of the European Community (EC) will impact both laser manufacturers and users. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of the various laser radiation standards. NORTH AMERICAN REQUIREMENTS United States Requirements on manufacturers from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been in effect since 1975. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) within that agency ensures that these mandatory requirements  are satisfied. The CDRH regulations include the division of products into classes depending on their potential for hazard criteria for power measurement and requirements for product features labels and manuals and records and reports. Manufacturers must test products and certify that they comply with the CDRH requirements. User requirements are found in a standard published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and in requirements from several individual states. Specific ANSI standards have also been published for fiber communications systems  and for lasers in medical applications . Please note that the Appendix includes additional information on the standards discussed in this paper including sources for obtaining the documents. Canada In the past Canada has had requirements for two specified product categories (bar code scanners and educational lasers) [26 These will be replaced
Garandeau, Claire F.; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade…
Redford, Liz; Ratliff, Kate A
People punish others for various reasons, including deterring future crime, incapacitating the offender, and retribution, or payback. The current research focuses on retribution, testing whether support for retribution is motivated by the desire to maintain social hierarchies. If so, then the retributive tendencies of hierarchy enhancers or hierarchy attenuators should depend on whether offenders are relatively lower or higher in status, respectively. Three studies showed that hierarchy attenuators were more retributive against high-status offenders than for low-status offenders, that hierarchy enhancers showed a stronger orientation towards retributive justice, and that relationship was stronger for low-status, rather than high-status, criminal offenders. These findings clarify the purpose and function of retributive punishment. They also reveal how hierarchy-regulating motives underlie retribution, motives which, if allowed to influence judgements, may contribute to biased or ineffective justice systems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Garandeau, Claire F; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C
This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade level as the main predictors of interest as well as classroom aggression and ethnic composition as controls. Multilevel analyses were conducted on an ethnically diverse sample of 968 fourth- and fifth-graders from 46 classrooms in 9 schools. Associations between aggression and status varied greatly from one classroom to another. Aggressive students were more popular and better liked in classrooms with higher levels of peer status hierarchy. Aggressive students had higher social status in Grade 5 than in Grade 4 and lower social preference in classrooms of higher academic level. Classroom aggression and ethnic composition did not moderate aggression-status associations. Limitations and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.
Agneessens, Filip; Wittek, Rafael
Social status and social capital frameworks are used to derive competing hypotheses about the emergence and structure of advice relations in organizations. Although both approaches build on a social exchange framework, they differ in their behavioral micro-foundations. From a status perspective,
Wendt, Claus; Agartan, Tuba I; Kaminska, Monika Ewa
Social health insurance in Western Europe has for many years been characterized by self-regulation in which specific conditions of healthcare financing and provision have been regulated by social-insurance institutions through mutual self-governance. However, the principle of self-regulation has recently been weakened by increased state regulation and market competition, which were introduced in response to economic and social changes. Even in Germany, which has been regarded as an "ideal-type" health insurance system and in which self-regulation remains at the core of healthcare governance, more direct state intervention has gained in importance. On the other hand, in countries such as Poland and Turkey, where this tradition of self-regulation is missing, social health insurance is deemed a financing instrument but not an instrument of governance and corporate actors are not accorded a significant role in regulation. This article investigates how social health insurance systems are regulated in contexts in which corporate actors' role is either diminishing or absent by focusing on three crucial areas of regulation: financing, the remuneration of medical doctors, and the definition of the healthcare benefit package. In Germany, state regulation has increased in healthcare financing and remuneration while the role of corporate actors has grown in the definition of the benefits package. In Poland and Turkey, on the other hand, reforms have maintained the status quo in terms of the strong regulatory, budgetary, and managerial powers of the state and very limited involvement of corporate actors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tessa K Solomon-Lane
Full Text Available Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis. Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids (GCs, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli, a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.
Solomon-Lane, Tessa K; Crespi, Erica J; Grober, Matthew S
Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis). Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli), a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.
Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy
The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.
This paper presents a model showing an incentive for a group of people to vote for higher tuition fees, even if these fees have no quality effect. The incentive is based on a non-monetary influence on utility, namely the social status or prestige of graduating. The basic assumption is that the higher the prestige is, the lower the number of people studying. In a static equilibrium, it is shown that a group of wealthier and more able people can exist that attempts to prevent others from studying.
Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse
The recent publication of David Heise's "Expressive Order" (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social…
... Vol. 76 Friday, No. 29 February 11, 2011 Part VII Small Business Administration 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status... Regulations#0;#0; [[Page 8222
N. D. Naydenov
Full Text Available The article looks at the basic theoretical concepts of the political economy of the sign (structuralism, postmodernity and their development in the theory of power based on the work by J. Baudrillard ‘For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign’. The study is focused on consumption as the person’s social status symbol, it compares and contrasts basic concepts of structuralism and neo-liberalism.According to structuralism social structure is reproduced through the reproduction of objects/signs. It is important that not only things or money but mathematical formulas, linguistic constructions and people can act as signs. Structuralism views consumption as a person’s social status symbol. Respectively, exchange is viewed as the exchange of symbols. The society needs the diversity of signs and manipulating the signs is one of the modern society’s illnesses.Liberalism is a social movement, which confronts the person’s enslavement by communal ties and limitations within the limits of property and in the aspects where the individual is helpless in front of the society. Neoliberalism proclaims the liberal model of an individual, who is primarily concerned with their belonging to their society and the struggle between the signs is significant. Assigning a certain value to the symbol is typical both for structuralism and neo-modernism.The authors find it necessary to raise the symbolic diversity of the Russian society trough increasing the forms of consumption. At the same time we should not forget that the society is based on material production.
Full Text Available The mediating role of social anxiety was explored within the effect of anger regulation on perceived stress in the national sample of American and Japanese older adults. Results indicated that anger suppression is a significant factor in perceived stress mediated by social anxiety. Anger suppression was also directly related to perceived stress. The correlation of anger suppression with social anxiety was stronger in Japan than in the United States. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation and perceived stress will be essential for the development of sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts.
Wang, Yihan; Matz-Costa, Christina
This study explores the effect of positive and negative social support, social reciprocity, and subjective social status on the retirement satisfaction and health of retirees and gender differences therein. Using cross-sectional data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we found that social support seems to matter more for the retirement satisfaction and health of women, while social reciprocity matters more for the health of men and subjective social status for the retirement satisfaction of men. Implications for the development of social programs and policies over the life course are discussed.
Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Although peer status has been studied extensively in childhood and adolescence, little is known about social status in peer groups of emerging adults. The current study filled this gap by testing whether preference and popularity are distinct dimensions of peer status and uniquely associated with social behavior in emerging adulthood. Participants…
Beery, Annaliese K; Bicks, Lucy; Mooney, Skyler J; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Holmes, Melissa M
Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in groups that are notable for their large size and caste structure, with breeding monopolized by a single female and a small number of males. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences between the brains of breeders and subordinates induced by changes in social standing. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors-which bind the hormone CRF as well as related peptides-are important regulators of stress and anxiety, and are emerging as factors affecting social behavior. We conducted autoradiographic analyses of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding densities in female and male naked mole-rats varying in breeding status. Both globally and in specific brain regions, CRF1 receptor densities varied with breeding status. CRF1 receptor densities were higher in subordinates across brain regions, and particularly in the piriform cortex and cortical amygdala. Sex differences were present in CRF2 receptor binding densities, as is the case in multiple vole species. CRF2 receptor densities were higher in females, both globally and in the cortical amygdala and lateral amygdalar nucleus. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiology of social hierarchy in naked mole-rats, and add to a growing body of work that links changes in the CRF system with social behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. 381.27 Section 381.27 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. The inspector in charge or his supervisor...
...] Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... making a determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa... status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101...
Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai
Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels--voice call, short message, and email--to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a "rich club" maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy.
Foerster, Steffen; Franz, Mathias; Murray, Carson M.; Gilby, Ian C.; Feldblum, Joseph T.; Walker, Kara K.; Pusey, Anne E.
Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time. Here, we expand on recent work and develop a new likelihood-based Elo rating method that facilitates the systematic assessment of rank dynamics in animal social groups, even when interaction data are sparse. We apply this method to characterize long-term rank trajectories in wild eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and find remarkable sex differences in rank dynamics, indicating that females queue for social status while males actively challenge each other to rise in rank. Further, our results suggest that natal females obtain a head start in the rank queue if they avoid dispersal, with potential fitness benefits. PMID:27739527
Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min
The goal of this research is to examine if the long neglected correlates such as social and leisure activities, social support, and subjective social status contribute to variations in psychological distress among older Chinese. Using data collected in one of the most developed areas in China-Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, the authors find that engaging in various exercises, living with both spouse and adult children, perceived availability of social support from others as well as believing in the importance of caring for other family members are particularly beneficial for mental health whereas the perception of relative deprivation and low life quality is detrimental to mental health for older Chinese. This work is among the first studies that comprehensively examined various important correlates of psychological distress and indicate the unique patterns of distress among the elderly in the most developed area in the contemporary China.
Cole, Steve W.
Recent small-scale genomics analyses suggest that physiologic regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression by endogenous glucocorticoids may be compromised in individuals who experience chronic social isolation. This could potentially contribute to the elevated prevalence of inflammation-related disease previously observed in social isolates. The present study assessed the relationship between leukocyte distributional sensitivity to glucocorticoid regulation and subjective social isolation in a large population-based sample of older adults. Initial analyses confirmed that circulating neutrophil percentages were elevated, and circulating lymphocyte and monocyte percentages were suppressed, in direct proportion to circulating cortisol levels. However, leukocyte distributional sensitivity to endogenous glucocorticoids was abrogated in individuals reporting either occasional or frequent experiences of subjective social isolation. This finding held in both nonparametric univariate analyses and in multivariate linear models controlling for a variety of biological, social, behavioral, and psychological confounders. The present results suggest that social factors may alter immune cell sensitivity to physiologic regulation by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in ways that could ultimately contribute to the increased physical health risks associated with social isolation. PMID:18394861
Charonis, Antonios; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Spanakis, Manos; Zavras, Dimitris; Athanasakis, Kostas; Pavi, Elpida; Kyriopoulos, John
Several studies suggest that socioeconomic status affects (SES) affects self-rated health (SRH), both in Greece and internationally. However, prior research mainly uses objective measures of SES, instead of subjective evaluations of individuals' social status. Based on this, this paper aims to examine (a) the impact of the economic dowturn on SRH in Greece and (b) the relationship between subjective social status (SSS), social network and SRH. The descriptive analysis is based on four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece (2002, 2006, 2011, 2015), while the data for the empirical investigation were derived from the 2015 survey (Health + Welfare Survey GR). The empirical strategy is based on an ordinal logistic regression model, aiming to examine how several variables affect SRH. Size of social network and SSS are among the independent variables employed for the empirical analysis RESULTS: According to our findings, average SRH has deteriorated, and the percentage of the population that reports very good/good SRH has also decreased. Moreover, our empirical analysis suggests that age, existence of a chronic disease, size of social network and SSS affect SRH in Greece. Our findings are consistent with the existing literature and confirm a social gradient in health. According to our analysis, health disparities can be largely attributed to socioeconomic inequalities. The adverse economic climate has impact on socioeconomic differences which in turn affect health disparities. Based on these, policy initiatives are necessasy in order to mitigate the negative impact on health and the disparities caused by economic dowturn and the occuring socioeconomic inequalities.
Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J
Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Chiao, Joan Y; Harada, Tokiko; Oby, Emily R; Li, Zhang; Parrish, Todd; Bridge, Donna J
Mental representations of social status hierarchy share properties with that of numbers. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the neural representation of numerical magnitude lies within a network of regions within inferior parietal cortex. However the neural basis of social status hierarchy remains unknown. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they compared social status magnitude of people, objects and symbols, as well as numerical magnitude. Both social status and number comparisons recruited bilateral intraparietal sulci. We also observed a semantic distance effect whereby neural activity within bilateral intraparietal sulci increased for semantically close relative to far numerical and social status comparisons. These results demonstrate that social status and number comparisons recruit distinct and overlapping neuronal representations within human inferior parietal cortex.
Lund Thomsen, Trine
Arnfinn H. and Rogstad, Jon 2.Book reviews by null 3.INVISIBLE IMMIGRANTS, VISIBLE EXPATS? Americans in Finnish discourses on immigration and internationalization by Leinonen, Johanna 4.Migrants in the Scandinavian Welfare State by Brochmann, Grete and Hagelund, Anniken 5.TOWARD AN IDENTITY STRESS....... Language and religious affiliations of an immigrant adolescent in Norway by Haque, Shahzaman View Top 20 Most Downloaded Articles Previous Article Next Article Go to table of contents Download full text pdf (PDF, 425 KB) Irregular Migration – Between Legal Status and Social Practices Narratives of Polish...... connected to the specific area of activity and to the accumulated capital of the individual. The aim is to identify how opportunity structures affect the migration process and how migrants react to them depending on the available capital and biographical knowledge and experiences. The horizon of experience...
Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias
In this chapter, universal and culture-specific aspects of socialization of emotion regulation are discussed. Emotions and emotion regu lation are socialized and develop in cultural contexts. Cultural views on self·other relations are the basis for the chi ld's agentie self and emotion regu lation affecting the socio-emotional adjustment in the respective culture. Cultural models of self-other relations are transmitted through socia lization processes such as parenting beliefs and practices, ...
Social status is commonly established among individuals within groups of animals. Despite this common characteristic of social animals it is still unclear how individuals establish their status. I investigated the relationships between morphology, posture and behaviours with social status in red junglefowl hens. The hens tested were measured (weight, comb length, comb height and tarsus length) and exposed to three different behavioural tests (novel arena, novel object and interaction test). N...
Pallini, Susanna; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Morelli, Mara; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Eisenberg, Nancy
Secure attachment relationships have been described as having a regulatory function in regard to children's emotions, social cognition, and behavior. Although some theorists and researchers have argued that attachment affects children's self-regulation, most attachment theorists have not strongly emphasized this association. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of the relation between attachment security status and effortful control (EC)/top-down self-regulation in children up to 18 years of age. One hundred six papers met the inclusion criteria and 101 independent samples were used in analyses. When secure attachment status was compared with insecure attachment status, a significant relation (effect size [ES]) with EC favoring children with a secure attachment was found (100 studies; 20,350 participants; r = .20). A stronger relation was found when the same coder evaluated attachment than when the coder was different and when the measure of attachment was continuous; other moderators were not significant. Securely attached children were higher in EC than their avoidant (r = .10) or resistant (r = .17) counterparts. Children with organized attachments were higher in EC than those with disorganized attachments (r = .17), although this finding could be due to publication bias. For some comparisons of subgroups (B vs. A, B vs. C, and/or D vs. all others), moderation was found by source of information (higher ES for same reporter), age at assessment of EC and/or attachment (higher ES at older ages), method of attachment (lower ES for observational measures), time difference between assessments or research design (higher ESs for smaller time differences and concurrent findings), and published versus unpublished studies (higher ES for unpublished studies for A vs. B). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
...] Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101 and J163 as regulated... International (FGI) alfalfa events J101 and J163 were no longer considered regulated articles under the...
Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age. Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.
Full Text Available Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER. As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed.Children (aged 9 to 13 years with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25 and healthy controls (HC, n = 26 as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate.SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age.Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.
Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Kohn, Jordan N; Barreiro, Luis B; Johnson, Zachary P; Wilson, Mark E; Tung, Jenny
Strong social relationships confer health and fitness benefits in a number of species, motivating the need to understand the processes through which they arise. In female cercopithecine primates, both kinship and dominance rank are thought to influence rates of affiliative behaviour and social partner preference. Teasing apart the relative importance of these factors has been challenging, however, as female kin often occupy similar positions in the dominance hierarchy. Here, we isolated the specific effects of rank on social relationships in female rhesus macaques by analysing grooming patterns in 18 social groups that did not contain close relatives, and in which dominance ranks were experimentally randomized. We found that grooming was asymmetrically directed towards higher-ranking females and that grooming bouts temporarily decreased the likelihood of aggression between grooming partners, supporting the idea that grooming is associated with social tolerance. Even in the absence of kin, females formed the strongest grooming relationships with females adjacent to them in rank, a pattern that was strongest for the highest-ranking females. Using simulations, we show that three rules for allocating grooming based on dominance rank recapitulated most of the relationships we observed. Finally, we evaluated whether a female's tendency to engage in grooming behaviour was stable across time and social setting. We found that one measure, the rate of grooming females provided to others (but not the rate of grooming females received), exhibited modest stability after accounting for the primary effect of dominance rank. Together, our findings indicate that dominance rank has strong effects on social relationships in the absence of kin, suggesting the importance of considering social status and social connectedness jointly when investigating their health and fitness consequences.
Silk, Jennifer S; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Kerestes, Rebecca; Griffith, Julianne M; Dahl, Ronald E; Ladouceur, Cecile D
Concerns about social status are ubiquitous during adolescence, with information about social status often conveyed in text formats. Depressed adolescents may show alterations in the functioning of neural systems supporting processing of social status information. We examined whether depressed youth exhibited altered neural activation to social status words in temporal and prefrontal cortical regions thought to be involved in social cognitive processing, and whether this response was associated with development. Forty-nine adolescents (ages 10-18; 35 female), including 20 with major depressive disorder and 29 controls, were scanned while identifying the valence of words that connoted positive and negative social status. Results indicated that depressed youth showed reduced late activation to social status (vs neutral) words in the superior temporal cortex (STC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); whereas healthy youth did not show any significant differences between word types. Depressed youth also showed reduced late activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus to negative (vs positive) social status words; whereas healthy youth showed the opposite pattern. Finally, age was positively associated with MPFC activation to social status words. Findings suggest that hypoactivation in the "social cognitive brain network" might be implicated in altered interpersonal functioning in adolescent depression. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fernández, E; Alonso, R M; Quer, A; Borrell, C; Benach, J; Alonso, J; Gómez, G
Self-perceived class results from directly questioning subjects about his or her social class. The aim of this investigation was to analyse self-perceived class in relation to other indicator variables of socioeconomic level. Data from the 1994 Catalan Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalised population of Catalonia was used. We conducted a discriminant analysis to compute the degree of right classification when different socioeconomic variables potentially related to self-perceived class were considered. All subjects who directly answered the questionnaire were included (N = 12,245). With the aim of obtaining the discriminant functions in a group of subjects and to validate it in another one, the subjects were divided into two random samples, containing approximately 75% and 25% of subjects (analysis sample, n = 9,248; and validation sample, n = 2,997). The final function for men and women included level of education, social class (based in occupation) and equivalent income. This function correctly classified 40.9% of the subjects in the analysis sample and 39.2% in the validation sample. Two other functions were selected for men and women separately. In men, the function included level of education, professional category, and family income (39.2% of classification in analysis sample and 37.2% in validation sample). In women, the function (level of education, working status, and equivalent income) correctly classified 40.3% of women in analysis sample whereas the percentage was 38.9% in validation sample. The percentages of right classification were higher for the highest and lowest classes. These results show the utility of a simple variable to self-position within the social scale. Self-perceived class is related to education, income, and working determinants.
Raynolds, Laura T.
This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…
Fleuriet, Jill; Sunil, Thankam
The purpose of this project was to quantitatively test differences in subjective social status scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women to determine the role of subjective social status in birth weight variation between Mexico-born and US-born Mexican-American women. Six hundred low-income pregnant and non-pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in south Texas were surveyed for subjective social status, depression, perceived social stress, parity, and pregnancy intendedness. Psychosocial health variables, parity, and pregnancy intendedness were included due to their significant associations with low birth weight. Pregnant women had higher subjective social status scores than non-pregnant women. The difference in scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women was smaller in Mexican immigrant women than Mexican-American women. Pregnancy intendedness did not influence subjective social status in pregnant women of either sample, but having children (parity) in both samples was associated with higher subjective social status scores. Among Mexican-American women, community subjective social status was correlated with levels of depressive symptoms and perceived social stress. Subjective social status, depression, and perceived social stress were not correlated among Mexican immigrant women. Our results suggest that incorporation into the USA influences maternal mental health vis-à-vis changes in how women of reproductive age think about themselves and their gender roles in relation to others. Theoretically, our work supports mixed-method approaches to document how culture change as a result of immigration may impact maternal and infant health. Future research should test whether the effect of subjective social status on birth weight occurs when subjective social status does not correlate with depression or stress.
Maria C. Tickerhoof
Full Text Available The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms a lasting connection between mates, known as a pair bond. The pair bond is primarily characterized by three distinct behaviors: partner preference, selective aggression, and biparental care of the young. The presence of these behaviors in the prairie vole and their absence in closely related non-monogamous species makes the prairie vole an important model of social relationships and facilitates the study of the neurobiological mechanisms of social affiliation and attachment. The nona-peptide arginine-vasopressin (AVP is an important neuromodulator of social behavior and has been implicated in the regulation of the pair bond-related behaviors of the prairie vole, through activation of the AVP receptor subtype 1a (AVPR1a. Modulation of AVPR1a activity in different regions of the prairie vole brain impacts pair bond behavior, suggesting a role of AVP in neurocircuitry responsible for the regulation of social attachment. This review will discuss findings that have suggested the role of AVP in regulation of the pair bond-related behaviors of the prairie vole and the specific brain regions through which AVP acts to impact these unique behaviors.
Koski, Jessica; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R.
Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are socio-cultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents. PMID:25697184
Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.
With a sample of African American and European American 3rd and 4th grade children (N = 486, ages 8–11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group, and cross-ethnicity dislike). African American—but not European American—children had more segregated relationships and were more disliked by cross-eth...
Ferreira, Wasney de Almeida; Camelo, Lidyane; Viana, Maria Carmen; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria
Very little is known about the association between objective indicators of socioeconomic position in childhood and adolescence and low subjective social status in adult life, after adjusting for adult socioeconomic position. We used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian states. Subjective social status was measured using the The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, which represents social hierarchy in the form of a 10-rung ladder with the top rung representing the highest subjective social status. Participants who chose the bottom four rungs in the ladder were assigned to the low subjective social status category. The following socioeconomic position indicators were investigated: childhood (maternal education), adolescence (occupational social class of the household head; participant's occupational social class of first job; nature of occupation of household head; participant's nature of occupation of first job), and adulthood (participant's occupational social class, nature of occupation and education). The associations between low subjective social status and socioeconomic position were determined using multiple logistic regression, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic position indicators from other stages of life. After adjustments, low socioeconomic position in childhood, adolescence and adulthood remained significantly associated with low subjective social status in adulthood with dose-response gradients. The magnitude of these associations was stronger for intra-individual than for intergenerational socioeconomic positions. Results suggest that subjective social status in adulthood is the result of a complex developmental process of acquiring socioeconomic self-perception, which is intrinsic to subjective social status and includes current and past, individual and family household experiences.
Full Text Available Ample evidence attests that social intention, elicited through gestures explicitly signaling a request of communicative intention, affects the patterning of hand movement kinematics. The current study goes beyond the effect of social intention and addresses whether the same action of reaching to grasp an object for placing it in an end target position within or without a monitoring attendee's peripersonal space, can be moulded by pure social factors in general, and by social facilitation in particular. A motion tracking system (Optotrak Certus was used to record motor acts. We carefully avoided the usage of communicative intention by keeping constant both the visual information and the positional uncertainty of the end target position, while we systematically varied the social status of the attendee (a high, or a low social status in separated blocks. Only thirty acts performed in the presence of a different social status attendee, revealed a significant change of kinematic parameterization of hand movement, independently of the attendee's distance. The amplitude of peak velocity reached by the hand during the reach-to-grasp and the lift-to-place phase of the movement was larger in the high rather than in the low social status condition. By contrast, the deceleration time of the reach-to-grasp phase and the maximum grasp aperture was smaller in the high rather than in the low social status condition. These results indicated that the hand movement was faster but less carefully shaped in presence of a high, but not of a low social status attendee. This kinematic patterning suggests that being monitored by a high rather than a low social status attendee might lead participants to experience evaluation apprehension that informs the control of motor execution. Motor execution would rely more on feedforward motor control in the presence of a high social status human attendee, vs. feedback motor control, in the presence of a low social status attendee.
Anderson, Cameron; Kraus, Michael W; Galinsky, Adam D; Keltner, Dacher
Dozens of studies in different nations have revealed that socioeconomic status only weakly predicts an individual's subjective well-being (SWB). These results imply that although the pursuit of social status is a fundamental human motivation, achieving high status has little impact on one's SWB. However, we propose that sociometric status-the respect and admiration one has in face-to-face groups (e.g., among friends or coworkers)-has a stronger effect on SWB than does socioeconomic status. Using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal methodologies, four studies found consistent evidence for a local-ladder effect: Sociometric status significantly predicted satisfaction with life and the experience of positive and negative emotions. Longitudinally, as sociometric status rose or fell, SWB rose or fell accordingly. Furthermore, these effects were driven by feelings of power and social acceptance. Overall, individuals' sociometric status matters more to their SWB than does their socioeconomic status.
One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.
Grim, Brian J.; Finke, Roger
The study of religion is severely handicapped by a lack of adequate cross-national data. Despite the prominence of religion in international events and recent theoretical models pointing to the consequences of regulating religion, cross-national research on religion has been lacking. We strive to fill this void by developing measurement models and indexes for government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation of religion. The indexes rely on data from an extensive coding of the 2003 International Religious Freedom Report for 196 countries and territories. Using a series of tests to evaluate the new data and indexes, we find that the measures developed are highly reliable and valid. The three indexes will allow researchers and others to measure the government’s subsidy and regulation of religion as well as the restrictions placed on religion by social and cultural forces beyond the state. PMID:25484633
Koski, Jessica E; Collins, Jessica A; Olson, Ingrid R
Social status is a salient cue that shapes our perceptions of other people and ultimately guides our social interactions. Despite the pervasive influence of status on social behavior, how information about the status of others is represented in the brain remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that social status information is embedded in our neural representations of other individuals. Participants learned to associate faces with names, job titles that varied in associated status, and explicit markers of reputational status (star ratings). Trained stimuli were presented in an functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment where participants performed a target detection task orthogonal to the variable of interest. A network of face-selective brain regions extending from the occipital lobe to the orbitofrontal cortex was localized and served as regions of interest. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we found that face-selective voxels in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex - a region involved in social and nonsocial valuation, could decode faces based on their status. Similar effects were observed with two different status manipulations - one based on stored semantic knowledge (e.g., different careers) and one based on learned reputation (e.g., star ranking). These data suggest that a face-selective region of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex may contribute to the perception of social status, potentially underlying the preferential attention and favorable biases humans display toward high-status individuals. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Status is an important aspect of social life that affects people from the day they are born until the day they die. In this dissertation, André Grow examines the processes by which status inequality can emerge between individuals and between social groups, such as men/women, whites/non-whites, and
Hawley, Patricia H.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Mize, Jennifer A.; McNamara, Kelly A.
Several lines of theory and research suggest that power (e.g., social dominance) and status (e.g., social prominence and positive peer regard) are enjoyed by those blessed with good looks. The present work addresses the relations among physical attractiveness, power, status, and aggression from a resource control theoretic perspective that…
Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah
The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…
Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the quality of life of the elderly people, as also the available support system, in rural areas? Objectives:i To determine the demographic profile of elderly ii To assess the socio-economic, nutritional, health, morbidity and dependency status, and health care utilization. Study Design: Population based cross sectional study. Setting: Community Development Block - Lakhanmajra Participants: Persons above the age of 65 years. Sample Size: 809 elderly above the age of 65 years. Study Variables: Demographic profile, Literacy, Occupation, Health, Nutrition, Mobility, Dependency, Substance abuse, Support system. Statistical Analysis: By simple proportions. Result: In this study, majority ofthe elderly were self reliant and mobile, being an asset to the family and led socially useful and productive lives. Their predominant problems were visual impairment, joint pains, respiratory diseases and hearing impairment. Joint family and government pension was the major support system to the elderly. However, there is an imperative need to organize education, training and special service programmes for the elderly at the village level.
Anna K Greenwood
Full Text Available Identifying genes that are differentially expressed in response to social interactions is informative for understanding the molecular basis of social behavior. To address this question, we described changes in gene expression as a result of differences in the extent of social interactions. We housed threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus females in either group conditions or individually for one week, then measured levels of gene expression in three brain regions using RNA-sequencing. We found that numerous genes in the hindbrain/cerebellum had altered expression in response to group or individual housing. However, relatively few genes were differentially expressed in either the diencephalon or telencephalon. The list of genes upregulated in fish from social groups included many genes related to neural development and cell adhesion as well as genes with functions in sensory signaling, stress, and social and reproductive behavior. The list of genes expressed at higher levels in individually-housed fish included several genes previously identified as regulated by social interactions in other animals. The identified genes are interesting targets for future research on the molecular mechanisms of normal social interactions.
Li, Jie; Zhang, Xin-An; Sun, Gong
Chinese consumers are interested in status consumption, i.e., in striving to enhance their social standings through the consumption of luxury products. This study investigates how face consciousness, one's social self-esteem, and desire to be respected influences status consumption behavior in China. The Consciousness of Social Face Scale, the Social Value Scale, and the Status Consumption Scale were administered to 192 MBA students from a university in east China (117 men, 69 women, 6 unreported sex). The results revealed that face consciousness was positively related to Chinese consumers' status consumption. Moreover, the results showed that the effects of face consciousness on status consumption were partly mediated by consumer social value. The findings highlight the importance of face consciousness in understanding Chinese consumer behaviors.
Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim
Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.
Full Text Available Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality, or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.
Järvelä, Sanna; Kirschner, Paul A.; Panadero, Ernesto; Malmberg, Jonna; Phielix, Chris; Jaspers, Jos; Koivuniemi, Marieke; Järvenoja, Hanna
For effective computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL), socially shared regulation of learning (SSRL) is necessary. To this end, this article extends the idea first posited by Ja¨rvela¨ and Hadwin (Educ Psychol 48(1):25–39, 2013) that successful collaboration in CSCL contexts requires
King, T.L.; Murphy, J.A.
The consideration of risk in regulatory decision making has traditionally been part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) policy and practice. In the early days of regulation, this consideration was more qualitative in nature and was reflected in prescriptive/deterministic regulatory requirements. However, with the development of quantitative risk assessment methods, more detailed and comprehensive (although not complete) risk information on nuclear power plants is available to the designer, operator, and regulator. The availability of such information provides an opportunity to assess the need for change in the current regulatory structure and to develop future regulatory requirements in a less prescriptive, more performance-oriented fashion
Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.
Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between...
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of empathic paraphrasing as an extrinsic emotion regulation technique in social conflict. We hypothesized that negative emotions elicited by social conflict can be regulated extrinsically in a conversation by a listener following the narrator’s perspective and verbally expressing cognitive empathy.20 participants were interviewed on an ongoing or recently self-experienced social conflict. The interviewer utilized ten standardized open questions inviting participants to describe their perception of the conflict. After each of the ten descriptions, the interviewer responded by either paraphrasing or taking notes (control condition. Valence ratings pertaining to the current emotional state were assessed during the interview along with psychophysiological and voice recordings.Participants reported feeling less negative after hearing the interviewer paraphrase what they had said. In addition, we found a lower sound intensity of participants' voices when answering to questions following a paraphrase. At the physiological level, skin conductance response, as well as heart rate, was higher during paraphrasing than during taking notes, while blood volume pulse amplitude was lower during paraphrasing, indicating higher autonomic arousal.The results show that demonstrating cognitive empathy through paraphrasing can extrinsically regulate negative emotion on a short-term basis. Paraphrasing led to enhanced autonomic activation in recipients, while at the same time influencing emotional valence in the direction of feeling better. A possible explanation for these results is that being treated in an empathic manner may stimulate a more intense emotion processing helping to transform and resolve the conflict.
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior. The survey selects 190 men and 160 women from a city of NajafAbad located in province of Esfahan, Iran and a questionnaire consists of 35 questions are distributed among them. The survey uses Chi-Square statistics to examine the effects of three mentioned factors and the results indicate that internet addiction is more among singles than married (Chi-Square=19.94. The survey also indicates that internet addition is more on men than women do (Chi-Square=6.64. However, our survey does not find any evidence to believe job employment has any impact on internet addiction.
Maruska, Karen P; Fernald, Russell D
Social interactions with the outcome of a position in a dominance hierarchy can have profound effects on reproductive behavior and physiology, requiring animals to integrate environmental information with their internal physiological state; but how is salient information from the animal's dynamic social environment transformed into adaptive behavioral, physiological, and molecular-level changes? The African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, is ideally suited to understand socially controlled reproductive plasticity because activity of the male reproductive (brain-pituitary-gonad) axis is tightly linked to social status. Males form hierarchies in which a small percentage of brightly colored dominant individuals have an active reproductive axis, defend territories, and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, drably colored, do not hold a territory, and have a suppressed reproductive system with minimal opportunities for spawning. These social phenotypes are plastic and quickly reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. Here, we review the rapid and remarkable plasticity that occurs along the entire reproductive axis when males rise in social rank, a transition that has important implications for the operational sex ratio of the population. When males rise in rank, transformations occur in the brain, pituitary, circulation, and testes over short time-scales (minutes to days). Changes are evident in overt behavior, as well as modifications at the physiological, cellular, and molecular levels that regulate reproductive capacity. Widespread changes triggered by a switch in rank highlight the significance of external social information in shaping internal physiology and reproductive competence.
Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K; Walker, Robert
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of social exclusion, personal control, and self-regulation to perceived stress among individuals who participated in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. Participants entered treatment between June 2006 and July 2007 and completed a 12-month follow-up survey by telephone (n=787). The results of the OLS regression analysis indicate that individuals with greater social exclusion factors (e.g. greater economic hardship, lower subjective social standing, greater perceived discrimination), lower perceived control of one's life, and lower self-regulation had higher perceived stress. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found suggesting a stress-buffering effect of personal control between subjective social standing and perceived stress. Interestingly, income status was not significantly related to perceived stress, while economic hardship, which assesses participants' inability to meet basic expenses, was significantly associated with perceived stress. Future research should examine how to integrate the AA/NA teaching about powerlessness and its role in recovery with the importance of increased personal control and self-control in decreasing perceived stress. Implications for future research and substance abuse treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muñoz, Caroline Lego; Wood, Natalie T.
The purpose of this research is to examine how the topic of social media has been integrated and executed within academic institutions and marketing courses. An exploratory survey of marketing educators that taught social media in their course(s) was undertaken. The survey addressed how social media was embedded within an institute's curriculum,…
Grossklags, Jens; Barradale, Nigel J.
. The method of investigation used is experimental, with 146 subjects interacting in high- or low-status assignments and the subsequent change in the demand for security and privacy being related to status assignment with a significant t-statistic up to 2.9, depending on the specification. We find that a high...
van Kleef, G.A.
The idea that emotions regulate social interaction is increasingly popular. But exactly how do emotions do this? To address this question, I draw on research on the interpersonal effects of emotions on behavior in personal relationships, parent-child interactions, conflict, negotiation, and
Vargas-Salfate, Salvador; Paez, Dario; Liu, James H; Pratto, Felicia; Gil de Zúñiga, Homero
This study tests specific competing hypotheses from social dominance theory/realistic conflict theory (RCT) versus system justification theory about the role of social status. In particular, it examines whether system justification belief and effects are stronger among people with low socioeconomic status, and in less socially developed and unequal nations than among better-off people and countries. A cross-national survey was carried out in 19 nations from the Americas, Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Oceania using representative online samples ( N = 14,936, 50.15% women, M age = 41.61 years). At the individual level, system justification beliefs, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, national identification, sociopolitical conservatism, sex, age, and social status were measured. At the national level, the human development index and the Gini index were used. Multilevel analyses performed indicated that results fit better with the social dominance/RCT approach, as system justification was higher in high-status and developed nations; further, associations between legitimizing ideologies and system justification were stronger among high-status people.
Sekiguchi, Tomoki; Li, Jie; Hosomi, Masaki
Job crafting represents the bottom-up process of change employees make in their work boundaries and plays an important role in the management of organizational change. Following the socially embedded perspective, we examine the roles of job autonomy, social skill, and employee status in predicting job crafting. Study 1 with a sample of 509 part-time employees found that job autonomy and social skill not only directly but also interactively influenced job crafting. Study 2 with a sample of 564...
Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, Rene
Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is
Fallon, K M
In exploring the status of women in the developing world, most research emphasizes the impact of development indicators, like income or health, on women. This article goes beyond development indicators by discussing women's own perceptions of social status and power in rural Larteh, Ghana. It focuses primarily on the effects of gender and education on perception of social status and power. Section 1 offers a brief overview of the history of Ghana, reflecting the current position of women in the country. Definitions of social status and power within an African context are presented in section 2. Section 3 examines 24 interviews collected in Ghana, which asks respondents to discuss their own social status and power in relation to their community. In general, the results indicate that a woman's perception of increased social status and power is dependent on education and occupation. Other factors affecting perceptions of social status and power are wealth and culturally embedded positions held within the community, including elder, chief, and priestess.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relations between multiple aspects of adolescents’ self-concept and various dimensions of their social status in the classroom and in the peer clique. It was found that there was a positive relationship (1) between physical abilities selfconcept and social preference, perceived popularity, and social dominance; (2) between physical appearance self-concept and perceived popularity and social dominance; (3) between oppositesex ...
Gotzek, Dietrich; Ross, Kenneth G
Expression of colony social organization in fire ants appears to be under the control of a single Mendelian factor of large effect. Variation in colony queen number in Solenopsis invicta and its relatives is associated with allelic variation at the gene Gp-9, but not with variation at other unlinked genes; workers regulate queen identity and number on the basis of Gp-9 genotypic compatibility. Nongenetic factors, such as prior social experience, queen reproductive status, and local environment, have negligible effects on queen numbers which illustrates the nearly complete penetrance of Gp-9. As predicted, queen number can be manipulated experimentally by altering worker Gp-9 genotype frequencies. The Gp-9 allele lineage associated with polygyny in South American fire ants has been retained across multiple speciation events, which may signal the action of balancing selection to maintain social polymorphism in these species. Moreover, positive selection is implicated in driving the molecular evolution of Gp-9 in association with the origin of polygyny. The identity of the product of Gp-9 as an odorant-binding protein suggests plausible scenarios for its direct involvement in the regulation of queen number via a role in chemical communication. While these and other lines of evidence show that Gp-9 represents a legitimate candidate gene of major effect, studies aimed at determining (i) the biochemical pathways in which GP-9 functions; (ii) the phenotypic effects of molecular variation at Gp-9 and other pathway genes; and (iii) the potential involvement of genes in linkage disequilibrium with Gp-9 are needed to elucidate the genetic architecture underlying social organization in fire ants. Information that reveals the links between molecular variation, individual phenotype, and colony-level behaviors, combined with behavioral models that incorporate details of the chemical communication involved in regulating queen number, will yield a novel integrated view of the
Anne Scott Sørensen
Full Text Available I denne artikel vil jeg ud fra et medialiseringsperspektiv på sociale medier, der spørger til, hvordan de fremmer en særlig netværkssocialitet (Jensen, 2009; Tække, 2010a/b og -kommunikation (Miller, 2008 dokumentere brugen af den sociale netværksside Facebook i en dansk kontekst. Det vil jeg gøre på baggrund af en kvalitativ undersøgelse fra 2010, hvortil informanterne blev rekrutteret via et survey. Undersøgelsen afdækker tre dilemmaer, der udspringer af det grundlæggende kommunikative paradoks, som netværksmediet afsætter, og som vedrører præmisserne for selvfremstilling, brugen af statusopdateringen og den sociale regulering. Disse dilemmaer sættes i relief af dels aktuelle genre- og talehandlingsteorier (Miller, 2004; Butler, 2005, dels eksisterende undersøgelser af relaterede aspekter såsom sammensætningen af de personlige netværk (”vennelister” og graden af åbenhed og adgang til de personlige profiler (”privathed”. Mens herværende undersøgelse i grove træk bekræfter forskningslitteraturen på disse felter, så er de ikke før dokumenteret (og nuanceret i en dansk sammenhæng. Artiklens væsentligste bidrag ligger dog i identificeringen af de tre kommunikative dilemmaer og i forbindelse hermed en forsøgsvis genrebestemmelse af statusopdateringen og en tematisering af den implicitte sociale regulering og etik, hvilket ikke har været gjort før.
Nelissen, R.M.A.; Meijers, M.H.C.
Drawing from costly signaling theory, we predicted that luxury consumption enhances status and produces benefits in social interactions. Across seven experiments, displays of luxury — manipulated through brand labels on clothes — elicited different kinds of preferential treatment, which even
Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Yang, Yang; Xia, Jinghua; Su, Yonggang
Nurse turnover is one of the reasons for the global nurse shortage. Although previous studies have examined the determinants of turnover intention in detail, there is limited knowledge on the effect of subjective social status on nurse turnover intention. Therefore, in this study, we examined this relationship, including job satisfaction as a mediator, among Chinese nurses. This cross-sectional study employed questionnaires to assess subjective social status, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in 581 nurses who were randomly recruited from 10 hospitals in Jinan, China. The results partially supported our model. Although subjective social status exerted no significant direct effect on turnover intention, it exerted a significant indirect effect through job satisfaction. These results provide a new insight into why nurses leave their jobs, and possible new solutions to the nurse turnover problem. Efforts should be made to improve nurses' subjective social status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Keto, A.; Sutela, T.; Aroviita, J.; Tarvainen, A.; Haemaelaeinen, H.; Hellsten, S.; Vehanen, T.; Marttunen, M.
Although regulated lakes have been studied extensively during the last 20 years in Finland, biological data are still scattered. Especially in mildly regulated lakes, data have been insufficient to determine reference conditions and to estimate ecological status as required by the Water Framework Directive. The objective of this study was to increase information about the biological quality elements in order to develop ecological classification system and to define environment objectives for regulated lakes. Both existing and new data were collected from littoral fishes, littoral macroinvertebrates and macrophytes from regulated lakes and unregulated reference lakes. New biological classification metrics were then developed and tested. Moreover, alternative combinations of the biological classification parameters were tested for assessment of ecological status of lakes. Impacts of water-level regulation were found in all three biological quality elements: the littoral fishes, macroinvertebrates and macrophytes. The ecological status of the study lakes was at its worst when winter draw-down of water-level exceeded 2-3 meters. Very sensitive species for water-level regulation were recognized in all three biological quality elements. In macrophytes these species were large isoetids, in macroinvertebrates species with at least two-year life cycle and in fishes' minnow and European bullhead. In a same lake, the status of littoral fishes, macroinvertebrates and macrophytes often differed from each other As a result, when results from different biological quality elements are combined to an overall ecological status, quite large differences can exist depending on the method used to derive the overall status; i.e., whether the most sensitive quality element (i.e. the 'one-out all-out' principle) or a median value over all quality elements is used. (orig.)
Bansal Mohinder P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein B (apoB contains ligand-binding domain for the binding of LDL to LDL-R site, which enables the removal of LDL from circulation. Our recent data showed that selenium (Se is involved in the lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed to understand the effect of Se deficiency (0.02 ppm and selenium supplementation (1 ppm on apoB expression in liver during hypercholesterolemia in male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were fed with control and high cholesterol diet (2% for 1 and 2 months. ApoB levels by ELISA and protein expression by western blot was done. Hepatic LDL receptor (LDL-R activity (in vivo and mRNA expression by RT-PCR was monitored. Results In selenium deficiency and on high cholesterol diet (HCD feeding apoB levels increased and LDL-R expression decreased significantly after 2 months. On 1 ppm selenium supplementation apoB expression significantly decreased and LDL-R expression increased after 2 months. But after one month of treatment there was no significant change observed in apoB and LDL-R expression. Conclusion So the present study demonstrates that Se deficiency leads to up regulation of apoB expression during experimental hypercholesterolemia. Selenium supplementation upto 1 ppm leads to downregulation of apoB expression. Further, this study will highlight the nutritional value of Se supplementation in lipid metabolism.
Liu, Ying; Li, Zhiwu; Walker, Mary P
To assess the overall dentition status of American adults, to investigate disparities and changes in dentition using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 and to study the effects of family poverty status, education, citizenship and language on dentition after adjusting for other demographics. Descriptive statistics were used to explore and summarise dentition status. The prevalence of dentition markers over two surveys were compared using tests of proportions and a series of regressions were used to estimate the strength of association of family poverty status, education, citizenship and language with the four markers of dentition status. Overall, dentition status has improved in adults. However, gaps exist in that non-Hispanic Black and Mexican-Americans have a higher prevalence of dental decay and lower restoration rates than other races. After adjusting for selected demographics, adults with less education (still exist among adults in the USA. The results also indicate that to improve overall oral health and close the existing gaps in oral health, increased access to dental care would be needed for people who have low incomes and low levels of education. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.
This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…
Feddes, A.R.; Monteiro, M.B.; Justo, M.G.
A measure of subjective social status (SSS) was examined among high (White), and low (Black and Roma) ethnic status children in Portugal within a developmental design including 6-8-year-old and 9-12-year-old children. White children favoured their ingroup over the Black and Roma out-groups on the
Lee, Kirsty S; Brittain, Heather; Vaillancourt, Tracy
We investigated the longitudinal associations between self-reported aggression, self-perceived social status, and dating in adolescence using an intrasexual competition theoretical framework. Participants consisted of 536 students in Grade 9 (age 15), recruited from a community sample, who were assessed on a yearly basis until they were in Grade 11 (age 17). Adolescents self-reported their use of direct and indirect aggression, social status, and number of dating partners. A cross-lagged panel model that controlled for within-time covariance and across-time stability while examining cross-lagged pathways was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that direct aggression did not predict dating behavior and was negatively associated with self-perceived social status in Grade 10. Self-perceived social status in Grade 9 was positively associated with greater use of indirect aggression in Grade 10. Regarding dating, in Grade 9, self-perceived social status positively predicted more dating partners the following year, while in Grade 10, it was higher levels of indirect aggression that predicted greater dating activity the following year. Overall, there were no significant sex differences in the model. The study supports the utility of evolutionary psychological theory in explaining peer aggression, and suggests that although social status can increase dating opportunities, as adolescents mature, indirect aggression becomes the most successful and strategic means of competing intrasexually and gaining mating advantages. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The article presents socio-psychological analysis of the phenomenon of social status, which is not seen as a sociological category, but as a component of the image of the object of learning. The author hypothesized that social status defined by another person depends on a number of the social object indicators (gender, age and socio-demographic criteria and the characteristics of the subject of learning (gender, age, job, self-evaluations on various parameters. The study involved 141 people (83 female, 58 male, aged 18 to 30 years, mean=23. Methodological tools were the method of questionnaires and interviews with stimulus material. The author identified the components of the social status phenomenon and characteristics of the object and the subject of learning that are important for determining the position of the individual in society. Features of the social status assessment in the original perception were determined. The obtained data can be used in the educational process for determining group structure in the students of higher educational institutions, high-status and low-status members, as well as for understanding the value structures and important components in the social life of young people
Ferguson, Aidan; Clark, James J
Research ethics provide important and necessary standards related to the conduct and dissemination of research. To better understand the current state of research ethics discourse in social work, a systematic literature search was undertaken and numbers of publications per year were compared between STEM, social science, and social work disciplines. While many professions have embraced the need for discipline-specific research ethics subfield development, social work has remained absent. Low publication numbers, compared to other disciplines, were noted for the years (2006-2016) included in the study. Social work published 16 (1%) of the 1409 articles included in the study, contributing 3 (>1%) for each of the disciplines highest producing years (2011 and 2013). Comparatively, psychology produced 75 (5%) articles, psychiatry produced 64 (5%) articles, and nursing added 50 (4%) articles. The STEM disciplines contributed 956 (68%) articles between 2006 and 2016, while social science produced 453 (32%) articles. Examination of the results is provided in an extended discussion of several misconceptions about research ethics that may be found in the social work profession. Implications and future directions are provided, focusing on the need for increased engagement, education, research, and support for a new subfield of social work research ethics.
Iverach, Lisa; Rapee, Ronald M
Anxiety is one of the most widely observed and extensively studied psychological concomitants of stuttering. Research conducted prior to the turn of the century produced evidence of heightened anxiety in people who stutter, yet findings were inconsistent and ambiguous. Failure to detect a clear and systematic relationship between anxiety and stuttering was attributed to methodological flaws, including use of small sample sizes and unidimensional measures of anxiety. More recent research, however, has generated far less equivocal findings when using social anxiety questionnaires and psychiatric diagnostic assessments in larger samples of people who stutter. In particular, a growing body of research has demonstrated an alarmingly high rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent and chronic anxiety disorder characterised by significant fear of humiliation, embarrassment, and negative evaluation in social or performance-based situations. In light of the debilitating nature of social anxiety disorder, and the impact of stuttering on quality of life and personal functioning, collaboration between speech pathologists and psychologists is required to develop and implement comprehensive assessment and treatment programmes for social anxiety among people who stutter. This comprehensive approach has the potential to improve quality of life and engagement in everyday activities for people who stutter. Determining the prevalence of social anxiety disorder among children and adolescents who stutter is a critical line of future research. Further studies are also required to confirm the efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in treating social anxiety disorder in stuttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the nature and course of social anxiety disorder; (b) outline previous research regarding anxiety and stuttering, including features of social anxiety disorder; (c) summarise research findings regarding the
Wong, Jaclyn S; Hsieh, Ning
Health limitations can change older adults' social relationships and social engagement. Yet, researchers rarely examine how the disability of one's spouse might affect one's social relationships, even though such life strains are often experienced as a couple. This study investigates the association between functional and cognitive limitations and social experience in a dyadic context. We use actor-partner interdependence models to analyze the partner data from 953 heterosexual couples in Wave II (2010-2011) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. One spouse's functional and cognitive health is associated with the other's relationship quality, but the pattern varies by gender. Husbands' functional limitations are associated with lower marital support and higher marital strain in wives, but wives' functional limitations are related to lower family and friendship strain in husbands. Husbands' cognitive impairment also predicts higher family and friend support in wives. Findings support a gendered dyadic relationship between health and social life and highlight women's caregiver role and better connection with family and friends. There are also differences between experiencing cognitive and physical limitations in couples. Finally, mild health impairment sometimes shows stronger effects on social relationships than severe impairment, suggesting adaptation to health transition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
In previous literature, social capital has been hypothesized as a substitute for other forms of capital, such as physical and human capital. This paper contributes to this literature, studying the association between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community organizations and their children's nutritional status at 1 and 5 years. Using the Peruvian sample of the Young...
The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…
This is a conceptual exploration of the work of some
eminent social scientists thought to be amenable to agent-based
modelling of social reality. Kemper’s status-power theory and
Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture are the central
theories. The article reviews empirical work on
Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…
Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de
This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct
Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.
This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct
Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Baker, Courtney N.; Paskewich, Brooke S.; Leff, Stephen S.
While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of…
Lee, Hedwig; Turney, Kristin
A growing body of evidence suggests that experiences with discrimination have implications for mental health and that these associations may vary by social status. We use data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) to examine how two types of perceived discrimination, chronic everyday discrimination and major lifetime discrimination, are linked to mental health, and how this association varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that everyday discrimination is generally independently linked to greater depressive symptoms, loneliness, and hostility across all social status groups. Major discrimination is not associated with depressive symptoms or loneliness after adjusting for a host of covariates, but is associated with hostility, especially for certain groups. These findings highlight the need to examine multiple indicators of discrimination and mental health, and to pay attention to both differences and similarities in these associations by social status.
Gopalakrishnan, A.; Parthasarathy, K.S.; Ghosh, P.K.
This paper briefly reviews the history of radiation protection, regulatory aspects and the status of radiation safety in radiotherapy, radiodiagnosis and nuclear medicine in India. The revised basic safety standards and the future developments envisaged in the safety and regulation are also mentioned. (author). 24 refs., 8 tabs
Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Using two waves of longitudinal data, we utilized the family stress model of economic hardship to test whether family socioeconomic status is related to adolescent adjustment (substance use and academic achievement) through parental knowledge and adolescent self-regulation (behavioral self-control and delay discounting). Participants included 220…
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of public meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business...
Chen, Bai Qi Peggy; Parmar, Monica P; Gartshore, Kimberley
Despite early detection of breast cancer and the progress of treatment modalities, metastasis-specific symptoms continue to impact women's functional status and daily living. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of altered functional status and social roles of women with advanced breast cancer. Using qualitative descriptive methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status attending a tertiary care cancer centre. Results illustrated the adaptive experience of women living with their illness as they reshaped their social roles to fit with their altered functional status and advanced disease. These findings highlight the opportunity for supportive care nursing interventions to facilitate the behavioural and cognitive transitions that are experienced by women with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status. These results may have implications for women with other advanced chronic diseases, though more research is required.
Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Cross, Katy A.; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella
People preferentially imitate others who are similar to them or have high social status. Such imitative biases are thought to have evolved because they increase the efficiency of cultural acquisition. Here we focused on distinguishing between self-similarity and social status as two candidate mechanisms underlying neural responses to a person’s race during imitation. We used fMRI to measure neural responses when 20 African American (AA) and 20 European American (EA) young adults imitated AA, EA and Chinese American (CA) models and also passively observed their gestures and faces. We found that both AA and EA participants exhibited more activity in lateral fronto-parietal and visual regions when imitating AAs compared to EAs or CAs. These results suggest that racial self-similarity is not likely to modulate neural responses to race during imitation, in contrast with findings from previous neuroimaging studies of face perception and action observation. Furthermore, AA and EA participants associated AAs with lower social status than EAs or CAs, suggesting that the social status associated with different racial groups may instead modulate neural activity during imitation of individuals from those groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that neural responses to race during imitation are driven by socially-learned associations rather than self-similarity. This may reflect the adaptive role of imitation in social learning, where learning from higher-status models can be more beneficial. This study provides neural evidence consistent with evolutionary theories of cultural acquisition. PMID:23813738
Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, René
Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is rather unknown. This study examined to what extent the relationship of individual social status (i.e., perceived popularity) with aggression and prosocial behavior depends on the level of internal clique hierarchy. The sample consists of 2674 adolescents (49.8% boys), with a mean age of 14.02. We focused specifically on physical and relational aggression, and practical and emotional support, because these behaviors have shown to be of great importance for social relationships and social standing among adolescents. The internal status hierarchy of cliques was based on the variation in individual social status between clique members (i.e., clique hierarchization) and the structure of status scores within a clique (pyramid shape, inverted pyramid, or equal distribution of social status scores) (i.e., clique status structure). The results showed that differences in aggressive and prosocial behaviors were particularly moderated by clique status structure: aggression was stronger related to individual social status in (girls') cliques where the clique status structure reflected an inverted pyramid with relatively more high status adolescents within the clique than low status peers, and prosocial behavior showed a significant relationship with individual social status, again predominantly in inverted pyramid structured (boys' and girls') cliques. Furthermore, these effects differed by types of gender cliques: the associations were found in same gender but not mixed-gender cliques. The findings stress the importance of taking into account internal clique characteristics when studying adolescent social status in relationship to aggression and prosociality.
Zheng, Lanqin; Li, Xin; Huang, Ronghuai
Students' abilities to socially shared regulation of their learning are crucial to productive and successful collaborative learning. However, how group members sustain and regulate collaborative processes is a neglected area in the field of collaborative learning. Furthermore, how group members engage in socially shared regulation still remains to…
Korucu, Irem; Selcuk, Bilge; Harma, Mehmet
It is argued that self-regulation skill is necessary both for displaying constructive behaviour and for controlling negative social behaviour, and self-regulation might affect social behaviours by increasing the ability to understand others' minds. In this research, in order to examine different aspects of self-regulation and their similarities…
Full Text Available Of late, issues of social inequality have assumed a new political centrality in many western societies. However, in much discussion of these issues, sociological approaches to the analysis of social inequality have been disregarded, especially in the work of economists and epidemiologists. The main features of the sociological approach are the emphasis given to inequality in a relational rather than a merely attributional sense, and to the distinction between social class and social status as two qualitatively different forms of social stratifi cation. Two cases serve to illustrate the limitations and dangers that result from neglecting the conceptual and empirical work undertaken by sociologists: the study of intergenerational social mobility by economists and the study of the consequences of social inequality for health and related social problems by epidemiologists.
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…
Volkov A.A.; Zerkalova E.A.
The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Full Text Available The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro
Japanese society is more egalitarian than the United States as is reflected by the lower degree of prevalence of social inequalities in health. We examined whether subjective socioeconomic status is associated with different trajectories of self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relationship differs between the United States and Japan. We analyzed the responses of 3968 Americans from the survey Midlife in the United States, 2004-06, and the responses of 989 Japanese from the survey Midlife in Japan, 2008. We conducted a multilevel analysis with three self-ratings of health (10 years ago, current and 10 years in the future) nested within individuals and nested within 10 levels of subjective social status. Age, sex, educational level and subjective financial situation were adjusted. After making statistical adjustments for confounding variables, respondents in Japan continued to report lower average levels of health. However, the rate of expected decline in SRH over the next decade was strongly socially patterned in the United States, whereas it was not in Japan. The Japanese showed no disparity in the anticipated trajectory of SRH over time, whereas the Americans showed a strong social class gradient in future trajectories of SRH. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Reitzel, Lorraine R; Kendzor, Darla E; Cao, Yumei; Businelle, Michael S
Smoking prevalence is alarmingly high among the homeless. Few studies have focused on predictors of smoking abstinence in this population. Subjective social status, a person's ranking of their own social standing relative to others in the United States or in their own self-defined communities, has predicted smoking cessation among domiciled smokers in analyses adjusted for objective socioeconomic status and other demographic variables. This study examined if subjective social status predicted quit-day abstinence among homeless smokers making a quit attempt. Longitudinal study using self-reported survey data. Transitional homeless shelter in Dallas, Texas. A total of 57 homeless smokers enrolled in a cessation program. Predictors were the Subjective Social Status-U.S (SSS-U.S.) and the Subjective Social Status-Community (SSS-Community) ladders measured 1 week pre quit. Covariates were sociodemographics and tobacco dependence measured 1 week pre quit. The outcome was self-reported and biochemically verified smoking abstinence on the quit day. Analysis . Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models. Higher rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder, but not the SSS-Community ladder, predicted abstinence on the quit day (p = .005). Lower rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder predicted increased risk of relapse on the quit day or the inability to quit at all. The SSS-U.S. ladder might be useful in identifying homeless smokers needing additional preparation and intervention before initiating a quit attempt.
Liu, Jia Jia; Wei, Ya Bin; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina
Telomeres have been reported to be shorter in individuals exposed to psychosocial stress and in those with depression. Since negative environmental stress is a risk factor for depression, the present study tested whether stressors in childhood (CA) and recent adulthood (NLE) predicted telomere attrition directly and/or indirectly through individuals' depressive status 3-6 years before TL measurement; and then if social interaction and coping strategies in adulthood influenced the relationship between depressive status and TL. Participants were 337 individuals with a recent depression diagnosis and 574 screened controls that derived from a longitudinal population-based cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden. Relative TL was determined using qPCR. Relationships between the key variables stressors, depressive status, social interaction, coping strategies and TL were explored by path analysis in males and females, adjusting for age. The key variables were correlated in expected directions. In females, depressive status and age had direct negative effects on TL (p social interaction (p = 0.005) and the coping strategy worry (p = 0.005). In females, no mediation effect of social interaction and coping strategy was detected. Only little of the TL variation was explained by the models. The environmental stress information was limited. Our findings propose gender-specific paths from environmental stressors through depressive status, social interaction and coping strategy to TL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.
Hohmeyer, O.; Ottinger, R.L.
The social or external costs of energy have received a high degree of internatinal attention since the publication of the first empirical results in 1988. Possible global climate change and the call for a sustainable future of mankind have put the question of social costs onto the agenda of many national and international converences like the 'Earth Summit' in Rio 1992. A scientific discussion has been sparked off, searching for the best methodoligical approaches and reliable empirical data. An overview of this discussion was given by the report on the 1st international workshop published in 1991. This book reports on the 2nd international workshop on the subject and gives a broad overview of the discussion in the 25 papers presented. It is the most comprehensive picture of this subject matter avvailable. (orig.)
manipulated space at both small and large scales, from footwear to city planning, to convey social sta- tus (Hodder, 1987; Bourdieu , 1989; Margolies, 2003...posit that associ- ations between abstract concepts and physical percepts develop in response to everyday experiences (e.g., Hebb, 1949; Bourdieu ...The United States Capitol building was intentionally placed atop Jenkin’s Hill, described by the original architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant as a
Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian
Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006
Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.
Cardel, MI; Johnson, SL; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, AD; Tomczik, AC; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, DM; Muller, K; Piff, PK; Peters, JC; Hill, JO; Allison, DB
Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19–25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30 kg/m2). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of ‘privilege’ depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status
Cardel, M I; Johnson, S L; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, A D; Tomczik, A C; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, D M; Muller, K; Piff, P K; Peters, J C; Hill, J O; Allison, D B
Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and
Järvenoja, Hanna; Järvelä, Sanna
During recent decades, self-regulated learning (SRL) has become a major research field. SRL successfully integrates the cognitive and motivational components of learning. Self-regulation is usually seen as an individual process, with the social aspects of regulation conceptualized as one aspect of the context. However, recent research has begun to investigate whether self-regulation processes are complemented by socially shared regulation processes. The presented study investigated what kind of socio-emotional challenges students experience during collaborative learning and whether the students regulate the emotions evoked during these situations. The interplay of the emotion regulation processes between the individual and the group was also studied. The sample for this study was 63 teacher education students who studied in groups of three to five during three collaborative learning tasks. Students' interpretations of experienced social challenges and their attempts to regulate emotions evoked by these challenges were collected following each task using the Adaptive Instrument for the Regulation of Emotions. The results indicated that students experienced a variety of social challenges. Students also reported the use of shared regulation in addition to self-regulation. Finally, the results suggested that intrinsic group dynamics are derived from both individual and social elements of collaborative situations. The findings of the study support the assumption that students can regulate emotions collaboratively as well as individually. The study contributes to our understanding of the social aspects of emotional regulation in collaborative learning contexts.
Inouye, Keika; Pedrazzani, Elisete Silva
To describe the profile of a sample of octogenarians (n=80) attended at the municipal health network of a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil; evaluate their perception regarding quality of life dimensions (QoL); identify correlations between socio economic status, education level and QoL. It is an exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative analysis of data. The results revealed that this population is predominantly female, widowed, illiterate, sedentary and poor, who need health services and leisure opportunities, and whose main support is religion. The socio economic status did not interfere in the QoL perception, though, higher education and participation in physical activities result in higher satisfaction.
Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females ( N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders' problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions.
Lee, Hedwig; Turney, Kristin
A growing body of evidence suggests that experiences with discrimination have implications for mental health and that these associations may vary by social status. We use data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) to examine how two types of perceived discrimination, chronic everyday discrimination and major lifetime discrimination, are linked to mental health, and how this association varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that everyday d...
Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related...
Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S
The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.
Marston, Cicely; Renedo, Alicia; Nyaaba, Gertrude Nsorma
We take a dialogical approach to exploring fertility regulation practices and show how they can maintain or express social identity. We identify three themes in educated Ghanaian women's accounts of how they navigate conflicting social demands on their identity when trying to regulate fertility: secrecy and silence - hiding contraception use and avoiding talking about it; tolerating uncertainty - such as using unreliable but more socially acceptable contraception; and wanting to be fertile and protecting menses. Family planning programmes that fail to tackle such social-psychological obstacles to regulating fertility will risk reproducing social spaces where women struggle to claim their reproductive rights.
Caminos, Jorge E; Bravo, Susana B; García-Rendueles, María E R; Ruth González, C; Garcés, Maria F; Cepeda, Libia A; Lage, Ricardo; Suárez, Miguel A; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos
Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7) and 8 (GPR8). In rodent brain, NPW mRNA is confined to specific nuclei in hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. Expression of NPW mRNA has also been confirmed in peripheral organs such as stomach. Several reports suggested that brain NPW is implicated in the regulation of energy and hormonal homeostasis, namely the adrenal and thyroid axes; however the precise physiological role and regulation of peripheral NPW remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of nutritional status on the regulation of NPW in stomach mucosa. Our results show that in this tissue, NPW mRNA and protein expression is negatively regulated by fasting and food restriction, in all the models we studied: males, females and pregnant females. Next, we examined the effect of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on NPW mRNA expression in the stomach mucosa. Our data showed that NPW expression is decreased in this tissue after glucocorticoid treatment or hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism induces a marked increase in the expression of NPW in rat stomach. Overall, these data indicate that stomach NPW is regulated by nutritional and hormonal status.
Full Text Available The social state crisis encouraged a reductionist tendency which had recently developed in the evaluations of the health status in the social assurance system. A holistic, psycho-medical approach, which took in consideration the implications of the social factors regarding disability, was confronted with a strictly medical model, in which the illness is exclusively considered a person’s problem; therefore, the references towards the „social” are irrelevant. In this context, the present paper states the question of the legitimacy of using some sociological concepts, in medical expertise, considered relevant in this area, such as: „occupational access” or the „social functioning of the person”. The present study doesn’t stop at offering as arguments of legitimacy the authority of some recommendations regarding the use of the social-medical model, including the evaluation of the health status, recommendations received from the behalf of OMS and the European Council (see CIF. The paper presents the construction of specific evaluation instruments and tries to identify the sense in which using the references regarding the „social” could influence the pressures in the social assurance system.
Watanabe, Kumi; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Chen, Wencan; Wu, Bailiang; Ito, Sumio; Okumura, Rika; Anme, Tokie
Previous studies have shown that social relationships positively contribute to the functioning of older adults. However, the particular aspects of social relationships that are most predictive remain unknown. Consequently, the current study aimed to clarify what elements of social relationships impacted the maintenance of functioning among older adults. The present study used baseline data collected in 2011, and follow-up surveys were carried out 3 years later. Participants included individuals aged 65 years or older who lived in a suburban community in Japan. A total of 434 participants met inclusion criteria for the study and were included in analysis. The Index of Social Interaction measure consists of five subscales (independence, social curiosity, interaction, participation and feeling of safety), and was used to assess the multiple elements of social relationships. After controlling for age, sex, disease status and mobility in 2011, the results showed that the social curiosity subscale was significantly associated with functional status after 3 years (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.63). Other Index of Social Interaction subscales were non-significant. The current study suggests that interaction with environment and multifaceted social relationships have the strongest impact on functional ability for older adults in Japan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1522-1526. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Fernald Russell D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ERα, ERβa, ERβb; androgen receptors: ARα, ARβ; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral
Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios
The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital
A general view on the present stage and tendencies in the development of radiation sterilization of biomedical supplies is presented. Specific concepts in correlation with some regulations of the World Health Organization and of the National Public Health Authorities concerning the present state, the possibilities and criteria of development in our country, are discussed. Finally the present status of the design and execution of the project of two mobile and multipurpose irradiators is presented. (Author)
Pillaud, Vincent; Rigaud, David; Clémence, Alain
We tested whether stereotypical situations would affect low-status group members' performance more strongly than high-status group members'. Experiment 1 and 2 tested this hypothesis using gender as a proxy of chronic social status and a gender-neutral task that has been randomly presented to favor boys (men superiority condition), favor girls (women superiority condition), or show no gender preference (control condition). Both experiments found that women's (Experiment 1) and girls' performance (Experiment 2) suffered more from the evoked stereotypes than did men's and boys' ones. This result was replicated in Experiment 3, indicating that short men (low-status group) were more affected compared to tall men (high-status group). Additionally, men were more affected compared to women when they perceived height as a threat. Hence, individuals are more or less vulnerable to identity threats as a function of the chronic social status at play; enjoying a high status provides protection and endorsing a low one weakens individual performance in stereotypical situations.
Pillaud, Vincent; Rigaud, David; Clémence, Alain
We tested whether stereotypical situations would affect low-status group members' performance more strongly than high-status group members'. Experiment 1 and 2 tested this hypothesis using gender as a proxy of chronic social status and a gender-neutral task that has been randomly presented to favor boys (men superiority condition), favor girls (women superiority condition), or show no gender preference (control condition). Both experiments found that women’s (Experiment 1) and girls’ performance (Experiment 2) suffered more from the evoked stereotypes than did men's and boys’ ones. This result was replicated in Experiment 3, indicating that short men (low-status group) were more affected compared to tall men (high-status group). Additionally, men were more affected compared to women when they perceived height as a threat. Hence, individuals are more or less vulnerable to identity threats as a function of the chronic social status at play; enjoying a high status provides protection and endorsing a low one weakens individual performance in stereotypical situations. PMID:26645829
Full Text Available We tested whether stereotypical situations would affect low-status group members' performance more strongly than high-status group members'. Experiment 1 and 2 tested this hypothesis using gender as a proxy of chronic social status and a gender-neutral task that has been randomly presented to favor boys (men superiority condition, favor girls (women superiority condition, or show no gender preference (control condition. Both experiments found that women's (Experiment 1 and girls' performance (Experiment 2 suffered more from the evoked stereotypes than did men's and boys' ones. This result was replicated in Experiment 3, indicating that short men (low-status group were more affected compared to tall men (high-status group. Additionally, men were more affected compared to women when they perceived height as a threat. Hence, individuals are more or less vulnerable to identity threats as a function of the chronic social status at play; enjoying a high status provides protection and endorsing a low one weakens individual performance in stereotypical situations.
Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J
During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.
Vacková, Jitka; Veleminsky, Milos; Brabcová, Iva; Záleská, Veronika
This article discusses methods of examining subjective social status (SSS), which is based on the concept of social determinants of health described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 1998. SSS research was conducted with Cooperation from the Scientific and Technical Research (COST) program, with financial support from the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. This study is part of a project entitled the "Health and Social Status of Immigrants and Asylum Seekers in the Czech Republic" (registration number OC 10031), which was started in 2010 and concluded in May 2011. The study included 246 respondents of which: 69 (28.1%) had emigrated from Vietnam; 93 (37.8%) from the Ukraine; and 84 (34.1%) from Mongolia. In terms of qualitative strategies, 13 individual immigrants and asylum seekers were personally interviewed. This research was thus conceived as being both quantitative-qualitative, which included the use of the appropriate technical tools (i.e., questionnaires and interviews with select immigrants and asylum seekers). SSS was determined using the Pearson's chi-square test, as well as through correspondence and cluster analyzes. Sign schemes were used to detect select significant relationships in contingency tables. The minimum significance level chosen was α ≤ 0.05. When examining the SSS of select nationalities, differences were observed in the perception of subjective social status. The correspondence analysis results clearly show that Ukrainians best perceived their social status (within the selected parameters). One measure of subjectively perceived social status related to Czech language proficiency (i.e., one criterion was the comprehension of spoken Czech; e.g., whether the respondent could read or speak Czech, or how they assessed their own Czech proficiency). The SSS study clearly revealed typical links among select nationalities living in the Czech Republic, and highlighted risks related to the degree of integration (and its relationship to
Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter; Jensen, Jesper Møller
by the general self-efficacy (GES) scale. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed by computed tomography using the Agatston score (AS). Conventional clinical risk factors included sex, family history of CAD, BMI > 25, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension. Results: In 568 individuals......Aims: Understanding the determinants of social and coping inequalities in subclinical cardiovascular disease is an important prerequisite in developing and implementing preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between social factors and coping status...
The focus of this article is the comparative analysis of theseventeen major states of India, which have an intrinsic bearing on social, economic and human development. Inter-state comparison in the areas of economic well-being, health, education, human development index, status of women and social opportunities have been done. For comparing these dimensions of development, different variables like Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) per capita, poverty estimate (head count ratio), Infant mort...
Jin, Yulian; Ding, Zheyuan; Fei, Ying; Jin, Wen; Liu, Hui; Chen, Zexin; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Zhaopin; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian
The purpose of this study was to examine whether social relationships were associated with sleep status in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in November 2012 at Huzhou Teachers College, China. The questionnaire involved demographic characteristics, personal lifestyle habits, social relationships and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The associations between social relationships and sleep status were analyzed by using regression models after adjustment for potential factors. Poor sleep quality was prevalent among Chinese undergraduate students. Men tended to have better sleep than women. Lower social stress, better management of stress and good social support were correlated with better sleep status, and stress or support from friends, family and classmates were all related with sleep variables. While only weak associations between number of friends and sleep were detected. The results were consistent in men and women. Educators and instructors should be aware of the importance of social relationships as well as healthy sleep in undergraduates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D
We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not) was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not) was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99) or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12). In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.
Full Text Available We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p < 0.001. In this same model, social risk status was also independently associated with cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99 or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12. In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.
Acikalin, M Yavuz; Watson, Karli K; Fitzsimons, Gavan J; Platt, Michael L
Like humans, monkeys value information about sex and status, inviting the hypothesis that our susceptibility to these factors in advertising arises from shared, ancestral biological mechanisms that prioritize social information. To test this idea, we asked whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) show choice behavior that is similar to humans in response to sex and social status in advertising. Our results show that monkeys form preferences for brand logos repeatedly paired with images of macaque genitals and high status monkeys. Moreover, monkeys sustain preferences for these brand logos even though choosing them provided no tangible rewards, a finding that cannot be explained by a decision mechanism operating solely on material outcomes. Together, our results endorse the hypothesis that the power of sex and status in advertising emerges from the spontaneous engagement of shared, ancestral neural circuits that prioritize information useful for navigating the social environment. Finally, our results show that simple associative conditioning is sufficient to explain the formation of preferences for brand logos paired with sexual or status-based images.
Vitaly J. Ozira
Full Text Available This paper picked a topic - the global financial crisis- to highlight several related problems. The current crisis was not caused by failed economic policies. The root cause is failed leadership. People sometimes forget that business ethics at its core is about excellence and high attainment rather than misdeeds and malfeasance.In recent years, however, more attention has been paid to the positive side of ethics. More managers in Russia are waking up to the ways in which positive values contribute to a company's effective day-to-day functioning, as well as its reputation and long-term sustainability.Contrary to Western Europe and Scandinavia, Corporate Social Responsibility is a relatively new concept in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. Cultural gaps between Westerners and Locals have gradually been narrowing and becoming less divisive. Improved knowledge by foreign investors on how to operate successfully in a post-communist region, on "how to bridge the gap", greatly decreases the risk of the East-West joint venture.The views expressed in the paper are the author's own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting the official position paper on Corporate Governance.En este trabajo se enfoca la crisis financiera global con el fin de destacar los problemas más importantes relacionados con ésta. La presente crisis no fue provocada por causas meramente económicas. La causa fundamental radica en el liderazgo. A veces, la gente olvida que la ética de las relaciones juega un papel importante a la hora de llevar a cabo un negocio. Últimamente, no obstante, se presta más atención al aspecto positivo de la ética profesional. Un número creciente de gestores rusos emprenden el camino en el que los valores positivos conducen a un eficaz funcionamiento diario así como su prestigio y sostenibilidad a largo plazo. A diferencia de la concepción de la Europa occidental y escandinava de Responsabilidad Social Corporativa, en la
Rusch, Silke; Westermann, Stefan; Lincoln, Tania M
There is evidence for an association between social anxiety and emotion regulation difficulties. This study investigates that emotion regulation difficulties are specific to two domains of social anxiety. An explorative study was conducted to examine the associations between emotion regulation facets and social anxiety in the normal population. N= 149 healthy volunteers participated in an internet-based survey. Emotion regulation deficits were measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale which consists of six subscales. Social anxiety was measured by the Social Phobia Scale and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that anxiety of interactive social situations is associated with non-acceptance of negative emotions, impulse control difficulties, and lack of functional emotion regulation strategies over and above the impact of age and general psychopathology. In contrast, anxiety of being observed by others was not specifically associated with emotion regulation strategies. The results support the hypothesis that specific emotion regulation deficits are relevant to specific aspects of social anxiety. Implications for further research and therapy are discussed. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...
The caste fate of developing female honey bee larvae is strictly socially regulated by adult nurse workers. As a result of this social regulation, nurse-expressed genes as well as larval-expressed genes may affect caste expression and evolution. We used a novel transcriptomic approach to identify ge...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Census Bureau 15 CFR Part 30 [Docket Number: 090422707-91445-02] RIN 0607-AA48 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security Number (SSN) as an Identification... Trade Regulations (FTR) to eliminate the requirement to report a Social Security Number (SSN) as an...
Wout, M. van 't; Chang, L.J.; Sanfey, A.G.
Although adequate emotion regulation is considered to be essential in every day life, it is especially important in social interactions. However, the question as to what extent two different regulation strategies are effective in changing decision-making in a consequential socially interactive
Daly, Richard F.
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…
Lu, Aitao; Zhang, Honghong; He, Guanghui; Zheng, Dongping; Hodges, Bert H
Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether social status encoded in Chinese honorifics has metaphorical effects on up-down spatial orientation. In Experiment 1, participants judged whether a word was an elevating or denigrating term immediately prior to judging whether an arrow was pointing up or down. Arrow orientation was identified faster when its direction was congruent with the perceived social status of the preceding honorific (e.g., elevating word and up arrow). In Experiment 2, participants identified the letter p or q after judging whether honorifics were elevating or denigrating terms. Letters were identified faster when placed at the top of the screen following elevating terms, and faster at the bottom following denigrating terms. These results suggest that the mere activation of social status differences by honorific terms orients attention toward schema-congruent space. Social status appears to have pragmatic effects, not only for lexical decision-making, but also in where Chinese speakers are most likely to look.
Levent, Faruk; Taçgin, Zeynep
The teachers have a substantial role for students through consciously the Internet usage and struggle with cyberbullying. The purpose of this study is to investigate cyberbullying tendency and multidimensional perceived social support status of the teacher candidates. The participants of this research have become 412 teacher candidates as…
Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer
The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…
The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants
Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis
This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…
Krokavcova, Martina; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.
Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate whether different levels of perceived social support are associated with different levels of perceived health status in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: Two hundred and seven MS patients (38.4 +/- 10.6 years, 66.2% female) completed
Budge, Stephanie L.; Adelson, Jill L.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine facilitative and avoidant coping as mediators between distress and transition status, social support, and loss. Method: A total of 351 transgender individuals (n = 226 transgender women and n = 125 transgender men) participated in this study. Participants completed measures on transgender…
Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod
The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…
Conclusion: This study confirmed that bad marital status is associated with higher odds of social dysfunction among patients with schizophrenia living in the community. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders.
Goldweber, A.; Cauffman, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N=86, age 15-24years), our study is the first
Ha, P.T.; Overbeek, G.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The present study examined to what extent adolescent dating desire is based on attractiveness and social status of a potential short-term partner. Further, we tested whether self-perceived mate value moderated the relationship between dating desire and attractiveness of a potential partner. Data
Haught, Heather M; Rose, Jason; Geers, Andrew; Brown, Jill A
Subjective social status (SSS) has been shown to predict well-being and mental health, above and beyond objective social status (OSS). However, little is known about the factors that moderate this relationship. Two studies explored whether the link between SSS and well-being varied depending upon the referent used for comparison in SSS judgments. Participants judged their well-being and SSS in comparison to referents that varied in abstraction. A confirmatory factor analysis on SSS judgments yielded two factors: (a) SSS perceptions toward global referents and (b) SSS perceptions toward local referents. SSS relative to a global referent was a better predictor of depression (Studies 1 and 2), life satisfaction (Studies 1 and 2), and self-esteem (Study 2) than SSS relative to a local referent. These findings have theoretical implications for understanding how people differentiate between local vs. global referents and practical implications for status-related health disparities.
Kenen, R H; Schmidt, R M
Possible latent psychological and social consequences ensuing from genetic screening programs need to be investigated during the planning phase of national genetic screening programs. The relatively few studies which have been performed to determine psychological, social, and economic consequences resulting from a genetic screening program are reviewed. Stigmatization of carrier-status, having major psychosocial implications in heterozygote genetic screening programs, is discussed and related to Erving Goffman's work in the area of stigmatization. Questions are raised regarding the relationship between such variables as religiosity and sex of the individual and acceptance of the status of newly identified carrier of a mutant gene. Severity of the deleterious gene and visibility of the carrier status are two important factors to consider in an estimation of potential stigma. Specific implications are discussed for four genetic diseases: Tay-Sachs, Sickle-Cell Anemia, Huntington's disease and Hemophilia. PMID:152585
McCorkel, Jill; Rodriquez, Jason
Current debates over identity politics hinge on the question of whether status-based social movements encourage parochialism and self-interest or create possibilities for mutual recognition across lines of difference. Our article explores this question through comparative, ethnographic study of two racially progressive social movements, "pro-black" abolitionism and "conscious" hip hop. We argue that status-based social movements not only enable collective identity, but also the personal identities or selves of their participants. Beliefs about the self create openings and obstacles to mutual recognition and progressive social action. Our analysis centers on the challenges that an influx of progressive, anti-racist whites posed to each movement. We examine first how each movement configured movement participation and racial identity and then how whites crafted strategic narratives of the self to account for their participation in a status-based movement they were not directly implicated in. We conclude with an analysis of the implications of these narratives for a critical politics of recognition. Keywords: identity politics, social movements, race, self, hip hop.
Boersma, Gretha; Schmeltzer, Michael; Scott, Karen; Scheurink, Antonius; Tamashiro, Kelli; Sakai, Randall
Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual
Wohlfarth, T.; van den Brink, W.
The relationship between social class and substance use disorders (SUDs) is explored and compared to the relationship between SES and SUDs. Social class and SES are two different conceptualizations of socioeconomic inequality (SEI) which emanate from two different theoretical orientations in
Cloutier, J; Norman, G J; Li, T; Berntson, G G
This research was designed to investigate the relationship between sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to the perception of social targets varying in social status. Participants varying in subjective financial status were presented with faces assigned with either a low, average, or high financial status. Electrocardiographic and impedance cardiography signals were recorded and measures of sympathetic (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic (high frequency heart rate variability; HF HRV) cardiac control were derived. These measures associated with the presentation of each face condition were examined in relation to the subjective status of the perceivers. Participants with high subjective financial status showed reduced sympathetic activity when viewing low- and medium-status targets as compared to high-status targets, and lower parasympathetic response when viewing high- and medium-status targets relative to low-status targets. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wouter eVan Den Bos
Full Text Available Competitive behavior is commonly defined as the decision to maximize one’s payoffs relative to others. We argue instead that competitive drive derives from a desire for social status. We make use of a multi-player auction task in which subjects knowingly incur financial losses for the sake of winning auctions. First, we show that overbidding is increased when the task includes members of a rival out-group, suggesting that social identity is an important mediator of competitiveness. In addition, we show that the extent that individuals are willing to incur losses is related to affective responses to social comparisons but not to monetary outcomes. Second, we show that basal levels of testosterone predict overbidding, and that this effect of testosterone is mediated by affective responses to social comparisons. Based on these findings, we argue that competitive behavior should be conceptualized in terms of social motivations as opposed to just relative monetary payoffs.
Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Pryor, John B; Brands, Ronald; Liebregts, Maartje; Schaalma, Herman P
HIV-related stigma, psychological distress, self-esteem, and social support were investigated in a sample comprising people who have concealed their HIV status to all but a selected few (limited disclosers), people who could conceal but chose to be open (full disclosers), and people who had visible symptoms that made concealing difficult (visibly stigmatized). The visibly stigmatized and full disclosers reported significantly more stigma experiences than limited disclosers, but only the visibly stigmatized reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, and less social support than limited disclosers. This suggests that having a visible stigma is more detrimental than having a concealable stigma. Differences in psychological distress and self-esteem between the visibly stigmatized and full disclosers were mediated by social support while differences between the visibly stigmatized and limited disclosers were mediated by both social support and stigma. These findings suggest that social support buffers psychological distress in people with HIV.
Manzoor, A.; Treur, J.
This paper addresses an agent-based computational social agent model for the integration of emotion regulation, emotion contagion and decision making in a social context. The model integrates emotion-related valuing, in order to analyse the role of emotions in socially affected decision making. The agent-based model is illustrated for the interaction between two persons. Simulation experiments for different kinds of scenarios help to understand how decisions can be affected by regulating the ...
Regulated expressiveness (the modification of expressive behavior) is a complex phenomenon. Accomplished basically in four ways, regulated expressiveness has developmental dimensions, motivational precursors, and cognitive antecedents, including perspective-taking ability and the growth of self-awareness. Ability to regulate expressiveness appears…
Manzoor, A.; Treur, J.
This paper addresses an agent-based computational social agent model for the integration of emotion regulation, emotion contagion and decision making in a social context. The model integrates emotion-related valuing, in order to analyse the role of emotions in socially affected decision making. The
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank; Reijneveld, Menno
Purpose: A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status.
Potocka, Adrianna; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra
It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother's socio-demographic (age and relationship status) and socio-economic features (education and professional status) differentiate the child's nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child's nutritional status, body mass index (BMI) z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR), the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC), fat (%ET) and proteins (%EP). Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. The results showed that mother's education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child's nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child's social background (e.g., maternal factors). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):811-821. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Objectives: It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother’s socio-demographic (age and relationship status and socio-economic features (education and professional status differentiate the child’s nutritional status. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child’s nutritional status, body mass index (BMI z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR, the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC, fat (%ET and proteins (%EP. Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. Results: The results showed that mother’s education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child’s nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p < 0.05. Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. Conclusions: When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child’s social background (e.g., maternal factors. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:811–821
E. A. Stepovaya
Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the available data on tumor cell functioning under the conditions of free radical-mediated oxidation, the mechanisms of redox regulation, cell proliferation management and apoptosis avoidance remain understudied.The objective of the study was to identify the role of the thioredoxin system in regulating MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation under redox status modulation with 1.4-dithioerythritol.Material and methods. The studies were conducted on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, grown in adherent cell culture. Cell redox status was modulated with5 mM N-ethylmaleimide – an SH group and peptide inhibitor and5 mM 1.4-dithioerythritol – a thiol group protector. The cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry, the same technique was used to measure the reactive oxygen species concentration. The levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione and the activity of thioredoxin reductase were identified by spectrophotometry. The intracellular concentrations of thioredoxin, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were determined by Western blot analysis.Results and discussion. The essential role of the thioredoxin system in regulating MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation was exhibited. S-phase arrest under the effect of N-ethylmaleimide and G0/G1-phase arrest under the effect of 1.4-dithioerythritol are associated with the changes in the activity of redox-sensitive protein complexes (cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that regulate cell proliferation.Conclusion. Redoxdependent modulation of proliferation regulating intracellular protein activity occurs due to the thioredoxin system. This is a promising research area for seeking molecular targets of breast cell malignization.
Lu, Jiaqi; Cao, Yuanzhao; Cheng, Kuoyuan; Xu, Bo; Wang, Tianchang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Feng, Xudong, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Xia, Qing, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China)
As a widely used anti-bacterial agent and a metabolic inhibitor as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, berberine (BBR) has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier. Its efficacy has been investigated in various disease models of the central nervous system. Neurite outgrowth is critical for nervous system development and is a highly energy-dependent process regulated by AMPK-related pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on AMPK activation and neurite outgrowth in neurons. The neurite outgrowth of primary rat cortical neurons at different stages of polarization was monitored after exposure of BBR. Intracellular energy level, AMPK activation and polarity-related pathways were also inspected. The results showed that BBR suppressed neurite outgrowth and affected cytoskeleton stability in the early stages of neuronal polarization, which was mediated by lowered energy status and AMPK activation. Liver kinase B1 and PI3K–Akt–GSK3β signaling pathways were also involved. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to the lowered energy status induced by BBR. This study highlighted the knowledge of the complex activities of BBR in neurons and corroborated the significance of energy status during the neuronal polarization. - Highlights: • BBR inhibited neurite outgrowth in early stages of neuronal development. • Lowered neuronal energy status was induced by BBR treatment. • Neuronal energy stress induced by BBR activated AMPK-related pathways. • BBR induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Lu, Jiaqi; Cao, Yuanzhao; Cheng, Kuoyuan; Xu, Bo; Wang, Tianchang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Qin; Feng, Xudong; Xia, Qing
As a widely used anti-bacterial agent and a metabolic inhibitor as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, berberine (BBR) has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier. Its efficacy has been investigated in various disease models of the central nervous system. Neurite outgrowth is critical for nervous system development and is a highly energy-dependent process regulated by AMPK-related pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on AMPK activation and neurite outgrowth in neurons. The neurite outgrowth of primary rat cortical neurons at different stages of polarization was monitored after exposure of BBR. Intracellular energy level, AMPK activation and polarity-related pathways were also inspected. The results showed that BBR suppressed neurite outgrowth and affected cytoskeleton stability in the early stages of neuronal polarization, which was mediated by lowered energy status and AMPK activation. Liver kinase B1 and PI3K–Akt–GSK3β signaling pathways were also involved. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to the lowered energy status induced by BBR. This study highlighted the knowledge of the complex activities of BBR in neurons and corroborated the significance of energy status during the neuronal polarization. - Highlights: • BBR inhibited neurite outgrowth in early stages of neuronal development. • Lowered neuronal energy status was induced by BBR treatment. • Neuronal energy stress induced by BBR activated AMPK-related pathways. • BBR induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress
Ouyang, Kan; Xu, Erica; Huang, Xu; Liu, Wu; Tang, Yipeng
Group members gain social status via giving favors to others, but why and when they do so remain unclear in the literature. Building on social exchange theory and social status literature, we identify three types of favor giving among group members (generous, stingy, and matched) and propose that an affective mechanism (i.e., gratitude) and a cognitive mechanism (i.e., perceived competence) underlie the relationship between favor giving and status attainment. Specifically, generous/stingy favor giving has a linear relationship with status attainment through both gratitude and perceived competence, whereas matched favor giving has a curvilinear relationship with status attainment only through perceived competence. An experimental study and a field study lend support to our propositions. Our study complements the literature by offering a complete picture of how three types of favor giving among group members shape their social status in different ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.
This study addressed the role of influencer and influencee peer status in social influence of status-unrelated behaviours among emerging adults, while disentangling two forms of peer status, being liked (preference) and being powerful (popularity). Peer influence was examined in 67 women (M age =
Han, Kyu-Man; Han, Changsu; Shin, Cheolmin; Jee, Hee-Jung; An, Hyonggin; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Young-Hoon; Kim, Seung-Hyun
A growing body of evidence has suggested that social capital is an upstream social determinant of mental health. We investigated the association of cognitive social capital, including interpersonal trust and reciprocity, with depressive symptoms in the elderly. We also explored the mediating role of cognitive social capital in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms and the moderating effect of SES on the relationship between social capital and depressive symptoms. Data from the 2012 Korea Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS) was analyzed for 5969 participants aged 60 years or older. Cognitive components of social capital, including interpersonal trust and reciprocity, were evaluated using single-item questionnaires. Socioeconomic and health-related characteristics were investigated and depressive symptoms were evaluated by an 11-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Low interpersonal trust and reciprocity levels were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly. Reciprocity level mediated the association between household income level and depressive symptoms. We did not observe any significant moderating effect of SES on the association between cognitive social capital and depressive symptoms. A significant association between cognitive social capital and depressive symptoms in Korean elderly was found. We elucidated how SES interacted with depressive symptoms through the mediation pathway of cognitive social capital using a representative sample of the Korean elderly population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Shankar, Aparna; McMunn, Anne; Demakakos, Panayotes; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew
The present analysis aimed to examine the associations of isolation and loneliness, individually as well as simultaneously, with 2 measures of functional status (gait speed and difficulties in activities of daily living) in older adults over a 6-year period using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and to assess if these associations differ by SES. Loneliness was measured using the short form of the Revised UCLA scale, and an index of social isolation was computed incorporating marital status; frequency of contact with friends, family, and children; and participation in social activities. Measures of functional status were assessed identically at baseline and 6 years later for 3070 participants (mean age 69 years). Wealth was used as an indicator of SES. In fully and mutually adjusted models, social isolation and loneliness were found to be associated with a decrease in gait speed at follow-up, with stronger effects among more disadvantaged individuals. Loneliness was associated with an increase in difficulties with activities of daily living. Isolation and loneliness were adversely associated with different aspects of functional status. Interventions to reduce isolation and loneliness may be particularly beneficial for individuals in disadvantaged groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G
Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.
Gabor, Christopher S; Phan, Anna; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena
Social Recognition is a fundamental skill that forms the basis of behaviors essential to the proper functioning of pair or group living in most social species. We review here various neurobiological and genetic studies that point to an interplay of oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), and the gonadal hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in the mediation of social recognition. Results of a number of studies have shown that OT and its actions at the medial amygdala seem to be essential for social recognition in both sexes. Estrogens facilitate social recognition, possibly by regulating OT production in the hypothalamus and the OT receptors at the medial amygdala. Estrogens also affect social recognition on a rapid time scale, likely through nongenomic actions. The mechanisms of these rapid effects are currently unknown but available evidence points at the hippocampus as the possible site of action. Male rodents seem to be more dependent on AVP acting at the level of the lateral septum for social recognition than female rodents. Results of various studies suggest that testosterone and its metabolites (including estradiol) influence social recognition in males primarily through the AVP V1a receptor. Overall, it appears that gonadal hormone modulation of OT and AVP regulates and fine tunes social recognition and those behaviors that depend upon it (e.g., social bonds, social hierarchies) in a sex specific manner. This points at an important role for these neuroendocrine systems in the regulation of the sex differences that are evident in social behavior and of sociality as a whole.
Wiederkehr, Virginie; Darnon, Céline; Chazal, Sébastien; Guimond, Serge; Martinot, Delphine
Previous research has largely documented that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong and consistent predictor of pupils' school performance in several countries. In this research, we argue that children internalize the SES achievement gap in the form of a lower/higher sense of school self-efficacy. In two studies, teenaged students' (Study 1) and…
Williamson, Timothy J; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Kuhn, Taylor P; Thames, April D
Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i.e., HIV) and/or marginalized racial/ethnic identity (i.e., African American). A community sample of men and women (N = 149) completed questionnaires assessing demographics and depressive symptoms. Additionally, a composite index of social adversity was derived from measures of perceived discrimination, socioeconomic status, financial restriction to receiving medical care, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Multiple regression was used to test whether relationships between adversity and depressive symptoms differed as a function of HIV status and racial/ethnic identity. A significant 3-way interaction between social adversity, HIV status, and racial/ethnic identity indicated that there was a direct relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms for HIV-positive (HIV+) African Americans but not for HIV-negative (HIV-) African Americans, HIV+ Caucasians, or HIV- Caucasians. Further, HIV+ African Americans evidenced a significantly greater relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms compared with HIV- African Americans, but not compared with other groups. The findings suggest that HIV+ African Americans may be at risk for higher depressive symptoms amid adversity, highlighting the importance of evaluating intersectional identities/statuses in the context of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Subramanyam, Malavika A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Hickson, Demarc A; Sarpong, Daniel F; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A; Williams, David R; Wyatt, Sharon B
Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000-2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N=5301), we quantified the association of subjective social status with selected cardiovascular risk factors: depressive symptoms, perceived stress, waist circumference, insulin resistance and prevalence of diabetes. We contrasted the strength of the associations of these outcomes with subjective versus objective social status and examined whether perceived discrimination confounded or modified these associations. Subjective social status was measured using two 10-rung "ladders," using the U.S. and the community as referent groups. Objective social status was measured using annual family income and years of schooling completed. Gender-specific multivariable linear and logistic regression models were fit to examine associations. Subjective and objective measures were weakly positively correlated. Independent of objective measures, subjective social status was significantly inversely associated with depressive symptoms (men and women) and insulin resistance (women). The associations of subjective social status with the outcomes were modest and generally similar to the objective measures. We did not find evidence that perceived racial discrimination strongly confounded or modified the association of subjective social status with the outcomes. Subjective social status was related to depressive symptoms but not consistently to stress or metabolic risk factors in African Americans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suzuki, E; Takao, S; Subramanian, S V; Doi, H; Kawachi, I
Despite the worldwide trend towards more time being spent at work by employed people, few studies have examined the independent influences of work-based versus home-based social networks on employees' health. We examined the association between work-based social networks and health status by controlling for home-based social networks in a cross-sectional study. By employing a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure, 1105 employees were identified from 46 companies in Okayama, Japan, in 2007. Work-based social networks were assessed by asking the number of co-workers whom they consult with ease on personal issues. The outcome was self-rated health; the adjusted OR for poor health compared employees with no network with those who have larger networks. Although a clear (and inverse) dose-response relationship was found between the size of work-based social networks and poor health (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.27, comparing those with the lowest versus highest level of social network), the association was attenuated to statistical non-significance after we controlled for the size of home-based social networks. In further analyses stratified on age groups, in older workers (> or =50 years) work-based social networks were apparently associated with better health status, whereas home-based networks were not. The reverse was true among middle-aged workers (30-49 years). No associations were found among younger workers (social support on health according to age groups. We hypothesise that these patterns reflect generational differences in workers' commitment to their workplace.
Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafour; Karami, Zahra
Suicide is one of the most prominent problems in health care system in current Iran. It could be impacted by various factors such as social, economic, individual and so on. Researchers show that socio-economic factors and suicide has significantly related. The people in low social class may more engage with social problems than higher social class. They may confront to problems such as crime, violence, unemployment, financial hardship, population density, disorder personality, etc. However, these difficulties could be resulted from relationship of inequality socio-economic and mental or physical health. This research attempted to examine social class status and its relationship with parts of suicide characteristics. This study applied a descriptive approach. In the cross-sectional research 179 patients who attempted suicide and admitted to the toxicology ward of Nour hospital and to the burning ward of Imam Mousa Kazem hospital, in Isfahan, during a period of 6 months in 2010 were recruited. The randomize sampling for patients admitted to toxicology ward and census for burning ward are applied. Data collected through a questionnaire which Chronbagh coefficient's alpha was calculated (r= 0/72). Data was analyzed in SPSS software. The data showed that the majority of patients who attempted suicide were young married women who had diploma and under diploma of level education. They were housewife, engaged in education and unemployment. Finding showed that there are no significant relationships between sex, age, marital status, frequency of attempted suicide and their social class. But there is significant relationship between methods of suicide and social class. Similarly, there are significant relationship between social factors (i.e. family friction, betrothal, unemployment, financial problems and so on) effected on suicide and their social classes. Parts of findings were supported by previous studies.
Teri J. Hepler; Kelly S. Witte
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in motivational regulations and goal orientation based on gender and playing status. Method: Two hundred and fourteen Division III basketball players (92 males, 112 females) completed the Sport Motivation Scale-28 and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport. Based on average playing time per game, participants were classified as starters (over 20 minutes, n = 80), substitutes (6-20 minutes, n = 65), and benchwarmers (5 minutes o...
Full Text Available Quantifying vigilance and exploring the underlying mechanisms has been the subject of numerous studies. Less attention has focused on the complex interplay between contributing factors such as reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size. Reproductive status and social rank are of particular interest due to their association with mating behavior. Mating activities in rutting season may interfere with typical patterns of vigilance and possibly interact with social rank. In addition, balancing the tradeoff between vigilance and life maintenance may represent a challenge for gregarious ungulate species rutting under harsh winter conditions. We studied vigilance patterns in the endangered Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii during both the rutting and non-rutting seasons to examine these issues.Field observations were carried out with focal sampling during rutting and non-rutting season in 2008-2009. Results indicated a complex interplay between reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size in determining vigilance in this species. Vigilance decreased with group size in female but not in male gazelles. Males scanned more frequently and thus spent more time vigilant than females. Compared to non-rutting season, gazelles increased time spent scanning at the expense of bedding in rutting season. During the rutting season, territorial males spent a large proportion of time on rutting activities and were less vigilant than non-territorial males. Although territorial males may share collective risk detection with harem females, we suggest that they are probably more vulnerable to predation because they seemed reluctant to leave rut stands under threats.Vigilance behavior in Przewalski's gazelle was significantly affected by reproductive status, social rank, sex, group size and their complex interactions. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying vigilance patterns and the tradeoff between vigilance and other crucial
Cloth, Allison H.; Evans, Steven W.; Becker, Stephen P.; Paternite, Carl E.
The federal definition of emotional disturbance (ED) includes a social maladjustment (SM) exclusion clause that stipulates that students are not eligible for special education services if they are determined to be "socially maladjusted" and not also meeting criteria for ED. This clause has long been criticized for being ambiguous and…
Chao, Zhe; Zheng, Xin-Li; Sun, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Long; Huang, Li-Li; Cao, Zong-Xi; Deng, Chang-Yan; Wang, Feng
Epigenetic processes in the development of skeletal muscle have been appreciated for over a decade. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification important for regulating gene expression and suppressing spurious transcription. Up to now, the importance of epigenetic marks in the regulation of Pax7 and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression is far less explored. In the present study, semi-quantitative the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses showed MyoD and Myf5 were expressed in activated and quiescent C2C12 cells. MyoG was expressed in a later stage of myogenesis. Pax7 was weakly expressed in differentiated C2C12 cells. To further understand the regulation of expression of these genes, the DNA methylation status of Pax7, MyoD, and Myf5 was determined by bisulfite sequencing PCR. During the C2C12 myoblasts fusion process, the changes of promoter and exon 1 methylation of Pax7, MyoD, and Myf5 genes were observed. In addition, an inverse relationship of low methylation and high expression was found. These results suggest that DNA methylation may be an important mechanism regulating Pax7 and MRFs transcription in cell myogenic differentiation.
Stringhini, Silvia; Berkman, Lisa; Dugravot, Aline; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana
The authors examined the associations of social support with socioeconomic status (SES) and with mortality, as well as how SES differences in social support might account for SES differences in mortality. Analyses were based on 9,333 participants from the British Whitehall II Study cohort, a longitudinal cohort established in 1985 among London-based civil servants who were 35–55 years of age at baseline. SES was assessed using participant's employment grades at baseline. Social support was assessed 3 times in the 24.4-year period during which participants were monitored for death. In men, marital status, and to a lesser extent network score (but not low perceived support or high negative aspects of close relationships), predicted both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Measures of social support were not associated with cancer mortality. Men in the lowest SES category had an increased risk of death compared with those in the highest category (for all-cause mortality, hazard ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.21, 2.08; for cardiovascular mortality, hazard ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 3.92). Network score and marital status combined explained 27% (95% confidence interval: 14, 43) and 29% (95% confidence interval: 17, 52) of the associations between SES and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. In women, there was no consistent association between social support indicators and mortality. The present study suggests that in men, social isolation is not only an important risk factor for mortality but is also likely to contribute to differences in mortality by SES. PMID:22534202
Boberg-Fazlic, Nina; Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis
that this had to do with earlier age at marriage for women. We then turn to the likely social and economic impact of this, considering Clark’s hypothesis that ‘middle class values’ spread through English society prior to the industrial revolution. Through the construction of social mobility tables, we......We use data collected by the Cambridge Group to investigate and explain differences in fertility by socio-economic group in pre-industrial England. We find, in line with results presented by Greg Clark, that wealthier groups did indeed have higher fertility until the 1700s. We demonstrate...
Williams, David R; Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K; Haas, Jennifer S; Lathan, Christopher S; MacConaill, Laura E; Chen, Jarvis; Ayanian, John Z
Objective To illustrate the complex patterns that emerge when race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender are considered simultaneously in health care disparities research and to outline the needed research to understand them by using disparities in lung cancer risks, treatment, and outcomes as an example. Principal Findings SES, gender, and race/ethnicity are social categories that are robust predictors of variations in health and health services utilization. These are usually considered separately, but intersectionality theory indicates that the impact of each depends on the others. Each reflects historically and culturally contingent variations in social, economic, and political status. Distinct patterns of risk and resilience emerge at the intersections of multiple social categories and shape the experience of health, health care access, utilization, quality, and outcomes where these categories intersect. Intersectional approaches call for greater attention to understand social processes at multiple levels of society and require the collection of relevant data and utilization of appropriate analytic approaches to understand how multiple risk factors and resources combine to affect the distribution of disease and its management. Conclusions Understanding how race/ethnicity, gender, and SES are interactive, interdependent, and social identities can provide new knowledge to enhance our efforts to effectively address health disparities. PMID:22568674
Baker, Courtney N.; Paskewich, Brooke S.; Leff, Stephen S.
While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of elementary aged youth. The current study examined the associations between aggression, popularity, social preference, and leadership among 227 urban, ethnic minority (74 % African American, 9 % bi-racial including African American, 12 % other ethnic minorities, and 5 % European American) elementary school youth (average age 9.5 years, 48.5 % female). Results indicated that in an urban, high risk environment, displaying aggressive behaviors was associated with increased perceived popularity, decreased social preference, and, in some cases, increased perceived leadership. The results also suggested gender differences in the association between the forms of aggression (i.e. relational and overt) and popularity. The current study underscores the importance of examining youth leadership along with forms of aggression and social status among urban minority youth. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are highlighted. PMID:23086015
Muneera Abdalkareem Alshdefait
Full Text Available This study aimed at finding out the status of utilizing social media networks in the teaching-learning process at public Jordanian Universities. To achieve the goal of the study, the descriptive developmental method was used and a questionnaire was developed, consisting of (35 statements. The questionnaire was checked for its validity and reliability. Then it was distributed to a sample of (382 male and female students from the undergraduate and graduate levels. The study results showed that the participants gave a low score to the status of utilizing social media networks in the teaching-learning process at public Jordanian universities. The results also showed that there were statistically significant differences between the participants of the study according to the academic rank attributed to the graduate students, and according to gender attributed to male students at the instrument macro level and on all dimensions of the two variables. In light of these results, the study recommended that public universities should utilize modern technology in the educational process, urge and encourage the teaching staff members to use the social media networks in the teaching-learning process and raise the students' awareness about the benefits of using social media networks. Keywords: Social media networks, Teaching-learning process, Public Jordanian Universities
Hansen, Ulla Møller; Jones, Allan; Zander, Mette
AIMS: The aim of this study was to benchmark the Danish sample of the second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study with the global average in order to determine Denmark's comparative position for health status, healthcare provision, self-management and social support from...... to be an untapped potential when it comes to converting education participation of FM into social support for PWD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PWD in Denmark rank above the global average on measures of psychological wellbeing, despite psychological wellbeing being under-prioritised by HCP. However...
Luisa Ramírez; Sheri R. Levy; Elizabeth Velilla; Julie M. Hughes
The Protestant work ethic (PWE) is prevalent in many cultures. Abundant work in social psychology, primarily in the U.S., suggests that people use PWE to justify their own prejudice and society¿s differential treatment of less successful or disadvantaged persons. Recent theorizing suggests that PWE¿s intergroup meaning can be influenced by people¿s age, social status, and culture such that PWE not only has an intolerant or "justifier" of-inequality meaning (disadvantaged persons deserve t...
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition......This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...
Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cohabitation status in older men and women on (a) onset of disability at 3- and 4.5-year follow-up and (b) changes in functional ability between 3- and 4.5-year follow-up, and to analyze whether this effect was mediated by social participation. METHOD...... of disability (T3 OR = 1.60[1.06-2.43], T4 OR = 1.74[1.22-2.47]) and the risk of sustained poor functional ability (OR = 2.35[1.44-3.84]) among men, but not among single-living women. Social participation mediated only a small part of the effect of cohabitation status on functional ability. DISCUSSION: Our...
Wilson, Mark E.; Fisher, Jeff; Fischer, Andrew; Lee, Vanessa; Harris, Ruth B.; Bartness, Timothy J.
Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access to diets of different caloric density. Consumption of a low fat (LFD; 15% of calories from fat) and a high fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) was quantified by means of a custom-built, automated feeder that dispensed a pellet of food when activated by a radiofrequency chip implanted subcutaneously in the animal’s wrist. Socially subordinate females showed indices of chronic psychological stress having reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback and higher frequencies of anxiety-like behavior. Twenty-four hour intakes of both the LFD and HFD were significantly greater in subordinates than dominates, an effect that persisted whether standard monkey chow (13% of calories from fat) was present or absent. Furthermore, although dominants restricted their food intake to daylight, subordinates continued to feed at night. Total caloric intake was significantly correlated with body weight change. Collectively, these results show that food intake can be reliably quantified in non-human primates living in complex social environments and suggest that socially-subordinate females consume more calories, suggesting this ethologically relevant model may help understand how psychosocial stress changes food preferences and consumption leading to obesity. PMID:18486158
Quiñones, Mar; Folgueira, Cintia; Sánchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Al-Massadi, Omar
Irisin is a cleaved and secreted fragment of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) that is mainly released by skeletal muscle and was proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. In the present study we aim to investigate the regulation of the circulating levels of irisin in obese animal models (diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice), as well as the influence of nutritional status and leptin. Irisin levels were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum irisin levels remained unaltered in DIO rats and ob/ob mice. Moreover, its circulating levels were also unaffected by fasting, leptin deficiency, and exogenous leptin administration in rodents. In spite of these negative results we find a negative correlation between irisin and insulin in DIO animals and a positive correlation between irisin and glucose under short-term changes in nutritional status. Our findings indicate that serum irisin levels are not modulated by different physiological settings associated to alterations in energy homeostasis. These results suggest that in rodents circulating levels of irisin are not involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and could be unrelated to metabolic status; however, further studies should clarify its precise role in states of glucose homeostasis imbalance.
Full Text Available Irisin is a cleaved and secreted fragment of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5 that is mainly released by skeletal muscle and was proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. In the present study we aim to investigate the regulation of the circulating levels of irisin in obese animal models (diet-induced obese (DIO rats and leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice, as well as the influence of nutritional status and leptin. Irisin levels were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Radioimmunoassay (RIA. Serum irisin levels remained unaltered in DIO rats and ob/ob mice. Moreover, its circulating levels were also unaffected by fasting, leptin deficiency, and exogenous leptin administration in rodents. In spite of these negative results we find a negative correlation between irisin and insulin in DIO animals and a positive correlation between irisin and glucose under short-term changes in nutritional status. Our findings indicate that serum irisin levels are not modulated by different physiological settings associated to alterations in energy homeostasis. These results suggest that in rodents circulating levels of irisin are not involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and could be unrelated to metabolic status; however, further studies should clarify its precise role in states of glucose homeostasis imbalance.
Flynn, Michael A; Eggerth, Donald E; Jacobson, C Jeffrey
Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants. This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Flynn, Michael A.; Eggerth, Donald E.; Jacobson, C. Jeffrey
Background Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. Methods Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. Results Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants. Conclusion This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence. PMID:26471878
Hoebel, Jens; Maske, Ulrike E; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas
There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)-as measured by education, occupation, and income-is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung 'social ladder'. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms. Prospective studies are needed to establish
Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas
Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms
Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning ...
Muneera Abdalkareem Alshdefait; Mohammad . S. Alzboon
This study aimed at finding out the status of utilizing social media networks in the teaching-learning process at public Jordanian Universities. To achieve the goal of the study, the descriptive developmental method was used and a questionnaire was developed, consisting of (35) statements. The questionnaire was checked for its validity and reliability. Then it was distributed to a sample of (382) male and female students from the undergraduate and graduate levels. The study results showed tha...
Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Soo Young; Chung, Sung-Chang; Jeong, Dae-Won; Min, Byung-Moo
Although a redox shift can regulate the development of cells, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival, the role of the glutathione (GSH) redox status in macrophage differentiation remains unclear. In order to elucidate the role of a redox shift, macrophage-like cells were differentiated from the bone marrow-derived monocytes that were treated with a macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) for 3 days. The macrophagic cells were characterized by a time-dependent increase in three major symptoms: the number of phagocytic cells, the number of adherent cells, and the mRNA expression of c-fms, a M-CSF receptor that is one of the macrophage-specific markers and mediates development signals. Upon M-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation, the GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly lower on day 1 than that observed on day 0 but was constant on days 1-3. To assess the effect of the GSH-depleted and -repleted status on the differentiation and phagocytosis of the macrophages, GSH depletion by BSO, a specific inhibitor of the de novo GSH synthesis, inhibited the formation of the adherent macrophagic cells by the down-regulation of c-fms, but did not affect the phagocytic activity of the macrophages. To the contrary, GSH repletion by the addition of NAC, which is a GSH precursor, or reduced GSH in media had no effect on macrophage differentiation, and led to a decrease in the phagocytic activity. Furthermore, we observed that there is checkpoint that is capable of releasing from the inhibition of the formation of the adherent macrophagic cells according to GSH depletion by BSO. Summarizing, these results indicate that the intracellular GSH status plays an important role in the differentiation and phagocytosis of macrophages
Gose, Maria; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Willié, Bianca; Johannsen, Maike; Landsberg, Beate; Müller, Manfred J
The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children's body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children's BMI-SDS. Between 2006-2008 and 2010-2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8-6.4)). Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates) were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/buses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment) had an impact on children's BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment.
Gose, Maria; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Willié, Bianca; Johannsen, Maike; Landsberg, Beate; Müller, Manfred J.
The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children’s body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children’s BMI-SDS. Between 2006–2008 and 2010–2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8–6.4)). Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates) were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/busses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment) had an impact on children’s BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment. PMID:24132135
Manfred J. Müller
Full Text Available The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children’s body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children’s BMI-SDS. Between 2006–2008 and 2010–2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8–6.4. Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/busses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment had an impact on children’s BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment.
Reeck, Crystal; Ames, Daniel R; Ochsner, Kevin N
Research in emotion regulation has largely focused on how people manage their own emotions, but there is a growing recognition that the ways in which we regulate the emotions of others also are important. Drawing on work from diverse disciplines, we propose an integrative model of the psychological and neural processes supporting the social regulation of emotion. This organizing framework, the 'social regulatory cycle', specifies at multiple levels of description the act of regulating another person's emotions as well as the experience of being a target of regulation. The cycle describes the processing stages that lead regulators to attempt to change the emotions of a target person, the impact of regulation on the processes that generate emotions in the target, and the underlying neural systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jackson, Benita; Goodman, Elizabeth
Some markers of social disadvantage are associated robustly with depressive symptoms among adolescents: female gender and lower socioeconomic status (SES), respectively. Others are associated equivocally, notably Black v. White race/ethnicity. Few studies examine whether markers of social disadvantage by gender, SES, and race/ethnicity jointly predict self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence; this was our goal. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from a socioeconomically diverse community-based cohort study of non-Hispanic Black and White adolescents (N = 1,263, 50.4% female). Multivariable general linear models tested if female gender, Black race/ethnicity, and lower SES (assessed by parent education and household income), and their interactions predicted greater depressive symptoms reported on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Models adjusted for age and pubertal status. Univariate analyses revealed more depressive symptoms in females, Blacks, and participants with lower SES. Multivariable models showed females across both racial/ethnic groups reported greater depressive symptoms; Blacks demonstrated more depressive symptoms than did Whites but when SES was included this association disappeared. Exploratory analyses suggested Blacks gained less mental health benefit from increased SES. However there were no statistically significant interactions among gender, race/ethnicity, or SES. Taken together, we conclude that complex patterning among low social status domains within gender, race/ethnicity, and SES predicts depressive symptoms among adolescents.
Now a recognised phenomenon in many British cities, studentification is the process by which specific neighbourhoods become dominated by student residential occupation. Outlining the causes and consequences of this process, this paper suggests that studentification raises important questions about community cohesiveness and that intervention may be required by local authorities if social and cultural conflicts are to be avoided. Detailing the social impacts of studentification in Loughborough...
Norrbäck, Mattias; de Munter, Jeroen; Tynelius, Per; Ahlström, Gerd; Rasmussen, Finn
People with mobility disability are more often overweight or obese and have lower social capital than people without mobility disability. It is unclear whether having a combination of mobility disability and overweight or obesity furthers negative development of social capital over time. To explore whether there were differences in social capital between normal-weight, overweight and obese people with or without mobility disability over a period of 8 years. We included 14,481 individuals (18-64 at baseline) from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort that started in 2002. Mobility disability, weight status, and social capital (structural: social activities, voting; cognitive: trust in authorities, and trust in people) were identified from self-reports. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated in multivariate longitudinal regression analyses. We found no significant differences in social activities and voting between the groups over time. However, when compared with the reference group, the groups with mobility disability had less trust in authorities and public institutions over time. Notably, obese people with mobility disability showed the largest decrease in trust in the police (RR = 2.29; 1.50-3.50), the parliament (RR = 2.00; 1.31-3.05), and local politicians (RR = 2.52; 1.61-3.94). People with mobility disability experience lower cognitive social capital over time than people without mobility disability. Being burdened by both mobility disability and obesity may be worse in terms of social capital than having just one of the conditions, especially regarding cognitive social capital. This finding is of public health importance, since social capital is related to health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Manning, Kara; Lemaire, Chad; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Lia J; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa
One social determinant of health construct that is reliably related to health disparities among the Latino population is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet, little research has explored factors that may undergird variability in subjective social status among this population or in general. Accordingly, the present investigation examined one possible etiological model wherein age moderates the relation between individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) and subjective social status among a Latino primary care sample. Participants included Spanish-speaking Latino adults (n = 394; 86.5% female; average age = 39.0 years). Results demonstrated an interaction between the anxiety sensitivity and age for subjective social status among the Latino sample. Inspection of the form of the significant interaction indicated that the association between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was evident among older, but not younger, persons. The current findings suggest that decreasing anxiety sensitivity, especially among older Latinos, may be one possible viable therapeutic approach to change subjective social status in order to help offset health disparities among this group.
Full Text Available In mice behavioral response to pain is modulated by social status. Recently, social context also has been shown to affect pain sensitivity. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of interaction between status and social context in dyads of outbred CD-1 male mice in which the dominance/submission relationship was stable. Mice were assessed for pain response in a formalin (1% concentration test either alone (individually tested-IT, or in pairs of dominant and subordinate mice. In the latter condition, they could be either both injected (BI or only one injected (OI with formalin. We observed a remarkable influence of social context on behavioral response to painful stimuli regardless of the social status of the mice. In the absence of differences between OI and IT conditions, BI mice exhibited half as much Paw-licking behavior than OI group. As expected, subordinates were hypoalgesic in response to the early phase of the formalin effects compared to dominants. Clear cut-differences in coping strategies of dominants and subordinates appeared. The former were more active, whereas the latter were more passive. Finally, analysis of behavior of the non-injected subjects (the observers in the OI dyads revealed that dominant observers were more often involved in Self-grooming behavior upon observation of their subordinate partner in pain. This was not the case for subordinate mice observing the pain response of their dominant partner. In contrast, subordinate observers Stared at the dominant significantly more frequently compared to observer dominants in other dyads. The observation of a cagemate in pain significantly affected the observer's behavior. Additionally, the quality of observer's response was also modulated by the dominance/submission relationship.
Eisenberg, N; Fabes, R A; Karbon, M; Murphy, B C; Wosinski, M; Polazzi, L; Carlo, G; Juhnke, C
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of a measure of children's dispositional prosocial behavior (i.e., peer nominations) to individual differences in children's negative emotionality, regulation, and social functioning. Children with prosocial reputations tended to be high in constructive social skills (i.e., socially appropriate behavior and constructive coping) and attentional regulation, and low in negative emotionality. The relations of children's negative emotionality to prosocial reputation were moderated by level of dispositional attentional regulation. In addition, the relations of prosocial reputation to constructive social skills and parent-reported negative emotionality (for girls) increased with age. Vagal tone, a marker of physiological regulation, was negatively related to girls' prosocial reputation.
Wiebe, Deborah J; Berg, Cynthia A; Mello, Daniel; Kelly, Caitlin S
This paper aims to examine how self-regulation (i.e., cognition, emotion) and social-regulation (i.e., parents, friends, romantic partners) are interrelated risk and protective factors for type 1 diabetes management during late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Problems in cognitive (e.g., executive function) and emotional (e.g., depressive symptoms) self-regulation are associated with poorer management, both at the between- and within-person levels. Better management occurs when parents are supportive and when individuals actively regulate the involvement of others (e.g., seek help, minimize interference). Friends both help and hinder self-regulation, while research on romantic partners is limited. Facets of self- and social-regulation are important risk and protective factors for diabetes management during emerging adulthood. At this time when relationships are changing, the social context of diabetes may need to be regulated to support diabetes management. Interventions targeting those with self-regulation problems and facilitating self- and social-regulation in daily life may be useful.
O'Toole, Mia S; Zachariae, Robert; Mennin, Douglas S
Individuals with social anxiety disorder have often been considered inflexible in their emotion regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate emotion regulation flexibility in socially anxious individuals in response to two contextual factors, namely different levels of emotion intensity and emotion type. A daily diary approach was employed, investigating emotion regulation (i.e., experiential avoidance, expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal) in college students scoring high (N = 62; HSA) and low (N = 52; LSA) on social anxiety. Results revealed that HSAs were found to use more experiential avoidance than LSAs, especially at higher levels of negative intensity. The use of this emotion regulation strategy appeared to be driven by guilt, nervousness, and sadness. There were no between-group differences concerning the other strategies in response to varying levels of emotional intensity. Together, the results provide evidence for inflexible emotion regulation in HSAs, reflected in an unwillingness to experience negative emotions.
Galhardo, L; Oliveira, R F
Social isolation is a major stressor which impacts the physiology, behaviour and health of individuals in gregarious species. However, depending on conditional and contextual factors, such as social status and group composition, social isolation may be perceived differently by different individuals or even by the same individuals at different times. Here we tested the effects of social status (territorial vs. non-territorial) and previous group composition (i.e. type of social group: mixed sex group with two territorial males, TT vs. mixed sex group with one territorial and one non-territorial male, TnT) on the hormonal response (androgens and cortisol) to social isolation in a cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). The different steroid hormones measured responded differentially to social isolation, and their response was modulated by social factors. Social isolation elicited a decrease of 11-keto formation only in territorial males, whereas non-territorial males present a non-significant trend for increasing KT levels. Testosterone did not respond to social isolation. Cortisol only increased in isolated individuals from TnT groups irrespective of social status (i.e. both in territorials and non-territorials). These results suggest that it is the perception of social isolation and not the objective structure of the situation that triggers the hormonal response to isolation. © 2013.
Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong
This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.
Côté, Stéphane; Gyurak, Anett; Levenson, Robert W
Are people who are best able to implement strategies to regulate their emotional expressive behavior happier and more successful than their counterparts? Although past research has examined individual variation in knowledge of the most effective emotion regulation strategies, little is known about how individual differences in the ability to actually implement these strategies, as assessed objectively in the laboratory, are associated with external criteria. In two studies, we examined how individual variation in the ability to modify emotional expressive behavior in response to evocative stimuli is related to well-being and financial success. Study 1 showed that individuals who can best suppress their emotional reaction to an acoustic startle are happiest with their lives. Study 2 showed that individuals who can best amplify their emotional reaction to a disgust-eliciting movie are happiest with their lives and have the highest disposable income and socioeconomic status. Thus, being able to implement emotion regulation strategies in the laboratory is closely linked to well-being and financial success.
Akbaripasand, Abbas; Ramezani, J; Krkosek, Martin; Lokman, P Mark; Closs, Gerard P
The availability of food, and hence energy, is known to influence the abundance, habitat choice and growth of individuals. In contrast, there is a paucity of knowledge on how the interaction of energy supply and social status determines patterns of residency and movement. This study tests whether the presence of conspecifics and an individual's social status in relation to food supply influence the fitness and movement of a drift-feeding fish (Galaxias fasciatus). Using an information-theoretic approach (AIC), our analysis indicated that the most parsimonious model of fish movement among pools was one that included food supply, social rank and fish relative growth rate. Our results indicated that subordinate fish relocated more frequently compared to dominant fish, most likely as a consequence of intra-specific competition that limited the access of these smaller fish to resources and constrained their growth. Our results suggest that energy constraints may force individuals to explore new habitats in an effort to find more energetically profitable patches. We conclude that intra-specific competition mediated through the social hierarchy amongst closely interacting individuals plays a key role in determining individual growth, residency and relocation.
Carmel, S; Lazar, A
The purpose of the study was to compare three groups of Israeli elderly that differ in social class and immigration status on measures of health and psycho-social well-being, and assess the factors which explain their self-rated health (SRH). Based on a random sample of Israeli Jewish elderly (70 +), data were collected from 1138 persons during 1994 by structured home interviews. Social class differences among Israeli veterans were mainly found with regard to psycho-social characteristics. They were less conspicuous in health measures. New immigrants, who had a higher level of education than the veterans, but ranked lower on economic status, reported lower levels of health and psycho-social well-being than the veterans. Self-rated health among the immigrants was mainly explained by objective measures of health, and economic status, while in the higher social class of veterans it was also explained by education and psycho-social variables such as self-esteem and social support. These findings indicate that in contradiction to the convergence hypothesis, social class and immigration status affect health and well-being also in old age. It is suggested that the immigration crisis and factors related to the standard of living and health services in the countries of origin, as well as the lower social and economic status of the immigrants in Israel, outweigh their relative advantage in age and education in influencing their health and well-being. The differences found among the three groups in the factors that explain self-rated health have implications for the use of economic status as a relevant indicator of social class when considering health status among the elderly, and for the interpretation of SRH, as a global measure of health, in different socio-cultural groups.
LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Yi
To examine the evidence for cross-cultural variation in socialization and children's normative self-regulation, based on a contextual-developmental perspective. Nurses and healthcare workers in multi-cultural societies must understand diversity in socializing influences (including parenting) and in children's behaviour. A contextual-developmental perspective implies that normative cultural and ethnic values will influence socializing processes and behaviour, which in turn will influence children's self-regulation. Integrative review. Studies were located using five major search engines from 1990-2011. Domains of a contextual-developmental perspective and a comprehensive definition of self-regulation assisted the generation of search terms. Selected studies compared at least two ethnic or cultural groups and addressed contextual-developmental domains: (1) culturally specific social values, beliefs, or attitudes; (2) socializing behaviours; and (3) children's normative self-regulation. Eleven studies about children's self-regulation were found to have data consistent with a contextual-developmental perspective. Studies used descriptive correlational or comparative designs with primarily convenience sampling; eight confirmed stated hypotheses, three were exploratory. Findings across studies evidenced coherent patterns of sociocultural influence on children's attention, compliance, delay of gratification, effortful control and executive function. A contextual-developmental perspective provided a useful perspective to examine normative differences in values, socializing behaviours and children's self-regulation. This perspective and these findings are expected to guide future research, to assist nurses and healthcare providers to understand diversity in parenting and children's behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kreifelts, Benjamin; Brück, Carolin; Ethofer, Thomas; Ritter, Jan; Weigel, Lena; Erb, Michael; Wildgruber, Dirk
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal. We found that reappraisal abolished the negative laughter interpretation bias in SAD and that this process was directly mediated through activation patterns of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) serving as a cerebral pivot between biased social perception and its normalization through reappraisal. Connectivity analyses revealed reduced prefrontal control over threat-processing sensory cortices (here: the temporal voice area) during cognitive emotion regulation in SAD. Our results indicate a central role for the left DLPFC in SAD which might represent a valuable target for future research on interventions either aiming to directly modulate cognitive emotion regulation in SAD or to evaluate its potential as physiological marker for psychotherapeutic interventions relying on emotion regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M
Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.
Schwartz, Christine R; Zeng, Zhen; Xie, Yu
Intermarriage plays a key role in stratification systems. Spousal resemblance reinforces social boundaries within and across generations, and the rules of intermarriage govern the ways that social mobility may occur. We examine intermarriage across social origin and education boundaries in the United States using data from the 1968-2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our evidence points to a pattern of status exchange-that is, persons with high education from modest backgrounds tend to marry those with lower education from more privileged backgrounds. Our study contributes to an active methodological debate by pinpointing the conditions under which the results pivot from evidence against exchange to evidence for exchange and advances theory by showing that the rules of exchange are more consistent with the notion of diminishing marginal utility than the more general theory of compensating differentials.
Laflamme, Simon; Roggero, Pascal; Southcott, Chris
This article examines the link between the domain and level of occupation, on the one hand, and use of media, including internet, on the other. It adds to this investigation an analysis of identity in its relation to media use and accessibility. It challenges the hypothesis of a strong correlation between level of occupation and use and accessibility to media. It reveals complex phenomena of social homogenization and differentiation. Data is extracted from a sample of workers who completed a questionnaire which focused on use of media.
Khlaifia, Abdessattar; Matias, Isabelle; Cota, Daniela; Tell, Fabien
Vagal sensory inputs transmit information from the viscera to brainstem neurones located in the nucleus tractus solitarii to set physiological parameters. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. We investigated the impact of nutritional status on long-term changes in this long-term synaptic plasticity. Food deprivation prevents LTD induction by disrupting CB1 receptor signalling. Short-term refeeding restores the capacity of vagal synapses to express LTD. Ghrelin and cholecystokinin, respectively released during fasting and refeeding, play a key role in the control of LTD via the activation of energy sensing pathways such as AMPK and the mTOR and ERK pathways. Communication form the viscera to the brain is essential to set physiological homoeostatic parameters but also to drive more complex behaviours such as mood, memory and emotional states. Here we investigated the impact of the nutritional status on long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii, a neural hub integrating visceral signals. These excitatory synapses exhibit a CB1 endocannabinoid (eCB)-induced long-term depression (LTD) triggered by vagal fibre stimulation. Since eCB signalling is known to be an important component of homoeostatic regulation of the body and is regulated during various stressful conditions, we tested the hypothesis that food deprivation alters eCB signalling in central visceral afferent fibres. Food deprivation prevents eCB-LTD induction due to the absence of eCB signalling. This loss was reversed by blockade of ghrelin receptors. Activation of the cellular fuel sensor AMP-activated protein kinase or inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway abolished eCB-LTD in free-fed rats. Signals associated with energy surfeit, such as short-term refeeding, restore eCB-LTD induction, which in turn requires activation of cholecystokinin receptors and
Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio, Laura; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona
The aim of this study was on one hand to examine the associations between health impairment and life satisfaction, as well as social support and life satisfaction, and on the other, to analyze the moderating effect of social support with regard to health impairment and life satisfaction in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from urban areas of Granada, southern Spain. This was a cross-sectional survey in which a sample of 406 older adults with ages between 65 and 99 years old (M age = 74.88, SD = 6.75) was selected. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to assess the impact of health impairment and perceived social support on life satisfaction. Moderation analysis was performed using the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping approach. Significant differences in life satisfaction scores were found by number and type of disease, restrictions in daily life activities and subjective health. Perceived health and perceived social support predicted life satisfaction. Besides global social support, emotional and affectionate support moderated the link between perceived health and life satisfaction. Older people who do not rate their health status positively and indicate low levels of social support have a higher risk of being dissatisfied with their lives and due to this they should receive special attention from gerontologists.
Sánchez-García, Sergio; Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen
To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as "Edentulous" (15.2%), "Class 1 = Unfavorable" (13.7%), "Class 2 = Somewhat favorable" (10.4%), and "Class 3 = Favorable" (60.7%). Using "Class 3 = Favorable" as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico.
Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C
Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory.
Dixson, Barnaby J.
Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual’s attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as ‘social context’. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women’s economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory. PMID:26731414
Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo
Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to
Meyer, Sara; Raikes, H. Abigail; Virmani, Elita A.; Waters, Sara; Thompson, Ross A.
There is considerable knowledge of parental socialization processes that directly and indirectly influence the development of children's emotion self-regulation, but little understanding of the specific beliefs and values that underlie parents' socialization approaches. This study examined multiple aspects of parents' self-reported…
Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit
This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…
Zou, Huijing; Chen, Yuxia; Fang, Wenjie; Zhang, Yanting; Fan, Xiuzhen
Depressive symptoms are prevalent and cause adverse outcomes in heart failure. Previous studies have linked depressive symptoms with socioeconomic status. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study aimed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms, and to examine whether access to healthcare, health literacy and social support mediated this relationship in patients with heart failure. Cross-sectional design was used to study 321 patients with heart failure recruited from a general hospital. Demographics, clinical data, depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status (i.e., education, employment, income, and subjective social status), access to healthcare, health literacy, and social support were collected by patient interview, medical record review or questionnaires. A series of logistic regressions and linear regressions were conducted to examine mediation. The mean age of patients with heart failure was 63.6±10.6years. Fifty-eight patients (18%) had depressive symptoms. Lower subjective social status (OR=1.321, p=0.012) and lower health literacy (OR=1.065, psubjective social status and health literacy were entered simultaneously, the relationship between subjective social status and depressive symptoms became non-significant (OR=1.208, p=0.113), demonstrating mediation. Additionally, lower social support was associated with depressive symptoms (OR=1.062, p=0.007). In patients with heart failure, health literacy mediated the relationship between subjective social status and depressive symptoms. Lower social support was associated with depressive symptoms. Interventions should take these factors into account. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz
This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…
Larrieu, Thomas; Cherix, Antoine; Duque, Aranzazu; Rodrigues, João; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf; Sandi, Carmen
Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress. Here, we investigated whether behavioral factors, emerging from preexisting dominance hierarchies, could predict vulnerability to chronic stress [9, 13-16]. We applied a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression in C57BL/6J mice to investigate the predictive power of hierarchical status to pinpoint which individuals will exhibit susceptibility to CSDS. Given that the high social status of dominant mice would be the one particularly challenged by CSDS, we predicted and found that dominant individuals were the ones showing a strong susceptibility profile as indicated by strong social avoidance following CSDS, while subordinate mice were not affected. Data from 1 H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the metabolic profile in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) relates to social status and vulnerability to stress. Under basal conditions, subordinates show lower levels of energy-related metabolites compared to dominants. In subordinates, but not dominants, levels of these metabolites were increased after exposure to CSDS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies non-invasively the origin of behavioral risk factors predictive of stress-induced depression-like behaviors associated with metabolic changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.
The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable
Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.
The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable
Cassano, Michael; Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Zeman, Janice
Mothers' (N = 60) and fathers' (N = 53) perceptions of and desire for change in their 6- to 11-year-old daughters' (N = 59) and sons' (N = 54) sadness regulation behaviors (i.e., inhibition, dysregulation, coping) were examined in addition to parental responses to children's hypothetical sadness displays. Results of multivariate analyses of…
Thompson, John S.; Asmis, Reto; Glass, Judith; Liu Hua; Wilson, Colin; Nelson, Brandy; Brown, Stephen A.; Stromberg, Arnold J.
Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a thiol-containing compound that can act under varying conditions as an anti-oxidant or pro-oxidant. Utilizing microarrays, we determined the effect of PDTC +/- ionizing radiation (IR) on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes in isolated B6/129 wild-type (WT) and p53-/- spleen cells. Extremely significant microarrays demonstrated that PDTC, but not IR, markedly up-regulated the expression of the majority of detectable HSP genes in WT and many to a significantly greater degree in p53-/- deficient cells. Determination of the glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio indicated that PDTC was acting as a pro-oxidant under these conditions. From these data we conclude that the clinical use of 'antioxidants' with radiotherapy or chemotherapy must be very carefully based on knowledge of the p53 status of their intended normal and tumor target cells
Shariff, Azim F; Tracy, Jessica L; Markusoff, Jeffrey L
How do we decide who merits social status? According to functionalist theories of emotion, the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame play a key role, functioning as automatically perceived status signals. In this view, observers automatically make status inferences about expressers on the basis of these expressions, even when contradictory contextual information about the expressers' status is available. In four studies, the authors tested whether implicit and explicit status perceptions are influenced by pride and shame expressions even when these expressions' status-related messages are contradicted by contextual information. Results indicate that emotion expressions powerfully influence implicit and explicit status inferences, at times neutralizing or even overriding situational knowledge. These findings demonstrate the irrepressible communicative power of emotion displays and indicate that status judgments can be informed as much (and often more) by automatic responses to nonverbal expressions of emotion as by rational, contextually bound knowledge.
Vanhalst, Janne; Luyckx, Koen; Van Petegem, Stijn; Soenens, Bart
In adolescence, when establishing and maintaining satisfying social relationships is a key developmental task, chronic loneliness is related to a host of negative outcomes. This study aimed at examining motivational and regulatory factors related to chronic loneliness. Specifically, this study investigated chronically lonely adolescents' responses to hypothetical vignettes of social inclusion and exclusion, thereby focusing on (a) adolescents' willingness and motivation to approach social inclusion and (b) emotion regulation strategies to deal with social exclusion. A total of 730 adolescents (Mage = 15.43 years, 72% female) participated in this four-wave study with annual loneliness assessments and hypothetical vignettes of social inclusion and exclusion at the final wave. After each social inclusion vignette, participants rated their willingness to accept the invitation for social inclusion and five types of motivation to approach the situation. After each social exclusion vignette, participants rated nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Compared to individuals following other trajectories, chronically lonely adolescents were less likely to accept invitations for social inclusion and the quality of their motivation for accepting such invitations was lower. Further, they were more likely to employ maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. In sum, this study adds significantly to understanding the motivational and regulatory processes that differentiate chronically lonely adolescents from adolescents following other trajectories.
Manstead, Antony S R
Drawing on recent research on the psychology of social class, I argue that the material conditions in which people grow up and live have a lasting impact on their personal and social identities and that this influences both the way they think and feel about their social environment and key aspects of their social behaviour. Relative to middle-class counterparts, lower/working-class individuals are less likely to define themselves in terms of their socioeconomic status and are more likely to have interdependent self-concepts; they are also more inclined to explain social events in situational terms, as a result of having a lower sense of personal control. Working-class people score higher on measures of empathy and are more likely to help others in distress. The widely held view that working-class individuals are more prejudiced towards immigrants and ethnic minorities is shown to be a function of economic threat, in that highly educated people also express prejudice towards these groups when the latter are described as highly educated and therefore pose an economic threat. The fact that middle-class norms of independence prevail in universities and prestigious workplaces makes working-class people less likely to apply for positions in such institutions, less likely to be selected and less likely to stay if selected. In other words, social class differences in identity, cognition, feelings, and behaviour make it less likely that working-class individuals can benefit from educational and occupational opportunities to improve their material circumstances. This means that redistributive policies are needed to break the cycle of deprivation that limits opportunities and threatens social cohesion. © 2018 The Author. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were to (1 assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2 explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 6.51, P value <.05 and females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 7.36, P value <.01, South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.40, P value <.05, and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.87, P value <.05. Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships.
Dhurandhar, Emily J; Pavela, Gregory; Kaiser, Kathryn A; Dutton, Gareth R; Fontaine, Kevin R; Kim, Daniel; Shikany, James M; Allison, David B; Lewis, Cora E
Subjective social status (SSS), or perceived social status, may explain, in part, the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity. The objective of this study was to test whether SSS mediates the relationship between two indicators of SES (income and education) and body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional, structural equation path analysis was applied to the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n = 2,624). The analysis tested whether SSS (MacArthur scale), education, and income were associated with BMI at the year 20 examination (adjusting for sex, age, and race), and it was hypothesized that the associations of education and income with BMI would be at least partly mediated by SSS. SSS had a significant direct effect on BMI (-0.21, P = 0.018). Education had a significant direct relationship with SSS (0.11, P SSS (-0.02, P = 0.022). Although income did not have a significant direct relationship with BMI, it did have a significant indirect relationship through SSS (b = -0.05, P = 0.019). Results are consistent with the hypothesized model in which SSS partially mediates the relationship between SES indicators and BMI. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Clark, Noreen M; Zimmerman, Barry J
Researchers interested in health-related learning have recently begun to study processes people use to self-regulate their health and their ability to prevent or control chronic disease. This paper represents a social cognitive view of self-regulation that involves three classes of influence on self-regulating behavior: personal, behavioral, and environmental. This triadic model assumes that people self-regulate their health through the use of self-care strategies, setting reasonable health goals, and monitoring feedback concerning the effectiveness of strategies in meeting their goals. People's perceptions of self-efficacy are also assumed to play a major role in motivating them to self-regulate their health functioning. According to social cognitive theory, processes entailed in regulating one's health can be taught through social modeling, supports, and feedback; gradually these external supports are withdrawn as one is able to self-regulate. This paper will analyze self-regulation processes related to controlling or preventing lung disease, specifically management of asthma and eliminating smoking. The educational implications of the triadic model of self-regulation for promoting health and related behavioral functioning will be discussed. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Subramanyam, Malavika A.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Williams, David R.; Wyatt, Sharon B
Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000–2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N = 5301), we quantified the associati...
van't Wout, Mascha; Chang, Luke J; Sanfey, Alan G
Although adequate emotion regulation is considered to be essential in every day life, it is especially important in social interactions. However, the question as to what extent two different regulation strategies are effective in changing decision-making in a consequential socially interactive context remains unanswered. We investigated the effect of expressive suppression and emotional reappraisal on strategic decision-making in a social interactive task, that is, the Ultimatum Game. As hypothesized, participants in the emotional reappraisal condition accepted unfair offers more often than participants in the suppression and no-regulation condition. Additionally, the effect of emotional reappraisal influenced the amount of money participants proposed during a second interaction with partners that had treated them unfairly in a previous interaction. These results support and extend previous findings that emotional reappraisal as compared to expressive suppression, is a powerful regulation strategy that influences and changes how we interact with others even in the face of inequity.
van ’t Wout, Mascha; Chang, Luke J.; Sanfey, Alan G.
Although adequate emotion regulation is considered to be essential in every day life, it is especially important in social interactions. However, the question as to what extent two different regulation strategies are effective in changing decision-making in a consequential socially interactive context remains unanswered. We investigated the effect of expressive suppression and emotional reappraisal on strategic decision-making in a social interactive task, i.e. the Ultimatum Game. As hypothesized, participants in the emotional reappraisal condition accepted unfair offers more often than participants in the suppression and no-regulation condition. Additionally, the effect of emotional reappraisal influenced the amount of money participants proposed during a second interaction with partners that had treated them unfairly in a previous interaction. These results support and extend previous findings that emotional reappraisal as compared to expressive suppression, is a powerful regulation strategy that influences and changes how we interact with others even in the face of inequity. PMID:21171756
Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.
Full Text Available Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a "green" label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.
Full Text Available The paper presents a characterisation of socio-professional status and socio-political activity of women in rural areas in Poland. Traditional, stereotypical approach was compared to the contemporary perception of the social roles performed by women in the countryside, and the results of recent empirical studies concerning the problems discussed were presented. The causes of the lack of socio-professional and political activity were discussed. The opportunities for the support that helps improve social activity of women from rural areas were also presented. The analysis carried out in the study revealed that the status of women in contemporary rural areas is close to traditional stereotypes used in this social category. The need for inclusion of the analysis of socio-professional situation of women in socio-economic strategies of development of rural areas was emphasized. The basis for writing the paper was analysis of the related literature and the results obtained in a national-level empirical research.
Richman, Aliza D
Disadvantaged social statuses, such as being female, poor, or a minority, are associated with increased psychosocial stress and elevated circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, a biomarker of chronic inflammation and indicator of cardiovascular health. Individuals' experience of embodying psychosocial stress revolves around the multiplicative effects of concurrent gender, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic identities. This study expands on prior research by examining chronic inflammation at the intersection of race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age group to understand which demographic subgroups in society are most vulnerable to the cumulative effects of social disadvantage. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, the findings reveal inflammation disparities between non-poor whites and the following demographic subgroups, net of sociodemographic and biological factors: young poor Hispanic women, young poor white men, young poor and non-poor Hispanic men, middle-aged poor and non-poor black women, middle-aged poor and non-poor black men, and middle-aged poor Hispanic men. Disparities in inflammation on account of social disadvantage are most evident among those aged 45-64 years and diminish for those 65 and older in both men and women.
Rajala, Katja; Kankaanpää, Anna; Laine, Kaarlo; Itkonen, Hannu; Goodman, Elizabeth; Tammelin, Tuija
This study examined the associations of subjective social status (SSS) with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) among adolescents. The study population consisted of 420 Finnish adolescents aged 13 to 14 years. The adolescents reported their own SSS within their school (school SSS) and their family's social position within society (society SSS) based on the youth version of the Subjective Social Status Scale. Adolescents' moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and ST were measured objectively by accelerometers and analyzed separately for the whole day and the school day. The associations between SSS and MVPA and ST outcomes were analyzed using multilevel modeling. School SSS was positively associated with whole-day MVPA and negatively associated with school-time ST. Society SSS was not significantly associated with objectively measured MVPA or ST. Both MVPA and ST are important behavioral determinants of health. As an important correlate of MVPA and ST, school SSS should be addressed by providers when discussing obesity risk and healthy behaviors with adolescents.
Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás
We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E
Socioeconomic status (SES) is relatively stable across generations, but social policies may create opportunities for upward social mobility among disadvantaged populations during periods of economic growth. With respect to expanded educational opportunities that occurred in Québec (Canada) during the 1960s, we hypothesized that children's social and academic competence would promote upward mobility, whereas aggression and social withdrawal would have the opposite effect. Out of 4,109 children attending low-SES schools in 1976-1978, a representative subsample of 503 participants were followed until midadulthood. Path analyses revealed that parents' SES predicted offspring's SES through associations with offspring's likeability, academic competence, and educational attainment. Interaction effects revealed individual risk factors that moderated children's ability to take advantage of intrafamilial or extrafamilial opportunities that could enhance their educational attainment. Highly aggressive participants and those presenting low academic achievement were unable to gain advantage from having highly educated parents. They reached lower educational attainment than their less aggressive or higher achieving peers who came from a similarly advantaged family background. Growing up with parents occupying low-prestige jobs put withdrawn boys and outgoing girls at risk for low educational attainment. In conclusion, social policies can raise SES across generations, with great benefits for the most disadvantaged segments of the population. However, children presenting with emerging psychopathology or academic weaknesses do not benefit from these policies as much as others, and should receive additional, targeted services.
Oldehinkel, A.J.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Veenstra, R.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Ormel, Johan
This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 +/- 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We
A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); J.G.M. Rosmalen (Judith); R. Veenstra (René); J.K. Dijkstra (Jan); J. Ormel (Johan Hans)
textabstractThis study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 ± 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer
Whitcomb Brian W
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Internet sources that use the Social Security Administration's (SSA Death Master File have demonstrated high sensitivity among males for detection of mortality status in comparisons to the National Death Index, but the sensitivity has not been investigated for other demographic groups. Methods The authors used the SSA Death Master File to determine the mortality status of 374 decedents from the ongoing Patient Outcomes Study at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center whose deaths were confirmed by physicians using hospital records. Results Decedents identified by the SSA Death Master File were significantly older than those not identified. Foreign-born decedents were significantly less likely to be identified as dead than American-born decedents. Gender and marital status were not significant factors for identification by the SSA Death Master File. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that Internet sources may be used as an inexpensive and effective tool for determination of mortality status. However, among certain populations use of these databases alone may provide incomplete information.
Jelić Marija M.
Full Text Available Bearing in mind limited effects of interventions focused on the child and its limitations the attention of researches is more and more directed to immediate and wider ambience factors in the prevention of negative forms of behaviour of children. The aim of the research was to determine the level of connectedness of family and intellectual status of adolescents and different aspects of their social functioning. The sample of 416 adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was divided into two groups. The group without parental care included 210 respondents (130 with typical development - TD and 80 with mild intellectual disability - MID, and the group with parental care (130 TD and 76 MID. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with subscales: behavioral problems, emotional problems and problems with peers. Family problems were divided in socioeconomic problems, partners' problem, mental health of parents, abuse, and neglect. The results confirmed that the young without parental care showed more problems in behavior than their peers with parental care, and that family status affects behavior more than intellectual status. Family is the protective factor for the development of emotional problems of the young TD students, while it is risky for MID students. Problems with peers are not significantly connected with family or intellectual status. Some implications of the results are stressed.
Hietanen, H; Aartsen, M.J.; Kiuru, N.; Lyyra, T.M.; Read, S.
Social engagement has powerful effects on wellbeing, but variation in individual engagement throughout the lifecourse is wide. The trajectories may differ by gender and be affected by socio-economic status (SES). However, long-term development of social engagement is little studied and the effect of
Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Güngör, Hande; Körükçü, Özlem; Erten Sarkaya, Hatice
The primary objective of this study is to determine the predictive effect of technology use durations of 5-6 year-old children on their social skill levels and social status. In this study, children's technology usage is restricted to the use of television, portable computers, tablets and smartphones. The sample group of the study consisted of 162…
Blom, May; Georgiades, Anastasia; László, Krisztina D; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Janszky, Imre; Ahnve, Staffan
Work and marital status have been shown to be associated with health outcome in women. However, the effect of employment and marriage on psychosocial functioning has been studied predominantly in healthy subjects. We investigated whether work and marital status are associated with depressive symptoms, social support, and daily stress behavior in women with coronary artery disease (CAD). Data of 105 women with CAD and of working age were analyzed. General linear models were used to determine the association between work and marital status and depressive symptoms, social support, and daily stress behavior. Women who were working at the time of measurement had lower levels of depressive symptoms (7.0 +/- 1.2 vs. 12.1 +/- 0.9, p marital status was not related to any of the outcome variables. Results were similar after adjusting for potential confounders, that is, age, education, self-reported health, and risk factors for CAD. There was no significant interaction between marital status and working status on depressive symptoms, social support, or daily stress behavior. In women with CAD, all working had lower levels of depressive symptoms and a better social integration than those not working, regardless of reason for being nonemployed. Daily stress behavior, depression, and social support did not differ between cohabiting and not cohabiting women. Future interventions should take into consideration that women with CAD who are unemployed may have a higher risk for depression and social isolation and, therefore, poor clinical outcomes.
Braga, Luciana de Souza; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; César, Cibele Comini; Macinko, James
To assess trends in social inequalities among 2,624 elderly living in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in three domains of the World Health Organization's Active Aging model (physical environment, social determinants, use of health services) and health status indicators. Data came from two representative household surveys conducted in 2003 and 2010. Social inequality was measured by the slope and the relative index of inequality. Educational level was used to define socioeconomic status. Significant improvements were observed in the prevalence rates of 7 out of 12 indicators. However, the social inequalities persisted through 10 out of 12 selected active aging and health status indicators, except for fear of falling on the sidewalks/crossing the streets and fear of being robbed. Social inequalities persistence might be assigned to the continuity of unequal distribution of resources among groups with different educational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Hee; Bae, Sung-Jin; Choe, Jaewon; Park, Joong-Yeol
The changes in insulin resistance and insulin secretion and their association with changes in glucose regulation status in Asians with prediabetes remain uncertain. We included Korean adults (aged 20-79 years) with prediabetes who underwent routine medical check-ups at a mean interval of 5 years. Prediabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 5.6-6.9mmol/l or HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%B) indices were assessed by homeostasis model assessment. Incident diabetes was defined as FPG ≥ 7.0mmol/l, HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (48mmol/mol), or initiation of antidiabetic medications. Among the 7,208 participants with prediabetes, 4,410 (61.2%) remained as prediabetes (control group), 2,123 (29.5%) reverted to normal glucose regulation (regressors), and 675 (9.4%) progressed to type 2 diabetes (progressors) after 5 years. Compared with the control group, the progressors had higher baseline HOMA-IR (2.48 ± 1.45 versus 2.06 ± 1.20, P prediabetes, longitudinal change in insulin resistance was the predominant factor in Koreans. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Teri J. Hepler
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in motivational regulations and goal orientation based on gender and playing status. Method: Two hundred and fourteen Division III basketball players (92 males, 112 females completed the Sport Motivation Scale-28 and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport. Based on average playing time per game, participants were classified as starters (over 20 minutes, n = 80, substitutes (6-20 minutes, n = 65, and benchwarmers (5 minutes or less, n = 63. Results: Results indicated that males scored higher than females on external regulation, substitutes scored higher than starters on all 3 dimensions of extrinsic motivation, and benchwarmers expressed the most amotivation. Task orientation was positively related to all types of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Conclusion: While coaches should strive to enhance the intrinsic motivation in all of their athletes, special emphasis should be placed on promoting intrinsic motivation of male athletes and substitutes. Keywords: motives, playing time, sex differences
Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean
Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p employment with depression, which was fully mediated by social support, less coping with drugs/medication, and less distress. A negative association with full-time employment was also noted with distress, which was partially mediated by increased social support, coping with alcohol, and less coping with drugs/medication. The total indirect effect suggests that full-time employees generally have more resources and do not tend to use avoidance strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.
Lee, Ihno A.; John, Oliver P.; Gross, James J.
Recent studies have begun to document the diversity of ways people regulate their emotions. However, one unanswered question is why people regulate their emotions as they do in everyday life. In the present research, we examined how social context and goals influence strategy selection in daily high points and low points. As expected, suppression was particularly tied to social features of context: it was used more when others were present, especially non-close partners, and when people had instrumental goals, especially more interpersonal ones (e.g., avoid conflict). Distraction and reappraisal were used more when regulating for hedonic reasons (e.g., to feel better), but these strategies were also linked to certain instrumental goals (e.g., getting work done). When contra-hedonic regulation occurred, it primarily took the form of dampening positive emotion during high points. Suppression was more likely to be used for contra-hedonic regulation, whereas reappraisal and distraction were used more for pro-hedonic regulation. Overall, these findings highlight the social nature of emotion regulation and underscore the importance of examining regulation in both positive and negative contexts. PMID:28652647
English, Tammy; Lee, Ihno A; John, Oliver P; Gross, James J
Recent studies have begun to document the diversity of ways people regulate their emotions. However, one unanswered question is why people regulate their emotions as they do in everyday life. In the present research, we examined how social context and goals influence strategy selection in daily high points and low points. As expected, suppression was particularly tied to social features of context: it was used more when others were present, especially non-close partners, and when people had instrumental goals, especially more interpersonal ones (e.g., avoid conflict). Distraction and reappraisal were used more when regulating for hedonic reasons (e.g., to feel better), but these strategies were also linked to certain instrumental goals (e.g., getting work done). When contra-hedonic regulation occurred, it primarily took the form of dampening positive emotion during high points. Suppression was more likely to be used for contra-hedonic regulation, whereas reappraisal and distraction were used more for pro-hedonic regulation. Overall, these findings highlight the social nature of emotion regulation and underscore the importance of examining regulation in both positive and negative contexts.
Granger, B; Azais, F; Albercque, C; Debray, Q
The authors try to answer the question of the nosological status of social phobias and assertiveness difficulties, which are usually included in the large group of anxious troubles. The correlation between Rathus Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and sub-scores of HDRS were studied in two populations; the first one was constituted by anxious and/or depressed patients, the second, extracted from the first one, by anxious patients only. The results show that lack of assertiveness has probably both affective and anxious components. These results are important from a nosological and therapeutic point of view.
The controversy about to which extend PGD may be applies is particularly interesting because it stresses on a paradoxical point concerning PGD. Although this technique is strictly regulated in most European countries where it is regularly practised, the legal status of PGD may appear to some as unethical because it may be viewed as a facilitator for those who would like to select children for reason other than medical. The need to test human embryos before birth and the consequences that may occur to those detected with some abnormalities also revives the issue of the respect due to the human embryo.
Redžić Saduša F.
Full Text Available An attempt to make the sociologically-anthropological retrospective view on a social status of women in the patriarchal premedieval and medieval Serbian society. The starting point for the realization of this aim is the status of a woman in a family, firstly in 'zadruga', after a short introduction to the historical context of it's origination. The following are considerations of legal, as well as religious conventions and practice, customs, differences between a social status of women, and differences between those who lived in towns and villages, with the emphasis on examples from relevant ethnographic and historygraphic material. In the end, an insight of the national poet's manner in showing female characters in the oldest epic poems, as the chosen segment of Serbian folklore creative work, that gives information about the topic. All considerate material indicates the complexity of the topic. The conclusion imposes that, although a woman is generally inferior and practically deprived, it's not justified to take generalizations about inferiority of a woman as completely true, disregarding vertical structure of a society, different life conditions for women in a village and in a town, as well as diversity of customs and life in different regions. Considered material points out to the complexity of the topic. To simply establish that a woman in premedieval and medieval Serbia is subordinated and 'the citizen of the second order' is simplifying, which sociology can't afford. Precisely the historygraphic and ethnographic material fully confirm that a woman was perceived as a second-class being, so her social reality is indeed certainly different than her father's, brother's or husband's reality. Mainly they determine her life, where tradition and religion help them greatly, affirming their superiority, hence her inferiority in society. 'Trapped' in the web of a patriarchal society, she's left with no choice but to apprehend herself in this manner
Jesseca Elise Rowland
Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD are associated with impairments in facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind (ToM. These social cognitive skills deficits may be related to a reduced capacity to effectively regulate one’s own emotions according to the social context. We therefore set out to examine the relationship between social cognitive abilities and the use of cognitive strategies for regulating negative emotion in SZ and BD. Participants were 56 SZ, 33 BD, and 58 healthy controls (HC who completed the Ekman 60-faces test of facial emotion recognition; a sub-set of these participants also completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ. SZ participants demonstrated impairments in emotion perception on both the Ekman and the TASIT Emotion Evaluation tests relative to BD and HC. While both SZ and BD patients showed ToM deficits (i.e., perception of sarcasm and lie compared to HC, SZ patients demonstrated significantly greater ToM impairment compared to BD. There were also distinct patterns of cognitive strategies used to regulate emotion in both patient groups: those with SZ were more likely to engage in catastrophising and rumination, while BD subjects were more likely to blame themselves and were less likely to engage in positive reappraisal, relative to HC. In addition, those with SZ were more likely to blame others compared to BD. Associations between social cognition and affect regulation were revealed for HC only: TASIT performance was negatively associated with more frequent use of rumination, catastrophising and blaming others, such that more frequent use of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies was associated with poor social cognitive performance. These associations were not present in either patient group. However, both SZ and BD patients demonstrated poor ToM performance and aberrant use of emotion regulation strategies consistent with
Mackintosh, Maureen; Chaudhuri, Sudip; Mujinja, Phares Gm
Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Few authors are involved in home rehabilitation of amputees or their reintegration into the community. It has been remarked that there is a discontinuity between the phases of the amputee rehabilitation in Serbia. The aim of the study was to establish pain characteristics and functional status of amputees two months after the amputation and to determine their social function and the conditions of their habitation. Methods. This prospective observation study involved 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations. The patients were tested at the hospital on discharge and at their homes two months after the amputation. Pain intensity and functional status were measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS and by Functional Independence Measure (FIM. The patients’ social function was assessed using the Social Dysfunction Rating Scale (SDRS and conditions of their habitation by the self-created Scale of Conditions of Habitation (SCH. In statistic analysis we used the Student t test, χ2 test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results. The majority of patients (63% underwent below knee amputation caused by diabetes (89%. A significant number of patients (84%, χ2 = 17.78; p < 0.01 was not visited by a physiotherapist nor an occupational therapist during two months at home. In this period, the majority of the amputees (68% had phantom pain or residual limb pain (21%. Two months after amputation the pain intensity was significantly lower (VAS = 4.07±2.19; 2.34±1.41; p < 0.001, and the functional status significantly better than on discharge (FIM = 75.13±16.52; 87.87±16.48; p < 0.001. The amputees had the average level of social dysfunction (SDRS = 62.00±11.68 and conditions of habitation (SCH = 7.81±1.97. Conclusion. A total 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations achieved significant functional improvement and reduction of pain, in spite of their social dysfunction, the absence of socio-medical support
Wikman, Johan M; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens T; Melchor, Pia S; Bangsbo, Jens; Pfister, Gertrud
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65-76) were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22) or a group playing petanque (n = 17) one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Johan M. Wikman
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76 were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22 or a group playing petanque (n = 17 one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…
Geraets, Chris N W; van Beilen, Marije; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim
Experimentally studying the influence of social environments on mental health and behavior is challenging, as social context is difficult to standardize in laboratory settings. Virtual Reality (VR) enables studying social interaction in terms of interpersonal distance in a more ecologically valid manner. Regulation of interpersonal distance may be abnormal in patients with psychotic disorders and influenced by environmental stress, symptoms or distress. To investigate interpersonal distance in people with a psychotic disorder and at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR) compared to siblings and controls in virtual social environments, and explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and interpersonal distance. Nineteen UHR patients, 52 patients with psychotic disorders, 40 siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder and 47 controls were exposed to virtual cafés. In five virtual café visits, participants were exposed to different levels of social stress, in terms of crowdedness, ethnicity and hostility. Measures on interpersonal distance, distress and state paranoia were obtained. Baseline measures included trait paranoia, social anxiety, depressive, positive and negative symptoms. Interpersonal distance increased when social stressors were present in the environment. No difference in interpersonal distance regulation was found between the groups. Social anxiety and distress were positively associated with interpersonal distance in the total sample. This VR paradigm indicates that interpersonal distance regulation in response to environmental social stressors is unaltered in people with psychosis or UHR. Environmental stress, social anxiety and distress trigger both people with and without psychosis to maintain larger interpersonal distances in social situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
...) Inclusion as a disabled child in the employee's annuity rate under the social security overall minimum. (2... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a...
La Parra Casado, Daniel; Gil González, Diana; de la Torre Esteve, María
To determine the social class gradient in health in general Spain population and the health status of the Spanish Roma. The National Health Survey of Spanish Roma 2006 (sample size = 993 people; average age: 33.6 years; 53.1% women) and the National Health Surveys for Spain 2003 (sample size: 21,650 people; average age: 45.5 years; 51.2% women) and 2006 (sample size: 29,478 people; average age: 46 years; 50.7% women) are compared. Several indicators were chosen: self-perceived health, activity limitation, chronic diseases, hearing and sight problems, caries, and obesity. Analysis was based on age-standardised rates and logistic regression models. According to most indicators, Roma's health is worse than that of social class IV-V (manual workers). Some indicators show a remarkable difference between Roma and social class IV-V: experiencing three or more health problems, sight problems, and caries, in both sexes, and hearing problems and obesity, in women. Roma people are placed on an extreme position on the social gradient in health, a situation of extreme health inequality.
Robertson, Deirdre A; Weiss, David
Negative age-related stereotypes often entail the perception that older adults have a lower social status than middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that older adults are perceived to have lower social status because they are less likely to be seen in prestigious occupational positions. People tend to infer general assumptions about group characteristics from exemplars. According to this, presenting a stereotype-inconsistent exemplar (i.e., older person in a high-status position) should change perceptions of older adults' social status. Study 1 (60 countries, N = 86,026, 18-99 years) showed that people in countries with an older relative to a younger political leader do not perceive as great a decline in social status from middle-aged to older adults. Study 2 (N = 131; 19-74 years) tested the causal link demonstrating that participants exposed to older exemplars holding a prestigious occupational position were significantly more likely to rate older adults as having a relative higher social status. We discuss implications for future interventions to change negative age-related stereotypes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
This dissertation examined the relationship between Asian international doctoral students' self-regulation on academic and social integration and explored how acculturation tendencies function as a mediator between self-regulated learning and academic and social integration. Previous research has indicated that self-regulated learning has a great…
Xu, Wei; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Ping; Zhong, Aimei; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A; Hong, Seok J
Mucosal wounds heal more rapidly, exhibit less inflammation, and are associated with minimal scarring when compared with equivalent cutaneous wounds. We previously demonstrated that cutaneous epithelium exhibits an exaggerated response to injury compared with mucosal epithelium. We hypothesized that treatment of injured skin with a semiocclusive dressing preserves the hydration of the skin and results in a wound healing phenotype that more closely resembles that of mucosa. Here we explored whether changes in hydration status alter epidermal gene expression patterns in rabbit partial-thickness incisional wounds. Using microarray studies on injured epidermis, we showed that global gene expression patterns in highly occluded versus non-occluded wounds are distinct. Many genes including IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase 2) are upregulated in non-occluded wounds compared with highly occluded wounds. In addition, decreased levels of hydration resulted in an increased expression of proinflammatory genes in human ex vivo skin culture (HESC) and stratified keratinocytes. Hierarchical analysis of genes using RNA interference showed that both TNF-α and IL-1β regulate the expression of IL-8 through independent pathways in response to reduced hydration. Furthermore, both gene knockdown and pharmacological inhibition studies showed that COX-2 mediates the TNF-α/IL-8 pathway by increasing the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). IL-8 in turn controls the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in keratinocytes. Our data show that hydration status directly affects the expression of inflammatory signaling in the epidermis. The identification of genes involved in the epithelial hydration pathway provides an opportunity to develop strategies to reduce scarring and optimize wound healing.
Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A
Both social stratification (e.g., social rank) as well as economic resources (e.g., income) are thought to contribute to socioeconomic health disparities. It has been proposed that subjective socioeconomic status (an individual's perception of his or her hierarchical rank) provides increased predictive utility for physical health over and above more traditional, well-researched socioeconomic constructs such as education, occupation, and income. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies examining the association of subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health adjusting for at least 1 measure of objective SES. The final sample included 31 studies and 99 unique effects. Meta-analyses were performed to: (a) estimate the overlap among subjective and objective indicators of SES and (b) estimate the cumulative association of subjective SES with physical health adjusting for objective SES. Potential moderators such as race and type of health indicator assessed (global self-reports vs. more specific and biologically based indicators) were also examined. Across samples, subjective SES shows moderate overlap with objective indicators of SES, but associations are much stronger in Whites than Blacks. Subjective SES evidenced a unique cumulative association with physical health in adults, above and beyond traditional objective indicators of SES (Z = .07, SE = .01, p Subjective SES may provide unique information relevant to understanding disparities in health, especially self-rated health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
This study examines whether social networks have differential effects on mammography use depending on poverty status. Data were analyzed on US women (40+), employing logistic regression and simple slope analyses for a post hoc probing of moderating effects. Among women not in poverty, living with a spouse/partner and attending church, regardless of frequency, were positively associated with mammography use; family size was negatively associated. Among women living in poverty, mammography showed a positive association only with weekly church attendance. Mammography was negatively associated with health-related social interactions occurring through the Internet. Post hoc probing showed significant moderating effects of poverty on the relationship between online health-related interactions and mammography use. To make the Internet a meaningful health empowerment tool for women in poverty, future research should identify how health-related interactions that occur online affect women in poverty's psychological and behavioral reactions that will contribute to our understanding of why they are discouraged from having mammograms. The mechanisms behind the differential effects of church attendance and poverty status on mammography also need further clarification.
Culumber, Zachary W; Monks, Scott
In each population of the livebearing fish Xiphophorus variatus, only a small portion of the adult males develop bright yellow-red (YR) coloration on the dorsal and caudal fins. Here we characterized the dominance hierarchy in X. variatus and tested whether YR coloration is related to a male's position in the hierarchy and can therefore serve as a reliable cue to rival males. Populations varied considerably in the frequency of YR males. Across all populations, males with YR coloration were significantly larger than the rest of the males in the population. Observations of aggressive interactions among males in small groups in the laboratory revealed a sized-based dominance hierarchy with YR males at the top. Aggression was more common among males of a similar size and fighting increased as male body size differences decreased. However, despite the reliability of YR coloration as a signal of dominance status, males at lower social ranks did not avoid aggression with YR males and YR males did not experience fewer aggressive attacks compared to non-YR males. Our findings demonstrate that fin coloration is a reliable cue of a male's social status but rival males appear to not use this information to avoid potentially costly interactions with dominant males, suggesting that YR fin coloration has not evolved as a cue in agonistic interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231
Ro, Annie E; Choi, Kyung-Hee
The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in North California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design.
Murdock, Kyle W; Seiler, Annina; Chirinos, Diana A; Garcini, Luz M; Acebo, Sally L; Cohen, Sheldon; Fagundes, Christopher P
Low subjective social status (SSS) in childhood places one at greater risk of a number of health problems in adulthood. Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that exposure to supportive parenting may buffer the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health. Given the importance of supportive caregivers and close others for the development of attachment orientations throughout the lifespan, attachment theory may be important for understanding why some individuals are resilient to the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health while others are not. We examined if attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance altered the association between childhood subjective social status (SSS) and length of telomeres in white blood cells in adulthood. Shorter telomere length is associated with increased risk of age-related diseases including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Participants (N = 128) completed self-report measures of childhood SSS and attachment orientations, as well as a blood draw. We found that among those with low childhood SSS, low attachment anxiety was associated with longer telomere length in white blood cells in comparison to high attachment anxiety controlling for participant age, sex, race, body mass index, and adult SSS. Among those with high childhood SSS, low attachment anxiety was associated with a slight decrease in telomere length. Attachment avoidance was unrelated to length of telomeres. Such findings provide further evidence for the role that close relationships may have on buffering SSS related health disparities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sanchón-Macias, Ma Visitación; Bover-Bover, Andreu; Prieto-Salceda, Dolores; Paz-Zulueta, María; Torres, Blanca; Gastaldo, Denise
This qualitative study was carried out to better understand factors that determine the subjective social status of Latin Americans in Spain. The study was conducted following a theoretical framework and forms part of broader study on subjective social status and health. Ten immigrant participants engaged in semi-structured interviews, from which data were collected. The study results show that socioeconomic aspects of the crisis and of policies adopted have shaped immigrant living conditions in Spain. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis were related to non-recognition of educational credentials, precarious working conditions, unemployment and loneliness. These results illustrate the outcomes of current policies on health and suggest a need for health professionals to orient practices toward social determinants, thus utilizing evaluations of subjective social status to reduce inequalities in health.
A role-playing intervention was developed and implemented in a fifth grade classroom. The goal of the intervention was to address serious problems that researchers have connected to dysfunctional collaborative interactions. These problems include an inability to: engage in important aspects of argumentation and communication, monitor and regulate group processes, and ensure equity in participation. To this end, a comprehensive theory of collaboration was presented to students through the use of four sociocognitive roles: mediation manager, collaboration manager, communication manager, and productivity manager. Each role came with a written guide that included specific goals and strategies related to the role. Metacognitive activities, including planning and reflection, were also used during class sessions to support students' understanding and role-use. Each of the students in the class was assigned one of the roles to manage during a two part collaborative science project. Students took quizzes on the roles and provided verbal and written feedback about their role-use and metacognitive activities. Students from one of the video-recorded groups were also interviewed after the intervention. Analyses of data from video sessions, quizzes, and interviews supported three important findings: (1) students were able to learn goals, and strategies for all of the roles, even though they only managed a single role, (2) students demonstrated the ability to take the information they learned and put it into practice, and (3) when students employed the roles while their group was working, members of the group accepted the role-use. These findings related to the learning and utilization of the roles are important because they: (1) imply that the intervention was successful at developing students' knowledge of the theory of collaboration that the roles represented, (2) indicate that students used this knowledge to monitor and regulate behaviors in an authentic context, and (3
Isabel Cristina BENTO
Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether what users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, think about a healthy diet and the challenges they face to eat healthy are associated with their household food security status. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,656 users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Socioeconomic and household food security data, and healthy-eating discourses were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were submitted to descriptive analyses for constructing frequency distribution tables, and to univariate analysis. Discourse analysis was based on the social representation theory. Results: To cut, reduce, avoid, not eat, eat less, and decrease carbohydrates, salt, meats, various beverages, and other foods are the most frequent changes (71.4% that food-secure users have made or intend to make. Food-insecure users intended to eat more fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and other foods (34.4%. The main obstacles food-secure and food-insecure users face to adopt a healthier diet are lack of time (82.9% and low income (53.5%, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: What users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte think about food and the obstacles they face to adopt a healthier diet are related to their household food security status. The results provide valuable data for effective proposals of food and nutrition education, which should act on the producers of subjectivity in this group and consider this group's food and nutrition security status.
Anyan, Jeff J; Seney, Marianne L; Holley, Amanda; Bengston, Lynn; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G; Holmes, Melissa M
We previously reported that in a eusocial rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), traditional neural sex differences were absent; instead, neural dimorphisms were associated with breeding status. Here we examined the same neural regions previously studied in naked mole-rats in a second eusocial species, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Damaraland mole-rats live in social groups with breeding restricted to a small number of animals. However, colony sizes are much smaller in Damaraland mole-rats than in naked mole-rats and there is consequently less reproductive skew. In this sense, Damaraland mole-rats may be considered intermediate in social organization between naked mole-rats and more traditional laboratory rodents. We report that, as in naked mole-rats, breeding Damaraland mole-rats have larger volumes of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus than do subordinates, with no effect of sex on these measures. Thus, these structures may play special roles in breeders of eusocial species. However, in contrast to what was seen in naked mole-rats, we also found sex differences in Damaraland mole-rats: volume of the medial amygdala and motoneuron number in Onuf's nucleus were both greater in males than in females, with no significant effect of breeding status. Thus, both sex and breeding status influence neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats. These findings are in accord with the observed sex differences in body weight and genitalia in Damaraland but not naked mole-rats. We hypothesize that the increased sexual dimorphism in Damaraland mole-rats relative to naked mole-rats is related to reduced reproductive skew. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pouwels, J Loes; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N
This study had three goals. First, we examined the prevalence of the participant roles of bullying in middle adolescence and possible gender differences therein. Second, we examined the behavioral and status characteristics associated with the participant roles in middle adolescence. Third, we compared two sets of criteria for assigning students to the participant roles of bullying. Participants were 1,638 adolescents (50.9% boys, M(age) = 16.38 years, SD =.80) who completed the shortened participant role questionnaire and peer nominations for peer status and behavioral characteristics. Adolescents were assigned to the participant roles according to the relative criteria of Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, Björkqvist, Österman, and Kaukiainen (1996). Next, the students in each role were divided in two subgroups based on an additional absolute criterion: the Relative Only Criterion subgroup (nominated by less than 10% of their classmates) and the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup (nominated by at least 10% of their classmates). Adolescents who bullied or reinforced or assisted bullies were highly popular and disliked and scored high on peer-valued characteristics. Adolescents who were victimized held the weakest social position in the peer group. Adolescents who defended victims were liked and prosocial, but average in popularity and peer-valued characteristics. Outsiders held a socially weak position in the peer group, but were less disliked, less aggressive, and more prosocial than victims. The behavior and status profiles of adolescents in the participant roles were more extreme for the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup than for the Relative Only Criterion subgroup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bowie, Bonnie H
This study explored the associations among childhood emotion regulation, overt aggression, relational aggression, and adolescent deviant social behaviors. Data were drawn from the Family Health Project, a longitudinal study conducted over 4 years. The sample consisted of 111 children at Time 1 who ranged in age from 51/2 to 12 years at Time 1 and 8 to 14 years at Time 3. A significant finding was that, for girls, lower emotion regulation predicted later relational aggression (beta = -2.95, P skills coupled with relational aggression were associated with deviant social behaviors. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke
The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand.......The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand....
Elhai, Jon D; Hall, Brian J; Erwin, Meredith Claycomb
A sample of 359 students participated in a web survey, administered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) as a pre-test. We subsequently randomly assigned subjects to either 1) a smart phone loss group or 2) social media accounts loss group. We asked them to imagine losing two days' access to the technology in their respective group, and rate associated symptoms using the DASS-21. Compared to subjects in the smartphone loss group, social media loss subjects evidenced stronger relations between suppressive emotion regulation with depression, anxiety and stress from imagined loss. Controlling for age and gender, social media loss subjects' increased use of suppression, and decreased use of cognitive reappraisal in emotion regulation, were related to depression, stress and (for suppression only) anxiety due to imagined lost social media. Emotion regulation was not related to psychopathology for subjects in the smartphone loss scenario. Results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be associated with psychopathology from social media loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Slough, Rachel Miller
Both parents and close friends are central figures in adolescents' emotional and psychological adjustment. However, little is known about how close friends socialize adolescents' emotions or how friends' socialization messages compare to those from parents in adolescence. The present study will explore how parents and friends discuss negative emotions with adolescents in relation to adolescents' emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms. Participants were 30 parent-adolescent-friend tri...
Jin-Myong Lee; Hyo-Jung Kim; Jong-Youn Rha
Consumers have a dual role as economic actors who purchase products and as citizens comprising society. Thus, consumers may experience conflict between pursuing personal values (i.e., low price and high quality) and social values (i.e., equity and common good). In addition, these choices can be affected by governmental regulation of retail markets. This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives toward socially responsible consumption (SRC) in the choice of grocery store format and to inve...
Sommet, Nicolas; Darnon, Céline; Mugny, Gabriel; Quiamzade, Alain; Pulfrey, Caroline; Dompnier, Benoît; Butera, Fabrizio
Socio-cognitive conflict has been defined as a situation of confrontation with a disagreeing other. Previous research suggests that individuals can regulate conflict in a relational way, namely by focusing on social comparison between relative levels of competences. Relational conflict regulation has been described as yielding particularly negative effects on social interactions and learning, but has been understudied. The present research addresses the question of the origin of relational conflict regulation by introducing a fundamental distinction between two types of regulation, one based on the affirmation of one's own point of view and the invalidation of the other's (i.e., 'competitive' regulation), the other corresponding to the protection of self-competence via compliance (i.e., 'protective' regulation). Three studies show that these modes of relational conflict regulation result from the endorsement of distinct performance goals, respectively, performance-approach goals (trying to outperform others) and performance-avoidance goals (avoiding performing more poorly than others). Theoretical implications for the literature on both conflict regulation and achievement goals are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Wang, Jianling; Tian, Gaoliang; Fan, Weiguo; Luo, Dan
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosure has attracted attention from regulatory bodies and academics over the past few decades. Due to the unreliability resulted from CSR voluntary disclosure, an increasing number of researchers are calling for more government regulation on CSR disclosure. Based on 1830 standalone CSR reports disclosed by the Chinese-listed firms during 2009-2012, we examine the effect of mandatory regulation on CSR\\ud reporting quality. We further hypothesize and te...
Demakakos, Panayotes; Biddulph, Jane P; de Oliveira, Cesar; Tsakos, Georgios; Marmot, Michael G
Self-perceptions of own social position are potentially a key aspect of socioeconomic inequalities in health, but their association with mortality remains poorly understood. We examined whether subjective social status (SSS), a measure of the self-perceived element of social position, was associated with mortality and its role in the associations between objective socioeconomic position (SEP) measures and mortality. We used Cox regression to model the associations between SSS, objective SEP measures and mortality in a sample of 9972 people aged ≥ 50 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing over a 10-year follow-up (2002-2013). Our findings indicate that SSS was associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer and other mortality. A unit decrease in the 10-point continuous SSS measure increased by 24 and 8% the mortality risk of people aged 50-64 and ≥ 65 years, respectively, after adjustment for age, sex and marital status. The respective estimates for cardiovascular mortality were 36 and 11%. Adjustment for all covariates fully explained the association between SSS and cancer mortality, and partially the remaining associations. In people aged 50-64 years, SSS mediated to a varying extent the associations between objective SEP measures and all-cause mortality. In people aged ≥ 65 years, SSS mediated to a lesser extent these associations, and to some extent was associated with mortality independent of objective SEP measures. Nevertheless, in both age groups, wealth partially explained the association between SSS and mortality. In conclusion, SSS is a strong predictor of mortality at older ages, but its role in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality appears to be complex.
Sánchez, Miguel A; León, Gabriel
Agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops are effective tools to substantially increase productivity, quality, and environmental sustainability in agricultural farming. Furthermore, they may contribute to improving the nutritional content of crops, addressing needs related to public health. Chile has become one of the most important global players for GM seed production for counter-season markets and research purposes. It has a comprehensive regulatory framework to carry out this activity, while at the same time there are numerous regulations from different agencies addressing several aspects related to GM crops. Despite imports of GM food/feed or ingredients for the food industry being allowed without restrictions, Chilean farmers are not using GM seeds for farming purposes because of a lack of clear guidelines. Chile is in a rather contradictory situation about GM crops. The country has invested considerable resources to fund research and development on GM crops, but the lack of clarity in the current regulatory situation precludes the use of such research to develop new products for Chilean farmers. Meanwhile, a larger scientific capacity regarding GM crop research continues to build up in the country. The present study maps and analyses the current regulatory environment for research and production of GM crops in Chile, providing an updated overview of the current status of GM seeds production, research and regulatory issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Despite the wealth of literature on social determinants of mental health, less is known about the intersection of these determinants. Using a nationally representative sample, this study aimed to study separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race, gender, and SES on the risk of major depressive episode (MDE among American adults. Methods: National Survey of American Life (NSAL included 3570 African Americans and 891 Whites. Race, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, household income, education, employment, and marital status were independent variables. Twelve-month MDE was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. A series of logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: In the pooled sample, race and household income, but not gender, education, employment, and marital status were associated with 12-month MDE. Gender interacted with the effects of income on MDE, suggesting that the association between household income and MDE is larger for women than men. In race by gender specific models that controlled for other SES indicators, high income was protective for White women, education was protective for African American women, and high income became a risk factor for African American men. High income did not show a risk effect for African American men in the absence of other SES indicators. Conclusions: Findings suggest that race, gender, and class interact on how SES indicators, such as education or income, become a protective or a risk factor for MDE among American Adults. When the outcome is MDE, White women benefit more from income, African American women gain from education, however, the residual effect of high income (above and beyond education, employment, and marital status may become a risk factor for African American men.
Tam, C L; Foo, Y C; Lee, T H
To examine gender differences in mental health and perceived social support, relationship between parents' income and mental health, and differences in mental health across education levels. A total of 303 students aged 16 to 26 years were recruited from Selangor, Malaysia. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Health Questionnaire were used to measure the level of perceived social support and the mental health status. Demographic data, including education level and parents' income, were also obtained. Females perceived significantly higher levels of overall social support than males (t = -2.7; p mental health status between males and females (t = -1.8; p > 0.05), as well as mental health status among different parental income groups (chi2 = 5.0; p > 0.05) and the education levels of the subjects (chi2 = 0.7; p > 0.05). A more favourable mental health status of the subjects was associated with higher parental incomes (r = -0.1; p mental health status in older adolescents and young adults. There was also a relationship between parental income and an individual's mental health status, but mental health was not related to their education level.
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef
While most studies on Internet pornography focus on individual's psychological characteristics, few have explored how social status itself is associated with Internet pornography use. As the Internet is becoming increasingly prevalent, online behaviors may have started to reflect the inequalities of the offline world. This study tested whether lower social status was associated with fewer sexual intercourse opportunities, and whether this led to higher likelihood of using Internet pornography as an alternative means of sexual release. To test the theory, I used the nationally representative sample of the General Social Survey of the U.S. between 2000 and 2004, with missing data handled by chained multiple imputation. The analyses found that lower income, longer working length, being unemployed, or a laborer in the social class strata were associated with fewer sexual intercourse opportunities as measured by three variables: marital status, the number of sex partners, and sex frequency. Lower income, less education, and longer working length were also associated with higher odds of using Internet pornography in the past 30 days, but only income was partially mediated by marital status. Social status was associated with Internet pornography use and sexual intercourse opportunities independently. The comparison of Internet pornography with the traditional X-rated movie found the unique features of Internet pornography use absent for X-rated movie.
Mooney, S J; Coen, C W; Holmes, M M; Beery, A K
Naturally occurring variations in neuropeptide receptor distributions in the brain contribute to numerous mammalian social behaviors. In naked mole-rats, which live in large social groups and exhibit remarkable reproductive skew, colony-related social behaviors vary with reproductive status. Here we examined whether variation in social status is associated with variations in the location and/or density of oxytocin binding in this species. Autoradiography was performed to assess forebrain oxytocin receptor (OTR) densities in breeding and non-breeding naked mole-rats of both sexes. Overall, males exhibited higher OTR binding in the medial amygdala in comparison to females. While there were no main effects of reproductive status in any region, a sex difference in OTR binding in the nucleus accumbens was mediated by status. Specifically, breeding males tended to have more OTR binding than breeding females in the nucleus accumbens, while no sex difference was observed in subordinates. These effects suggest that oxytocin may act in a sex- and region-specific way that corresponds to reproductive status and associated social behaviors. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duran, Xavier; Vanroelen, Christophe; Deboosere, Patrick; Benavides, Fernando G
To assess differences in mortality rates between social security statuses in two independent samples of Belgian and Spanish male workers. Study of two retrospective cohorts (Belgium, n=23,607; Spain, n=44,385) of 50-60 year old male employees with 4 years of follow-up. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Mortality for subjects with permanent disability was higher than for the employed, for both Belgium [MRR=4.56 (95% CI: 2.88-7.21)] and Spain [MRR=7.15 (95% CI: 5.37-9.51)]. For the unemployed/early retirees, mortality was higher in Spain [MRR=1.64 (95% CI: 1.24-2.17)] than in Belgium [MRR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.46-1.71)]. MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Parajuli, Sandesh; Singh, Jagmeet; Sandal, Shaifali; Liebman, Scott E; Demme, Richard A
Kidney transplantation (KTX) is considered the treatment of choice for most individuals with end-stage kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the employment status and social participation after successful KTX. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Eligible participants were patients who received a transplant ≥1 year ago and who were previously on hemodialysis (HD) for ≥1 year. Two hundred individuals participated in this study. A significant number (93.5%) of patients reported they were working prior to HD versus 35% while on HD. Only 14% reported receiving disability benefits prior to HD versus 75% receiving disability while on HD. Comparing transplant recipients with pre-HD patients, 35.5% versus 93.5% reported working, and 74.5% versus 14% reported receiving disability benefits, respectively. After transplant, patients were more likely to join recreational clubs, travel frequently, and participate in recreational/religious activities and social events than when they were on HD. Posttransplant, these individuals are more likely to participate in social and leisure activities, but the majority did not resume employment and continued to receive disability payments. Future studies could explore barriers to employment in patients who underwent successful transplantation and the causes and factors as to why these individuals continue to receive disability benefits. © 2016, NATCO.
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol
Our objective was to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status and subjective social class on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) vs. overall quality of life (QOL). We performed a longitudinal analysis using data regarding 8250 individuals drawn from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). We analyzed differences between HRQOL and QOL in individuals of various socioeconomic strata (high, middle, or low household income and education levels) and subjective social classes (high, middle, or low) at baseline (2009). Individuals with low household incomes and of low subjective social class had the highest probability of reporting discrepant HRQOL and QOL scores (B: 4.796; P socioeconomic status. In conclusion, both household income/subjective social class and education/subjective social class were found to have an impact on the degree of divergence between QOL and HRQOL. Therefore, in designing interventions, socioeconomic inequalities should be taken into account through the use of multi-dimensional measurement tools.
Cai, Wen-Peng; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Shui-Miao; Wei, Cun; Dong, Wei; Deng, Guang-Hui
The current study aimed to explore the association of cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers and to understand the multiple mediation effects of social support and resilience on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. A total of 1477 male soldiers completed mental scales, including the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire-Chinese version, the perceived social support scale, the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and the military acute stress scale. As hypothesized, physiological responses, psychological responses, and acute stress were associated with negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation, and negatively associated with positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social supports and resilience. Besides, positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience were significantly associated with one another, and negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation was negatively associated with social support. Regression analysis and bootstrap analysis showed that social support and resilience had partly mediating effects on negative strategies and acute stress, and fully mediating effects on positive strategies and acute stress. These results thus indicate that military acute stress is significantly associated with cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience, and that social support and resilience have multiple mediation effects on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramona O. NICOLESCU
Full Text Available This paper is trying to prove how social normality should start from a prescriptive, judicial reflection of democratic rationality in social-economic relations instead of starting from the generalization of exceptions under the form of normativity.From the point of view of realistic systemic knowledge, “real levels” and “necessary levels”, as well as the rational interaction between them can be determined sufficiently accurate for all social sub-systems, based on present knowledge. The necessary and sufficient condition is that self-regulatory decisions are independent of the speculative groups of the society (i.e. of politics and oligopolies. There are numberless approaches for separating governance from politics but the social power which supports these approaches is still incomparably smaller than the power of those who do not want social normality. Therefore, the study of economy (different economic methods proposed by economists is relevant for understanding social self-regulation and the role of “social power” in this self-regulation.
Nikitishin Andriy О.
Full Text Available The economic essence of the contemporary tax regulation as part of the social development of society has been disclosed, and its importance in the strategy of socio-economic development of society has been demonstrated. Directions, typical instruments and elements of the national tax regulation of the social sphere have been allocated. The main financial instruments for family support in the European Union Member States are presented and systematized, their multidirectedness and absence of a unified approach have been identified. It has been found that the result of tax reforms in the OECD countries in the early XXIst century is reducing the average rates of income tax on individuals and the social security contributions for employees and employers. Methodical and practical recommendations have been developed to assess the effectiveness of implementation of the social content of tax and budget policy on the basis of the maximum potential social tax quota in the current institutional conditions that will facilitate the enhancement of their role, synchronicity of implementation, and synergistic effects in the social development of society. An analysis of the indicators of implementation of the social content of tax policy in Ukraine in 2014-2016 has been carried out, its main tendencies have been defined.
Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka
The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia
Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Brandt, Mark J
System justification theory (SJT) posits that members of low-status groups are more likely to see their social systems as legitimate than members of high-status groups because members of low-status groups experience a sense of dissonance between system motivations and self/group motivations (Jost, Pelham, Sheldon, & Sullivan, 2003). The author examined the status-legitimacy hypothesis using data from 3 representative sets of data from the United States (American National Election Studies and General Social Surveys) and throughout the world (World Values Survey; total N across studies = 151,794). Multilevel models revealed that the average effect across years in the United States and countries throughout the world was most often directly contrary to the status-legitimacy hypothesis or was practically zero. In short, the status-legitimacy effect is not a robust phenomenon. Two theoretically relevant moderator variables (inequality and civil liberties) were also tested, revealing weak evidence, null evidence, or contrary evidence to the dissonance-inspired status-legitimacy hypothesis. In sum, the status-legitimacy effect is not robust and is unlikely to be the result of dissonance. These results are used to discuss future directions for research, the current state of SJT, and the interpretation of theoretically relevant but contrary and null results. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available Background Annual four to five thousand babies are born with hearing loss in the Iran. Hearing impairment is a disability that affects the quality of life of people with this problem. These individuals need to support from family and friends because of their specific conditions that this received support has impact on their quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the status of perceived social support and quality of life of hearing-impaired adolescent. Material and Methods A cross-correlation study was performed with cluster and multi stage random sampling method on 83 students with hearing impairment who met the inclusion criteria of the study in Mashhad. The data collection tools included Pediatric quality of life inventory (adolescent form and perceived social support inventory (from family and friends.The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed through SPSS software version 16. Results The results showed that the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life (%51.8. But the majority of them reported perceived social support from family was moderate (%61.5 and from friends was week (%45.8. Also there was a significant relationship between category of total quality of life of adolescent viewpoint with perceived social support from family (P=0.056. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life. Disability and condition of these persons affects quality of life of them, so need for adequate support from family, friends and society. Nurses play an important role in identifying and introduce these needs and condition and how to deal with them.
Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors’ teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact
Ullrich-French, Sarah; Cox, Anne E.; Cooper, Brittany Rhoades
Previous research has used cluster analysis to examine how social physique anxiety (SPA) combines with motivation in physical education. This study utilized a more advanced analytic approach, latent profile analysis (LPA), to identify profiles of SPA and motivation regulations. Students in grades 9-12 (N = 298) completed questionnaires at two time…
Tjalla, Awaluddin; Sofiah, Evi
This research aims to reveal the influence of learning methods and self-regulated learning on students learning scores for Social Studies object. The research was done in Islamic Junior High School (MTs Manba'ul Ulum), Batuceper City Tangerang using quasi-experimental method. The research employed simple random technique to 28 students. Data were…
Fisher, Sebern F.
This case study examines the effects of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training on affect regulation in a fifty-five year-old man with a history marked by fear, rage, alcoholism, chronic unemployment and multiple failed treatments. He had been diagnosed with ADHD and attachment disorder and met criteria for anti-social personality disorder. The…
Hastings, Paul D.; Sullivan, Caroline; McShane, Kelly E.; Coplan, Robert J.; Utendale, William T.; Vyncke, Johanna D.
Parental supportiveness and protective overcontrol and preschoolers' parasympathetic regulation were examined as predictors of temperamental inhibition, social wariness, and internalizing problems. Lower baseline vagal tone and weaker vagal suppression were expected to mark poorer dispositional self-regulatory capacity, leaving children more…
Anikina, Yu; Litovchenko, V.
Theories of estimation of differentiation of social-economic development of territorial units in city agglomeration are discussed in the article. Approbation of the given methods helped find out successfulness of the regulation of municipal development of administrative-territorial units in Krasnoyarsk agglomeration, set the goals of regional policy on peculiarities of development of the phenomenon of differentiation.
Molenaar, Inge; Roda, Claudia; van Boxtel, Carla; Sleegers, Peter
The aim of this study is to test the effects of dynamically scaffolding social regulation of middle school students working in a computer-based learning environment. Dyads in the scaffolding condition (N=56) are supported with computer-generated scaffolds and students in the control condition (N=54) do not receive scaffolds. The scaffolds are…
Bayindir, Dilan; Güven, Gülçin; Sezer, Türker; Aksin-Yavuz, Ezgi; Yilmaz, Elif
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between maternal acceptance-rejection levels and preschool children's social competence and emotion regulation skills. The study group of the research, which was designed in survey method, consisted of 303 voluntary mother-child dyad. The participant children were attending a preschool…
Molenaar, I.; Roda, Claudia; van Boxtel, Carla A.M.; Sleegers, P.J.C.
The aim of this study is to test the effects of dynamically scaffolding social regulation of middle school students working in a computer-based learning environment. Dyads in the scaffolding condition (N = 56) are supported with computer-generated scaffolds and students in the control condition (N =
Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge
This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…
Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances; Schneeweiss, David; Wood, Megan A.
Based on cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and organismic integration theory (OIT)--both sub-theories of self-determination theory (SDT)--the present study examined whether the academic self-regulation of youth with test anxiety can be strengthened through social and motivational relationships with peers and teachers. This study employed a large…
Lunkenheimer, E.S.; Hollenstein, T.P.; Wang, J.; Shields, A.M.
Familial emotion socialization practices relate to children's emotion regulation (ER) skills in late childhood, however, we have more to learn about how the context and structure of these interactions relates to individual differences in children's ER. The present study examined flexibility and
Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line
Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy.
Lebowitz, Matthew S; Dovidio, John F
Empathic concern-a sense of caring and compassion in response to the needs of others-is a type of emotional response to the plights and misfortunes of others that predicts positive social attitudes and altruistic interpersonal behaviors. One psychological process that has been posited to facilitate empathic concern is the ability to regulate one's own emotions. However, existing research links some emotion-regulation approaches (e.g., suppression) to social outcomes that would appear at odds with empathic concern, such as decreased interpersonal closeness. In the present research, we tested whether relying on suppression to regulate one's emotions would lead to decreases in empathic concern-and related downstream variables, such as negative social attitudes and unwillingness to engage in altruistic behavior-when learning about another person's misfortune. In Study 1, dispositional and instructionally induced suppression was negatively associated with empathic concern, which led to increased stigmatizing attitudes. By contrast, instructing participants to use another emotion-regulation strategy examined for comparison-reappraisal-did not decrease empathic concern, and dispositional reliance on reappraisal was actually positively associated with empathic concern. In Study 2, the findings of Study 1 regarding the effects of habitual use of reappraisal and suppression were replicated, and reliance on suppression was also found to be associated with reluctance to engage in helping behaviors. These findings are situated within the existing literature and employed to shed new light on the interpersonal consequences of intrapersonal emotion-regulation strategies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
transferring the nucleus of a somatic cell from one woman into an enucleated egg of another. In that case, the child would not have genetic father at all. Bearing in mind the new artificial reproduction technologies and their influence to legal rules of establishment of the family status of the child, it could be said that the legal principle of the autonomy of the parties is widened in comparison to material truth. People who wish to be parents become legal parents although they are not generic parents. Sometimes they cannot be genetic parents due to their infertility and sometimes because they are of the same sex. As a result of artificial reproduction technologies, a child could have a genetic link with one of the parents, only with a mother - in the heterologous insemination, only a father - as in egg donation and genetic surrogacy. The child could have genetic link with both of the parents - as in the gestational surrogacy, or it could have no genetic links with his/her legal parents - as in embryo donation. According to some European legislatures, it is possible for the child to have a mother and the other female parent, or a father and the other male parent. Surrogate mother, as well as donors of the genetic material, are not considered as parents. Radical change in social and individual perception of parenthood could accept the fact the child could have more than two parents with different roles (biological - genetic parents, gestational mother, social - legal parents.
showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According......This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) years were randomized into a group...... playing floorball (n = 22) or a group playing petanque (n = 17) one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping...
Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio
Few studies have used structural equation modeling to analyze the effects of variables on violence against women. The present study analyzed the effects of socioeconomic status and social support on violence against pregnant women who used prenatal services. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA). The sample of the municipality of São Luís (Maranhão/Brazil) consisted of 1,446 pregnant women interviewed in 2010 and 2011. In the proposed model, socioeconomic status was the most distal predictor, followed by social support that determined general violence, psychological violence or physical/sexual violence, which were analyzed as latent variables. Violence was measured by the World Health Organization Violence against Women (WHO VAW) instrument. The São Luis model was estimated using structural equation modeling and validated with 1,378 pregnant women from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil). The proposed model showed good fit for general, psychological and physical/sexual violence for the São Luís sample. Socioeconomic status had no effect on general or psychological violence (p>0.05), but pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status reported more episodes of physical/sexual violence (standardized coefficient, SC = -0.136; p = 0.021). This effect of socioeconomic status was indirect and mediated by low social support (SC = -0.075; psocioeconomic status. Physical/sexual violence was more common for pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and lower social support. Better social support contributed to reduction of all types of violence. Results were nearly the same for the validation sample of Ribeirão Preto except that SES was not associated with physical/sexual violence.
Pica, Emily; Sheahan, Chelsea; Pozzulo, Joanna
There have been several recent, high-profile cases in the media that have shed light on the perceived leniency in sentencing defendants in sexual assault cases. In a number of these cases, the defendant was well known within their community (e.g., Brock Turner; People v. Turner) or nationally (e.g., Ghomeshi; R v. Ghomeshi). The purpose of this study was to examine how the social status of the defendant (low vs. high), victim social status (low vs. high), victim gender (male vs. female), and the reason the victim was unconscious during the assault (consuming alcohol vs. consuming cold medicine) influenced mock jurors' decisions in a sexual assault case. Mock jurors ( N = 489) read a mock trial transcript depicting an alleged sexual assault. Mock jurors were asked to render a dichotomous verdict, continuous guilt rating, and rate their perceptions of the victim and defendant. There was no influence of the variables on mock jurors' dichotomous verdicts; however, social status influenced guilt ratings. There also was a combined influence of the defendant's social status and the reason the victim was unconscious such that when the defendant was described as low status, and the victim was unconscious due to alcohol consumption, the defendant received higher guilt ratings compared with when the victim was unconscious due to cold medicine. Moreover, the victim was perceived as having more control over the situation when the defendant was the star quarterback (i.e., high status), the victim was female, and she was unconscious due to alcohol consumption compared with cold medicine. These results suggest that victims may be blamed based on their perceived social status and other factors that may have influenced their control over the sexual assault, such as alcohol consumption.
Full Text Available This paper was presented at the first meeting of the NSU study group “Conceptions of ethical and social values in post-secular society: Towards a new ethical imagination in a cosmopolitan world society”, held on January 28-30, 2011 at Copenhagen Business School. First, this paper examines the voluntary (ethical v. mandatory (legal basis of corporate social responsibility (CSR. Second, it examines the relationship between CSR, law and business ethics. Third, it tries to answer the question if there is a need for a hard legal regulation of CSR within international supply relationships or if ethical norms, e.g. expressed in the form of self-regulation, may better serve the purpose. And finally, it suggests possible ways for the future development of suitable regulatory methods for enhancing social standards within international supply chains. The questions are approached solely from the perspectives of legal theory and socio-legal analysis.
French, Jeffrey A.; Taylor, Jack H.; Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Cavanaugh, Jon
Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are important hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate peripheral physiology, and have emerged as important modulators of brain function, particularly in the social realm. OT structure and the genes that ultimately determine structure are highly conserved among diverse eutherian mammals, but recent discoveries have identified surprising variability in OT and peptide structure in New World monkeys (NWM), with five new OT variants identified to date. This review explores these new findings in light of comparative OT/AVP ligand evolution, documents coevolutionary changes in the oxytocin and vasopressin receptors (OTR and V1aR), and highlights the distribution of neuropeptidergic neurons and receptors in the primate brain. Finally, the behavioral consequences of OT and AVP in regulating NWM sociality are summarized, demonstrating important neuromodulatory effects of these compounds and OT ligand-specific influences in certain social domains. PMID:27020799
Asting, Annika Gustafsson; Carén, Helena; Andersson, Marianne; Lönnroth, Christina; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Lundholm, Kent
Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4) showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3) were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue
Benton Shana M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione (GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG and cysteine (Cys/cystine (CySS are major redox pools with important roles in cytoprotection. We determined the impact of septic peritonitis on thiol-disulfide redox status in mice. Methods FVB/N mice (6–12 week old; 8/group underwent laparotomy with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP or laparotomy alone (control. Sections of ileum, colon, lung and liver were obtained and GSH, GSSG, Cys and CySS concentrations determined by HPLC 24 h after laparotomy. Redox potential [Eh in millivolts (mV] of the GSH/GSSG and Cys/CySS pools was calculated using the Nernst equation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (mean ± SE. Results GSH/GSSG Eh in ileum, colon, and liver was significantly oxidized in septic mice versus control mice (ileum: septic −202±4 versus control −228±2 mV; colon: -195±8 versus −214±1 mV; and liver: -194±3 vs. -210±1 mV, all Ph was unchanged with CLP, while liver and lung Cys/CySS Eh became significantly more reducing (liver: septic = −103±3 versus control −90±2 mV; lung: -101±5 versus −81±1 mV, each P Conclusions Septic peritonitis induced by CLP oxidizes ileal and colonic GSH/GSSG redox but Cys/CySS Eh remains unchanged in these intestinal tissues. In liver, CLP oxidizes the GSH/GSSG redox pool and CyS/CySS Eh becomes more reducing; in lung, CLP does not alter GSH/GSSG Eh, and Cys/CySS Eh is less oxidized. CLP-induced infection/inflammation differentially regulates major thiol-disulfide redox pools in this murine model.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Method Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Results Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4 showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3 were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Conclusions Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue.
Roberts, Nicole A; Burleson, Mary H
Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18-30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities-including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group-relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders.
Roberts, Nicole A.; Burleson, Mary H.
Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18–30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders. PMID:23450647
Full Text Available Abstract Background Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. Methods The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Results Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. Conclusions We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action.
Background Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. Methods The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Results Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. Conclusions We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action. PMID:21356076
Hormes, Julia M; Kearns, Brianna; Timko, C Alix
To assess disordered online social networking use via modified diagnostic criteria for substance dependence, and to examine its association with difficulties with emotion regulation and substance use. Cross-sectional survey study targeting undergraduate students. Associations between disordered online social networking use, internet addiction, deficits in emotion regulation and alcohol use problems were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses of covariance. A large University in the Northeastern United States. Undergraduate students (n = 253, 62.8% female, 60.9% white, age mean = 19.68, standard deviation = 2.85), largely representative of the target population. The response rate was 100%. Disordered online social networking use, determined via modified measures of alcohol abuse and dependence, including DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale and the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener (CAGE) screen, along with the Young Internet Addiction Test, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, White Bear Suppression Inventory and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Disordered online social networking use was present in 9.7% [n = 23; 95% confidence interval (5.9, 13.4)] of the sample surveyed, and significantly and positively associated with scores on the Young Internet Addiction Test (P addictive. Modified measures of substance abuse and dependence are suitable in assessing disordered online social networking use. Disordered online social networking use seems to arise as part of a cluster of symptoms of poor emotion regulation skills and heightened susceptibility to both substance and non-substance addiction. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Nicole A Roberts
Full Text Available Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18 to 30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (n=82; MAs or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n=234 and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one’s own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders.
One major area of discussion during the 2005 process of initially codifying Muslim personal status law in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were regulations regarding the divorced mother's right to custody of her minor children. The new rules regarding the allocation and duration of female custodianship are the outcome of fiery debates among various actors involved in the codification process. The new codified custody rules differ from traditional Islamic law and concede large discretionary powe...
Neece, C; Baker, B
Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children's early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Chuang; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping
The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships among mental health status, demographic characteristics, and social contexts, including family conflict and support, connectedness to school, and affiliation with peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who use substances, among Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents. A total of 251 aboriginal junior high school students in an isolated mountainous area of southern Taiwan were recruited, and the relationships among mental health status, demographic characteristics, and social contexts among them were examined using a structural equation model (SEM). The SEM revealed that family conflict and support had direct influences on mental health status and connectedness to school. Family conflict had a direct relationship with affiliation with peers who use substances, and family conflict and support were both indirectly linked with affiliation with peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who used substances; these were mediated by a poor mental health status. Female and older age were directly linked with a poor mental health status and were indirectly linked with a greater number of peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who use substances via the poor mental health status. Disruptive parenting was directly linked with affiliation with peers who use substances. The authors suggest that those who devise strategies to improve aboriginal adolescents' mental health and discourage substance use should take these relationships among mental health, demographic characteristics, and social contexts into account.
Klanšček, Helena Jeriček; Ziberna, Janina; Korošec, Aleš; Zurc, Joca; Albreht, Tit
Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on adolescents' mental health status in Slovenia in the future.
Craven, Meredith R; Keefer, Laurie; Rademaker, Alfred; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa
Social support is an important factor in increasing positive health outcomes and positive health behaviors across a variety of disease states including obesity. However, research examining the relationship between social support for exercise and weight and physical activity status, particularly among Latino men, is lacking. This paper examined whether social support for exercise predicted weight and physical activity status and whether the direction of these relationships differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background (Puerto Rican/Mexican). Participants were 203 men who participated in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study addressing culture- and obesity-related variables. Both family participation social support and f amily rewards and punishment social support predicted higher weight status ( p social support did not predict weight status. The direction of the relationship between weight status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. The direction of the relationship between physical activity status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. Findings suggest that increased social support for exercise from family members may be focused on those who need it most-overweight and obese participants. Additional research is needed to explore sociocultural factors that may promote social support, physical activity, and weight loss and maintenance in Puerto Rican and Mexican men.
Heitlinger, Emanuel; Ferreira, Susana C M; Thierer, Dagmar; Hofer, Heribert; East, Marion L
In mammals, two factors likely to affect the diversity and composition of intestinal bacteria (bacterial microbiome) and eukaryotes (eukaryome) are social status and age. In species in which social status determines access to resources, socially dominant animals maintain better immune processes and health status than subordinates. As high species diversity is an index of ecosystem health, the intestinal biome of healthier, socially dominant animals should be more diverse than those of subordinates. Gradual colonization of the juvenile intestine after birth predicts lower intestinal biome diversity in juveniles than adults. We tested these predictions on the effect of: (1) age (juvenile/adult) and (2) social status (low/high) on bacterial microbiome and eukaryome diversity and composition in the spotted hyena ( Crocuta crocuta ), a highly social, female-dominated carnivore in which social status determines access to resources. We comprehensively screened feces from 35 individually known adult females and 7 juveniles in the Serengeti ecosystem for bacteria and eukaryotes, using a set of 48 different amplicons (4 for bacterial 16S, 44 for eukaryote 18S) in a multi-amplicon sequencing approach. We compared sequence abundances to classical coprological egg or oocyst counts. For all parasite taxa detected in more than six samples, the number of sequence reads significantly predicted the number of eggs or oocysts counted, underscoring the value of an amplicon sequencing approach for quantitative measurements of parasite load. In line with our predictions, our results revealed a significantly less diverse microbiome in juveniles than adults and a significantly higher diversity of eukaryotes in high-ranking than low-ranking animals. We propose that free-ranging wildlife can provide an intriguing model system to assess the adaptive value of intestinal biome diversity for both bacteria and eukaryotes.
Umphress, Elizabeth E; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Brief, Arthur P; Dietz, Joerg; Watkins, Marla Baskerville
Although similarity-attraction notions suggest that similarity--for example, in terms of values, personality, and demography--attracts, the authors found that sometimes demographic similarity attracts and sometimes it repels. Consistent with social dominance theory (J. Sidanius & F. Pratto, 1999), they demonstrated in 3 studies that when prospective employees supported group-based social hierarchies (i.e., were high in social dominance orientation), those in high-status groups were attracted to demographic similarity within an organization, whereas those in low-status groups were repelled by it. An important theoretical implication of the findings is that social dominance theory and traditional similarity-attraction notions together help explain a more complex relationship between demographic similarity and attraction than was previously acknowledged in the organizational literature. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Santos CRESPO ORTIZ DE ZÁRATE
Full Text Available SUMMARY: The cognomen Germanus in Hispania shows a social status of servile origin in most of the cases in which it appears. It was widely and almost exclusively used during the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D. amongst slaves or freed slaves. The appearance of the name in the Peninsula must be related to the war events on the Rhine limes during this time. Its development in Hispania is due mainly to owners of slaves imposing it on their workers as onomastic, or to military men who also passed it on to their bondmen or their own offspring. It is likely that both have been in touch, some way or other, with German territories. Several bearers of the cognomen are Hispanic, others Greek, and some others might have been people from German territories who have been imported to the Peninsula. The derived terms of the cognomen are almost non-existent. In any case, the origin of the name defines the servile social origin of its bearers.
Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira
Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck's Depression, Spielberger's Anxiety, Cohen's Perceived Stress, Sarason's Perceived Social Support and WHO's Domestic Violence Inventory. The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families.
Aleksandr V. Polukarov
Full Text Available Objective to show the capabilities of administrativelegal regulation for combating the causes and conditions determining corrupt behavior in the social sphere. Methods dialectic approach to cognition of social phenomena enabling to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods analysis synthesis comparison systematic formallegal comparativelegal methods. Results the reasons and conditions determining the corruption in the social sphere were disclosed this leads to the conclusion that corruption counteraction should be based on 1 recognition of the social sphere as the key object of protection against corruption 2 elaboration of special administrativelegal means of corruption counteraction in the social sphere. It is necessary to take into account the features of social relations in such sectors as education healthcare culture physical culture and sports etc. A number of foreign countries took the path of developing legislation on corruption counteraction taking into account the specifics of various social sphere segments functioning. This experience is quite interesting from the viewpoint of developing means of combating the causes and conditions that determine corruption in the social sphere. A number of the Russian Federation subjects also elaborate regional programs of combating corruption in education healthcare and culture. In our opinion this experience should be transferred to the federal level of legal regulation. This will help to create a fullfledged system of corruption counteraction in the social sphere taking into account different levels of its functioning. Scientific novelty for the first time in administrativelegal science the ldquolaw of torts aspect of corruption in the social sphererdquo issue is considered the work reveals the causes and conditions that determine corruption in the social
Ren, Yonggang; Wyver, Shirley; Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Demuth, Katherine
Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to examine whether language skills and emotion regulation are associated with social competence and whether the relationship between English skills and social competence is moderated by emotion regulation in Mandarin-English bilingual preschoolers. The language skills of 96 children ages…
Yilmaz, Ramazan; Karaoglan Yilmaz, Fatma Gizem; Kilic Cakmak, Ebru
The purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of transactive memory system (TMS) and interaction platforms in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) on social presence perceptions and self-regulation skills of learners. Within the scope of the study, social presence perceptions and self-regulation skills of students in…
Diep, Judy; Fagnano, Maria; Tremblay, Paul; Halterman, Jill S
Subjective social status (SSS) is a person's perception of his/her social standing among others. We explored the relationship between caregivers' SSS and asthma symptoms, visits, and medication use among children with persistent asthma. We analyzed baseline data of children (3-10 years) from the SB-TEAM trial in Rochester, NY. Using a modified MacArthur Scale of SSS, caregivers rated themselves "a lot worse off" to "a lot better off" compared to 4 groups (e.g., neighbors). "Low SSS" was defined by a response of "a lot worse off" or "somewhat worse off" for any of the referent groups. Caregivers reported their child's asthma symptoms, healthcare visits for asthma, and medication use. Bivariate and multivariate statistics were used. We found that, of the 230 children enrolled (participation rate:78%, 62% Black, 72% Medicaid), 29% of caregivers had low SSS. Caregivers with low SSS had more depressive symptoms (46% vs. 28%) and lower social support (69.1 vs. 77.7). In multivariable analyses, children of caregivers with low SSS had fewer symptom-free days/2 weeks (5.8 vs. 7.9, p = .01). While they were more likely to have a routine asthma visit in the past year (35% vs. 23%, adjusted p = .03), there was no difference in their use of preventive medication. Many caregivers of children with persistent asthma report low SSS. While children of these caregivers had fewer symptom-free days, they were not more likely to use preventive medications. Efforts are needed to support these caregivers to ensure optimal preventive care and reduce morbidity.
Full Text Available Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measures the reflection of repliers to different social factors including social position, popularity, socialize, social manners, self-reliance, speech abilities, responsibility, etc. Data were gathered from a sample of 300 people using random sampling and analyzed using descriptive mono factor statistics, Spearman correlation, Kramer correlation coefficient, Chi-square, regression and path analysis. The validity of questionnaire is tested by using Cronbach alpha (%75. The results indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between woman’s educational level, age, residency status, socialization capability, urbanity, skill & ability and their employment. The study, however, does not find any relationship between marital status and number of children and outcome of woman’s employment.
Full Text Available Since self-regulation is important for development of cognitive and social skills in children and the role of gender differences in the relation is notable, this study was conducted for this purpose. Initially, 40 children (20 girls and 20 boys from two pre-schools of Meybod city were randomly chosen and assigned to two experimental and control groups. After performing Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test (WCSPD as the pre-test on all the children, a self-regulation training program was taught for 20 hours over a month to the experimental group with techniques of play and story therapy. Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test was then used as the post-test measure. The results of analysis of covariance showed that the difference between the means of the two grpups was significant (p0.0001, that is, the training group did better but the difference between the means of boys and girls in social problem solving was not significant. It was suggested that self-regulatory training during childhood be provided for both boys and girls to promote their social problem solving skills.
Wiefferink, Carin H; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; Frijns, Johan H M
The purpose of the present study was to compare children with a cochlear implant and normal hearing children on aspects of emotion regulation (emotion expression and coping strategies) and social functioning (social competence and externalizing behaviors) and the relation between emotion regulation and social functioning. Participants were 69 children with cochlear implants (CI children) and 67 normal hearing children (NH children) aged 1.5-5 years. Parents answered questionnaires about their children's language skills, social functioning, and emotion regulation. Children also completed simple tasks to measure their emotion regulation abilities. Cochlear implant children had fewer adequate emotion regulation strategies and were less socially competent than normal hearing children. The parents of cochlear implant children did not report fewer externalizing behaviors than those of normal hearing children. While social competence in normal hearing children was strongly related to emotion regulation, cochlear implant children regulated their emotions in ways that were unrelated with social competence. On the other hand, emotion regulation explained externalizing behaviors better in cochlear implant children than in normal hearing children. While better language skills were related to higher social competence in both groups, they were related to fewer externalizing behaviors only in cochlear implant children. Our results indicate that cochlear implant children have less adequate emotion-regulation strategies and less social competence than normal hearing children. Since they received their implants relatively recently, they might eventually catch up with their hearing peers. Longitudinal studies should further explore the development of emotion regulation and social functioning in cochlear implant children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santiago, Maria Marlucia Freitas; Frischkorn, Horst; Serejo, Alfredo Nelson Cabral; Studart, Ticiana; Mendes Filho, Josue
Hydraulic measures and tracing techniques shows a reply time from the Chapada do Araripe aquifer, to the pluvial water infiltration, in six months, coinciding with the dry season. Tritium and 14 C natural tracing measures and the conductivity at the Cariri basin indicate a quick reply to the direct infiltration by the recent water presence and old water contribution originated from the Chapada. It concludes that the economy and the social welfare are dependents of the underground water reserves and the climate through the precipitation regime, regulates and promote the social and economic development of the region
Kjærstad, Hanne L; Vinberg, Maj; Goldin, Philippe R
naturally or dampen their emotional response to positive and negative social scenarios and associated self-beliefs. They were also given an established experimental task for comparison, involving reappraisal of negative affective picture stimuli, as well as a questionnaire of habitual ER strategies. BD...... patients showed reduced ability to down-regulate emotional responses in negative, but not positive, social scenarios relative to healthy controls and UD patients. In contrast, there were no between-group differences in the established ER task or in self-reported habitual reappraisal strategies. Findings...
Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gainsbury, Sally M
While gambling has traditionally been viewed as an adult activity, there is a growing body of research that a significant number of adolescents are not only gambling but are experiencing gambling related problems. As ease of access via Internet wagering has increased, so too have some of the concomitant problems. Social casino gambling, often thought of gambling without risking one's money through the use of virtual currency, has become increasingly popular. The current review examines whether we should be concerned over its widespread use and whether such social games should be regulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guerrero, Erick G.
The emerging discourse on science in social work (SW) has generated much-needed analysis of the profession's status as a scientific enterprise. Brekke raised critical issues that must be addressed for SW to become a science. This response examines the contextual factors that led to the call for SW science. It also relies on a comparative…
Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, Åse; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervåg, Arne Ola
Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between…
Mokrova, Irina L.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart
Children who develop persistence in the preschool years are likely to function more effectively during the transition into school. In this study of 231 3-year-old children and their mothers, we examined the relations among family social status, maternal values of self-direction, quality of parenting, and children's persistence in challenging…
Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.; Tolsma, J.
This study scrutinizes the long-term effects of parental television socialization activities on their children's weight status measured through body mass index (BMI-score). We address the question how parental television habits and parental television mediation in childhood relate to a person's
Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok
The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…
Tukov, A.R.; Kleev, N.A.; Shafranskij, I.L.
The morbidity rate of the Russian atomic industry workers, the liquidators of ChNPP accident consequences and their future life span shorting with an account of their social status are evaluated. Tentative and standard morbidity values were calculated with an account of various social groups of the liquidators. Intensive values of the man-year losses were used in the methodology for evaluating the vital potential losses. The study results indicated considerable morbidity difference in certain diseases by the persons of various social groups, who took part in liquidation of the ChNPP accident consequences [ru
Scott, Kate M; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura H; Borges, Guilherme; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Fiestas, Fabian; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C W; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Williams, David R; Zakhozha, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C
The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures, such as educational level, income, and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture the perception of relative social status, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders. To estimate associations of SSS with DSM-IV mental disorders in multiple countries and to investigate whether the associations persist after comprehensive adjustment of OSS. Face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults in 18 countries in Asia, South Pacific, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East (N=56,085). Subjective social status was assessed with a self-anchoring scale reflecting respondent evaluations of their place in the social hierarchies of their countries in terms of income, educational level, and occupation. Scores on the 1 to 10 SSS scale were categorized into 4 categories: low (scores 1-3), low-mid (scores 4-5), high-mid (scores 6-7), and high (scores 8-10). Objective social status was assessed with a wide range of fine-grained objective indicators of income, educational level, and occupation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed the 12-month prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. The weighted mean survey response rate was 75.2% (range, 55.1%-97.2%). Graded inverse associations were found between SSS and all 16 mental disorders. Gross odds ratios (lowest vs highest SSS categories) in the range of 1.8 to 9.0 were attenuated but remained significant for all 16 disorders (odds ratio, 1.4-4.9) after adjusting for OSS indicators. This pattern of inverse association between SSS and mental disorders was significant in 14 of 18 individual countries, and in low-, middle-, and high
Studies dedicated to examination of self-regulation posit a bi-directional association between self-regulation and other variables including social connectedness, self-efficacy and self-control. However, to date, studies of this caliber have only evidenced that self-regulation is a predictor of other variables. In the present study, the factors…
Caetano, Silvana C; Silva, Cosme M F P; Vettore, Mario V
Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16-2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16-2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in older men, whereas low perceived social
Tang, Karen L; Pilote, Louise; Behlouli, Hassan; Godley, Jenny; Ghali, William A
Perception of low subjective social status (SSS) relative to others in society or in the community has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objectives were to determine whether low SSS in society was associated with barriers to access to care or hospital readmission in patients with established cardiovascular disease, and whether perceptions of discordantly high SSS in the community modified this association. We conducted a prospective cohort study from 2009 to 2013 in Canada, United States, and Switzerland in patients admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data on access to care and SSS variables were obtained at baseline. Readmission data were obtained 12 months post-discharge. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to model the odds of access to care and readmission outcomes in those with low versus high societal SSS. One thousand ninety patients admitted with ACS provided both societal and community SSS rankings. The low societal SSS cohort had greater odds of reporting that their health was affected by lack of health care access (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.11, 1.97) and of experiencing cardiac readmissions (1.88, 95% CI 1.15, 3.06). Within the low societal SSS cohort, there was a trend toward fewer access to care barriers for those with discordantly high community SSS though findings varied based on the outcome variable. There were no statistically significant differences in readmissions based on community SSS rankings. Low societal SSS is associated with increased barriers to access to care and cardiac readmissions. Though attenuated, these trends remained even when adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors, suggesting that perceived low societal SSS has health effects above and beyond objective socioeconomic factors. Furthermore, high community SSS may potentially mitigate the risk of experiencing barriers to access to health care in those with low societal SSS, though these associations were not
Antonov Georgiy Vyacheslavovich
Full Text Available Some results of the man complex research are presented in this article. Genetic, biophysical, biochemical, physiological, psychological and sociological methods of scientific information obtaining were used. This research reveals the ratio of genetic and psychosocial personality components. These components determine the forming of antisocial and prosocial human behavior. An individual set of phenotypic and genetic characteristics is defined in interrelation with sustainable symptoms of complex behaviors and predisposition to it. Methodic recommendations on revealing predisposition to deviant behavior, including aggressive one, written in the obtained results basis. It described the relationship of standard indicators of parental social status of the family in terms of students exhibiting signs of antisocial and prosocial behavior. To identify human predisposition to a certain type of social behavior, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents and family of origin as a whole was analyzed relations numerical values of a number of empirical indicators of social behavior and social status parameters parent families. Revealed that the level of education and activity of parents, as well as the birthplace of the person have a statistically significant effect on his social behavior.
McCorkel, Jill; Rodriquez, Jason
Current debates over identity politics hinge on the question of whether status-based social movements encourage parochialism and self-interest or create possibilities for mutual recognition across lines of difference. Our article explores this question through comparative, ethnographic study of two racially progressive social movements, “pro-black” abolitionism and “conscious” hip hop. We argue that status-based social movements not only enable collective identity, but also the personal identities or selves of their participants. Beliefs about the self create openings and obstacles to mutual recognition and progressive social action. Our analysis centers on the challenges that an influx of progressive, anti-racist whites posed to each movement. We examine first how each movement configured movement participation and racial identity and then how whites crafted strategic narratives of the self to account for their participation in a status-based movement they were not directly implicated in. We conclude with an analysis of the implications of these narratives for a critical politics of recognition. Keywords: identity politics, social movements, race, self, hip hop. PMID:21731113
Roberts, Nicole A.; Burleson, Mary H.
Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and redu...
Rashid, Hanin; Lebeau, Robert; Saks, Norma; Cianciolo, Anna T; Artino, Anthony R; Shea, Judy A; Ten Cate, Olle
This Conversation Starters article presents a selected research abstract from the 2016 Association of American Medical Colleges Northeast Region Group on Educational Affairs annual spring meeting. The abstract is paired with the integrative commentary of three experts who shared their thoughts stimulated by the pilot study. These thoughts explore the metacognitive, social, and environmental mechanisms whereby advice plays a role in self-regulated learning.
Gorukanti, Anuradha; Delucchi, Kevin; Ling, Pamela; Fisher-Travis, Raymond; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie
E-cigarette use has dramatically increased. While studies have examined adolescents’ attitudes towards smoking, few have extended this research to adolescents’ attitudes towards e-cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' attitudes regarding e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, accessibility, price, and regulation; and determine whether attitudes differ by past cigarette/e-cigarette use. Participants were 786 9th and 12th graders from Calif...
Jury, Mickaël; Bruno, Alisée; Darnon, Céline
Previous research has shown that, when succeeding in higher education, first-generation (FG) students endorse more performance-avoidance goals (i.e., the fear of performing poorly) than continuing-generation (CG) students. In this study, individual mobility is examined as a predictor of performance-avoidance goal endorsement. It is argued that FG students endorse more these goals than CG students because in higher education, the former (but not the latter) experience upward mobility. In addition, CG can also be at risk of endorsing these goals when they are confronted with downward mobility. Two studies were conducted with psychology students (N = 143 in Study 1; N = 176 in Study 2). In Study 1, FG and CG students' perceived upward mobility was measured. In Study 2, FG and CG students were provided with a feedback that suggested either upward or downward mobility. In both studies, participants reported their level of performance-avoidance goal endorsement. Results from Study 1 supported an indirect effect of status on performance-avoidance goals via a higher perception of upward mobility. Results from Study 2 supported that psychology students who face mobility (i.e., FG students who received better feedback than their usual level of performance, CG students who received worse feedback than their usual level of performance) increased their performance-avoidance goals the most. Taken together, the results of these studies support that one's actual social position and, even more, the social position one is about to reach are reliable predictors of performance-avoidance goals. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Kutlu, Ayşe; Gökçe, Gökçen; Büyükburgaz, Ülkü; Selekler, Macit; KOMŞUOğLU, Sezer
The increased risk for psychiatric disorders in epilepsy can be related to a number of clinical, psychosocial and biological factors. Due to the unpredictability of seizures and the possibility that they may occur at any time and in any place, patients with epilepsy may develop social phobia and may have feelings of worthlessness and stigma. These factors decrease their psychosocial function, self-efficacy, and quality of life and even increase the suicide rate. Considering the above-mentioned scientific data, the present study was designed to investigate phobia, self-esteem and depression status in patients with epilepsy. One hundred thirty-two patients (aged 21-52 years) and age- and gender-matched control group of 61 subjects (aged 25-60 years) were included in this study. All patients in both groups were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean ages of the patient group and the healthy controls were 29.66±11.3 and 32.16±7.99, respectively. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in terms of age and sex (p>0.05). BDI, LSAS and CSEI scores in the patient group were statistically significantly different than in the control group (pself-esteem and depression are important comorbid conditions in epileptic patients. Psychiatric disorders are usually underrecognized and undertreated in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, it is very important to identify and treat the psychiatric comorbid conditions in epilepsy because of their significant burden on patients' quality of life.
Miyamoto, Yuri; Yoo, Jiah; Levine, Cynthia S; Park, Jiyoung; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Sims, Tamara; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu; Kawakami, Norito; Karasawa, Mayumi; Coe, Christopher L; Love, Gayle D; Ryff, Carol D
Current theorizing on socioeconomic status (SES) focuses on the availability of resources and the freedom they afford as a key determinant of the association between high SES and stronger orientation toward the self and, by implication, weaker orientation toward others. However, this work relies nearly exclusively on data from Western countries where self-orientation is strongly sanctioned. In the present work, we predicted and found that especially in East Asian countries, where other-orientation is strongly sanctioned, high SES is associated with stronger other-orientation as well as with self-orientation. We first examined both psychological attributes (Study 1, N = 2,832) and socialization values (Study 2a, N = 4,675) in Japan and the United States. In line with the existent evidence, SES was associated with greater self-oriented psychological attributes and socialization values in both the U.S. and Japan. Importantly, however, higher SES was associated with greater other orientation in Japan, whereas this association was weaker or even reversed in the United States. Study 2b (N = 85,296) indicated that the positive association between SES and self-orientation is found, overall, across 60 nations. Further, Study 2b showed that the positive association between SES and other-orientation in Japan can be generalized to other Confucian cultures, whereas the negative association between SES and other-orientation in the U.S. can be generalized to other Frontier cultures. Implications of the current findings for modernization and globalization are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
José Alcides Figueiredo Santos
Full Text Available Resumo São analisadas as influências das variáveis espaciais, setoriais, educacionais e de status social nas mudanças de renda no Brasil entre 1992 e 2011. Estes fatores são considerados tanto de modo específico quanto em suas relações com classe social. O estudo combina o uso de medidas de diferenças observadas e de diferenças ajustadas por regressão quantílica. Nos modelos estimam-se tanto efeitos absolutos (em reais quanto relativos (percentuais. O trabalho aborda particularmente as alterações na renda mediana das categorias, mas observa também para as mudanças nos níveis superiores e inferiores da distribuição. A perda relativa de renda do Brasil metropolitano mostrou-se fortemente intrínseca à dimensão socioespacial. A queda nas discrepâncias brutas (não ajustadas de renda, de raça e de gênero envolveram combinações bem diferentes entre efeitos diretos e indiretos. Reduções nas desigualdades espaciais, setoriais e educacionais contribuíram para a diminuição da heterogeneidade dentro das classes sociais. Todos os cenários desenhados pelo jogo de controles estatísticos mostram que diminuiu sensivelmente a vantagem de renda dos que apresentam mais escolaridade. As mudanças de renda foram menores justamente entre as posições sociais que foram menos afetadas por alterações na distribuição ou dispersão da educação e os seus efeitos diretos e indiretos na renda.
Culbert, Brett M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Balshine, Sigal
Animals living in groups often form social hierarchies, with characteristic behaviours and physiologies associated with rank. However, when social opportunities arise and a subordinate ascends into a dominant position, quick adjustments are necessary to secure this position. Such periods of social transition are typically associated with elevated glucocorticoid production, but the precise regulation of the stress axis during these occasions is not well understood. Using the group-living cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, the effects of social ascension on the stress axis were assessed. Ascenders rapidly filled experimentally created vacancies, adopting a dominant behavioural phenotype within 72 h-elevating aggression, activity, and workload, while receiving high rates of affiliative behaviours from their group members. Despite assuming behavioural dominance within their groups, ascenders displayed higher cortisol levels than dominants three days post-ascension. Additionally, compared to subordinates, ascenders had increased transcript abundance of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star) and cytochrome p450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc) in the head kidney, indicating activation of the stress axis. Cortisol levels were lowest in ascenders that displayed low rates of aggression, potentially reflecting the reestablishment of social stability in these groups. Increased transcript abundance of both glucocorticoid receptors (gr1 and gr2) in the brain's preoptic area (POA) of ascenders compared to dominants suggested an enhanced capacity for cortisol regulation via negative feedback. Our results reveal a regulatory cascade of behavioural and physiological interactions and highlight the importance of investigating the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress axis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; Lawman, Hannah G; Van Horn, M Lee
This study examined weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation (controlled, autonomous, regulatory), emotional social support (parents, peers) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in underserved adolescents (ethnic minority, low-income). Participants from the Active by Choice Today Trial (n = 1,416; 54% girls, 73% African American, 52% overweight/obese) completed baseline measures, including height and weight, psychosocial surveys, and 7-day accelerometry estimates. Weight status was defined by body mass index z-score (zBMI). Weight status moderated the effects of controlled, autonomous, and regulatory motivation on MVPA, such that these variables were more strongly associated with MVPA in adolescents with lower versus higher zBMI scores. A better understanding of why motivation is not related to MVPA in underserved youth with a higher weight status is needed. Future pediatric obesity treatment in underserved youth may need to move beyond motivation into environmental factors associated with long-term behavior change.
Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony
This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.
Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje
The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.
Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Solsona, Sofía; Sartolo, M Teresa; Rabanaque, M José
to explore health-care utilization (primary and specialized health-care, hospitalizations, day hospital and emergency services) and overuse in elderly in Spain, considering the influence of health status, sex, social class and its temporal trend. cross sectional study in two phases. Spain. people surveyed in the National Health Surveys 2006 and 2011-12. Health status was measured using self-rated and diagnosed health (number and diagnoses). Social class was obtained from the last occupation of the main supporter (manual and non-manual workers). Logistic regression analyses were conducted adjusting by sex, age, health status, social class and year, obtaining its predictive capacity. the percentage of elderly population with health-care utilization decreased during the period analyzed. Women who belonged to the manual workers category presented the highest prevalence of low health (low self-rated health in 2006: 70.6%). Low health status was associated with a higher utilization of health-care services. Self-rated health was a better predictor of health-care utilization and overuse than diagnosed health, getting the highest predictive capacity for specialized health-care (C = 0.676). Old people from low social class used with higher frequency primary health-care and emergency services. On the other hand, specialized health-care and day hospital were more used by high social classes. inequalities in health and health-care utilization have been observed in elderly according social class. It is necessary to consider self-rated health as a health-care utilization predictor and to review our health-care services accessibility and equity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Brabeck, Kalina M.; Sibley, Erin; Taubin, Patricia; Murcia, Angela
The present study investigated the relationship between immigrant parent legal status and academic performance among U.S.-born children, ages 7-10. Building on previous research and a social ecological framework, the study further explored how social service use moderates the relationship between parent legal status and academic performance.…
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractThe use of variably self-reported measures of wellbeing may produce differing outcomes. This study examined the differences in association with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions (marital status, social capital) of two widely used cognitive subjective wellbeing
Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia
Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations.
Chou, Ming-Yi; Amo, Ryunosuke; Kinoshita, Masae; Cherng, Bor-Wei; Shimazaki, Hideaki; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Tazu; Takahoko, Mikako; Yamazaki, Masako; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Okamoto, Hitoshi
When animals encounter conflict they initiate and escalate aggression to establish and maintain a social hierarchy. The neural mechanisms by which animals resolve fighting behaviors to determine such social hierarchies remain unknown. We identified two subregions of the dorsal habenula (dHb) in zebrafish that antagonistically regulate the outcome of conflict. The losing experience reduced neural transmission in the lateral subregion of dHb (dHbL)-dorsal/intermediate interpeduncular nucleus (d/iIPN) circuit. Silencing of the dHbL or medial subregion of dHb (dHbM) caused a stronger predisposition to lose or win a fight, respectively. These results demonstrate that the dHbL and dHbM comprise a dual control system for conflict resolution of social aggression. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Tamburello, Stella; Scapellato, Paolo; Penzo, Ilaria; Tamburello, Antonino; Innamorati, Marco
The aim of this study was to assess the association between social anxiety and difficulties in emotion regulation in a sample of Italian young adults. Our convenience sample was composed of 298 Italian young adults (184 women and 114 men) aged 18-34 years. Participants were administered the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS), the Audience Anxiousness Scale (AAS), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). A Two Step cluster analysis was used to group subjects according to their level of social anxiety. The cluster analysis indicated a two-cluster solution. The first cluster included 163 young adults with higher scores on the AAS and the IAS than those included in cluster 2 (n=135). A generalized linear model with groups as dependent variable indicated that people with higher social anxiety (compared to those with lower social anxiety) have higher scores on the dimension personal distress of the IRI (p<0.01), and on the DERS non acceptance of negative emotions (p<0.001) and lack of emotional clarity (p<0.05). The results are consistent with models of psychopathology, which hypothesize that people who cannot deal effectively with their emotions may develop depressive and anxious disorders.
Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay
Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.
Globalisation's unprecedented growth and transborder activities of business coupled with increasing awareness of the impact of business on societies and human rights has resulted in demands for the international society to regulate corporate social and human rights responsibilities. This not only...... challenges traditional notions of duty bearers under international law, but also calls for novel approaches for the United Nations (UN) to implement central parts of the Charter's human rights aims and to address corporate behaviour in a state-centred international law-making order that lacks the willingness...... businesses' impact on human rights. The pattern of using these forms suggests an institutionalisation of reflexive regulation as a regulatory process drawing on public-private regulation, and of an emerging UN based 'Global Administrative Law' in order to meet regulatory challenges in living up to the human...
Barno Erkinovna Abdusamatova
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate social-hygienic characteristics of mother students and their children below 3 years old, in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. METHOD: General properties, life conditions of 470 student mother and some health indicators, health service during pregnancy of student mothers in these families, and the health status of their children below 3 years old were studied. RESULTS: It was established that 95.3% students become mothers for the first two year-period of marriage. It was determined that low level of medical observation and recovery during pregnancy in students. Because of refusal to take academic vocation during pregnancy and after delivery there is practically no immediately mothers care of child in such families. Also, percentage of children taken additional food in the students families was about 56% during first six months. CONCLUSION: These and other negative circumstances determine high level of morbidity for children of early age in families of mothers-students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 369-372
Kalomo, Eveline Ndii; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Freeman, Rachel
Namibia has one of the highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence rates and one of the highest rates of orphanhood in the world, and older caregivers provide much of the care to Namibians living with HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (UNAIDS, 2014). In this study, the authors explore how financial status, social support, and health were related to the resilience of caregivers caring for people affected by HIV and AIDS in rural northern Namibia, Africa. Data were collected through a structured interview from (N = 147) caregivers from the Zambezi region. Findings from this study show that employment and physical health were significantly associated with increased resilience in older caregivers. Our findings point to the need for employment assistance and health services to improve the resilience of caregivers caring for people living with HIV and AIDS. We conclude that there is a need for more vigorous concerted efforts from public and private sector practitioners and policy makers to create more sustained formal employment opportunities and intervention programs aimed at improving the overall health of older HIV caregivers, especially those residing in rural HIV endemic communities in developing countries.
Hebashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.
Peptide YY hormone (PYY) was recently appreciated as an important gut hormonal regulator of appetite. PYY is produced by the gut and released into the circulation after food intake and is found to decrease appetite. The main form of PYY, both stored and circulated, is PYY(3-36), the N-terminal truncated form of the full length peptide so, peripheral injections of PYY(3-36) in rats inhibit food intake in experimental animals as well as in lean and obese human subjects. Also, this hormone has been suggested to be an attractive therapeutic option for obesity. PYY levels are influenced by age and the highest hormone level is achieved in early postnatal life (day 30) and is decreased thereafter. PYY levels were also dependent on thyroid hormone status and being decreased in hyperthyroid rats. The PYY levels observed in acute and chronic food restricted rats indicated that, in situations of decreased energy intake, the lower PYY levels could serve to regulate central pathways and facilitate food intake. Contrary, in pregnant rats, PYY levels were enhanced at late gestation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, sex, thyroid status, pregnancy and food restriction on PYY levels in rats. The underling mechanisms through which PYY levels alternated as a result of sex, age, pregnancy, thyroidal and nutritional status were discussed in the light of recent research outcomes
Döring, T.F.; Bocci, R.; Hitchings, R.; Howlett, S.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Pautasso, M.; Raaijmakers, M.; Rey, F.; Stubsgaard, A.; Weinhappel, M.; Wilbois, K.P.; Winkler, L.R.; Wolfe, M.S.
Organic agriculture regulations, in particular European regulation EC 889/2008, prescribe the use of organically produced seed. For many cultivated plants, however, organic seed is often not available. This is mainly because investment in organic plant breeding and seed production has been low in
Anderson, Paul J; Bovard, Ralph S; Wang, Zhen; Beebe, Timothy J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan
Regular exercise is a key component of obesity prevention and 48% of Americans do not meet minimum guidelines for weekly exercise. Social support has been shown to help individuals start and maintain exercise programmes. We evaluated social support among endurance athletes and explored the relationship between social support for exercise, health behaviours and health status. Survey. The largest Nordic ski race in North America. 5433 past participants responded to an online questionnaire. Social support, health behaviours and health status. The mean overall support score was 32.1 (SD=16.5; possible range=-16.0 to 88.0). The most common forms of social support were verbal such as discussing exercise, invitations to exercise and celebrating the enjoyment of exercise. We found that an increase of 10 points in the social support score was associated with a 5 min increase in weekly self-reported exercise (5.02, 95% CI 3.63 to 6.41). Physical activity recommendations should incorporate the importance of participation in group activities, especially those connected to strong fitness cultures created by community and competitive events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Nordahl, Henrik; Wells, Adrian
Psychological health has a profound effect on personal and occupational functioning with Social Anxiety Symptoms in particular having a major effect on ability to work. Recent initiatives have focused on treating psychological illness with cognitive-behavioural models with a view to increasing return to work. However, the psychological correlates of work status amongst individuals with elevated mental health symptoms such as social anxiety are under-explored. This study reports a test of unique predictors of work status drawing on variables that have been given centre stage in cognitive-behavioural models and in the metacognitive model of psychological disorder. The sample consisted of high socially anxious individuals who reported to be working (n = 102) or receiving disability benefits (n = 102). A comparison of these groups showed that those out of work and receiving benefits had greater symptom severity, higher avoidance and use of safety behaviours, greater self-consciousness, and elevated negative metacognitive beliefs and beliefs about the need to control thoughts. However, when the covariance's between these variables were controlled, only negative metacognitive beliefs significantly predicted out-of-work status. Our finding might be important because CBT does not focus on metacognitive beliefs, but targets components that in our analysis had no unique predictive value for work status.
Bast, L S; Nordahl, H; Christensen, L B; Holstein, B E
Regular tooth brushing in adolescence predicts stable tooth brushing habits later in life. Differences in tooth brushing habits by ethnic background and socioeconomic position have been suggested. We investigated migration status and social class in relation to infrequent tooth brushing both separately and combined. The study population was 11-15 year-olds chosen from a clustered random sample of schools. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses estimated the separate and combined effects of migration status and social class on less than twice daily tooth brushing. 10,607 respondents: a response rate of 88.3%. Boys of lower social class had higher odds ratio (OR) of infrequent tooth brushing than girls: 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.41) vs 1.80 (1.53-2.24). Immigrants and descendants had higher odds compared to adolescents of Danish origin: immigrant boys OR 1.39 (1.05-1.89), girls OR 1.92 (1.47-2.50); descendant boys OR 2.53 (1.97-3.27), girls OR 2.56 (2.02-3.35). Analyses of the combined effect of social class and migration status showed that the social gradient in tooth brushing habits observed among ethnic Danes cannot be found among groups of immigrants and descendants. The study shows that both non-Danish origin and low social class increases the risk of infrequent tooth brushing among school-aged children. The study calls for in depth analyses of the processes which influence young people's tooth brushing habits. Further, there is a need to strengthen the promotion of appropriate tooth brushing habits of minority and low social class youths.
Buzinski, Steven G; Kitchens, Michael B
Self-regulation constrains the expression of prejudice, but when self-regulation falters, the immediate environment can act as an external source of prejudice regulation. This hypothesis derives from work demonstrating that external controls and internal self-regulation can prompt goal pursuit in the absence of self-imposed controls. Across four studies, we found support for this complementary model of prejudice regulation. In Study 1, self-regulatory fatigue resulted in less motivation to be non-prejudiced, compared to a non-fatigued control. In Study 2, strong (vs. weak) perceived social pressure was related to greater motivation to be non-prejudiced. In Study 3, dispositional self-regulation predicted non-prejudice motivation when perceived social pressure was weak or moderate, but not when it was strong. Finally, in Study 4 self-regulatory fatigue increased prejudice when social pressure was weak but not when it was strong.
Yi, Yingying; Liang, Ying
This article sought to explore the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on intra-provincial and interprovincial migrants' mental health by constructing the Bayesian structural equation model. A total of 14,584 migrants aged 15-59 years living in eight cities of China were selected. It was found that the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on mental health were converse for these two groups. And the manifest variables coefficients of socioeconomic status and social inclusion were also converse. Therefore, governments should make some policies to further improve the mental health of migrants, including strengthening the community cohesion, social atmosphere, and governmental support.
Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Sajjadi, Homeira
Abstract: Background: Given the significant health effects of domestic violence against women, the present study was conducted in 2016, in Tehran, Iran in order to compare the socioeconomic status, perceived social support and mental status in women of reproductive age experiencing and not experiencing domestic violence. Methods: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women. The data collection tools used included questionnaires: demographic information, Socioeconomic, Beck’s Depression, Spielberger’s Anxiety, Cohen’s Perceived Stress, Sarason’s Perceived Social Support and WHO’s Domestic Violence Inventory. Results: The results showed that 43.2% of women said they had experienced at least one case of domestic violence, among which 16.4%, 15% and 36.6% of women had experienced physical, sexual and emotional-verbal types of violence, respectively. The mean age (p less than 0.001) and educational level (p=0/018) of violated women and their spouses (p less than 0.001) were lower than those of non-violated women. Furthermore, violated women experienced lower socioeconomic status (p less than 0.05), higher perceived stress (p less than 0.008), higher depression (p less than 0.001), and higher overt anxiety (0.002. They also perceived lower levels of social support (p less than 0.001). Conclusions: The issue of domestic violence was rather prevalent in the participants of the present study, particularly the younger, less educated and more socioeconomically deprived communities and families. PMID:29376514
Williamson, Timothy J.; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Kuhn, Taylor P.; Thames, April D.
Objective Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i.e., HIV) and/or marginalized racial/ethnic identity (i.e., African American). Method A community sample of men and women (n = 149) completed questionnaires assessing demographics and depressive symptoms. Additionally, a composite index of social adversity was derived from measures of perceived discrimination, socioeconomic status, financial restriction to receiving medical care, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Multiple regression was used to test whether relationships between adversity and depressive symptoms differed as a function of HIV-status and racial/ethnic identity. Results A significant three-way interaction between social adversity, HIV-status, and racial/ethnic identity indicated that there was a direct relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms for HIV-positive (HIV+) African Americans but not for HIV-negative (HIV-) African Americans, HIV+ Caucasians, or HIV- Caucasians. Further, HIV+ African Americans evidenced a significantly greater relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms, as compared to HIV- African Americans but not as compared to other groups. Conclusions The findings suggest that HIV+ African Americans may be at risk for higher depressive symptoms amidst adversity, highlighting the importance of evaluating intersectional identities/statuses in the context of mental health. PMID:27929330
Baurain, Céline; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Dionne, Carmen
This study examined the extent to which socio-emotional regulation displayed in three dyadic interactive play contexts (neutral, competitive or cooperative) by 45 children with intellectual disability compared with 45 typically developing children (matched on developmental age, ranging from 3 to 6 years) is linked with the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. A Coding Grid of Socio-Emotional Regulation by Sequences (Baurain & Nader-Grosbois, 2011b, 2011c) focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behavior and Behavior toward Social Rules in children was applied. The Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hugues, Soares-Boucaud, Hochman, & Frith, 1997) and the Assessment, Evaluation and Intervention Program System (AEPS, Bricker, 2002) were completed by teachers. Regression analyses emphasized, in children with intellectual disability only, a positive significant link between their Behavior toward Social Rules in interactive contexts and the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. Children with intellectual disabilities who listen to and follow instructions, who are patient in waiting for their turn, and who moderate their externalized behavior are perceived by their teachers as socially adapted in their daily social relationships. The between-groups dissimilarity in the relational patterns between abilities in socio-emotional regulation and social adjustment supports the "structural difference hypothesis" with regard to the group with intellectual disability, compared with the typically developing group. Hierarchical cluster cases analyses identified distinct subgroups showing variable structural patterns between the three specific categories of abilities in socio-emotional regulation and their levels of social adjustment perceived by teachers. In both groups, several abilities in socio-emotional regulation and teachers' perceptions of social adjustment vary depending on children's developmental age. Chronological age in children with
Granat, Adi; Gadassi, Reuma; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Feldman, Ruth
Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) exerts long-term negative effects on infants; yet the mechanisms by which PPD disrupts emotional development are not fully clear. Utilizing an extreme-case design, 971 women reported symptoms of depression and anxiety following childbirth and 215 high and low on depressive symptomatology reported again at 6 months. Of these, mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 22), anxiety disorders (n = 19), and controls (n = 59) were visited at 9 months. Mother-infant interaction was microcoded for maternal and infant's social behavior and synchrony. Infant negative and positive emotional expression and self-regulation were tested in 4 emotion-eliciting paradigms: anger with mother, anger with stranger, joy with mother, and joy with stranger. Infants of depressed mothers displayed less social gaze and more gaze aversion. Gaze and touch synchrony were lowest for depressed mothers, highest for anxious mothers, and midlevel among controls. Infants of control and anxious mothers expressed less negative affect with mother compared with stranger; however, maternal presence failed to buffer negative affect in the depressed group. Maternal depression chronicity predicted increased self-regulatory behavior during joy episodes, and touch synchrony moderated the effects of PPD on infant self-regulation. Findings describe subtle microlevel processes by which maternal depression across the postpartum year disrupts the development of infant emotion regulation and suggest that diminished social synchrony, low differentiation of attachment and nonattachment contexts, and increased self-regulation during positive moments may chart pathways for the cross-generational transfer of emotional maladjustment from depressed mothers to their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig
to maintain carbohydrate status and growth in unpredictable light environments. Our recent results show rapid regulation of photosynthesis and leaf carbohydrate status to maintain growth and light interception in dynamic light environments when campanula, rose and chrysanthemum were grown in a cost......-efficient light control system. Plant dry matter production was in all cases linear related to DLI, despite changes in daily light duration and light intensity of supplemental light suggesting that DLI is the main limiting factor for the prediction of production time in optimal temperature conditions. The results......Protected plant productions in northern latitudes rely heavily on supplemental light use to extend the number of light hours during the day. To conserve electricity and lower costs, a low-energy input system use supplemental lights preferable during less expensive off-peak hours and turn lighting...
Cassano, Michael C; Zeman, Janice L
The authors of this study investigated mothers' and fathers' socialization of their children's sadness. The particular focus was an examination of how socialization practices changed when parents' expectancies concerning their child's sadness management abilities were violated. Methods included an experimental manipulation and direct observation of parent-child interactions in 62 families of White, middle-class children in 3rd and 4th grades. Families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions. After parents were provided with a description of normative child behavior on a sadness-induction task, feedback was manipulated such that parents in the control condition were told their child had demonstrated typical regulation while parents in the violated-expectancy condition were informed their child did not manage sadness as well as peers. The hypothesis that violated expectancies influence socialization processes was supported, with greater evidence emerging for fathers than mothers. In certain circumstances within the violated-expectancy condition, there was more parental similarity in socialization practices than in the control condition. Further, mother-father comparisons indicated differences in socialization as a function of parent and child gender that were generally consistent with gender stereotypes.
Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Children affected by HIV/AIDS have unique psychosocial needs that often go unaddressed in traditional treatment approaches. They are more likely than unaffected peers to encounter stigma, including overt discriminatory behaviors, as well as stereotyped attitudes. In addition, HIV-affected children are at risk for experiencing negative affect, including sadness and depression. Previous studies have identified a link between HIV stigma and the subsequent emotional status of children affected by HIV/AIDS. However, limited data are available regarding protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effects of HIV stigma and thus promote resiliency for this vulnerable population. Utilizing data from 790 children aged 6-17 years affected by parental HIV in rural central China this study aims to examine the association between HIV stigma, including both enacted and perceived stigma, and emotional status among HIV-affected children, as well as to evaluate the mediating effects of emotional regulation on the relationship between HIV stigma and emotional status. In addition, the moderating role of age is tested. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. We found that the experience of HIV stigma had a direct positive effect on negative emotions among children affected by HIV. Emotional regulation offers a level of protection, as it mediated the impact of HIV stigma on negative emotions. Moreover, age was found to moderate the relationship between perceived stigma and negative emotions. A significant interaction between perceived stigma and age suggested that negative emotions increase with age among those who perceived a higher level of stigmatization. Results suggest that children affected by HIV may benefit from interventions designed to enhance their capacity to regulate emotions and that health professionals should be aware of the link between stigma and negative emotion in childhood and adolescence and use the knowledge to inform their
Bölsterli, Bigna K.; Gardella, Elena; Pavlidis, Elena
Objective: In previous studies, we showed an altered overnight decrease of non–rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep slow waves in children with encephalopathy related to status epilepticus during sleep (ESES). Here, we test the hypothesis that these alterations renormalize after remission of ESES...
Kalkonde, Y V; Shelton, R; Villarreal, M; Sigala, J; Mishra, P K; Ahuja, S S; Barea-Rodriguez, E; Moretti, P; Ahuja, S K
Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that regulate cell migration and are thought to play an important role in a broad range of inflammatory diseases. The availability of chemokine receptor blockers makes them an important therapeutic target. In vitro, chemokines are shown to modulate neurotransmission. However, it is not very clear if chemokines play a role in behavior and cognition. Here we evaluated the role of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) in various behavioral tasks in mice using Wt (Ccr5⁺/⁺) and Ccr5-null (Ccr5⁻/⁻)mice. Ccr5⁻/⁻ mice showed enhanced social recognition. Administration of CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), one of the CCR5-ligands, impaired social recognition. Since the social recognition task is dependent on the sense of olfaction, we tested olfactory recognition for social and non-social scents in these mice. Ccr5⁻/⁻ mice had enhanced olfactory recognition for both these scents indicating that enhanced performance in social recognition task could be due to enhanced olfactory recognition in these mice. Spatial memory and aversive memory were comparable in Wt and Ccr5⁻/⁻ mice. Collectively, these results suggest that chemokines/chemokine receptors might play an important role in olfactory recognition tasks in mice and to our knowledge represents the first direct demonstration of an in vivo role of CCR5 in modulating social behavior in mice. These studies are important as CCR5 blockers are undergoing clinical trials and can potentially modulate behavior. Copyright Â© 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As the electricity, gas and heat industries of the economies in transition move towards more market-oriented frameworks, regulators are established to secure fair competition, protection of the customers and a minimum of public service. The paper describes the various models used or contemplated in the autumn of 2000 in central and eastern Europe and identifies fifteen issues, some falling under the competence of governments, others challenging the regulators, again others relating to international co-operation. (author)
Acheampong, Emmanuel; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Hense, Inga
Ecosystem modelling studies that consider mesozooplankton feeding regulation have primarily focused on the impact of prey nutritional status and temperature separately, despite experimental evidence for strong links between these two factors. Here, we propose a method based on optimal feeding...... behaviour of individual mesozooplankton that can be used to derive acclimative food ingestion, assimilation, and respiration under different temperature and food conditions. In the model, animals first evaluate the nutritional value of prey organisms based on their temperature-specific demand for energy...... support and extend conclusions previously obtained for mesozooplankton and indicate that ocean warming could alter the role of Acartia spp. in planktonic food webs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....