Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J
During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…
Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Kohn, Jordan N; Barreiro, Luis B; Johnson, Zachary P; Wilson, Mark E; Tung, Jenny
Strong social relationships confer health and fitness benefits in a number of species, motivating the need to understand the processes through which they arise. In female cercopithecine primates, both kinship and dominance rank are thought to influence rates of affiliative behaviour and social partner preference. Teasing apart the relative importance of these factors has been challenging, however, as female kin often occupy similar positions in the dominance hierarchy. Here, we isolated the specific effects of rank on social relationships in female rhesus macaques by analysing grooming patterns in 18 social groups that did not contain close relatives, and in which dominance ranks were experimentally randomized. We found that grooming was asymmetrically directed towards higher-ranking females and that grooming bouts temporarily decreased the likelihood of aggression between grooming partners, supporting the idea that grooming is associated with social tolerance. Even in the absence of kin, females formed the strongest grooming relationships with females adjacent to them in rank, a pattern that was strongest for the highest-ranking females. Using simulations, we show that three rules for allocating grooming based on dominance rank recapitulated most of the relationships we observed. Finally, we evaluated whether a female's tendency to engage in grooming behaviour was stable across time and social setting. We found that one measure, the rate of grooming females provided to others (but not the rate of grooming females received), exhibited modest stability after accounting for the primary effect of dominance rank. Together, our findings indicate that dominance rank has strong effects on social relationships in the absence of kin, suggesting the importance of considering social status and social connectedness jointly when investigating their health and fitness consequences.
One problem in studies of social inequality in health is that traditional socio-economic indicators are unsuitable for groups finding themselves on the outside of those societal arenas from which measures of education, income and occupation are generated. A measure of subjective social position has accordingly been proposed as an addition to the traditional objective socio-economic measures. The present study investigates this concepts' usefulness as an addition to objective SES markers in a sample of prison inmates, known for their marginalized position in society as well as their poor health. Analyses are based on the male part (n = 225) of a nationally representative sample of prison inmates in Norway. Outcome measures are self-rated health, long-standing illness or disability, mental health problems, perceived change in health status and drug use. Analyses of correlation as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Subjective social status was bivariately related to all of the health outcomes, except long-standing illness. Multivariate analyses indicated that subjective social status influenced the odds of experiencing mental health problems, but not any of the other health outcomes when controlling for the other independent variables. Subjective social status may add important information to our understanding of the relationship between social disadvantage and mental health in a marginalized social group such as prison inmates.
Full Text Available Quantifying vigilance and exploring the underlying mechanisms has been the subject of numerous studies. Less attention has focused on the complex interplay between contributing factors such as reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size. Reproductive status and social rank are of particular interest due to their association with mating behavior. Mating activities in rutting season may interfere with typical patterns of vigilance and possibly interact with social rank. In addition, balancing the tradeoff between vigilance and life maintenance may represent a challenge for gregarious ungulate species rutting under harsh winter conditions. We studied vigilance patterns in the endangered Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii during both the rutting and non-rutting seasons to examine these issues.Field observations were carried out with focal sampling during rutting and non-rutting season in 2008-2009. Results indicated a complex interplay between reproductive status, social rank, sex and group size in determining vigilance in this species. Vigilance decreased with group size in female but not in male gazelles. Males scanned more frequently and thus spent more time vigilant than females. Compared to non-rutting season, gazelles increased time spent scanning at the expense of bedding in rutting season. During the rutting season, territorial males spent a large proportion of time on rutting activities and were less vigilant than non-territorial males. Although territorial males may share collective risk detection with harem females, we suggest that they are probably more vulnerable to predation because they seemed reluctant to leave rut stands under threats.Vigilance behavior in Przewalski's gazelle was significantly affected by reproductive status, social rank, sex, group size and their complex interactions. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying vigilance patterns and the tradeoff between vigilance and other crucial
Full Text Available Toronto has the largest absolute number of food insecure households for any metropolitan census area in Canada: of its 2.1 million households, roughly 252 000 households (or 12% experience some level of food insecurity. Community organizations (including social agencies, school programs, and child care centres serve millions of meals per year to the city’s most vulnerable citizens, but often face challenges accessing fresh produce at affordable prices. Therefore in 2015, Toronto Public Health, in collaboration with public- and private-sector partners, launched the FoodReach program to improve the efficiency of food procurement among community organizations by consolidating their purchasing power. Since being launched, FoodReach has been used by more than 50 community organizations to provide many of Toronto’s most marginalised groups with regular access to healthy produce.
Singh, Abhinav; Sequiera, Peter; Acharya, Shashidhar; Bhat, Maghashyam
The aim of the present study was to compare and assess the oral health status of 12-year-old children from two socially disadvantaged groups in the Udupi district of South India. A total of 327 children were examined in Ashrama schools, and 340 children were randomly selected for comparison from other government schools. Modified WHO proforma was used for clinical examination. Oral hygiene practices, dental fluorosis, periodontal status, dentition status and dentofacial anomalies were assessed and compared. Chi square test was used for comparison between categorical variables and Mann-Whitney test for comparison between two groups for quantitative variables. P u 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Dental fluorosis was detected in 22.9% children from Ashrama schools, whereas in the comparison group 14.4% children had dental fluorosis (P u 0.001). Mean Decayed teeth and DMFT value in Ashrama school children were 1.15 ± 1.62, and 1.15 ± 1.62, respectively. In the comparison group, the corresponding values were 0.46 ± 0.98 and 0.48 ± 1.04, respectively (P u 0.001). The mean number of sextants in the Ashrama school children with Community Periodontal Index score 2 was 2.00 ± 1.53, whereas in the comparison group it was 1.31 ± 1.53 (P u 0.001). No significant differences were noted between two groups with respect to Dental Aesthetic Index scores. The present study revealed higher levels of dental caries experience, untreated dental disease and social disadvantage of the children attending Ashrama schools, providing evidence for the need to address the health inequalities of these children.
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank; Reijneveld, Menno
Purpose: A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status.
Bot, Sander M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
Because young adult drinking occurs primarily in peer groups, this should be taken into account when studying influences on drinking behaviour. This paper aimed to assess influences on drinking by observing existing peer groups in a naturalistic setting. We first analysed the basic levels at which two types of influence take place. The first,…
Ivan Armando Osuna-Padilla
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study were to determine the prevalence of undernutrition and obesity in older people with various types of social support from Sinaloa, México.Material and methods: Comparative, observational, prospective and cross-sectional study in 91 elderly. Determined body weight, height and anthropometric measurements. Applied the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA. Means and standard deviations are estimated. Chi-square2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyzed data. Pearson correlation were utilized for evaluated the correlation between antropomethric indicators and MNA. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05.Results: 91 elderlies were evaluated: 35 users of a day House, 28 members of a cultural centre, and 28 residents of two nursing homes. There was a prevalence of malnutrition of 32.1% in the institutionalized, 14.3% on the day house, and 3.5% in independent adult. Obesity were diagnosed in 93.2% of people by Waist/Height Ratio. Good correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and calf circumference (CC with MNA (p<0.05.Conclusions: High prevalences of undernutrition were found in nursing homes and user of day homes, with major risks in womans and people major of 80 years. The implementation of nutritional interventions depending on the type of social assistance received is required.
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, Åse; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervåg, Arne Ola
Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between…
Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L
We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan
This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b
Full Text Available Our reality, having been subject to the numerous social crises during the last decades of the 20th century, is characterized by frequent incidences of powerlessness and alienation. The man is more frequently a subject to loneliness and overcomes the feeling of worthlessness, no matter whether he considers himself an individual or a part of a whole larger social. Such an environment leads to development of aggression in all fields of ones life. This paper has as an objective the pointing out of the mental harassment that is manifested in the working environment. There is a prevalence of mobbing cases, as a mode of pathological communication. The result of this is that a person, subjected to this kind of abuse, is soon faced with social isolation. This research also aspires to initiate the need for social groups self-organization of which victims are part of. The reaction modality of a social group directly conditions the outcome of the deliberate social drama, one is subjected to it as a result of mobbing.
Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern
Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...... of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions...... are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles...
Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond traditional objective measures of social status, such as education, income and occupation. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on SSS and health. Current studies corroborate associations between low SSS and poor health indicators by extending previous findings to further populations and biological risk factors, providing meta-analytic evidence for adolescents and by demonstrating that negative affect may not confound associations between SSS and self-rated health. Recent findings also highlight the relevance of SSS changes (e.g. SSS loss in immigrants) and the need to consider cultural/ethnical differences in psychological mediators and associations between SSS and health. SSS is a comprehensive measure of one's social position that is related to several poor health outcomes and risk factors for disease. Future investigation, particularly prospective studies, should extend research on SSS and health to further countries/ethnic groups, also considering additional psychological and biological mediators and dynamic aspects of SSS. Recently developed experimental approaches to manipulate SSS may also be promising.
Orlyk, T V; Grygorieva, N V
In order to study the role of the marital status and place of residence, as the social determinants of the development of vertebral pain syndrome and related disorders of life activity, the results of a survey of 148 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years were analyzed. Respondents were divided into groups depending on their marital status (living in a family with husbands and other relatives, only with husbands or alone) and places of residence (in rural or urban areas). The results of this study suggest that family status and place of residence in women of older age groups do not directly influence on the back pain, however they contribute to impairment of vital functions associated with back pain, in particular, psychological state, general activity, working capacity, and also stipulate a higher frequency of requests for medical care and hospitalizations. In single women the level of disruption of daily activity is significantly higher, although the incidence of disability in doing household chores is significantly lower than in married women. Single women reliably seek medical help more often and are hospitalized throught back pain. It was also found the significant correlations between the place of residence and the frequency of health problems related to back pain, psychological and mood disorders, general activity, relationships with others, daily disability in work, impaired ability to move and the frequency of medical help seeking throught back pain. In conclusion, ite should be taken into account in planning of treatment and rehabilitation of women of older age groups with back pain.
Edelman, Lucila; Kordon, Diana
Argentina has gone through very difficult times during the last years and, in particularly, new kinds of social practices have emerged in order to cope with the crisis. This situation demands and urges a new type of reflection upon the double role of groups, as tools to transform reality and as a way to elaborate those processes regarding subjectivity. In this paper we analyse some topics regarding the groupal field (considering spontaneous groups as well as groupal devices that allow to elaborate the crisis). We consider social bond to be the condition of possibility for the existence of the psyche and of time continuity, and that it also makes possible personal and social elaboration of trauma, crisis and social catastrophe. We develop some aspects of an specific device (the reflection group), which we have already depicted in another moment, showing it's usefulness to cope with social crisis and to promote the subjective elaboration of crisis.
Four studies examined children's (ages 3-10, Total N = 235) naive theories of social groups, in particular, their expectations about how group memberships constrain social interactions. After introduction to novel groups of people, preschoolers (ages 3-5) reliably expected agents from one group to harm members of the other group (rather than…
Zaunbrecher, Henrik; Riedl, Arno
Social identity has been shown to successfully enhance cooperation and effort in cooperation and coordination games. Little is known about the causal effect of social identity on the propensity to engage in group conflict. In this paper we explore theoretically and experimentally whether social identity increases investments in group contests. We show theoretically that increased social identity with the own group implies higher investments in Tullock contests. Empirically we find that induce...
Social Education, 1992
Presents a position statement of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Reports that the NCSS objects to ability grouping in social studies. Argues that ability grouping disadvantages minority, handicapped, and low ability students. Suggests that ability grouping undermines the democratic ideals that should be the basis of the social…
Zaunbrecher, Henrik; Riedl, Arno
Social identity has been shown to successfully enhance cooperation and effort in cooperation and coordination games. Little is known about the causal effect of social identity on the propensity to engage in group conflict. In this paper we explore theoretically and experimentally whether social
T. Stevens; P. Hughes (Peter); D. Williams; I. Craigie; I. Kegel; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); A.J. Jansen (Jack); M.F. Usrsu; M. Frantzis; N. Farber; M. Lutzky; S. Vogel
htmlabstractThis paper describes a prototype software platform that supports advanced communications services, specifically services enabling effective group-to-group communications with a social purpose, between remote homes. The architecture, the individual components, their interfaces, and the
Doosje, B; Spears, R; Ellemers, N
This study investigates how in-group identification develops during group interaction and forms a dynamic input and output that changes over time. Phase I of the study shows how initial level of identification in combination with anticipated changes in the intergroup status hierarchy, predicts
Resnick, Michael D.; And Others
Each of the seven factors that affect adolescent social development is presented together with a description of potentially important research, service, and policy initiatives within each topic area. The factors are self-esteem, peer group, parenting, family, services, enforced dependency, and positive sexual socialization. (CT)
Jessica J. Vandeleest
Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also
"The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)
Chuma Kevin Owuamalam
Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that, when negative metastereotypes are made salient, members of low status groups help members of high status groups in order to improve the reputation of their low status group and its associated social identity. The present research investigated three potential moderators of low status groups’ outgroup helping: ingroup identification, audience group membership, and perceived reputational benefit. In Study 1 (N = 112 we found that members of a low status group (Keele University students were most likely to offer to help raise funds for a high status group (University of Birmingham students when they were high identifiers who had considered a negative metastereotype and believed that their responses would be viewed by an outgroup member. In Study 2 (N = 100 we found a similar effect in an intergroup context that referred to psychology students (low status ingroup and junior doctors (high status outgroup, showing that the effect was limited to people who perceived reputational benefit in helping the outgroup. The practical and social implications of these findings are discussed in relation to intergroup contact and international relations.
Sakamoto, Izumi; Anastas, Jeane W.; McPhail, Beverly M.; Colarossi, Lisa G.
This invited study sought to determine the current status of women in social work education for the special section of the "Journal of Social Work Education." Analysis of the latest data available indicate that gender differences remain pervasive across many aspects of social work education, including pay, rank, job duties, and tenure.…
Acquah, Emmanuel O.; Palonen, Tuire; Lehtinen, Erno; Laine, Kaarina
The focus of our study is social status among first graders. In particular, we will consider the relationship between acceptance and rejection, and how these are connected to three social behavioral traits: bullying, victimization, and social withdrawal. The data set is from peer nominations of 748 children from 49 classrooms in the southwest of…
Kamyla Thais Dias de Freitas
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n5p591 Subjective social status comprises the perception of individuals about their social status. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective social status and sociodemographic indicators (age, educational level, marital status and economic level in athletes from Santa Catharina. A total of 593 athletes of both sexes and mean age of 21.18 (± 5.58 years, 371 men, randomly selected, practitioners of individual and collective sport modalities, federated in clubs in the western region of Santa Catarina participated in the study. Social status perception was assessed using the MacArthur scale version for young people adapted to the sports context. For the association between perceived status and sociodemographic indicators, the Chi-square and Multinomial Logistic Regression tests were used, stratified by gender and adjusted for age variables, educational level, marital status and socioeconomic status. Dissatisfaction with status was found in 85% of the sample. Moreover, 46.9% of participants perceived themselves with low family status and 46% perceived themselves with intermediate status in their clubs. The association between groups showed statistically significant differences according to sex, age, educational level and marital status. The association between sociodemographic variables and status according to sex indicated that younger men, with less education, and single were more likely to be dissatisfied with their status. There is need for greater attention by health professionals regarding younger male athletes, with lower education and single regarding their status perception.
Randall, Elizabeth; Wodarski, John S.
Reviews relevant issues in clinical social group practice including group versus individual treatment, group work advantages, approach rationale, group conditions for change, worker role in group, group composition, group practice technique and method, time as group work dimension, pretherapy training, group therapy precautions, and group work…
Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying
This article discusses post-disaster group counseling and group supervision using a social justice orientation for working with post-disaster survivors from underserved populations. The Disaster Cross-Cultural Counseling model is a culturally responsive group counseling model that infuses social justice into post-disaster group counseling and…
Houck, Gail M; Stember, Lisa
Social competence is the effectiveness of social interaction behavior. Given its link to mental health outcomes, it is an important consideration in child and adolescent development. Social withdrawal is associated with depression. Socially withdrawn children make few social initiations and tend to be isolated in their play, further limiting their social involvement. To develop effective social behavior, experiences must be provided to learn relationship skills. This practice improvement project provided a small group experience for five socially withdrawn school-age girls. Weekly group meetings provided a social situation in which conversations could occur around a shared snack and craft project. The school nurse facilitated self-assertion and the expression of prosocial behavior in a socially safe (nonrejecting) environment and promoted social problem solving. On completion of the program, the participants not only showed more effective social reasoning and social skills, but developed friendships with each other that lasted beyond the life of the group.
Sachkova, Marianna E.
Full Text Available Typical male and female roles and relationships can be observed at different social levels: intergroup, intragroup, interpersonal, intrapersonal. In adolescence, increased development of gender characteristics (gender identity, gender stereotypes, gender roles appears at all levels. Since the leading activity at this age is interpersonal communication, research into gender characteristics and their influence on relations in the student group is one of the most important tasks of modern psychology. One hundred and forty teenagers in grades 6-8 from secondary schools in Moscow, aged of 12–14, were involved in the research. Special social-psychological techniques were applied for assessment of status relations (sociometry, referentometry, methodology for defining the informal intragroup power structure and gender characteristics (Bem Sex Role Inventory in classical and modified versions, as well as correlation and cluster analyses. We found that representations about the group leader contained clear masculine features. We underline the discrepancy between the qualities attributed to the image of the leader and the qualities of the actual group leaders. Thus, the image of the leader includes predominantly masculine characteristics, while actual high-status group members describe themselves with both feminine and gender-neutral features. Finally gender-typed behavior and masculine traits are more typical of low-status teenagers.
Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Simmons, Zachary L; Anderson, Cameron; Roney, James R
Why are physically formidable men willingly allocated higher social status by others in cooperative groups? Ancestrally, physically formidable males would have been differentially equipped to generate benefits for groups by providing leadership services of within-group enforcement (e.g., implementing punishment of free riders) and between-group representation (e.g., negotiating with other coalitions). Therefore, we hypothesize that adaptations for social status allocation are designed to interpret men's physical formidability as a cue to these leadership abilities, and to allocate greater status to formidable men on this basis. These hypotheses were supported in 4 empirical studies wherein young adults rated standardized photos of subjects (targets) who were described as being part of a white-collar business consultancy. In Studies 1 and 2, male targets' physical strength positively predicted ratings of their projected status within the organization, and this effect was mediated by perceptions that stronger men possessed greater leadership abilities of within-group enforcement and between-group representation. Moreover, (a) these same patterns held whether status was conceptualized as overall ascendancy, prestige-based status, or dominance-based status, and (b) strong men who were perceived as aggressively self-interested were not allocated greater status. Finally, 2 experiments established the causality of physical formidability's effects on status-related perceptions by manipulating targets' relative strength (Study 3) and height (Study 4). In interpreting our findings, we argue that adaptations for formidability-based status allocation may have facilitated the evolution of group cooperation in humans and other primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Otten, Sabine; And Others
Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as factors and with pull scores on Tajfel matrices…
Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E
The status hierarchy is fundamental in the lives of male chimpanzees. This study describes the dominance interactions and social status among adult male chimpanzees of the Sonso community in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, during the period that they were first studied (1994 and 1995). Social dominance is typically measured using the behaviour of either the subordinate or the dominant individual, but a relationship is dependent on the behaviour of both parties and this study explicitly used both subordinate and dominant behaviours to investigate the status hierarchy. Among adult males of the Sonso community, agonistic interactions occurred at a low rate and pant-grunts were rare, but males could be ranked into separate hierarchies of agonistic dominance and pant-grunting (labelled 'respect') using ratios of behaviour performed/behaviour received. These hierarchies were combined to form a single hierarchy of social status that divided the males among five distinct status levels. The highest status level was held by an alliance between two males who replaced the previous alpha male during the first part of the study. Neither male in this alliance partnership pant-grunted to the other, although the reason for cooperative behaviour was unclear. Although the nominally beta male was treated as such by other adult males, he achieved surprisingly little mating success. Budongo Forest chimpanzees do not warrant the sometimes-expressed view that they are non-aggressive and peaceable and the broad pattern of their status interactions matches with that seen in other chimpanzee populations.
Saharan African region. ... especially for vulnerable groups. At independence in 1980, Zimbabwe pledged to promote a viable social protection system that would be predicated on the principles of social justice and equality of opportunity.
Many existing defenses of group rights seem to rely on the notion of group freedom. To date, however, no adequate analysis of this notion has been offered. Group freedom is best understood in terms of processes of social categorization that are embedded in social mechanisms. Such processes often
Strauss, Cyd C.; And Others
Investigated peer social status of 6- through 13-year-olds. Found anxiety-disorder children significantly less liked than normal children, but anxious and conduct-disorder children similarly liked. Conduct disorder children received more "like least" and "fight most" nominations, with anxious and nonreferred groups alike. The anxious group…
Lansu, Tessa A. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Although peer status has been studied extensively in childhood and adolescence, little is known about social status in peer groups of emerging adults. The current study filled this gap by testing whether preference and popularity are distinct dimensions of peer status and uniquely associated with social behavior in emerging adulthood. Participants…
Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna
Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…
Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.
With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…
Vandell, Deborah Lowe
Critically examines three propositions of Harris' group socialization theory (1995, 1998) related to parents' long-term effects on children's psychological characteristics, peer groups' influences, and the nature of dyadic relationships. Maintains that available evidence is more consistent with a model of multiple socialization agents. Proposes a…
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Today, the role of social capital has been proved to be undeniable in the health . The World Health Organization (WHO in 2000 declared that almost 60% of the causes of disease and mortality were related to the social factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the status of social capital as one of the social determinants of health in Tehran, capital of Iran. Methods: The study participants, who aged over 18 years, lived in 22 districts of Tehran in 2010. The study data were collected on social capital and socioeconomic variables in Iran. Different dimensions of social capital as well as the mean score of social capital was measured in various groups using the SC-IQ. The study data were analyzed using Stata statistical software: release 13.0. Results: In this study, 2.484 participants were selected via multistage random sampling. The mean age of participants was 41.38±17.7, and the mean score of social capital was slightly more in men (31.18 than women (30.41. Social capital was demonstrated to be lower within poor participants than other groups. In terms of marital status, the divorced had the lowest social capital (26.50. The mean social capital in those with university education was higher compared to individuals with other levels of education. Conclusion: Social capital is regarded as one of the factors affecting health. To promote the level of this valuable capital, the factors affecting the social capital level should be identified and all appropriate measures should be taken into account in order to ultimately enhance the level of public health.
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Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Dunham, Yarrow; Merrill, Anna; Hoosain, Leah; Olson, Kristina R.
Whereas members of high-status racial groups show ingroup preference when attitudes are measured implicitly, members of low-status racial groups--both adults and children--typically show no bias, potentially reflecting awareness of the ingroup's low status. We hypothesized that when status differences are especially pronounced, children from…
Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…
van Leeuwen, Esther; Täuber, Susanne
We examined, in two experiments, the notion that members of low status groups, more than members of high status groups, use outgroup helping as a strategic tool to demonstrate their group's knowledge and boost its reputation. In Study 1 (N=103), we compared outgroup helping in response to requests
Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao
To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.
Social status is commonly established among individuals within groups of animals. Despite this common characteristic of social animals it is still unclear how individuals establish their status. I investigated the relationships between morphology, posture and behaviours with social status in red junglefowl hens. The hens tested were measured (weight, comb length, comb height and tarsus length) and exposed to three different behavioural tests (novel arena, novel object and interaction test). N...
Bianchi, Alison J.; Lancianese, Donna A.
We explore the capacity of positive sentiments, those enduring affective states one achieves when one likes another, to impact status structures. Do positive sentiments combine with existing aspects of interaction to create status hierarchies and potentially change the social order, or do they moderate the effects of extant structure by dampening…
Full Text Available We analyze two large datasets from technological networks with location and social data: user location records from an online location-based social networking service, and anonymized telecommunications data from a European cellphone operator, in order to investigate the differences between individual and group behavior with respect to physical location. We discover agreements between the two datasets: firstly, that individuals are more likely to meet with one friend at a place they have not visited before, but tend to meet at familiar locations when with a larger group. We also find that groups of individuals are more likely to meet at places that their other friends have visited, and that the type of a place strongly affects the propensity for groups to meet there. These differences between group and solo mobility has potential technological applications, for example, in venue recommendation in location-based social networks.
Zhou, W-X; Sornette, D; Hill, R A; Dunbar, R I M
The 'social brain hypothesis' for the evolution of large brains in primates has led to evidence for the coevolution of neocortical size and social group sizes, suggesting that there is a cognitive constraint on group size that depends, in some way, on the volume of neural material available for processing and synthesizing information on social relationships. More recently, work on both human and non-human primates has suggested that social groups are often hierarchically structured. We combine data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study. Using fractal analysis, we identify, with high statistical confidence, a discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to three: rather than a single or a continuous spectrum of group sizes, humans spontaneously form groups of preferred sizes organized in a geometrical series approximating 3-5, 9-15, 30-45, etc. Such discrete scale invariance could be related to that identified in signatures of herding behaviour in financial markets and might reflect a hierarchical processing of social nearness by human brains.
Full Text Available For individuals, status is derived both from their personal attributes and the groups with whom they are affiliated. Depending on the performance of their groups, the status of individuals may benefit or suffer from identifying closely with the group. When the group excels, high-status members potentially receive much of the credit and increased status. Conversely, high-status members of underperforming groups potentially suffer disproportionate declines in their status relative to the low-status group members. We therefore predict an interaction between group performance and individual status on the willingness to associate with the group and its members. We test our prediction by examining social media ties among teammates in the National Basketball Association. Specifically, we investigate the "following" ties of teammates on Twitter at the end of the 2014-2015 season. Elections to All-Star games are used to measure the status of players, and team performance is measured by recent success in the postseason playoffs. The results show that compared to high-status players on successful teams, high-status players on underperforming teams are less likely to follow their teammates. This result aligns with research on status inconsistency, suggesting that individuals deemphasize their group affiliation when it jeopardizes their individual status. An additional contribution is the advancement of the probit Social Relations Model for the analysis of binary ties in social networks.
Koster, Jeremy; Aven, Brandy
For individuals, status is derived both from their personal attributes and the groups with whom they are affiliated. Depending on the performance of their groups, the status of individuals may benefit or suffer from identifying closely with the group. When the group excels, high-status members potentially receive much of the credit and increased status. Conversely, high-status members of underperforming groups potentially suffer disproportionate declines in their status relative to the low-status group members. We therefore predict an interaction between group performance and individual status on the willingness to associate with the group and its members. We test our prediction by examining social media ties among teammates in the National Basketball Association. Specifically, we investigate the "following" ties of teammates on Twitter at the end of the 2014-2015 season. Elections to All-Star games are used to measure the status of players, and team performance is measured by recent success in the postseason playoffs. The results show that compared to high-status players on successful teams, high-status players on underperforming teams are less likely to follow their teammates. This result aligns with research on status inconsistency, suggesting that individuals deemphasize their group affiliation when it jeopardizes their individual status. An additional contribution is the advancement of the probit Social Relations Model for the analysis of binary ties in social networks.
Bouas, Kelly S.; Komorita, S. S.
Face-to-face discussion has been shown to increase cooperation behavior in social dilemmas. Two general explanations of this effect were tested: group identity and perception of consensus. Female undergraduate students (N=160) participated in four-person groups in one of four experimental conditions. Findings indicate the most plausible…
The paper begins from the claim that ontological holism is given prima facie plausibility by the apparently ineliminable role of groups in some descriptions and explanations of the social domain. If the individualist accepts the link between indispensabilty and realism, then individualism must show that groups cannot play the ...
Cohen, Dov; Shin, Faith; Liu, Xi; Ondish, Peter; Kraus, Michael W
We examined changes over four decades and between ethnic groups in how people define their social class. Changes included the increasing importance of income, decreasing importance of occupational prestige, and the demise of the "Victorian bargain," in which poor people who subscribed to conservative sexual and religious norms could think of themselves as middle class. The period also saw changes (among Whites) and continuity (among Black Americans) in subjective status perceptions. For Whites (and particularly poor Whites), their perceptions of enhanced social class were greatly reduced. Poor Whites now view their social class as slightly but significantly lower than their poor Black and Latino counterparts. For Black respondents, a caste-like understanding of social class persisted, as they continued to view their class standing as relatively independent of their achieved education, income, and occupation. Such achievement indicators, however, predicted Black respondents' self-esteem more than they predicted self-esteem for any other group.
Status is an important aspect of social life that affects people from the day they are born until the day they die. In this dissertation, André Grow examines the processes by which status inequality can emerge between individuals and between social groups, such as men/women, whites/non-whites, and
Læssøe, Jeppe; Gundelach, Peter
outlines two examples. The first shows that energy research about the relation between lifestyles and energy consumption has to be aware of the change in social groups from stable communities towards partial imagined communities. Rituals and social signals are important means to constitute and maintain...... such communities. The acceptance or rejection of green consumption is influenced by this social dynamic. The second example attacks the widespread assumption among energy-behaviour researchers and administrators that the only way to change peoples behaviour goes from information to action. Based on psychological...
Koski, Jessica; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R.
Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are socio-cultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents. PMID:25697184
De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Rosaci, Domenico; Sarné, Giuseppe M L
Understanding the dynamics behind group formation and evolution in social networks is considered an instrumental milestone to better describe how individuals gather and form communities, how they enjoy and share the platform contents, how they are driven by their preferences/tastes, and how their behaviors are influenced by peers. In this context, the notion of compactness of a social group is particularly relevant. While the literature usually refers to compactness as a measure to merely determine how much members of a group are similar among each other, we argue that the mutual trustworthiness between the members should be considered as an important factor in defining such a term. In fact, trust has profound effects on the dynamics of group formation and their evolution: individuals are more likely to join with and stay in a group if they can trust other group members. In this paper, we propose a quantitative measure of group compactness that takes into account both the similarity and the trustworthiness among users, and we present an algorithm to optimize such a measure. We provide empirical results, obtained from the real social networks EPINIONS and CIAO, that compare our notion of compactness versus the traditional notion of user similarity, clearly proving the advantages of our approach.
This paper presents a model showing an incentive for a group of people to vote for higher tuition fees, even if these fees have no quality effect. The incentive is based on a non-monetary influence on utility, namely the social status or prestige of graduating. The basic assumption is that the higher the prestige is, the lower the number of people studying. In a static equilibrium, it is shown that a group of wealthier and more able people can exist that attempts to prevent others from studying.
Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova
characterized by the situation and state of exception that is linked to social status and self-perception of human rights and expressed through the senses of inferiority, anger, fear, despair, depression, shame. The status of social exclusion has many criteria: poverty, limited opportunities for employment and education, lack of access to social and community networks and activities, inability to plan one’s own life. The explanatory concept of social exclusion is based on the construction of the attitude toward socially vulnerable layers as the devalued social status. The barrier of social inclusion consists in the formation of a negative image of a representative of this category of the population in the eyes of more secure population groups; and the reason for this phenomenon lies in individual characteristics of an individual: lack of purpose, apathy, laziness, low motivation to labor and training, and bad habits. The prevailing social stereotype contributes to the stratification of entire families, including children, who are in advance deprived of the most important economic, political and cultural resources of society, and have no opportunities for the upward mobility. If no measures are taken to overcome social exclusion, it can lead to the fact that part of the population will fall out of social development and slip into a state of stagnation and complete social dependence. The concept of social inclusion shifts the priorities of state social policy from the allocation of social transfers to actively changing the mindset in society
Vandell, D L
Three propositions that are central to J. R. Harris's group socialization theory (1995, 1998) are considered in this review. These propositions are as follows: (a) Parental behaviors have no long-term effects on children's psychological characteristics, (b) peer groups are the primary environmental influence on psychological functioning, and (c) dyadic relationships are situation-specific and do not generalize. The evidence that J. R. Harris has outlined in support of each of these propositions is reviewed, as is additional empirical research not considered by J. R. Harris. Serious limitations to each proposition are identified. The available evidence is more consistent with a model of multiple socialization agents. An expanded research agenda that permits a more definitive test of J. R. Harris's propositions and social relationship theory is proposed.
Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences
Zhao, Zhenyuan; Calderón, J. P.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Guannan; Fenn, Dan; Sornette, Didier; Crane, Riley; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.
Despite the many works on contagion phenomena in both well-mixed systems and heterogeneous networks, there is still a lack of understanding of the intermediate regime where social group structures evolve on a similar time scale to individual-level transmission. We address this question by considering the process of transmission through a model population comprising social groups which follow simple dynamical rules for growth and breakup. Despite the simplicity of our model, the profiles produced bear a striking resemblance to a wide variety of real-world examples—in particular, empirical data that we have obtained for social (i.e., YouTube), financial (i.e., currency markets), and biological (i.e., colds in schools) systems. The observation of multiple resurgent peaks and abnormal decay times is qualitatively reproduced within the model simply by varying the time scales for group coalescence and fragmentation. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of the system and highlight a novel transition which arises as a result of the social group dynamics.
Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.
With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds
Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R
Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Social hierarchy exists in almost all social species and affects everything from resource allocation to the development of intelligence. Previous studies showed that status within a social hierarchy influences the perceived fairness of income allocation. However, the effect of one’s social status on economic decisions is far from clear, as are the neural processes underlying these decisions. In this study, we dynamically manipulated participants’ social status and analyzed their behavior as recipients in the ultimatum game, during which event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. Behavioral results showed that acceptance rates for offers increased with the fairness level of offers. Importantly, participants were less likely to accept unfair offers when they were endowed with high status than with low status. In addition, cues indicating low status elicited a more positive P2 than cues indicating high status in an earlier time window (170 – 240 ms, and cues indicating high status elicited a more negative N400 than did cues indicating low status in a later time window (350 – 520 ms. During the actual reception of offers, the late positivity potential (LPP, 400 – 700 ms for unfair offers was more positive in the high status condition than in the low status condition, suggesting a decreased arousal for unfair offers during low status. These findings suggest a strong role of social status in modulating individual behavioral and neural responses to fairness.
Schmitt, Michael T; Branscombe, Nyla R; Kappen, Diane M
In five studies we explored how the context in which people think about the social structure and the implications of the social structure for one's in-group affect attitudes toward inequality. In Studies 1 and 2 we found that social dominance orientation (SDO) scores reflect attitudes toward specific types of inequality that are salient in context. Consistent with social identity theory, in Studies 3 to 5 we found that SDO scores reflected the interests of specific group identities. Indeed, when we compared existing privileged and disadvantaged groups, and when we manipulated in-group status, we found that participants held more positive attitudes toward inequality when the in-group was privileged, compared to when the in-group was disadvantaged. Across all of our studies, results were consistent with the contention that attitudes toward inequality are group-specific and depend on the social-structural position of salient in-groups. We discuss the implications of our findings for social dominance theory.
Objective: This study aimed at determining how mother support groups affect the nutrition status of children under 2 years of age ... fants should be fed exclusively on breast milk from birth ... an intervention provides long-term health benefits for.
Berry, Nina M.; Lee, Marinna; Pickett, Marc; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.
The Seldon software toolkit combines concepts from agent-based modeling and social science to create a computationally social dynamic model for group recruitment. The underlying recruitment model is based on a unique three-level hybrid agent-based architecture that contains simple agents (level one), abstract agents (level two), and cognitive agents (level three). This uniqueness of this architecture begins with abstract agents that permit the model to include social concepts (gang) or institutional concepts (school) into a typical software simulation environment. The future addition of cognitive agents to the recruitment model will provide a unique entity that does not exist in any agent-based modeling toolkits to date. We use social networks to provide an integrated mesh within and between the different levels. This Java based toolkit is used to analyze different social concepts based on initialization input from the user. The input alters a set of parameters used to influence the values associated with the simple agents, abstract agents, and the interactions (simple agent-simple agent or simple agent-abstract agent) between these entities. The results of phase-1 Seldon toolkit provide insight into how certain social concepts apply to different scenario development for inner city gang recruitment.
Anderson, Cameron; Kraus, Michael W; Galinsky, Adam D; Keltner, Dacher
Dozens of studies in different nations have revealed that socioeconomic status only weakly predicts an individual's subjective well-being (SWB). These results imply that although the pursuit of social status is a fundamental human motivation, achieving high status has little impact on one's SWB. However, we propose that sociometric status-the respect and admiration one has in face-to-face groups (e.g., among friends or coworkers)-has a stronger effect on SWB than does socioeconomic status. Using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal methodologies, four studies found consistent evidence for a local-ladder effect: Sociometric status significantly predicted satisfaction with life and the experience of positive and negative emotions. Longitudinally, as sociometric status rose or fell, SWB rose or fell accordingly. Furthermore, these effects were driven by feelings of power and social acceptance. Overall, individuals' sociometric status matters more to their SWB than does their socioeconomic status.
Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of intellectual development of high-status, middle-status and low-status members of the educational preschool groups. It is shown that the intellectual development of high status and middle status 4-5 years old children is higher than their low-status peers, especially in such aspects as perception, attention, and memory. This integral indicator of high status subjects corresponds to the average or high level of intelligence, and for most of the subjects of this category is characterized by a high level. An integral component of intellectual development of middle-status children is comparable to the one in high-status. In fact, there is only one, but not least, difference between the two categories: among high-status children there is no kids whose integral indicator of intellectual development is below average. Integral indicator of intellectual development of most low-status subjects corresponds to the low intelligence level. We analyzed a dialectical relationship of intellectual, social, and psychological development of preschool children according to the concept of «interpersonal situation of development». The article presents methodical maintenance of structure definition of interpersonal relations in the preschool educational groups. The study proposed a number of scientific and practical recommendations.
Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.
Prislin, Radmila; Shaffer, Emily; Crowder, Marisa
This study examined the effects of social consensus and social status on attitude certainty that is conceptualized multi-dimensionally as perceived clarity and correctness of one's attitude. In a mock opinion exchange about a social issue, participants were either supported (high consensus) or opposed (low consensus) by most of the confederates. They were informed that their opinion (high status) or their opponents' opinion (low status) had the alleged psychological significance indicative of future success. Post-experimental attitude clarity was significantly greater when attitudinal position was associated with high rather than low status. Attitude correctness was interactively affected by social status and social consensus. Supporting the compensatory effect hypothesis, attitude correctness was comparable across the levels of social consensus as long as they were associated with high status, and across the levels of social status as long as they were associated with high social consensus.
Stephen H. Forbes
Full Text Available Recent developments in social insect research have challenged the need for close kinship as a prerequisite for the evolution of stable group living. In a model communal bee species, Lasioglossum (Chilalictus hemichalceum, previous allozyme work indicated that groups of cooperating adult females are not relatives. Yet at any given time, not all group members perform the risky task of foraging. We previously hypothesized that tolerance for non-foragers was a component of extended parental care, previously known only for kin based social systems. DNA microsatellites were used to study colony genetic structure in order to test this hypothesis. Microsatellite polymorphism was substantial (He = 0.775. Overall intracolony relatedness, mainly of immatures, was low but significant in nine, late season nests (r = 0.136 plus or minus0.023, indicating that broods contain five to six unrelated sib ships. Detailed analyses of kinship between pairs of individuals revealed that most pairs were unrelated and most related pairs were siblings. Mothers are absent for 89-91% of the developing immature females, and 97% of developing males. Alternatively, 46% of adult females had neither sibs nor offspring in their nests. These findings indicate that the extended parental care model applies broadly to both kin based and nonkin based social systems in the Hymenoptera.
Nielsen, A L; Jensen, H Æ; Hegbrant, J
Hypoxia during haemodialysis, mainly acetate, has been reported several times. In our study we have monitored oxygen status during 258 bicarbonate haemodialyses. A significant drop below 80 mmHg in mean oxygen tension occurred. Mean oxygen saturation reflected this drop but did not reach levels...... below 90%. The mean oxygen concentration was on the whole critical low, though slightly increasing during each haemodialysis session due to ultrafiltration. It is concluded that both hypoxia and hypoxaemia do occur during bicarbonate haemodialysis. To a group of patients generally having limited cardiac...... reserves, a poor oxygen status is a potentially serious complication to haemodialysis. Monitoring oxygen status is thus advisable....
Full Text Available The history of philosophy and the history of legal doctrines mention and analyze the differences, often categorical, between the existence of man in his natural status and on the other hand, his existence in social status. The doctrine of the social contract is the mainstream of the thought that analyzes the existential status of man in the social environment and the natural environment by arguing, according to the author and the philosophical conception, the historical, social and juridical particularities of the natural status and social status. In our study we support the compatibility between the two existential forms of man, we identify the existential categories in which these can be defined, and emphasize the implications of these categories in realization of the act of justice.
Louvet, Eva; Cambon, Laurent; Milhabet, Isabelle; Rohmer, Odile
Building on the two fundamental dimensions of social judgment distinguishing communion from agency, the purpose of the present work was to show that the strength of the relationship between social status and agency depends on specific components at issue: assertiveness, competence, and effort. Four experimental studies were conducted using two complementary paradigms. In Studies 1 and 2, we manipulated social status, and participants had to rate the target on competence, assertiveness, and effort. In Studies 3 and 4, we reversed the design. Results consistently showed that social status was primarily related to assertiveness, somewhat related to competence, and only slightly related to effort. The present research provides a better understanding of how the dimensions of social judgment are used to explain differences in social status.
This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…
Feddes, A.R.; Monteiro, M.B.; Justo, M.G.
A measure of subjective social status (SSS) was examined among high (White), and low (Black and Roma) ethnic status children in Portugal within a developmental design including 6-8-year-old and 9-12-year-old children. White children favoured their ingroup over the Black and Roma out-groups on the
Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim
Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.
Full Text Available Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality, or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.
Shen, Sheng-Feng; Akçay, Erol; Rubenstein, Dustin R
Conflicts of interest over resources or reproduction among individuals in a social group have long been considered to result in automatic and universal costs to group living. However, exploring how social conflict varies with group size has produced mixed empirical results. Here we develop a model that generates alternative predictions for how social conflict should vary with group size depending on the type of benefits gained from being in a social group. We show that a positive relationship between social conflict and group size is favored when groups form primarily for the benefits of sociality but not when groups form mainly for accessing group-defended resources. Thus, increased social conflict in animal societies should not be viewed as an automatic cost of larger social groups. Instead, studying the relationship between social conflict and the types of grouping benefits will be crucial for understanding the evolution of complex societies.
Caricati, Luca; Sollami, Alfonso
In two experiments, the effect of (in)stability of status differences on the perception of perspective legitimacy and in-group threat among intermediate-status group members (i.e., nurses students or nurses) was analysed. Both studies indicated that in downwardly unstable condition, legitimacy was lower and in-group threat was higher than in stable condition. In upwardly unstable condition, perceived legitimacy was higher and in-group threat was lower than in stable condition. The indirect effects of (in)stability via in-group threat on perceived legitimacy were significant. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Kraus, Michael W; Callaghan, Bennett
Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats - measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender - was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered.
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Full Text Available Figurative language, the built environment, and our perceptuo-motor experiences frequently associate social status with physical space. Linguistic references such as high status or climbing the corporate ladder, and built places such as the U.S. Capitol building link social and physical hierarchies. In three experiments we examine the source and extent of these associations by testing whether people implicitly associate abstract social status indicators with concrete representations of spatial topography (level versus mountainous land and relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north. Experiment 1 demonstrates speeded performance during an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998 when average social status is paired with level topography and high status with mountainous topography. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate a similar effect but with relatively abstract representations of cardinal direction (south and north, with speeded performance when average and powerful social status are paired with south and north coordinate space, respectively. Abstract concepts of social status are perceived and understood in an inherently spatial world, resulting in powerful associations between abstract social concepts and concrete and abstract notions of physical axes. These associations may prove influential in guiding daily judgments and actions.
Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy
The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.
Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.
With a sample of African American and European American 3rd and 4th grade children (N = 486, ages 8–11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group, and cross-ethnicity dislike). African American—but not European American—children had more segregated relationships and were more disliked by cross-eth...
Chiao, Joan Y
Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mattan, Bradley D; Kubota, Jennifer T; Cloutier, Jasmin
Inferring the relative rank (i.e., status) of others is essential to navigating social hierarchies. A survey of the expanding social psychological and neuroscience literatures on status reveals a diversity of focuses (e.g., perceiver vs. agent), operationalizations (e.g., status as dominance vs. wealth), and methodologies (e.g., behavioral, neuroscientific). Accommodating this burgeoning literature on status in person perception, the present review offers a novel social neuroscientific framework that integrates existing work with theoretical clarity. This framework distinguishes between five key concepts: (1) strategic pathways to status acquisition for agents, (2) status antecedents (i.e., perceptual and knowledge-based cues that confer status rank), (3) status dimensions (i.e., domains in which an individual may be ranked, such as wealth), (4) status level (i.e., one's rank along a given dimension), and (5) the relative importance of a given status dimension, dependent on perceiver and context characteristics. Against the backdrop of this framework, we review multiple dimensions of status in the nonhuman and human primate literatures. We then review the behavioral and neuroscientific literatures on the consequences of perceived status for attention and evaluation. Finally, after proposing a social neuroscience framework, we highlight innovative directions for future social status research in social psychology and neuroscience.
Foerster, Steffen; Franz, Mathias; Murray, Carson M.; Gilby, Ian C.; Feldblum, Joseph T.; Walker, Kara K.; Pusey, Anne E.
Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time. Here, we expand on recent work and develop a new likelihood-based Elo rating method that facilitates the systematic assessment of rank dynamics in animal social groups, even when interaction data are sparse. We apply this method to characterize long-term rank trajectories in wild eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and find remarkable sex differences in rank dynamics, indicating that females queue for social status while males actively challenge each other to rise in rank. Further, our results suggest that natal females obtain a head start in the rank queue if they avoid dispersal, with potential fitness benefits. PMID:27739527
Goldberg, Simon B; Hoyt, William T
The notion that individuals' interpersonal behaviors in the context of therapy reflects their interpersonal behaviors outside of therapy is a fundamental hypothesis underlying numerous systems of psychotherapy. The social microcosm hypothesis, in particular, claims the interpersonal therapy group becomes a reflection of group members' general tendencies, and can thus be used as information about members' interpersonal functioning as well as an opportunity for learning and behavior change. The current study tested this hypothesis using data drawn from 207 individuals participating in 22 interpersonal process groups. Ratings were made on 2 key interpersonal domains (Dominance and Affiliation) at baseline and at Weeks 2, 5, and 8 of the group. Two-level multilevel models (with participants nested within groups) were used to account for the hierarchical structure, and the social relations model (SRM; Kenny, 1994) was used to estimate peer ratings (target effects in SRM) unconfounded with rater bias. Participants showed consensus at all time points during the interpersonal process groups on one another's levels of dominance and affiliation. In addition, self- and peer ratings were stable across time and correlated with one another. Importantly, self-ratings made prior to group significantly predicted ratings (self- and peer) made within the group, with effect sizes within the medium range. Taken together, these results provide robust support for the social microcosm hypothesis and the conjecture that interpersonal style within-group therapy is reflective of broader interpersonal tendencies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Lindemann, Elizabeth A; Chen, Elizabeth S; Wang, Yan; Skube, Steven J; Melton, Genevieve B
As individuals age, there is potential for dramatic changes in the social and behavioral determinants that affect health status and outcomes. The importance of these determinants has been increasingly recognized in clinical decision-making. We sought to characterize how social and behavioral health determinants vary in different demographic groups using a previously established schema of 28 social history types through both manual analysis and automated topic analysis of social documentation in the electronic health record across the population of an entire integrated healthcare system. Our manual analysis generated 8,335 annotations over 1,400 documents, representing 24 (86%) social history types. In contrast, automated topic analysis generated 22 (79%) social history types. A comparative evaluation demonstrated both similarities and differences in coverage between the manual and topic analyses. Our findings validate the widespread nature of social and behavioral determinants that affect health status over populations of individuals over their lifespan.
Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van
The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group
Kreijns, C.J.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Buuren, van H.
The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group
Muscatell, Keely A; Dedovic, Katarina; Slavich, George M; Jarcho, Michael R; Breen, Elizabeth C; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Eisenberger, Naomi I
Social stratification has important implications for health and well-being, with individuals lower in standing in a hierarchy experiencing worse outcomes than those higher up the social ladder. Separate lines of past research suggest that alterations in inflammatory processes and neural responses to threat may link lower social status with poorer outcomes. This study was designed to bridge these literatures to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms linking subjective social status and inflammation. Thirty-one participants reported their subjective social status, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while they were socially evaluated. Participants also provided blood samples before and after the stressor, which were analysed for changes in inflammation. Results showed that lower subjective social status was associated with greater increases in inflammation. Neuroimaging data revealed lower subjective social status was associated with greater neural activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in response to negative feedback. Finally, results indicated that activation in the DMPFC in response to negative feedback mediated the relation between social status and increases in inflammatory activity. This study provides the first evidence of a neurocognitive pathway linking subjective social status and inflammation, thus furthering our understanding of how social hierarchies shape neural and physiological responses to social interactions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Thompson, Lisa M; Murray, Kate A; Jarvis, Sarah; Scarr, Ellen
Relative position in a social hierarchy, or subjective social status, has been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and may be influenced by social connectedness. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between health insurance status and subjective social status, using the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS, community version), in the state of Hawai'i with its highly insured population. The secondary purpose is to examine other social dete...
Lee, Hedwig; Turney, Kristin
A growing body of evidence suggests that experiences with discrimination have implications for mental health and that these associations may vary by social status. We use data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) to examine how two types of perceived discrimination, chronic everyday discrimination and major lifetime discrimination, are linked to mental health, and how this association varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that everyday discrimination is generally independently linked to greater depressive symptoms, loneliness, and hostility across all social status groups. Major discrimination is not associated with depressive symptoms or loneliness after adjusting for a host of covariates, but is associated with hostility, especially for certain groups. These findings highlight the need to examine multiple indicators of discrimination and mental health, and to pay attention to both differences and similarities in these associations by social status.
Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R
Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.
This article explored the sociocultural traditions and legal practices that have contributed to the low status of women in contemporary Tswana society, presenting a state-of-the art literature review of the customary law and marriage act statutes and their adverse impact on the status of women in Botswana. There is evidence ...
This report describes the status of nuclear safety and radiation protection in the facilities of the AREVA group and gives information on radiation protection in the service operations, as observed through the inspection programs and analyses carried out by the General Inspectorate in 2007. Having been submitted to the group's Supervisory Board, this report is sent to the bodies representing the personnel. Content: 1 - A look back at 2007 by the AREVA General Inspector: Visible progress in 2007, Implementation of the Nuclear Safety Charter, Notable events; 2 - Status of nuclear safety and radiation protection in the nuclear facilities and service operations: Personnel radiation protection, Event tracking, Service operations, Criticality control, Radioactive waste and effluent management; 3 - Performance improvement actions; 4 - Description of the General Inspectorate; 5 - Glossary
Ouyang, Kan; Xu, Erica; Huang, Xu; Liu, Wu; Tang, Yipeng
Group members gain social status via giving favors to others, but why and when they do so remain unclear in the literature. Building on social exchange theory and social status literature, we identify three types of favor giving among group members (generous, stingy, and matched) and propose that an affective mechanism (i.e., gratitude) and a cognitive mechanism (i.e., perceived competence) underlie the relationship between favor giving and status attainment. Specifically, generous/stingy favor giving has a linear relationship with status attainment through both gratitude and perceived competence, whereas matched favor giving has a curvilinear relationship with status attainment only through perceived competence. An experimental study and a field study lend support to our propositions. Our study complements the literature by offering a complete picture of how three types of favor giving among group members shape their social status in different ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Meyertholen, Andrew
The mathematical modeling of social group competition has garnered much attention. We consider a model originated by Abrams and Strogatz [Nature 424, 900 (2003)] that predicts the extinction of one of two social groups. This model assigns a utility to each social group, which is constant over the entire society. We find by allowing this utility to vary over a society, through the introduction of a network or spatial dependence, this model may result in the coexistence of the two social groups.
Poteat, V. Paul
A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…
Beatson, Ruth M; Halloran, Michael J
Previous research has shown that people have a tendency to explain successes and failures in ways that favor their ingroups relative to outgroups. However, there has been a dearth of research examining whether social-contextual factors such as group status and hierarchy legitimacy moderate such intergroup attributions. Participants in this study were assigned to a low status group, and perceived hierarchy legitimacy was then experimentally manipulated; the extent to which ingroup versus outgroup failures were attributed to several causes was measured. When low status was considered illegitimate, ingroup failure was attributed to external causes (task difficulty, bad luck) more so than outgroup failure. Implications and directions for future research examining consequences and mediating processes are discussed.
Penning, Margaret J; Wu, Zheng
Despite evidence of increasing diversification of family structures, little is known regarding implications of marital and parental status for access to social support in later life. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2007 General Social Survey, this study assessed the impact of marital and parental status intersections on social support among adults aged 60 and older (n = 11,503). Two-stage probit regression models indicated that among those who were currently married or separated/divorced, childless individuals were more likely to report instrumental (domestic, transportation) and emotional support from people outside the household. Conversely, among never-married or widowed older adults, being childless was associated with reduced domestic support but without differences in other support domains. Findings suggest that marital and parental status intersections are not uniformly positive, neutral, or negative regarding implications for extra-household social support. Future work should address complexities of these relationships in order to better understand rapidly changing family structures.
Philip R. Blue
Full Text Available Promises are crucial for maintaining trust in social hierarchies. It is well known that not all promises are kept; yet the effect of social status on responses to promises being kept or broken is far from understood, as are the neural processes underlying this effect. Here we manipulated participants’ social status before measuring their investment behavior as Investor in iterated Trust Game (TG. Participants decided how much to invest in their partners, who acted as Trustees in TG, after being informed that their partners of higher or lower social status either promised to return half of the multiplied sum (4 × invested amount, did not promise, or had no opportunity to promise. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded when the participants saw the Trustees’ decisions in which the partners always returned half of the time, regardless of the experimental conditions. Trustee decisions to return or not after promising to do so were defined as honesty and dishonesty, respectively. Behaviorally, participants invested more when Trustees promised than when Trustees had no opportunity to promise, and this effect was greater for higher status than lower status Trustees. Neurally, when viewing Trustees’ return decisions, participants’ medial frontal negativity (MFN responses (250–310 ms post onset were more negative when Trustees did not return than when they did return, suggesting that not returning was an expectancy violation. P300 responses were only sensitive to higher status return feedback, and were more positive-going for higher status partner returns than for lower status partner returns, suggesting that higher status returns may have been more rewarding/motivationally significant. Importantly, only participants in low subjective socioeconomic status (SES evidenced an increased P300 effect for higher status than lower status honesty (honesty – dishonesty, suggesting that higher status honesty was especially rewarding
Internalizing the costs of environmental and other externalities in electricity prices will, in principle, allocate resources to power generation more efficiently than command-and-control regulation. Recent research has made progress toward developing methods for calculating these full social costs. This research has already proved useful, especially in guiding state-level experiments in the use of social costing. Although difficult methodological issues remain, future research also promises to help policy makers use a variety of policy instruments more precisely and effectively. For this to happen, however, there must be a close link between policy and research communities in defining the research agenda. (author)
Buunk, Abraham P; Stulp, Gert; Ormel, Johan
A study among 1,881 adolescents (52.3% girls) with a mean age of 19.1 years examined the effects of parental social status upon intrasexual competitiveness. Whereas females were consistently more intrasexually competitive the higher the socio-economic status of their parents, males with parents of the lowest socio-economic status tended to be more intrasexually competitive than those with parents of medium socio-economic status, and nearly as intrasexually competitive as those with parents of high socio-economic status. Only among adolescents with parents of low socio-economic status were males more intrasexually competitive than females. Among males and females, higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness were related to a higher family income, to a higher occupational status of the father as well as of the mother, and to a higher educational level of the mother. Only among females were higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness associated with a higher educational level of the father. Males whose fathers had only elementary education had a relatively high level of intrasexual competitiveness. The results are discussed in the context of the multifaceted nature of human status, and the potential relevance of intrasexual competitiveness for individuals of high versus low social status.
Full Text Available The article presents socio-psychological analysis of the phenomenon of social status, which is not seen as a sociological category, but as a component of the image of the object of learning. The author hypothesized that social status defined by another person depends on a number of the social object indicators (gender, age and socio-demographic criteria and the characteristics of the subject of learning (gender, age, job, self-evaluations on various parameters. The study involved 141 people (83 female, 58 male, aged 18 to 30 years, mean=23. Methodological tools were the method of questionnaires and interviews with stimulus material. The author identified the components of the social status phenomenon and characteristics of the object and the subject of learning that are important for determining the position of the individual in society. Features of the social status assessment in the original perception were determined. The obtained data can be used in the educational process for determining group structure in the students of higher educational institutions, high-status and low-status members, as well as for understanding the value structures and important components in the social life of young people
Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Cross, Katy A.; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella
People preferentially imitate others who are similar to them or have high social status. Such imitative biases are thought to have evolved because they increase the efficiency of cultural acquisition. Here we focused on distinguishing between self-similarity and social status as two candidate mechanisms underlying neural responses to a person’s race during imitation. We used fMRI to measure neural responses when 20 African American (AA) and 20 European American (EA) young adults imitated AA, EA and Chinese American (CA) models and also passively observed their gestures and faces. We found that both AA and EA participants exhibited more activity in lateral fronto-parietal and visual regions when imitating AAs compared to EAs or CAs. These results suggest that racial self-similarity is not likely to modulate neural responses to race during imitation, in contrast with findings from previous neuroimaging studies of face perception and action observation. Furthermore, AA and EA participants associated AAs with lower social status than EAs or CAs, suggesting that the social status associated with different racial groups may instead modulate neural activity during imitation of individuals from those groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that neural responses to race during imitation are driven by socially-learned associations rather than self-similarity. This may reflect the adaptive role of imitation in social learning, where learning from higher-status models can be more beneficial. This study provides neural evidence consistent with evolutionary theories of cultural acquisition. PMID:23813738
Volkov A.A.; Zerkalova E.A.
The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Full Text Available The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.
Chang, Mark D.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the advent and subsequent growth of several new media technologies, violent extremist groups have incorporated social media into recruiting strategies. How are violent extremist groups using social media for recruiting? This thesis explores several new media technologies—websites, blogs, social media, mobile phones, and online gaming—to determine if violent extremist groups rely on social media for recruiting. By comparing the com...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social participation is known to predict longevity. However, little is known about the effect of social participation according to an individual’s position in civic groups. We evaluated the influence of social position on mortality, using data from a large cohort of Japanese older adults (the AGES cohort. Methods Of 14,804 individuals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the AGES, 14,286 individuals were followed up for approximately 5 years from 2003 to 2008. We performed inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW Cox proportional hazards regression with multiple imputation of missing values to compute hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality according to the individual’s position in the community organization(s to which they belonged. We examined participation in the following civic groups: neighborhood association/senior citizen club/fire-fighting team, religious group, political organization or group, industrial or trade association, volunteer group, citizen or consumer group, hobby group, and sports group or club. The values for IPTW were computed based on demographic variables, socioeconomic status, and self-reported medical condition. Results During 22,718 person-years of follow-up for regular members of community groups and 14,014 person-years of follow-up for participants in leadership positions, 479 deaths and 214 deaths were observed, respectively. Relative to regular members, crude HR for all-cause mortality for occupying leadership positions (e.g. president, manager, or having administrative roles was 0.72 (95 % CI:0.62–0.85. The IPTW-HR was 0.88 (95 % CI: 0.79–0.99 for participants occupying leadership positions. Conclusions Holding leadership positions in community organization(s may be more beneficial to health than being regular members.
Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Travizano, Matías; Makse, Hernán A.
It is commonly believed that patterns of social ties affect individuals' economic status. Here we translate this concept into an operational definition at the network level, which allows us to infer the economic well-being of individuals through a measure of their location and influence in the social network. We analyse two large-scale sources: telecommunications and financial data of a whole country's population. Our results show that an individual's location, measured as the optimal collective influence to the structural integrity of the social network, is highly correlated with personal economic status. The observed social network patterns of influence mimic the patterns of economic inequality. For pragmatic use and validation, we carry out a marketing campaign that shows a threefold increase in response rate by targeting individuals identified by our social network metrics as compared to random targeting. Our strategy can also be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.
Ugelvig, Line V; Cremer, Sylvia
Life in a social group increases the risk of disease transmission. To counteract this threat, social insects have evolved manifold antiparasite defenses, ranging from social exclusion of infected group members to intensive care. It is generally assumed that individuals performing hygienic behavio...
Secchi, Davide; Bui, Hong T M
This study uses a quasi-experimental design to investigate what happens to individual socially responsible attitudes when they are exposed to group dynamics. Findings show that group engagement increases individual attitudes toward social responsibility. We also found that individuals with low attitudes toward social responsibility are more likely to change their opinions when group members show more positive attitudes toward social responsibility. Conversely, individuals with high attitudes do not change much, independent of group characteristics. To better analyze the effect of group dynamics, the study proposes to split social responsibility into relative and absolute components. Findings show that relative social responsibility is correlated with but different from absolute social responsibility although the latter is more susceptible than the former to group dynamics.
Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck
This dissertation is about distinctions, social status differences and contemporary pupil diversity. It addresses how Copenhagen school children in two different schools use language to handle their social everyday lives and how this organizing involves constructions and ascriptions of identities...... and social stereotypes. My research is driven by an interest in learning more about the experience of being part of today´s diverse school environments. Therefore, I approach my data with an emphasis on the participant perspective and focus analytically on the ways in which the participants in my study enact...... of a connection between the prevalent focus on ethnicity in public debates on schooling and social class relations and then the interplay between these relations of power and prestige and the practices that I analyze. Key words: School children, youth, social interaction, linguistic and social difference, social...
Pillaud, Vincent; Rigaud, David; Clémence, Alain
We tested whether stereotypical situations would affect low-status group members' performance more strongly than high-status group members'. Experiment 1 and 2 tested this hypothesis using gender as a proxy of chronic social status and a gender-neutral task that has been randomly presented to favor boys (men superiority condition), favor girls (women superiority condition), or show no gender preference (control condition). Both experiments found that women's (Experiment 1) and girls' performance (Experiment 2) suffered more from the evoked stereotypes than did men's and boys' ones. This result was replicated in Experiment 3, indicating that short men (low-status group) were more affected compared to tall men (high-status group). Additionally, men were more affected compared to women when they perceived height as a threat. Hence, individuals are more or less vulnerable to identity threats as a function of the chronic social status at play; enjoying a high status provides protection and endorsing a low one weakens individual performance in stereotypical situations.
Pillaud, Vincent; Rigaud, David; Clémence, Alain
We tested whether stereotypical situations would affect low-status group members' performance more strongly than high-status group members'. Experiment 1 and 2 tested this hypothesis using gender as a proxy of chronic social status and a gender-neutral task that has been randomly presented to favor boys (men superiority condition), favor girls (women superiority condition), or show no gender preference (control condition). Both experiments found that women’s (Experiment 1) and girls’ performance (Experiment 2) suffered more from the evoked stereotypes than did men's and boys’ ones. This result was replicated in Experiment 3, indicating that short men (low-status group) were more affected compared to tall men (high-status group). Additionally, men were more affected compared to women when they perceived height as a threat. Hence, individuals are more or less vulnerable to identity threats as a function of the chronic social status at play; enjoying a high status provides protection and endorsing a low one weakens individual performance in stereotypical situations. PMID:26645829
Full Text Available We tested whether stereotypical situations would affect low-status group members' performance more strongly than high-status group members'. Experiment 1 and 2 tested this hypothesis using gender as a proxy of chronic social status and a gender-neutral task that has been randomly presented to favor boys (men superiority condition, favor girls (women superiority condition, or show no gender preference (control condition. Both experiments found that women's (Experiment 1 and girls' performance (Experiment 2 suffered more from the evoked stereotypes than did men's and boys' ones. This result was replicated in Experiment 3, indicating that short men (low-status group were more affected compared to tall men (high-status group. Additionally, men were more affected compared to women when they perceived height as a threat. Hence, individuals are more or less vulnerable to identity threats as a function of the chronic social status at play; enjoying a high status provides protection and endorsing a low one weakens individual performance in stereotypical situations.
Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M
Using a contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group, this study examined the criterion-related validity of contextually relevant social skills and the incremental validity of peers and teachers as judges of children's social skills. Study participants included 342 (180 male and 162 female) students and their classroom teachers (N = 22) from rural communities. As expected, contextually relevant social skills were significantly related to a variety of social status indicators (i.e., likability, peer- and teacher-assessed popularity, reciprocated friendships, clique centrality) and positive school functioning (i.e., school liking and academic competence). Peer-assessed social skills, not teacher-assessed social skills, demonstrated consistent incremental validity in predicting various indicators of social status outcomes; peer- and teacher-assessed social skills alike showed incremental validity in predicting positive school functioning. The relation between contextually relevant social skills and study outcomes did not vary by child gender. Findings are discussed in terms of the significance of peers in the assessment of children's social skills in the peer group as well as the usefulness of a contextual approach to social skills assessment.
Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Hewitt, Amber; Abrams, Matthew; Cleary, Sarah
The present study proposed and tested a conceptual model of acculturation/enculturation and subjective well-being (SWB) by including social connectedness in mainstream society, social connectedness in the ethnic community, perceived discrimination, and expected social status as mediators. Survey data from 273 Asian American college students in the…
Galhardo, L; Oliveira, R F
Social isolation is a major stressor which impacts the physiology, behaviour and health of individuals in gregarious species. However, depending on conditional and contextual factors, such as social status and group composition, social isolation may be perceived differently by different individuals or even by the same individuals at different times. Here we tested the effects of social status (territorial vs. non-territorial) and previous group composition (i.e. type of social group: mixed sex group with two territorial males, TT vs. mixed sex group with one territorial and one non-territorial male, TnT) on the hormonal response (androgens and cortisol) to social isolation in a cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). The different steroid hormones measured responded differentially to social isolation, and their response was modulated by social factors. Social isolation elicited a decrease of 11-keto formation only in territorial males, whereas non-territorial males present a non-significant trend for increasing KT levels. Testosterone did not respond to social isolation. Cortisol only increased in isolated individuals from TnT groups irrespective of social status (i.e. both in territorials and non-territorials). These results suggest that it is the perception of social isolation and not the objective structure of the situation that triggers the hormonal response to isolation. © 2013.
Fernández, E; Alonso, R M; Quer, A; Borrell, C; Benach, J; Alonso, J; Gómez, G
Self-perceived class results from directly questioning subjects about his or her social class. The aim of this investigation was to analyse self-perceived class in relation to other indicator variables of socioeconomic level. Data from the 1994 Catalan Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalised population of Catalonia was used. We conducted a discriminant analysis to compute the degree of right classification when different socioeconomic variables potentially related to self-perceived class were considered. All subjects who directly answered the questionnaire were included (N = 12,245). With the aim of obtaining the discriminant functions in a group of subjects and to validate it in another one, the subjects were divided into two random samples, containing approximately 75% and 25% of subjects (analysis sample, n = 9,248; and validation sample, n = 2,997). The final function for men and women included level of education, social class (based in occupation) and equivalent income. This function correctly classified 40.9% of the subjects in the analysis sample and 39.2% in the validation sample. Two other functions were selected for men and women separately. In men, the function included level of education, professional category, and family income (39.2% of classification in analysis sample and 37.2% in validation sample). In women, the function (level of education, working status, and equivalent income) correctly classified 40.3% of women in analysis sample whereas the percentage was 38.9% in validation sample. The percentages of right classification were higher for the highest and lowest classes. These results show the utility of a simple variable to self-position within the social scale. Self-perceived class is related to education, income, and working determinants.
Spray, Julie; Floyd, Bruce; Littleton, Judith; Trnka, Susanna; Mattison, Siobhan
Previous research proposes stress as a mechanism for linking social environments and biological bodies. In particular, non-human primate studies investigate relationships between cortisol as a measure of stress response and social hierarchies. Because human social structures often include hierarchies of dominance and social status, humans may exhibit similar patterns. Studies of non-human primates, however, have not reached consistent conclusions with respect to relationships between social position and levels of cortisol. While human studies report associations between cortisol and various aspects of social environments, studies that consider social status as a predictor of stress response also report mixed results. Others have argued that perceptions of social status may have different implications for stress response depending upon social context. We propose here that characteristics of children's social networks may be a better predictor of central tendencies and variability of stress response than their perceptions of social status. This is evaluated among 24 children from 9.4 to 11.3 years of age in one upper middle-class New Zealand primary school classroom, assessed through observation within the classroom, self-reports during semi-structured interviews and 221 serial saliva samples provided daily over 10 consecutive school days. A synthetic assessment of the children's networks and peer-relationships was developed prior to saliva-cortisol analysis. We found that greater stability of peer-relationships within groups significantly predicts lower within-group variation in mid-morning cortisol over the two-week period, but not overall within-group differences in mean cortisol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li
To examine the interaction between social income inequality, social integration, and health status among internal migrants (IMs) who migrate between regions in China. We used the data from the 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey in China, which sampled 15,999 IMs in eight cities in China. The Gini coefficient at the city level was calculated to measure social income inequality and was categorized into low (0.2 0.5). Health status was measured based upon self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perceptions of stress and mental health. Social integration was measured from four perspectives (acculturation and integration willingness, social insurance, economy, social communication). Linear mixed models were used to examine the interaction effects between health statuses, social integration, and the Gini coefficient. Factors of social integration, such as economic integration and acculturation and integration willingness, were significantly related to health. Social income inequality had a negative relationship with the health status of IMs. For example, IMs in one city, Qingdao, with a medium income inequality level (Gini = 0.329), had the best health statuses and better social integration. On the other hand, IMs in another city, Shenzhen, who had a large income inequality (Gini = 0.447) were worst in health statues and had worse social integration. Policies or programs targeting IMs should support integration willingness, promote a sense of belonging, and improve economic equality. In the meantime, social activities to facilitate employment and create social trust should also be promoted. At the societal level, structural and policy changes are necessary to promote income equity to promote IMs' general health status.
Full Text Available With the development of social networks and online mobile communities, group recommendation systems support users’ interaction with similar interests or purposes with others. We often provide some advices to the close friends, such as listening to favorite music and sharing favorite dishes. However, users’ personalities have been ignored by the traditional group recommendation systems while the majority is satisfied. In this paper, a method of group recommendation based on external social-trust networks is proposed, which builds a group profile by analyzing not only users’ preferences, but also the social relationships between members inside and outside of the group. We employ the users’ degree of disagreement to adjust group preference rating by external information of social-trust network. Moreover, having a discussion about different social network utilization ratio, we proposed a method to work for smaller group size. The experimental results show that the proposed method has consistently higher precision and leads to satisfactory recommendations for groups.
Golenkova Zinaida T.
Full Text Available The instability of social and labor relations has attained enormous proportions in both modern developed countries and in developing societies. This phenomenon has led to the creation of a new social group in the structure of modern societies, which is called the precariat, and is characterized by the unstable situation in the labor market and by social insecurity. Instability in employment leads to emotional, psychological and social instability, which causes latent social conflict and rebellious behavior of individuals, and therefore this social group, in Western Europe, the U.S. and Japan, is considered to be a 'dangerous class'.
Scholand, Andrew J.; Tausczik, Yla R.; Pennebaker, James W.
In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.
Verkuyten, Maykel; Wolf, Angela de
This study examined how social reality restricts children’s tendency for in-group favoritism in group evaluations. Children were faced with social reality considerations and with group identity concerns. Using short stories, in this experimental study, conducted among 3 age groups (6-, 8-, and
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the research of theoretical and methodological aspects of social policy as the factor of institutional state statuses. Methodology. The researching in institutional providing of state social policy which may be considered as the base for performance of correspond reforms which are directed to the life level increasing, is enough popular task in scientific, theoretical and practical aspects. The scientific search of social policy as the factor of institutional status of state is carried out at the base of classical, neoclassical and institutional methodology. At the base of classical methodology it were defined the general approaches with help of dialectical analysis tools and synthesis of social relations array as historical action. With the help of system, structurally-functional analysis of social policy tasks, it’s opened its internal nature and ways of institutional providing. Institutional and neoclassical approaches allowed the specials analysing tools in modelling of dynamics and institute of social policy institute results in the conditions of market transformations. Also in the research process it were used the economic articles about the question of analysis in state social policy and given the statistic data about the analytical report to the annual President’s of Ukraine message to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine „About internal and external condition of Ukraine in year 2015”. Research results showed what in the conditions of socially-economic and political instability, the social sphere Ukraine became the hostage of common crisis in economic, catastrophic decreasing of life level, increasing of social confrontation and rough system mistakes in the process of social institution formation. All of this neutralizes the methods efficiency about improvement of socially-economic condition of population and prevents to the implementation of necessary reforms. Practical value lays in the clear definition of
von Krüchten, Cornelia; Schadschneider, Andreas
Pedestrian crowds often include social groups, i.e. pedestrians that walk together because of social relationships. They show characteristic configurations and influence the dynamics of the entire crowd. In order to investigate the impact of social groups on evacuations we performed an empirical study with pupils. Several evacuation runs with groups of different sizes and different interactions were performed. New group parameters are introduced which allow to describe the dynamics of the groups and the configuration of the group members quantitatively. The analysis shows a possible decrease of evacuation times for large groups due to self-ordering effects. Social groups can be approximated as ellipses that orientate along their direction of motion. Furthermore, explicitly cooperative behaviour among group members leads to a stronger aggregation of group members and an intermittent way of evacuation.
Full Text Available Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO, and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753, Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948, and England (Study 5; N = 594. Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO. Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5, but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5, the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.
Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles
Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.
N. D. Naydenov; T. A. Kirosova
The article looks at the basic theoretical concepts of the political economy of the sign (structuralism, postmodernity) and their development in the theory of power based on the work by J. Baudrillard ‘For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign’. The study is focused on consumption as the person’s social status symbol, it compares and contrasts basic concepts of structuralism and neo-liberalism.According to structuralism social structure is reproduced through the reproduction of obje...
Choi, Peter M
.... To determine the relationship between social network centrality and work group satisfaction, a longitudinal field study was conducted on 440 active duty enlisted military members in a leadership...
Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis
This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…
Full Text Available Developing a suitable mechanism to stimulate the effective redeployment of capital to social activities can be designed using the corporate social responsibility (CSR concept. Informational asymmetry about the real state of social risks influences the effectiveness of allocations in social protection. Reducing information asymmetries can be achieved by providing the corporations with socially determined risk profiles based on predetermined patterns. Offering concrete lines of action following the risk profiles approach which to base investment decisions of companies in CSR can maximize the results of such a mechanism. In a previous study the authors have developed a theoretical model for determining the poverty risk profile. This study aims to present the practical application of the theoretical model and to provide comments on some errors. Hence, the authors analyzed Buzau county municipalities in presenting the highest risk level determined by the theoretical model and related causes and performed an impact assessment of an investment in CSR based on a model. Specifically, the authors evaluated the impact of reducing the risk of poverty for a suitable investment in CSR. In the second part of the study, the authors analyzed the types of errors that can be found in the municipalities risk profile model due to the granularity of the data. Thus, for the error of over-inclusion, the authors assessed social allocative efficiency at the community level using benchmarking analysis, Data Envelopment respectively and analyzed the data of the under-inclusion error in Buzau county villages. The paper aims to analyze the relative limits on quantitative models and risk of poverty and the practical implementation of these types of models in the development of corporate social responsibility. The study provides also a useful tool which can be made available to companies in order to increase the vulnerable groups’ life quality and the satisfaction of
The study examined the influence of social capital dimensions on poverty status of rural farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204) rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data ...
A study was conducted to examine adherence to traditional food taboos by women in Imo State, and relate that to social status and food security. Data was collected from 72 women across the three agricultural zones of the State. It was found that age, income and education are some factors affecting adherence to these ...
Examining belonging at the interface of ethnicity, social status and masculinities in transnational space among foreign African male students at the University of ... finance and production as well as the on going processes of political and economic integration has led to an unprecedented increase in international migration.
agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...
Bernardo, Allan B I
Academic achievement of students differs by socioeconomic group. Parents' socialization of academic achievement in their children was explored in self-reports of 241 students from two socioeconomic status (SES) groups in the Philippines, using a scale developed by Bempechat, et al. Students in the upper SES group had higher achievement than their peers in the middle SES group, but had lower scores on most dimensions of parental socialization of academic achievement. Regression analyses indicate that reported parental attempts to encourage more effort to achieve was associated with lower achievement in students with upper SES.
Matoba, Tomoyuki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu
Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo): head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.
Full Text Available Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo: head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.
Full Text Available Group life involves both advantages and disadvantages, meaning that individuals have to compromise between their nutritional needs and their social links. When a compromise is impossible, the group splits in order to reduce conflict of interests and favour positive social interactions between its members. In this study we built a dynamic model of social networks to represent a succession of temporary fissions involving a change in social relations that could potentially lead to irreversible group fission (i.e. no more group fusion. This is the first study that assesses how a social network changes according to group fission-fusion dynamics. We built a model that was based on different parameters: the group size, the influence of nutritional needs compared to social needs, and the changes in the social network after a temporary fission. The results obtained from this theoretical data indicate how the percentage of social relation transfer, the number of individuals and the relative importance of nutritional requirements and social links influence the average number of days before irreversible fission occurs. The greater the nutritional needs and the higher the transfer of social relations during temporary fission, the fewer days will be observed before an irreversible fission. It is crucial to bridge the gap between the individual and the population level if we hope to understand how simple, local interactions may drive ecological systems.
Pinto, Isabel R; Marques, José M; Levine, John M; Abrams, Dominic
In 3 experiments, participants (Ns = 50, 95, and 75, respectively) judged 2 ingroup or outgroup members who occupied 1 of 3 statuses--new members, full members, or marginal members. In each case, 1 of these members adopted a normative position and another supported a deviant position regarding a relevant issue. Participants upgraded normative ingroup full members and derogated deviant ingroup full members compared with all other members. In addition, derogation of deviant ingroup members was associated with a socializing and a punishing intention toward new members and full members, respectively. These results are discussed in terms of the group socialization model (e.g., Levine & Moreland, 1994) and the subjective group dynamics model (e.g., Marques, Paez, & Abrams, 1998).
Adarves-Yorno, Inmaculada; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, S. Alexander
This paper develops an analysis of creativity that is informed by the social identity approach. Two studies are reported that support this analysis. Study I (N = 73) manipulated social identity salience and the content of group norms. The group norm was either conservative (i.e. promoted no change)
Rehm, Matthias; Endrass, Birgit
In this article we present an engineering approach for the integration of social group dynamics in the behavior modeling of multiagent systems. To this end, a toolbox was created that brings together several theories from the social sciences, each focusing on different aspects of group dynamics. ...
Hunter, Darryl; Gambell, Trevor; Randhawa, Bikkar
Because of its centrality to school success, social status, and workplace effectiveness, oral and aural skills development has been increasingly emphasized in Canadian curricula, classrooms and, very recently, large-scale assessment. The corresponding emphasis on group processes and collaborative learning has aimed to address equity issues in…
Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby; Tost, Leigh Plunkett
Researchers have suggested that viewing social inequity as dominant-group privilege (rather than subordinate-group disadvantage) enhances dominant-group members' support for social policies aimed at lessening such inequity. However, because viewing inequity as dominant-group privilege can be damaging to dominant-group members' self-images, this perspective is frequently resisted. In the research reported here, we explored the circumstances that enhance the likelihood of dominant-group members' viewing inequity as privilege. Because social hierarchies have multiple vertical dimensions, individuals may have high status on one dimension but low status on another. We predicted that occupying a subordinate position on one dimension of social hierarchy could enhance perceptions of one's own privilege on a different dimension of hierarchy, but that this tendency would be diminished among individuals who felt they had achieved a particularly high level of success. Results from three studies that considered gender-based and race-based hierarchies in organizational settings supported our hypothesis.
Muñoz, Alejandra; Alleman, Nathan F.
This qualitative study examines the role of college in how undocumented students make meaning of their identity through the concept of status ownership. Using a sociological framework that drew upon Kaufman and Feldman's (2004) work, this study calls attention to the social context in the college experience and offers insight into this student…
Daniel R. PALAMARA
Full Text Available This study examines International Social Survey Programme data from the 1999 social inequality module for evidence of Janteloven (‘the law of Jante’ in Norway – a widely known though often disputed description for aspects of Norwegian (and Scandinavian society relating to equality, norming and envy. Income equality and social status were examined using survey data across 26 countries. Norwegian respondents did not show a marked preference for income equality when asked to consider the actual and deserved income of high- versus low-status occupations. However, they did stand out in reporting a distinctly and significantly smaller mean difference in social status between a high-status occupation (the chairman of a large national corporation and a low-status occupation (an unskilled factory worker. Linear regression shows that the attitude towards social status is affected by the respondent’s level of education, but not by other personal factors. These attitudes could potentially be attributed to Janteloven, and are considered alongside the results of a small (n=30 online survey as well as popular media and academic portrayals.
Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study social relationships and reproductivity in captive arctic blue fox groups of different genetic origin. The social status of the individuals among groups remained constant during autumn and early winter. Males typically dominated over females in the groups. Males also had higher body weights and more social contacts than females. The locomotor activity of the animals increased during the breeding season, especially in the case of males. Urinary marking had a significant importance during the breeding season, being most pronounced in dominant males. No synchronization was observed in the heat development of females despite some kinship. Behaviours such as escape attempts, bitings and increased aggressiveness occurred in March-April as a result of increasing social tension combined with reproductive behaviour. Whelping success varied depending on group composition. Some of the non-breeding and breeding females were observed to act as communal nursing helpers.
The evolution of group living requires that individuals limit the inherent risks of parasite infection. To this end, group living insects have developed a unique capability of mounting collective anti-parasite defences, such as allogrooming and corpse removal from the nest. Over the last 20 years, this phenomenon (called social immunity) was mostly studied in eusocial insects, with results emphasizing its importance in derived social systems. However, the role of social immunity in the early evolution of group living remains unclear. Here, I investigate this topic by first presenting the definitions of social immunity and discussing their applications across social systems. I then provide an up-to-date appraisal of the collective and individual mechanisms of social immunity described in eusocial insects and show that they have counterparts in non-eusocial species and even solitary species. Finally, I review evidence demonstrating that the increased risks of parasite infection in group living species may both decrease and increase the level of personal immunity, and discuss how the expression of social immunity could drive these opposite effects. By highlighting similarities and differences of social immunity across social systems, this review emphasizes the potential importance of this phenomenon in the early evolution of the multiple forms of group living in insects. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Melamed, David; Savage, Scott V
Building on a recent theoretical development in the field of sociological social psychology, we develop a formal mathematical model of social influence processes. The extant theoretical literature implies that factions and status should have non-linear effects on social influence, and yet these theories have been evaluated using standard linear statistical models. Our formal model of influence includes these non-linearities, as specified by the theories. We evaluate the fit of the formal model using experimental data. Our results indicate that a one-parameter mathematical model fits the experimental data. We conclude with the implications of our research and a discussion of how it may be used as an impetus for further work on social influence processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Subramanyam, Malavika A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Hickson, Demarc A; Sarpong, Daniel F; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A; Williams, David R; Wyatt, Sharon B
Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000-2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N=5301), we quantified the association of subjective social status with selected cardiovascular risk factors: depressive symptoms, perceived stress, waist circumference, insulin resistance and prevalence of diabetes. We contrasted the strength of the associations of these outcomes with subjective versus objective social status and examined whether perceived discrimination confounded or modified these associations. Subjective social status was measured using two 10-rung "ladders," using the U.S. and the community as referent groups. Objective social status was measured using annual family income and years of schooling completed. Gender-specific multivariable linear and logistic regression models were fit to examine associations. Subjective and objective measures were weakly positively correlated. Independent of objective measures, subjective social status was significantly inversely associated with depressive symptoms (men and women) and insulin resistance (women). The associations of subjective social status with the outcomes were modest and generally similar to the objective measures. We did not find evidence that perceived racial discrimination strongly confounded or modified the association of subjective social status with the outcomes. Subjective social status was related to depressive symptoms but not consistently to stress or metabolic risk factors in African Americans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carmel, S; Lazar, A
The purpose of the study was to compare three groups of Israeli elderly that differ in social class and immigration status on measures of health and psycho-social well-being, and assess the factors which explain their self-rated health (SRH). Based on a random sample of Israeli Jewish elderly (70 +), data were collected from 1138 persons during 1994 by structured home interviews. Social class differences among Israeli veterans were mainly found with regard to psycho-social characteristics. They were less conspicuous in health measures. New immigrants, who had a higher level of education than the veterans, but ranked lower on economic status, reported lower levels of health and psycho-social well-being than the veterans. Self-rated health among the immigrants was mainly explained by objective measures of health, and economic status, while in the higher social class of veterans it was also explained by education and psycho-social variables such as self-esteem and social support. These findings indicate that in contradiction to the convergence hypothesis, social class and immigration status affect health and well-being also in old age. It is suggested that the immigration crisis and factors related to the standard of living and health services in the countries of origin, as well as the lower social and economic status of the immigrants in Israel, outweigh their relative advantage in age and education in influencing their health and well-being. The differences found among the three groups in the factors that explain self-rated health have implications for the use of economic status as a relevant indicator of social class when considering health status among the elderly, and for the interpretation of SRH, as a global measure of health, in different socio-cultural groups.
Aurelian Virgil BALUTA
Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the social progress, social politics, social law and successful projects applicable to the some disadvantaged groups: Roma people and woman. Inclusion of Roma people is analysed from economic point of view. The economic problems of equality by gender is presented in terms of labour rate and other relevant ratio. For Roma people the focus of analyse is also on labour involvement. The chapters of the communication are: introduction, literature review ( state of art in the field of social progress, theoretical background, tools for social progress in EU, economic inclusion of Roma population, economic equality by gender, conclusions.
Gülay Ogelman, Hülya; Güngör, Hande; Körükçü, Özlem; Erten Sarkaya, Hatice
The primary objective of this study is to determine the predictive effect of technology use durations of 5-6 year-old children on their social skill levels and social status. In this study, children's technology usage is restricted to the use of television, portable computers, tablets and smartphones. The sample group of the study consisted of 162…
Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucia; Zapata López, Natalia; Parra Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Escudero Vásquez, Luz Estela; Betancur Arrovaye, Laura
in developing countries, including Colombia, teen pregnancy is a public health problem. It brings social, health and nutritional consequences for the mother/son binomial. to assess demographic, socioeconomic, food security, health and nutritional status characteristics in a group of pregnant teenagers and their newborns. a cross sectional analytical study was performed in 294 pregnant teenagers in their third trimester of pregnancy enrolled in the prenatal care programs of the public network of hospitals in Medellin-Colombia between 2011 and 2012. Association between the mother's body mass index, iron nutritional status and newborn's weight at birth using explicative variables was assessed. monthly incomes under a minimum salary were associated with low mother's weight and newborns small for gestational age. Low gestational weight was higher in pregnant women under 15 years of age and with a gynecological age under five years. The prevalence of anemia was low in the first trimester and increased at the end of pregnancy; 5.6% had adequate iron reserves. Low weight at birth was associated with infections and mother's low weight in the third trimester of pregnancy. teenage pregnancy is a complex problem associated with negative effects in the nutritional, health and social status of the girl and their newborn. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob
that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition......This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...
Toth, Amy L; Kantarovich, Sara; Meisel, Adam F; Robinson, Gene E
In many social insects, including honey bees, worker energy reserve levels are correlated with task performance in the colony. Honey bee nest workers have abundant stored lipid and protein while foragers are depleted of these reserves; this depletion precedes the shift from nest work to foraging. The first objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lipid depletion has a causal effect on the age at onset of foraging in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). We found that bees treated with a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor (TOFA) were more likely to forage precociously. The second objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between social interactions, nutritional state and behavioral maturation. Since older bees are known to inhibit the development of young bees into foragers, we asked whether this effect is mediated nutritionally via the passage of food from old to young bees. We found that bees reared in social isolation have low lipid stores, but social inhibition occurs in colonies in the field, whether young bees are starved or fed. These results indicate that although social interactions affect the nutritional status of young bees, social and nutritional factors act independently to influence age at onset of foraging. Our findings suggest that mechanisms linking internal nutritional physiology to foraging in solitary insects have been co-opted to regulate altruistic foraging in a social context.
Xiaoqing Jing; Jinhong Xie
This paper examines a unique selling strategy, Group Buying, under which consumers enjoy a discounted group price if they are willing and able to achieve a required group size and coordinate their transaction time. We argue that Group Buying allows a seller to gain from facilitating consumer social interaction, i.e., using a group discount to motivate informed customers to work as "sales agents" to acquire less-informed customers through interpersonal information/knowledge sharing. We formall...
Garza, Jeremiah R; Glenn, Beth A; Mistry, Rashmita S; Ponce, Ninez A; Zimmerman, Frederick J
Subjective social status is associated with a range of health outcomes. Few studies have tested the relevance of subjective social status among Latinos in the U.S.; those that have yielded mixed results. Data come from the Latino subsample of the 2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2554). Regression models adjusted for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Stratified analyses tested whether nativity status modifies the effect of subjective social status on health. Subjective social status was associated with better health. Income and education mattered more for health than subjective social status among U.S.-born Latinos. However, the picture was mixed among immigrant Latinos, with subjective social status more strongly predictive than income but less so than education. Subjective social status may tap into stressful immigrant experiences that affect one's perceived self-worth and capture psychosocial consequences and social disadvantage left out by conventional socioeconomic measures.
Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lee, AT; Novak, RJ
A distinction between forms of social identity formation in small interactive groups is investigated. In groups in which a common identity is available or given, norms for individual behavior may be deduced; from group properties (deductive identity). In groups in which interpersonal relations are
Full Text Available In recent decades, scientific understanding of the many roles of oxytocin in social behavior has advanced tremendously. The focus of this research has been on maternal attachments and reproductive pair-bonds, and much less is known about the substrates of sociality outside of reproductive contexts. It is now apparent that oxytocin influences many aspects of social behavior including recognition, trust, empathy, and other components of the behavioral repertoire of social species. This review provides a comparative perspective on the contributions of oxytocin to life in mammalian social groups. We provide background on the functions of oxytocin in maternal attachments and the early social environment, and give an overview of the role of oxytocin circuitry in support of different mating systems. We then introduce peer relationships in group-living rodents as a means for studying the importance of oxytocin in non-reproductive affiliative behaviors. We review species differences in oxytocin receptor distributions in solitary and group-living species of South American tuco-tucos and in African mole-rats, as well as singing mice. We discuss variation in oxytocin receptor levels with seasonal changes in social behavior in female meadow voles, and the effects of oxytocin manipulations on peer huddling behavior. Finally, we discuss avenues of promise for future investigation, and relate current findings to research in humans and non-human primates. There is growing evidence that oxytocin is involved in social selectivity, including increases in aggression toward social outgroups and decreased huddling with unfamiliar individuals, which may support existing social structures or relationships at the expense of others. Oxytocin’s effects reach beyond maternal attachment and pair bonds to play a role in affiliative behavior underlying friendships, organization of broad social structures, and maintenance of established social relationships with individuals
Mazur-Elmer, Alison; McBride, Dawn
This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents and concludes by offering a set of 10 group therapy lesson plans for SAD that therapists can use in their practice. The overview includes a description of social anxiety disorder and highlights various theories of anxiety. The…
Kristiansen, T. M.; Gronkjaer, M.
Aim: This article aims to demonstrate how focus group discussions act as a social arena for the negotiation of social norms and normativity and to discuss the implications for the analysis of focus group discussions. Participants and methods: We have used sequences of group interactions from...... a focus group study on everyday life and chronic illness to demonstrate how methodological tools from conversation analysis and discursive psychology can be used to facilitate a systematic analysis of the negotiation and legitimization of social norms and normativity in focus groups. The empirical data...... consisted of six focus groups with a total of 32 participants. Results: The analysis demonstrated negotiations on normativity concerning four central aspects related to living with chronic illness: negotiating normativity about adjustment to the disease, negotiating normativity about being a dutiful...
Thompson, Lisa M; Murray, Kate A; Jarvis, Sarah; Scarr, Ellen
Relative position in a social hierarchy, or subjective social status, has been associated with indicators of socioeconomic status and may be influenced by social connectedness. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between health insurance status and subjective social status, using the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS, community version), in the state of Hawai'i with its highly insured population. The secondary purpose is to examine other social determinants that influence social status, including social connectedness. Data were drawn from a convenience sample of 728 O'ahu residents in 2011-12. Social connectedness was measured if participants stated that family, friends, or community were strengths that could address their social and health concerns. In the final adjusted linear regression model, those with Medicaid/Quest insurance (β -0.40; P Social connectedness was highly valued, with over 30% of participants stating strong community and family ties as one of Hawai'i's greatest strengths. However, these strengths were not found to be statistically associated with subjective social status in our sample. Future studies should assess whether reinforcing social connectedness through public health and educational interventions improves subjective social status among low-income and ethnically diverse communities in Hawai'i.
Kingsep, Patrick; Nathan, Paula; Castle, David
Anxiety symptoms reported by individuals with schizophrenia have been traditionally seen as symptoms associated with the principal disorder and therefore not requiring special attention. The primary aim of this paper is to therapeutically target social anxiety symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia in order to determine the effectiveness of the cognitive behavioural group treatment model as an intervention for social anxiety in this participant group. Thirty-three individuals with schizophrenia and co-morbid social anxiety were allocated to a group-based cognitive behaviour (CBGT) intervention or waitlist control (WLC). Baseline, completion and follow-up ratings consist of measures of social anxiety: the Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (BFNE) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS); measures of general psychopathology: the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI); and the Quality of Life, Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLESQ). Pre- and post-treatment measures were subjected to statistical evaluation. All outcome measures displayed statistical improvement in the intervention group compared with no change in the control group. These treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. CBGT for social anxiety in schizophrenia was demonstrated to be effective as an adjunctive treatment for this population.
Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M
Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.
Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Manning, Kara; Lemaire, Chad; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Lia J; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa
One social determinant of health construct that is reliably related to health disparities among the Latino population is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet, little research has explored factors that may undergird variability in subjective social status among this population or in general. Accordingly, the present investigation examined one possible etiological model wherein age moderates the relation between individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) and subjective social status among a Latino primary care sample. Participants included Spanish-speaking Latino adults (n = 394; 86.5% female; average age = 39.0 years). Results demonstrated an interaction between the anxiety sensitivity and age for subjective social status among the Latino sample. Inspection of the form of the significant interaction indicated that the association between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was evident among older, but not younger, persons. The current findings suggest that decreasing anxiety sensitivity, especially among older Latinos, may be one possible viable therapeutic approach to change subjective social status in order to help offset health disparities among this group.
Wouter eVan Den Bos
Full Text Available Competitive behavior is commonly defined as the decision to maximize one’s payoffs relative to others. We argue instead that competitive drive derives from a desire for social status. We make use of a multi-player auction task in which subjects knowingly incur financial losses for the sake of winning auctions. First, we show that overbidding is increased when the task includes members of a rival out-group, suggesting that social identity is an important mediator of competitiveness. In addition, we show that the extent that individuals are willing to incur losses is related to affective responses to social comparisons but not to monetary outcomes. Second, we show that basal levels of testosterone predict overbidding, and that this effect of testosterone is mediated by affective responses to social comparisons. Based on these findings, we argue that competitive behavior should be conceptualized in terms of social motivations as opposed to just relative monetary payoffs.
Ellis, Wendy E.; Dumas, Tara M.; Mahdy, Jasmine C.; Wolfe, David A.
Observations of adolescent (n = 258; M age = 15.45) peer group triads (n = 86) were analyzed to identify conversation and interaction styles as a function of within-group and between-group centrality status. Group members' discussions about hypothetical dilemmas were coded for agreements, disagreements, commands, and opinions. Interactions during…
Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van
The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This...
James L. Goodson
Full Text Available Species-typical patterns of grouping have profound impacts on many aspects of physiology and behavior. However, prior to our recent studies in estrildid finches, neural mechanisms that titrate species-typical group size preferences, independent of other aspects of social organization (e.g., mating system and parental care, have been wholly unexplored, likely because species-typical group size is typically confounded with other aspects of behavior and biology. An additional complication is that components of social organization are evolutionarily labile and prone to repeated divergence and convergence. Hence, we cannot assume that convergence in social structure has been produced by convergent modifications to the same neural characters, and thus any comparative approach to grouping must include not only species that differ in their species-typical group sizes, but also species that exhibit convergent evolution in this aspect of social organization. Using five estrildid finch species that differ selectively in grouping (all biparental and monogamous we have demonstrated that neural motivational systems evolve in predictable ways in relation to species-typical group sizes, including convergence in two highly gregarious species and convergence in two relatively asocial, territorial species. These systems include nonapeptide (vasotocin and mesotocin circuits that encode the valence of social stimuli (positive-negative, titrate group-size preferences, and modulate anxiety-like behaviors. Nonapeptide systems exhibit functional and anatomical properties that are biased towards gregarious species, and experimental reductions of nonapeptide signaling by receptor antagonism and antisense oligonucleotides significantly decrease preferred group sizes in the gregarious zebra finch. Combined, these findings suggest that selection on species-typical group size may reliably target the same neural motivation systems when a given social structure evolves
Wallien, M.S.C.; Veenstra, R.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
In this sociometric study, we aimed to investigate the social position of gender-referred children in a naturalistic environment. We used a peer nomination technique to examine their social position in the class and we specifically examined bullying and victimization of gender dysphoric children. A
Garandeau, Claire F.; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade…
Full Text Available This article proposes to incorporate social psychology elements with mainstream political science and international relations theories to help understand the contradictions related to the integration processes in Latin America. Through a theoretical analysis, it contributes to the challenge proposed by Dabène (2009 to explain the “resilience” of the Latin American regional integration process in spite of its “instability and crises.” Our main proposition calls for considering Latin America as a community and its regional organizations as “social groups.” In conclusion, three phenomena from the field of social psychology and particularly social group dynamics shed light on these contradictory patterns: the value of the group and the emotional bond, groupthink, and cognitive dissonance.
Andrezza Gomes Peretti
Full Text Available The comprehension of the health-disease process from a multifactorial perspective has allowed important transformations in the healthcare practices. In this article, we discuss the use of the support group as a resource for mental health care, analyzing how conversations about social issues are managed in this context. Based on contributions from the social constructionist movement, we analyzed the transcripts of the conversations developed in meetings of a support group offered to patients of a mental health outpatient clinic. The analysis of the process of meaning making indicates that the discourse of the social influence on mental health is not legitimized, due to a predominant individualistic discourse, which psychologizes care and is centered on the emotional analysis of the problems of the quotidian. We argue that this mode of management brings limits to the construction of the group as a device for promoting autonomy and encouraging the social transformation processes.
Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.
Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group…
Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.
Garandeau, Claire F; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C
This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade level as the main predictors of interest as well as classroom aggression and ethnic composition as controls. Multilevel analyses were conducted on an ethnically diverse sample of 968 fourth- and fifth-graders from 46 classrooms in 9 schools. Associations between aggression and status varied greatly from one classroom to another. Aggressive students were more popular and better liked in classrooms with higher levels of peer status hierarchy. Aggressive students had higher social status in Grade 5 than in Grade 4 and lower social preference in classrooms of higher academic level. Classroom aggression and ethnic composition did not moderate aggression-status associations. Limitations and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
The clinical workplace in which doctors learn involves many social groups, including representatives of different professions, clinical specialties and workplace teams. This paper suggests that medical education research does not currently take full account of the effects of group membership, and describes a theoretical approach from social psychology, the social identity approach, which allows those effects to be explored. The social identity approach has a long history in social psychology and provides an integrated account of group processes, from the adoption of group identity through a process of self-categorisation, to the biases and conflicts between groups. This paper outlines key elements of this theoretical approach and illustrates their relevance to medical education. The relevance of the social identity approach is illustrated with reference to a number of areas of medical education. The paper shows how research questions in medical education may be usefully reframed in terms of social identity in ways that allow a deeper exploration of the psychological processes involved. Professional identity and professionalism may be viewed in terms of self-categorisation rather than simply attainment; the salience of different identities may be considered as influences on teamwork and interprofessional learning, and issues in communication and assessment may be considered in terms of intergroup biases. Social identity theory provides a powerful framework with which to consider many areas of medical education. It allows disparate influences on, and consequences of, group membership to be considered as part of an integrated system, and allows assumptions, such as about the nature of professional identity and interprofessional tensions, to be made explicit in the design of research studies. This power to question assumptions and develop deeper and more meaningful research questions may be increasingly relevant as the nature and role of the medical profession change
Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling
Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Agneessens, Filip; Wittek, Rafael
Social status and social capital frameworks are used to derive competing hypotheses about the emergence and structure of advice relations in organizations. Although both approaches build on a social exchange framework, they differ in their behavioral micro-foundations. From a status perspective,
Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Schruijer, S.G.L.; Fodor, Oana
The main aim of this paper is to test the extent to which social acceptance moderates the impact of minority dissent on group cognitive complexity (GCC). We hypothesize that divergent views expressed by a minority increase GCC especially when the group climate is open to divergent contributions
Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen
Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…
Kramer, Michael W.
This study explores the communication experiences of two volunteer groups involved in the production of community theater musicals. Based on social exchange theory, it examined what group members perceived to be the positive benefits (primarily meeting people and having an opportunity to perform) and the negative costs (primarily disorganization,…
Garrido, Sandra; Eerola, Tuomas; McFerran, Katrina
One of the most important roles that music serves in human society is the promotion of social relationships and group cohesion. In general, emotional experiences tend to be amplified in group settings through processes of social feedback. However, previous research has established that listening to sad music can intensify negative emotions in people with tendencies to rumination and depression. This study therefore investigated the phenomenon of ruminating with music, and the question of whether listening to sad music in group settings provides social benefits for emotionally vulnerable listeners, or whether it further exaggerates depressive tendencies. Participants recruited via online depression groups and mental health websites were surveyed as to music listening habits. Results revealed that people with depression were more likely to engage in “group rumination” using music, and that this behavior could be partially explained by a general tendency to ruminate using music. Both affective states and coping styles were found to be related to the affective outcomes of group interactions around music. These findings go some way toward clarifying the situations in which group interactions around music are able to provide important social benefits for those involved, and situations in which negative emotions can be amplified by the group context. PMID:28421014
Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha
and an effect of their drinking experience. We apply Coleman's micro-oriented perspective on local network mechanisms – with a specific focus on collective norms negotiated in the focus groups – in combination with Bourdieu's definition of social capital as resources. The data used in this article come from......The aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between peer-group social capital and the use of alcohol among young people – as this relationship is expressed in focus group interviews. The main point to be made is that social capital affects alcohol use in two different ways: it incites...... focus group interviews with 18–19-year-old Danes. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/16066351003725776...
Miyawaki, Christina E
Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health
Full Text Available This work reports about the preliminary results and ongoing research based upon profiling collaborative learning groups of persons within the social micro-blogging platforms like Twitter that share potentially common interests on special topic. Hereby the focus is held on spontaneously initiated collaborative learning in Social Media and detection of collaborative learning groups based upon their communication dynamics. Research questions targeted to be answered are: are there any useful data mining algorithms to fulfill the task of pre-selection and clustering of users in social networks, how good do they perform, and what are the metrics that could be used for detection and evaluation in the realm of this task. Basic approach presented here uses as preamble hypothesis that users and their interests in Social Networks can be identified through content generated by them and content they consume. Special focus is held on topic oriented approach as least common bounding point. Those should be also the basic criteria used to detect and outline the learning groups. The aim of this work is to deliver first scientific pre-work for successfully implementation of recommender systems using social network metrics and content features of social network users for the purposes of better learning group communication and information consumption.
Dill-Shackleford, Karen E; Ramasubramanian, Srividya; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Scharrer, Erica; Burgess, Melinda C R; Lemish, Dafna
How do children and youth come to understand what it means to be a member of a particular race, gender, and other social groups? How do they come to hold beliefs about the groups that they do and do not belong to? Both news stories and fictional narratives that we are tuned into as a culture tell stories about what it means to be a member of a particular social group. In this review article, we relate the latest scientific knowledge on news and entertainment media representations of race, gender and other social categories and what they tell us about how these messages are taken in and processed by developing minds. We include research on identity development, social learning about members of other groups, and both positive and negative behavioral outcomes to cultural messages about race, gender, and other social categories. We offer recommendations for stakeholders to understand the role of the media in educating youth about race, gender and other social categories. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Williamson, Timothy J; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Kuhn, Taylor P; Thames, April D
Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i.e., HIV) and/or marginalized racial/ethnic identity (i.e., African American). A community sample of men and women (N = 149) completed questionnaires assessing demographics and depressive symptoms. Additionally, a composite index of social adversity was derived from measures of perceived discrimination, socioeconomic status, financial restriction to receiving medical care, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Multiple regression was used to test whether relationships between adversity and depressive symptoms differed as a function of HIV status and racial/ethnic identity. A significant 3-way interaction between social adversity, HIV status, and racial/ethnic identity indicated that there was a direct relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms for HIV-positive (HIV+) African Americans but not for HIV-negative (HIV-) African Americans, HIV+ Caucasians, or HIV- Caucasians. Further, HIV+ African Americans evidenced a significantly greater relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms compared with HIV- African Americans, but not compared with other groups. The findings suggest that HIV+ African Americans may be at risk for higher depressive symptoms amid adversity, highlighting the importance of evaluating intersectional identities/statuses in the context of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.
Suzuki, E; Takao, S; Subramanian, S V; Doi, H; Kawachi, I
Despite the worldwide trend towards more time being spent at work by employed people, few studies have examined the independent influences of work-based versus home-based social networks on employees' health. We examined the association between work-based social networks and health status by controlling for home-based social networks in a cross-sectional study. By employing a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure, 1105 employees were identified from 46 companies in Okayama, Japan, in 2007. Work-based social networks were assessed by asking the number of co-workers whom they consult with ease on personal issues. The outcome was self-rated health; the adjusted OR for poor health compared employees with no network with those who have larger networks. Although a clear (and inverse) dose-response relationship was found between the size of work-based social networks and poor health (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.27, comparing those with the lowest versus highest level of social network), the association was attenuated to statistical non-significance after we controlled for the size of home-based social networks. In further analyses stratified on age groups, in older workers (> or =50 years) work-based social networks were apparently associated with better health status, whereas home-based networks were not. The reverse was true among middle-aged workers (30-49 years). No associations were found among younger workers (social support on health according to age groups. We hypothesise that these patterns reflect generational differences in workers' commitment to their workplace.
Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the oral health status and diet habits of institutionalized elders in Lagos, Nigeria Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized elders in Lagos State, Nigeria. Age and sex matched non-institutionalized elderly were also ...
Carmack Taylor, Cindy L; Kulik, James; Badr, Hoda; Smith, Murray; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Penedo, Frank; Gritz, Ellen R
Group-based psychosocial programs provide an effective forum for improving mood and social support for cancer patients. Because some studies show more benefit for patients with initially high psychosocial distress, and little or no benefit for patients with initially low distress, support programs may better address patient needs by only including distressed patients. However, distressed patients may benefit particularly from the presence of nondistressed patients who model effective coping, an idea many researchers and extensions of social comparison theory support. We present a theoretical analysis, based on a social comparison perspective, of how group composition (heterogeneous group of distressed and nondistressed patients versus homogeneous group of distressed patients) may affect the efficacy of cancer support programs. We propose that a heterogeneous group allows distressed patients maximal opportunity for the various social comparison activities they are likely to prefer; a homogeneous group does not. Though the presence of nondistressed patients in a heterogeneous group potentially benefits distressed patients, the benefits for nondistressed patients are unclear. For nondistressed patients, heterogeneous groups may provide limited opportunities for preferred social comparison activity and may create the possibility for no benefit or even negative effects on quality of life. We also discuss ethical issues with enrolling nondistressed patients whose presence may help others, but whose likelihood of personal benefit is questionable.
Zhao, Xinyi; Cheng, Hongguang; He, Siyuan; Cui, Xiangfen; Pu, Xiao; Lu, Lu
Few studies have linked social factors to air pollution exposure in China. Unlike the race or minority concepts in western countries, the Hukou system (residential registration system) is a fundamental reason for the existence of social deprivation in China. To assess the differences in ozone (O 3 ) exposure among social groups, especially groups divided by Hukou status, we assigned estimates of O 3 exposure to the latest census data of the Beijing urban area using a kriging interpolation model. We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models that account for spatial autocorrelation to identify the associations between O 3 exposure and social factors. Principal component regression was used to control the multicollinearity bias as well as explore the spatial structure of the social data. The census tracts (CTs) with higher proportions of persons living alone and migrants with non-local Hukou were characterized by greater exposure to ambient O 3 . The areas with greater proportions of seniors had lower O 3 exposure. The spatial distribution patterns were similar among variables including migrants, agricultural population and household separation (population status with separation between Hukou and actual residences), which fit the demographic characteristics of the majority of migrants. Migrants bore a double burden of social deprivation and O 3 pollution exposure due to city development planning and the Hukou system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Braga, Luciana de Souza; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; César, Cibele Comini; Macinko, James
To assess trends in social inequalities among 2,624 elderly living in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in three domains of the World Health Organization's Active Aging model (physical environment, social determinants, use of health services) and health status indicators. Data came from two representative household surveys conducted in 2003 and 2010. Social inequality was measured by the slope and the relative index of inequality. Educational level was used to define socioeconomic status. Significant improvements were observed in the prevalence rates of 7 out of 12 indicators. However, the social inequalities persisted through 10 out of 12 selected active aging and health status indicators, except for fear of falling on the sidewalks/crossing the streets and fear of being robbed. Social inequalities persistence might be assigned to the continuity of unequal distribution of resources among groups with different educational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Human faces automatically attract visual attention and this process appears to be guided by social group memberships. In two experiments, we examined how social groups guide selective attention toward in-group and out-group faces. Black and White participants detected a target letter among letter strings superimposed on faces (Experiment 1. White participants were less accurate on trials with racial out-group (Black compared to in-group (White distractor faces. Likewise, Black participants were less accurate on trials with racial out-group (White compared to in-group (Black distractor faces. However, this pattern of out-group bias was only evident under high perceptual load-when the task was visually difficult. To examine the malleability of this pattern of racial bias, a separate sample of participants were assigned to mixed-race minimal groups (Experiment 2. Participants assigned to groups were less accurate on trials with their minimal in-group members compared to minimal out-group distractor faces, regardless of race. Again, this pattern of out-group bias was only evident under high perceptual load. Taken together, these results suggest that social identity guides selective attention toward motivationally relevant social groups-shifting from out-group bias in the domain of race to in-group bias in the domain of minimal groups-when perceptual resources are scarce.
N. D. Naydenov
Full Text Available The article looks at the basic theoretical concepts of the political economy of the sign (structuralism, postmodernity and their development in the theory of power based on the work by J. Baudrillard ‘For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign’. The study is focused on consumption as the person’s social status symbol, it compares and contrasts basic concepts of structuralism and neo-liberalism.According to structuralism social structure is reproduced through the reproduction of objects/signs. It is important that not only things or money but mathematical formulas, linguistic constructions and people can act as signs. Structuralism views consumption as a person’s social status symbol. Respectively, exchange is viewed as the exchange of symbols. The society needs the diversity of signs and manipulating the signs is one of the modern society’s illnesses.Liberalism is a social movement, which confronts the person’s enslavement by communal ties and limitations within the limits of property and in the aspects where the individual is helpless in front of the society. Neoliberalism proclaims the liberal model of an individual, who is primarily concerned with their belonging to their society and the struggle between the signs is significant. Assigning a certain value to the symbol is typical both for structuralism and neo-modernism.The authors find it necessary to raise the symbolic diversity of the Russian society trough increasing the forms of consumption. At the same time we should not forget that the society is based on material production.
Julie Johnson; Juanita Germaine; Diana Maliszewski; Renee Keberer
Abstract: Two schools in separate cites used the Nintendo Wii gaming system to assist selected boys in developing social skills. Using Skype and Twitter, the two groups collaborated at different stages of the project. The pilot project investigated the benefits of incorporating video games into traditional social skills programming, as well as the benefits of online collaboration between teachers in different school boards and students from different communities.
Full Text Available Abstract: Two schools in separate cites used the Nintendo Wii gaming system to assist selected boys in developing social skills. Using Skype and Twitter, the two groups collaborated at different stages of the project. The pilot project investigated the benefits of incorporating video games into traditional social skills programming, as well as the benefits of online collaboration between teachers in different school boards and students from different communities.
Damer, Diana E.; Latimer, Kelsey M.; Porter, Sarah H.
Social anxiety, a common concern among college students, carries significant negative consequences. Group therapy is an efficient and cost-effective way to provide treatment, and cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT; Heimberg & Becker, 2002) is the most widely researched and empirically supported treatment for persons with social anxiety…
Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno
The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…
Stelter, Reinhard; Nielsen, Glen; Wikman, Johan Michael
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives...... study included six participants. The group-coaching intervention had a significant effect on the scores for social recovery and general well-being. The qualitative study showed that groupcoaching participants valued the shared process of meaning-making as especially valuable. Narrative......-collaborative group coaching can be understood as a community psychological intervention that helps to support the development of durable social networks and the increase of social capital....
Shankar, Aparna; McMunn, Anne; Demakakos, Panayotes; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew
The present analysis aimed to examine the associations of isolation and loneliness, individually as well as simultaneously, with 2 measures of functional status (gait speed and difficulties in activities of daily living) in older adults over a 6-year period using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and to assess if these associations differ by SES. Loneliness was measured using the short form of the Revised UCLA scale, and an index of social isolation was computed incorporating marital status; frequency of contact with friends, family, and children; and participation in social activities. Measures of functional status were assessed identically at baseline and 6 years later for 3070 participants (mean age 69 years). Wealth was used as an indicator of SES. In fully and mutually adjusted models, social isolation and loneliness were found to be associated with a decrease in gait speed at follow-up, with stronger effects among more disadvantaged individuals. Loneliness was associated with an increase in difficulties with activities of daily living. Isolation and loneliness were adversely associated with different aspects of functional status. Interventions to reduce isolation and loneliness may be particularly beneficial for individuals in disadvantaged groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.
Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Isobe, Chikae; Toshihiko, Souma; Ura, Mitsuhiro
Moderating effects of group type on the relationship between in-group social values and group identity were investigated. Previous research has indicated that values attached to the in-group, such as its status, privileges, and power, lead to increased group identity. However, these studies have not investigated the role of the type of in-groups on this effect. We conducted an experiment that manipulated the in-group type. In the common-identity type of in-group condition, formation of in- and out-groups on the basis of social categorization was established. In the common-bond type of in-group condition, interactions between the group members were conducted. Results indicated that in the former condition, the degree of in-group social values affected group identity; however, this effect was not found in the latter condition. These results suggest that social values of the in-group have an asymmetric effect on group identity, depending upon the in-group type as a common-identity or common-bond group.
Jayles, Bertrand; Kim, Hye-Rin; Escobedo, Ramón; Cezera, Stéphane; Blanchet, Adrien; Kameda, Tatsuya; Sire, Clément; Theraulaz, Guy
In our digital and connected societies, the development of social networks, online shopping, and reputation systems raises the questions of how individuals use social information and how it affects their decisions. We report experiments performed in France and Japan, in which subjects could update their estimates after having received information from other subjects. We measure and model the impact of this social information at individual and collective scales. We observe and justify that, when individuals have little prior knowledge about a quantity, the distribution of the logarithm of their estimates is close to a Cauchy distribution. We find that social influence helps the group improve its properly defined collective accuracy. We quantify the improvement of the group estimation when additional controlled and reliable information is provided, unbeknownst to the subjects. We show that subjects' sensitivity to social influence permits us to define five robust behavioral traits and increases with the difference between personal and group estimates. We then use our data to build and calibrate a model of collective estimation to analyze the impact on the group performance of the quantity and quality of information received by individuals. The model quantitatively reproduces the distributions of estimates and the improvement of collective performance and accuracy observed in our experiments. Finally, our model predicts that providing a moderate amount of incorrect information to individuals can counterbalance the human cognitive bias to systematically underestimate quantities and thereby improve collective performance. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Norrbäck, Mattias; de Munter, Jeroen; Tynelius, Per; Ahlström, Gerd; Rasmussen, Finn
People with mobility disability are more often overweight or obese and have lower social capital than people without mobility disability. It is unclear whether having a combination of mobility disability and overweight or obesity furthers negative development of social capital over time. To explore whether there were differences in social capital between normal-weight, overweight and obese people with or without mobility disability over a period of 8 years. We included 14,481 individuals (18-64 at baseline) from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort that started in 2002. Mobility disability, weight status, and social capital (structural: social activities, voting; cognitive: trust in authorities, and trust in people) were identified from self-reports. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated in multivariate longitudinal regression analyses. We found no significant differences in social activities and voting between the groups over time. However, when compared with the reference group, the groups with mobility disability had less trust in authorities and public institutions over time. Notably, obese people with mobility disability showed the largest decrease in trust in the police (RR = 2.29; 1.50-3.50), the parliament (RR = 2.00; 1.31-3.05), and local politicians (RR = 2.52; 1.61-3.94). People with mobility disability experience lower cognitive social capital over time than people without mobility disability. Being burdened by both mobility disability and obesity may be worse in terms of social capital than having just one of the conditions, especially regarding cognitive social capital. This finding is of public health importance, since social capital is related to health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brandt, Mark J
System justification theory (SJT) posits that members of low-status groups are more likely to see their social systems as legitimate than members of high-status groups because members of low-status groups experience a sense of dissonance between system motivations and self/group motivations (Jost, Pelham, Sheldon, & Sullivan, 2003). The author examined the status-legitimacy hypothesis using data from 3 representative sets of data from the United States (American National Election Studies and General Social Surveys) and throughout the world (World Values Survey; total N across studies = 151,794). Multilevel models revealed that the average effect across years in the United States and countries throughout the world was most often directly contrary to the status-legitimacy hypothesis or was practically zero. In short, the status-legitimacy effect is not a robust phenomenon. Two theoretically relevant moderator variables (inequality and civil liberties) were also tested, revealing weak evidence, null evidence, or contrary evidence to the dissonance-inspired status-legitimacy hypothesis. In sum, the status-legitimacy effect is not robust and is unlikely to be the result of dissonance. These results are used to discuss future directions for research, the current state of SJT, and the interpretation of theoretically relevant but contrary and null results. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru
The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
van de Brake, Hendrik; Grow, André; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
This study examines whether a mismatch between the positions that individuals hold in different status hierarchies results in symptoms of stress. Prior research has focused on inconsistencies between socioeconomic status dimensions (e.g., education and income) and did not find a significant relation
Donovan, Caroline L; Cobham, Vanessa; Waters, Allison M; Occhipinti, Stefano
Although CBT has proven efficacious in the treatment of child social phobia (SP), most children do not present for treatment and child SP may be less responsive to treatment than other anxiety disorders. Intensive, group-based, SP-specific CBT may improve the efficacy of, and access to, treatment for child SP. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary examination of such a program. Forty Australian children aged 7-12 years (15 male and 25 female) were allocated into treatment and waitlist groups. Clinical interviews to determine diagnostic status were conducted prior to treatment, following treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Parent and child questionnaire measures of child anxiety symptoms, internalizing symptoms, depression, social skills, social competence, and parental social anxiety were administered at the same time points. Treatment was delivered in 4 separate 3-hour sessions conducted over 3 consecutive weekends. At postassessment, 52.4% of children in the treatment group and 15.8% of children in the waitlist group were free of their SP diagnosis. At postassessment, compared to waitlist children, treatment group children demonstrated a greater drop in clinical severity, a greater increase in overall functioning, and held fewer clinical diagnoses. Treatment group children also reported a greater reduction in SP symptoms compared to waitlist children, and treatment group parents reported a greater reduction in child internalizing and anxiety symptoms, a greater increase in child social competence, and a greater decrease in parental SP symptoms, compared to parents of children in the waitlist group. By 6-month follow-up, 76.9% of the treatment group were free of their SP diagnosis and gains on all other measures were maintained. The results of this study are encouraging, and suggest that brief, intensive, group CBT for children with social anxiety is beneficial for many youngsters. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rosander, Michael; Chiriac, Eva Hammar
The aim of this study was to investigate how first-year students view the purpose of tutorial groups in problem-based learning. In all, 147 students from 24 groups participated, providing 399 statements. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed a focus on both learning and social influence. Learning involved the tutorial as…
Wang, Yihan; Matz-Costa, Christina
This study explores the effect of positive and negative social support, social reciprocity, and subjective social status on the retirement satisfaction and health of retirees and gender differences therein. Using cross-sectional data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we found that social support seems to matter more for the retirement satisfaction and health of women, while social reciprocity matters more for the health of men and subjective social status for the retirement satisfaction of men. Implications for the development of social programs and policies over the life course are discussed.
Ozawa-De Silva, Chikako
Existing models for understanding suicide fail to account for the distinctiveness of Internet group suicide, a recent phenomenon in Japan. Drawing from an ethnography of Internet suicide websites, two social commentaries in Japanese popular culture, and the work of developmental psychologist Philippe Rochat, I argue that participation in Internet suicide forums and even the act of Internet group suicide result from both a need for social connectedness and the fear of social rejection and isolation that this need engenders. These needs and fears are especially strong in the case of Japan, where the dominant cultural rhetoric ties selfhood closely to the social self that is the object of perception and experience by others. I show how such an understanding of Internet group suicide helps us to understand some of its basic characteristics, which are otherwise difficult to explain and which have puzzled the Japanese media and popular accounts: the "ordinariness" or casual nature of Internet group suicide, the wish for an easy or comfortable death, the wish to die with others, and the wish to "vanish." Internet group suicide sheds light on questions of Japanese selfhood in modernity and expands our understanding of suicide in Japan in general.
Probst; Carnevale; Triandis
Do cultural values influence the manner in which people cooperate with one another? This study assessed cultural characteristics of individuals and then related these characteristics to cooperative behavior in social dilemmas. Participants were assessed for their degree of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism, cultural values identified by Triandis (1995). They made choices in either a single-group or an intergroup social dilemma. The single-group dilemma entailed a three-person dilemma; the intergroup dilemma was identical but added subgroup competition, i.e., an opposing three-person group. The results indicated an interaction between cultural characteristics and type of dilemma for cooperation. The single-group versus intergroup effect reported by Bornstein and Ben-Yossef (1994) was replicated, but only for vertical individualists. The vertical individualists were least cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were more cooperative in the intergroup dilemma-where cooperation with the group maximized personal outcomes. The vertical collectivists were most cooperative in the single-group dilemma but were less cooperative in the intergroup dilemma- where group defection resulted in maximum group outcomes. The horizontal individualists and collectivists exhibited an intermediate level of cooperation, with no differences in cooperation between the single-group and intergroup dilemmas. Taken together, the results suggest that the relationship between cultural values and cooperation, in particular with reference to vertical and horizontal components of individualism and collectivism, is more complex than has been suggested in past research. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Wikman, Johan M; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens T; Melchor, Pia S; Bangsbo, Jens; Pfister, Gertrud
This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65-76) were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22) or a group playing petanque (n = 17) one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Johan M. Wikman
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76 were randomized into a group playing floorball (n = 22 or a group playing petanque (n = 17 one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements in the interviews, the men in the floorball group experienced a high degree of solidarity and group cohesion which seemed to have increased their social capital during the intervention. In particular, the fun and joyful experiences of playing led to a high degree of social connectedness, which were mentioned by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition that playing floorball is experienced as enjoyable amongst older men. Thus, it can be concluded that floorball is an activity that benefits older men and should be provided in relevant contexts, such as e.g. sport clubs or centres for seniors.
Kreijns, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A; Jochems, Wim; Van Buuren, Hans
The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This "one-sided" educational focus largely determines the set of requirements in the design of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments resulting in functional CSCL environments. In contrast, our research is aimed at the design and implementation of sociable CSCL environments which may increase the likelihood that a sound social space will emerge. We use a theoretical framework that is based upon an ecological approach to social interaction, centering on the concept of social affordances, the concept of the sociability of CSCL environments, and social presence theory. The hypothesis is that the higher the sociability, the more likely that social interaction will take place or will increase, and the more likely that this will result in an emerging sound social space. In the present research, the variables of interest are sociability, social space, and social presence. This study deals with the construction and validation of three instruments to determine sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborating groups. The findings suggest that the instruments have potential to be useful as measures for the respective variables. However, it must be realized that these measures are "first steps."
Flynn, Michael A; Eggerth, Donald E; Jacobson, C Jeffrey
Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants. This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Flynn, Michael A.; Eggerth, Donald E.; Jacobson, C. Jeffrey
Background Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. Methods Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. Results Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety at work and resulted in a degree of alienation that exceeded the specific proscriptions of the law. Participants overwhelming used a strategy of disengagement to cope with the challenges they face as undocumented immigrants. Conclusion This study describes the complex web of consequences resulting from undocumented status and its impact on occupational health. This study presents a framework connecting the daily work experiences of immigrants, the coping strategy of disengagement, and efforts to minimize the impact of structural violence. PMID:26471878
Schurmann, Anna T; Johnston, Heidi Bart
According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities through promoting social inclusion. The group-lending model of microcredit is a development intervention in which small-scale credit for income-generation activities is provided to groups of individuals who do not have material collateral. The paper outlines four pathways through which microcredit can affect health status: financing care in the event of health emergencies; financing health inputs such as improved nutrition; as a platform for health education; and by increasing social capital through group meetings and mutual support. For many participants, the group-lending model of microcredit can mitigate exclusionary processes and lead to improvements in health for some; for others, it can worsen exclusionary processes which contribute to health disadvantage.
Johnston, Heidi Bart
According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities through promoting social inclusion. The group-lending model of microcredit is a development intervention in which small-scale credit for income-generation activities is provided to groups of individuals who do not have material collateral. The paper outlines four pathways through which microcredit can affect health status: financing care in the event of health emergencies; financing health inputs such as improved nutrition; as a platform for health education; and by increasing social capital through group meetings and mutual support. For many participants, the group-lending model of microcredit can mitigate exclusionary processes and lead to improvements in health for some; for others, it can worsen exclusionary processes which contribute to health disadvantage. PMID:19761085
Evelina Ravilevna Galieva
Full Text Available Social exclusion is both a scientific theory and a socio-political discourse. This paper deals with the study of social exclusion of deprived groups such as drug users, which is based on an analysis of complex issues arising from the spread and use of psychoactive substances. The spread of drug abuse as a phenomenon is the cause of the stigmatization of communities and the exclusion of drug users from societies. The problem carriers are not only patients with drug addiction, but also those who have experience of one-time, episodic experiments with drugs and psychotropic substances. This paper is based on the results of empirical studies, which the subject was the study of drug use practices in modern society. The combination of a quantitative and qualitative strategy for data collection and analysis represented a dynamic accumulation of information at different levels about the object under study – social exclusion of drug users: methods of document analysis were applied such as regulatory legal acts, interviews with drug users and experts in the field of drug use and questionnaire survey, as well as secondary analysis of data from all-Russian sociological research. The social exclusion of deprived groups and ways to overcome it directly depend on the nature of the scenarios for social exclusion, which is the result of the stigmatization of deprived groups.
Umphress, Elizabeth E; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Brief, Arthur P; Dietz, Joerg; Watkins, Marla Baskerville
Although similarity-attraction notions suggest that similarity--for example, in terms of values, personality, and demography--attracts, the authors found that sometimes demographic similarity attracts and sometimes it repels. Consistent with social dominance theory (J. Sidanius & F. Pratto, 1999), they demonstrated in 3 studies that when prospective employees supported group-based social hierarchies (i.e., were high in social dominance orientation), those in high-status groups were attracted to demographic similarity within an organization, whereas those in low-status groups were repelled by it. An important theoretical implication of the findings is that social dominance theory and traditional similarity-attraction notions together help explain a more complex relationship between demographic similarity and attraction than was previously acknowledged in the organizational literature. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai
Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels--voice call, short message, and email--to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a "rich club" maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy.
Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min
The goal of this research is to examine if the long neglected correlates such as social and leisure activities, social support, and subjective social status contribute to variations in psychological distress among older Chinese. Using data collected in one of the most developed areas in China-Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, the authors find that engaging in various exercises, living with both spouse and adult children, perceived availability of social support from others as well as believing in the importance of caring for other family members are particularly beneficial for mental health whereas the perception of relative deprivation and low life quality is detrimental to mental health for older Chinese. This work is among the first studies that comprehensively examined various important correlates of psychological distress and indicate the unique patterns of distress among the elderly in the most developed area in the contemporary China.
Full Text Available Background: A growing literature has revealed ethnic group differences in determinants and meanings of their self-rated health (SRH. Aim: To explore ethnic variations in the effects of socioeconomic determinants on poor physical SRH of Asians in the United States. Methods: Data came from the National Asian American Survey (NAAS, 2008, with 4977 non-U.S. born Asian Americans, including Asian Indian (n = 1150, Chinese (n = 1350, Filipino (n = 603, Japanese (n = 541, Korean (n = 614, and Vietnamese (n = 719 Americans. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; education, employment, income, and marital status, and physical SRH were measured. Ethnic-specific logistic regressions were applied for data analysis where physical SRH was the outcome and demographic and social determinants were predictors. Results: According to logistic regressions, no social determinant was consistently associated with physical SRH across all ethnic groups. Being married was associated with better physical SRH in Asian Indians and worse SRH in the Filipino group. Education was associated with better SRH in Asian Indian, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans. High income was associated with better SRH in Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese Americans. Employment was associated with better SRH in Filipino Americans. Conclusion: Social determinants of physical SRH vary across ethnic groups of Asian Americans. Different ethnic groups are differently vulnerable to various social determinants of health. Application of single item SRH measures may be a source of bias in studies of health with ethnically diverse populations. Policy makers should be aware that the same change in social determinants may not result in similar change in the health of ethnic groups.
Donovan, T.; Bowler, S.; Hanneman, R.; Karp, J.A.
Many prominent social theorists contend that memberships in voluntary associations make major contributions to making citizens more engaged with democracy. Although substantial attention has been directed at the potential role of sports groups, previous studies using survey data have not found
Charonis, Antonios; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Spanakis, Manos; Zavras, Dimitris; Athanasakis, Kostas; Pavi, Elpida; Kyriopoulos, John
Several studies suggest that socioeconomic status affects (SES) affects self-rated health (SRH), both in Greece and internationally. However, prior research mainly uses objective measures of SES, instead of subjective evaluations of individuals' social status. Based on this, this paper aims to examine (a) the impact of the economic dowturn on SRH in Greece and (b) the relationship between subjective social status (SSS), social network and SRH. The descriptive analysis is based on four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece (2002, 2006, 2011, 2015), while the data for the empirical investigation were derived from the 2015 survey (Health + Welfare Survey GR). The empirical strategy is based on an ordinal logistic regression model, aiming to examine how several variables affect SRH. Size of social network and SSS are among the independent variables employed for the empirical analysis RESULTS: According to our findings, average SRH has deteriorated, and the percentage of the population that reports very good/good SRH has also decreased. Moreover, our empirical analysis suggests that age, existence of a chronic disease, size of social network and SSS affect SRH in Greece. Our findings are consistent with the existing literature and confirm a social gradient in health. According to our analysis, health disparities can be largely attributed to socioeconomic inequalities. The adverse economic climate has impact on socioeconomic differences which in turn affect health disparities. Based on these, policy initiatives are necessasy in order to mitigate the negative impact on health and the disparities caused by economic dowturn and the occuring socioeconomic inequalities.
Mar 1, 2014 ... Conclusion: Nutrition screening of hypertension is necessary for early intervention against hypertension ... patient within their environment so that they can be properly ..... Pressure Education Program Working Group. Arch.
This response discusses the importance of "privilege talk" and relates the concept of privilege to group counseling research. The impact of "colorblindness" on the dynamics of groups is discussed. The importance of understanding social privilege and its influence on counseling groups is emphasized.
Over, Harriet; Eggleston, Adam; Bell, Jenny; Dunham, Yarrow
Understanding the origins of prejudice necessitates exploring the ways in which children participate in the construction of biased representations of social groups. We investigate whether young children actively seek out information that supports and extends their initial intergroup biases. In Studies 1 and 2, we show that children choose to hear a story that contains positive information about their own group and negative information about another group rather than a story that contains negative information about their own group and positive information about the other group. In a third study, we show that children choose to present biased information to others, thus demonstrating that the effects of information selection can start to propagate through social networks. In Studies 4 and 5, we further investigate the nature of children's selective information seeking and show that children prefer ingroup-favouring information to other types of biased information and even to balanced, unbiased information. Together, this work shows that children are not merely passively recipients of social information; they play an active role in the creation and transmission of intergroup attitudes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Özşahin, Akatlı Kürşad; Altıntaş, Ebru
Background/aim: Mental disorders may accompany obesity. This study aims to evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and obesity and the risk factors for SAD in obese female patients. Materials and methods: A total of 114 obese patients and 110 healthy controls were included. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI I-II), and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) were administered to assess anxiety, depression, and social anxiety levels. Scale scores were analyzed statistically. Results: The rate of SAD in obese female patients was found to be 8.8%. Anxiety, depression, and social anxiety levels were significantly higher in the obesity group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). According to linear regression analyses, a significant association between LSAS anxiety level and age, prior surgery, social support, history of being teased, BDI, and BAI was found. Conclusion: The present study shows that many factors are related to obesity and SAD in obese female patients. The clinical implications of these findings should be considered. Interventions for these factors may help prevent SAD in obese female patients.
Chiao, Joan Y; Harada, Tokiko; Oby, Emily R; Li, Zhang; Parrish, Todd; Bridge, Donna J
Mental representations of social status hierarchy share properties with that of numbers. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the neural representation of numerical magnitude lies within a network of regions within inferior parietal cortex. However the neural basis of social status hierarchy remains unknown. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they compared social status magnitude of people, objects and symbols, as well as numerical magnitude. Both social status and number comparisons recruited bilateral intraparietal sulci. We also observed a semantic distance effect whereby neural activity within bilateral intraparietal sulci increased for semantically close relative to far numerical and social status comparisons. These results demonstrate that social status and number comparisons recruit distinct and overlapping neuronal representations within human inferior parietal cortex.
Sumner, Seirian; King, Andrew J
SOCIAL FORAGING IN HUMANS HAS A DEEP EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY: early hominids searched for dispersed food sources in a patchy, uncertain environment. A fundamental assumption is that social foragers benefit by exchanging information about food sources, in order to make collective decisions based on pooled information. We conducted the first experimental test of this assumption, and showed that, as predicted, communication significantly enhanced group performance. A further, unexpected result was that physical communication through gesturing, rather than verbal communication, appeared to play a crucial role in the early stages of group interaction, facilitating consensus decision making by groups. The importance of gestures in human interactions may therefore be underestimated, and this has important implications for modern human societies, where communications are becoming increasingly dominated by virtual modes of communication that preclude the use of gestures.
Lund Thomsen, Trine
Arnfinn H. and Rogstad, Jon 2.Book reviews by null 3.INVISIBLE IMMIGRANTS, VISIBLE EXPATS? Americans in Finnish discourses on immigration and internationalization by Leinonen, Johanna 4.Migrants in the Scandinavian Welfare State by Brochmann, Grete and Hagelund, Anniken 5.TOWARD AN IDENTITY STRESS....... Language and religious affiliations of an immigrant adolescent in Norway by Haque, Shahzaman View Top 20 Most Downloaded Articles Previous Article Next Article Go to table of contents Download full text pdf (PDF, 425 KB) Irregular Migration – Between Legal Status and Social Practices Narratives of Polish...... connected to the specific area of activity and to the accumulated capital of the individual. The aim is to identify how opportunity structures affect the migration process and how migrants react to them depending on the available capital and biographical knowledge and experiences. The horizon of experience...
Jelić Marija M.
Full Text Available Bearing in mind limited effects of interventions focused on the child and its limitations the attention of researches is more and more directed to immediate and wider ambience factors in the prevention of negative forms of behaviour of children. The aim of the research was to determine the level of connectedness of family and intellectual status of adolescents and different aspects of their social functioning. The sample of 416 adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was divided into two groups. The group without parental care included 210 respondents (130 with typical development - TD and 80 with mild intellectual disability - MID, and the group with parental care (130 TD and 76 MID. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with subscales: behavioral problems, emotional problems and problems with peers. Family problems were divided in socioeconomic problems, partners' problem, mental health of parents, abuse, and neglect. The results confirmed that the young without parental care showed more problems in behavior than their peers with parental care, and that family status affects behavior more than intellectual status. Family is the protective factor for the development of emotional problems of the young TD students, while it is risky for MID students. Problems with peers are not significantly connected with family or intellectual status. Some implications of the results are stressed.
Gu, B; Xie, Z
Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One
Buckingham, Sarah A; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P
Despite a growing interest in how group membership can positively impact health, little research has addressed directly the role social identity processes can have on recovery from addiction. Drawing on social identity theory and self-categorization theory, the present study investigated how recovery group membership can introduce a new social identity associated with recovery, compared to the social identity associated with addiction. We hypothesized that two processes--evaluative differentiation and identity preference--would be linked with higher self-efficacy and positive health outcomes (i.e., reduced relapse, lower levels of appetitive behavior, and elevated feelings of social connectedness [Study 2]). Study 1 recruited members (N = 61) from United Kingdom based mutual aid groups of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Study 2 recruited ex-smokers (N = 81) from online sources. In Study 1, evaluative differentiation was significantly related to lowered relapse and reduced appetitive behavior. Identity preference was related to higher levels of self-efficacy, which was related to months drug-free and reduced levels of appetitive behaviors. In Study 2, evaluative differentiation was related to identity preference. Identity preference was also related to higher self-efficacy, which in turn was related to lower relapse. Although exploratory, these results suggest that developing a social identity as a "recovering addict" or an "ex-smoker" and subsequently highlighting the difference between such identities may be a useful strategy for reducing relapse among people with problems associated with addictive behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
showed that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According......This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) years were randomized into a group...... playing floorball (n = 22) or a group playing petanque (n = 17) one hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Both groups filled out the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) before and after the 12-week intervention. Linear regression analyses with bootstrapping...
Robertson, Deirdre A; Weiss, David
Negative age-related stereotypes often entail the perception that older adults have a lower social status than middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that older adults are perceived to have lower social status because they are less likely to be seen in prestigious occupational positions. People tend to infer general assumptions about group characteristics from exemplars. According to this, presenting a stereotype-inconsistent exemplar (i.e., older person in a high-status position) should change perceptions of older adults' social status. Study 1 (60 countries, N = 86,026, 18-99 years) showed that people in countries with an older relative to a younger political leader do not perceive as great a decline in social status from middle-aged to older adults. Study 2 (N = 131; 19-74 years) tested the causal link demonstrating that participants exposed to older exemplars holding a prestigious occupational position were significantly more likely to rate older adults as having a relative higher social status. We discuss implications for future interventions to change negative age-related stereotypes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Dietrich, Frederick; Shipherd, Amber M; Gershgoren, Lael; Filho, Edson Medeiros; Basevitch, Itay
A social networking Web site, Facebook, was used to deliver long-term sport psychology consultation services to student-athletes (i.e., soccer players) in 30- to 60-min weekly sessions. Additional short-term team building, group cohesion, communication, anger management, injury rehabilitation, mental toughness, commitment, and leadership workshops were provided. Cohesion and overall relationships between both the student-athletes and the sport psychology consultants benefited from this process. Social networking Web sites offer a practical way of providing sport psychology consulting services that does not require use of major resources. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Spatial group recommendation refers to suggesting places to a given set of users. In a group recommender system, members of a group should have similar preferences in order to increase the level of satisfaction. Location-based social networks (LBSNs provide rich content, such as user interactions and location/event descriptions, which can be leveraged for group recommendations. In this paper, an automatic user grouping model is introduced that obtains information about users and their preferences through an LBSN. The preferences of the users, proximity of the places the users have visited in terms of spatial range, users’ free days, and the social relationships among users are extracted automatically from location histories and users’ profiles in the LBSN. These factors are combined to determine the similarities among users. The users are partitioned into groups based on these similarities. Group size is the key to coordinating group members and enhancing their satisfaction. Therefore, a modified k-medoids method is developed to cluster users into groups with specific sizes. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, its mean intra-cluster distance and its distribution of cluster sizes are compared to those of general clustering algorithms. The results reveal that the proposed method compares favourably with general clustering approaches, such as k-medoids and spectral clustering, in separating users into groups of a specific size with a lower mean intra-cluster distance.
Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng
Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499
Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng
Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12(th), 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors.
Li, Yu-Chen; Meng, Ya-Jing; Yuan, Min-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Ren, Zheng-Jia; Qiu, Chang-Jian; Zhang, Wei
To evaluate the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on social anxiety disorders (SAD). A total of 50 patients with SAD were recruited in this study. A survey containing the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS),the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ),the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire (FNE),the social support rating scale (SSRS),the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ),and the egna minnen barndoms uppfostran (EMBU) was administered before and (one week) after the GCBT,including in the 50 healthy controls. About 21 patients completed the eight-week GCBT (once a week,2 h a session). Follow-up surveys were conducted on 40 patients (22 patients treated with GCBT and 18 untreated) over a 1-5 year period. Significant differences were found between the SAD patients and healthy controls in thinking mode,personality characteristics,social support,parental rearing styles,and social anxiety symptoms. Significant decrease in social anxiety symptom ( t =4.06, P =0.000) , negative automatic thoughts ( t =4.58, P =0.000) and fear for rejection ( t =3.85, P =0.000) were observed after the GCBT therapy. Such improvement was positively correlated with subjective social support ( r =0.361, P =0.022) ,and negatively correlated with rejection of father ( r =-0.431, P =0.005) . There was also statistical difference between the patients with and without the GCBT therapy ( P =0.033) . GCBT treatment can relieve SAD symptoms by changing the negative cognitive of SAD patients. Social support and rejection of father affects the prognosis of SAD.
Jackson, Benita; Goodman, Elizabeth
Some markers of social disadvantage are associated robustly with depressive symptoms among adolescents: female gender and lower socioeconomic status (SES), respectively. Others are associated equivocally, notably Black v. White race/ethnicity. Few studies examine whether markers of social disadvantage by gender, SES, and race/ethnicity jointly predict self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence; this was our goal. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from a socioeconomically diverse community-based cohort study of non-Hispanic Black and White adolescents (N = 1,263, 50.4% female). Multivariable general linear models tested if female gender, Black race/ethnicity, and lower SES (assessed by parent education and household income), and their interactions predicted greater depressive symptoms reported on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Models adjusted for age and pubertal status. Univariate analyses revealed more depressive symptoms in females, Blacks, and participants with lower SES. Multivariable models showed females across both racial/ethnic groups reported greater depressive symptoms; Blacks demonstrated more depressive symptoms than did Whites but when SES was included this association disappeared. Exploratory analyses suggested Blacks gained less mental health benefit from increased SES. However there were no statistically significant interactions among gender, race/ethnicity, or SES. Taken together, we conclude that complex patterning among low social status domains within gender, race/ethnicity, and SES predicts depressive symptoms among adolescents.
Boberg-Fazlic, Nina; Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis
that this had to do with earlier age at marriage for women. We then turn to the likely social and economic impact of this, considering Clark’s hypothesis that ‘middle class values’ spread through English society prior to the industrial revolution. Through the construction of social mobility tables, we......We use data collected by the Cambridge Group to investigate and explain differences in fertility by socio-economic group in pre-industrial England. We find, in line with results presented by Greg Clark, that wealthier groups did indeed have higher fertility until the 1700s. We demonstrate...
Yi, Yingying; Liang, Ying
This article sought to explore the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on intra-provincial and interprovincial migrants' mental health by constructing the Bayesian structural equation model. A total of 14,584 migrants aged 15-59 years living in eight cities of China were selected. It was found that the impacts of socioeconomic status and social inclusion on mental health were converse for these two groups. And the manifest variables coefficients of socioeconomic status and social inclusion were also converse. Therefore, governments should make some policies to further improve the mental health of migrants, including strengthening the community cohesion, social atmosphere, and governmental support.
Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Bargiela-Flórez, Beatriz; López-Coronado, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J P C
This article aims to characterize the different types of Facebook and Twitter groups for different mental diseases, their purposes, and their functions. We focused the search on depressive disorders, dementia, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and examined the Facebook (www.facebook.com) and Twitter (www.twitter.com) groups. We used four assessment criteria: (1) purpose, (2) type of creator, (3) telehealth content, and (4) free-text responses in surveys and interviews. We observed a total of 357 Parkinson groups, 325 dementia groups, 853 Alzheimer groups, and 1127 depression groups on Facebook and Twitter. Moreover, we analyze the responses provided by different users. The survey and interview responses showed that many people were interested in using social networks to support and help in the fight against these diseases. The results indicate that social networks are acceptable by users in terms of simplicity and utility. People use them for finding support, information, self-help, advocacy and awareness, and for collecting funds. © The Author(s) 2014.
Silk, Jennifer S; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Kerestes, Rebecca; Griffith, Julianne M; Dahl, Ronald E; Ladouceur, Cecile D
Concerns about social status are ubiquitous during adolescence, with information about social status often conveyed in text formats. Depressed adolescents may show alterations in the functioning of neural systems supporting processing of social status information. We examined whether depressed youth exhibited altered neural activation to social status words in temporal and prefrontal cortical regions thought to be involved in social cognitive processing, and whether this response was associated with development. Forty-nine adolescents (ages 10-18; 35 female), including 20 with major depressive disorder and 29 controls, were scanned while identifying the valence of words that connoted positive and negative social status. Results indicated that depressed youth showed reduced late activation to social status (vs neutral) words in the superior temporal cortex (STC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); whereas healthy youth did not show any significant differences between word types. Depressed youth also showed reduced late activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus to negative (vs positive) social status words; whereas healthy youth showed the opposite pattern. Finally, age was positively associated with MPFC activation to social status words. Findings suggest that hypoactivation in the "social cognitive brain network" might be implicated in altered interpersonal functioning in adolescent depression. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Tukov, A.R.; Kleev, N.A.; Shafranskij, I.L.
The morbidity rate of the Russian atomic industry workers, the liquidators of ChNPP accident consequences and their future life span shorting with an account of their social status are evaluated. Tentative and standard morbidity values were calculated with an account of various social groups of the liquidators. Intensive values of the man-year losses were used in the methodology for evaluating the vital potential losses. The study results indicated considerable morbidity difference in certain diseases by the persons of various social groups, who took part in liquidation of the ChNPP accident consequences [ru
Full Text Available For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.
Salganik, Matthew J; Mello, Maeve B; Abdo, Alexandre H; Bertoni, Neilane; Fazito, Dimitri; Bastos, Francisco I
Estimating the sizes of hard-to-count populations is a challenging and important problem that occurs frequently in social science, public health, and public policy. This problem is particularly pressing in HIV/AIDS research because estimates of the sizes of the most at-risk populations-illicit drug users, men who have sex with men, and sex workers-are needed for designing, evaluating, and funding programs to curb the spread of the disease. A promising new approach in this area is the network scale-up method, which uses information about the personal networks of respondents to make population size estimates. However, if the target population has low social visibility, as is likely to be the case in HIV/AIDS research, scale-up estimates will be too low. In this paper we develop a game-like activity that we call the game of contacts in order to estimate the social visibility of groups, and report results from a study of heavy drug users in Curitiba, Brazil (n = 294). The game produced estimates of social visibility that were consistent with qualitative expectations but of surprising magnitude. Further, a number of checks suggest that the data are high-quality. While motivated by the specific problem of population size estimation, our method could be used by researchers more broadly and adds to long-standing efforts to combine the richness of social network analysis with the power and scale of sample surveys.
Fleuriet, Jill; Sunil, Thankam
The purpose of this project was to quantitatively test differences in subjective social status scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women to determine the role of subjective social status in birth weight variation between Mexico-born and US-born Mexican-American women. Six hundred low-income pregnant and non-pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in south Texas were surveyed for subjective social status, depression, perceived social stress, parity, and pregnancy intendedness. Psychosocial health variables, parity, and pregnancy intendedness were included due to their significant associations with low birth weight. Pregnant women had higher subjective social status scores than non-pregnant women. The difference in scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women was smaller in Mexican immigrant women than Mexican-American women. Pregnancy intendedness did not influence subjective social status in pregnant women of either sample, but having children (parity) in both samples was associated with higher subjective social status scores. Among Mexican-American women, community subjective social status was correlated with levels of depressive symptoms and perceived social stress. Subjective social status, depression, and perceived social stress were not correlated among Mexican immigrant women. Our results suggest that incorporation into the USA influences maternal mental health vis-à-vis changes in how women of reproductive age think about themselves and their gender roles in relation to others. Theoretically, our work supports mixed-method approaches to document how culture change as a result of immigration may impact maternal and infant health. Future research should test whether the effect of subjective social status on birth weight occurs when subjective social status does not correlate with depression or stress.
Full Text Available In mice behavioral response to pain is modulated by social status. Recently, social context also has been shown to affect pain sensitivity. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of interaction between status and social context in dyads of outbred CD-1 male mice in which the dominance/submission relationship was stable. Mice were assessed for pain response in a formalin (1% concentration test either alone (individually tested-IT, or in pairs of dominant and subordinate mice. In the latter condition, they could be either both injected (BI or only one injected (OI with formalin. We observed a remarkable influence of social context on behavioral response to painful stimuli regardless of the social status of the mice. In the absence of differences between OI and IT conditions, BI mice exhibited half as much Paw-licking behavior than OI group. As expected, subordinates were hypoalgesic in response to the early phase of the formalin effects compared to dominants. Clear cut-differences in coping strategies of dominants and subordinates appeared. The former were more active, whereas the latter were more passive. Finally, analysis of behavior of the non-injected subjects (the observers in the OI dyads revealed that dominant observers were more often involved in Self-grooming behavior upon observation of their subordinate partner in pain. This was not the case for subordinate mice observing the pain response of their dominant partner. In contrast, subordinate observers Stared at the dominant significantly more frequently compared to observer dominants in other dyads. The observation of a cagemate in pain significantly affected the observer's behavior. Additionally, the quality of observer's response was also modulated by the dominance/submission relationship.
Underwood, Jean D M
While there is much support for co-operative learning among learning theorists, not all learners exhibit the same enthusiasm for groupwork. A number of factors such as sex, group size and ability mix, subject domain, task type and organization have been shown to influence the effectiveness of co-operative and collaborative learning. This study established learners' attitudes to various shared working scenarios. In this mixed design, 140 post-graduate teacher trainees were asked to imagine their responses to seven groupwork scenarios presented as a series of short vignettes. The vignettes varied on the degree of co-operation required; the sex of the prospective co-worker(s) including single and mixed-sex groups; type of assessment, including no assessment at all; and on academically acceptable and unacceptable 'shared' working practices. Anticipated attitudinal and behavioural responses of the students were assessed by questionnaire. On the whole, students were cautiously willing to be involved in groupwork. There were caveats, however. Factors such as the characteristics of the group members, the level and type of assessment procedures in operation, and individual differences, including sex and self-reported social deviance, also governed their responses. There was very limited agreement to be involved in socially undesirable collaborative group activities at a personal level or to condone such activities by others. Those students who showed a tendency towards mild anti-social behaviour were more willing to take direct punitive action against non-contributors than their peers. Female students were more willing to invoke the help of the tutor than their male counterparts, but only if the anti-social behaviour impacted on them personally.
Beery, Annaliese K; Bicks, Lucy; Mooney, Skyler J; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Holmes, Melissa M
Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in groups that are notable for their large size and caste structure, with breeding monopolized by a single female and a small number of males. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences between the brains of breeders and subordinates induced by changes in social standing. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors-which bind the hormone CRF as well as related peptides-are important regulators of stress and anxiety, and are emerging as factors affecting social behavior. We conducted autoradiographic analyses of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding densities in female and male naked mole-rats varying in breeding status. Both globally and in specific brain regions, CRF1 receptor densities varied with breeding status. CRF1 receptor densities were higher in subordinates across brain regions, and particularly in the piriform cortex and cortical amygdala. Sex differences were present in CRF2 receptor binding densities, as is the case in multiple vole species. CRF2 receptor densities were higher in females, both globally and in the cortical amygdala and lateral amygdalar nucleus. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiology of social hierarchy in naked mole-rats, and add to a growing body of work that links changes in the CRF system with social behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shah, Fahad; Sukthankar, Gita
Virtual worlds and massively multi-player online games are rich sources of information about large-scale teams and groups, offering the tantalizing possibility of harvesting data about group formation, social networks, and network evolution. However these environments lack many of the cues that facilitate natural language processing in other conversational settings and different types of social media. Public chat data often features players who speak simultaneously, use jargon and emoticons, and only erratically adhere to conversational norms. In this paper, we present techniques for inferring the existence of social links from unstructured conversational data collected from groups of participants in the Second Life virtual world. We present an algorithm for addressing this problem, Shallow Semantic Temporal Overlap (SSTO), that combines temporal and language information to create directional links between participants, and a second approach that relies on temporal overlap alone to create undirected links between participants. Relying on temporal overlap is noisy, resulting in a low precision and networks with many extraneous links. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can ameliorate this problem by using network modularity optimization to perform community detection in the noisy networks and severing cross-community links. Although using the content of the communications still results in the best performance, community detection is effective as a noise reduction technique for eliminating the extra links created by temporal overlap alone.
Full Text Available This paper explains how political, religious, and economic changes in Yogyakarta affect the formation of religious identity and social distance between different religious groups. The strengthening of religious identity in this area took place in the period of the Diponegoro War (1825-1830 when religious issues were used in the mobilization against the Dutch colonialist. Then, the spread of Christianity in Java at the end of 19th led to several tensions between missionaries and several Islamic organizations, but never developed into communal violence. In 1930s, the relation between religious groups remain harmonious due to the development of tolerant culture and pluralism. During the 1980s, the use of religious identity grew both in urban and rural areas in line with social processes of modernization. Da’wat activities on Campus (Lembaga Dakwah Kampus plays important roles in promoting religious life in urban areas. The 1998 political reform marked the rise of religious fundamentalist movements that to a certain degree contributes to social distance between religious groups.
Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy
Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.
Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Cohen-Schotanus, J; Nek, R.H.
This study was conducted among 269 medical students who participated in educational training groups. Self-evaluation was the most important motive to engage in social comparison with other group members, followed by, respectively, self-enhancement and self-improvement. Upward comparisons (i.e., with
Tam, C L; Foo, Y C; Lee, T H
To examine gender differences in mental health and perceived social support, relationship between parents' income and mental health, and differences in mental health across education levels. A total of 303 students aged 16 to 26 years were recruited from Selangor, Malaysia. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and General Health Questionnaire were used to measure the level of perceived social support and the mental health status. Demographic data, including education level and parents' income, were also obtained. Females perceived significantly higher levels of overall social support than males (t = -2.7; p mental health status between males and females (t = -1.8; p > 0.05), as well as mental health status among different parental income groups (chi2 = 5.0; p > 0.05) and the education levels of the subjects (chi2 = 0.7; p > 0.05). A more favourable mental health status of the subjects was associated with higher parental incomes (r = -0.1; p mental health status in older adolescents and young adults. There was also a relationship between parental income and an individual's mental health status, but mental health was not related to their education level.
This report presents a snapshot of nuclear safety and radiation protection conditions in the AREVA group's nuclear installations in France and abroad, as well as of radiation protection aspects in service activities, as identified over the course of the annual inspections and analyses program carried out by the General Inspectorate in 2006. This report is presented to the AREVA Supervisory Board, communicated to the labor representation bodies concerned, and made public. In light of the inspections, appraisals and coordination missions it has performed, the General Inspectorate considers that the nuclear safety level of the AREVA group's nuclear installations is satisfactory. It particularly noted positive changes on numerous sites and efforts in the field of continuous improvement that have helped to strengthen nuclear safety. This has been possible through the full involvement of management teams, an improvement effort initiated by upper management, actions to increase personnel awareness of nuclear safety culture, and supervisors' heightened presence around operators. However, the occurrence of certain events in facilities has led us to question the nuclear safety repercussions that the changes to activities or organization on some sites have had. In these times of change, drifts in nuclear safety culture have been identified. The General Inspectorate considers that a preliminary analysis of the human and organizational factors of these changes, sized to match the impact the change has on nuclear safety, should be made to ensure that a guaranteed level of nuclear safety is maintained (allowance for changes to references, availability of the necessary skills, resources of the operating and support structures, etc.). Preparations should also be made to monitor the changes and spot any telltale signs of drift in the application phase. Managers should be extra vigilant and the occurrence of any drift should be systematically dealt with ahead of implementing
Granger, B; Azais, F; Albercque, C; Debray, Q
The authors try to answer the question of the nosological status of social phobias and assertiveness difficulties, which are usually included in the large group of anxious troubles. The correlation between Rathus Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and sub-scores of HDRS were studied in two populations; the first one was constituted by anxious and/or depressed patients, the second, extracted from the first one, by anxious patients only. The results show that lack of assertiveness has probably both affective and anxious components. These results are important from a nosological and therapeutic point of view.
Mooney, S J; Coen, C W; Holmes, M M; Beery, A K
Naturally occurring variations in neuropeptide receptor distributions in the brain contribute to numerous mammalian social behaviors. In naked mole-rats, which live in large social groups and exhibit remarkable reproductive skew, colony-related social behaviors vary with reproductive status. Here we examined whether variation in social status is associated with variations in the location and/or density of oxytocin binding in this species. Autoradiography was performed to assess forebrain oxytocin receptor (OTR) densities in breeding and non-breeding naked mole-rats of both sexes. Overall, males exhibited higher OTR binding in the medial amygdala in comparison to females. While there were no main effects of reproductive status in any region, a sex difference in OTR binding in the nucleus accumbens was mediated by status. Specifically, breeding males tended to have more OTR binding than breeding females in the nucleus accumbens, while no sex difference was observed in subordinates. These effects suggest that oxytocin may act in a sex- and region-specific way that corresponds to reproductive status and associated social behaviors. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line
Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy.
Barker, J L; Loope, K J; Reeve, H K
Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account for observations that group members invest differentially in cooperation and that there are often within-group competitive or power asymmetries. We present a game theoretic model of intergroup competition that investigates how such asymmetries affect within-group cooperation. In this model, group members adopt one of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles) is higher, due to increased cooperation from the competitively inferior individuals. For extreme asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency, per capita cooperation is highest in groups with a single competitively superior individual and many competitively inferior individuals, because the latter acquiesce and invest in cooperation rather than within-group competition. These predictions are consistent with observed features of many societies, such as monogynous Hymenoptera with many workers and caste dimorphism. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.
Ferreira, Wasney de Almeida; Camelo, Lidyane; Viana, Maria Carmen; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria
Very little is known about the association between objective indicators of socioeconomic position in childhood and adolescence and low subjective social status in adult life, after adjusting for adult socioeconomic position. We used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian states. Subjective social status was measured using the The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, which represents social hierarchy in the form of a 10-rung ladder with the top rung representing the highest subjective social status. Participants who chose the bottom four rungs in the ladder were assigned to the low subjective social status category. The following socioeconomic position indicators were investigated: childhood (maternal education), adolescence (occupational social class of the household head; participant's occupational social class of first job; nature of occupation of household head; participant's nature of occupation of first job), and adulthood (participant's occupational social class, nature of occupation and education). The associations between low subjective social status and socioeconomic position were determined using multiple logistic regression, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic position indicators from other stages of life. After adjustments, low socioeconomic position in childhood, adolescence and adulthood remained significantly associated with low subjective social status in adulthood with dose-response gradients. The magnitude of these associations was stronger for intra-individual than for intergenerational socioeconomic positions. Results suggest that subjective social status in adulthood is the result of a complex developmental process of acquiring socioeconomic self-perception, which is intrinsic to subjective social status and includes current and past, individual and family household experiences.
Full Text Available Ample evidence attests that social intention, elicited through gestures explicitly signaling a request of communicative intention, affects the patterning of hand movement kinematics. The current study goes beyond the effect of social intention and addresses whether the same action of reaching to grasp an object for placing it in an end target position within or without a monitoring attendee's peripersonal space, can be moulded by pure social factors in general, and by social facilitation in particular. A motion tracking system (Optotrak Certus was used to record motor acts. We carefully avoided the usage of communicative intention by keeping constant both the visual information and the positional uncertainty of the end target position, while we systematically varied the social status of the attendee (a high, or a low social status in separated blocks. Only thirty acts performed in the presence of a different social status attendee, revealed a significant change of kinematic parameterization of hand movement, independently of the attendee's distance. The amplitude of peak velocity reached by the hand during the reach-to-grasp and the lift-to-place phase of the movement was larger in the high rather than in the low social status condition. By contrast, the deceleration time of the reach-to-grasp phase and the maximum grasp aperture was smaller in the high rather than in the low social status condition. These results indicated that the hand movement was faster but less carefully shaped in presence of a high, but not of a low social status attendee. This kinematic patterning suggests that being monitored by a high rather than a low social status attendee might lead participants to experience evaluation apprehension that informs the control of motor execution. Motor execution would rely more on feedforward motor control in the presence of a high social status human attendee, vs. feedback motor control, in the presence of a low social status attendee.
Pruitt, Jonathan N; Riechert, Susan E
How task specialization, individual task performance and within-group behavioural variation affects fitness is a longstanding and unresolved problem in our understanding of animal societies. In the temperate social spider, Anelosimus studiosus, colony members exhibit a behavioural polymorphism; females either exhibit an aggressive 'asocial' or docile 'social' phenotype. We assessed individual prey-capture success for both phenotypes, and the role of phenotypic composition on group-level prey-capture success for three prey size classes. We then estimated the effect of group phenotypic composition on fitness in a common garden, as inferred from individual egg-case masses. On average, asocial females were more successful than social females at capturing large prey, and colony-level prey-capture success was positively associated with the frequency of the asocial phenotype. Asocial colony members were also more likely to engage in prey-capture behaviour in group-foraging situations. Interestingly, our fitness estimates indicate females of both phenotypes experience increased fitness when occupying colonies containing unlike individuals. These results imply a reciprocal fitness benefit of within-colony behavioural variation, and perhaps division of labour in a spider society.
Full Text Available Background: Today’s occupational therapy models emphasize that a person’s choice of, satisfaction with, and performance in occupations are markedly influenced by the context. For students undergoing a group-based study module, the group is an important context factor. Until recently, there has been a lack of instruments available for the assessment of functioning and participation at the group level. This mixed methods pilot study aimed to examine occupational therapy students’ perceptions of their group’s level of functioning and course of development during one study module. Methods: The students’ perceptions of their group’s functioning were assessed in two ways: by examining their scores on the Social Profile (SP, a new instrument, and by examining their qualitative descriptions of the groups and how the groups developed over time. The sample consisted of four occupational therapy students. Results: Two students perceived their group functioning as stable over time. One student’s scores indicated an increase in group functioning over time, whereas one student’s showed a decrease. The interview statements showed varying degrees of connectedness with the SP items. Conclusions: Descriptions of stability and change corresponded very well with the students’ SP trajectories, indicating content validity of the assessment as a whole.
Zohar, Dov; Tenne-Gazit, Orly
In order to test the social mechanisms through which organizational climate emerges, this article introduces a model that combines transformational leadership and social interaction as antecedents of climate strength (i.e., the degree of within-unit agreement about climate perceptions). Despite their longstanding status as primary variables, both antecedents have received limited empirical research. The sample consisted of 45 platoons of infantry soldiers from 5 different brigades, using safety climate as the exemplar. Results indicate a partially mediated model between transformational leadership and climate strength, with density of group communication network as the mediating variable. In addition, the results showed independent effects for group centralization of the communication and friendship networks, which exerted incremental effects on climate strength over transformational leadership. Whereas centralization of the communication network was found to be negatively related to climate strength, centralization of the friendship network was positively related to it. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Koski, Jessica E; Collins, Jessica A; Olson, Ingrid R
Social status is a salient cue that shapes our perceptions of other people and ultimately guides our social interactions. Despite the pervasive influence of status on social behavior, how information about the status of others is represented in the brain remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that social status information is embedded in our neural representations of other individuals. Participants learned to associate faces with names, job titles that varied in associated status, and explicit markers of reputational status (star ratings). Trained stimuli were presented in an functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment where participants performed a target detection task orthogonal to the variable of interest. A network of face-selective brain regions extending from the occipital lobe to the orbitofrontal cortex was localized and served as regions of interest. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we found that face-selective voxels in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex - a region involved in social and nonsocial valuation, could decode faces based on their status. Similar effects were observed with two different status manipulations - one based on stored semantic knowledge (e.g., different careers) and one based on learned reputation (e.g., star ranking). These data suggest that a face-selective region of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex may contribute to the perception of social status, potentially underlying the preferential attention and favorable biases humans display toward high-status individuals. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shin, Eun-Seop; Chung, Sung-Chang; Kim, Young-Ku; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kho, Hong-Seop
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between oral Candida carriage and the secretor status of blood group antigens. Unstimulated whole saliva and oral rinse samples were obtained from 180 healthy subjects. These samples were plated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine oral Candida carriage. Sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were performed on whole saliva samples to determine the secretor status of blood group antigens. The oral Candida carriage rate was found to be 45.0%. The sensitivity of the concentrated rinse culture proved to be superior. Oral Candida carriage was not significantly related to the blood group or secretor status of ABH or Lewis antigens. No significant relationship was found between oral Candida carriage and salivary flow rate. However, smoking affected oral Candida carriage. Oral Candida carriage in healthy individuals is not significantly related to blood group or secretor status.
Sánchez-García, Sergio; Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen
To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as "Edentulous" (15.2%), "Class 1 = Unfavorable" (13.7%), "Class 2 = Somewhat favorable" (10.4%), and "Class 3 = Favorable" (60.7%). Using "Class 3 = Favorable" as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico.
Stelter, Reinhard; Ryom, Knud
-educated coaches and began in September 2013. All boys from 6th to 9th grade were offered group coaching on a regular basis as part of their school education. The intervention will finish in June 2015. The ambition was to provide a reflective and collaborative space where the whole group helped to support each......-year intervention for migrant boys (6th to 9th graders) at a lower secondary school in Copenhagen with 80+% of pupils having a non-Danish ethnic background. Besides coaching the boys had the opportunity to play soccer in a cooperative and mastery-oriented climate, organized by a local sports club. Group coaching...... other in this process. The focus of the intervention was on identity, on cultural, social and school issues, and on personal development. Qualitative interviews were conducted with ten 7th grade boys and complemented by observations. The (preliminary) results indicate a polarization of the boys...
Hawley, Patricia H.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Mize, Jennifer A.; McNamara, Kelly A.
Several lines of theory and research suggest that power (e.g., social dominance) and status (e.g., social prominence and positive peer regard) are enjoyed by those blessed with good looks. The present work addresses the relations among physical attractiveness, power, status, and aggression from a resource control theoretic perspective that…
Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah
The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…
Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the quality of life of the elderly people, as also the available support system, in rural areas? Objectives:i To determine the demographic profile of elderly ii To assess the socio-economic, nutritional, health, morbidity and dependency status, and health care utilization. Study Design: Population based cross sectional study. Setting: Community Development Block - Lakhanmajra Participants: Persons above the age of 65 years. Sample Size: 809 elderly above the age of 65 years. Study Variables: Demographic profile, Literacy, Occupation, Health, Nutrition, Mobility, Dependency, Substance abuse, Support system. Statistical Analysis: By simple proportions. Result: In this study, majority ofthe elderly were self reliant and mobile, being an asset to the family and led socially useful and productive lives. Their predominant problems were visual impairment, joint pains, respiratory diseases and hearing impairment. Joint family and government pension was the major support system to the elderly. However, there is an imperative need to organize education, training and special service programmes for the elderly at the village level.
Kodatt, Stephanie A; Shenk, Jared E; Williams, Mark L; Horvath, Keith J
Technology-delivered interventions addressing a broad range of problems for which clients present for therapy are proliferating. However, little is known of leadership dynamics that emerge in online group interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the types of leadership qualities that would emerge in an online social support group intervention to improve medication adherence for men with HIV, and to characterize the demographic and psychosocial profiles of leaders. Written posts ( n =616) from 66 men were coded using an adapted version of the Full Range Model of Leadership. Results showed that 10% ( n =64) of posts reflected one of five leadership types, the most common of which was mentoring/providing feedback (40% of leadership posts). The next most common leadership style were instances in which encouragement was offered (30% of leadership posts). Leaders appeared to have lived with HIV longer and have higher Internet knowledge scores than non-leaders. Results indicate that online group interventions potentially may be useful to supplement traditional face-to-face treatment by providing an additional venue for group members to mentor and provide emotional support to each other. However, additional research is needed to more fully understand leadership qualities and group dynamics in other online group intervention settings.
Li, Jie; Zhang, Xin-An; Sun, Gong
Chinese consumers are interested in status consumption, i.e., in striving to enhance their social standings through the consumption of luxury products. This study investigates how face consciousness, one's social self-esteem, and desire to be respected influences status consumption behavior in China. The Consciousness of Social Face Scale, the Social Value Scale, and the Status Consumption Scale were administered to 192 MBA students from a university in east China (117 men, 69 women, 6 unreported sex). The results revealed that face consciousness was positively related to Chinese consumers' status consumption. Moreover, the results showed that the effects of face consciousness on status consumption were partly mediated by consumer social value. The findings highlight the importance of face consciousness in understanding Chinese consumer behaviors.
Eyssel, Friederike; Kuchenbrandt, Dieta
Previous work on social categorization has shown that people often use cues such as a person's gender, age, or ethnicity to categorize and form impressions of others. The present research investigated effects of social category membership on the evaluation of humanoid robots. More specifically, participants rated a humanoid robot that either belonged to their in-group or to a national out-group with regard to anthropomorphism (e.g., mind attribution, warmth), psychological closeness, contact intentions, and design. We predicted that participants would show an in-group bias towards the robot that ostensibly belonged to their in-group--as indicated by its name and location of production. In line with our hypotheses, participants not only rated the in-group robot more favourably--importantly, they also anthropomorphized it more strongly than the out-group robot. Our findings thus document that people even apply social categorization processes and subsequent differential social evaluations to robots. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Vonderheid, Susan C; Carrie, S Klima; Norr, Kathleen F; Grady, Mary Alice; Westdahl, Claire M
Centering Pregnancy, an innovative group model of prenatal care, shows promise to reduce persistent adverse maternal-infant outcomes and contain costs. Because this innovation requires systemwide change, clinics reported needing support enrolling women into groups and obtaining organizational buy-in. This study used the 3-step social marketing communication strategy to help clinic staff identify key customers and customer-specific barriers to adopting or supporting Centering Pregnancy. They developed targeted information to reduce barriers and built skills in communicating with different customers through role-playing. Findings provide practical information for others to use this communication strategy to improve implementation of Centering Pregnancy.
Manstead, Antony S R
Drawing on recent research on the psychology of social class, I argue that the material conditions in which people grow up and live have a lasting impact on their personal and social identities and that this influences both the way they think and feel about their social environment and key aspects of their social behaviour. Relative to middle-class counterparts, lower/working-class individuals are less likely to define themselves in terms of their socioeconomic status and are more likely to have interdependent self-concepts; they are also more inclined to explain social events in situational terms, as a result of having a lower sense of personal control. Working-class people score higher on measures of empathy and are more likely to help others in distress. The widely held view that working-class individuals are more prejudiced towards immigrants and ethnic minorities is shown to be a function of economic threat, in that highly educated people also express prejudice towards these groups when the latter are described as highly educated and therefore pose an economic threat. The fact that middle-class norms of independence prevail in universities and prestigious workplaces makes working-class people less likely to apply for positions in such institutions, less likely to be selected and less likely to stay if selected. In other words, social class differences in identity, cognition, feelings, and behaviour make it less likely that working-class individuals can benefit from educational and occupational opportunities to improve their material circumstances. This means that redistributive policies are needed to break the cycle of deprivation that limits opportunities and threatens social cohesion. © 2018 The Author. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Richman, Aliza D
Disadvantaged social statuses, such as being female, poor, or a minority, are associated with increased psychosocial stress and elevated circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, a biomarker of chronic inflammation and indicator of cardiovascular health. Individuals' experience of embodying psychosocial stress revolves around the multiplicative effects of concurrent gender, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic identities. This study expands on prior research by examining chronic inflammation at the intersection of race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age group to understand which demographic subgroups in society are most vulnerable to the cumulative effects of social disadvantage. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, the findings reveal inflammation disparities between non-poor whites and the following demographic subgroups, net of sociodemographic and biological factors: young poor Hispanic women, young poor white men, young poor and non-poor Hispanic men, middle-aged poor and non-poor black women, middle-aged poor and non-poor black men, and middle-aged poor Hispanic men. Disparities in inflammation on account of social disadvantage are most evident among those aged 45-64 years and diminish for those 65 and older in both men and women.
Hoberg, Astrid A; Ponto, Julie; Nelson, Pamela J; Frye, Mark A
To evaluate the feasibility of 2-week interpersonal and social rhythm therapy group (IPSRT-G) for bipolar depression. Participants with bipolar depression received two individual sessions, six IPSRT-G sessions, and a 12-week telephone call. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rated (IDS-C), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) were used. IDS-C and SDS scores improved significantly at 12 weeks. YMRS and CGI-BP scores improved but did not reach statistical significance. The promising antidepressive response supports further study of IPSRT-G for bipolar depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Whitcomb Brian W
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Internet sources that use the Social Security Administration's (SSA Death Master File have demonstrated high sensitivity among males for detection of mortality status in comparisons to the National Death Index, but the sensitivity has not been investigated for other demographic groups. Methods The authors used the SSA Death Master File to determine the mortality status of 374 decedents from the ongoing Patient Outcomes Study at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center whose deaths were confirmed by physicians using hospital records. Results Decedents identified by the SSA Death Master File were significantly older than those not identified. Foreign-born decedents were significantly less likely to be identified as dead than American-born decedents. Gender and marital status were not significant factors for identification by the SSA Death Master File. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that Internet sources may be used as an inexpensive and effective tool for determination of mortality status. However, among certain populations use of these databases alone may provide incomplete information.
This book investigates how collaborative scientific practice yields scientific knowledge. At a time when most of today’s scientific knowledge is created in research groups, the author reconsiders the social character of science to address the question of whether collaboratively created knowledge should be considered as collective achievement, and if so, in which sense. Combining philosophical analysis with qualitative empirical inquiry, this book provides a comparative case study of mono- and interdisciplinary research groups, offering insight into the day-to-day practice of scientists. The book includes field observations and interviews with scientists to present an empirically-grounded perspective on much-debated questions concerning research groups’ division of labor, relations of epistemic dependence and trust.
Isabel Cristina BENTO
Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether what users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, think about a healthy diet and the challenges they face to eat healthy are associated with their household food security status. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,656 users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Socioeconomic and household food security data, and healthy-eating discourses were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were submitted to descriptive analyses for constructing frequency distribution tables, and to univariate analysis. Discourse analysis was based on the social representation theory. Results: To cut, reduce, avoid, not eat, eat less, and decrease carbohydrates, salt, meats, various beverages, and other foods are the most frequent changes (71.4% that food-secure users have made or intend to make. Food-insecure users intended to eat more fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and other foods (34.4%. The main obstacles food-secure and food-insecure users face to adopt a healthier diet are lack of time (82.9% and low income (53.5%, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: What users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte think about food and the obstacles they face to adopt a healthier diet are related to their household food security status. The results provide valuable data for effective proposals of food and nutrition education, which should act on the producers of subjectivity in this group and consider this group's food and nutrition security status.
Cecilia Chau Pérez-Aranibar
Full Text Available The associations between coping styles, measured by COPE Test, dispositional version (Carver,Scheier and Weintraub, 1989, and Health Status inferred through a performance status, measured by Karnofsky's Index of Behavioral Performance are examined. The study focuses upon 28 oncological in patients. Positive moderate Pearson's correlations were found between these two variables in this correlational-descriptive study. These were interpreted in the following sense: the larger use of the style, the less health status among the scales suppression of competent activities, procrastination of coping, instrumental social support, focusing and releasing of emotions and behavioral disengagement. The active coping scale presented a negative correlationwith regard to Performance Status as a health measure.
Sengupta, Nikhil K; Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G
The status-legitimacy hypothesis, which predicts that low-status groups will legitimize inequality more than high-status groups, has received inconsistent empirical support. To resolve this inconsistency, we hypothesized that low-status groups would display enhanced legitimation only when evaluating the fairness of the specific hierarchy responsible for their disadvantage. In a New Zealand-based probability sample (N = 6,162), we found that low-status ethnic groups (Asians and Pacific Islanders) perceived ethnic-group relations to be fairer than the high-status group (Europeans). However, these groups did not justify the overall political system more than the high-status group. In fact, Māori showed the least support for the political system. These findings clarify when the controversial status-legitimacy effects predicted by System Justification Theory will - and will not - emerge. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior. The survey selects 190 men and 160 women from a city of NajafAbad located in province of Esfahan, Iran and a questionnaire consists of 35 questions are distributed among them. The survey uses Chi-Square statistics to examine the effects of three mentioned factors and the results indicate that internet addiction is more among singles than married (Chi-Square=19.94. The survey also indicates that internet addition is more on men than women do (Chi-Square=6.64. However, our survey does not find any evidence to believe job employment has any impact on internet addiction.
Alarcón, Ana M; Muñoz, Sergio; Kaufman, Jay S; Martínez, Carlos; Riedemann, Pablo; Kaliski, Sonia
The aim of this study was to estimate the contributions of ethnic group and socioeconomic status as social determinants related to disability and disease activity in Chilean Mapuche and non-Mapuche patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a stratified hospital-based sample of 189 patients in treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. We assessed disability as categorical variable with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, disease activity with the Disease Activity Score instrument, and socioeconomic status with a standard questionnaire used by the Chilean government. Measures of association, stratified analyses and a multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the data using the Stata 12.1 software package. Low socioeconomic status (annual income below US$ 7,200) is associated with disability (OR 3.87 CI 1.68-9.20) and Mapuche ethnic identity also contributes to disability (OR 2.48, CI 1.09-5.89). Relevant but not statistically significant in multivariable models were variables such as age, gender and place of residence. RA patients with a low socioeconomic status have almost three times the odds of having a moderate to high disability, independent of their ethnic group, gender or place of residence. Therefore, healthcare efforts should be aimed at promoting early diagnosis and prompt treatment among populations with high levels of poverty, which in the region of the Araucanía means primarily indigenous rural areas.
N. V. Vashrova
In some cases, the former social-ethnic identification was weakened or completely lost, while in others it was reinforced or even arose for the first time. A relationship has been found between the type of identification with the reference groups, as well as the way of their use, on the one hand, and the degree of social adaptation of migrants, on the other. As a result, several trends have been identified. First, the situation of dynamic social progress due to the reliance on identification associated with the reference groups in Ukraine at the stage of initial adaptation. Second, the tendency towards disintegration with American society and narrowing the chances of social mobility, due to the closure of the social-cultural patterns of Ukrainian society in the later stages of social adaptation. Third, the situation of simultaneous social advancement and maintaining close ties with reference groups in Ukraine due to acquiring a social status, confirmed by active participation in civil initiatives in Ukraine or Ukrainian-American projects. Fourth, the expansion of social opportunities for migrants, due to the integration of Ukrainian reference groups into a system of new ones, connected with American society.
Papaoikonomou, K.; Kipouros, S.; Kungolos, A.; Somakos, L.; Aravossis, K.; Antonopoulos, I.; Karagiannidis, A.
This paper deals with the creation of appropriate conditions aimed at developing social services for reuse and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), by the inclusion of handicapped and Roma people in the workforce. Application areas for the project are the Hellenic (Greek) regions of Thessaly and North Aegean, where these groups suffer from professional and social exclusion. The efforts to reduce unemployment in the two aforementioned groups, together with the efforts to implement related Greek and European legislation for sustainable WEEE management, are examined here. Furthermore, networking and cooperation at local, regional and central levels between small enterprises, entrepreneurships and local authorities are examined, so that these social enterprises and their corresponding investments may support the development of the Greek alternative WEEE recycling system
Cole, Duncan; Rengasamy, Emma; Batchelor, Shafqat; Pope, Charles; Riley, Stephen; Cunningham, Anne Marie
Medical curricula are increasingly using small group learning and less didactic lecture-based teaching. This creates new challenges and opportunities in how students are best supported with information technology. We explored how university-supported and external social media could support collaborative small group working on our new undergraduate medical curriculum. We made available a curation platform (Scoop.it) and a wiki within our virtual learning environment as part of year 1 Case-Based Learning, and did not discourage the use of other tools such as Facebook. We undertook student surveys to capture perceptions of the tools and information on how they were used, and employed software user metrics to explore the extent to which they were used during the year. Student groups developed a preferred way of working early in the course. Most groups used Facebook to facilitate communication within the group, and to host documents and notes. There were more barriers to using the wiki and curation platform, although some groups did make extensive use of them. Staff engagement was variable, with some tutors reviewing the content posted on the wiki and curation platform in face-to-face sessions, but not outside these times. A small number of staff posted resources and reviewed student posts on the curation platform. Optimum use of these tools depends on sufficient training of both staff and students, and an opportunity to practice using them, with ongoing support. The platforms can all support collaborative learning, and may help develop digital literacy, critical appraisal skills, and awareness of wider health issues in society.
Østergaard, Mikkel; Bird, Paul; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the status and future research priorities of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in arthritis working group. METHODS: A summary is provided of the activities of the group within rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic...
Morris, Lynnae Carol
The purpose of this research has been to determine the influence of verbal and nonverbal behavior on power and status within small groups. The interactions which took place within five small groups of students in a middle school spatial reasoning elective were analyzed. Verbal responses to requests for help were analyzed using sequential analysis techniques. Results indicated that the identity of the student asking a question or requesting help in some form or another is a better predictor of whether he/she will receive help than the type of questions he/she asks. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed for social gestures, body language, and shifts in possession of tools. Each nonverbal act was coded as either "positive" (encouraging participation) or "negative" (discouraging participation); and, the researchers found that in groups in which there was unequal participation and less "help" provided among peers (according to the verbal analysis results) there tended to be more "negative" nonverbal behavior demonstrated than in groups in which "shared talk time" and "helping behavior" were common characteristics of the norm. The combined results from the analyses of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of students within small groups were then reviewed through the conflict, power, status perspective of small group interactions in order to determine some common characteristics of high functioning (collaborative) and low functioning (non-collaborative) groups. Some common characteristics of the higher functioning groups include: few instances of conflict, shared "talk time" and decision making, inclusive leadership, frequent use of encouraging social gestures and body language, and more sharing of tools than seizing. Some shared traits among the lower functioning groups include: frequent occurrences of interpersonal conflict, a focus on process (rather than content), persuasive or alienating leadership, unequal participation and power, frequent use of discouraging social gestures
Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean
Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p employment with depression, which was fully mediated by social support, less coping with drugs/medication, and less distress. A negative association with full-time employment was also noted with distress, which was partially mediated by increased social support, coping with alcohol, and less coping with drugs/medication. The total indirect effect suggests that full-time employees generally have more resources and do not tend to use avoidance strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.
Muleta, Muluken G; Schausberger, Peter
Group-living animals frequently have to trade off the costs and benefits of leaving an established group and joining another group. Owing to their high fitness relevance, group-joining decisions are commonly nonrandom and may be based on traits of both individual members and the group such as life stage, body size, social status and group density or size, respectively. Many group-living animals are able to recognize and to associate preferentially with familiar individuals, i.e. those encountered before. Hence, after dispersing from established groups, animals commonly have to decide whether to join a new familiar or unfamiliar group. Using binary choice situations we assessed the effects of social familiarity on group-joining behaviour of the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis . Group living in P. persimilis is brought about by the patchy distribution of its spider mite prey and mutual conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, gravid predator females given a choice between spider mite patches occupied by unfamiliar and familiar groups of females strongly preferred to join familiar groups and to deposit their eggs in these patches. Preference for socially familiar groups was robust across biases of spider mite prey densities between choice options. The second experiment revealed that the predatory mite females can smell social familiarity from a distance. Females subjected to odour choice situations in artificial cages were more strongly attracted to the odour of familiar than unfamiliar groups. We argue that P. persimilis females preferentially join socially familiar groups because a familiar social environment relaxes competition and optimizes foraging and reproduction.
Muleta, Muluken G.; Schausberger, Peter
Group-living animals frequently have to trade off the costs and benefits of leaving an established group and joining another group. Owing to their high fitness relevance, group-joining decisions are commonly nonrandom and may be based on traits of both individual members and the group such as life stage, body size, social status and group density or size, respectively. Many group-living animals are able to recognize and to associate preferentially with familiar individuals, i.e. those encountered before. Hence, after dispersing from established groups, animals commonly have to decide whether to join a new familiar or unfamiliar group. Using binary choice situations we assessed the effects of social familiarity on group-joining behaviour of the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Group living in P. persimilis is brought about by the patchy distribution of its spider mite prey and mutual conspecific attraction. In the first experiment, gravid predator females given a choice between spider mite patches occupied by unfamiliar and familiar groups of females strongly preferred to join familiar groups and to deposit their eggs in these patches. Preference for socially familiar groups was robust across biases of spider mite prey densities between choice options. The second experiment revealed that the predatory mite females can smell social familiarity from a distance. Females subjected to odour choice situations in artificial cages were more strongly attracted to the odour of familiar than unfamiliar groups. We argue that P. persimilis females preferentially join socially familiar groups because a familiar social environment relaxes competition and optimizes foraging and reproduction. PMID:24027341
Pouwels, J Loes; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N
This study had three goals. First, we examined the prevalence of the participant roles of bullying in middle adolescence and possible gender differences therein. Second, we examined the behavioral and status characteristics associated with the participant roles in middle adolescence. Third, we compared two sets of criteria for assigning students to the participant roles of bullying. Participants were 1,638 adolescents (50.9% boys, M(age) = 16.38 years, SD =.80) who completed the shortened participant role questionnaire and peer nominations for peer status and behavioral characteristics. Adolescents were assigned to the participant roles according to the relative criteria of Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, Björkqvist, Österman, and Kaukiainen (1996). Next, the students in each role were divided in two subgroups based on an additional absolute criterion: the Relative Only Criterion subgroup (nominated by less than 10% of their classmates) and the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup (nominated by at least 10% of their classmates). Adolescents who bullied or reinforced or assisted bullies were highly popular and disliked and scored high on peer-valued characteristics. Adolescents who were victimized held the weakest social position in the peer group. Adolescents who defended victims were liked and prosocial, but average in popularity and peer-valued characteristics. Outsiders held a socially weak position in the peer group, but were less disliked, less aggressive, and more prosocial than victims. The behavior and status profiles of adolescents in the participant roles were more extreme for the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup than for the Relative Only Criterion subgroup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Muñoz, Caroline Lego; Wood, Natalie T.
The purpose of this research is to examine how the topic of social media has been integrated and executed within academic institutions and marketing courses. An exploratory survey of marketing educators that taught social media in their course(s) was undertaken. The survey addressed how social media was embedded within an institute's curriculum,…
Grossklags, Jens; Barradale, Nigel J.
. The method of investigation used is experimental, with 146 subjects interacting in high- or low-status assignments and the subsequent change in the demand for security and privacy being related to status assignment with a significant t-statistic up to 2.9, depending on the specification. We find that a high...
Glover, McKinley; Choy, Garry; Boland, Giles W; Saini, Sanjay; Prabhakar, Anand M
This study assesses the prevalence of use of the most commonly used social media sites among private radiology groups (PRGs) and academic radiology departments (ARDs). The 50 largest PRGs and the 50 ARDs with the highest level of funding from the National Institutes of Health were assessed for presence of a radiology-specific social media account on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, YouTube, and LinkedIn. Measures of organizational activity and end-user activity were collected, including the number of posts and followers, as appropriate; between-group comparisons were performed. PRGs adopted Facebook 12 months earlier (P = .02) and Twitter 18 months earlier (P = .02) than did ARDs. A total of 76% of PRGs maintained ≥1 account on the social media sites included in the study, compared with 28% of ARDs (P Instagram, 2%. The prevalence of radiology-specific social media accounts for ARDs was: Facebook, 18%; LinkedIn, 0%; Twitter, 24%; YouTube, 6%; Pinterest, 0%; and Instagram, 0%. There was no significant difference between ARDs and PRGs in measures of end-user or organizational activity on Facebook or Twitter. Use of social media in health care is emerging as mainstream, with PRGs being early adopters of Facebook and Twitter in comparison with ARDs. Competitive environments and institutional policies may be strong factors that influence how social media is used by radiologists at the group and department levels. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Levchuk, Georgiy; Getoor, Lise; Smith, Marc
The increasing use of online collaboration and information sharing in the last decade has resulted in explosion of criminal and anti-social activities in online communities. Detection of such behaviors are of interest to commercial enterprises who want to guard themselves from cyber criminals, and the military intelligence analysts who desire to detect and counteract cyberwars waged by adversarial states and organizations. The most challenging behaviors to detect are those involving multiple individuals who share actions and roles in the hostile activities and individually appear benign. To detect these behaviors, the theories of group behaviors and interactions must be developed. In this paper we describe our exploration of the data from collaborative social platform to categorize the behaviors of multiple individuals. We applied graph matching algorithms to explore consistent social interactions. Our research led us to a conclusion that complex collaborative behaviors can be modeled and detected using a concept of group behavior grammars, in a manner analogous to natural language processing. These grammars capture constraints on how people take on roles in virtual environments, form groups, and interact over time, providing the building blocks for scalable and accurate multi-entity interaction analysis and social behavior hypothesis testing.
Vargas-Salfate, Salvador; Paez, Dario; Liu, James H; Pratto, Felicia; Gil de Zúñiga, Homero
This study tests specific competing hypotheses from social dominance theory/realistic conflict theory (RCT) versus system justification theory about the role of social status. In particular, it examines whether system justification belief and effects are stronger among people with low socioeconomic status, and in less socially developed and unequal nations than among better-off people and countries. A cross-national survey was carried out in 19 nations from the Americas, Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Oceania using representative online samples ( N = 14,936, 50.15% women, M age = 41.61 years). At the individual level, system justification beliefs, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, national identification, sociopolitical conservatism, sex, age, and social status were measured. At the national level, the human development index and the Gini index were used. Multilevel analyses performed indicated that results fit better with the social dominance/RCT approach, as system justification was higher in high-status and developed nations; further, associations between legitimizing ideologies and system justification were stronger among high-status people.
Sekiguchi, Tomoki; Li, Jie; Hosomi, Masaki
Job crafting represents the bottom-up process of change employees make in their work boundaries and plays an important role in the management of organizational change. Following the socially embedded perspective, we examine the roles of job autonomy, social skill, and employee status in predicting job crafting. Study 1 with a sample of 509 part-time employees found that job autonomy and social skill not only directly but also interactively influenced job crafting. Study 2 with a sample of 564...
Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, Rene
Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is
Fallon, K M
In exploring the status of women in the developing world, most research emphasizes the impact of development indicators, like income or health, on women. This article goes beyond development indicators by discussing women's own perceptions of social status and power in rural Larteh, Ghana. It focuses primarily on the effects of gender and education on perception of social status and power. Section 1 offers a brief overview of the history of Ghana, reflecting the current position of women in the country. Definitions of social status and power within an African context are presented in section 2. Section 3 examines 24 interviews collected in Ghana, which asks respondents to discuss their own social status and power in relation to their community. In general, the results indicate that a woman's perception of increased social status and power is dependent on education and occupation. Other factors affecting perceptions of social status and power are wealth and culturally embedded positions held within the community, including elder, chief, and priestess.
Caetano, Silvana C; Silva, Cosme M F P; Vettore, Mario V
Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16-2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16-2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in older men, whereas low perceived social
Culumber, Zachary W; Monks, Scott
In each population of the livebearing fish Xiphophorus variatus, only a small portion of the adult males develop bright yellow-red (YR) coloration on the dorsal and caudal fins. Here we characterized the dominance hierarchy in X. variatus and tested whether YR coloration is related to a male's position in the hierarchy and can therefore serve as a reliable cue to rival males. Populations varied considerably in the frequency of YR males. Across all populations, males with YR coloration were significantly larger than the rest of the males in the population. Observations of aggressive interactions among males in small groups in the laboratory revealed a sized-based dominance hierarchy with YR males at the top. Aggression was more common among males of a similar size and fighting increased as male body size differences decreased. However, despite the reliability of YR coloration as a signal of dominance status, males at lower social ranks did not avoid aggression with YR males and YR males did not experience fewer aggressive attacks compared to non-YR males. Our findings demonstrate that fin coloration is a reliable cue of a male's social status but rival males appear to not use this information to avoid potentially costly interactions with dominant males, suggesting that YR fin coloration has not evolved as a cue in agonistic interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Social media is playing an important role human's life; people are using the social network as a place to exchange ideas and sharing information. It can be seen as a virtual community which attracts a lot of attentions of people. Furthermore, Internet users are spending a lot of time on social media network as a place to connect with the world. Especially, the impact of social network sites on young people is significant. They are more interacting with brands through social network websites. ...
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relations between multiple aspects of adolescents’ self-concept and various dimensions of their social status in the classroom and in the peer clique. It was found that there was a positive relationship (1) between physical abilities selfconcept and social preference, perceived popularity, and social dominance; (2) between physical appearance self-concept and perceived popularity and social dominance; (3) between oppositesex ...
Pool, Michelle S.; Agyemang, Charles O.; Smalbrugge, Martin
Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative
Anderson, Paul J; Bovard, Ralph S; Wang, Zhen; Beebe, Timothy J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan
Regular exercise is a key component of obesity prevention and 48% of Americans do not meet minimum guidelines for weekly exercise. Social support has been shown to help individuals start and maintain exercise programmes. We evaluated social support among endurance athletes and explored the relationship between social support for exercise, health behaviours and health status. Survey. The largest Nordic ski race in North America. 5433 past participants responded to an online questionnaire. Social support, health behaviours and health status. The mean overall support score was 32.1 (SD=16.5; possible range=-16.0 to 88.0). The most common forms of social support were verbal such as discussing exercise, invitations to exercise and celebrating the enjoyment of exercise. We found that an increase of 10 points in the social support score was associated with a 5 min increase in weekly self-reported exercise (5.02, 95% CI 3.63 to 6.41). Physical activity recommendations should incorporate the importance of participation in group activities, especially those connected to strong fitness cultures created by community and competitive events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Nelissen, R.M.A.; Meijers, M.H.C.
Drawing from costly signaling theory, we predicted that luxury consumption enhances status and produces benefits in social interactions. Across seven experiments, displays of luxury — manipulated through brand labels on clothes — elicited different kinds of preferential treatment, which even
Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Yang, Yang; Xia, Jinghua; Su, Yonggang
Nurse turnover is one of the reasons for the global nurse shortage. Although previous studies have examined the determinants of turnover intention in detail, there is limited knowledge on the effect of subjective social status on nurse turnover intention. Therefore, in this study, we examined this relationship, including job satisfaction as a mediator, among Chinese nurses. This cross-sectional study employed questionnaires to assess subjective social status, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in 581 nurses who were randomly recruited from 10 hospitals in Jinan, China. The results partially supported our model. Although subjective social status exerted no significant direct effect on turnover intention, it exerted a significant indirect effect through job satisfaction. These results provide a new insight into why nurses leave their jobs, and possible new solutions to the nurse turnover problem. Efforts should be made to improve nurses' subjective social status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Wilson, Mark E.; Fisher, Jeff; Fischer, Andrew; Lee, Vanessa; Harris, Ruth B.; Bartness, Timothy J.
Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access to diets of different caloric density. Consumption of a low fat (LFD; 15% of calories from fat) and a high fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) was quantified by means of a custom-built, automated feeder that dispensed a pellet of food when activated by a radiofrequency chip implanted subcutaneously in the animal’s wrist. Socially subordinate females showed indices of chronic psychological stress having reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback and higher frequencies of anxiety-like behavior. Twenty-four hour intakes of both the LFD and HFD were significantly greater in subordinates than dominates, an effect that persisted whether standard monkey chow (13% of calories from fat) was present or absent. Furthermore, although dominants restricted their food intake to daylight, subordinates continued to feed at night. Total caloric intake was significantly correlated with body weight change. Collectively, these results show that food intake can be reliably quantified in non-human primates living in complex social environments and suggest that socially-subordinate females consume more calories, suggesting this ethologically relevant model may help understand how psychosocial stress changes food preferences and consumption leading to obesity. PMID:18486158
Andersson, Pia; Westergren, Albert; Karlsson, Siv; Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill; Renvert, Stefan
The aims of this study were to evaluate the oral health status and nutritional status in a group of geriatric rehabilitation patients, and to analyse the relationship between these two parameters. Nurses at the ward performed structured assessments of oral and nutritional status using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide and the Subjective Global Assessment form in 223 newly admitted patients. Most oral health problems were found among patients who stayed longer at the hospital and were more dependent on help as compared with the healthier patients. Thirty-four per cent of the patients were either severely undernourished, at risk or suspected to be undernourished (UN). Oral health problems were more common among UN patients (p oral health problem was found on teeth or dentures (48%). Problems related to the tongue and lips were also common among UN patients (56 and 44%, respectively). Oral health status was correlated (r = 0.32) to nutritional status. Problems with swallowing had the strongest association to the nutritional status (OR 6.05; 95% CI 2.41-15.18). This study demonstrated that poor oral health status was related to undernourishment.
Full Text Available This experiment tested to what extent identification with a new merger group is determined by the status of that merger group and by the relative representation of the pre-merger ingroup. One hundred university students were assigned to a team of 'inductive' thinkers, and were later merged with a team of 'deductive' thinkers to form a team of 'analyst' thinkers. The status of the merger group (low, high and the relative representation of the ingroup into the novel merger group (low, high were manipulated. Participants identified more with the merger group in the high than in the low status condition, and they identified more in the high than in the low representation condition. The predicted interaction between relative representation and merger status was not significant. However, relative representation did interact with participants' pre-merger identification: Pre- and post-merger identification were positively related when the ingroup was highly represented, but 'negatively' when the ingroup was lowly represented.
Liu, Ying; Li, Zhiwu; Walker, Mary P
To assess the overall dentition status of American adults, to investigate disparities and changes in dentition using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 and to study the effects of family poverty status, education, citizenship and language on dentition after adjusting for other demographics. Descriptive statistics were used to explore and summarise dentition status. The prevalence of dentition markers over two surveys were compared using tests of proportions and a series of regressions were used to estimate the strength of association of family poverty status, education, citizenship and language with the four markers of dentition status. Overall, dentition status has improved in adults. However, gaps exist in that non-Hispanic Black and Mexican-Americans have a higher prevalence of dental decay and lower restoration rates than other races. After adjusting for selected demographics, adults with less education (still exist among adults in the USA. The results also indicate that to improve overall oral health and close the existing gaps in oral health, increased access to dental care would be needed for people who have low incomes and low levels of education. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.
Kutlu, Ayşe; Gökçe, Gökçen; Büyükburgaz, Ülkü; Selekler, Macit; KOMŞUOğLU, Sezer
The increased risk for psychiatric disorders in epilepsy can be related to a number of clinical, psychosocial and biological factors. Due to the unpredictability of seizures and the possibility that they may occur at any time and in any place, patients with epilepsy may develop social phobia and may have feelings of worthlessness and stigma. These factors decrease their psychosocial function, self-efficacy, and quality of life and even increase the suicide rate. Considering the above-mentioned scientific data, the present study was designed to investigate phobia, self-esteem and depression status in patients with epilepsy. One hundred thirty-two patients (aged 21-52 years) and age- and gender-matched control group of 61 subjects (aged 25-60 years) were included in this study. All patients in both groups were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean ages of the patient group and the healthy controls were 29.66±11.3 and 32.16±7.99, respectively. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in terms of age and sex (p>0.05). BDI, LSAS and CSEI scores in the patient group were statistically significantly different than in the control group (pself-esteem and depression are important comorbid conditions in epileptic patients. Psychiatric disorders are usually underrecognized and undertreated in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, it is very important to identify and treat the psychiatric comorbid conditions in epilepsy because of their significant burden on patients' quality of life.
Anyan, Jeff J; Seney, Marianne L; Holley, Amanda; Bengston, Lynn; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G; Holmes, Melissa M
We previously reported that in a eusocial rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), traditional neural sex differences were absent; instead, neural dimorphisms were associated with breeding status. Here we examined the same neural regions previously studied in naked mole-rats in a second eusocial species, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Damaraland mole-rats live in social groups with breeding restricted to a small number of animals. However, colony sizes are much smaller in Damaraland mole-rats than in naked mole-rats and there is consequently less reproductive skew. In this sense, Damaraland mole-rats may be considered intermediate in social organization between naked mole-rats and more traditional laboratory rodents. We report that, as in naked mole-rats, breeding Damaraland mole-rats have larger volumes of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus than do subordinates, with no effect of sex on these measures. Thus, these structures may play special roles in breeders of eusocial species. However, in contrast to what was seen in naked mole-rats, we also found sex differences in Damaraland mole-rats: volume of the medial amygdala and motoneuron number in Onuf's nucleus were both greater in males than in females, with no significant effect of breeding status. Thus, both sex and breeding status influence neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats. These findings are in accord with the observed sex differences in body weight and genitalia in Damaraland but not naked mole-rats. We hypothesize that the increased sexual dimorphism in Damaraland mole-rats relative to naked mole-rats is related to reduced reproductive skew. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lee, Kirsty S; Brittain, Heather; Vaillancourt, Tracy
We investigated the longitudinal associations between self-reported aggression, self-perceived social status, and dating in adolescence using an intrasexual competition theoretical framework. Participants consisted of 536 students in Grade 9 (age 15), recruited from a community sample, who were assessed on a yearly basis until they were in Grade 11 (age 17). Adolescents self-reported their use of direct and indirect aggression, social status, and number of dating partners. A cross-lagged panel model that controlled for within-time covariance and across-time stability while examining cross-lagged pathways was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that direct aggression did not predict dating behavior and was negatively associated with self-perceived social status in Grade 10. Self-perceived social status in Grade 9 was positively associated with greater use of indirect aggression in Grade 10. Regarding dating, in Grade 9, self-perceived social status positively predicted more dating partners the following year, while in Grade 10, it was higher levels of indirect aggression that predicted greater dating activity the following year. Overall, there were no significant sex differences in the model. The study supports the utility of evolutionary psychological theory in explaining peer aggression, and suggests that although social status can increase dating opportunities, as adolescents mature, indirect aggression becomes the most successful and strategic means of competing intrasexually and gaining mating advantages. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ferguson, Aidan; Clark, James J
Research ethics provide important and necessary standards related to the conduct and dissemination of research. To better understand the current state of research ethics discourse in social work, a systematic literature search was undertaken and numbers of publications per year were compared between STEM, social science, and social work disciplines. While many professions have embraced the need for discipline-specific research ethics subfield development, social work has remained absent. Low publication numbers, compared to other disciplines, were noted for the years (2006-2016) included in the study. Social work published 16 (1%) of the 1409 articles included in the study, contributing 3 (>1%) for each of the disciplines highest producing years (2011 and 2013). Comparatively, psychology produced 75 (5%) articles, psychiatry produced 64 (5%) articles, and nursing added 50 (4%) articles. The STEM disciplines contributed 956 (68%) articles between 2006 and 2016, while social science produced 453 (32%) articles. Examination of the results is provided in an extended discussion of several misconceptions about research ethics that may be found in the social work profession. Implications and future directions are provided, focusing on the need for increased engagement, education, research, and support for a new subfield of social work research ethics.
Toporkova, Olga; Glebova, Ekaterina; Vysotskaia, Inna V.; Tikhaeva, Victoria V.
Background/Objectives: The main objective of the article is to study, analyze and organize the modern German experience in the sphere of social pedagogical and educational work with socially unprotected adults, including youth and the elderly. The retrospective analysis threw light on the background of work with socially unprotected adults in…
Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi
This study was conducted to assess occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group. A test of occupational stress in different gender, age, work duration, educational level and marital status group, was carried out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) for 4278 participants. The results of gender show that there are heavier occupational role, stronger interpersonal and physical strain in male than that in female, and the differences are statistically significant (P 0.05). The occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups. Different measure should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability of different groups.
This dissertation investigated the conditions under which the individual upward mobility of mem-bers of low status groups is likely to succeed and when it is likely to meet resistance. In addition, it examines how upwardly mobile individuals can create such beneficial conditions. The results
Iverach, Lisa; Rapee, Ronald M
Anxiety is one of the most widely observed and extensively studied psychological concomitants of stuttering. Research conducted prior to the turn of the century produced evidence of heightened anxiety in people who stutter, yet findings were inconsistent and ambiguous. Failure to detect a clear and systematic relationship between anxiety and stuttering was attributed to methodological flaws, including use of small sample sizes and unidimensional measures of anxiety. More recent research, however, has generated far less equivocal findings when using social anxiety questionnaires and psychiatric diagnostic assessments in larger samples of people who stutter. In particular, a growing body of research has demonstrated an alarmingly high rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent and chronic anxiety disorder characterised by significant fear of humiliation, embarrassment, and negative evaluation in social or performance-based situations. In light of the debilitating nature of social anxiety disorder, and the impact of stuttering on quality of life and personal functioning, collaboration between speech pathologists and psychologists is required to develop and implement comprehensive assessment and treatment programmes for social anxiety among people who stutter. This comprehensive approach has the potential to improve quality of life and engagement in everyday activities for people who stutter. Determining the prevalence of social anxiety disorder among children and adolescents who stutter is a critical line of future research. Further studies are also required to confirm the efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in treating social anxiety disorder in stuttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the nature and course of social anxiety disorder; (b) outline previous research regarding anxiety and stuttering, including features of social anxiety disorder; (c) summarise research findings regarding the
Tsujimoto, Hiromi; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of female elderly participants of a group exercise organized by the participants themselves and the changes in their physical, mental, and social health, and life function. Findings of this study will be used for promoting effective preventive care. The subjects whose characteristics were analyzed were 394 participants and 757 nonparticipants of the group exercise. Those whose changes in health were analyzed were 52 participants and 114 nonparticipants. Locomotion Check and self-rated health score were used as indices of physical health. World Health Organization-Five well-being (S-WHO-5-J) index and self-rated life satisfaction level were used as indices of mental health. Satisfaction level of social activities was one of indices of social health. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence was used as an index of life function. The health-examination data analyzed were Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and HbA1c level. In the participant group, the proportions of those who lived alone, who were affluent, and who had no job were higher than those in the nonparticipant group. The indices of physical, mental and social health and life function were higher in the participant group. There was no significant difference in the 5-year trend of health-examination data between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the yearly change in the indices of physical health and life function. The S-WHO-5-J index, self-rated life satisfaction level, and satisfaction level of social activities were maintained or improved in the participant group. The results suggest the possible usefulness of the group exercise for maintaining the mental and social health of elderly women.
Demakakos, Panayotes; Biddulph, Jane P; de Oliveira, Cesar; Tsakos, Georgios; Marmot, Michael G
Self-perceptions of own social position are potentially a key aspect of socioeconomic inequalities in health, but their association with mortality remains poorly understood. We examined whether subjective social status (SSS), a measure of the self-perceived element of social position, was associated with mortality and its role in the associations between objective socioeconomic position (SEP) measures and mortality. We used Cox regression to model the associations between SSS, objective SEP measures and mortality in a sample of 9972 people aged ≥ 50 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing over a 10-year follow-up (2002-2013). Our findings indicate that SSS was associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer and other mortality. A unit decrease in the 10-point continuous SSS measure increased by 24 and 8% the mortality risk of people aged 50-64 and ≥ 65 years, respectively, after adjustment for age, sex and marital status. The respective estimates for cardiovascular mortality were 36 and 11%. Adjustment for all covariates fully explained the association between SSS and cancer mortality, and partially the remaining associations. In people aged 50-64 years, SSS mediated to a varying extent the associations between objective SEP measures and all-cause mortality. In people aged ≥ 65 years, SSS mediated to a lesser extent these associations, and to some extent was associated with mortality independent of objective SEP measures. Nevertheless, in both age groups, wealth partially explained the association between SSS and mortality. In conclusion, SSS is a strong predictor of mortality at older ages, but its role in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality appears to be complex.
Williamson, Timothy J.; Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Kuhn, Taylor P.; Thames, April D.
Objective Historically marginalized groups are likely to be exposed to social adversity, which predicts important mental health outcomes (e.g., depression). Despite the well-established relationship between adversity and poor health, few studies have examined how adversity differentially predicts mental health among people living with multiple, co-occurring marginalized identities or statuses. The current study fills this gap by examining whether relationships between social adversity and depressive symptoms differed between those living with or without a stigmatized disease (i.e., HIV) and/or marginalized racial/ethnic identity (i.e., African American). Method A community sample of men and women (n = 149) completed questionnaires assessing demographics and depressive symptoms. Additionally, a composite index of social adversity was derived from measures of perceived discrimination, socioeconomic status, financial restriction to receiving medical care, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Multiple regression was used to test whether relationships between adversity and depressive symptoms differed as a function of HIV-status and racial/ethnic identity. Results A significant three-way interaction between social adversity, HIV-status, and racial/ethnic identity indicated that there was a direct relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms for HIV-positive (HIV+) African Americans but not for HIV-negative (HIV-) African Americans, HIV+ Caucasians, or HIV- Caucasians. Further, HIV+ African Americans evidenced a significantly greater relationship between adversity and depressive symptoms, as compared to HIV- African Americans but not as compared to other groups. Conclusions The findings suggest that HIV+ African Americans may be at risk for higher depressive symptoms amidst adversity, highlighting the importance of evaluating intersectional identities/statuses in the context of mental health. PMID:27929330
Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter
Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.
Wong, Jaclyn S; Hsieh, Ning
Health limitations can change older adults' social relationships and social engagement. Yet, researchers rarely examine how the disability of one's spouse might affect one's social relationships, even though such life strains are often experienced as a couple. This study investigates the association between functional and cognitive limitations and social experience in a dyadic context. We use actor-partner interdependence models to analyze the partner data from 953 heterosexual couples in Wave II (2010-2011) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. One spouse's functional and cognitive health is associated with the other's relationship quality, but the pattern varies by gender. Husbands' functional limitations are associated with lower marital support and higher marital strain in wives, but wives' functional limitations are related to lower family and friendship strain in husbands. Husbands' cognitive impairment also predicts higher family and friend support in wives. Findings support a gendered dyadic relationship between health and social life and highlight women's caregiver role and better connection with family and friends. There are also differences between experiencing cognitive and physical limitations in couples. Finally, mild health impairment sometimes shows stronger effects on social relationships than severe impairment, suggesting adaptation to health transition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Scott, Kate M; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura H; Borges, Guilherme; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Fiestas, Fabian; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Lim, Carmen C W; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Williams, David R; Zakhozha, Victoria; Kessler, Ronald C
The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures, such as educational level, income, and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture the perception of relative social status, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders. To estimate associations of SSS with DSM-IV mental disorders in multiple countries and to investigate whether the associations persist after comprehensive adjustment of OSS. Face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of community-dwelling adults in 18 countries in Asia, South Pacific, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East (N=56,085). Subjective social status was assessed with a self-anchoring scale reflecting respondent evaluations of their place in the social hierarchies of their countries in terms of income, educational level, and occupation. Scores on the 1 to 10 SSS scale were categorized into 4 categories: low (scores 1-3), low-mid (scores 4-5), high-mid (scores 6-7), and high (scores 8-10). Objective social status was assessed with a wide range of fine-grained objective indicators of income, educational level, and occupation. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed the 12-month prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. The weighted mean survey response rate was 75.2% (range, 55.1%-97.2%). Graded inverse associations were found between SSS and all 16 mental disorders. Gross odds ratios (lowest vs highest SSS categories) in the range of 1.8 to 9.0 were attenuated but remained significant for all 16 disorders (odds ratio, 1.4-4.9) after adjusting for OSS indicators. This pattern of inverse association between SSS and mental disorders was significant in 14 of 18 individual countries, and in low-, middle-, and high
Lee, Hyunjoo; Park, Sojung; Kwon, Eunsun; Cho, Joonyoung
This study explored heterogeneous change patterns of South Korean older adults' depressive symptoms by poverty status, focusing on health status and social engagement changes. We used data from four waves (2006-2012) of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). Our sample contained 2461 poor and 1668 non-poor individuals. All were 65 years old or older at baseline. We used latent class growth analysis to identify trajectory groups' depressive symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine how a range of changes in health conditions and social engagement was associated with trajectories among poor and non-poor participants. Among the poor, five heterogeneous trajectories with clear patterns were identified: high-to-moderate, stable-high, slightly-increasing, steeply-increasing, and stable-low. Among non-poor, high-to-moderate, steeply-increasing, and stable-low groups were found. A decrease in health conditions was the most vulnerable subgroup's (steeply-increasing) primary risk factor. Poor older adults who reduced participation in, or decreased contact with, social networks were likely to belong to the steeply-increasing group. Our study provides impetus for organizational and/or environmental support systems to facilitate social engagement among poor older adults. Future research should examine whether the significance of social engagement among poor elders applies in less-developed and developed countries.
Thompson, R Bruce; Thornton, Bill
This study explored mental state reasoning within the context of group effort and possible differences in development between boys and girls. Preschool children (59 girls, 47 boys) were assessed for theory of mind (ToM) ability using classic false belief tests. Children participated in group effort conditions that alternated from one condition, where individual effort was transparent and obvious, to one where individual effort remained anonymous. The aim was to investigate if emergent mental state reasoning, after controlling for age, was associated with the well-known phenomenon of reduced effort in group tasks ("social loafing"). Girls had slightly higher ToM scores and social loafing than boys. Hierarchical regression, controlling for age, indicated that understanding of others' false beliefs uniquely predicted social loafing and interacted weakly with gender status.
Kyung Won Lee
Full Text Available Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA; dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.
Ellemers, N.; Kortekaas, P.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.
The aim of this study is to show that, when examining social identification, it is both possible and important to distinguish between self-categorisation, commitment to the group, and group self-esteem, as related but separate aspects of group members' social identity. This was demonstrated in an
Chung, Jae Eun
An increasing number of online support groups (OSGs) have embraced the features of social networking. So far, little is known about how patients use and benefit from these features. By implementing the uses-and-gratifications framework, the author conducted an online survey with current users of OSGs to examine associations among motivation, use of specific features of OSG, and support outcomes. Findings suggest that OSG users make selective use of varied features depending on their needs, and that perceptions of receiving emotional and informational support are associated more with the use of some features than others. For example, those with strong motivation for social interaction use diverse features of OSG and make one-to-one connections with other users by friending. In contrast, those with strong motivation for information seeking limit their use primarily to discussion boards. Results also show that online social networking features, such as friending and sharing of personal stories on blogs, are helpful in satisfying the need for emotional support. The present study sheds light on online social networking features in the context of health-related OSGs and provides practical lessons on how to improve the capacity of OSGs to serve the needs of their users.
In previous literature, social capital has been hypothesized as a substitute for other forms of capital, such as physical and human capital. This paper contributes to this literature, studying the association between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community organizations and their children's nutritional status at 1 and 5 years. Using the Peruvian sample of the Young...
The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…
This is a conceptual exploration of the work of some
eminent social scientists thought to be amenable to agent-based
modelling of social reality. Kemper’s status-power theory and
Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture are the central
theories. The article reviews empirical work on
Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…
Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de
This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct
Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.
This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct
Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Baker, Courtney N.; Paskewich, Brooke S.; Leff, Stephen S.
While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of…
Aghajani, Marjan; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Najafabadi, Mohsen Khalili; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moradi, Fatemeh; Golchoobian, Ravieh; Askari, Hasan; Sanadgol, Nima; Moghaddam, Ehsan Kazemi
We aimed to show that the immune system is sensitive to the detrimental effects of inequality and social injustice, and splenic vulnerability to apoptosis may also increase. In order of better determination of immune responses to chronic social stress, we implemented food deprivation, food intake inequality, and unstable social status (a change of cage-mate every 3 days) for a period of 14 days in 60 male Balb/c mice. At the end of this stress period, nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal adherent cells and the serum concentration of corticosterone were measured. Moreover, the viability of peritoneal adherent cells and spleen lymphocytes was evaluated by MTT assay. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was done to reveal the TUNEL-reactive apoptotic bodies in the spleen. Our results showed that food deprivation and inequality caused significant changes in the apoptosis of splenic cells in comparison with the control group (p social status did not cause a further increase in the viability of lymphocytes and peritoneal adherent cells, or NO production in animals that were food-deprived or experienced inequality. Serum concentration of corticosterone in all experimental groups, except for animals that experienced unstable social status only, significantly decreased versus the control group (p poverty and social inequality, but not unstable social status, affect immune responses and are likely involved in the induction of splenic apoptosis in mice. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel
to their membership in a particular (1) location-based (2) work-related or (3) leisure-oriented community. It finds that communication within social media communities whose members consider their ties as weak generally tended to be more news-centred. Even more significant was perceived control over privacy......Social media platforms are an increasingly dominant medium through which people encounter news in everyday life. Yet while we know more-and-more about frequency of use and sharing, content preferences and network configurations around news use on social media, the social experiences associated...... with such practices remain relatively unexplored. This paper addresses this gap to consider if and how news facilitates conversations in everyday contexts where social media play a communicative role. It investigates how people engage with current affairs collectively in different social formations...
The students took courses in natural language processing, data mining in various multi-media data sets, text retrieval, text summarization and... mining in social media including: we performed work, on (a) diffusion in social networks, (b) influence maximization in signed social networks, (c...Learning, Information Retrieval, Data Mining and Database. There are 8,293 messages. Our method outperformed state of the art methods based on content
Martinescu, Gabriela; Gavăt, Viorica
Evaluation of medical and biological status of the study group; analyzing the nutritional status and the way of eating by food investigation; and evaluation of the knowledge about eating behavior and the role of physical activity in health. The study was conducted from 2010-2011 on a sample of 375 patients aged 18-74, patients within a family medicine cabinet in our town. The questionnaire included demographic data (age, education, social, financial situation, the belonging religious) and questions about nutrition on food groups and questions about rational knowledge about nutrition, eating behavior and the role of physical activity. In the study group by gender distribution was 225 women (60%) and 150 men (40%) with a ratio F/M = 1.5/1 Evaluation of the nutritional status and somatometric exam revealed the following issues: 105 cases (28%) with, 103 cases (27.46%), 52 cases (13.86%) 72 (19.2%) and 43 cases (11.46%). Most patients were overweight normo and 27.46% respectively 28% and is followed by those with grade II obesity (19.2%), obesity grade I (13.86%) and final grade III obesity (11.46%).The food investigation on food groups showed no significant differences between the two years of study configuring same eating behavior. Metabolic and nutritional diseases became increasingly aggressive in recent decades and obesity is a widespread disease in the population with a multifactorial etiology and with a chronic evolution. The family doctor been in the forefront of the health system can contribute to increasing the quality of life that heis monitoring the implementation of educational programs related to food and eating behavior.
Nordahl, Henrik; Wells, Adrian
Psychological health has a profound effect on personal and occupational functioning with Social Anxiety Symptoms in particular having a major effect on ability to work. Recent initiatives have focused on treating psychological illness with cognitive-behavioural models with a view to increasing return to work. However, the psychological correlates of work status amongst individuals with elevated mental health symptoms such as social anxiety are under-explored. This study reports a test of unique predictors of work status drawing on variables that have been given centre stage in cognitive-behavioural models and in the metacognitive model of psychological disorder. The sample consisted of high socially anxious individuals who reported to be working (n = 102) or receiving disability benefits (n = 102). A comparison of these groups showed that those out of work and receiving benefits had greater symptom severity, higher avoidance and use of safety behaviours, greater self-consciousness, and elevated negative metacognitive beliefs and beliefs about the need to control thoughts. However, when the covariance's between these variables were controlled, only negative metacognitive beliefs significantly predicted out-of-work status. Our finding might be important because CBT does not focus on metacognitive beliefs, but targets components that in our analysis had no unique predictive value for work status.
Chen, Bai Qi Peggy; Parmar, Monica P; Gartshore, Kimberley
Despite early detection of breast cancer and the progress of treatment modalities, metastasis-specific symptoms continue to impact women's functional status and daily living. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of altered functional status and social roles of women with advanced breast cancer. Using qualitative descriptive methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status attending a tertiary care cancer centre. Results illustrated the adaptive experience of women living with their illness as they reshaped their social roles to fit with their altered functional status and advanced disease. These findings highlight the opportunity for supportive care nursing interventions to facilitate the behavioural and cognitive transitions that are experienced by women with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status. These results may have implications for women with other advanced chronic diseases, though more research is required.
Pattiselanno, Kim; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Vollebergh, Wilma; Veenstra, René
Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is rather unknown. This study examined to what extent the relationship of individual social status (i.e., perceived popularity) with aggression and prosocial behavior depends on the level of internal clique hierarchy. The sample consists of 2674 adolescents (49.8% boys), with a mean age of 14.02. We focused specifically on physical and relational aggression, and practical and emotional support, because these behaviors have shown to be of great importance for social relationships and social standing among adolescents. The internal status hierarchy of cliques was based on the variation in individual social status between clique members (i.e., clique hierarchization) and the structure of status scores within a clique (pyramid shape, inverted pyramid, or equal distribution of social status scores) (i.e., clique status structure). The results showed that differences in aggressive and prosocial behaviors were particularly moderated by clique status structure: aggression was stronger related to individual social status in (girls') cliques where the clique status structure reflected an inverted pyramid with relatively more high status adolescents within the clique than low status peers, and prosocial behavior showed a significant relationship with individual social status, again predominantly in inverted pyramid structured (boys' and girls') cliques. Furthermore, these effects differed by types of gender cliques: the associations were found in same gender but not mixed-gender cliques. The findings stress the importance of taking into account internal clique characteristics when studying adolescent social status in relationship to aggression and prosociality.
Galkin, R A; Hechtt, I A; Larionov, Iu K; Pavlov, V V
Recently married elderly people change attitude to hospital treatment and living in asylums; they prefer care rendered at home and hospital-substituting forms of care; hospitalization and ambulance care are less needed and permanent social workers are required less. All this promotes rational utilization of the potentialities of therapeutic institutions and saving of public health and social protection resources.
Weinstein, Daniel; Launay, Jacques; Pearce, Eiluned; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Stewart, Lauren
Over our evolutionary history, humans have faced the problem of how to create and maintain social bonds in progressively larger groups compared to those of our primate ancestors. Evidence from historical and anthropological records suggests that group music-making might act as a mechanism by which this large-scale social bonding could occur. While previous research has shown effects of music making on social bonds in small group contexts, the question of whether this effect ‘scales up’ to larger groups is particularly important when considering the potential role of music for large-scale social bonding. The current study recruited individuals from a community choir that met in both small (n = 20 – 80) and large (a ‘megachoir’ combining individuals from the smaller subchoirs n = 232) group contexts. Participants gave self-report measures (via a survey) of social bonding and had pain threshold measurements taken (as a proxy for endorphin release) before and after 90 minutes of singing. Results showed that feelings of inclusion, connectivity, positive affect, and measures of endorphin release all increased across singing rehearsals and that the influence of group singing was comparable for pain thresholds in the large versus small group context. Levels of social closeness were found to be greater at pre- and post-levels for the small choir condition. However, the large choir condition experienced a greater change in social closeness as compared to the small condition. The finding that singing together fosters social closeness – even in large contexts where individuals are not known to each other – is consistent with evolutionary accounts that emphasize the role of music in social bonding, particularly in the context of creating larger cohesive groups than other primates are able to manage. PMID:27158219
Sweifach, Jay Stephen
This article presents the results of a content analysis of MSW group work course syllabi in an effort to better understand the extent to which mutual aid and group conflict, two important dimensions of social group work, are included and featured as prominent elements in MSW-level group work instruction.
Full Text Available Of late, issues of social inequality have assumed a new political centrality in many western societies. However, in much discussion of these issues, sociological approaches to the analysis of social inequality have been disregarded, especially in the work of economists and epidemiologists. The main features of the sociological approach are the emphasis given to inequality in a relational rather than a merely attributional sense, and to the distinction between social class and social status as two qualitatively different forms of social stratifi cation. Two cases serve to illustrate the limitations and dangers that result from neglecting the conceptual and empirical work undertaken by sociologists: the study of intergenerational social mobility by economists and the study of the consequences of social inequality for health and related social problems by epidemiologists.
Bast, L S; Nordahl, H; Christensen, L B; Holstein, B E
Regular tooth brushing in adolescence predicts stable tooth brushing habits later in life. Differences in tooth brushing habits by ethnic background and socioeconomic position have been suggested. We investigated migration status and social class in relation to infrequent tooth brushing both separately and combined. The study population was 11-15 year-olds chosen from a clustered random sample of schools. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses estimated the separate and combined effects of migration status and social class on less than twice daily tooth brushing. 10,607 respondents: a response rate of 88.3%. Boys of lower social class had higher odds ratio (OR) of infrequent tooth brushing than girls: 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.41) vs 1.80 (1.53-2.24). Immigrants and descendants had higher odds compared to adolescents of Danish origin: immigrant boys OR 1.39 (1.05-1.89), girls OR 1.92 (1.47-2.50); descendant boys OR 2.53 (1.97-3.27), girls OR 2.56 (2.02-3.35). Analyses of the combined effect of social class and migration status showed that the social gradient in tooth brushing habits observed among ethnic Danes cannot be found among groups of immigrants and descendants. The study shows that both non-Danish origin and low social class increases the risk of infrequent tooth brushing among school-aged children. The study calls for in depth analyses of the processes which influence young people's tooth brushing habits. Further, there is a need to strengthen the promotion of appropriate tooth brushing habits of minority and low social class youths.
Diep, Judy; Fagnano, Maria; Tremblay, Paul; Halterman, Jill S
Subjective social status (SSS) is a person's perception of his/her social standing among others. We explored the relationship between caregivers' SSS and asthma symptoms, visits, and medication use among children with persistent asthma. We analyzed baseline data of children (3-10 years) from the SB-TEAM trial in Rochester, NY. Using a modified MacArthur Scale of SSS, caregivers rated themselves "a lot worse off" to "a lot better off" compared to 4 groups (e.g., neighbors). "Low SSS" was defined by a response of "a lot worse off" or "somewhat worse off" for any of the referent groups. Caregivers reported their child's asthma symptoms, healthcare visits for asthma, and medication use. Bivariate and multivariate statistics were used. We found that, of the 230 children enrolled (participation rate:78%, 62% Black, 72% Medicaid), 29% of caregivers had low SSS. Caregivers with low SSS had more depressive symptoms (46% vs. 28%) and lower social support (69.1 vs. 77.7). In multivariable analyses, children of caregivers with low SSS had fewer symptom-free days/2 weeks (5.8 vs. 7.9, p = .01). While they were more likely to have a routine asthma visit in the past year (35% vs. 23%, adjusted p = .03), there was no difference in their use of preventive medication. Many caregivers of children with persistent asthma report low SSS. While children of these caregivers had fewer symptom-free days, they were not more likely to use preventive medications. Efforts are needed to support these caregivers to ensure optimal preventive care and reduce morbidity.
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…
Vyas, Dhaval; Cui, Yanqing; Ojala, Jarno; Grassel, Guido; Nijholt, Antinus; Romão, Teresa; Reidsma, Dennis
User-generated content plays a pivotal role in the current social media. The main focus, however, has been on the explicitly generated user content such as photos, videos and status updates on different social networking sites. In this paper, we explore the potential of implicitly generated user
Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro
Japanese society is more egalitarian than the United States as is reflected by the lower degree of prevalence of social inequalities in health. We examined whether subjective socioeconomic status is associated with different trajectories of self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relationship differs between the United States and Japan. We analyzed the responses of 3968 Americans from the survey Midlife in the United States, 2004-06, and the responses of 989 Japanese from the survey Midlife in Japan, 2008. We conducted a multilevel analysis with three self-ratings of health (10 years ago, current and 10 years in the future) nested within individuals and nested within 10 levels of subjective social status. Age, sex, educational level and subjective financial situation were adjusted. After making statistical adjustments for confounding variables, respondents in Japan continued to report lower average levels of health. However, the rate of expected decline in SRH over the next decade was strongly socially patterned in the United States, whereas it was not in Japan. The Japanese showed no disparity in the anticipated trajectory of SRH over time, whereas the Americans showed a strong social class gradient in future trajectories of SRH. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Reitzel, Lorraine R; Kendzor, Darla E; Cao, Yumei; Businelle, Michael S
Smoking prevalence is alarmingly high among the homeless. Few studies have focused on predictors of smoking abstinence in this population. Subjective social status, a person's ranking of their own social standing relative to others in the United States or in their own self-defined communities, has predicted smoking cessation among domiciled smokers in analyses adjusted for objective socioeconomic status and other demographic variables. This study examined if subjective social status predicted quit-day abstinence among homeless smokers making a quit attempt. Longitudinal study using self-reported survey data. Transitional homeless shelter in Dallas, Texas. A total of 57 homeless smokers enrolled in a cessation program. Predictors were the Subjective Social Status-U.S (SSS-U.S.) and the Subjective Social Status-Community (SSS-Community) ladders measured 1 week pre quit. Covariates were sociodemographics and tobacco dependence measured 1 week pre quit. The outcome was self-reported and biochemically verified smoking abstinence on the quit day. Analysis . Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models. Higher rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder, but not the SSS-Community ladder, predicted abstinence on the quit day (p = .005). Lower rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder predicted increased risk of relapse on the quit day or the inability to quit at all. The SSS-U.S. ladder might be useful in identifying homeless smokers needing additional preparation and intervention before initiating a quit attempt.
Euteneuer, Frank; Mills, Paul J; Rief, Winfried; Ziegler, Michael G; Dimsdale, Joel E
Several poor health outcomes, including cardiovascular risk, have been associated with both subjective social status (SSS) and sympathetic overactivity. Because prolonged sympathetic overactivation down regulates beta adrenergic receptor (β-AR) function, reduced β-AR responsiveness is considered an indicator of sympathetic overactivity and a cardiovascular risk factor. Though prior research has focused on objective social status and β-AR function, no studies have examined the association between SSS and β-AR function. We aimed to learn whether SSS predicts the in vivo responsiveness of β-ARs. We assessed the chronotropic 25 dose (CD25), an in vivo marker of β-AR responsiveness, in 94 healthy participants. The MacArthur scales of subjective social status were used to assess SSS in the U.S.A. (SSS-USA) and in the local community (SSS-C). Objective social status was analyzed by calculating the Hollingshead two-factor index. β-AR responsiveness was reduced (as indicated by higher CD25 values) in participants with lower SSS-USA (p = .007) and lower SSS-C (p social status. Our results indicate that β-AR function may be an important component of the link between SSS and health.
Liu, Jia Jia; Wei, Ya Bin; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina
Telomeres have been reported to be shorter in individuals exposed to psychosocial stress and in those with depression. Since negative environmental stress is a risk factor for depression, the present study tested whether stressors in childhood (CA) and recent adulthood (NLE) predicted telomere attrition directly and/or indirectly through individuals' depressive status 3-6 years before TL measurement; and then if social interaction and coping strategies in adulthood influenced the relationship between depressive status and TL. Participants were 337 individuals with a recent depression diagnosis and 574 screened controls that derived from a longitudinal population-based cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden. Relative TL was determined using qPCR. Relationships between the key variables stressors, depressive status, social interaction, coping strategies and TL were explored by path analysis in males and females, adjusting for age. The key variables were correlated in expected directions. In females, depressive status and age had direct negative effects on TL (p social interaction (p = 0.005) and the coping strategy worry (p = 0.005). In females, no mediation effect of social interaction and coping strategy was detected. Only little of the TL variation was explained by the models. The environmental stress information was limited. Our findings propose gender-specific paths from environmental stressors through depressive status, social interaction and coping strategy to TL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leaf, Justin B.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan B.
Deficits in social skills are a common problem for children with autism. One method of developing appropriate social skills in children with autism has been group instruction. To date, however, group instruction has produced mixed results. The purpose of this article is to describe a promising method of teaching social skills to children in small…
Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana
To supplement research on adolescent social identities, the current study examined how social identity complexity relates to ethnic inter-group attitudes in a young adolescent sample (N = 97; "age range" = 12-14 years). Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap of groups with which youth align themselves. Descriptive…
Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D
Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first
Handler, Joel F.
During the last two decades, there has been a great increase in the use of litigation by social reform groups. This activity has been stimulated by the hospitality of the courts to the demands of social reform groups and the availability of subsidized young, activist lawyers. The paper examines the uses of the legal system by social reform groups…
in the pedagogical work. This article challenges the implicit understanding that social work is the primary source of identity transformation and that peer group interaction is mainly an obstacle to overcome. On the contrary, this article argues that learning about the social dynamics of the children's group...... is a precondition for understanding how social work influences individual children. © The Author(s), 2009....
Wagner, Cheryl L.; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E.
Recent research suggests that community-based collaboration may build social capital—defined as trust, norms of reciprocity, and networks. Social capital may improve a group’s ability to collaborate, manage risk, innovate, and adapt to change. We used mail surveys of group participants and key informant interviews to assess whether the following collaborative group characteristics affected social capital built within 10 collaborative groups in northwest Colorado: perceived success, conflict, activeness, stakeholder diversity, previous collaboration experience, similar values and beliefs, group size, group age, and initial social capital. Perceived success and initial levels of social capital were the strongest predictors of current levels of and changes in social capital over time. Collaboration experience negatively influenced current levels of trust. Our results suggest that collaborative groups may need to consider the outcomes of collaborative interactions in order to build social capital.
Olmsted, Murrey; Underhill, Christina
.... The two computer conditions included one in which participants could see and hear each other (computer-mediated) and another in which barriers and noise-canceling headphones blocked such access to social cues...
Lestari, V. S.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Abdullah, A.
Social capital plays an important role in the development of beef cattle farms in South Sulawesi. The aim of this research was to know the social capital of beef cattle farmers in South Sulawesi. Population of this research was 31 beef cattle farmers. Variable of social capital was mutual trust, norms and linkage. The data were collected from observation and depth interview by using questionnaire. There were 10 questions which were adopted from Australian Center for International Agriculture Research. The answer was scored by using Likert scale ranging from 1 refer to strongly disagree; 2 refer to disagree; 3 refer to not sure; 4 refer to agree and 5 refer to strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively by using frequency distribution. The research revealed that the social capital of beef cattle farmers was categorized as “high”.
M. Ursu; P. Stollenmayer; D. Williams; P. Torres; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); N. Farber; E. Geelhoed
htmlabstractThis article introduces the Vconect project. Vconect (Video Communications for Networked Communities) is a collaborative European research and development project dealing with high-quality enriched video as a medium for mass communication within social communities. The technical
Full Text Available A large body of research has been conducted both on the social stratification of education at the general level and on the educational attainments of ethnic minority groups in the UK. The former has established the increasing fluidity in the class–education association, without paying much attention to ethnicity, whilst the latter has shown reinvigorated aspirations by the second generation without fine-grained analyses. This paper adds to this literature by examining the relationship between family class, ethno-generational status and educational attainment for various 1st, 1.5, 2nd, 2.5, 3rd and 4th generations in contemporary UK society. Using data from Understanding Society, we study the educational attainment of different ethno-generational groups. Our analysis shows high educational selectivity among the earlier generations, a disruptive process for the 1.5 generation, high second-generation achievement, and a ‘convergence toward the mean’ for later generations. Parental class generally operates in a similar way for the ethno-generational groups and for the majority population, yet some minority ethnic groups of salariat origins do not benefit from parental advantages as easily. An ‘elite, middle and lower’ structure manifests itself in the intergenerational transmission of advantage in educational attainment. This paper thus reveals new features of class-ethno relations hitherto unavailable in UK research.
Md Monoarul Haque
Full Text Available Background: Reproductive health is closely related with nutritional status of a country. Women are regarded as the nerve centers of the families and society, maternal nutrition and health is considered as the most important regulator of human fetal growth. Objective: This study was conducted with a view to assess the nutritional status of settler and indigenous women of reproductive age group (15--49 years in Khagrachari district. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done in the purposively selected Panchari thana of Khagrachari district in Bangladesh from 01 May to 31 August 2013. A total of 200 reproductive aged women were interviewed. Among them 100 were indigenous and 100 were settlers. Their anthropometric measurements were taken and nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI recommended by World Health Organization (WHO for Asian people. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 29.8 ± 11.1 years and maximum were in the age group of 15--24 years. Among the indigenous subjects Chakma, Marma, Tripura and Boisnu were 20.5%, 20.5%, 6.5% and 2.5% respectively. Among 100 indigenous reproductive aged women 17 were underweight; but among settlers 19 were underweight. Forty nine settler women were normal and in case of indigenous women 46 were normal. But regarding overweight indigenous women went ahead than settler women and obesity was found equal in both groups. Mean difference of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC was significantly different (p<0.005 between the groups. Conclusion: This study provided a vivid picture of the nutritional status of the settler and indigenous reproductive aged women.
Hohmeyer, O.; Ottinger, R.L.
The social or external costs of energy have received a high degree of internatinal attention since the publication of the first empirical results in 1988. Possible global climate change and the call for a sustainable future of mankind have put the question of social costs onto the agenda of many national and international converences like the 'Earth Summit' in Rio 1992. A scientific discussion has been sparked off, searching for the best methodoligical approaches and reliable empirical data. An overview of this discussion was given by the report on the 1st international workshop published in 1991. This book reports on the 2nd international workshop on the subject and gives a broad overview of the discussion in the 25 papers presented. It is the most comprehensive picture of this subject matter avvailable. (orig.)
manipulated space at both small and large scales, from footwear to city planning, to convey social sta- tus (Hodder, 1987; Bourdieu , 1989; Margolies, 2003...posit that associ- ations between abstract concepts and physical percepts develop in response to everyday experiences (e.g., Hebb, 1949; Bourdieu ...The United States Capitol building was intentionally placed atop Jenkin’s Hill, described by the original architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant as a
Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian
Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006
Cardel, MI; Johnson, SL; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, AD; Tomczik, AC; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, DM; Muller, K; Piff, PK; Peters, JC; Hill, JO; Allison, DB
Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19–25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30 kg/m2). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of ‘privilege’ depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status
Cardel, M I; Johnson, S L; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, A D; Tomczik, A C; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, D M; Muller, K; Piff, P K; Peters, J C; Hill, J O; Allison, D B
Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and
Inouye, Keika; Pedrazzani, Elisete Silva
To describe the profile of a sample of octogenarians (n=80) attended at the municipal health network of a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil; evaluate their perception regarding quality of life dimensions (QoL); identify correlations between socio economic status, education level and QoL. It is an exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative analysis of data. The results revealed that this population is predominantly female, widowed, illiterate, sedentary and poor, who need health services and leisure opportunities, and whose main support is religion. The socio economic status did not interfere in the QoL perception, though, higher education and participation in physical activities result in higher satisfaction.
Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females ( N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders' problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions.
Lee, Hedwig; Turney, Kristin
A growing body of evidence suggests that experiences with discrimination have implications for mental health and that these associations may vary by social status. We use data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) to examine how two types of perceived discrimination, chronic everyday discrimination and major lifetime discrimination, are linked to mental health, and how this association varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that everyday d...
Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related...
Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio
What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.
Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio
What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.
Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S
The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.
Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe
The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…
Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Goston, Janaína Lavalli; César, Cibele Comini; Xavier, César Coelho; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Diez Roux, Ana V; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and investigate its association with contextual characteristics of the social and physical environment in different socioeconomic statuses, using a household survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (2008-2009). Leisure-time physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; and the social and physical environment by scales arising from perception of neighborhood attributes. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each socioeconomic status stratum. The overall prevalence of leisure-time physical activity was 30.2%, being 20.2% amongst participants of low socioeconomic status, 25.4% in the medium and 40.6% in the high socioeconomic status group. A greater perception of social cohesion was associated with increased leisure-time physical activity only amongst participants of the lowest socioeconomic status even after adjusting for individual characteristics. The results demonstrate the importance of social cohesion for the promotion of leisure-time physical activity in economically disadvantaged groups, supporting the need to stimulate interventions for enhancing social relationships in this population.
Full Text Available The social state crisis encouraged a reductionist tendency which had recently developed in the evaluations of the health status in the social assurance system. A holistic, psycho-medical approach, which took in consideration the implications of the social factors regarding disability, was confronted with a strictly medical model, in which the illness is exclusively considered a person’s problem; therefore, the references towards the „social” are irrelevant. In this context, the present paper states the question of the legitimacy of using some sociological concepts, in medical expertise, considered relevant in this area, such as: „occupational access” or the „social functioning of the person”. The present study doesn’t stop at offering as arguments of legitimacy the authority of some recommendations regarding the use of the social-medical model, including the evaluation of the health status, recommendations received from the behalf of OMS and the European Council (see CIF. The paper presents the construction of specific evaluation instruments and tries to identify the sense in which using the references regarding the „social” could influence the pressures in the social assurance system.
Watanabe, Kumi; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Chen, Wencan; Wu, Bailiang; Ito, Sumio; Okumura, Rika; Anme, Tokie
Previous studies have shown that social relationships positively contribute to the functioning of older adults. However, the particular aspects of social relationships that are most predictive remain unknown. Consequently, the current study aimed to clarify what elements of social relationships impacted the maintenance of functioning among older adults. The present study used baseline data collected in 2011, and follow-up surveys were carried out 3 years later. Participants included individuals aged 65 years or older who lived in a suburban community in Japan. A total of 434 participants met inclusion criteria for the study and were included in analysis. The Index of Social Interaction measure consists of five subscales (independence, social curiosity, interaction, participation and feeling of safety), and was used to assess the multiple elements of social relationships. After controlling for age, sex, disease status and mobility in 2011, the results showed that the social curiosity subscale was significantly associated with functional status after 3 years (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.63). Other Index of Social Interaction subscales were non-significant. The current study suggests that interaction with environment and multifaceted social relationships have the strongest impact on functional ability for older adults in Japan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1522-1526. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
You, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Pu; Lü, Linyuan; Yeung, Chi Ho
Participation in social groups are important but the collective behaviors of human as a group are difficult to analyze due to the difficulties to quantify ordinary social relation, group membership, and to collect a comprehensive dataset. Such difficulties can be circumvented by analyzing online social networks. In this paper, we analyze a comprehensive dataset released from Tencent QQ, an instant messenger with the highest market share in China. Specifically, we analyze three derivative networks involving groups and their members-the hypergraph of groups, the network of groups and the user network-to reveal social interactions at microscopic and mesoscopic level. Our results uncover interesting behaviors on the growth of user groups, the interactions between groups, and their relationship with member age and gender. These findings lead to insights which are difficult to obtain in social networks based on personal contacts.
Wilson, Nathan J; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L
People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived experiences of a supported social group. Data were analysed using descriptive phenomenology. Two themes emerged (i) supported engagement fosters wellbeing, and (ii) developing social belonging and connectedness. Participants not only acknowledged the support that they needed to participate, but also that the social group had changed their lives in many ways. Adults with intellectual disability want to socialise, have friends and be part of their community. For this to be achieved, they recognise the need to seek some form of support. With appropriate and targeted support, adults with intellectual disability can move from social exclusion towards supported inclusion and experience richer lives. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios
The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital
Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W.
This study examined a multicultural group experience on students' ("N"= 94) ethnic identity development and social-cognitive maturity. Although no differences were identified between treatment and comparison group participants, group therapeutic factors scores were predictive of ethnic identity development and social-cognitive…
Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven
Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training.…
Poteat, V Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L; Green, Harold D
Using the framework of social dominance theory, the current investigation tested for the contextual effects of adolescent peer groups on individuals' homophobic and social dominance attitudes. Results from multilevel models indicated that significant differences existed across peer groups on homophobic attitudes. In addition, these differences were accounted for on the basis of the hierarchy-enhancing or -attenuating climate of the group. A group socialization effect on individuals' social dominance attitudes over time was also observed. Furthermore, the social climate of the peer group moderated the stability of individuals' social dominance attitudes. Findings support the need to examine more proximal and informal group affiliations and earlier developmental periods in efforts to build more comprehensive theoretical models explaining when and how prejudiced and dominance attitudes are formed and the way in which they are perpetuated. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Morgan, Carissa J; Croney, Candace C
Nonhuman animal welfare is an increasingly important component of consumer expectations of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The extent to which prominent animal welfare or protection organizations may influence people's perceptions of food industry CSR may be related to an organization's perceived social responsibility. Data from an online survey of 300 U.S. residents were used to explore relationships between demographics/lifestyle choices and perceptions of prominent animal welfare organizations (using best-worst scaling methodology). Overall, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was perceived to be the most socially responsible organization analyzed, followed by the Humane Society of the United States and the American Humane Association (AHA). Results suggest that the perceived social responsibility of animal protection organizations in this study was not strongly linked to personally (financially) supporting them, with 2 exceptions: the perceptions of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and AHA. Improved understanding of the perception of animal welfare or protection organizations can inform decision making by organizations interested in furthering animal welfare causes.
Malloy, Thomas E; Albright, Linda; Diaz-Loving, Rolando; Dong, Qi; Lee, Yueh Ting
The social context hypothesis states that people behave differently in different social groups because group norms and context-specific interpersonal relationships uniquely affect behavior. Consequently, a person who is a member of different, nonoverlapping social groups (i. e., the members of different groups are unacquainted) should be judged consensually on personality traits within each group; however, between groups there should be less agreement in judgments. This research focused on cultural moderation of the social context effect in two collective cultures (China and Mexico) with different norms for interpersonal relationships. Among Chinese, there was greater consensus in trait judgments within groups than between groups, whereas in Mexico, agreement within and between groups was equivalent. Culturally based relationship norms that affect cross-context consistency of behavior and, in turn, the consistency of trait judgments across groups were described.
Jacobson, Lisa A; Schneider, Heather; Mahone, E Mark
Discriminative utility of performance measures of inhibitory control was examined in preschool children with and without ADHD to determine whether performance measures added to diagnostic prediction and to prediction of informant-rated day-to-day executive function. Children ages 4-5 years (N = 105, 61% boys; 54 ADHD, medication-naïve) were assessed using performance measures (Auditory Continuous Performance Test for Preschoolers-Commission errors, Conflicting Motor Response Test, NEPSY Statue) and caregiver (parent, teacher) ratings of inhibition (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version). Performance measures and parent and teacher reports of inhibitory control significantly and uniquely predicted ADHD group status; however, performance measures did not add to prediction of group status beyond parent reports. Performance measures did significantly predict classroom inhibitory control (teacher ratings), over and above parent reports of inhibitory control. Performance measures of inhibitory control may be adequate predictors of ADHD status and good predictors of young children's classroom inhibitory control, demonstrating utility as components of clinical assessments. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim final rules with...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.
Spink, K S
The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between members' perceptions of group cohesion and starting status in elite volleyball teams. The results of the study revealed that the form of the cohesion-starting status relationship was moderated by the variable of success. The results for less successful teams revealed that differences did emerge between specific measures of cohesion endorsed by starters and non-starters. No such differences in cohesion emerged when the starters and non-starters on successful teams were compared. These results provide initial support for the suggestion that the most successful teams are the ones where the perceptions of cohesiveness by starters and non-starters are similar. A secondary purpose of the study was to determine whether those teams that were the most successful and similar in their members' perceptions of cohesiveness, were also the teams whose members have the most positive outcome expectancy. The results supported this prediction.
to adapt to these extreme conditions has varied dramatically from year to year. In the past, differences in personality, background, and social status have led to conflicts between individuals or cliques precipitating, in turn, an overall decline in morale, failure to accomplish work tasks, and increases in insomnia, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. A better understanding of the role of group structure and social cognition in processes of group adaptation and conflict in Antarctica would contribute towards the revision of existing screening methods, potentially leading to a reduction of group conflict and improved performance of scientific research and support activities. An improved screening protocol for the Antarctic would also have applications for other isolated environments such as scientific outposts and the proposed NASA space station. In sum, this research will (1) contribute significantly to our theoretical understanding of the role of social structure and cognition in the functioning of groups in isolation; (2) complement current work on health and adaptation in polar environments; and (3) provide for models of the formation of group structure that will aid in the development of improved procedures for assembling groups for the Antarctic and other isolated environments (e.g., space stations).
Vacková, Jitka; Veleminsky, Milos; Brabcová, Iva; Záleská, Veronika
This article discusses methods of examining subjective social status (SSS), which is based on the concept of social determinants of health described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 1998. SSS research was conducted with Cooperation from the Scientific and Technical Research (COST) program, with financial support from the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. This study is part of a project entitled the "Health and Social Status of Immigrants and Asylum Seekers in the Czech Republic" (registration number OC 10031), which was started in 2010 and concluded in May 2011. The study included 246 respondents of which: 69 (28.1%) had emigrated from Vietnam; 93 (37.8%) from the Ukraine; and 84 (34.1%) from Mongolia. In terms of qualitative strategies, 13 individual immigrants and asylum seekers were personally interviewed. This research was thus conceived as being both quantitative-qualitative, which included the use of the appropriate technical tools (i.e., questionnaires and interviews with select immigrants and asylum seekers). SSS was determined using the Pearson's chi-square test, as well as through correspondence and cluster analyzes. Sign schemes were used to detect select significant relationships in contingency tables. The minimum significance level chosen was α ≤ 0.05. When examining the SSS of select nationalities, differences were observed in the perception of subjective social status. The correspondence analysis results clearly show that Ukrainians best perceived their social status (within the selected parameters). One measure of subjectively perceived social status related to Czech language proficiency (i.e., one criterion was the comprehension of spoken Czech; e.g., whether the respondent could read or speak Czech, or how they assessed their own Czech proficiency). The SSS study clearly revealed typical links among select nationalities living in the Czech Republic, and highlighted risks related to the degree of integration (and its relationship to
Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter; Jensen, Jesper Møller
by the general self-efficacy (GES) scale. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed by computed tomography using the Agatston score (AS). Conventional clinical risk factors included sex, family history of CAD, BMI > 25, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension. Results: In 568 individuals......Aims: Understanding the determinants of social and coping inequalities in subclinical cardiovascular disease is an important prerequisite in developing and implementing preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between social factors and coping status...
The focus of this article is the comparative analysis of theseventeen major states of India, which have an intrinsic bearing on social, economic and human development. Inter-state comparison in the areas of economic well-being, health, education, human development index, status of women and social opportunities have been done. For comparing these dimensions of development, different variables like Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) per capita, poverty estimate (head count ratio), Infant mort...
Silvis, Alexander; Abaid, Nicole; Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.; Ortega, Jorge
Though characterization of, and understanding determinants of, social structure in bats is increasing, little is known about how bat social groups respond to disturbance resulting in roost loss. Given that many species of bats roost in ephemeral or transitory resources such as plants, it is clear that bat social groups can tolerate some level of roost loss. Understanding responses of bat social groups to roost loss can provide insight into social structure that have applied conservation use. Herein, we review the existing literature on the effects of disturbance on bat social groups, and present a parameterizable agent-based model that can be used to explore the relationships among roost dynamics, population dynamics, and social behavior.
Rehm, Matthias; Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth
We present an extensible framework for behavior control of social agents in a multi-agent system that has the following features. It implements a basic repertoire of socio-psychological models of behavior and interpersonal interactions that can be plugged and unplugged at will depending on the sp......We present an extensible framework for behavior control of social agents in a multi-agent system that has the following features. It implements a basic repertoire of socio-psychological models of behavior and interpersonal interactions that can be plugged and unplugged at will depending...... on the specific context of the application. This enables us to test several theories in isolation or combination to increase the transparency of the system and to investigate how the inclusion of a certain theory influences the behavior of the agents. Unlike earlier approaches, our approach is not bound...
Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel
and their associated following, sharing and discussion practices. Specifically, it studies the role of news in six focus groups consisting of people who know each other offline and simultaneously communicate regularly through private Facebook or WhatsApp groups, and who interact primarily in relation...
Jin, Yulian; Ding, Zheyuan; Fei, Ying; Jin, Wen; Liu, Hui; Chen, Zexin; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Zhaopin; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian
The purpose of this study was to examine whether social relationships were associated with sleep status in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in November 2012 at Huzhou Teachers College, China. The questionnaire involved demographic characteristics, personal lifestyle habits, social relationships and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The associations between social relationships and sleep status were analyzed by using regression models after adjustment for potential factors. Poor sleep quality was prevalent among Chinese undergraduate students. Men tended to have better sleep than women. Lower social stress, better management of stress and good social support were correlated with better sleep status, and stress or support from friends, family and classmates were all related with sleep variables. While only weak associations between number of friends and sleep were detected. The results were consistent in men and women. Educators and instructors should be aware of the importance of social relationships as well as healthy sleep in undergraduates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herzberg , Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959), however, there exists a lack of consensus of social 2 network theory and how it affects satisfaction. Most...Technology. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory . Organizational Behavior and Human...coefficients as data in counseling research. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(5), 630. Herzberg , F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The motivation to
Kroeger, K A; Schultz, Janet R; Newsom, Crighton
A social skills group intervention was developed and evaluated for young children with autism. Twenty-five 4- to 6-year-old (diagnosed) children were assigned to one of two kinds of social skills groups: the direct teaching group or the play activities group. The direct teaching group used a video-modeling format to teach play and social skills over the course of the intervention, while the play activities group engaged in unstructured play during the sessions. Groups met for 5 weeks, three times per week, 1 h each time. Data were derived and coded from videotapes of pre- and post-treatment unstructured play sessions. Findings indicated that while members of both groups increased prosocial behaviors, the direct teaching group made more gains in social skills.
Duarte, Rosa; Mainar, Alfredo; Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio
This paper examines the social factors that underlie the composition of final demand and, therefore, determine the final volume of emissions. The study throws light on the relationships between the parameters characterising Spanish households (income, urban/rural residence, local population density, head of household's level of education and social class) and their behaviour with regard to consumption and the demand for goods and services. On this basis, we determine which consumption patterns are best aligned with sustainable growth and development. Our main conclusion is that the factors analysed determine the volume of emissions for each household in terms of their correlation with income, which is the primary determinant of consumption patterns. The methodology proposed combines linear SAM models and econometric estimation of emissions elasticity with respect to spending. - Highlights: ► The methodology proposed combines linear SAM models and econometric estimation. ► Social factors determine the volume of emissions for each household. ► This is due to their correlation with income, which determine consumption patterns. ► Higher levels of spending do not entail greater household emission intensities. ► Elasticities of emissions calculated are lower than one.
Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D
We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not) was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not) was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99) or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12). In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.
Kohrt, Brandon A; Yang, Minyoung; Rai, Sauharda; Bhardwaj, Anvita; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D
Preventing involuntary conscription and voluntary recruitment of youth into armed groups are global human rights priorities. Pathways for self-reported voluntary recruitment and the impact of voluntary recruitment on mental health have received limited attention. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for voluntarily joining armed groups, as well as the association of conscription status and mental health. In Nepal, interviews were conducted with 258 former child soldiers who participated in a communist (Maoist) revolution. Eighty percent of child soldiers joined 'voluntarily'. Girls were 2.07 times as likely to join voluntarily (95% CI, 1.03-4.16, p =0.04). Among girls, 51% reported joining voluntarily because of personal connections to people who were members of the armed group, compared to 22% of boys. Other reasons included escaping difficult life situations (36%), inability to achieve other goals in life (28%), and an appealing philosophy of the armed group (32%). Poor economic conditions were more frequently endorsed among boys (22%) than girls (10%). Voluntary conscription was associated with decreased risk for PTSD among boys but not for girls. Interventions to prevent voluntary association with armed groups could benefit from attending to difficulties in daily life, identifying non-violent paths to achieve life goals, and challenging the political philosophy of armed groups. Among boys, addressing economic risk factors may prevent recruitment, and prevention efforts for girls will need to address personal connections to armed groups, as it has important implications for preventing recruitment through new methods, such as social media.
Hoelscher, Mark L; Hoffman, James J; Dawley, David
Social capital can have a positive impact on medical group performance. We forward our theory based on the integration of theories in social capital, resource advantage, and the resource-based view of the firm. Further, we suggest specific ways in which medical groups can increase their levels of social capital. First, medical groups should design or redesign the workplace so that there is ample interaction among employees. Second, employee participation within the community should be encouraged. Third, medical groups should recognize that social capital becomes ingrained in organizational culture. Therefore, medical groups should take steps to ensure a culture that supports its social capital. Fourth, hiring procedures should be designed (or redesigned) to ensure that new employees add social capital to the organization. Finally, trust must be fostered at the employee level.
Collaborative learning has much to offer but not all learners participate fully and peer groups can be exclusive. The article examines how belonging or "congruence" in learning groups is related to identities of gender, age, ethnicity and socio-economic status. A study of student experiences of collaborative learning on three different…
Curseu, Petru L.; Janssen, Steffie E. A.; Raab, Jorg
The current paper combines arguments from the social capital and group cognition literature to explain two different processes through which communication network structures and intra group conflict influence groups' cognitive complexity (GCC). We test in a sample of 44 groups the mediating role of intra group conflict in the relationship between…
Nagata, Jason M; Fiorella, Kathryn J; Salmen, Charles R; Hickey, Matthew D; Mattah, Brian; Magerenge, Richard; Milner, Erin M; Weiser, Sheri D; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among socioeconomic status, social support, and food insecurity in a rural Kenyan island community. A cross-sectional random sample of 111 female heads of households representing 583 household members were surveyed in Mfangano Island, Kenya from August to October 2010 using adaptations of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. In multiple linear regression models, less instrumental social support, defined as concrete direct ways people help others (B = -0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.45 to -0.17), and decreased ownership scale based on owning material assets (B = -2.93; 95% CI -4.99 to -0.86) were significantly associated with increased food insecurity, controlling for age, education, marital status, and household size. Social support interventions geared at group capacity and resilience may be crucial adjuncts to improve and maintain the long term food security and health of persons living in low-resource regions.
Full Text Available Background: Currently, there is a constant need to find microbial products for maintaining or even improving host microbiota balance that could be targeted to a selected consumer group. Blood group secretor status, determining the ABO status, could be used to stratify the consumer group. Objective: We have applied a validated upper intestinal tract model (TIM-1 and culturing methods to screen potential probiotic bacteria from faeces of blood secretor and non-secretor individuals. Design: Faecal samples from healthy volunteers were pooled to age- and sex-matched secretor and non-secretor pools. Faecal pools were run through separate TIM-1 simulations, and bacteria were cultivated from samples taken at different stages of simulations for characterisation. Results: Microbes in secretor pool survived the transit through TIM-1 system better than microbes of non-secretor pool, especially bifidobacteria and anaerobes were highly affected. The differences in numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli isolates after plate cultivations and further the number of distinct RAPD-genotypes was clearly lower in non-secretor pool than in secretor pool. Conclusions: In the present study, we showed that microbiota of secretor and non-secretor individuals tolerate gastrointestinal conditions differently and that a combination of gastrointestinal simulations and cultivation methods proved to be a promising tool for isolating potentially probiotic bacteria.
Spent fuel management has always been one of the important stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and it is still most vital problems common to all countries with nuclear reactors. It begins with the discharge of spent fuel from a power or a research reactor and ends with its ultimate disposition. Two options exist - an open, once-through cycle with direct disposal of the spent fuel and a closed cycle with reprocessing of the spent fuel, recycling of reprocessed plutonium and uranium in new mixed oxide fuels and disposal of the radioactive waste. Continuous attention is being given by the IAEA to the collection, analysis and exchange of information on spent fuel management. Its role in this area is to provide a forum for exchanging information and to co-ordinate and to encourage closer co-operation among Member States in certain research and development activities that are of common interest. Spent fuel management is recognized as a high priority IAEA activity. The Regular Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management was established in 1982. The objective of the Regular Advisory Group is to serve as a means of exchanging information on the current status and progress of national programmes on spent fuel management and to provide advice to the IAEA. The results of the last Regular Advisory Group meeting (9-12 September 1997) are reflected in this report. It gives an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of countries, a description of the current status and prospects of activities in this field and recommendations of the participants
Full Text Available We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p < 0.001. In this same model, social risk status was also independently associated with cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99 or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12. In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.
Acikalin, M Yavuz; Watson, Karli K; Fitzsimons, Gavan J; Platt, Michael L
Like humans, monkeys value information about sex and status, inviting the hypothesis that our susceptibility to these factors in advertising arises from shared, ancestral biological mechanisms that prioritize social information. To test this idea, we asked whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) show choice behavior that is similar to humans in response to sex and social status in advertising. Our results show that monkeys form preferences for brand logos repeatedly paired with images of macaque genitals and high status monkeys. Moreover, monkeys sustain preferences for these brand logos even though choosing them provided no tangible rewards, a finding that cannot be explained by a decision mechanism operating solely on material outcomes. Together, our results endorse the hypothesis that the power of sex and status in advertising emerges from the spontaneous engagement of shared, ancestral neural circuits that prioritize information useful for navigating the social environment. Finally, our results show that simple associative conditioning is sufficient to explain the formation of preferences for brand logos paired with sexual or status-based images.
Vitaly J. Ozira
Full Text Available This paper picked a topic - the global financial crisis- to highlight several related problems. The current crisis was not caused by failed economic policies. The root cause is failed leadership. People sometimes forget that business ethics at its core is about excellence and high attainment rather than misdeeds and malfeasance.In recent years, however, more attention has been paid to the positive side of ethics. More managers in Russia are waking up to the ways in which positive values contribute to a company's effective day-to-day functioning, as well as its reputation and long-term sustainability.Contrary to Western Europe and Scandinavia, Corporate Social Responsibility is a relatively new concept in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. Cultural gaps between Westerners and Locals have gradually been narrowing and becoming less divisive. Improved knowledge by foreign investors on how to operate successfully in a post-communist region, on "how to bridge the gap", greatly decreases the risk of the East-West joint venture.The views expressed in the paper are the author's own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting the official position paper on Corporate Governance.En este trabajo se enfoca la crisis financiera global con el fin de destacar los problemas más importantes relacionados con ésta. La presente crisis no fue provocada por causas meramente económicas. La causa fundamental radica en el liderazgo. A veces, la gente olvida que la ética de las relaciones juega un papel importante a la hora de llevar a cabo un negocio. Últimamente, no obstante, se presta más atención al aspecto positivo de la ética profesional. Un número creciente de gestores rusos emprenden el camino en el que los valores positivos conducen a un eficaz funcionamiento diario así como su prestigio y sostenibilidad a largo plazo. A diferencia de la concepción de la Europa occidental y escandinava de Responsabilidad Social Corporativa, en la
Full Text Available There is no doubt that pluralization of society and societal conditions have an impact on the modern family, its role and structure. Changes in the hierarchy of societal values and attitude of society towards family lead to significant changes in its structure and way of functioning. The image of the family consisting of father, mother and children has more often been replaced by the image of families with one parent and children. There are multiple causes of single-parent families (single parenthood such as death, divorce, abandonment of the family by one of the parents, etc. The positions and attitude of society towards single-parent families is different and it’s actually depending on the cause of their occurrence. The aim of this paper was to identify basic needs and challenges of single-parent families in Serbia. For this purpose, we have organized three focus groups with 18 single mothers (six in each focus group. The results are presented in the context of creating new policies for improving the position of single-parent families in Serbia.
Full Text Available The usefulness of group social skills training in Autism Spectrum Disorder therapy has been well established. However, little is known about the group dynamics of this kind of intervention. The current multiple case studies were conducted to demonstrate that, despite of the functioning specifics of participants with ASD, processes associated with the dynamics of the group during group social skills training session may be noticeable. Intervention groups consisted of fifteen adolescents and preadolescents with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders aged between 11 to 17 years old divided into three training groups. The social skills training sessions were conducted on a weekly basis. The observation lasted for six months and it included the formation of the group, the period of stability and unexpected changes. After each group session, the therapists filled in a detailed report about the participants’ behavior and interactions between participants. Collected data were carefully analyzed for group dynamic features. It was noticed that adolescents participating in group interventions are susceptible to the influence of the group, take different individual roles and are moderately sensitive to changes in the group structure. The influence of the disorder characteristics on group dynamics was also observed. Although the results show that group dynamics can be observed at a group training for ASD, the need for further structured observation should be emphasized as a current study constituted the first approach to the subject.
Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L
Social Marketing Theory is a comprehensive approach of program development encompassing the needs and preferences of the intended audience. It was hypothesized a Social Marketing Theory-based, registered dietitian-led, in-home, cardiovascular disease-targeted diet-education program would improve the dietary status of community-residing older women. Using a randomized control group design, this 90-day program in two North Carolina counties included 58 women (30 control; 28 intervention) ages 54 to 83 years. Data were collected using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, three 3-day food records, and program evaluations. The intervention group received two individual registered dietitian-led in-home education sessions and the control group received education material mailings (Visits 2 and 3). Pretested education materials were used. Visits/mailings were scheduled 28 to 30 days apart. Variables measured included cardiovascular disease-related dietary practices and dietary status (Mini Nutritional Assessment). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, multivariant analyses, and independent t tests. Intervention and control Mini Nutritional Assessment scores improved (P=0.0001). Intervention subjects consumed more fiber than control (P=0.013) and reduced sodium intake (P=0.02). Controls reduced energy (P=0.01) and cholesterol intakes (P=0.029), likely because of the decreased food intake. The majority (n=51, 87.9%) rated the program as good to excellent and almost all (n=55, 94.8%) would recommend the program to a friend. The most popular features of the program were the individualized sessions (n=20, 34.5%) and diet analyses (n=11, 19%). These results suggest that cardiovascular disease diet-education materials utilizing Social Marketing Theory principles can lead to improved dietary status among community-residing older women.
Kim, Kay W; Wallander, Jan L; Peskin, Melissa; Cuccaro, Paula; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A
We examined (1) the relationship that parental objective social status (OSS) and subjective social status (SSS) have with children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL), (2) whether SSS mediates the association between OSS and HRQOL, and (3) whether these associations differ among Black, Latino, and White children. Data came from 4,824 Black, Latino, and White 5th graders in the Healthy PassagesTM study. OSS was measured as parent educational attainment and net equivalent household income. SSS was measured by parent rating of community and national standing on the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status. Child HRQOL was measured with child report on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) physical and psychosocial scales. Structural equation modeling path analysis was conducted using Mplus version 7.4. The data supported the hypothesized measurement and structural models. Whereas parental OSS was positively related to psychosocial HRQOL for all three racial/ethnic groups and to physical HRQOL for Latino children, parental SSS was not related to either for any of the racial/ethnic groups. Therefore, mediation by SSS was not supported for any group. OSS was confirmed to have stronger association with children's HRQOL than parental SSS. This is in contrast to some research on adults, raising the questions of how best to assess SSS relevant to children and at what point in development SSS may influence children's health and well-being. The persistent relationship found between parental OSS and child health suggests that efforts to improve low socioeconomic resources in families may contribute to improve children's health.
A B Chernykh
Full Text Available The authors consider issues of organizational management in terms of improving its economic efficiency and interpret personnel risks as potential losses or threats to the economic activities of enterprise. The article focuses on a special group of risks associated with individual characteristics and interpersonal interaction, i. e. social activities of team members within the group. As a rule, organizations use methods of socio-psychological diagnostics at the first step of candidates’ selection to create such an organizational structure that takes into account professional and personal characteristics and competencies of candidates as well as their predisposition to a certain type of activities. The authors consider the problem of candidates’ acceptance or rejection of a certain type of corporate culture prevailing in the enterprise, and at the same time team’s acceptance or rejection of candidates with certain cultural preferences. The second application for social-psychological research techniques, important for management practices, is keeping up the team active state and increasing its effectiveness through its human potential realization. The article presents the results of the study of groups with low social status focusing on their members’ individual characteristics. The authors propose methods to work with team members and groups as a whole that can stabilize social systems and develop techniques for managing personnel risks.
Daly, Richard F.
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…
Lu, Aitao; Zhang, Honghong; He, Guanghui; Zheng, Dongping; Hodges, Bert H
Two experiments were carried out to investigate whether social status encoded in Chinese honorifics has metaphorical effects on up-down spatial orientation. In Experiment 1, participants judged whether a word was an elevating or denigrating term immediately prior to judging whether an arrow was pointing up or down. Arrow orientation was identified faster when its direction was congruent with the perceived social status of the preceding honorific (e.g., elevating word and up arrow). In Experiment 2, participants identified the letter p or q after judging whether honorifics were elevating or denigrating terms. Letters were identified faster when placed at the top of the screen following elevating terms, and faster at the bottom following denigrating terms. These results suggest that the mere activation of social status differences by honorific terms orients attention toward schema-congruent space. Social status appears to have pragmatic effects, not only for lexical decision-making, but also in where Chinese speakers are most likely to look.
Levent, Faruk; Taçgin, Zeynep
The teachers have a substantial role for students through consciously the Internet usage and struggle with cyberbullying. The purpose of this study is to investigate cyberbullying tendency and multidimensional perceived social support status of the teacher candidates. The participants of this research have become 412 teacher candidates as…
Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer
The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…
The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants
Krokavcova, Martina; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.
Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate whether different levels of perceived social support are associated with different levels of perceived health status in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: Two hundred and seven MS patients (38.4 +/- 10.6 years, 66.2% female) completed
Budge, Stephanie L.; Adelson, Jill L.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine facilitative and avoidant coping as mediators between distress and transition status, social support, and loss. Method: A total of 351 transgender individuals (n = 226 transgender women and n = 125 transgender men) participated in this study. Participants completed measures on transgender…
Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod
The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…
Conclusion: This study confirmed that bad marital status is associated with higher odds of social dysfunction among patients with schizophrenia living in the community. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders.
Goldweber, A.; Cauffman, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N=86, age 15-24years), our study is the first
Ha, P.T.; Overbeek, G.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The present study examined to what extent adolescent dating desire is based on attractiveness and social status of a potential short-term partner. Further, we tested whether self-perceived mate value moderated the relationship between dating desire and attractiveness of a potential partner. Data
Zheng, Quan; Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier
Real-world social networks contain relationships of multiple different types, but this richness is often ignored in graph-theoretic modelling. We show how two recently developed spectral embedding techniques, for directed graphs (relationships are asymmetric) and for signed graphs (relationships...... are both positive and negative), can be combined. This combination is particularly appropriate for intelligence, terrorism, and law enforcement applications. We illustrate by applying the novel embedding technique to datasets describing conflict in North-West Africa, and show how unusual interactions can...
Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe
The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU), 242 immigrants from Ethiopia and 333 non-immigrants. Compared to non-immigrants, FSU and Ethiopian immigrants' inter-group assertiveness was lower. Girls reported higher levels of inter-group assertiveness than boys. Each of the immigrant groups rates itself as equally assertive as the non-immigrant group and more assertive than the other immigrant group. Also, a difference between inter-group and intra-group assertiveness was found among the FSU immigrants. It is argued that adolescents' assertiveness following cultural transition is associated with socio-cultural context, and the implications of this conclusion are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Brien, Gerald V.
Although the importance of metaphors is described in the social work literature, few articles or books in the profession have considered the role of metaphors in social policy, especially in providing a negative frame within which marginalized groups can be considered. This negative framing naturally supports aversive social policies designed to…
Tatarko, A. N.
Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of
Knight, Carolyn; Gitterman, Alex
Clinical or micro intervention predominates in social work education and practice. The prevailing assumption in social work practice and education is that one engages in either micro or macro intervention. In this article, we describe how these interventions may be merged into an integrated whole through social work practice with groups. The…
den Hond, F.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Hickman, G. R.
Using insights from the social movement literature and institutional change theory, we explore how activism influences corporate social change activities. As the responsibility for addressing a variety of social issues is transferred from the state to the private sector, activist groups increasingly
Vrieling, E.; van den Beemt, A.; de Laat, M.
Induced by a literature review, this paper presents a framework of dimensions and indicators highlighting the underpinning aspects and values of social learning within teacher groups. Notions of social networks, communities of practice and learning teams were taken as the main perspectives to influence this social learning framework. The review…
Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Van Laar, Colette; Kawous, Ramin; Beijk, Sarah C A M
Smoking behavior differs substantially between lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Previous research shows that social support for quitting may be more available to higher-SES smokers, and higher-SES smokers may have stronger nonsmoker self-identities (i.e., can see themselves more as nonsmokers). To investigate how SES influences smoking behavior, taking the role of identity processes and social support into account. A cross-sectional online survey study was conducted among 387 daily smokers from lower, middle and higher-SES groups in the Netherlands in 2014. Educational level was used as an indicator of SES. Expected and desired social support for quitting smoking, expected exclusion from the social network when quitting, identity factors and intention to quit were measured. Smokers from all SES backgrounds desired to receive positive social support if they would quit smoking. Lower-SES smokers expected to receive more negative and practical support than middle or higher-SES smokers. There were no significant differences between SES groups for almost all identity measures, nor on intention to quit. Above and beyond other important influences such as nicotine-dependence, results showed that smokers regardless of SES who expected to receive more positive support tended to have stronger intentions to quit. Moreover, smokers who could see themselves more as being quitters (quitter self-identity) and perceived themselves less as smokers (smoker self-identity), as well as smokers who felt more positive about nonsmokers (nonsmoker group-identity) had stronger intentions to quit. No significant interactions with SES were found. The results suggest that developing ways to stimulate the social environment to provide adequate support for smokers who intend to quit, and developing ways to strengthen identification with quitting in smokers may help smokers to quit successfully. Findings further suggest that the possible-self as a quitter is more important than
Haught, Heather M; Rose, Jason; Geers, Andrew; Brown, Jill A
Subjective social status (SSS) has been shown to predict well-being and mental health, above and beyond objective social status (OSS). However, little is known about the factors that moderate this relationship. Two studies explored whether the link between SSS and well-being varied depending upon the referent used for comparison in SSS judgments. Participants judged their well-being and SSS in comparison to referents that varied in abstraction. A confirmatory factor analysis on SSS judgments yielded two factors: (a) SSS perceptions toward global referents and (b) SSS perceptions toward local referents. SSS relative to a global referent was a better predictor of depression (Studies 1 and 2), life satisfaction (Studies 1 and 2), and self-esteem (Study 2) than SSS relative to a local referent. These findings have theoretical implications for understanding how people differentiate between local vs. global referents and practical implications for status-related health disparities.
Kenen, R H; Schmidt, R M
Possible latent psychological and social consequences ensuing from genetic screening programs need to be investigated during the planning phase of national genetic screening programs. The relatively few studies which have been performed to determine psychological, social, and economic consequences resulting from a genetic screening program are reviewed. Stigmatization of carrier-status, having major psychosocial implications in heterozygote genetic screening programs, is discussed and related to Erving Goffman's work in the area of stigmatization. Questions are raised regarding the relationship between such variables as religiosity and sex of the individual and acceptance of the status of newly identified carrier of a mutant gene. Severity of the deleterious gene and visibility of the carrier status are two important factors to consider in an estimation of potential stigma. Specific implications are discussed for four genetic diseases: Tay-Sachs, Sickle-Cell Anemia, Huntington's disease and Hemophilia. PMID:152585
Jost, Jürgen; Li, Wei
We study the effects of learning by imitating others within the framework of an iterated game in which the members of two complementary populations interact via random pairing at each round. This allows us to compare both the fitness of different strategies within a population and the performance of populations in which members have access to different types of strategies. Previous studies reveal some emergent dynamics at the population level, when players learn individually. We here investigate a different mechanism in which players can choose between two different learning strategies, individual or social. Imitating behavior can spread within a mixed population, with the frequency of imitators varying over generation time. When compared to a pure population with solely individual learners, a mixed population with both individual and social learners can do better, independently of the precise learning scheme employed. We can then search for the best imitating strategy. Imitating the neighbor with the highest payoff turns out to be consistently superior. This is in agreement with findings in experimental and model studies that have been carried out in different settings.
Wilson, Nathan J.; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L.
Background: People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Methods: Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived…
Scholl, Annika; Sassenberg, Kai; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan; de Wit, Frank
Power relations affect dynamics within groups. Power-holders' decisions not only determine their personal outcomes, but also the outcomes of others in the group that they control. Yet, power-holders often tend to overlook this responsibility to take care of collective interests. The present research investigated how social identification - with the group to which both the powerful and the powerless belong - alters perceived responsibility among power-holders (and the powerless). Combining research on social power and social identity, we argue that power-holders perceive more responsibility than the powerless when strongly (rather than when weakly) identifying with the group. A study among leaders and an experiment supported this, highlighting that although power-holders are often primarily concerned about personal outcomes, they do feel responsible for considering others' interests when these others are included in the (social) self. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available One of the goals of the project called "The milky river", which deals with the integral development of the dairy production, is to initiate the development of the sustainable and profitable production of milk and dairy products through grouping producers and supporting their position in the society they live in. Women are more than men engaged in the dairy production chain and they have a direct view of the whole dairy production process. So it was necessary to adapt the grouping to their needs, as well as to make some practical mechanisms of their involvement in the project activities. In this way, the strategy of the project helped with offering equal chances to women and men, and by reducing the gender inequality, it also helped with making a chance for a new life perspective for women. Through interviews and by focus-grouping the data were collected which represented the first picture of the dairy production in the region of Niš, including its gender characteristics, among other things. Two years later, the qualitative analysis of the indicators of the rural women’s social status in this region in the context of the realization of the project activities, has shown that there has been an important movement forward towards the gender equality which can be attributed to the successful project implementation. Women, as an important factor in the dairy production chain, seem to be joined and encouraged. They seem to be empowered at the level of their knowledge decision making and autonomous activity taking through various forms of education, joint farmer group work, as well as through various forms of cooperation with supporting institutions and other partners within the project activity framework. The overwhelming impression seems to be that joint work and cooperation are necessary conditions for the development of any individual farmers’ production, as well as for the referent rural development which requires the support of all the
McCorkel, Jill; Rodriquez, Jason
Current debates over identity politics hinge on the question of whether status-based social movements encourage parochialism and self-interest or create possibilities for mutual recognition across lines of difference. Our article explores this question through comparative, ethnographic study of two racially progressive social movements, "pro-black" abolitionism and "conscious" hip hop. We argue that status-based social movements not only enable collective identity, but also the personal identities or selves of their participants. Beliefs about the self create openings and obstacles to mutual recognition and progressive social action. Our analysis centers on the challenges that an influx of progressive, anti-racist whites posed to each movement. We examine first how each movement configured movement participation and racial identity and then how whites crafted strategic narratives of the self to account for their participation in a status-based movement they were not directly implicated in. We conclude with an analysis of the implications of these narratives for a critical politics of recognition. Keywords: identity politics, social movements, race, self, hip hop.
Boersma, Gretha; Schmeltzer, Michael; Scott, Karen; Scheurink, Antonius; Tamashiro, Kelli; Sakai, Randall
Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual
Wohlfarth, T.; van den Brink, W.
The relationship between social class and substance use disorders (SUDs) is explored and compared to the relationship between SES and SUDs. Social class and SES are two different conceptualizations of socioeconomic inequality (SEI) which emanate from two different theoretical orientations in
Cloutier, J; Norman, G J; Li, T; Berntson, G G
This research was designed to investigate the relationship between sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to the perception of social targets varying in social status. Participants varying in subjective financial status were presented with faces assigned with either a low, average, or high financial status. Electrocardiographic and impedance cardiography signals were recorded and measures of sympathetic (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic (high frequency heart rate variability; HF HRV) cardiac control were derived. These measures associated with the presentation of each face condition were examined in relation to the subjective status of the perceivers. Participants with high subjective financial status showed reduced sympathetic activity when viewing low- and medium-status targets as compared to high-status targets, and lower parasympathetic response when viewing high- and medium-status targets relative to low-status targets. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sheehy, Tammy L
Group physical activity programs for clinical populations can provide opportunities for adaptive social interactions, improving perceptions of competence, and may facilitate posttraumatic growth (positive psychological changes resulting from traumatic life experiences). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how people with Parkinson's experience social interactions and physical challenges in a group physical activity program, and to investigate what role they think those experie...
Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena
University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings are mixed as to whether the association between social anxiety and alcohol use is positive or negative. To clarify the nature of this association, we used a person-centered longitudinal analysis to identify student groups based on levels of social anxiety symptoms and alcohol consumption. Undergraduates (N = 1132, 70.5% female, Mage = 19.06 at Time 1) enrolled in university completed a survey assessing social anxiety and alcohol use over 3 years, and psychosocial functioning and emotion coping behaviors at Time 1. Two out of 5 groups were identified with higher levels of social anxiety, 1 with moderately low alcohol use, and the other with moderately high alcohol use. Both groups reported higher levels of general anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral inhibition, emotional reactivity, daily hassles, and lower levels of social ties at Time 1 than the 3 groups with lower levels of social anxiety. Furthermore, the social anxiety-alcohol use group reported significantly lower academic grades and was more likely to endorse problematic emotion coping behaviors (e.g., self-injury) than the social anxiety-low alcohol use group. These results not only help explain the mixed findings in the literature but indicate that 1 group of socially anxious students may be particularly vulnerable to negative adjustment difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Pryor, John B; Brands, Ronald; Liebregts, Maartje; Schaalma, Herman P
HIV-related stigma, psychological distress, self-esteem, and social support were investigated in a sample comprising people who have concealed their HIV status to all but a selected few (limited disclosers), people who could conceal but chose to be open (full disclosers), and people who had visible symptoms that made concealing difficult (visibly stigmatized). The visibly stigmatized and full disclosers reported significantly more stigma experiences than limited disclosers, but only the visibly stigmatized reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, and less social support than limited disclosers. This suggests that having a visible stigma is more detrimental than having a concealable stigma. Differences in psychological distress and self-esteem between the visibly stigmatized and full disclosers were mediated by social support while differences between the visibly stigmatized and limited disclosers were mediated by both social support and stigma. These findings suggest that social support buffers psychological distress in people with HIV.
Background The population in Norway has become multi-ethnic due to migration from Asia and Africa over the recent decades. The aim of the present study was to explore differences in the self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians. Methods Pooled data from three population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in Oslo between 2000 and 2002 was used. Of 54,473 invited individuals 24,749 (45.4%) participated. The participants self-reported health status, underwent a clinical examination and blood samples were drawn. A total of 17,854 individuals aged 30 to 61 years born in Norway, Sri-Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, Vietnam or Turkey were included in the study. Chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multiple and logistic regression were used. Results Age- and gender-standardized prevalence of self-reported CVD varied between 5.8% and 8.2% for the ethnic minority groups, compared to 2.9% among ethnic Norwegians (p Corresponding CVD prevalence rates among individuals with diabetes were 15.3% vs. 12.6% (p = 0.364). For individuals without diabetes, the odds ratio (OR) for CVD in the ethnic minority groups remained significantly higher (range 1.5-2.6) than ethnic Norwegians (p employment, and body height, except for Turkish individuals. Regardless of diabetes status, obesity and physical inactivity were prevalent in the majority of ethnic minority groups, whereas systolic- and diastolic- blood pressures were higher in Norwegians. In nearly all ethnic groups, individuals with diabetes had higher triglycerides, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index compared to individuals without diabetes. Age, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and WHR were significant predictors of CVD in both ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minorities, but significant ethnic differences were found for age, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions Ethnic differences
Schausberger, Peter; Gratzer, Marian; Strodl, Markus A
The social environment early in life is a key determinant of developmental, physiological and behavioural trajectories across vertebrate and invertebrate animals. One crucial variable is the presence/absence of conspecifics. For animals usually reared in groups, social isolation after birth or hatching can be a highly stressful circumstance, with potentially long-lasting consequences. Here, we assessed the effects of social deprivation (isolation) early in life, that is, absence of conspecifics, versus social enrichment, that is, presence of conspecifics, on developmental time, body size at maturity, mating behaviour and group-living in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis . Socially deprived protonymphs developed more slowly and were less socially competent in grouping behaviour than socially enriched protonymphs. Compromised social competence in grouping behaviour was evident in decreased activity, fewer mutual encounters and larger interindividual distances, all of which may entail severe fitness costs. In female choice/male competition, socially deprived males mated earlier than socially enriched males; in male choice/female competition, socially deprived females were more likely to mate than socially enriched females. In neither mate choice situation did mating duration or body size at maturity differ between socially deprived and enriched mating opponents. Social isolation-induced shifts in mating behaviour may be interpreted as increased attractiveness or competitiveness or, more likely, as hastiness and reduced ability to assess mate quality. Overall, many of the social isolation-induced behavioural changes in P. persimilis are analogous to those observed in other animals such as cockroaches, fruit flies, fishes or rodents. We argue that, due to their profound and persistent effects, early social deprivation or enrichment may be important determinants in shaping animal personalities.
In this study, the effect of solution-focused brief group counseling upon the perceived social competences of teenagers was investigated. The study group included 24 volunteer students who took lower scores rather than the ones obtained from perceived social competence scale pre-test measurements out of 227 students studying at a high school in…
Stephens, Derk; Jain, Sachin; Kim, Kioh
This paper examines literature that supports the use of group counseling techniques in the school setting to teach social skills to children and adolescents with special needs. From the review of this literature it was found that group counseling is a very effective way of addressing a variety of social skills problems that can be displayed by…
Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…
Seth Turner; Rod Zwick
Social groups play an important role in many adventure recreation activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the social group preference relation to motives and ability levels of whitewater kayakers. When participants go out on a kayaking trip they are seeking varying degrees of experiences, a major contributor to that experience comes from the members of...
Cheng, Simon; Martin, Leslie; Werum, Regina E.
The dictum that "context matters" notwithstanding, few researchers have focused on how social capital affects educational outcomes for ethnic groups outside of the United States. Using German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) data, analyses highlight the group-specific effects of parental social capital on track placement among 11-16-year-old…
We must make the Internet our tool.”67 In addition to al Neda, al Qaeda maintains several other websites such as al Ansar (the Helpers ) and al...players can hone their sniper skills by executing Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.126 Just as violent extremist groups have expanded recruiting efforts
Full Text Available The methodological reflections on focus groups presented in this article draw from a research project on middle-class people living in Metropolitan Buenos Aires. The study addresses health discourses and practices in the contemporary scenario characterized by the diversification of specialists, the growing media coverage of recommendations of healthy living and wellbeing, the implementation of public policies on health promotion, and the expansion of the industry of related products and services. The objective of the article is to reflect, based on our fieldwork experience, on two aspects that have received special attention in the recent methodological literature: the criteria to compose the groups and their consequences on the conversational dynamic, and the strategies to account for the group interaction in data analysis. Included in the latter, we explore the potential of GF research to observe health identity work. We frame our study and the decisions about design issues into the current debates on the variety of uses of the research group methodology.
Diep Lien M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Norway has become multi-ethnic due to migration from Asia and Africa over the recent decades. The aim of the present study was to explore differences in the self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD and associated risk factors by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians. Methods Pooled data from three population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in Oslo between 2000 and 2002 was used. Of 54,473 invited individuals 24,749 (45.4% participated. The participants self-reported health status, underwent a clinical examination and blood samples were drawn. A total of 17,854 individuals aged 30 to 61 years born in Norway, Sri-Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, Vietnam or Turkey were included in the study. Chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multiple and logistic regression were used. Results Age- and gender-standardized prevalence of self-reported CVD varied between 5.8% and 8.2% for the ethnic minority groups, compared to 2.9% among ethnic Norwegians (p Conclusions Ethnic differences in the prevalence of CVD were prominent for individuals without diabetes. Primary CVD prevention including identification of undiagnosed diabetes should be prioritized for ethnic minorities without known diabetes.
Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin
This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group.
Potocka, Adrianna; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra
It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother's socio-demographic (age and relationship status) and socio-economic features (education and professional status) differentiate the child's nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child's nutritional status, body mass index (BMI) z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR), the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC), fat (%ET) and proteins (%EP). Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. The results showed that mother's education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child's nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child's social background (e.g., maternal factors). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):811-821. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Objectives: It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother’s socio-demographic (age and relationship status and socio-economic features (education and professional status differentiate the child’s nutritional status. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child’s nutritional status, body mass index (BMI z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR, the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC, fat (%ET and proteins (%EP. Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. Results: The results showed that mother’s education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child’s nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p < 0.05. Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. Conclusions: When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child’s social background (e.g., maternal factors. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:811–821
Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M
The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Everyday group life is generally neglected in the study of the ongoing shifts affecting voluntary associations. This paper is grounded on a comparative ethnography of three Milanese associations affected by transformations in forms of voluntary participation, repertoires of action, and in their relations with public institutions. The study focuses on group styles and settings to ascertain the role played by everyday group life in shaping the implications of these transformations for the production of inclusive outcomes by the observed associations. The author introduces three different results produced by the studied associations and account for them with the same overall argument, which focus on practices and spaces shaping everyday group life. The main findings illustrate that everyday group life works both as a filter through which transformations produce consequences and also as a site of autonomous elaboration through which associations’ outcomes are made and unmade.
Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.
This study addressed the role of influencer and influencee peer status in social influence of status-unrelated behaviours among emerging adults, while disentangling two forms of peer status, being liked (preference) and being powerful (popularity). Peer influence was examined in 67 women (M age =
Han, Kyu-Man; Han, Changsu; Shin, Cheolmin; Jee, Hee-Jung; An, Hyonggin; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Young-Hoon; Kim, Seung-Hyun
A growing body of evidence has suggested that social capital is an upstream social determinant of mental health. We investigated the association of cognitive social capital, including interpersonal trust and reciprocity, with depressive symptoms in the elderly. We also explored the mediating role of cognitive social capital in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms and the moderating effect of SES on the relationship between social capital and depressive symptoms. Data from the 2012 Korea Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS) was analyzed for 5969 participants aged 60 years or older. Cognitive components of social capital, including interpersonal trust and reciprocity, were evaluated using single-item questionnaires. Socioeconomic and health-related characteristics were investigated and depressive symptoms were evaluated by an 11-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Low interpersonal trust and reciprocity levels were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly. Reciprocity level mediated the association between household income level and depressive symptoms. We did not observe any significant moderating effect of SES on the association between cognitive social capital and depressive symptoms. A significant association between cognitive social capital and depressive symptoms in Korean elderly was found. We elucidated how SES interacted with depressive symptoms through the mediation pathway of cognitive social capital using a representative sample of the Korean elderly population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.