WorldWideScience

Sample records for social security policies

  1. Using the social security system to deliver housing policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Louise, Gee Wing

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the interaction between housing policy and the social security benefits that support housing costs. Analysis concerns the extent and type of State intervention in housing, thus explaining the dynamic between State and individual responsibility in housing policy. This thesis involves an exploration of the different treatment of the owner-occupied and the rented housing sectors, with reference to the social security benefits which fund ongoing housing costs. This thesis see...

  2. Poverty, Security and Social Assistance: Challenges of Brazilian Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ornellas Mauriel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents partial results of a study about anti-poverty programs in Brazil. The main contribution of the text is that it relates certain characteristics of the anti poverty programs to theoretical categories that have influenced the debate about social policy in the contemporary context. Special attention is given to the relation of these programs with national social assistance policy. The article begins from the hypothesis that the logic that had inspired the construction of social policies was reconsidered, based on a transformation in the theoretical understanding of the social issue and of ways to confront it. This change appears in the texts in the priority given to poverty as a category of analysis, which is understood as an absence of capacities. This theoretically and methodologically configures an individualistic perspective on social issues, the principal theoretical source for which is the thinking of Amartya Sen.

  3. The Distributional Impact of Social Security Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Reznik, Gayle L; Tamborini, Christopher R; Iams, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    Using microsimulation, we estimate the effects of three policy proposals that would alter Social Security's eligibility rules or benefit structure to reflect changes in women's labor force activity, marital patterns, and differential mortality among the aged. First, we estimate a set of options related to the duration of marriage required to receive divorced spouse and survivor benefits. Second, we estimate the effects of an earnings sharing proposal with survivor benefits, in which benefits are based entirely on earned benefits with spouses sharing their earnings during years of marriage. Third, we estimate the effects of adjusting benefits to reflect the increasing differential life expectancy by lifetime earnings. The results advance our understanding of the distributional effects of these alternative policy options on projected benefits and retirement income, including poverty and supplemental poverty status, of divorced and widowed women aged 60 or older in 2030.

  4. Identifying the Enemy: Social Categorization and National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Kristene

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to understand the interplay between informal articulations of social categories and formal instantiations of those categories in official language. Specifically, it explores the process of social categorization as it is used to identify threats to national security. The research employed a qualitative, document-based,…

  5. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...

  6. Analysis of Department of Defense social media policy and its impact on operational security

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardi, Eric V.; Murphy, Mark; Kim, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The emergence and rapid adoption of social media by society has forced the Department of Defense (DOD) to adapt, and ultimately develop and incorporate, social media policy into its cybersecurity strategy. While social media has influenced DOD strategy, it has also had a direct impact on the organization’s operational security (OPSEC). DOD personnel using social media represent a potential OPSEC risk through the various ways and means ...

  7. The effects of a social media policy on pharmacy students' facebook security settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina

    2011-11-10

    To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.

  8. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    -, 9/2008 (2008), s. 1-34 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/default/file/download/id/8361

  9. Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  10. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 7-8 (2008), s. 329-358 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1137_dusek-kopecsni_-_329-358-opravené.pdf

  11. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.

  12. The Effects of a Social Media Policy on Pharmacy Students’ Facebook Security Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. Methods. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. Results. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Conclusions. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy. PMID:22171105

  13. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  14. Policy Needs for Social Security in the Process of Citizenization of the Peri-urban Farmers:A Case Study of Hefei City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jiang-lin; CHEN Rui; NI Wen-cong

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a survey of transformational towns and villages in High-tech Development District, Yaohai District and Shushan District, Hefei City. Using data, we analyze the "sideline effect" and inherent contradiction of transformational cities, research the policy needs for social security and its trend in the citizenization process of the peri-urban farmers. On this basis, we construct the social security policy system that can adapt to the accelerated process of urbanization. Finally, we put forth the following recommendations for the social security policy in the citizenization process of the peri-urban farmers: distinguishing different groups’ policy needs for social security; attaching importance to people’s dynamic policy needs for social security in urbanization; focusing on the adaptability of social security policy transformation in urbanization; attaching importance to the social psychosocial environment of social security policy transformation in urbanization; achieving the trinity of non-farm conversion, urbanization and citizenization in the process of urbanization; strengthening the government’s dominant position in the building of social security policy system.

  15. Social Security Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Social Security Bulletin (ISSN 1937-4666) is published quarterly by the Social Security Administration. The Bulletin is prepared in the Office of Retirement and...

  16. Social Security at the Crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Social security schemes need to be streamlined and the underlying policies made more coherent to obtain the fullest possible return on expenditure. Third World countries need to reflect very seriously on the role of social security in the development process and on the management problems involved. (CT)

  17. Political and Institutional Drivers of Social Security Policy in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Ulriksen, Marianne; Plagerson, Sophie

    studies with varying policy outcomes: 1) the social cash transfer system, which is well established; and 2) the National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme, a recent policy, which has suffered several delays. Building on the power resource and historical institutionalism approaches, we explore how different...

  18. Career Obsolescence and Social Security: Emerging Education Policy Issues in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandow, Stuart A.

    This document is the second in a series of studies designed to examine the legal aspects of various potential educational problems in our society. This particular study deals with the case of a highly trained aerospace technician who sues the social security trust for loan benefits, arguing that he is economically disabled and has been retired by…

  19. SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESPONSIBILITY CENTCOM COALITION MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS ARTICLES PRESS RELEASES IMAGERY VIDEOS TRANSCRIPTS VISITORS AND PERSONNEL FAMILY CENTER FAMILY READINESS CENTCOM WEBMAIL SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY ACCOUNTABILITY HomeVISITORS AND PERSONNELSOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY FAQ on Security for Social Media Due to the widespread use of

  20. Social Security reform: evaluating current proposals. Latest results of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, C; VanDerhei, J; Salisbury, D L

    1999-06-01

    The present Social Security program has been shown to be financially unsustainable in the future without modification to the current program. The purpose of this Issue Brief, EBRI's fourth in a series on Social Security reform, is threefold: to illustrate new features of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model not available in earlier EBRI publications, to expand quantitative analysis to specific proposals, and to evaluate the uncertainty involved in proposals that rely on equity investment. This analysis compares the Gregg/Breaux-Kolbe/Stenholm (GB-KS) and Moynihan/Kerrey proposals with three generic or "traditional" reforms: increasing taxes, reducing benefits, and/or increasing the retirement age. Both proposals would create individual accounts by "carving out" funds from current Social Security payroll taxes. This analysis also examines other proposed changes that would "add on" to existing Social Security funds through the use of general revenue transfers and/or investment in the equities market. President Clinton has proposed a general revenue transfer and the collective investment of some of the OASDI trust fund assets in equities. Reps. Archer and Shaw have proposed a general revenue tax credit to establish individual accounts that would be invested partially in the equities markets. When comparing Social Security reform proposals that would specifically alter benefit levels, the Moynihan/Kerrey bill compares quite favorably with the other proposals in both benefit levels and payback ratios, when individuals elect to use the individual account option. In contrast, the GB-KS bills do not compare quite as favorably for their benefit levels, but do compare favorably in terms of payback ratios. An important comparison in these bills is the administrative costs of managing the individual accounts, since benefits can be lowered by up to 23 percent when going from the assumed low to high administrative costs. Moreover, allowing individuals to decide whether to

  1. Statistical security for Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts.

  2. Social Security for Composers and Free Lances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel-Majdan, Karl

    1982-01-01

    Internationally, cultural policies are tending toward increased socioeconomic and legal support for creative artists. Austrian cultural policies which encourage art and cultural professional organizations, increased copyright protection, and greater social security for free-lance artists are discussed. (AM)

  3. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  4. Social Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suze Orman on Why Creating an Account is Important Suze Orman explains how a my Social Security account can help you plan for your retirement ... for same-sex couples? Open Government at Social Security Explore the benefits you may be due Plain ... About Us Accessibility FOIA Open Government Glossary ...

  5. Women and social security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, M.; Pennings, F.; Vonk, G.

    2015-01-01

    Does ‘the’ social security take sufficient account of women? Are its protection schemes sufficiently aimed at safeguarding women’s interests? These are the questions I was invited to answer for this handbook on social security law. At the same time I was asked to adopt an unorthodox approach, one

  6. Energy security and national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    To achieve an energy secure future, energy cannot be viewed as an isolated concern. It is part and parcel of a nation's economic, social, and political context. In the past important implications for the economy and national security have been ignored. Crash programs to deal with oil shortages in the seventies, crashed. In the eighties, oil surplus has been enjoyed. The energy situation could be quite different in the nineties. Statistics on energy supply and consumption of oil, coal, natural gas and electricity from nuclear power show that much progress has been made worldwide. However, about half of the world's oil will come from the Persian Gulf by 1995. Continued low oil prices could raise US imports to 60% of consumption by 1995. Persian Gulf tensions serve as reminders of the link between energy policy and national security policy. Energy policy must be based on market forces and concerns for national security. Strategic oil reserves will expand along with the availability of domestic oil and gas resources. Increased attention to conservation, diversification of energy resources, and use of alternative fuels can help reduce imports. Continued high-risk long term research and development is needed. Improved technology can reduce environmental impacts. Global markets need global cooperation. Energy has emerged as an important aspect of East-West relations. Europeans need to diversify their sources of energy. The soviets have proposed expanded collaboration in magnetic fusion science. A series of initiatives are proposed that together will ensure that economies will not become overly dependent on a single source of energy

  7. Market principles in health care and social security policy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Although health care in Japan is under the management of an obligatory insurance system, it is within the framework of a capitalist economy, and has helped achieve longevity during the post-war period. However, average lifetime has been improving in western European and Asian countries that have developed later. It has also been said that higher longevity is not necessarily due only to health care but also to the enhancement of environmental health achieved by economic improvements. On the other hand, the so-called 'development' led by capitalism and the market economy, and the luxuries that sometimes can be construed as uncultured, have caused unnecessary environmental destruction and disparities in wealth. Is it too cynical to think that the extended lifespan of the advanced countries has been achieved at the expense of the epidemics, refugee problems and wars which have resulted in a reduced lifespan in developing countries? It is said that capitalism is an economic ideology that includes many contradictions and is following a path of destruction. In addition, under the name of globalization, capitalism has continuously and rapidly caused vicious cycles of corruption, which are features commonly seen in today's world. It is still common that financial failures and threats are indirectly solved by initiating wars--a method completely inimical to health care. Along with environmental factors and the logic of this market doctrine, we have been trying to reform our financially-collapsed health care system. However, we cannot count on the 'durability' of any reform conducted without some awareness of our economic mistakes. It is often said that it is only because of the existence of the economy that we have health care. However, it is more realistic to say that stable health care and social security lead to a stable economy. Health care did not collapse. It was the market economy upon which health care depended that collapsed. Therefore, one must not consider that

  8. A Model of Social Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom-Jensen, Byron Zachary

    2017-01-01

    of Scandinavian achievements were variable in their ideological outlook and sometimes deliberately challenged the existence and goals of New Deal policies. Moreover, this essay explores the usage of Scandinavia in New Deal social legislation by examining the policymaking rhetoric of the Social Security Act...... and its 1939 amendments. The surprising plasticity of the Scandinavian image amongst policymakers ultimately reveals the fluid nature of both New Deal-era politics and the Scandinavian images it appropriated....

  9. Alignment of Organizational Security Policies -- Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.

    2012-01-01

    To address information security threats, an organization defines security policies that state how to deal with sensitive information. These policies are high-level policies that apply for the whole organization and span the three security domains: physical, digital and social. One example of a

  10. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...... (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts....

  11. Security and policy driven computing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Security and Policy Driven Computing covers recent advances in security, storage, parallelization, and computing as well as applications. The author incorporates a wealth of analysis, including studies on intrusion detection and key management, computer storage policy, and transactional management.The book first describes multiple variables and index structure derivation for high dimensional data distribution and applies numeric methods to proposed search methods. It also focuses on discovering relations, logic, and knowledge for policy management. To manage performance, the text discusses con

  12. Analysis of Department of Defense Social Media Policy and Its Impact on Operational Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    MWR Morale, Welfare , and Recreation NIPRNET Non-secure Internet Protocol Router Network NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NSA...cyber risks at both the national and international levels (DOD, 2011). This is because many domestic technology firms outsource software production...provided by morale, welfare , and recreation (MWR), military exchanges, and lodging programs for use by authorized patrons. C) Applies to contractors

  13. Social Influence for Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work marks the reveling of scientific premises intended to structure the issue of social influence for security. The approach has as aim the identification of those elements that define and characterize the social influence in order to manage conflict, from the perspective of public communication. The proposed approach establishes some synthetic, clear boundaries through the method of research and analysis of the concept of security, social influence, revealing the specifics of public communication in conflict management.

  14. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  15. Distribution of responsibility for social security and labour market policy. - Country report: The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, T.

    2007-01-01

    High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although

  16. Human security policy challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Morton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available All evidence points towards climate- and environmentallyinduced migration becoming one of the major policychallenges of this century. Adequate planning for andmanagement of this phenomenon will be critical forhuman security.

  17. Austerity, Discipline and Social Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asja Hrvatin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the manifestations of the global crisis of financial capitalism and the policies arising from it was the imposition of austerity measures, which not only resulted in privatization of the commons and general expropriation of the people, but also managed to introduce new mechanisms of discipline and punishment. Debt, being the fundament of relations in society, forced itself into the system of social security: new legislation, regulating welfare benefits, has now shifted to a method for the criminalization of poverty, deepening class differences and transforming social workers (and the system of social security as a whole into a moralizing, bureaucratic machine for disciplining the population. The new legislation also shows a lack of reflection on the changes that need to be made to the welfare state in order to create social services that meet the needs and desires of individuals. Instead of improvements that provide decent living conditions and a new system of social rights (to deal with the problems resulting from precarious working conditions, people are faced with depersonalization, humiliation and increased hate speech and other fascist practices. The effect of austerity measures on the social security system does not end with the devastation of service users’ lives and their communities, which are slowly becoming exhausted, individualized and devoid of solidarity. It also means a big step backwards for the core ethics and principles of social work. Social workers are increasingly alienated from their clients and the communities they live in. They function more in the service of the government and its policies rather than as advocates of people’s rights.

  18. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  19. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  20. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  1. Analyzing Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla

    2003-01-01

    NSA's Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux enhances Linux by providing a specification language for security policies and a Flask-like architecture with a security server for enforcing policies defined in the language...

  2. Social security financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    After nearly 2 years of study, the 1979 Advisory Council on Social Security submitted its findings and recommendations in December. In February the Bulletin published the Executive Summary of the Council's report. Because of the continuing wide public interest in the future of social security financing, the Council's detailed findings and recommendations on that subject are published below. The Council unanimously reports that all current and future beneficiaries can count on receiving the payments to which they are entitled. Among the recommendations it calls for are partial financing with nonpayroll-tax revenues. Suggested changes include hospital insurance (HI) financed through portins of personal and corporate income taxes and a part of the HI insurance payroll tax diverted to cash benefits with the balance of this tax repealed. The Council also recommends that the social security cash benefits program be brought into long-run actuarial balance--with a payroll-tax rate increase in the year 2005. It rejects the idea of a value-added tax as being inflationary. Parenthetical remarks represent additional views of the Council members cited.

  3. Social security for seafarers globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf; Canals, Luisa; Haarløv, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Social security for seafarers globally Background: Social security protection is one of the essential elements of decent work. The issue is complex and no previous epidemiological studies of the coverage among seafarers have yet been performed. Objectives: The aim was to overcome the gap...... of knowledge to promote the discussion and planning of the implementation of social security for all seafarers. Methods: The seafarers completed a short questionnaire concerning their knowledge about their social security status. Results: Significant disparities of coverage of social security were pointed out...... comes from poorer countries without substantial social security systems. The solutions suggested are to implement the minimum requirements as recommended by the ILO 2006 Convention, to survey the implementation and in the long term to struggle for global social equality. Key words: Social security...

  4. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...... AFRICOM and US actions in Africa could be seen as a true (newfound) American interest in Africa or whether actions that are considered low-key and low-budget in Washington are to be regarded as a true asymmetry because African states regard US action as important and significant. The paper will explain...

  5. SOCIAL SECURITY IN MODERN ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-28

    Mar 28, 2018 ... Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Bindura University of Science Education; Email. ... Lecturer, School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe, Mount ... There are two types of informal social security: traditional or family ...

  6. Security Economics and European Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  7. Development and analysis of security policies in security enhanced Android

    OpenAIRE

    Rimando, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines Security Enhanced Android. Both its policy and its additional security features are explored. The policy is examined in depth, providing a better understanding of the security provided by SE Android. We analyze the default SE Android policy. We identify a potential weakness and change the policy to facilitate control over communication channels. A proof-of-concept set of applications is developed to demonstrate ho...

  8. Security Policy Alignment: A Formal Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Dimkov, T.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    2013-01-01

    Security policy alignment concerns the matching of security policies specified at different levels in socio-technical systems, and delegated to different agents, technical and human. For example, the policy that sales data should not leave an organization is refined into policies on door locks,

  9. Military veterans and Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anya

    There are 9.4 million military veterans receiving Social Security benefits, which means that almost one out of every four adult Social Security beneficiaries has served in the United States military. In addition, veterans and their families make up almost 40 percent of the adult Social Security beneficiary population. Policymakers are particularly interested in military veterans and their families and have provided them with benefits through several government programs, including Social Security credits, home loan guarantees, and compensation and pension payments through the Department of Veterans Affairs. It is therefore important to understand the economic and demographic characteristics of this population. Information in this article is based on data from the March 2004 Current Population Survey, a large, nationally representative survey of U.S. households. Veterans are overwhelmingly male compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries who are more evenly split between males and females. Military veterans receiving Social Security are more likely to be married and to have finished high school compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries, and they are less likely to be poor or near poor than the overall beneficiary population. Fourteen percent of veterans receiving Social Security benefits have income below 150 percent of poverty, while 25 percent of all adult Social Security beneficiaries are below this level. The higher economic status among veterans is also reflected in the relatively high Social Security benefits they receive. The number of military veterans receiving Social Security benefits will remain high over the next few decades, while their make-up and characteristics will change. In particular, the number of Vietnam War veterans who receive Social Security will increase in the coming decades, while the number of veterans from World War II and the Korean War will decline.

  10. POPULATION POLICY OR SOCIAL POLICY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI STANOIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After 1989, the demographic situation of Romania population experienced a dramatic, very concerning and dangerous evolution trend. One of the first measures of the new political power was to abolish the very restrictive, anti-human and abusive legal regulation adopted in 1966 by the communist regime concerning abortion and the whole old demographic policy. As a result of this measure and of the worsening economic and social situation of the great majority of Romanian population, the birth rate declined sharply and, from 1992, the natural demographic growth rate became a negative one. The absolute number of Romanian population decreased more and more and, if nothing changes, in the next few decades it will be no bigger than 15 million people. At the same time, the process of demographic ageing of population will accentuate, generating serious problems from demographic and social-economic point of view, Taking into account the present demographic situation and, especially, the foreseen trend of evolution, it is more than clear that there should be taken some urgent, coherent and consistent measures in order to stop this dangerous demographic evolution, until it is not too late, and to avoid, as much as possible, a potential demographic disaster. The problem is: what kind of measures should be taken and what kind of policy should be adopted? Some social scientists believe that a new population policy should be adopted; some others believe that rather a social policy should be adopted. The purpose of my paper is to analyze this different opinions and to show that, behind the dispute on the terminology, should be taken consistent measures, at governmental level, in order to assure a substantial improvement of demographic situation, not only from a quantitative, but from a qualitative point of view as well, and to identify some of these kind of measures.

  11. Commission on Social Security

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    A commission studying past, present, and future social stakes ! For many years we have been hearing about the problems of funding of health insurance benefits in our different Member States. At CERN we are not totally immune from this problem.  To start with, let us recall that we have a mutual-benefit scheme which covers everyone for the consequences of the uncertainties in life (illness and accidents). The rules of our scheme are established by CERN in the framework of a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee, the CERN Health Insurance Scheme Board (CHISB), which is also in charge of managing the scheme.  The work of the “ProtSoc” (Protection SocialeSocial Security) commission, as we like to call it at the Staff Association, is to help your representatives on the CHISB, by preparing together with them the subjects and positions to be put forward and defended. This commission, which groups together the staff delegates who wish to invest their ...

  12. Networks in social policy problems

    CERN Document Server

    Scotti, marco

    2012-01-01

    Network science is the key to managing social communities, designing the structure of efficient organizations and planning for sustainable development. This book applies network science to contemporary social policy problems. In the first part, tools of diffusion and team design are deployed to challenges in adoption of ideas and the management of creativity. Ideas, unlike information, are generated and adopted in networks of personal ties. Chapters in the second part tackle problems of power and malfeasance in political and business organizations, where mechanisms in accessing and controlling informal networks often outweigh formal processes. The third part uses ideas from biology and physics to understand global economic and financial crises, ecological depletion and challenges to energy security. Ideal for researchers and policy makers involved in social network analysis, business strategy and economic policy, it deals with issues ranging from what makes public advisories effective to how networks influenc...

  13. Social Media Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stohl, Cynthia; Etter, Michael; Banghart, Scott

    2017-01-01

    of these trends is examined through a content analysis of 112 publicly available social media policies from the largest corporations in the world. The extent to which social media policies facilitate and/or constrain the communicative sensibilities and values associated with contemporary notions of CSR...... negotiation and participation in the social responsibilities of corporations. Moreover, policies generally enact organizational communication practices that are contrary to international CSR guidelines (e.g., the UN Global Compact and other international agreements). Findings suggest that social media...... policies represent a relatively unrecognized development in the institutionalization of CSR communicative norms and practices that call into question the promising affordances of social media for the inclusion of various voices in the public negotiation of what constitutes corporate social responsibility....

  14. Proposals to Restructure Social Security

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Diamond

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses five proposed changes in Social Security: indexing the normal retirement age to life expectancy (as Sweden is doing); investing part of the trust funds in private securities; partial privatization (as has been proposed by Senators Kerrey and Simpson, Sweden is doing and Mexico has done); replacing Social Security by individually mandated savings (as was done in Chile in 1981); and mandating employer provided retirement savings (as recently legislated in Australia and is e...

  15. Staffing Policy for Solving the Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tolstoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining staffing policy implementation of information security tasks is given. The basic requirements that must be taken into account when developing policies are defined. The policy framework is determined and recommendations for the design of such policies are formulated. Requirements for the implementation of the policy are defined.

  16. Iran's Security Policy in the Post-Revolutionary Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byman, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This report assesses Iran's security policy. It examines broad drivers of Iran's security policy, describes important security institutions, explores decisionmaking, and reviews Iran's relations with key countries...

  17. Unification of Information Security Policies for Network Security Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Chernyavskiy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of command languages on network security solutions’ (NSS interfaces causes problems in a process of information security policy (ISP deployment. Unified model for security policy representation and implementation in NSS could aid to avoid such problems and consequently enhance efficiency of the process. The proposed solution is Unified language for network security policy (ULNSP. The language is based on formal languages theory, and being coupled with its translator, ULNSP makes it possible to formalize and implement ISP independently of particular NSS.

  18. Information Security Policy Modeling for Network Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Sergeevich Chernyavskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy management for network security systems (NSSs is one of the most topical issues of network security management. Incorrect configurations of NSSs lead to system outages and appearance of vulnerabilities. Moreover, policy management process is a time-consuming task, which includes significant amount of manual work. These factors reduce efficiency of NSSs’ utilization. The paper discusses peculiarities of policy management process and existing approaches to policy modeling, presents a model aimed to formalize policies for NSSs independently on NSSs’ platforms and select the most effective NSSs for implementation of the policies.

  19. Social security and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sangheon; Torm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how social security provision - a key determinant of formality - impacts on small and medium-sized firm performance in Viet Nam. Based on enterprise census data covering all registered firms from 2006 to 2011, the authors find that firms which increase their social...... security coverage by 10 per cent experience a revenue gain of 1.4-2.0 per cent per worker and a profit gain of up to 1.8 per cent, depending on the survival time of the firm. However, given the time lag between 'investment' (in social security contributions) and returns (enhanced firm performance...

  20. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  1. Social Security, Intergenerational Transfers, and Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Junsen Zhang; Junxi Zhang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of social security in a simple model of endogenous growth with alternative motives of having children are analyzed. It shows how the effects of social security depend on the size of the social security tax, the motive to have children, and the pattern of intergenerational transfers. The pattern of intergenerational transfers itself, however, is shown to change with the social security tax rate. When the social security tax is not too high, social security increases ...

  2. A Game-Theoretical Approach to Multimedia Social Networks Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226

  3. Social Security and Medicare Benefits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Cash benefits and rehabilitation benefits paid in each year from the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, and benefits paid from...

  4. Banner prints social security numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA

    2014-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Monday edition of the Arizona Republic contained a story with potential interest to our readers. On the most recent address labels of Banner Health's magazine, Smart & Healthy, the addressee's Social Security or Medicare identification numbers, which are often identical to their Social Security numbers (1). The magazine was mailed to more than 50,000 recipients in Arizona late last week. The recipients are members of the Medicare Pion...

  5. Generating WS-SecurityPolicy documents via security model transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko

    2009-01-01

    When SOA-based business processes are to be enhanced with security properties, the model-driven business process development approach enables an easier and more reliable security definition compared to manually crafting the security realizations afterwards. In this paper, we outline an appropriat...... security model definition and transformation approach, targeting the WS-SecurityPolicy and WS-BPEL specifications, in order to enable a Web-Service-based secure business process development.......When SOA-based business processes are to be enhanced with security properties, the model-driven business process development approach enables an easier and more reliable security definition compared to manually crafting the security realizations afterwards. In this paper, we outline an appropriate...

  6. Social Security's Surpluses: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that deliberation over how to manage social security's large trust fund balances is expected to continue. Urges social workers to participate in this debate because surpluses have implications for increasing quality of life of low- and moderate-income families. Continues earlier discussion (Dattalo, 1990) by assessing two recent proposals…

  7. Validity of information security policy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Onome Imoniana

    Full Text Available Validity is concerned with establishing evidence for the use of a method to be used with a particular set of population. Thus, when we address the issue of application of security policy models, we are concerned with the implementation of a certain policy, taking into consideration the standards required, through attribution of scores to every item in the research instrument. En today's globalized economic scenarios, the implementation of information security policy, in an information technology environment, is a condition sine qua non for the strategic management process of any organization. Regarding this topic, various studies present evidences that, the responsibility for maintaining a policy rests primarily with the Chief Security Officer. The Chief Security Officer, in doing so, strives to enhance the updating of technologies, in order to meet all-inclusive business continuity planning policies. Therefore, for such policy to be effective, it has to be entirely embraced by the Chief Executive Officer. This study was developed with the purpose of validating specific theoretical models, whose designs were based on literature review, by sampling 10 of the Automobile Industries located in the ABC region of Metropolitan São Paulo City. This sampling was based on the representativeness of such industries, particularly with regards to each one's implementation of information technology in the region. The current study concludes, presenting evidence of the discriminating validity of four key dimensions of the security policy, being such: the Physical Security, the Logical Access Security, the Administrative Security, and the Legal & Environmental Security. On analyzing the Alpha of Crombach structure of these security items, results not only attest that the capacity of those industries to implement security policies is indisputable, but also, the items involved, homogeneously correlate to each other.

  8. Aspects with Program Analysis for Security Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan

    Enforcing security policies to IT systems, especially for a mobile distributed system, is challenging. As society becomes more IT-savvy, our expectations about security and privacy evolve. This is usually followed by changes in regulation in the form of standards and legislation. In many cases......, small modification of the security requirement might lead to substantial changes in a number of modules within a large mobile distributed system. Indeed, security is a crosscutting concern which can spread to many business modules within a system, and is difficult to be integrated in a modular way....... This dissertation explores the principles of adding challenging security policies to existing systems with great flexibility and modularity. The policies concerned cover both classical access control and explicit information flow policies. We built our solution by combining aspect-oriented programming techniques...

  9. Social Security Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuschler, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  10. Social security administration in India- study of provident funds and pension scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Madhava P

    2005-01-01

    Social Security is becoming a distinct part of social policy of India and the time has come to give a serious thought to ever increasing Social Security needs of the population. There are diversified views on extension of Social Security coverage. Some say it should be limited to only working population and to their families and while others say that the entire population should be covered under Social Security programmes. Social Security schemes further have been branched out as protective...

  11. The Political Economy of Carbon Securities and Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polborn, Sarah

    The costs of the current suboptimal carbon abatement policy are likely in the range of 3 to 6 trillion 2005 US dollars. Using methods from the political economy of environmental policy, the paper develops a new carbon abatement policy instrument, carbon securities. A carbon security entitles its...... owner to a ?xed proportion of ex ante unknown total emissions. This creates an additional group of stakeholders on the side of the issue that has traditionally been underrepresented. The advantages over existing systems include an equilibrium carbon price closer to the social optimum, a more predictable...

  12. Health services analysis as a tool for evidence-based policy decisions: the case of the Ministry of Health and Social Security in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Axel; Hernandez, Juan Manuel

    2003-12-01

    To describe the strengths and weaknesses of two Mexican health care providers for poor populations [Ministry of Health (MoH) and Social Security (SS)] in order to facilitate policy decisions about the future of the two systems. In four Mexican states we conducted (i) a household interview survey in 10 724 households; (ii) a user satisfaction survey in 1319 households; (iii) a satisfaction survey of 236 health workers; (iv) in-depth interviews with 190 health workers; (v) 188 focus-group discussions with different population groups; (vi) a document analysis. Both systems serve populations with similar characteristics of poverty. The availability of resources was better in the MoH system; SS care was better concerning process indicators (family planning, antenatal care; in-service delivery of drugs, staff productivity, user satisfaction and staff motivation), efficiency and effectiveness (reduction of morbidity and mortality). Possible explanatory factors for the better performance of the SS system were strong supervision, regular communication, joint data analysis and annual population surveys. Better service organization makes a difference regarding efficiency and effectiveness. Policy-makers, deciding on which kind of health services are best for the poor, should take into account health services' analyses.

  13. Forced Dependency and Legal Barriers: Implications of the UK’s Immigration and Social Security Policies for Minoritized Women Living in Abusive Intimate Relationships in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica McWilliams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexities of the help-seeking process of minoritized women (primarily asylum-seekers and immigrants experiencing domestic violence in Northern Ireland. The term ‘minoritized’ is used here to emphasize that “minority” status is not a static or innate trait of certain groups but instead is the outcome of a process of being positioned as a minority. The paper addresses the intersections of ethnicity, nationality, class and gender and shows how state policies in relation to immigration and social security reinforce inequalities in gendered power relations. Despite attempts to improve the social security and immigration systems, the findings from a Northern Ireland study show how recent policy changes have not addressed the systemic institutional racism and institutionalised patriarchy in these agencies. Where avenues for action are undermined by such practices, the policies raise concerns about the safety and protection of minoritized women living in abusive relationships. We argue that the UK is failing to meet its human rights responsibilities to provide adequate support and assistance to minoritized women in abusive relationships and conclude that delivering state accountability alongside a human rights framework based on security, autonomy, liberty and equality is what is needed. Este artículo analiza las complejidades del proceso de búsqueda de ayuda en Irlanda del Norte para mujeres pertenecientes a minorías (principalmente solicitantes de asilo e inmigrantes que sufren violencia doméstica. El término 'minoritarizadas' se utiliza aquí para hacer hincapié en que la situación de "minoría" no es un rasgo estático o innato de ciertos grupos, sino que es el resultado de un proceso de ser posicionado como una minoría. El artículo aborda las intersecciones de origen étnico, nacionalidad, clase y género y muestra cómo las políticas estatales en relación a la inmigración y la seguridad social

  14. Social Security for All?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    While China has made advances in creating a social welfare system, there are still large imbalances between urban and rural areas. Now the government is striving to bring more people into the system Asmile appears on Feng Qunlin’s faceatthe mention of 20

  15. Information security policy development for compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he

  16. Trust in Security-Policy Enforcement Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Fred B; Morrisett, Greg

    2006-01-01

    .... but provides the strong security guarantees of modern languages such as Java. A second avenue of language-based work explored a general class of policy enforcement mechanism based on in-line reference monitors (IRM...

  17. Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartholomees, Jr, J. B

    2006-01-01

    ...: Theory of War and Strategy and National Security Policy and Strategy. The result for this book is the expansion of the block on strategic theory and the introduction of a block on specific strategic issues...

  18. Globalisation and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses six major themes: that economic and social issues are closely interdependent and that the appropriate stance is to work on both together, simultaneously; that though the threats from globalisation have been exaggerated, there can be substantial costs as well as considerable benefits; that constraints on national policy are significant but are less severe than is commonly considered; that the vitality-the vigour-of national and international political processes must be increased to cope effectively with the changes which are underway; that the private sector, unions and civil society have crucial roles in the provision of services and in advocating socially responsible values, standards and policies; and that one of the most effective means of addressing the erosion of national autonomy from globalisation is for countries to cooperate in setting and implementing shared objectives and international standards and establishing more global public goods.

  19. Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, P.J.; Okawara, N.

    1993-01-01

    Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s

  20. Social security systems in Tanzania: Phase I Overview of social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper starts by examining the concept of social security in Tanzania, showing that there are three key issues in social security which have not been adequately addressed by existing social security schemes and need immediate attention. The paper then examines the nature and forms of social security in Tanzania in a ...

  1. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  2. Energy supply security and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The title memo has been sent to the Dutch Lower House. This memo reflects the response of the cabinet to the advice on Energetic Foreign Policy of the Dutch Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV) and the Dutch Energy Council (AER). Moreover, the development of foreign policy with respect to energy supply security is depicted. [mk] [nl

  3. The European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), which is the operational military and civilian dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is today one of the most dynamic areas of the European Union. However, it is only recently that the EU has acquired explicit military decision....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons...

  4. Family Economic Security Policies and Child and Family Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.

  5. Online, Batch and CICS Social Security Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A database that contains client preference information for the SSA initiated Social Security Statement as well as other data including SSN, disposition for paper SS...

  6. Social Security Administration Data for Enumeration Accuracy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides data at the national level from federal fiscal year 2006 onwards for the accuracy of the assignment of Social Security numbers (SSN) based on...

  7. Energy security and climate policy. Assessing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-28

    World energy demand is surging. Oil, coal and natural gas still meet most global energy needs, creating serious implications for the environment. One result is that CO2 emissions, the principal cause of global warming, are rising. This new study underlines the close link between efforts to ensure energy security and those to mitigate climate change. Decisions on one side affect the other. To optimise the efficiency of their energy policy, OECD countries must consider energy security and climate change mitigation priorities jointly. The book presents a framework to assess interactions between energy security and climate change policies, combining qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative analysis is based on the development of energy security indicators, tracking the evolution of policy concerns linked to energy resource concentration. The 'indicators' are applied to a reference scenario and CO2 policy cases for five case-study countries: The Czech Republic, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Simultaneously resolving energy security and environmental concerns is a key challenge for policy makers today. This study helps chart the course.

  8. Directed Security Policies: A Stateful Network Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Diekmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Large systems are commonly internetworked. A security policy describes the communication relationship between the networked entities. The security policy defines rules, for example that A can connect to B, which results in a directed graph. However, this policy is often implemented in the network, for example by firewalls, such that A can establish a connection to B and all packets belonging to established connections are allowed. This stateful implementation is usually required for the network's functionality, but it introduces the backflow from B to A, which might contradict the security policy. We derive compliance criteria for a policy and its stateful implementation. In particular, we provide a criterion to verify the lack of side effects in linear time. Algorithms to automatically construct a stateful implementation of security policy rules are presented, which narrows the gap between formalization and real-world implementation. The solution scales to large networks, which is confirmed by a large real-world case study. Its correctness is guaranteed by the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  9. US oil policy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-05-01

    Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy. For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. (A.L.B.)

  10. Food security policies in India and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Elleby, Christian; Zobbe, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    dependence on price-based measures causes relatively larger and more volatile fiscal burdens, thereby likely making it more vulnerable in dealing with similar events in the future. These findings have important implications for food policy and food security in the two countries in the future.......Food insecurity is a much more serious concern in India than China. In addition to income and poverty differences, we argue in this paper that differences in food policies can further explain the different food security outcomes across the two countries. First, India mostly uses price-based input...

  11. Social security as Markov equilibrium in OLG models: A note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin

    2011-01-01

    I refine and extend the Markov perfect equilibrium of the social security policy game in Forni (2005) for the special case of logarithmic utility. Under the restriction that the policy function be continuous, instead of differentiable, the equilibrium is globally well defined and its dynamics...

  12. Security Policies from a Spatial Perspective: the Case of Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirio del Carmen Gutiérrez Rivera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Public insecurity became a central issue for many Hondurans in the late 1990s, as crime, delinquency and homicide increased significantly in the isthmus. Honduras had the second highest homicide rate (35.1 per 100,000 in the region after El Salvador (50.2. per 100,000 . This social violence triggered insecurity and fear, which was further accompanied by the overall perception that the state was unable of relieving or protecting the population. This article looks at the failed attempts of the Honduran state to stop social violence and to control youth gang expansion by focusing on the security policies Cero Tolerancia (Zero Tolerance, Mano Dura (Iron Fist and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law. It understands security policies as territorial strategies that attempt to reduce social violence and impose control.

  13. Cyber security awareness toolkit for national security: an approach to South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, LJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach that South Africa could follow in implementing its proposed cyber security policy. The paper proposes a Cyber Security Awareness Toolkit that is underpinned by key National Security imperatives...

  14. Security Force Assistance: Cases and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    theory , cases, and policy implications presented. 3 Methods, Assumptions, and Procedures The analytical narrative method was used to test the...underlying theory --developed separately as a principal-agent model with capacity building in the DwP project. These two cases were chosen as part...the following implications for U.S. national security policy: o Use aid to create incentives , especially via conditionality. Avoid apolitical

  15. Updating energy security and environmental policy: Energy security theories revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakova, L

    2018-06-18

    The energy security theories are based on the premises of sufficient and reliable supply of fossil fuels at affordable prices in centralized supply systems. Policy-makers and company chief executives develop energy security strategies based on the energy security theories and definitions that dominate in the research and policy discourse. It is therefore of utmost importance that scientists revisit these theories in line with the latest changes in the energy industry: the rapid advancement of renewables and smart grid, decentralization of energy systems, new environmental and climate challenges. The study examines the classic energy security concepts (neorealism, neoliberalism, constructivism and international political economy) and assesses if energy technology changes are taken into consideration. This is done through integrative literature review, comparative analysis, identification of 'international relations' and 'energy' research discourse with the use of big data, and case studies of Germany, China, and Russia. The paper offers suggestions for revision of energy security concepts through integration of future technology considerations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  17. Social Security Funds Clamor for Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秉文

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed the institutional deficiencies inherent in China’s social security system based on a dissection of various social security fund violations. It holds that the unscientific design in social security system is the root cause for social security fund violations, which is reflected in low level of social security unification, irrational investment system and legislative loopholes etc. Currently, China’s social security funds are facing risks in management and in system; The key of risk control lies in the reforming of the overall framework of social security system through the following aspects: 1) readjust the unified account system structure to raise the level of unification; 2) reform funds investment system to boost ROI; 3) speeding up legislative to regulate the administrative costs and the behaviors of its entities.

  18. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  19. Modelling mobility aspects of security policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; van Eck, Pascal; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Barthe, G.; Burdy, L.; Huisman, Marieke; Lanet, J.-L.; Muntean, T.

    Security policies are rules that constrain the behaviour of a system. Different, largely unrelated sets of rules typically govern the physical and logical worlds. However, increased hardware and software mobility forces us to consider those rules in an integrated fashion. We present SPIN models of

  20. Social security reform: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Robert K. Triest

    1997-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a trend toward longer life expectancy and reduced birth rates across the globe. This is good news -- the pressures created by rapid population growth are being relaxed, and people are more likely to live to old age -- but it creates problems for programs such as Social Security, which are designed to provide for the consumption needs of the elderly. In the United States, the retirement of the baby boom generation will result in a decrease in the number of workers per ...

  1. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities.

  2. The Flask Security Architecture: System Support for Diverse Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Flask microkernel -based operating sys­ tem, that successfully overcomes these obstacles to pol- icy flexibility. The cleaner separation of mechanism and...other object managers in the system to en- force those access control decisions. Although the pro­ totype system is microkernel -based, the security...mecha­ nisms do not depend on a microkernel architecture and will easily generalize beyond it. The resulting system provides policy flexibility. It sup

  3. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L.; Hammersmith, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social S...

  4. Study on defensive security concepts and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report begins by describing the background against which the proposal for the study emerged-the welcome developments brought about by the end of the cold war but also the emergence of new threats and the reappearance of long-standing problems. The study proceeds to examine current trends in the international security environment and how they may influence the peaceful settlement of dispute and the effecting of restraint and a defensive orientation in the development, maintenance and use of armed forces. A discussion of the substance and main features of defensive security concepts and policies follows. Existing studies and models designed to eliminate the offensive character of military force postures by effecting a defensive orientation of capabilities are surveyed. In addition, the study discusses political and military aspects of defensive security, pointing out how defensive security differs from those existing models

  5. Problematising internal security: Crime, community and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Bruun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematisation of crime, crime prevention and security in contemporary security policy programmes using three Finnish internal security programmes and theory-based content analysis. The study is based on the theory (the perspective of an analytics of government. The findings highlight the central meaning of social exclusion and community as security practices wherein social exclusion is seen as a threat to security and a risk for crime. Indeed, community-based crime prevention plays a central role in the programmes along with the worry about serious crimes and the high level of homicides. A fluid governing policy without crime and accidents is the implicit goal of these programmes.

  6. Banner prints social security numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Monday edition of the Arizona Republic contained a story with potential interest to our readers. On the most recent address labels of Banner Health's magazine, Smart & Healthy, the addressee's Social Security or Medicare identification numbers, which are often identical to their Social Security numbers (1. The magazine was mailed to more than 50,000 recipients in Arizona late last week. The recipients are members of the Medicare Pioneer Accountable Care Organization, a government health-care plan that Banner serves. Banner generated its mailing list from information it received from the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which is an agency within the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS responsible for administration of several federal health-care programs. Although medical information has been protected by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA since 1996, penalties were recently increased. Civil monetary penalties were increased from a maximum of $100 ...

  7. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  8. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  9. Perceived Social Policy Fairness and Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Xiao, Jing Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived fairness of social policies and subjective well-being. Two types of policies examined were related to income distribution and social security. Subjective well-being was measured by work and life satisfaction. In addition, subjective well-beings between different income, age, and education…

  10. 20 CFR 638.528 - Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security. 638.528 Section 638.528... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.528 Social Security. The Act provides that students are covered by title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) and shall...

  11. Social Security and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Olovsson, Conny

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...

  12. Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.

  13. Modeling Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications for Analysis (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla; Leonard, Elizabeth; Pradella, Matteo

    2003-01-01

    Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux is a modification of Linux initially released by NSA in January 2001 that provides a language for specifying Linux security policies and, as in the Flask architecture, a security server...

  14. Securing social media in the enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Securing Social Media in the Enterprise is a concise overview of the security threats posed by the use of social media sites and apps in enterprise network environments. Social media sites and apps are now a ubiquitous presence within enterprise systems and networks, and are vulnerable to a wide range of digital systems attacks. This brief volume provides security professionals and network systems administrators a much-needed dive into the most current threats, detection techniques, and defenses for these attacks, and provides a roadmap for best practices to secure and manage social media wi

  15. A New Paradigm for Secure Social Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrelis, Emmanouil; Alexandris, Nikolaos

    Social Lending is one of the latest trends in Social Networking, offering a communication and financial channel between individual borrowers and lenders. The various Social Lending transaction schemes could be subject to multiple security threats, in both financial and technical terms, which could affect the integrity of the service as well as the trust of citizens. This paper provides an overview of the basic characteristics of Social Lending as well as an analysis the potential security issues suggesting some appropriate corrective measures. The ultimate target is to enforce the Social Lending effort with an information security foundation that could become an appreciable alternative to the "traditional" lending system.

  16. Theory, Demonstration and Methods: Research on Social Security of Migrant Workers by Domestic Scholar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Social security of migrant workers has been significant in dissolving social contradictions and achieving the economic and social development in China during the transitional period. The researches of domestic scholar on social security of migrant workers can be classified into three categories. Firstly, theoretical analysis on social security of migrant workers, including researches on the appeal of social security and misunderstanding of recognition, theory-construction of rural worker social security, policy defects and equity construction in social security system of migrant workers. Secondly, real studies on social security of migrant workers, including researches on sequence of demand and influencing factors of social security of migrant workers as well as intrinsic motivation forming the perspective on social security. Lastly, road exploration of establishing social security system, including researches on the multi-level development of rural worker social security system, comparison of "Double-low method", "Guangdong Method" and "Shanghai Method" of the social security of migrant workers in Zhejiang Province and establishing multi-level social security system according to the hierarchy after the internal differentiation.

  17. Security and Vulnerability Assessment of Social Media Sites: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jensen; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2015-01-01

    While the growing popularity of social media has brought many benefits to society, it has also resulted in privacy and security threats. The authors assessed the security and vulnerability of 50 social media sites. The findings indicate that most sites (a) posted privacy and security policies but only a minority stated clearly their execution of…

  18. Social Security and Fighting Poverty in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Khemili

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the role of social security in fighting poverty in Metlaoui, Tunisia, using survey data collected between July 2012 and January 2014, covering 200 poor households. We used questionnaire data, which gave a thorough analysis of the reactions, behavior, and strategies adopted by poor households as a result of various forms of risk. Social security has an effect on a number of different areas, including health, education, housing, and income. Our methodology explored both complete and partial risk-sharing, to investigate the impact of social security schemes on the strategies adopted by households to cope with economic shocks. The estimation results of different models showed that social security could help social security-covered households choose less costly strategies to cope with risks. However, the role of social security remains insufficient, given that covered households had less confidence in its services and they adopted strategies of self-insurance or income smoothing. Overall, the results showed that social security plays an important role in Metlaoui, but it remains insufficient, especially for households that are not covered by social security and are suffering from heavy health expenditures.

  19. Social Networks and Corporate Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gennadievna Kondratova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is defined in the article social networks as a tool in the hands of cyber-criminals to compromise the organization’s data. The author focuses on a list of threats to information security caused by social networks usage, which should be considered in the set up of information security management system of the company.

  20. Social Security and Part-Time Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euzeby, Alain

    1988-01-01

    Discusses rules governing social security and their implications for part-time employees in various countries. Topics include (1) methods of financing social security, (2) benefits, (3) measures concerning the unemployed, (4) a floor for employers' contributions, (5) graduated contribution rates, and (6) financial incentives. (CH)

  1. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later...

  2. A View of Food Security through A Policy Coherent Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Member States “Food and nutrition security exists when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to food, which is safe and consumed in sufficient quantity and quality to meet their dietary needs and food preferences, and is supported by an environment of adequate sanitation...... by increasing availability, affordability and consumption of biodiverse, safe, nutritious foods aligned with dietary recommendations and environmental sustainability.  Given that the number of chronically undernourished (stunted) could double over next 15 years, the Post-2015 Agenda and its Poverty Reduction......The term “food and nutrition security” reflects the multisector collaboration needed between those working with food security and nutrition security. The term expresses an integrated development goal to help guide implementation of policy and cost-effective programmatic action: As agreed by FAO...

  3. Accelerate China’s Social Security Legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延中

    2008-01-01

    Since the financial crisis in Asia in 1997, China’s social security system has undergone continual reform and readjustment, and has proved to be an integral part of government efforts to perfect the socialist market economy as well as in building a socialist harmonious society. Although social security construction has achieved certain results, it has also left a lot of problems. With the rapid growth of China’s economy and revenue, people from all walks of life are putting ever-increasing demands on the social security system; therefore, the construction of a sound social security system suited to China’s current situation still remains an arduous task. In this article, the author have reviewed the 10 years development of China’s social security system, analyzed problems and challenges and proposed its suggestions.

  4. SOCIAL POLICIES AND STRUCTURAL REFORMS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Brunet Cid

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and structural policies in contemporary Europe. The presentation is organized in four sections. First, we discuss the emerging Europe, the new unity based on democracy and the market economy, the special European Union formula, and comparisons with America. Second, we analyze the dynamics of the European economy, the convergence process, the gaps between United States in productivity and standard of living, competitiveness issues, and the emergence of a new European economy and new European policy mix.Third, we consider European social conditions, the stationary and aging population, Europe’s low employment rate and permanently high unemployment. European economic growth could draw on two major sources: the labor reserves and reforms in factor, product and service markets. In a monetary union, advanced industrial relations should promote labor mobility and salary flexibility. The social security systems permit the redistribution and cohesion which defines the European model.Fourth, for the new Europe, the structural reform strategy is the way forward for the challenge of European economic policy and social policy: more and better jobs thanks to sustainable growth in a dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy, favoring greater social cohesion.

  5. Information systems security policies: a survey in Portuguese public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isabel Maria; Sá-Soares, Filipe de

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems Security is a relevant factor for present organizations. Among the security measures, policies assume a central role in literature. However, there is a reduced number of empirical studies about the adoption of information systems security policies. This paper contributes to mitigate this flaw by presenting the results of a survey in the adoption of Information System Security Policies in Local Public Administration in Portugal. The results are discussed in light of literat...

  6. [Universalization of health or of social security?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Algazi, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the architecture of Mexico's health system based on the main economic problem, failing to achieve a GDP growth rate to increase real wages and give workers in formal employment coverage social security. This analysis describes the relationship between social security of the population and employment status of it (either formal or informal employment) and the impact that this situation poses to our health system. Also, it ends with a reform proposal that will give all workers the same social rights, ie to grant universal social security.

  7. La política farmacéutica nacional en Colombia y la reforma de la seguridad social: acceso y uso racional de medicamentos National pharmaceutical policy and social security reform in Colombia: access and rational use of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mejía Restrepo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir del nuevo sistema de seguridad social en Colombia (1993 que consagra la equidad y la obligatoriedad como fundamentos del servicio público, se analiza si la formulación y la implementación de la política farmacéutica favorecen la accesibilidad, la disponibilidad y el uso racional de los medicamentos, contribuyendo a la equidad en salud. Se utilizaron dos enfoques: uno macro, referido al análisis del marco jurídico y a los actores de la reforma, y otro micro, relacionado a los procesos y resultados en el sistema de provisionamiento de medicamentos. Se estudiaron los instrumentos legales que dan soporte a la política farmacéutica y fue evaluada su aplicación, utilizando indicadores y una enfermedad trazadora (diabetes mellitus. Aunque existe un marco jurídico que consagra el derecho al acceso de la población a servicios de salud y medicamentos esenciales, no hay una política de medicamentos integral. La mayoría de las instituciones presentan problemas para distribuir los medicamentos que pertenecen al Plan Obligatorio de Salud, un bajo porcentaje de medicamentos es obtenido sin costo y una gran parte de pacientes los adquiere en asociaciones de diabéticos o recurre a medicina alternativa. Se encontraron aspectos que desfavorecen la equidad en la cobertura en salud y la accesibilidad a medicamentos esencialesBased on the new social security system in Colombia (1993, which establishes equity and mandatory care as the basis for public health care provision, the authors analyze whether the formulation and implementation of pharmaceutical policy promote accessibility, availability, and rational use of medicines, thereby contributing to equity in health. Two approaches were used: a macro approach centered on the legal framework and various actors in the reform process and a micro approach related to the processes and results in the drug supply system. The authors studied the legal instruments backing the country's pharmaceutical

  8. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  9. Social media for public health: an exploratory policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2015-02-01

    To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of existing policies. This research used a mixed methods approach. A content analysis of social media policies from European institutions, non-government organizations (NGOs) and social media platforms was conducted. Next, individuals responsible for social media in their organization or projects completed a survey about their social media policy. Seventy-five per cent of institutions, NGOs and platforms had a social media policy available. The primary aspects covered within existing policies included data and privacy protection, intellectual property and copyright protection and regulations for the engagement in social media. Policies were intended to regulate staff use, to secure the liability of the institution and social responsibility. Respondents also stressed the importance of self-responsibility when using social media. This study of social media policies for public health in Europe provides a first snapshot of the existence and characteristics of social media policies among European health organizations. Policies tended to focus on legal aspects, rather than the health of the social media user. The effect of such policies on social media adoption and usage behaviour remains to be examined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Security Engine Management of Router based on Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Su Hyung Jo; Ki Young Kim; Sang Ho Lee

    2007-01-01

    Security management has changed from the management of security equipments and useful interface to manager. It analyzes the whole security conditions of network and preserves the network services from attacks. Secure router technology has security functions, such as intrusion detection, IPsec(IP Security) and access control, are applied to legacy router for secure networking. It controls an unauthorized router access and detects an illegal network intrusion. This paper re...

  11. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  12. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  13. Beyond the contributory principle: changes and continuities in Argentine social policy , 2003-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo V Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to analyze the transformations of Argentine social policy during Nestor Kirchner’s and Cristina Fernandez’s Administrations, from 2003 through 2011. We analyze the main social policies with more extended population coverage, especially social security programs. We will argue that at the beginning social policies were a new version of the Bismarckian social insurance, but then the government innovated in social policy breaking with the contributory principle.

  14. Official Position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology Social Security Administration Policy on Validity Testing: Guidance and Recommendations for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, M D; Williams, M A; Ben-Porath, Y S; Bianchini, K J; Boone, K B; Kirkwood, M W; Larrabee, G J; Ord, J S

    2015-01-01

    The milestone publication by Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) of criteria for determining malingered neurocognitive dysfunction led to extensive research on validity testing. Position statements by the National Academy of Neuropsychology and the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) recommended routine validity testing in neuropsychological evaluations. Despite this widespread scientific and professional support, the Social Security Administration (SSA) continued to discourage validity testing, a stance that led to a congressional initiative for SSA to reevaluate their position. In response, SSA commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to evaluate the science concerning the validation of psychological testing. The IOM concluded that validity assessment was necessary in psychological and neuropsychological examinations (IOM, 2015 ). The AACN sought to provide independent expert guidance and recommendations concerning the use of validity testing in disability determinations. A panel of contributors to the science of validity testing and its application to the disability process was charged with describing why the disability process for SSA needs improvement, and indicating the necessity for validity testing in disability exams. This work showed how the determination of malingering is a probability proposition, described how different types of validity tests are appropriate, provided evidence concerning non-credible findings in children and low-functioning individuals, and discussed the appropriate evaluation of pain disorders typically seen outside of mental consultations. A scientific plan for validity assessment that additionally protects test security is needed in disability determinations and in research on classification accuracy of disability decisions.

  15. How strong is the Social Security safety net? Using the Elder Index to assess gaps in economic security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Jan E; Li, Yang; Xu, Ping

    2018-04-16

    Older Americans rely heavily on Social Security benefits (SSBs) to support independent lifestyles, and many have few or no additional sources of income. We establish the extent to which SSBs adequately support economic security, benchmarked by the Elder Economic Security Standard Index. We document variability across U.S. counties in the adequacy levels of SSBs among older adults. We find that the average SSBs fall short of what is required for economic security in every county in the United States, but the level of shortfall varies considerably by location. Policy implications relating to strengthening Social Security and other forms of retirement income are discussed.

  16. Cyber Security as Social Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Dechesne, Francien

    2014-01-01

    Lessons from previous experiences are often overlooked when deploying security-sensitive technology in the real world. At the same time, security assessments often suffer from a lack of real-world data. This appears similar to general problems in technology assessment, where knowledge about

  17. Changing principles in European social security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Clasen, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The provision of social security benefits rests on normative principles of social justice. Most strongly manifest in earnings-related social insurance, the principle of reciprocity has been increasingly questioned on grounds of equity, adequacy and fiscal viability, in the wake of socio-economic

  18. Privacy policies for health social networking sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data. PMID:23599228

  19. Privacy policies for health social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data.

  20. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  1. Stochastic models of the Social Security trust funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Clark; Manchester, Joyce

    Each year in March, the Board of Trustees of the Social Security trust funds reports on the current and projected financial condition of the Social Security programs. Those programs, which pay monthly benefits to retired workers and their families, to the survivors of deceased workers, and to disabled workers and their families, are financed through the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Trust Funds. In their 2003 report, the Trustees present, for the first time, results from a stochastic model of the combined OASDI trust funds. Stochastic modeling is an important new tool for Social Security policy analysis and offers the promise of valuable new insights into the financial status of the OASDI trust funds and the effects of policy changes. The results presented in this article demonstrate that several stochastic models deliver broadly consistent results even though they use very different approaches and assumptions. However, they also show that the variation in trust fund outcomes differs as the approach and assumptions are varied. Which approach and assumptions are best suited for Social Security policy analysis remains an open question. Further research is needed before the promise of stochastic modeling is fully realized. For example, neither parameter uncertainty nor variability in ultimate assumption values is recognized explicitly in the analyses. Despite this caveat, stochastic modeling results are already shedding new light on the range and distribution of trust fund outcomes that might occur in the future.

  2. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy presents an overview of social policy reforms currently ... It shows how some experimental approaches to reform have worked in different ... and students in development studies and social sciences; policymakers and ...

  3. The story of the social security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The use of the Social Security number (SSN) has expanded significantly since its inception in 1936. Created merely to keep track of the earnings history of U.S. workers for Social Security entitlement and benefit computation purposes, it has come to be used as a nearly universal identifier. Assigned at birth, the SSN enables government agencies to identify individuals in their records and businesses to track an individual's financial information. This article explores the history and meaning of the SSN and the Social Security card, as well as the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) SSN master file, generally known as the Numident. The article also traces the historical expansion of SSN use and the steps SSA has taken to enhance SSN integrity.

  4. Social Security Number Verification Service (SSNVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSNVS is a service offered by SSA's Business Services Online (BSO). It is used by employers and certain third-party submitters to verify the accuracy of the names...

  5. CONVERGENCE IN THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Iovitu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed a series of strategies that aim to limit the consequences of non-employment (due to the continuing crisis. These strategies aim by the objectives and mechanisms specific to the eco-social area, to improve the access to employment, social services, professional education and a more efficient European fund management. All this are subordinated to the coupling policy public-private in terms of partnerships both at a national level and European level. The problem is related to differences manifested between the social objectives at the national level and those imposed by the European context. The differences come from different degrees of economic development of the member states, economic development which is reflected on the living standards. The convergence between the social policies is based on the economic convergence, which represents the only way to ameliorate the discrepancies between the united nations of Europe. Social Europe dream or certainty? The answer can be found in the words of Jean Monnet: “we are not bringing together states, we are uniting people”. The efforts to define the four types of actions regarding the free movement of labor force and the correlation of the social security schemes, ensuring equal opportunities, respecting labor rights and the fight against discrimination can be found in the results obtained on these priorities.

  6. Social Policy and Citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Maxime

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage réunit seize spécialistes européens et nord-américains, avec l'ambition d'embrasser les nombreux changements qui, ces dernières décennies, ont transformé le paysage de la protection sociale sur le vieux continent ainsi qu'aux États-Unis. Par des analyses globales à l'échelle internationale, supportées par des études de cas nationales, les auteurs analysent les conséquences de ces changements sur la citoyenneté. Quand T. H. Marshall, en 1950, publiait ce qui allait devenir un class...

  7. Smoking: Taxing health and social security

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, Brian S.; Pitts, M. Melinda

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is costly in terms of not only its effects on smokers' health but also the direct and indirect financial costs it imposes on smokers and their families. For instance, premature death caused by smoking may redistribute Social Security income in unexpected ways that affect behavior and reduce the economic well-being of smokers and their dependents. ; This article examines the effects of smoking-attributable mortality on the net marginal Social Security tax rate (NMSSTR)—the di...

  8. Predicting Social Security numbers from public data

    OpenAIRE

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Information about an individual's place and date of birth can be exploited to predict his or her Social Security number (SSN). Using only publicly available information, we observed a correlation between individuals' SSNs and their birth data and found that for younger cohorts the correlation allows statistical inference of private SSNs. The inferences are made possible by the public availability of the Social Security Administration's Death Master File and the widespread accessibility of per...

  9. Security policies and trust in ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupam; Finin, Tim; Kagal, Lalana; Parker, Jim; Patwardhan, Anand

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous environments comprise resource-constrained mobile and wearable devices and computational elements embedded in everyday artefacts. These are connected to each other using both infrastructure-based as well as short-range ad hoc networks. Limited Internet connectivity limits the use of conventional security mechanisms such as public key infrastructures and other forms of server-centric authentication. Under these circumstances, peer-to-peer interactions are well suited for not just information interchange, but also managing security and privacy. However, practical solutions for protecting mobile devices, preserving privacy, evaluating trust and determining the reliability and accuracy of peer-provided data in such interactions are still in their infancy. Our research is directed towards providing stronger assurances of the reliability and trustworthiness of information and services, and the use of declarative policy-driven approaches to handle the open and dynamic nature of such systems. This paper provides an overview of some of the challenges and issues, and points out directions for progress.

  10. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  11. Financial forecasts accuracy in Brazil's social security system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Patrick Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government's proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts.

  12. Financial forecasts accuracy in Brazil's social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Patrick Alves da; Puty, Claudio Alberto Castelo Branco; Silva, Marcelino Silva da; Carvalho, Solon Venâncio de; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2017-01-01

    Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government's proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts.

  13. Financial forecasts accuracy in Brazil’s social security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government’s proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts. PMID:28859172

  14. Private support and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, F

    1998-01-01

    "The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt

  15. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy Act... Social Security Number; and whether providing the Social Security Number is voluntary or mandatory. Do...

  16. European security and defense policy and its implications for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özköse, Ö Faruk

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. The “European Security and Defense Policy” is an evolving process. Since the Maastricht Treaty (1991), the European Union members have been trying to constitute a common security and defense policy within the framework of Common Foreign and Security Policy, second pillar of the European Union. The efforts to create “separable but not separate” European forces within NATO have increased speed in the last years and changed direction towar...

  17. Social Security System in India: An International Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Rupak Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Surajit

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines selected components of social security system in India and compares them with their OECD counterparts. Historically, the Indian policy makers have viewed the pension system as a welfare measure and therefore, it lacks in financial professionalism, diversification, and in the belief that pension funds can also be treated as an asset. The Indian system is biased towards the organized formal sector as workers in this sector are benefitted with the provisions under various lab...

  18. Happiness and Social Policy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research on Happiness can inform welfare choices and policies an dhelp to promote job creation, social inclusion and to some degree a higher level of equality. The book embraces the relationship between happiness, social policy and welfare state analysis.......Research on Happiness can inform welfare choices and policies an dhelp to promote job creation, social inclusion and to some degree a higher level of equality. The book embraces the relationship between happiness, social policy and welfare state analysis....

  19. Women and social security: a progressive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, L K

    1994-01-01

    This article explores some major assumptions underlying the Social Security system and alternative approaches to rendering the system more economically viable, meeting the income needs of the elderly and/or providing greater equity under its benefit and taxation provisions. It attempts to show that the current structure of Social Security not only reinforces but also exacerbates the underlying economic inequalities in our nation's political economy under the guise of a social insurance program. In addressing selected benefit and taxation issues, the article focuses on how working and older women are faring in the 1990s under the Social Security system. It argues that although the program theoretically is gender neutral, its impact is not. Women, particularly those who are single, are poorly served. The article concludes that a progressive restructuring of the Social Security system itself is imperative if we are to meet the needs of a large percentage of workers, older people, and the economic and social demands of the 1990s and beyond. It also offers some suggestions for such change.

  20. Information security policies and procedures a practitioner's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    INFORMATION SECURITY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Introduction Corporate Policies Organizationwide (Tier 1) Policies Organizationwide Policy Document Legal Requirements Duty of Loyalty Duty of Care Other Laws and Regulations Business Requirements Where to Begin? Summary Why Manage This Process as a Project? Introduction First Things First: Identify the Sponsor Defining the Scope of Work Time Management Cost Management Planning for Quality Managing Human Resources Creating a Communications Plan Summary Planning and Preparation Introduction Objectives of Policies, Stand

  1. Developing a secured social networking site using information security awareness techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius O. Okesola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ever since social network sites (SNS became a global phenomenon in almost every industry, security has become a major concern to many SNS stakeholders. Several security techniques have been invented towards addressing SNS security, but information security awareness (ISA remains a critical point. Whilst very few users have used social circles and applications because of a lack of users’ awareness, the majority have found it difficult to determine the basis of categorising friends in a meaningful way for privacy and security policies settings. This has confirmed that technical control is just part of the security solutions and not necessarily a total solution. Changing human behaviour on SNSs is essential; hence the need for a privately enhanced ISA SNS. Objective: This article presented sOcialistOnline – a newly developed SNS, duly secured and platform independent with various ISA techniques fully implemented. Method: Following a detailed literature review of the related works, the SNS was developed on the basis of Object Oriented Programming (OOP approach, using PhP as the coding language with the MySQL database engine at the back end. Result: This study addressed the SNS requirements of privacy, security and services, and attributed them as the basis of architectural design for sOcialistOnline. SNS users are more aware of potential risk and the possible consequences of unsecured behaviours. Conclusion: ISA is focussed on the users who are often the greatest security risk on SNSs, regardless of technical securities implemented. Therefore SNSs are required to incorporate effective ISA into their platform and ensure users are motivated to embrace it.

  2. Impact of Population Aging on Military and Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šimková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is among the most important problems of developed European countries and the most frequently discussed social issues. The Czech Republic also faces population ageing and we cannot expect a different trend in the future. Life expectancy has increased due to better health care while current lifestyle often leads to lower natality, resulting in a negative rate of natural increase and a decreasing proportion of young people in population in the future. This problem affects all spheres of life and social and economic development. Population ageing may pose a threat to the security of the population in different ways. The functioning of the security system may be threatened due to decreasing workforce. Population ageing may undercut resources for military budgets. Young recruits represent an important part of military forces and the latter are competing in the labour market with more attractive occupations. Especially ensuring the stability of the personnel needed for securing crisis situations would be a significant problem of near future. This paper presents a demographic perspective on staffing and correct operation of military forces in the context of population ageing. It describes the current situation of human resources in the military policy of the Czech Republic and determines the negative impact of population ageing on recruitment potential. It deals with the sustainability of human resources for security forces.

  3. Three Essays on Information Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubao

    2011-01-01

    Information security breaches pose a significant and increasing threat to national security and economic well-being. In the Symantec Internet Security Threat Report (2003), companies surveyed experienced an average of about 30 attacks per week. Anecdotal evidence suggests that losses from cyber-attacks can run into millions of dollars. The CSI-FBI…

  4. Mining social networks and security informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Özyer, Tansel; Rokne, Jon; Khoury, Suheil

    2013-01-01

    Crime, terrorism and security are in the forefront of current societal concerns. This edited volume presents research based on social network techniques showing how data from crime and terror networks can be analyzed and how information can be extracted. The topics covered include crime data mining and visualization; organized crime detection; crime network visualization; computational criminology; aspects of terror network analyses and threat prediction including cyberterrorism and the related area of dark web; privacy issues in social networks; security informatics; graph algorithms for soci

  5. Security and trust in online social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Carminati, Barbara; Viviani, Marco; Viviani, Marco; Carminati, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The enormous success and diffusion that online social networks (OSNs) are encountering nowadays is vastly apparent. Users' social interactions now occur using online social media as communication channels; personal information and activities are easily exchanged both for recreational and business purposes in order to obtain social or economic advantages. In this scenario, OSNs are considered critical applications with respect to the security of users and their resources, for their characteristics alone: the large amount of personal information they manage, big economic upturn connected to thei

  6. Handbook of space security policies, applications and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Hays, Peter; Robinson, Jana; Moura, Denis; Giannopapa, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Space Security involves the use of space (in particular communication, navigation, earth observation, and electronic intelligence satellites) for military and security purposes on earth and also the maintenance of space (in particular the earth orbits) as safe and secure areas for conducting peaceful activities. The two aspects can be summarized as "space for security on earth" and “the safeguarding of space for peaceful endeavors.” The Handbook will provide a sophisticated, cutting-edge resource on the space security policy portfolio and the associated assets, assisting fellow members of the global space community and other interested policy-making and academic audiences in keeping abreast of the current and future directions of this vital dimension of international space policy. The debate on coordinated space security measures, including relevant 'Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures,' remains at a relatively early stage of development. The book offers a comprehensive description of the variou...

  7. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a student... Security Administration. If the Social Security Administration confirms that number, the Secretary notifies...

  8. ESCAPE. Energy Security and ClimAte Policy Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessels, J.R.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2005-05-01

    Climate change and energy supply security policy are currently not integrated in most countries, despite possible synergies. The ESCAPE approach suggests that linking climate change policy with security of energy supply could improve climate change policy at both a national and international level. The report explores the interaction between policies of energy security and climate change and the options of inclusion of energy security issues into national and international post-2012 climate negotiations. It emphasises the importance of the US in this regard and takes a close look at US energy policy documents. It appears that current US energy policy is not directed towards reducing its reliance on imported fossil fuel, even though the government has a strong preference for this. This study shows that measures to reduce import dependency are mostly synergetic with climate policy and gives some options that can be implemented. On an international level, linkages of energy security into post-2012 climate policy may be possible in sectoral bottom-up approaches or technology frameworks. As well, inclusion of a security of supply criterion in international emission trading instruments may provide potential benefits

  9. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters...

  10. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters...

  11. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office... made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...

  12. New government to make social security cutbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2003-01-01

    In May 2003, a new coalition government of the Christian Democrats and two liberal parties, VVD and D66, took office in the Netherlands. The parties' coalition agreement provides for major cutbacks in public spending, largely targeted on social security expenditure. The trade unions are fiercely

  13. Speeding decisions. Social security's information exchange program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Kitt; Hastings, Bob

    2011-05-01

    The Social Security Administration has plenty of reasons to streamline its records request process-more than 15 million reasons each year, in fact. That's why it has been pioneering information exchange projects with the private sector, including use of the Nationwide Health Information Network.

  14. Competing policy packages and the complexity of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Saunders, Harry

    2014-01-01

    To underscore both the diversity and severity of energy security tradeoffs, this study examines five different energy security policy packages—five distinct strategies aimed at reducing oil dependence, enhancing energy affordability, expanding access to modern energy services, responding to climate change, and minimizing the water intensity of energy production. It identifies both compelling synergies and conflicts between each of the five strategies. The central value of the study is that it turns on its head the widely accepted notion of a “portfolio approach” or “all of the above” strategy to energy policymaking. To make this case, the article begins by elucidating the complexity and multidimensionality of energy security as a concept. It then introduces our five energy security policy packages to illustrate how some energy security objectives complement each other whereas others counteract each other. It concludes by noting that energy security is not an absolute state, and that achieving it only “works” by prioritizing some dimensions, or policy goals and packages, more than others. - Highlights: • Energy security is a complex, multidimensional concept. • Policy packages aimed at achieving energy security often conflict with each other. • Energy security only “works” by prioritizing some dimensions more than others

  15. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system.

  16. External dimension of Ukraine’s security policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the external dimension of security policy of Ukraine is stipulated for the need to analyse the current state of relations with organizations such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and The Collective Security Treaty Organization, and relations within the Common European Security and Defence Policy. Ukraine’s European Integration means inclusion in the global space security with countries that it shares common values and principles. It does not exclude the collaboration with the countries that belong to other systems of collective security in the scope that is appropriate to basic national interests of Ukraine. It is proved that the activities of the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission is an important contribution to the process of peaceful conflict resolution, and helps to develop democratic principles and foundations of foreign policy. It is determined that the further development of the constructive cooperation between the EU advisory mission under CSDP will provide an opportunity to improve and increase the security of national borders from external threats and challenges, and help to accelerate the process of integration into the European security space. The attention is paid to the fact that, taken into consideration the state of relations with Russia, the further cooperation with the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO may adversely affect the overall security situation in Ukraine and lead to further tension with Russia today.

  17. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  18. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ... goals to eliminate current threats and risks such as terrorism. As far as Poland is concerned, its priority is to be an active leader in improving common security policy within the boundaries of the European Union (EU...

  19. Why Social Policy Needs Objective Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThere are many qualms about subjective indicators, and some believe that social policy would be better for not using them. This paper consists of a review of these objections. It is argued that policy makers need subjective indicators. The main reasons being: 1. Social policy is never

  20. Moral Philosophy and Social Work Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Amanda

    2009-10-01

    Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies.

  1. Moral Philosophy and Social Work Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Reiman, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies.

  2. Critical Perspective on ASEAN's Security Policy Under ASEAN Political and Security Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Jati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available   Despite economic integration challenges, ASEAN faces greater security challenges. It is obvious to assert that a stable economic development requires a secure regional atmosphere. The most probable threats against ASEAN are ranging from hostile foreign entities infiltration, intra and inter states disputes, radical religious movements, human trafficking, drugs and narcotics smuggling, cybercrimes and environmental disasters. In 2009, ASEAN established the ASEAN Political and Security Community as the umbrella of ASEAN’s political and security initiatives. APSC slots in some significant fora; ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR, ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting (AMM,  ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF, ASEAN Defense Minister’s Meeting (ADMM, ASEAN Law Ministers Meeting (ALAWMM, and ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crimes (AMMTC. The wide array of these forums signify ASEAN efforts to confront double features of security; the traditional and nontraditional or critical security. The traditional security considers state security as the primary object security. While the critical security tends to focus on non-state aspects such as individual human being as its referent object. Even though some argue that APSC has been able to preserve the stability in the region, it still lack of confidence in solving critical issues such as territorial disputes and irregular migrants problems.Therefore, this piece would examine the fundamental questions: How does ASEAN address beyond state security issues in its security policy through APSC? To search for the answer this paper would apply critical security studies approach. Critical security posits that threats are not always for the states but in many cases for the people. Based on the examination of ASEAN security policies, this paper argues that ASEAN’s security policy has touched the non-traditional security issues but showing slow progress on its development and application. 

  3. Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An analysis. ... per cent of its total food needs and in poor years, it produces no more than 25 per cent. ... food security by introducing modern technology, irrigation, terracing, soil and ...

  4. Trust in Security-Policy Enforcement Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Fred B; Morrisett, Greg

    2005-01-01

    .... One avenue of language-based work produced Cyclone, a type-safe variant of C. The Cyclone language retains the familiar syntax and semantics of C code, but provides the strong security guarantees of modem languages such as Java...

  5. The social policies of Lula's administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the initiatives taken by the Lula administration regarding social policies. To begin with, we describe the social reform process implemented by the governments that followed the redemocratization of Brazil. Then, we examine some indices showing the evolution of social conditions due to social policies practiced during the democratic period. Finally, we analyze the views about the social question predominant in the PT government, as well as the most appropriate policies to tackle such a question. We also discuss the present government's proposals and initiatives regarding the social area.

  6. An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members’ compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members’ attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1 the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members’ compliance with the information security policy, (2 the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3 the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training

  7. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  8. Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Africa, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This report, which is part of a four-volume series, provides a cross-national comparison of the social security systems in 48 countries in Africa. It summarizes the...

  9. Social Security Number Replacement Card Applications filed via the Internet

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides a variety of ways to conduct business with the agency. SSA offers members of the public the opportunity to request...

  10. Considerations When Including Students with Disabilities in Test Security Policies. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Sound test security policies and procedures are needed to ensure test security and confidentiality, and to help prevent cheating. In this era when cheating on tests draws regular media attention, there is a need for thoughtful consideration of the ways in which possible test security measures may affect accessibility for some students with…

  11. Social media policy in other orqanizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebelius, Carl L

    2012-01-01

    Most professional organizations have developed policy for use of social media by their members and several have developed Web sites to help members with ethical media use. It is commmon among businesses, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies to have policies governing use of media by employees when communicating with the public and provide employee training. This article samples some of the best practices in social media policy. Development of such policy represents an attractive opportunity for dentistry.

  12. Position paper: A generic approach for security policies composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    When modelling access control in distributed systems, the problem of security policies composition arises. Much work has been done on different ways of combining policies, and using different logics to do this. In this paper, we propose a more general approach based on a 4-valued logic, that abst...

  13. A Life-Cycle Analysis of Social Security with Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kaiji

    2009-01-01

    This paper incorporates two features of housing in a life-cycle analysis of social security: housing as a durable good and housing market frictions. We find that with housing as a durable good unfunded social security substantially crowds out housing consumption throughout the life cycle. By contrast, aggregate non-durable consumption is higher when social security is present, although it is postponed until late in life. Moreover, in the presence of housing market frictions, social security l...

  14. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  15. Transformations of the Social Policy in Ukraine and its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokarskyi Taras B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the background of the transformative processes of the Ukrainian society on the basis of the pro-European strategy for economic and social development of Ukraine in 2002-2011 and further in the subsequent crisis years. The focus is made on the plans regarding the approximation of the state to the norms and standards of developed democracy, as well as on the observed in the civil society failures related to the high level of corruption, violation of social security standards, human and civil rights and freedoms, etc. A special attention is paid to economic approaches and the concepts of the problems of social policy as well as the formation of mechanisms for social protection of the population. There highlighted the most critical problems of the transformation of the social policy, in particular, changes in the pension plan and social benefit program.

  16. Social Security privatization: balancing efficiency and fairness

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alan Garner

    1997-01-01

    This article examines these fundamental issues of economic efficiency and fairness that should be weighed when considering Social Security privatization. The first section summarizes the challenges to the current system and outlines various options for reform. The second section explains how privatization could improve economic efficiency, and briefly considers the difficult issue of the transition costs in moving from the current system to full privatization. The third section discusses impo...

  17. Security and privacy preserving in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chbeir, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This volume aims at assessing the current approaches and technologies, as well as to outline the major challenges and future perspectives related to the security and privacy protection of social networks. It provides the reader with an overview of the state-of-the art techniques, studies, and approaches as well as outlining future directions in this field. A wide range of interdisciplinary contributions from various research groups ensures for a balanced and complete perspective.

  18. Globally reasoning about localised security policies in distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario

    In this report, we aim at establishing proper ways for model checking the global security of distributed systems, which are designed consisting of set of localised security policies that enforce specific issues about the security expected. The systems are formally specified following a syntax......, defined in detail in this report, and their behaviour is clearly established by the Semantics, also defined in detail in this report. The systems include the formal attachment of security policies into their locations, whose intended interactions are trapped by the policies, aiming at taking access...... control decisions of the system, and the Semantics also takes care of this. Using the Semantics, a Labelled Transition System (LTS) can be induced for every particular system, and over this LTS some model checking tasks could be done. We identify how this LTS is indeed obtained, and propose an alternative...

  19. Social networking mining, visualization, and security

    CERN Document Server

    Dehuri, Satchidananda; Wang, Gi-Nam

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of social media and on-line communities in networked world a large gamut of data has been collected and stored in databases. The rate at which such data is stored is growing at a phenomenal rate and pushing the classical methods of data analysis to their limits. This book presents an integrated framework of recent empirical and theoretical research on social network analysis based on a wide range of techniques from various disciplines like data mining, social sciences, mathematics, statistics, physics, network science, machine learning with visualization techniques, and security. The book illustrates the potential of multi-disciplinary techniques in various real life problems and intends to motivate researchers in social network analysis to design more effective tools by integrating swarm intelligence and data mining.  

  20. 26 CFR 301.7701-11 - Social security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual or...

  1. 42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of social security number. 435.910 Section 435... of social security number. (a) The agency must require, as a condition of eligibility, that each... religious objections, refuses to obtain a Social Security Number (SSN). The identification number may be...

  2. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right... which is required by Federal statute; or (2) The disclosure of a Social Security number when such...

  3. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number required. 209.3... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is submitted...

  4. 45 CFR 205.52 - Furnishing of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing of social security numbers. 205.52... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.52 Furnishing of social security numbers. The... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN...

  5. 4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social Security number. 83.9 Section 83.9 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.9 Social Security number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN) unless...

  6. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section... REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to...' refusal to disclose their social security numbers, except where: (1) The disclosure is required by law; or...

  7. African Social Security Systems: An Ordinal Evaluation | Dixon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to rank the social security systems in 45 African countries using a comparative evaluation methodology that enables an assess ment to be ma(le of a country's statutory social security intention. The conclusion drawn is that the spread of African social security system design standards are ...

  8. Social Security in Zimbabwe : Phase I Overview of social security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most people are covered by non-formal arrangements and the family and community still play a critical role in social protection even though poverty has impacted negatively on their ability to do this effectively. Churches are another source of social security. Semi-formal arrangements include burial societies, savings and ...

  9. Development and Analysis of Security Policies in Security Enhanced Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    by Tresys Technology [32]. The suite contains tools for SE policy creation, management, and analysis. Apol provides a graphical interface for...runs under a predefined platform user: system, nfc , radio, etc. The third and fourth checks simply deal with different user strings, with fixed...system user id to the system domain and their application directories to system_data_file. Similarly, applications under the nfc and radio user id

  10. Energy security of supply under EU climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenenberg, H.; Wetzelaer, B.J.H.W.

    2006-12-01

    The implications of various climate policies for the security of supply in the EU-25 were investigated. The security of supply was quantified using the Supply/Demand (S/D) Index. This index aggregates quantitative information on a country's energy system into one single figure. It takes a value between 0 and 100, with higher values indicating a more secure energy system. The S/D Index was calculated for the year 2020 based on the information in a series of policy scenarios, including a baseline (S/D Index 50.7), an energy efficiency scenario (53.8), two renewable energy scenarios (52.6 and 53.3) and two scenarios with combined policies (55.9 and 55.6).The S/D Index proved a useful indicator for assessing the implications of climate policies for the security of supply. As climate policies become more stringent, CO2 index fall, and the S/D index increases. The magnitude of the changes in the two indices is not always similar however. Major falls in CO2 indices in the order of 20% for two scenarios with combined energy efficiency and renewable energy polices lead to less noteworthy improvements in the associated S/D indices. Nevertheless, this combination of policies leads to the greatest improvements in the security of supply

  11. Elements of ESA's policy on space and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopapa, Christina; Adriaensen, Maarten; Antoni, Ntorina; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2018-06-01

    In the past decade Europe has been facing rising security threats, ranging from climate change, migrations, nearby conflicts and crises, to terrorism. The demand to tackle these critical challenges is increasing in Member States. Space is already contributing, and could further contribute with already existing systems and future ones. The increasing need for security in Europe and for safety and security of Europe's space activities has led to a growing number of activities in ESA in various domains. It has also driven new and strengthened partnerships with security stakeholders in Europe. At the European level, ESA is collaborating closely with the main European institutions dealing with space security. In addition, as an organisation ESA has evolved to conduct security-related projects and programmes and to address the threats to its own activities, thereby securing the investments of the Member States. Over the past years the Agency has set up a comprehensive regulatory framework in order to be able to cope with security related requirements. Over the past years, ESA has increased its exchanges with its Member States. The paper presents main elements of the ESA's policy on space and security. It introduces the current European context for space and security, the European goals in this domain and the specific objectives to which the Agency intends to contribute. Space and security in the ESA context is set out under two components: a) security from space and b) security in space, including the security of ESA's own activities (corporate security and the security of ESA's space missions). Subsequently, ESA's activities are elaborated around these two pillars, composed of different activities conducted in the most appropriate frameworks and in coordination with the relevant stakeholders and shareholders.

  12. Verification of Security Policy Enforcement in Enterprise Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Puneet; Stoller, Scott D.

    Many security requirements for enterprise systems can be expressed in a natural way as high-level access control policies. A high-level policy may refer to abstract information resources, independent of where the information is stored; it controls both direct and indirect accesses to the information; it may refer to the context of a request, i.e., the request’s path through the system; and its enforcement point and enforcement mechanism may be unspecified. Enforcement of a high-level policy may depend on the system architecture and the configurations of a variety of security mechanisms, such as firewalls, host login permissions, file permissions, DBMS access control, and application-specific security mechanisms. This paper presents a framework in which all of these can be conveniently and formally expressed, a method to verify that a high-level policy is enforced, and an algorithm to determine a trusted computing base for each resource.

  13. Social Media, Health Policy, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Social media has been cited as a methodology for reducing the knowledge translation gap, creating communities of practice, and reducing traditional hierarchical divisions. Social movements have also embraced social media as a means of spreading their aims and reaching wide audiences. However, its impact on health policy is seldom considered. The author examines the complexity of clinicians' use of social media to influence policy and how policy and government groups may use social media to help their own objectives. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  15. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  16. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-13-0030] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  17. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-2014-001] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  18. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  19. The Relationship between Media Consumption and Feeling of Social Security

    OpenAIRE

    Bijan khajeNoori; Mehdi Kaveh

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe concept of social security and a Feeling of security and the citizens, as a key element in achieving the projected, is important Sociologists and criminologist shave always paid special attention has been sought. Study of the factors influencing the feeling of security, can increase the feeling of security is work. Also enhance citizens' feeling of security and welfare of the citizens and to accept responsibility and commitment will do. The widespread use of social media in re...

  20. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  1. Foreword to "Intelligence and Social Policy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue bridges inquiry on intelligence and scholarship on social policy by exploring the constraints that differences in intelligence may impose in fashioning effective social policy. The authors discuss a range of behaviors, but focus primarily on the noneducational outcomes of crime, employment, poverty, and health. (SLD)

  2. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Directeur(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Maison(s) d'édition: IDRC. 1 janvier 1999. ISBN :.

  3. Social security income and the utilization of home care: Evidence from the social security notch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    This paper exploits Social Security law changes to identify the effect of Social Security income on the use of formal and informal home care by the elderly. Results from an instrumental variables estimation strategy show that as retirement income increases, elderly individuals increase their use of formal home care and become less likely to rely on informal home care provided to them by their children. This negative effect on informal home care is most likely driven by male children withdrawing from their caregiving roles. The empirical results also suggest that higher Social Security benefits would encourage the use of formal home care by those who would not have otherwise used any type of home care and would also encourage the use of both types of home care services among elderly individuals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  5. Policies as translation: situating the transnational social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stubbs

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the implications of the development of an anthropology or ethnography of the transnational dimensions of policies. The fi rst part explains the basic conceptual apparatus, in terms of policies as a generator of meanings. The second part examines policies as translation and explores its implications in terms of the transnationalization of the policies and, in particular, it seeks to contrast the translation of policies with more orthodox knowledge of policies transference. The third part explores the translation of policies through a refl exive ethnographical approach, analyzing a number of cases based on the practical involvement of the authors in social policies reforms in regions of the Central Europe and the East. The fourth part presents some conclusions and indicates certain theoretical and ethical objections that can and must be raised with regard to the presented approach.

  6. Group Policy Fundamentals, Security, and the Managed Desktop

    CERN Document Server

    Moskowitz, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate Group Policy guide-now updated for Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2!. IT and network administrators can streamline their Windows Server management tasks by using Group Policy tools to automate or implement rules, processes, or new security across the enterprise. In this comprehensive guide, Microsoft Group Policy MVP Jeremy Moskowitz thoroughly explores Group Policy across all Windows platforms, including the latest on Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2. If you're a Windows network administrator managing scores of users and computers, you need this essential reference on your desk.: Covers

  7. Development of an Internet Security Policy for health care establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilioudis, C; Pangalos, G

    2000-01-01

    The Internet provides unprecedented opportunities for interaction and data sharing among health care providers, patients and researchers. However, the advantages provided by the Internet come with a significantly greater element of risk to the confidentiality and integrity of information. This paper defines the basic security requirements that must be addressed in order to use the Internet to safely transmit patient and/or other sensitive Health Care information. It describes a suitable Internet Security Policy for Health Care Establishments and provides the set of technical measures that are needed for its implementation. The proposed security policy and technical approaches have been based on an extensive study of the related recommendations from the security and standard groups both in EU amid USA and our related work and experience. The results have been utilized in the framework of the Intranet Health Clinic project, where the use of the Internet for the transmission of sensitive Health Care information is of vital importance.

  8. Household Food Security Policy Analysis A System Dynamics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isdore Paterson Guma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Household food security FS is complex and requires multiple stakeholder intervention. Systemic approach aids stakeholders to understand the mechanisms and feedback between complexities in food security providing effective decision making as global resource consumption continues to grow. The study investigated food security challenges and a system dynamics model was developed for evaluating policies and intervention strategies for better livelihood at household level. Dynamic synthesis methodology questionnaires and interview guide were used to unearth food security challenges faced by households. A causal loop diagram was drawn. The model demonstrates a balance between food stock seeds preserved seeds for sale and consumption from crop harvest throughout the food cycles. This research makes contribution to the literature by evaluating dynamic synthesis methodology and FS policy discussions from a feedback point of view.

  9. Security Policy for a Generic Space Exploration Communication Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Vaden, Karl R.

    2016-01-01

    This document is one of three. It describes various security mechanisms and a security policy profile for a generic space-based communication architecture. Two other documents accompany this document- an Operations Concept (OpsCon) and a communication architecture document. The OpsCon should be read first followed by the security policy profile described by this document and then the architecture document. The overall goal is to design a generic space exploration communication network architecture that is affordable, deployable, maintainable, securable, evolvable, reliable, and adaptable. The architecture should also require limited reconfiguration throughout system development and deployment. System deployment includes subsystem development in a factory setting, system integration in a laboratory setting, launch preparation, launch, and deployment and operation in space.

  10. The Evolution of the European Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Negrut

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of development of the European Union’s security dimension has known a spectacular evolution in the past years, passing from political consultation to establishing objectives, then commonactions and positions; at a practical level, the Petersburg measures, carried on initially by the Western European Union as an armed branch of the European Union, have been replaced by actions of implication ofthe Union in managing some conflicts. The Lisbon Treaty confirms the commitments of the member states and mentions the fact that the European Union will dispose of the necessary measures for the defense of its objectives and to contribute to world peace and stability.

  11. Brazilian Biodiesel Policy: Social and environmental considerations of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Catherine Aliana Gucciardi; Vianna, Joao Nildo de Souza

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze the Brazilian Biodiesel Policy (PNPB) and to identify the social and environmental aspects of sustainability that are present or absent within it. Biofuels, namely alcohol and biodiesel, have been increasing in popularity on a global scale due to their potential as alternative and renewable energy sources. Brazil, a vast country blessed with abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a global leader in the production of biofuels. This article includes a brief analysis of the concept of sustainable development, which served as a basis to evaluate the Policy documents. Although PNPB's implementation, which began in 2004, is still within its initial stage, it was possible to identify and elaborate on the environmental and social aspects of the Policy, namely: the social inclusion of family farmers; regional development; food security; influencing the carbon and energy balance of biodiesel; promoting sustainable agricultural practices and a diversity of feedstock. (author)

  12. Extension of social security coverage for the informal economy in Indonesia : surveys in the urban and rural informal economy

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, John; Hirose, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extension of social security coverage to workers in the informal economy. In particular, the paper presents the results of surveys assessing social security needs of workers in the informal economy in both urban and rural areas. The outcome of these surveys provides primary information for the development of effective policy on social security coverage extension to these groups of workers.

  13. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office..., announcement is made for the following committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program...

  14. Social networking policies in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Blake; Culley, Joan M; Hein, Laura C; Williams, Amber; Tavakoli, Abbas S

    2014-03-01

    Social networking use has increased exponentially in the past few years. A literature review related to social networking and nursing revealed a research gap between nursing practice and education. Although there was information available on the appropriate use of social networking sites, there was limited research on the use of social networking policies within nursing education. The purpose of this study was to identify current use of social media by faculty and students and a need for policies within nursing education at one institution. A survey was developed and administered to nursing students (n = 273) and nursing faculty (n = 33). Inferential statistics included χ², Fisher exact test, t test, and General Linear Model. Cronbach's α was used to assess internal consistency of social media scales. The χ² result indicates that there were associations with the group and several social media items. t Test results indicate significant differences between student and faculty for average of policies are good (P = .0127), policies and discipline (P = .0315), and policy at the study school (P = .0013). General Linear Model analyses revealed significant differences for "friend" a patient with a bond, unprofessional posts, policy, and nursing with class level. Results showed that students and faculty supported the development of a social networking policy.

  15. Market Valuation of Accrued Social Security Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    John Geanakoplos; Stephen P. Zeldes

    2009-01-01

    One measure of the health of the Social Security system is the difference between the market value of the trust fund and the present value of benefits accrued to date. How should present values be computed for this calculation in light of future uncertainties? We think it is important to use market value. Since claims on accrued benefits are not currently traded in financial markets, we cannot directly observe a market value. In this paper, we use a model to estimate what the market price for...

  16. Social security reform in two stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ranulfo Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Brazilian social security reform during the Fernando Henrique and Lula Administrations. After comparing the contexts in which the different Constitutional Amendment proposals (PECs were submitted and the behavior by Members of Congress during the two periods, we argue that a contextual change (namely a switch in places between government and opposition affected the distribution of preferences and resources between the players and impacted the government in the various arenas in which the game was being played, and that as a result the reformist agenda has made more progress under the current Workers' Party administration.

  17. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 273.6 Section 273.6... normally uses the Receipt of Application for a Social Security Number, Form SSA-5028, as evidence that an... security numbers. (a) Requirements for participation. The State agency shall require that a household...

  18. Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    a part of contemporary post- structuralist and social constructivist approaches to international theory , often accompanied by quasi-indifference to...Richard Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy: Its Evolution, Theory , and Administration , London and New York: Routledge, 1995; David Jablonsky, Paradigm...61 II. Strategic Theory and Formulation

  19. SOSYAL GÜVENLİK SİSTEMİ AÇISINDAN GÜVENCELİ ESNEKLİK (FLEXICURITY IN TERMS OF SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Demirsat KÖLEOĞLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity is a fact that synchronically interests and impresses employee and employer. Flexicurity fact becomes concrete with some genuine provisions. This provision is appropriate law framework, active labour market policies, lifelong learning and social security system. In this study, it is aimed to analyze flexicurity fact in the context of social security systems. In this reasons, income security and combination security are explicated through social security systems.

  20. 76 FR 68243 - Social Security Rulings, SSR 91-1c and SSR 66-18c; Rescission of Social Security Rulings (SSR) 66...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ..., Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: SSRs make available... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2011-0068] Social Security Rulings, SSR 91-1c and SSR 66-18c; Rescission of Social Security Rulings (SSR) 66-18c and SSR 91-1c AGENCY: Social Security...

  1. Challenges and opportunities for more integrated regional food security policy in the Caribbean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Lowitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean Community (CARICOM has recognized regional integration as an important development strategy for addressing the unique vulnerabilities of its member small island developing states (SIDS. Food security in the Caribbean is a fundamental social and ecological challenge in which the dynamics of regional integration are increasingly playing out. CARICOM members have subsequently identified a number of shared food security problems and have endorsed regional goals and approaches to address them; however, progress towards solutions has been slow. Recognizing that evidence-based studies on the potential factors limiting sustained progress are lacking, we undertook a comparative policy analysis to understand better the various approaches and framings of food security at national and regional levels with a view to assessing coherence. We identify considerable divergence in how regional and local policy institutions frame and approach food security problems in CARICOM and then identify ways through which the policy integration objectives for enhanced regional food security might be progressed, with a particular focus on social learning.

  2. Social security in developing countries : operation and dynamics of social security mechanisms in rural Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, A.H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This study, which is based on field research carried out in Swaziland from October 1989 to December 1990, starts with an introductory chapter followed by three theoretical chapters on social security in developing countries. The content of these chapters is illustrated with an extensive case study

  3. Earnings Sharing in the U.S. Social Security System: A Microsimulation Analysis of Future Female Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Howard M.; Reznik, Gayle L.; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: As part of an ongoing effort to analyze the distributional implications of potential policy reforms to the U.S. Social Security system, we consider the widely discussed reform of earnings sharing. Such an approach has been viewed as a way to "update" Social Security's family benefits based on marital status and as a means to…

  4. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office..., announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  5. Features of modern security policy UK political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stalovierova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The security policy of the British coalition government of D. Cameron (2010-2015 is summarized; it’s been proved that political forces of Tory and Liberal Democrat should have compromised to carry out unanimous course in the scope of national security, and the problems of the security strategy on parliamentary elections in 2015 are analyzed, particularly the comparative analysis of the modern safety strategy of leading British parties is exercised. Under conditions of the appearance of new challenges and threats, transformation of international safety system, the questions of safety policy often become the object of attention of the British community and experts. The absence of cross-party consensus on most terms of safety strategy of the United Kingdom during the election campaign in 2015 makes the discussion about perspectives of the British safety policy still more urgent. During the election campaign there was no unity on any aspect of security subject between parties. First of all, Labourists, Liberal Democrats, Scottish National Party and Green Party made a statement about readiness to develop cooperation with the EU and the Conservatives and the UK Independence Party were on the side of the Eurosceptics. The opinions of the parties were also divided on military operations abroad, financing and force level. In terms of one-party government and presence of majority in the House of Commons, the Conservatives have opportunities to realize their own vision of British safety policy.

  6. Social security in developing countries : some theoretical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, A.H.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of social security and criticizes the ILO definition of the concept as too limited to analyse non-Western social security systems. It develops an alternative definition which includes, firstly, the protection by society of individuals or social groups against a fall

  7. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... personal interview with the dependent is not required. Form SS-5 may be obtained at: (i) Any local social... previously assigned social security number(s), if any, of the applicant. A personal interview may be required... sponsoring agency of a refugee, if no personal mailing address is available). (d) Social security number...

  8. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  9. Antipodean Social Policy Responses to Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    the government enacted fiscal stimulus measures, the social policy component was small and the government soon returned to welfare retrenchment and workfare policy. Based on a detailed account of recent crisis policies as well as a condensed overview of previous crisis responses (to the 1970s oil shocks......, interest group structures, political institutions and policy legacies. The analysis shows that the recent differences cannot fully be explained through idiosyncratic factors, as partisan ideology was already crucial in strategic policy decisions during the first months of the crisis. The historical pattern...

  10. A Methodology and Toolkit for Deploying Reliable Security Policies in Critical Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Jaïdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT bring out novel concepts, solutions, trends, and challenges to integrate intelligent and autonomous systems in critical infrastructures. A new generation of ICT environments (such as smart cities, Internet of Things, edge-fog-social-cloud computing, and big data analytics is emerging; it has different applications to critical domains (such as transportation, communication, finance, commerce, and healthcare and different interconnections via multiple layers of public and private networks, forming a grid of critical cyberphysical infrastructures. Protecting sensitive and private data and services in critical infrastructures is, at the same time, a main objective and a great challenge for deploying secure systems. It essentially requires setting up trusted security policies. Unfortunately, security solutions should remain compliant and regularly updated to follow and track the evolution of security threats. To address this issue, we propose an advanced methodology for deploying and monitoring the compliance of trusted access control policies. Our proposal extends the traditional life cycle of access control policies with pertinent activities. It integrates formal and semiformal techniques allowing the specification, the verification, the implementation, the reverse-engineering, the validation, the risk assessment, and the optimization of access control policies. To automate and facilitate the practice of our methodology, we introduce our system SVIRVRO that allows managing the extended life cycle of access control policies. We refer to an illustrative example to highlight the relevance of our contributions.

  11. European Energy Policy and Its Effects on Gas Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Victorita Stefana Anda

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of the energy policies of the European Union (EU) on its gas security in the period 2006 to 2016. While energy security is often given a broad meaning, this paper focuses on its external dimension: the EU?s relations with external gas suppliers. It is grounded on four pillars drawing from the compounded institutionalist and liberal theoretical frameworks: regulatory state, rational-choice, external governance, and regime effectiveness. The research question was investigated through a qualitative methodology with two main components: a legislative analysis and four case studies representing the main gas supply options--Russia, North African exporting countries, Norway, and liquefied natural gas (LNG). They highlighted that the EU framed the need for gas security mainly in the context of political risks associated with Russian gas supply, but it almost never took into account other equally important risks. Moreover, the research revealed two main issues. First, that the deeper and the more numerous EU?s energy policies were, the bigger was the magnitude of the effect. Specifically, competitiveness and infrastructure policies had the largest magnitude, while the sustainability and security of supply policies had the smallest effect. Second, EU energy policies only partially diminished the economic and political risks in relation to foreign gas suppliers. To conclude, to a certain extent the EU?s efforts made a positive contribution to the external dimension of the EU?s gas security, but the distinguishing trait remains that there is no consistency in terms of the magnitude of the effect and its nature.

  12. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... discuss National [[Page 12624

  13. Social Innovation Policies with the Involvement of Social Economy Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassi, Andrea; Ecchia, Giulio; Guerra, Alice

    In this paper, we investigate significant social innovation policies (related to the concept of social investment) involving the role of Social Economy organizations, and we discuss some relevant national and regional social innovation experiences by relying upon the current national...... and international literature, reports and website information. During the 1990s and the first half of the 2000s, the concept of “social economy” has evolved from one where the emphasis was on the social (social outcomes and collective action) to a neo-liberal one with more emphasis on the economic and individual...... actors (social entrepreneurs). Nowadays we are facing a transition period nevertheless in the recent developments of the policy orientation at European level, there are some slight but significant clues of a move back towards a more ‘social’ concept. We will assume as operating definition of Social...

  14. Social Security and the Evolution of Elderly Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Gary V. Engelhardt; Jonathan Gruber

    2004-01-01

    We use data from the March 1968-2001 Current Population Surveys to document the evolution of elderly poverty over this time period, and to assess the causal role of the Social Security program in reducing poverty rates. We develop an instrumental variable approach that relies on the large increase in benefits for birth cohorts from 1885 through 1916, and the subsequent decline and flattening of real benefits growth due to the Social Securing 'notch', to estimate of Social Security on elderly ...

  15. Will Pre-Funding Provide Security for Social Security? A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Brown

    2000-01-01

    President Clinton has proposed creating larger social security funds and investing a portion of them in the private sector. Others have suggested more radical reforms such as moving social security from a defined-benefit scheme to a defined contribution plan based on the Chilean model. These proposals are based on the goal of creating higher investment returns, which would make social security benefits easier to finance in the long run. After an extensive review of the literature, this paper ...

  16. Who's (Still) Above the Social Security Payroll Tax Cap?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Woo; Janelle Jones; John Schmitt

    2012-01-01

    The Social Security payroll tax cap is the earnings level above which no further Social Security taxes are collected. The cap is currently at $110,100, though legislation has been introduced in Congress to apply the Social Security payroll tax to earnings above $250,000 (but not between the current cap and this level). This issue brief updates earlier work, finding that 5.8 percent of workers would be affected if the Social Security cap were eliminated entirely and 1.4 percent would be affect...

  17. Saving and Social Security Wealth: A Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yigit Aydede

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt in the literature to investigate the effects of public social security on aggregate consumption in a time-series setting for a developing country, Turkey that has one of the most generous social security systems in the OECD region. In order to quantify the social security variable, the paper uses the social security wealth (SSW) series calculated for the first time for Turkey and shows that SSW is the largest part of the household wealth in Turkey and therefore...

  18. DATA Act File C Award Financial - Social Security

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The DATA Act Information Model Schema Reporting Submission Specification File C. File C includes the agency award information from the financial accounting system at...

  19. Social Preferences and Labor Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    2006-01-01

    We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....

  20. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  1. Information security policy: contributions from internal marketing for its effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ellwanger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting sources of information has become a great challenge to the organizations, due to the advance of the information technologies, the integration between them and the constant stream of information that flows through the communication networks. The establishment of an Information Security Policy – PSI may resolve a part of the problems related to security, but it cannot totally solve them, since the human resources present in the internal environment of the organizations may spoil the effectiveness of the PSI. Given the importance of the human aspects in the context of the information security, the present work discusses the use of internal marketing as a management strategy in order to obtain or reestablish the commitment of the users to the principles defined in the PSI, and demonstrates, through an experimental research, the impact of using internal marketing techniques to the effectiveness of that policy. The results of this experiment make quantitatively evident how relevant the use of these techniques may be in order to have the procedures described in the PSI actually carried out by the users, and demonstrates a 402,4% increase in the support to the information security policy, considering the procedures indicated in the PSI that were totally executed.

  2. The Faroe Islands’ Security Policy in a Process of Devolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinta í Jákobsstovu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s there has been a remarkable change in the institutional context of safety and security policies for the Faroes. The end of the Cold War led to a reduction in the strategic importance of, and military presence in, the islands. However, today Faroese sea and air space is increasingly exposed to heavy civilian traffic due to expected oil production as well as new sailing routes from the High North. The Faroese government is in a process, nearly completed, of taking over the full responsibility for societal security policy, a field it used to share with the Danish state authorities. In April 2002, the Faroese authorities took over the responsibility for SAR in Faroese sea territory and established a MRCC Center in Tórshavn. A new civic security law was passed by Løgtingið (the parliament in May 2012. This article discusses micro-states’ options in the international arena; provides a brief overview of the history of Faroese security policy; and discusses the present and future challenges involved in assuring protection and rescue services for the Faroese region of the North Atlantic.

  3. The French nuclear policy. A model for security policy in North-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, K.

    1998-01-01

    Between the end of the second world war and the collapse of the Berlin wall, the French diplomacy was based on the nuclear policy in a solid and coherent way. This nuclear policy was an 'incarnation' of the national security conception, allowing France to recover its political, military and economical rank on the international scene. The most important characteristic of the French nuclear policy concerns the commercialization of the nuclear energy which aims to ensuring the national security through the building up of a financial, technological and political 'reserve'. In front of the domination of the USA and USSR during the cold war era, NE Asia had a similar geostrategic configuration as Western Europe. It concerns in particular the massive application of nuclear energy for both military and industrial purposes. The bases of the security policy in this region refers to the real use of the nuclear weapon by the USA against Japan in 1945. The French nuclear policy may be considered as a model for the building of the security policy of NE Asia, in particular through the commercialization of the nuclear technology between the countries in concern. This nuclear approach would allow the countries of these region to change their present day national defense policy into an economical and military cooperation. (J.S.)

  4. International Security, Development, and Human Rights: Policy Conversion or Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-ling Lin Hasenkamp

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses an institutional network governance approach to explore the overlapping dimension of the policy fields between security, development, and human rights, reflected in the US and German provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs in Afghanistan. The past two decades have witnessed a gradually changing paradigm in academic and policy debates regarding the questions of the normative basis of world order and possibilities for tackling imminent threats to security and peace (i.e. intra-state armed conflicts, failed states, terrorism, poverty, and deepening inequality. The introduction of concepts such as “human security” and “the right to humanitarian intervention/responsibility to protect (R2P” as well as critical examinations of peace-, nation-, and state-building missions (PNSB have led to a relativist tendency of state sovereignty and a changing attitude regarding how to address the intersection of security, development, and human rights. Despite this shift, the policy commitments to integrating these policy considerations remain puzzling. How have they been redefined, conceptualized, and put into practice? I argue that an integrated conceptual approach has facilitated the redefinition of common policy goals, principles, and the mobilization of resources. At the same time, civil and military cooperation, as demonstrated in the multifunctional work of PRTs, has been Janus-headed—permanently caught in an ongoing tension between the war on terror and short-term stability operation on the one hand and long-term durable peace and development on the other. The misunderstanding of its interim character, the dynamics of Afghan environment, the blurring of policy lines, and the differences between national PRT models have made it difficult to systematically assess the efficiency and legitimacy of each policy frame and program.

  5. Social Media - DoD’s Greatest Information Sharing Tool or Weakest Security Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. SOCIAL MEDIA – DOD’S GREATEST INFORMATION SHARING TOOL...appropriateness and effectiveness of these policies in securing the information network. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Social media , information...TYPE Civilian Research Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) August 2009-April 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Social Media

  6. STUDY ON COMPANY SECURITY POLICIES FROM DIGITAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA-MARIA RĂDULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet development has brought both new opportunities and risks for either retailers or consumers. For example, electronic commerce is much faster and less expensive, but this openness makes it difficult to secure. People are aware of the fact that online businesses collecting, process and distribute enormous amounts of personal data and therefore, are concerned about their unauthorized use or their use in other purposes than intended by third parties in order to gain unauthorized access to them. There are more examples of cyber criminal activities, such as: hacking, software piracy, passwords attack, service prohibition attacks, scamming, etc. Such fears led to the editing of protection policies meant to secure personal data and to develop some mechanisms to ensure the reliability and confidentiality of electronic information. Security measures include access control devices, installation of firewalls and intrusion detection devices, of some security procedures to identify and authenticate authorized users of network systems. Such mechanisms constitute the core of this study. We will also analyze security and confidentiality policy of personal data of Google Inc.

  7. Youth transitioning out of foster care: an evaluation of a Supplemental Security Income policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Rukh-Kamaa, Aneer

    2013-01-01

    Youths with disabilities face numerous challenges when they transition to adulthood. Those who are aging out of foster care face the additional challenge of losing their foster care benefits, although some will be eligible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments after foster care ceases. However, the time needed to process SSI applications exposes those youths to a potential gap in the receipt of benefits as they move between foster care and SSI. We evaluate the effects of a 2010 Social Security Administration policy change that allows such youths to apply for SSI payments 60 days earlier than the previous policy allowed. The change provides additional time for processing claims before the applicant ages out of the foster care system. We examine administrative records on SSI applications from before and after the policy change to determine if the change has decreased the gap between benefits for the target population.

  8. Innovative Policies for a New Social Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Llorens Carbonell

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Social changes, such as the arrival of immigration, demand that public authorities react and design new policies that meet the needs of citizens. Proactive policies, giving people the tools to face this social change with peace of mind, from knowledge; policies aimed not just at immigrants, but at everyone living in our towns and cities. At the Department of Equality and Citizenship of the Diputació de Barcelona, we are committed to citizenship policies. Those that put everyone at the centre of public action, with the objective of working towards better living together and social cohesion. Town Councils, as local administration, must lead this action and face the challenges that it presents.

  9. Visa Security Policy: Roles of the Departments of State and Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    Cong., 2nd sess., April 20, 1950. 13 8 U.S.C. 1104 . 14 8 U.S.C. 1201. AILA InfoNet Doc. No. 11071267. (Posted 07/12/11) Visa Security Policy...Biometric 2-print fingerprint system (IDENT); and Advanced Passenger Information System ( APIS ). They also have access to selected legacy- INS automated

  10. Beyond the Poverty of National Security: Toward a Critical Human Security Perspective in Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the intersecting logics of human capital and national security underpinning the corporate school reform movement in the United States. Taking a 2012 policy report by the Council on Foreign Relations as an entry point, it suggests that these logics are incoherent not only on their own narrow instrumental terms, but also more…

  11. 20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120 Section 422.120 Employees... reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. (a... social security number or with a different employee name or social security number than shown in SSA's...

  12. Review of Social Networking Sites' Security and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, SHUN

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays social media networking has dramatically increased. Social networking sites like Facebook make users create huge amount of profiles and share personal information within networking of different users. Social networking exposes personal information far beyond the group of friends. And that information or data on social media networking could be potential threat to people's information security and privacy. In this review, we are going to view the privacy risks and security problem...

  13. Information security policies for governmental organisations, the minimum criteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, SJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available and retention of documents. 18) Incident response. The policy discusses issues concerning how an organisation responds quickly and effectively to a system or network security breach [13]. 19) Contingency planning. The policy needs to address contingency... _ 17. Document destruction and retention X _ X X 18. Incident response X X X X 19. Contingency planning X _ X X 20. Telecommuting and mobile computing _ _ X _ 21. Intrusion Detection Systems X X X X From Table 1 it can be detained that not all...

  14. The Influence of Globalization on the Change and Convergence of Social Security Transfer: An Empirical Analysis for OECD Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Hwang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a cross-section of OECD countries, this paper examines the relationship between globalization and the change and convergence of social security transfer. Globalization has arguably had a profound impact on the use of social protection in states, since it is normally accompanied with increases in income inequality, polarization, and unemployment. In addition, globalization may lead to socio- economic policy harmonization across countries. The empirical results show that there exists a significant and positive relationship between social security transfer in GDP and the globalization index based on political, economic, and social integrations. Also, we found the convergence phenomenon of social security transfer in OECD countries, applying the traditional methodology of convergence and convergence. Therefore, there is evidence in OECD countries that globalization indirectly affects the convergence of social security transfer in addition to direct relation to social security transfer in GDP.

  15. Effect of social capital on food security among rural farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the effect of social capital on food security of rural farming households in Abia State, Nigeria with specific focus on measuring social capital dimensions among the rural farming households; determining the food security status of the households; analyzing the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of ...

  16. Social security reform in a dynastic life-cycle model with endogenous fertility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim; Belush, Volha

    -, č. 381 (2009), s. 1-51 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : fertility * social security * fiscal policy * public expenditures * taxation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp381.pdf

  17. WRR-Policy Brief 6 : Big data and security policies: serving security, protecting freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Dennis; Schrijvers, Erik; Hirsch Ballin, Ernst

    2017-01-01

    Big Data analytics in national security, law enforcement and the fight against fraud can reap great benefits for states, citizens and society but require extra safeguards to protect citizens’ fundamental rights. This requires new frameworks: a crucial shift is necessary from regulating the phase of

  18. 76 FR 65558 - Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ...-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2007-0092] Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of rescission of Social Security Ruling...

  19. Active Social Policy meets Welfare Professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Active social policy is an example of New Public Management, which contains a set of policy tools directly affecting the various professions working in the welfare sector (Harrits & Møller 2011). The legitimization of the policy is based in a need to strengthen control with public expenditures...... capacities and the doctor’s specialized focus on physical deviations. As such, the paper is an empirically informed contribution to understanding what happens when new forms of New Public Management meet front-line workers such as social workers and doctors who use both rules and professional norms...... and to restore public support for redistributive social benefits such as early retirement pension. Yet, New Public Management and professional norms are typically seen as two distinct rationalities, as reflected in the conflicting aims of the political system (retrenchment) and the ‘street-level bureaucrats...

  20. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  1. Active social policies in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkel, Rik van; Møller, Iver Hornemann

    of work in modern societies and the implications this has or should have for scientific and sociopolitical thinking about inclusion, participation and activation; the "paradigm shift" that can be observed in present social policies, which increasingly become directed at participation rather than (income...... and training/education schemes; and the implications of these research findings for the issues outlined above, that is our thinking of work in relation to participation on the one hand, and social policies aiming at increasing participation on the other....

  2. ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENDITURES OF SOCIAL SECURITY FUNDS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Ivanchuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the expenditures for social protection, social security funds finance administrative direction, which should correspond to the amount of functions performed by a particular fund. The purpose of the paper is to determine ways to reduce administrative expenditures of state social security funds in the conditions of reforming Ukrainian economy. For this purpose, the authors investigate distribution of the expenditures between social security funds, analyse dynamics and structure of assignments for fund administration, and suggest possible ways to rationalize maintenance cost for these institutions. Methodology. Administrative expenditures are an integral part of the cost of social security funds and include particular items of expenses in the budget of these institutions. Applying a systematic approach to calculating the administrative costs of social security funds of Ukraine the authors have taken into account the expenditures related to funding management, support for information systems, and organization of work with insured people. Results of the survey showed that in 2007–2016 Pension Fund of Ukraine incurred the largest part of social expenditures (more than 90% compared with other social insurance funds (less than 10%. At the same time, the administrative expenses were divided approximately into two halves between Pension Fund and other social security funds. In 2015, the government launched a reform of social insurance funds that aimed to reduce funds to three institutions but a decrease in the total amount of administrative expenditures has not been achieved yet. In addition, Pension Fund of Ukraine was least burdened with administrative expenses, while other social security funds with a relatively small share of social expenditures were burdened with administrative expenditures much more. Practical implications. Research showed that nowadays the existence of several social security funds in Ukraine is economically

  3. Library and Archival Security: Policies and Procedures To Protect Holdings from Theft and Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus-Randall, Gregor

    1998-01-01

    Firm policies and procedures that address the environment, patron/staff behavior, general attitude, and care and handling of materials need to be at the core of the library/archival security program. Discussion includes evaluating a repository's security needs, collections security, security in non-public areas, security in the reading room,…

  4. China's Quest for Energy; Impact upon Foreign and Security Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2004-11-01

    Contrary to Chinese intentions, the proportion of China's imports coming from potentially unstable countries is steadily increasing. As a response, China tries to diversify its sources of import and to own the oil when loaded in an export harbour. In spite of very high costs and political problems, China tries to import oil and gas from owned fields in Central Asia through pipelines. In the case of China, the competition is evident on the highest international level. Especially with Japan, this tends to make already previously sensitive relations deteriorate. China has territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries that are becoming more complicated by the fact that there is oil and gas on the bottom of the sea in the disputed area. Relations with Russia have been complicated. Since the 1990s they are on their way of being steadily improved, but they become strained, when Japan is given priority access to oil fields in Siberia. The sensitive relations with the U.S. tend to be impaired by China's ways of getting access to more secure supply of oil and gas. Chinese efforts to get a more attractive foreign policy profile is on the other hand alleviating but does not eliminate the potential of the energy issue to complicate. China's foreign and security policy relations. The European Union seems to be on its way to introduce energy questions as a field of common policy. This is a reason for Sweden to study the development. It is a matter of special interest that China has proposed an 'Energy Dialogue between Asia and Europe' about the resources and the Eurasian continent. The Chinese example illustrates the need for a Swedish energy security policy and plans for energy crisis preparedness

  5. Territory and management of social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldaíza Sposati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article developed in three movements. The territory building is historical construction and distinguishes this reading of which treat the territory as a place, a coverage area under a given geographic boundary. Assigns key character that distinction for the examination of the relationship territory and social policy. Shows that she is not limited to location of social equipment, and distinguishes it from the social policies operation format without territory, whose management logic is standardized, have homogeneous character of procedures, with similarity to financial agencies operation. In the second movement puts in scene the relationship between institutional agents of social services and the citizens who use them for lives being him. Finally highlights the constituent elements of that relationship as: the recognition of heterogeneity as an expression of singular identities; and the territory trajectory constitution that focuses of living on it, and these influenced by these trajectories.

  6. 77 FR 54646 - Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 12-1(8); Correction; Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... II of the Social Security Act AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling; Correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security Administration published a document... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0046] Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR...

  7. Transport Policy and Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ricci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Transport-related Social inclusion’ is a specific naming of the complex set of interrelationships within which accessibility plays an important role in whether a citizen achieves the level of participation in socioeconomic life that he or she seeks. It has its origins in the United Kingdom of the early 2000s, but the diversity of theoretical perspectives, research methods and practical focus shown by the contributions to the present issue on this theme bears witness to the evolution and translation this concept and term has undergone over more than a decade. Nine papers are presented, concerning applications of the concept in three continents, and including some of the poorest and richest per capita income countries on the globe. As well as developing and applying the multi-faceted theories of the processes of exclusion and techniques for the quantitative identification of inclusion, they consider important topics such as the treatment of the less abled and more frail members of society when on the move and the potential for new technological design methods and practical solutions either to enhance inclusion or deepen inequality in our societies. Collectively their conclusions reinforce the message that social exclusion remains multi-dimensional, relational and dynamic, located both in the circumstances of the excluded individual as well as in the processes, institutions and structures that permeate wider society.

  8. Towards a policy for human security: psychosocial contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullio, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the correspondence between Einstein and Freud in 1936, this paper focuses on the multidimensional aspect of security, exploring its implications within the psychosocial approach. Reflections are therefore centred on the psychological aspects of conflict, on bio-psychic responses to violent solicitation and on ways in which individual emotions are managed and controlled by the State. Some social and economic mechanisms comprising the present global social scenario are explored: the intermesh between economic/industrial organisations and Security Institutions, and the consumerist economic model and its individual/collective consequences, ultimately environmental destruction. As suggested by Einstein, the creation of a supranational organisation would be an essential step towards an effective and economically sustainable international system. This can be achieved through a process that implies the evolution of cultural parameters and the transformation of national institutions. In this sense, the author suggests a decisive role for civil society organisations such as the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW).

  9. Three Modes of Thinking and Policy Orientation of Cultural Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuejin; Wang Xuege

    2016-01-01

    Three types of relations are entangled nowadays in dealing with issues conceming national cultural security on both the theoretical and practical levels:(1) the relation between one's own culture and that of other ethnic groups;(2) the relation between advanced and underdeveloped parts of culture;(3) the relation between one's ethnic culture and so-called foreign advanced culture as related to the previous two.Accordingly,three modes of thinking are likely adopted in handling issues concerning national cultural security:to antagonize one's own culture with that of other ethnic groups,that is,taking the "me or you" attitude;to dualize cultures as the "advanced" and the "underdeveloped",that is,believing things to be good if not bad,or vice versa;and to assert that the ethnic are the advanced,that is,taking the "only-megood" stance.It is a very demanding job to maintain national culture and to pursue cultural development at the same time.Only when cultures are grouped into those without distinction between the advanced and the underdeveloped and those with such distinction can the relation between the ethnic and the advanced be properly handled.With the former,it is essential to maintain the ethnicity of one's own culture before the cultural security is safeguarded.With the latter,however,the pursuit of advanced cultures and the advocacy of the advanced part of a particular culture is a key to ensuring and safeguarding the national cultural security.Hence,it is important to enhance the public awareness of cultural security,and more essentially for the government to offer scientifically appropriate orientation towards cultural security and to frame related policies.

  10. Modelling operations and security of cloud systems using Z-notation and Chinese Wall security policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Srijita; Sengupta, Anirban; Mazumdar, Chandan

    2016-11-01

    Enterprises are increasingly using cloud computing for hosting their applications. Availability of fast Internet and cheap bandwidth are causing greater number of people to use cloud-based services. This has the advantage of lower cost and minimum maintenance. However, ensuring security of user data and proper management of cloud infrastructure remain major areas of concern. Existing techniques are either too complex, or fail to properly represent the actual cloud scenario. This article presents a formal cloud model using the constructs of Z-notation. Principles of the Chinese Wall security policy have been applied to design secure cloud-specific operations. The proposed methodology will enable users to safely host their services, as well as process sensitive data, on cloud.

  11. Cyber Security Policy. A methodology for Determining a National Cyber-Security Alert Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin TOFAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, assuring the security of the national cyber-space has become a big issue that can only be tackled through collaborative approaches. Threats cannot be confined to a single computer system just as much as computer systems are rendered useless without being con-nected to a supporting network. The authors of this article propose an innovative architecture of a system designated to help governments collect and analyze data about cyber-security in-cidents, from different organizations, dispersed nationwide, and acting within various economic sectors. The collected data will make us able to determine a national cyber-security alert score that could help policy makers in establishing the best strategies for protecting the national cyber-space.

  12. Decentralization and social participation: the new design of social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Teixeira

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This text indicates essential elements needed for an analysis of direct democracy, materialized in processes of decentralization and civil society participation in spaces for deliberating public policies, in a context of reform of these policies in the 1990’s. It analyzes the national Policy for the Elderly and the experiences of elderly rights councils. It concludes that despite the fact that spaces for participation are contradictory and the orientations of participation of the various subjects are in conflict, the correlation of forces favorable to conservative forces, redirect social policies, giving them a new rationality and new legitimacy that distribute responsibilities to civil society. These changes reinforce a culture of privation in light of the clashes of the refractions of the social issue and transmute popular participation into consent and legitimization of the given order.

  13. Cyber security awareness toolkit for national security: An approach to South Africa’s cybersecurity policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, LJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach that South Africa could follow in implementing its proposed Cyber security policy. The paper proposes a Cyber Security Awareness Toolkit that is underpinned by key National Security imperatives as well...

  14. A Study of the Effect of Information Security Policies on Information Security Breaches in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Stanie Adolphus

    2013-01-01

    Many articles within the literature point to the information security policy as one of the most important elements of an effective information security program. Even though this belief is continually referred to in many information security scholarly articles, very few research studies have been performed to corroborate this sentiment. Doherty and…

  15. THE FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Menon

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.

  16. Network Security: Policies and Guidelines for Effective Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gana KOLO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Network security and management in Information and Communication Technology (ICT is the ability to maintain the integrity of a system or network, its data and its immediate environment. The various innovations and uses to which networks are being put are growing by the day and hence are becoming complex and invariably more difficult to manage by the day. Computers are found in every business such as banking, insurance, hospital, education, manufacturing, etc. The widespread use of these systems implies crime and insecurity on a global scale. In addition, the tremendous benefits brought about by Internet have also widened the scope of crime and insecurity at an alarming rate. Also, ICT has fast become a primary differentiator for institution/organization leaders as it offers effective and convenient means of interaction with each other across the globe. This upsurge in the population of organizations depending on ICT for business transaction has brought with it a growing number of security threats and attacks on poorly managed and secured networks primarily to steal personal data, particularly financial information and password.This paper therefore proposes some policies and guidelines that should be followed by network administrators in organizations to help them ensure effective network management and security of ICT facilities and data.

  17. Dynamic reconfiguration of security policies in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mónica; Gámez, Nadia; Fuentes, Lidia; Amor, Mercedes; Horcas, José Miguel; Ayala, Inmaculada

    2015-03-04

    Providing security and privacy to wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) is very challenging, due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and their limited capabilities in terms of energy, processing power and memory. The applications for these systems run in a myriad of sensors with different low-level programming abstractions, limited capabilities and different routing protocols. This means that applications for WSNs need mechanisms for self-adaptation and for self-protection based on the dynamic adaptation of the algorithms used to provide security. Dynamic software product lines (DSPLs) allow managing both variability and dynamic software adaptation, so they can be considered a key technology in successfully developing self-protected WSN applications. In this paper, we propose a self-protection solution for WSNs based on the combination of the INTER-TRUST security framework (a solution for the dynamic negotiation and deployment of security policies) and the FamiWare middleware (a DSPL approach to automatically configure and reconfigure instances of a middleware for WSNs).We evaluate our approach using a case study from the intelligent transportation system domain.

  18. Dynamic Reconfiguration of Security Policies in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Pinto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing security and privacy to wireless sensor nodes (WSNs is very challenging, due to the heterogeneity of sensor nodes and their limited capabilities in terms of energy, processing power and memory. The applications for these systems run in a myriad of sensors with different low-level programming abstractions, limited capabilities and different routing protocols. This means that applications for WSNs need mechanisms for self-adaptation and for self-protection based on the dynamic adaptation of the algorithms used to provide security. Dynamic software product lines (DSPLs allow managing both variability and dynamic software adaptation, so they can be considered a key technology in successfully developing self-protected WSN applications. In this paper, we propose a self-protection solution for WSNs based on the combination of the INTER-TRUST security framework (a solution for the dynamic negotiation and deployment of security policies and the FamiWare middleware (a DSPL approach to automatically configure and reconfigure instances of a middleware for WSNs.We evaluate our approach using a case study from the intelligent transportation system domain.

  19. Social inclusion policy: Producing justice or retribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kym Macfarlane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of social inclusion has currently gained extraordinary credence in Australia. Policy incorporating social inclusion abounds across all discipline areas with the federal government for the first time instituting a government portfolio for this area, headed by the Deputy Prime Minister. Such a move indicates the importance of managing aspects of inclusion across all sectors, in a country where diversity abounds. However, this focus on inclusion can prove highly problematic, when it becomes such an integral part of policy formulation and of the assumptions, omissions and contradictions that policy produces. This paper examines how policy discourse produces ways of thinking about inclusion/exclusion. Using three vignettes, the author applies the theories of Michel Foucault to argue that the discursive production of such inclusive policy works to simultaneously exclude by categorising particular types of individuals and families as “proper” participants in society. The author contends that understandings of propriety relating to the inclusion/exclusion binary reinscribe each other, in ways that situate particular citizens outside of possibilities for “success” in social and systemic participation. Such understanding is highlighted by a conceptual examination of the ways in which discursively produced notions of propriety become normalised. Keywords: bricolage, discourse, authorised knowledge, imperative discourse, regimes of truth

  20. The (social) construction of information security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    While the philosophical foundations of information security have been unexamined, there is an implicit philosophy of what protection of information is. This philosophy is based on the notion of containment, taken from analogies with things that offer physical security (e.g., buildings, safes,

  1. Debating food security policy in two different ideational settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    in Australia and Norway is compared. In Australia, agricultural normalism (agricultural markets and production are considered to be similar to those of other economic sectors) has been dominant since the mid-1980s, while Norwegian agricultural policy making has been dominated by agricultural exceptionalism...... (agriculture is considered a unique economic sector with special market and production conditions). It is demonstrated in the article how these two opposing institutionalised ideational foundations have influenced the nature of the food security debate in the two countries. In Australia, the debate emphasises...... the positive role of the market and trade in providing global food security. In Norway, the debate highlights the need to regulate market forces and restrict trade in order to allow countries to develop their own agricultural sectors....

  2. Family Grant: social policy or political marketing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gabriel Martins de Moura

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay, a political analysis, criticizes the Family Grant Program, implemented by the Lula government of 2003-2005. It is based on the ongoing analysis methodology originated in U.S. political science. It seeks to establish a parallel of these analyses with criticisms of the Family Grant program presented in the media and made by specialists. They focus on the absence of a conceptual reference for the program (or its practical non-application, supported by accumulated knowledge in the field, that would guide the social policies of the Lula government. Based on secondary sources about official data and on statements from specialists, the analysis identifies an apparent 'schizophrenia' in the 'philosophical' references that orient the government's social policies, suggesting that the solution chosen was a situational response to a demand for government marketing and not oriented to a deliberate public policy pre-conceived as such, which, if it exists, is not evident in the government actions.

  3. U.S. energy security: problems and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.A

    2002-12-15

    The reemergence of concern about energy security in the wake of the September 2001 terror attacks amplified a theme that was already present in U.S. energy policy debates. Energy security was a central theme in the Bush administration energy policy report released by Vice President Cheney in the spring of 2001. World oil prices rose from about 10 dollar a barrel in 1998 to more than 30 dollar a barrel in late 2000. Prices trended down through most of 2001 to below 20 dollar a barrel, although the combined effect of improving economic conditions, OPEC supply cuts, and Middle East conflict (both actual and potential) have recently brought prices back into the dollar 25 per barrel neighborhood. In 2000 the United States imported almost 60 percent of the petroleum it consumed; imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) made up about a quarter of total U.S. consumption. In previous energy security debates in the U.S., most of the attention has been on international oil markets and geopolitics. This time, even before September 11, the energy security debate had a much larger domestic component. The 2001 ''electricity market meltdown'' in California raised large concerns there and nationwide about the causes and consequences of electricity shortages and price volatility. The concerns run so deep that they are likely to have a significant effect on the ongoing debate about restructuring of the power sector though the nature of that effect remains to be determined. Similarly, periods of sharply rising motor fuels prices over the past few years increases well beyond what would be implied just by crude oil price volatility have led to concerns about the effects on households and commerce. All of these concerns are only amplified by worries about attacks on critical energy infrastructure. (author)

  4. U.S. energy security: problems and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, M.A.

    2002-12-01

    The reemergence of concern about energy security in the wake of the September 2001 terror attacks amplified a theme that was already present in U.S. energy policy debates. Energy security was a central theme in the Bush administration energy policy report released by Vice President Cheney in the spring of 2001. World oil prices rose from about 10 dollar a barrel in 1998 to more than 30 dollar a barrel in late 2000. Prices trended down through most of 2001 to below 20 dollar a barrel, although the combined effect of improving economic conditions, OPEC supply cuts, and Middle East conflict (both actual and potential) have recently brought prices back into the dollar 25 per barrel neighborhood. In 2000 the United States imported almost 60 percent of the petroleum it consumed; imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) made up about a quarter of total U.S. consumption. In previous energy security debates in the U.S., most of the attention has been on international oil markets and geopolitics. This time, even before September 11, the energy security debate had a much larger domestic component. The 2001 ''electricity market meltdown'' in California raised large concerns there and nationwide about the causes and consequences of electricity shortages and price volatility. The concerns run so deep that they are likely to have a significant effect on the ongoing debate about restructuring of the power sector though the nature of that effect remains to be determined. Similarly, periods of sharply rising motor fuels prices over the past few years increases well beyond what would be implied just by crude oil price volatility have led to concerns about the effects on households and commerce. All of these concerns are only amplified by worries about attacks on critical energy infrastructure. (author)

  5. Energy policy seesaw between security and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1994-01-01

    It is just the price of oil that causes the energy policies of importing countries to vacillate. Changing perceptions of energy supply factors has had as much to do with transfiguring government action modes since 1973 as has the idea of the legitimacy of that action. The present paper thus draws a parallel between the goal of energy security twenty years ago and that of global environmental protection today, which explains the critical reversion to a view of minimum government action in the energy field - a view that marked the eighties. (author). 20 refs

  6. Science and Security Policy: The Case of Advanced Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    The revolution in biotechnology presents unprecedented opportunities and dangers for the health and well being of mankind. Today, one can plausibly imagine the eradication of many historic diseases. One can also envisage the creation of new diseases that would endanger a substantial proportion of the entire human species. As powerful applications for biotechnology research are identified, appropriate arrangements for managing their extraordinary consequences will inevitably become necessary. This presentation will explore recent efforts to balance science and security policy in the area of advanced biotechnology research. Key developments on the dual-use issue will be discussed, together with a variety of governance options aimed at mitigating the risk from such research. (author)

  7. Corporate Social Responsability and Organization Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta CRISTACHE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the world is interested in phenomena such as, ecology, environment, food safety, ozone layer depletion, famine and their effects on social responsibility initiatives are becoming increasingly well received. Even if you can not give a real dimension of the concept of social responsibility-taking as any guarantee of success, an organization must be aware that there is only a tool for maximizing the value of image design, but an essential element of long-term success in direct connection with social and environmental performance of the community. To work is to highlight the link between corporate social responsibility strategies and success in solving organizational policies company issues under restrictive conditions imposed by nouile economic, social and political.

  8. Teaching Social Policy: Integration of Current Legislation and Media Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRigne, LeaAnne

    2011-01-01

    Social work students enter the field of social work for many reasons--from wanting to become clinicians to wanting to advocate for a more socially just world. Social policy classes can be the ideal courses to provide instruction on conducting research on current policy issues. Teaching students about policy advocacy can lead to a class rich with…

  9. Social Security Administration Retirement, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (RSDI) Improper Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset shows improper payment experience for the Social Security Retirement, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program paid to workers, their dependents, and...

  10. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  11. Health Policy as a Specific Area of Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Pekarová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the article was to analyse the work of the health policy which is a very specific part of social policy. In the work we focus on its financing, which is a very important issue in the health care. We try to show, what is the role of the state in the health care system as well as the creation of resources and control costs in the health sector. The work is finding such as financing health care in Slovakia and in other selected countries, and which could be changed for the best operation. Method: The analysis was carried out on the basis of the information which I drew from books and Internet resources. The work is divided into two parts. Contains 9 tables and 3 charts. The first chapter is devoted to a general description of social policy, its funding, with a focus on health policy than its specific area. The second chapter analyses the financing systems of health policy in Slovakia and in selected countries. Results: The results showed that the Slovak health care makes is trying hard to catch up with the level of the best health care systems. However, there are countries, which are doing much worse than us, in terms of funding. Society: It is important to properly invest money but also communication between states. To get help on health and to ensure that citizens know states the best conditions of health care. Limitations / further research: This work is focused on how to bring closer health care and its financing in several different countries economically. IN doing so some other aspects such as what is best level of services, etc. were put aside.

  12. 78 FR 12130 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-3p; Appeal of an Initial Medical Disability Cessation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... determination. This Ruling also clarifies how this policy applies at the Appeals Council (AC) level when the AC.... Policy Interpretation Ruling Title II: Appeal of an Initial Medical Disability Cessation Determination or...; Appeal of an Initial Medical Disability Cessation Determination or Decision AGENCY: Social Security...

  13. Rural social security for Zimbabwe: Challenges and opportunities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For them, the remaining sources of livelihood now reside in non-formal social security arrangements anchored upon a staggering cultural base being eroded by the fast encroaching tide of neoliberal individualistic ways of life. Regrettably, government has got no institutional framework to promote non-formal security ...

  14. Information Technology Management: Social Security Administration Practices Can Be Improved

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Clay

    2001-01-01

    To improve SSAs IT management practices, we recommend that the Acting Commissioner of Social Security direct the Chief Information Officer and the Deputy Commissioner for Systems to complete the following actions...

  15. Social Security and Pensions in Lebanon: A Non-Contributory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    UPGRADING LEBANON’ S ECONOMIC ANALYTICAL CAPACITY PROJECT 105541

    analysis of the need for pension reform and a public financial perspective on pension reform, and a proposal for ... Elderly people, who are seventy and above today, will not benefit from ..... component of existing Lebanese social security cost.

  16. National Pending of Social Security Hearing Requests by Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Report refers to the National total of cases pending at the hearing level and the number and percentages of those cases that were in either electronic format (EF) or...

  17. Reforming the South African Social Security Adjudication System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reforming the South African Social Security Adjudication System: innovative experiences ... Dispute resolution systems in the labour relations, business competition ... the rights of access to justice, to a fair trial and to just administrative action).

  18. Child poverty vs Medicare and Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H B

    1997-01-01

    The series of government safety net programs provides economic security primarily to older populations. In this period of competition for limited federal resources, the need to create a public awareness of the continuing and growing poverty of children is emphasized.

  19. Social Change and Health Policy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuramy J. Gutiérrez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews social changes occurring in Venezuela during the last two decades, examining how they led to the development of a new health policy. Initially, the political context of the nineties is examined; this was a time when the neoliberal politics of the 1980’s had a demonstrable impact on the living conditions and health status of the population. By 1999 social and political events led to a new Constitution which provided the juridical and legal framework for a new health policy. The conceptualization of health and the model of health care which arose from the constitutional process are considered, as well as the reaction of the dominant economic and political sectors to the new policies imposed by constitutional mandate. The emergence of Barrio Adentro and other social missions is analyzed as an essential factor in the initiation of structural changes within the country and its health institutions. The Barrio Adentro program is described in detail, along with key steps in the development of the Venezuelan National Public Health System. Finally, the impact of these new health policies on the quality of life of the Venezuelan population is delineated.

  20. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  1. Evaluating pay-as-you-go social security systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Andreas; Wüthrich, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for welfare analysis of unfunded social security systems. Based on an overlapping generations model with endogenous labor supply, we derive a formula for the evaluation of existing pay-as-you-go social security systems that depends on impulse response functions and projected growth rates only. We propose an implementation strategy based on reduced form estimates of a VAR model that is valid under weak assumptions about the deep structure of the model. Our meth...

  2. Social Security Numbers in Medicaid Records: Reporting and Validity, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Czajka; Shinu Verghese

    2013-01-01

    This report presents findings from a validation study of Social Security numbers (SSNs) in Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) records for the fourth quarter of federal fiscal year 2009. The study produced results for the nation and the states on how often SSNs were reported in MSIS records and how often the reported SSNs passed a validation test at the U.S. Census Bureau, based on data obtained from the Social Security Administration.

  3. Implementation of Learning Organization Components in Ardabil Social Security Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Zirak

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the implementation of learning organization characteristics based on Marquardt systematic model in Ardabil Social Security Hospital. The statistical population of this research was 234 male and female employees of Ardabil Social Security Hospital. For data collection, Marquardt questionnaire was used in the present study which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. Statistical analysis of hypotheses based on independent samples t-test showed that lear...

  4. Financial Hardship Before and After Social Security's Early Eligibility Age

    OpenAIRE

    Richard W. Johnson; Gordon B.T. Mermin

    2009-01-01

    Although poverty rates for Americans ages 65 and older have plunged over the past half century, many people continue to fall into poverty in their late fifties and early sixties. This study examines financial hardship rates in the years before qualifying for Social Security retirement benefits at age 62 and investigates how the availability of Social Security improves economic well-being at later ages. The analysis follows a sample of adults from the 1937-39 birth cohort for 14 years, trackin...

  5. Econometric modeling of the balance of social security Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Figueiredo de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to build models using econometrics techniques to explain the components of the balance of Social Security System, or in other words, the net value of tax revenues and the benefit values of the General Regime of Social Security. These models were subjected to statistic validations indicated in the theoretical reference of econometrics, to apply the method of ordinary least square from the classic model of linear regression. From an increasing longevity and the gradual decr...

  6. Physicians' Self-Conceptions of Their Expertise in Statutory Health Insurance and Social Security Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Wolfgang; Nüchtern, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    Medical experts who practice social medicine have a strong ethical approach for their professional positions. Their reports must reflect an objective, independent, high-quality assessment of interactions between health status and the disability of individuals. However, they must simultaneously consider the societal involvement of these individuals when determining the framework of the Statutory Health Insurance and Social Security Systems. Their task is to recommend sociomedical benefits that are tailored to suit personal needs and that respect the individual life situations of the persons involved, thus complementing the efforts of healthcare professionals in clinical settings. The editorial describes the self-conception of this medical specialty on behalf of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP). Policy makers in social insurances and social security systems generally must respect independent sociomedical recommendations as a crucial point for further realistic development activities.

  7. The role of space in the security and defence policy of Turkey. A change in outlook: Security in space versus security from space

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan, C.; Kale, I.

    2017-01-01

    Space and security domains are strongly related with each other. Nowadays, space is an indispensable part of security and defence policy, and it is increasingly becoming a critical infrastructure for strategic Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. However, space is vulnerable itself to the new space threats. This study reviews the current and near future space role in Turkey's security and defence policy and aims to address...

  8. Reforming the South African social security adjudication system: innovative experiences from South African non-social security jurisdictions

    OpenAIRE

    Nyenti, MAT

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no uniform social security dispute resolution system in South Africa due to the piecemeal fashion in which schemes were established or protection against individual risks regulated. The result is that each statute provides for its own dispute resolution institution(s) and processes. There are also various gaps and challenges in the current social security dispute resolution systems, some of these relating to the uncoordinated and fragmented nature of the system; inaccessibi...

  9. [Social Security Needs Social Medicine: Self-image of Physicians Practicing Social Medicine in Statutory Health Insurances and Social Security Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, E; Bahemann, A; Egdmann, W; van Essen, J; Gostomzyk, J; Hemmrich, K; Manegold, B; Müller, B; Robra, B P; Röder, M; Schmidt, L; Zobel, A; von Mittelstaedt, G

    2015-09-01

    In January, 2014, the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention established a working group on the self-image of the physicians active in the field of social medicine (medical expertise and counseling). The result of this work is the contribution presented here after consensus was achieved by specialists of social medicine from different fields and institutions (social security etc.) and in good cooperation with Prof. Dr. Gostomzyk and Prof. Dr. Robra. Based on the importance of an up to date social medicine for claimants and recipients of benefits on the one hand and the social security system on the other, and also on a description of the subjects, objectives and methods the following aspects are presented: · The perspective of social medicine. · Qualification in social medicine, concerning specialist training and continuing medical education. · The fields of duty of experts in social medicine. · The proceedings in social medicine. The working group identified challenges for the specialists in social medicine by a narrowed perception of social medicine by physicians in hospitals and practice, accompanied by an enlarged importance of expertise in social medicine, by the demand for more "patient orientation" and gain of transparency, and concerning the scientific foundation of social medicine. The working group postulates: · The perspective of social medicine should be spread more widely.. · Confidence in experts of social medicine and their independency should be strengthened.. · The not case-related consulting of the staff and executives should be expanded.. · Social medicine in practice needs support by politics and society, and especially by research and teaching.. · Good cooperation and transfer of experiences of the different branches of social security are essential for the impact of social medicine.. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Distinguishing Between Private Law and Social-Security Law in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to highlight the potential danger in applying private-law principles to social-security law in deciding whether or not social grants should be deducted from awards for damages. Typically, this issue comes to the fore where a damage-causing event, such as death, sets into motion a system that provides for ...

  11. Legal aspects of Polish Tax and Social Security in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Parlińska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are describing legal aspects of treatment of farming sector in the tax and social security system in Poland. Tax System in Polish Agriculture is an integral part of Polish Tax System. Most taxes paid by farmers are property taxes, which supplied the budget of main local authority in Poland (municipality. In some cases farmers pay also personal income tax and value added tax like those, who run specific agricultural production as well individual farmers who operate through a limited liability company are subject to corporate income tax. The social security fund for farmers (known as KRUS was speared in 1990 from the social security system (ZUS. Farmers receive similar benefits with regard to health care, education, and social welfare although the contributions into the farmers system are lower then under the ZUS system.

  12. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  13. 12 CFR 792.68 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... Act § 792.68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of each NCUA Office shall take... furnish Social Security numbers, and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security numbers...

  14. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that employees... privilege as a result of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless the collection is... provide their social security numbers must be informed of: (1) Whether providing social security numbers...

  15. 77 FR 67724 - Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling 05-1(9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ...-1213 or TTY 1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0058] Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling 05-1(9) AGENCY: Social Security Administration. [[Page 67725

  16. Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, V

    Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the

  17. Social policy and costs of social protection and health

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoufilippou, Ioannis; Papavasileiou, Evanthia; Koinis, Aristotelis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The understanding of theoretical models and typologies of social systems is a prerequisite for the study and policy formulation in the health sector. The analysis of health expenditure in Greece in relation to the European Union-15 (EU-15) countries, is the first step for policymakers. Through literature review and Eurostat databases (ESSPROS) and the OECD (OECD), compiled and presented the necessary statistical and theoretical data reveal deviations of Greece from the average of...

  18. Unmasking the social engineer the human element of security

    CERN Document Server

    Hadnagy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Learn to identify the social engineer by non-verbal behavior Unmasking the Social Engineer: The Human Element of Security focuses on combining the science of understanding non-verbal communications with the knowledge of how social engineers, scam artists and con men use these skills to build feelings of trust and rapport in their targets. The author helps readers understand how to identify and detect social engineers and scammers by analyzing their non-verbal behavior. Unmasking the Social Engineer shows how attacks work, explains nonverbal communications, and demonstrates with visuals the c

  19. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Bohi, D.R. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R.; Bohi, D.R.

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future......This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...

  2. Reforming Social Security: A Practical and Workable System of Personal Retirement Accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Fred T. Goldberg, Jr.; Michael J. Graetz

    1999-01-01

    This paper details a method for implementing personal retirement accounts (PRAs) as a part of Social Security reform. The approach described here answers the following questions: how funds are collected and credited to each participants' retirement account; how money is invested; and how funds are distributed to retirees. It is designed to accommodate a variety of answers to a wide range of important policy questions; to minimize administrative costs and distribute those costs in a fair and r...

  3. Behavioural assumptions in labour economics: Analysing social security reforms and labour market transitions

    OpenAIRE

    van Huizen, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to test behavioural assumptions in labour economics models and thereby improve our understanding of labour market behaviour. The assumptions under scrutiny in this study are derived from an analysis of recent influential policy proposals: the introduction of savings schemes in the system of social security. A central question is how this reform will affect labour market incentives and behaviour. Part I (Chapter 2 and 3) evaluates savings schemes. Chapter 2 exam...

  4. Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social Justice: A Policy Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Gretchen; Fertig, Ralph; Jansson, Bruce; Kim, Hansung

    2011-01-01

    Schools of social work are mandated to train students for policy practice. A new instructional approach is needed so that social workers skillfully engage in policy change to address the growing economic, social, and cultural problems that affect our clients. This article presents the Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social…

  5. Security, independence, and sustainability: Imprecise language and the manipulation of energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on the energy policymaking process in US, focusing on the manipulation of discourse by different political–economic interests seeking to sway popular opinion. Using the 2012 US Presidential Elections as a backdrop, the analysis highlights the cooption of the concepts “security,” “independence,” and “sustainability” in energy debates by different and often opposing interest groups. The article’s first section traces the malleability of energy terminology to the vagueness of the term “energy” itself and notes how qualifying words like security, independence, and sustainability have been selectively exploited to introduce further ambiguity to an already fungible concept. The second section notes that while energy is a critical and complex factor of macroeconomic production, its main public visibility comes via a few partially representative numbers, like gasoline prices. This mismatch of broad social importance and piecemeal public understanding enables organized interests to leverage vague terminology in support of particular policy ideas. The third section examines three policymaking tools (1) taxation, (2) regulation, and (3) technology promotion and compares these administrative instruments. Ultimately, the article concludes that loosely defined terminology inhibits energy policy discussion and stifles meaningful public debate over and action on energy issues. - Highlights: ► This article examines the impact of imprecise terminology on US energy policymaking. ► Energy security, energy independence, and sustainability are vaguely defined terms. ► Coordinated interests manipulate debate and exploit public ignorance. ► Taxes, regulation, and innovation incentives are used to apply policy prescriptions. ► Vague terminology stifles meaningful public debate over energy policy.

  6. Food security, wheat production and policy in South Africa: Reflections on food sustainability and challenges for a market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois de Wet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept of security has broadened over the past decades. Food security in South Africa is an imperative for human and non-human survival. In the contemporary political economy, there is a real nexus between globalisation, exploitation, the state, scarcity of resources, the market, peoples’ need to feel secure, notions of state responsibility and food production. Political economy and human security in theoretical debates and face-to-face politics are intrinsically linked. The notion of a ‘secure community’ changed. Food security and the right to quality living became a social imperative. Understanding current agricultural economics requires the ability to link security and access to food for all. In this case study, wheat production in South Africa is addressed against the interface of the global and the local including South Africa’s transition to a democratic and constitutional state with a Bill of Rights. The current security approach represents a more comprehensive understanding of what security is meant to be and include, amongst others, housing security, medical security, service delivery and food security, as set out in the Millennium Development Goals and the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals. The issue of food security is addressed here with particular reference to wheat production, related current government policies and the market economy. The authors chose to limit their socio-economic focus to a specific sector of the agricultural market, namely wheat, rather than discuss food security in South Africa in general. Wheat was chosen as a unit of analysis because as a crop, wheat used in bread is one of the staples for the majority of South Africans and given the current negative economic developments, wheat as a staple is likely to remain integral, if not increasing its status of dependability

  7. How to supplement Social Security fairly and effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilarducci, Teresa

    2010-04-01

    Over the past 3 decades, the base upon which Americans obtain income for retirement has become increasingly tied to fluctuations in the financial markets. Because Social Security provides a small percentage of pre-retirement income in retirement, most of the nation's workers need a supplement to Social Security. This study demonstrates the failure of the 401(k) system and advances a bold, but realistic, solution to America's crumbling retirement system: guaranteed retirement accounts (GRAs), a universal government program that supplements Social Security by providing guaranteed rates of return, by locking up balances until retirement, and by mandating annuities at retirement-with survivor's benefits. The GRA plan is compared to other proposals, including President Obama's, which aims to expand the voluntary, commercial, individually directed account-based system.

  8. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  9. Reforming the South African Social Security Adjudication System: Innovative Experiences from South African Non-Social Security Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Ashu Tako Nyenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no uniform social security dispute resolution system in South Africa due to the piecemeal fashion in which schemes were established or protection against individual risks regulated. The result is that each statute provides for its own dispute resolution institution(s and processes. There are also various gaps and challenges in the current social security dispute resolution systems, some of these relating to the uncoordinated and fragmented nature of the system; inaccessibility of some social security institutions; inappropriateness of some current appeal institutions; the lack of a systematic approach in establishing appeal institutions; a limited scope of jurisdiction and powers of adjudication institutions; inconsistencies in review and/or appeal provisions in various laws; an unavailability of alternative dispute resolution procedures; and an absence of institutional independence of adjudication institutions or forums. The system is therefore in need of reform. In developing an appropriate system, much can be learned from innovative experiences in comparative South African non-social security jurisdictions on the establishment of effective and efficient dispute resolution frameworks. Dispute resolution systems in the labour relations, business competition regulation and consumer protection jurisdictions have been established to realise the constitutional rights of their users (especially the rights of access to justice, to a fair trial and to just administrative action. They thus provide a benchmark for the development of the South African social security dispute resolution system.

  10. Deconstructing flexicurity and developing alternative approaches: towards new concepts and approaches for employment and social policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, M.; Serrano, A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of flexicurity has come to occupy a central place in political and academic debates regarding employment and social policy. It fosters a view in which the need for continuously increasing flexibility is the basic assumption, and the understanding of security increasingly

  11. The Policy to Promote Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosdahl, Anders

    thinking, a vision for the Danish welfare society. An inclusive labour market is one with “a place for everyone”, i.e. also for persons with a reduced working capacity, disabled, ethnic minorities and long-term unemployed – that is persons who have traditionally had difficulties in obtaining or remaining...... viewpoints in the current Danish debate (section 4). Section 5 includes some concluding remarks. Encouraging social responsibility of enterprises is one of the means to promote what in Denmark today is termed an inclusive labour market. The inclusive labour market is, according to current governmental...... in employment. An inclusive labour market is adapted to the needs and capabilities of diverse human beings, also employees, who should be able to reconcile work and family life. The policy to increase the social responsibility of enterprises and to promote an inclusive labour market includes several specific...

  12. Social contingencies, the aged, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R B

    1993-01-01

    Today's older population is notably different than it was a few decades ago, both in well-being and in diversity, a shift that must be acknowledged in public policy. The U.S. social insurance system overprotects against highly likely, predictable, and nonvolatile events at the expense of more unlikely, potentially catastrophic, and less volatile events. The public sector, therefore, should move toward proportionally emphasizing health-related, functionally impairing events rather than income maintenance; the private sector is better suited to insuring against predictable and nonvolatile old-age events. A contingent event scheme would: (a) encourage the growth of long-term-care insurance; (b) help bridge the gap between those arguing for greater "efficiencies" in social welfare spending and those pressing for new universal benefits; and (c) bring a new perspective to the "generational equity" debate.

  13. Securing Social Media : A Network Structure Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiluka, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its democratized nature, online social media (OSM) attracts millions of users to publish and share their content with friends as well as a wider audience at little cost. Such a vast user base and a wealth of content, however, presents its own challenges. First, the amount of user-generated

  14. Economic independence, labour law and social security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtmaat, H.M.T.; Kravaritou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This work is based on papers presented at a conference entitled "The Sex of Labour Law in Europe/Le Sexe du droit du travail en Europe", which was held at the European University Institute in Florence. The contributors argue that law in general, and especially social and labour law, is not asexual,

  15. Social Media for Public Health: An Exploratory Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L. Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of exist...

  16. Exclusión y seguridad social en el plan de desarrollo Exclusion and social security in the Development Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Salazar Oscar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo analiza la forma en que el Plan de Desarrollo "Cambio para contruir la Paz" trata el sistema de seguridad social y su interpretacion sobre las causas de la exclusion social. El plan carece de una vision de conjunto del sistema por cuanto no aborda los aspectos reisgos profesionles y pensiones; articula el concepto de solidaridad a las relaciones interpersonales y, asi, subestima el papel del Estado en el logro de esa meta. Por otra parte, las politicas laborales esbozadas en el Plan conducen en forma inexorable a una mayor exclusion social. En cuanto al sistema de seguridad social en salud, dado que la cobertura se ha extendido mediante el regimen subsidiado, la ausencia de una politica que promueva el control social puede acentuar la clientelizacion que Estado manifiesta querer combatir.This article analyzes the way that the Development Plan "Changeto Build Peace" treats the social security system and its interpretation of the causes of social exclusion. The Plan lacks a vision of the system as a whole as it does not address the aspects of professional risks and pensions; it articula tes the concept of solidarity to interpersonal relations and thus underestimates the role of the State in achieving that goal. Moreover, the labor policies outlined in the Plan lead inexorably to greater social exclusion. As far as the social security system for health, given that coverage has been extended by meansof the subsidized regime, the absence of a policy that promotes social control may accentuate the clientelization of the State which the Plan claims to want to combato.

  17. India's grain security policy in the era of high food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    policies, which are superior in terms of their welfare effects and fiscal costs and might also be politically feasible. These findings have important implications on the ongoing debates on India's food security policy, particularly in relation to the discussion on its National Food Security Act....

  18. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory... CFR 101-6, announcement is made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: This meeting will be held on Wednesday, July 11, 2012 from 10:00 a...

  19. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory: The Role of Individual Experience in Information Security Policy Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to make contributions to the area of behavioral information security in the field of Information Systems and to assist in the improved development of Information Security Policy instructional programs to increase the policy compliance of individuals. The role of an individual's experience in the context of…

  20. The Impact of Emotional Social Support on Elders' Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Woltil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity persists as a social problem in the U.S., putting its victims at risk of poor nutritional and overall health. Being food insecure is defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally safe foods or the inability to access such foods in socially acceptable ways. Food insecurity research tends to focus on younger populations, particularly households with children. Food insecurity among the elderly is, therefore, poorly understood, both in prevalence and in prevention and intervention methods. Addressing this gap, the present study examined the relationships between emotional social support and food security using data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in an effort to further the understanding of food insecurity among elders. Specifically, the effects of an emotional social support presence, number of support sources and types of support sources on food security were observed using OLS linear regression. Results indicated that emotional social support alleviated the risk of food insecurity, even when household income, marital/partnership status and health status were controlled for. However, the source of the support mattered: elders who reported a spouse as the primary source of support were more likely to report being food secure, while those who reported an “other” primary source of support were more likely to report being food insecure. Number of support sources were not significantly related to food security.

  1. Theory, Demonstration and Methods Research on Social Security of Migrant Workers by Domestic Scholar

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Weifang

    2011-01-01

    Social security of migrant workers has been significant in dissolving social contradictions and achieving the economic and social development in China during the transitional period. The researches of domestic scholar on social security of migrant workers can be classified into three categories. Firstly, theoretical analysis on social security of migrant workers, including researches on the appeal of social security and misunderstanding of recognition, theory-construction of rural worker soci...

  2. The state of social media policies in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey; Hank, Carolyn; Sugimoto, Cassidy R

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the current state of development of social media policies at institution of higher education. Content analysis of social media policies for all institutions listed in the Carnegie Classification Data File revealed that less than one-quarter of institutions had an accessible social media policy. Analysis was done by institution and campus unit, finding that social media policies were most likely to appear at doctorate-granting institutions and health, athletics, and library units. Policies required that those affiliated with the institution post appropriate content, represent the unit appropriately, and moderate conversations with coworkers and external agencies. This analysis may inform the development and revision of social media policies across the field of higher education, taking into consideration the rapidly changing landscape of social media, issues of academic freedom, and notions of interoperability with policies at the unit and campus levels.

  3. 10 CFR 1008.22 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 1008.22... security numbers. (a) The System Manager of each system of records which utilizes social security numbers... individuals may not be required to furnish social security numbers without statutory authorization, and that...

  4. 6 CFR 5.33 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5... OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each... to 1975; and (b) That individuals requested to provide their social security numbers must be informed...

  5. Nursing's Code of Ethics, Social Ethics, and Social Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2016-09-01

    Modern American nursing arose during the Civil War and subsequently adopted the Nightingale educational model in the 1870s. By 1889, the journal Trained Nurse and Hospital Review had been established. It published a six-part series on ethics in nursing. With the establishment of the American Nurses Association in 1893, the articles of incorporation gave the organization its first charge: "to establish and maintain a code of ethics." While the rich and enduring tradition of nursing's ethics has been concerned about individual patients and their relational nexus, nursing ethics has from the beginning been a social ethics, intimately concerned both for the shape of society and for social change. This concern has been for health, conceived broadly and not focused specifically on disease and its treatment, but including the social causes of disease. Nightingale herself was an ardent social reformer, instituting a wide range of types of army sanitation reform, sanitation reform in India, and hospital and nursing reform. Despite her gender, her wealth and privilege granted her access to men in power who furthered her policy and reform agenda. From the start, then, modern nursing was imbued with a social reformist bias. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  6. Lifetime distributional effects of Social Security retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen; Toder, Eric; Iams, Howard

    couples, as well as on earned retirement benefits of individuals. The reduced importance of auxiliary benefits (due to the higher lifetime covered earnings of women) and the increased proportion of divorced retirees make OASI more progressive--even as net benefits decline--for current and future cohorts than for cohorts who retired in the 1990s. Analysis of these findings suggests that simulations of policy changes in Social Security must take into account the decreasing importance of auxiliary benefits across birth cohorts and the complex changes in individuals' marital histories.

  7. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PAY SYSTEM AND SOCIAL SECURITY IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela – Andreea Nastasie

    2012-01-01

    In the current context of economic crisis which manifests the world can see a very important role of the pay systems and social security in economic and social life. Staff wages means establishing a salary entitlements owed to employees and their payment, as established at the end of collective or individual employment contracts. In Spain there are various collective agreements according to geographical areas and activities. A fair and balanced wage was and will remain a core area of human re...

  8. Research on Issues concerning Social Security for Migrant Workers in Harmonious Society

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the status quo of social security for migrant workers in China, and points out that there are deep system and concept reasons for the lack of labor rights and interests security, social security, equality and the right to development, political participation channels for the current migrant workers. This article then expounds the adverse effects of lack of social security for migrant workers on building a harmonious society: the lack of social security for migrant worker...

  9. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  10. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  11. Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain and the Nether-lands. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact...

  12. Social security, dynamic efficiency and self-control problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2008-01-01

    We develop an OLG model with uncertainty on labor income and death age to study the welfare implications of unfunded Social Security programs in an economy where agents are affected by temptation à la Gul and Pesendorfer (2001, Econometrica 69, 1403). Tempted agents give additional value to the

  13. Social Status, Traditional Food Taboos and Food Security: A Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to examine adherence to traditional food taboos by women in Imo State, and relate that to social status and food security. Data was collected from 72 women across the three agricultural zones of the State. It was found that age, income and education are some factors affecting adherence to these ...

  14. Social Security Disability Insurance: Essential Protection when Work Incapacity Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a…

  15. Should the poor have no medicines to cure? A study on the association between social class and social security among the rural migrant workers in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ming

    2017-11-07

    associations with reimbursement rejections. This study showed that social security inequity, medical inequity, and reimbursement inequity happened to the rural migrant workers simultaneously. Future policy should strengthen health justice and enterprises' medical responsibilities to the employed rural migrant workers.

  16. Promoting Election-Related Policy Practice among Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna

    2016-01-01

    Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…

  17. Measuring Efficacy of Information Security Policies : A Case Study of UAE based company

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Sohail

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays information security policies are operative in many organizations. Currently few organizations take the pain of verifying the efficacy of these policies. Different standards and procedures exist about methods of measuring efficacy of information security policies. Choosing and implementing them depends mainly on the key performance indicators (KPIs) and key risk indicators (KRIs) of any particular organization. This thesis is a case study of an organization in United Arab Emirates (U...

  18. BULGARIA’S MULTI-VECTOR FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH TO SECURITY CHALLENGES IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    tenuous than ever with the new controversial Trump administration and the EU nascent foreign policy efforts already failed in handling the challenges...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY BULGARIA’S MULTI-VECTOR FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH TO SECURITY CHALLENGES IN EASTERN EUROPE by Dimitar Y...the abatement of US interest in Europe, will require wise foreign policy maneuvers to address the changes in the transformed security environment. As

  19. Research Advances of Social Security Problems in China —Visualization Research based on Bibliometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳

    2016-01-01

    This article summarized the research progress and characteristics of Chinese social security issues from 2000 papers, which record in CNKI. We find that, the topic in the field of social security is board and dispersion. Due to the huge system and complex problem of social security, there is no central theme. Through cluster analysis, multi dimensional scaling analysis and social network analysis, we got the high frequency keywords atlas. Then, we summarized the research topic to six parts. They are rural social security, urban and rural social security co-ordination, vulnerable group social security, social security fund management, the social insurance system, and social security system and government responsibility. It summed up the theme of the module, meanwhile, combined the practice analysis.

  20. Tenure security, social relations and contract choice: Endogenous matching in the Chinese land rental market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianlei; Zhou, Yuepeng; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    tenure security, instead of de jure rights, on households' contract choice. The empirical results show that landlords are more likely to rent out land to tenants who live in the same village, instead of relatives and strangers. This kind of partner matching is based on consideration of both land tenure security and flexibility of rental relationships. Insecure land tenure encourages landlords to select informal contracts, because informal contracts seem to protect better protection than formal contracts as landlords are willing to match villagers. Policy implications are twofold based on our findings: 1) Land tenure reforms should put more emphasis on enhancing households' perception on tenure security and further reducing land market segmentation; 2) Measures that may be taken to stabilize rental contractual relationships may focus on the improvement of rural pension system and unemployment insurance for rural-urban migrants. Key Words: land rental market; contract choice; tenure security, social relations

  1. “Food Security” versus Cash Transfers: Comparative Analysis of Social Security Approaches in India and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Vance

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Amongst Global South nations grappling with the problems of both food security and poverty relief, two of the largest are Brazil and India. Though the nations of course differ in a host of socioeconomic, cultural and geopolitical respects, they do face similar problems of sharp income inequality, displacement of rural populations into cities and increasing battles over land and agricultural ownership. At the same time, both countries have had, until recently, a long period of sustained economic growth, as well as centre-left governments (the Workers’ Party in the case of Brazil, the Indian National Congress in the case of India, attempting to spread the benefits of that growth to a wider social strata. The differential approaches that the social security systems in each nation took in attempting to address the problem of food security are, therefore, instructive in understanding how these questions should be approached on a policy level. Though of course constrained in each case by differing economic and political contexts, as well as path dependencies within each country’s existing social protection regime, there are lessons in their successes and failures. Moreover, an approach which would recognize the best aspects of each policy program could be instrumental in designing a food security policy which reconciles institutional and individual problem levels. This paper will examine the political logics which informed both approaches, with an eye to seeing how these were played out in their concrete effects as implemented.

  2. CHALLENGES TO ILLEGAL MIGRATION POLICIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY OF MEXICO: ANALYSIS FROM THE MANAGEMENT CONDUCTED BETWEEN 2001 AND 2014 AND THE CASE CONCERNING INTERNATIONAL REFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO RODRÍGUEZ MORENO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of political-legal, social and human rights challenges imposed by irregular migration to Mexico, a nation that has been converted into an important area of destination and transit to the United States. The criminalization of the phenomenon and, therefore, the securitization of immigration policy, endorsed by the National Security Policy, has led to social and humanitarian conditions that are deplorable for undocumented migrants most of the times. It then examines the situation of Mexico between 2001 and 2014 and the reality of international benchmarks in the field. One of the challenges recognized for Immigration and National Security policies on the social level is the stigmatization suffered by irregular migrants both adults and children. In the political-legal arena to challenge the institutionalization of irregular migration as a threat that affects national security and overcomes the disjunction between the established regulations and their implementation. Key

  3. The Key Conceptions of Social Security: the International Practice and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dluhopolska Tetiana I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide globalization processes and the political-military conflicts have exacerbated the problem of social security of the people of various world countries, which is usually seen from the perspective of both the State and the individual citizen. The article is aimed at analyzing the existing conceptions of social security from different perspectives – political, economic efficiency, and narrative. An analysis of political theories of social security (majority rational voting; pressure groups has determined that they are based on the redistribution processes, and winning of the individual economic agents is achieved in the political struggle for various «social prizes». An analysis of theories of efficiency (optimal redistribution; optimal retirement insurance; prodigal father; misguided Keynesian; longevity insurance; government economizes on administration costs; return on human capital investment has determined that they rely on market «fiasco» and can help in understanding which from the social protection programs minimize market failures. An analysis of the descriptive (narrative theories (chain letters; lump of labor; monopoly capitalism; nearly rational policy has determined that they are difficult subject to the mathematical interpretation and partially repeat ideas of the previous concepts.

  4. A legislative history of the Social Security Protection Act of 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Passage of the original Social Security Act in 1935, Public Law (P.L.) 74-271, represented one of the watershed achievements of social welfare reform in American history. For the first time, workers were guaranteed a basic floor of protection against the hardships of poverty. In the ensuing decades, more than 100 million beneficiaries have realized the value of this protection through the receipt of monthly Social Security payments. As this guarantee has endured and progressed, the policies and administration of such a vast and complex program have required ongoing modifications-more than 150 such revisions over the past 73 years. To some extent, these amendments can be seen as an ongoing refinement process, with the Social Security Protection Act of 2004 (SSPA) being another incremental step in the development of a social insurance program that best meets the evolving needs of American society. This article discusses the legislative history of the SSPA in detail. It includes summaries of the provisions and a chronology of the modification of these proposals as they passed through the House and Senate, and ultimately to the president's desk.

  5. People, Process, and Policy: Case Studies in National Security Advising, the National Security Council, and Presidential Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    confirmation of Lake’s concerns with the administration’s public relations failures, David Gergen, the president’s communications advisor, increased... Public Affairs: 389-395. 75 these positions, he did not openly object too them during the campaign. Additionally, as this case study shows, he...PEOPLE, PROCESS, AND POLICY: CASE STUDIES IN NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISING, THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL, AND PRESIDENTIAL DECISION MAKING

  6. Individual social security accounts: issues in assessing administrative feasibility and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K A; Salisbury, D L

    1998-11-01

    Whether to add individual accounts (IAs) to the Social Security system is a highly political issue. But almost lost in the debate so far have been any practical considerations about how to administer such accounts. Any discussion of whether to create individual accounts must also address the basic but critical questions of how they would work: Who would run them? What would they cost? Logistically, are they even possible? This EBRI Issue Brief provides an overview of the most salient administrative issues facing the current Social Security reform debate--issues that challenge proponents to carefully think through how their proposals could be implemented so as to achieve their policy goals. The options and difficulties in administering IAs raise concerns that cut across ideology. The object of this report is neither to dissuade the advocates nor support the critics of individual accounts. Rather, it is to bring practical considerations to a political debate that has largely ignored the pragmatic challenges of whether IAs would be too complex for participants to understand or too difficult for record keepers to administer. The major findings in this analysis include: Adding individual accounts to Social Security could be the largest undertaking in the history of the U.S. financial market, and no system to date has the capacity to administer such a system. The number of workers currently covered by Social Security--the largest single entitlement program in the nation--is at least four times higher than the combined number of all tax-favored employment-based retirement accounts in the United States, which are administered by hundreds of entities. Direct comparisons between employment-based retirement savings plans and Social Security reform are tenuous at best. Social Security covers workers and businesses that are disproportionately excluded from employment-based plans. Because of these differences, a system of individual Social Security accounts would be more

  7. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P; Bazzi, Angela R; Allen, Heidi L; Martinson, Melissa L; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L

    2017-12-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health.

  8. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R.; Allen, Heidi L.; Martinson, Melissa L.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health. PMID:29236535

  9. The Mexican Social Security counterreform: pensions for profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C

    1999-01-01

    The social security counterreform, initiated in 1997, forms part of the neoliberal reorganization of Mexican society. The reform implies a profound change in the guiding principles of social security, as the public model based on integrality, solidarity, and redistribution is replaced by a model based on private administration of funds and services, individualization of entitlement, and reduction of rights. Its economic purpose is to move social services and benefits into the direct sphere of private capital accumulation. Although these changes will involve the whole social security system--old-age and disability pensions, health care, child care, and workers' compensation--they are most immediately evident in the pension scheme. The pay-as-you-go scheme is being replaced by privately managed individual retirement accounts which especially favor the big financial groups. These groups are gaining control over huge amounts of capital, are authorized to charge a high commission, and run no financial risks. The privatization of the system requires decisive state intervention with a legal change and a sizable state subsidy (1 to 1.5 percent of GNP) over five decades. The supposed positive impact on economic growth and employment is uncertain. A review of the new law and of the estimates of future annuities reveals shrinking pension coverage and inadequate incomes from pensions.

  10. Health and Social Security Needs of Rickshaw Pullers in Ranchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant; Thomas, Joe; Wadhwa, Sonal S; Mishra, Aprajita; Dasgupta, Smita

    2016-07-01

    A significant number of "marginalized" population groups are denied their health rights, healthcare access, benefits of government health programs, and other health-related social security benefits. These population groups, particularly the rickshaw pullers of India, are vulnerable because of their poor social and economic status, migration history, lack of permanent settlements, lack of social capital, and so on. These reasons, coupled with other social-political reasons, lead to no or limited access to health services and poor health conditions. This study intends to explore and understand the context and health seeking behavior of rickshaw pullers in Ranchi, the capital city of Jharkhand state in India, with special reference to wider social determinants of health such as, access, affordability, and delivery of health services. The data was collected from 1,000 rickshaw pullers from 40 "rickshaw garages" in Ranchi. The findings of the study show that rickshaw pullers can't afford to "attach" much importance to their health due to various reasons and suffer from a variety of occupational and other illnesses. The health conditions of the rickshaw pullers are affected by poverty, negligence, illiteracy, lack of awareness and unavailability of affordable, quality health services. These are only a symptom of the larger structural issues affecting health. The study suggests that rickshaw pullers, being a marginalized and excluded population group, require special health and social security programs that include safe, affordable, and accessible services along with a special focus on health education, behavior change, and promotion of appropriate health-seeking behavior.

  11. Social policy and entitlements : a proposal for reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nentjes, Andries; Meijer, G; Heijman, WJM; VanOphem, JAC; Verstegen, BHJ

    2006-01-01

    Welfare states citizens have entitlements to a variety of social services provided for free or a price far below cost, such as education, health care, social security and housing. Every citizen benefits, but in their present organisation the social services also have major deficiencies: lack of

  12. Social security status and mortality in Belgian and Spanish male workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Duran

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems.

  13. 75 FR 64389 - Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2010-0066] Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System (OIS) Development Planning; Request for Comment...) to provide independent advice and recommendations on plans and activities to create an occupational...

  14. Effective surveillance for homeland security balancing technology and social issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...

  15. Mixed messages: An evaluation of NHS Trust Social Media policies in the North West of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scragg, B.; Shaikh, S.; Robinson, L.; Mercer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite National Health Service (NHS) information strategy promoting the use of Social Media (SoMe) to encourage greater engagement between service users and providers, a team investigating online SoMe interaction between breast screening practitioners and clients found that practitioners alleged discouragement from employers' policies. This study aimed to investigate whether this barrier was genuine, and illuminate whether local policy differed from national strategy. Method: The study used a qualitative grounded theory approach to generate a theory. Nine policies from the North West of England were analysed. A framework was derived from the data, and an analysis of policy tone followed by a detailed coding of policy content was undertaken. Comparative analysis continued by reviewing the literature, and a condensed framework revealed five broad categories that policies addressed. Results: The analysis revealed the policies varied in content, but not in tone, which was mostly discouraging. Coding the content revealed that the most frequently addressed point was that of protecting the employers' reputation, and after further analysis, the resultant condensed framework showed that policies were imbalanced and heavily skewed towards Security, Conduct & Behaviour and Reputation. Conclusion: Practitioners within breast screening services are discouraged by overly prohibitive and prescriptive SoMe policies; with these varying tremendously in comprehensiveness, but with a narrow focus on security and employers reputation; in contrast with national strategy. Recommendations are that policy revision is undertaken with consultation by more than one stakeholder, and SoMe training is offered for all members of NHS staff. - Highlights: • Practitioners are discouraged from using SoMe by employers' policies. • This is at odds with national strategy of engagement with all stakeholders. • Policies are skewed towards protecting reputation and

  16. Social Media Policy in Social Work Education: A Review and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Hannah E.; Drisko, James

    2016-01-01

    Although social media use has grown dramatically, program policies have not kept pace. Some programs now state that student social media activities have led to professional conduct reviews and may violate ethical standards. This article reviews current social media policies and conceptualizes their key elements. A review of current social media…

  17. Social Security for China’s Migrant Workers – Providing for Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “migrant workers” derives from the household registration system of China’s planned economy period. The continued existence of that system conflicts with the development of an integrated labour market. The current social security system, based on household registration and a large number of local pools, discriminates against migrant workers because of their mobility and the lack of mechanisms to transfer benefits between pools. As a result, migrants have made major contributions to China’s economic development but do not get the same benefits as urban residents. Faced with this challenge, China’s government has begun to introduce policy reforms to improve social security for migrants. This article explores this development through a focus on old-age insurance. It analyses the special needs of migrants, the obstacles facing policy development and the proposed solutions. It argues that social justice and social equity require the development of a system that treats all citizens equally, and that the logic of an integrated labour market will ultimately require a unified national system of old-age insurance.

  18. Information technology as a tool for the Italian Institute of Social Security (INPS) in the management of social security and civil disability: Pro and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammicheli, Michele; Scaglione, Marcella

    2018-01-01

    We examine, from a medical-legal perspective, the pro and cons of the information technology procedures that the Italian Institute of Social Security (INPS) has implemented to manage the provision of social disability assistance, meaning that separate from the payment of pension contributions, being welfare, anchored to an administrative requirement by way of the compulsory payment of a minimum social security contribution.

  19. The impact of population ageing on the social security expenditure and economic growth in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, N

    1987-05-01

    The author considers the impact of demographic aging in Japan on the social security system and on economic growth. It is argued that "First of all, as the cost of social security (including social services) increases remarkably at the earlier stage of ageing, the disposable (after tax) income and private consumption of the present labour force generation tend to increase at a lower growth rate than that of the GNP....Secondly if pension systems are based on terminal funding schemes, the ageing of the population increases savings (net increase of the amount of the pension funds) at the earlier stage of the ageing of the population. Thirdly, there is a time lag between the increase of social security benefits and the decrease in the personal savings ratio. The high ratio of savings and the shortage of aggregate demand as well as the high pressure for export in...recent Japan can partly be attributed to the above factors." Possible future economic scenarios as demographic ageing in Japan proceeds are described, and policies to avert anticipated problems are outlined. (SUMMARY IN JPN) excerpt

  20. Implementation of Learning Organization Components in Ardabil Social Security Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zirak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the implementation of learning organization characteristics based on Marquardt systematic model in Ardabil Social Security Hospital. The statistical population of this research was 234 male and female employees of Ardabil Social Security Hospital. For data collection, Marquardt questionnaire was used in the present study which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. Statistical analysis of hypotheses based on independent samples t-test showed that learning organization characteristics were used more than average level in some subsystems of Marquardt model and there was a significant difference between current position and excellent position based on learning organization characteristic application. According to the research findings, more attention should be paid to the subsystems of learning organization establishment and balanced development of these subsystems.

  1. Changing social policy: Grassroots to legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiska, Liz; McCann, Eileen M; Mancuso, Margaret

    2002-05-01

    Health care in the United States has evolved into a multimillion dollar business. As the health care industry has grown, so too has government regulation and involvement. As both insurers and patients vie to get the most for their health care dollars, federal and state governments attempt to mediate, prevent fraud and abuse, and protect all parties involved. Consumers feel the effects of this "tug of war" in the form of higher copayments, premiums, and out-of-pocket costs, as well as denial of coverage. This denial of coverage sparked a very successful grassroots effort to stop commercial insurers in the state of Connecticut from defining ostomy supplies as cosmetic and thus denying reimbursement. A tremendous amount of collaboration between Connecticut WOC nurses, state legislators, local American Cancer Society advocates, United Ostomy Association chapter members, and health care providers resulted in a powerful mobilization and support for House Bill No. 5120. This bill went beyond defining ostomy supplies as medically necessary but also set a minimum rate for reimbursement. Social policy changed, improving the lives of Connecticut citizens with an ostomy. Although many people fear they do not have the power to make necessary changes in government, this experience proved otherwise. The collaboration that occurred was patient advocacy at its best. This article describes the process that allowed this successful collaboration to take place with the hope that others will be inspired to get involved with patient advocacy through political involvement. It is the intention of this work to capture the essence of dedication of a grassroots campaign involving a small group of well-organized, highly focused participants who were responsible for changing public health care policy in the state of Connecticut.

  2. Composing Alternatives to a National Security Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Scott

    2009-01-01

    President Bush's National Security Language Initiative focuses narrowly on gearing language education to security and military needs. English educators should work with their counterparts in foreign language departments to promote a broader view, one that encourages study of the multiple language groups that currently exist within the United…

  3. HOW RESILIENT IS THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL? FLEXIBILITY OR/AND SECURITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta GHEBREA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to assess the resilience of the European social model (ESM against recent challenges. Resilience depends on effectively managing the contradictions of the ESM. Flexicurity is an example of managing contradictions between security and flexibility. The contribution of flexicurity to the resilience of the ESM is determined by the development of the abilities necessary for resilience. Our research evaluates the performance of these abilities using statistical and document analyses. The results show that flexicurity policies perform satisfactorily relative to their resilience abilities. Still, the ability to respond is less effective due to significant differences among the Member States (regarding the implementation of flexicurity policies and to insufficient openness and functionality of the European labour market. Nevertheless, the European flexicurity policies redefine the ESM by adding a touch of a more mobile, autonomous and free-spirited approach, thus representing a solution to both preserve valuable tradition and modernise the ESM.

  4. Expanding Social Security in Indonesia: the Processes and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Asep Suryahadi; Vita Febriany; Athia Yumna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of social security provision in Indonesia, which has evolved from very little in its early years to the privilege of formal sector workers during the New Order period to universal coverage, at least in principle, in the current period. These changes were in line with and driven by the developments of the Indonesian economy in general, which has gone through various episodes marked by both booms and crises. There are two important milestones in the developmen...

  5. The Security of Organizations and Individuals in Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Elyashar, Aviad

    2016-01-01

    The serious privacy and security problems related to online social networks (OSNs) are what fueled two complementary studies as part of this thesis. In the first study, we developed a general algorithm for the mining of data of targeted organizations by using Facebook (currently the most popular OSN) and socialbots. By friending employees in a targeted organization, our active socialbots were able to find new employees and informal organizational links that we could not find by crawling with ...

  6. An encryption scheme for a secure policy updating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, L.; Asim, M.; Petkovic, M.; Obaidat, M.S.; Tsihrintzis, G.A.; Filipe, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ciphertext policy attribute based encryption is an encryption technique where the data is encrypted according to an access policy over attributes. Users who have a secret key associated with a set of attributes which satisfy the access policy can decrypt the encrypted data. However, one of the

  7. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  8. Age structure of the population in Belgium and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooghe, G

    1991-01-01

    The effects of demographic aging and of various socioeconomic factors on the social security system in Belgium are explored. "Special attention is given to the impact of the ageing of the population on the pension problem. Based on a simple formula a series of percentages of taxation have been calculated as a function of shifts in the proportion of retired vs. active population and in the proportion of the average income vs. the average amount of pension. One of the conclusions is that the progressive ageing of the population will become the most significant factor in the growth of social expenditures." excerpt

  9. Helping the Hacker? Library Information, Security, and Social Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. C. Thompson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Social engineering is the use of nontechnical means to gain unauthorized access to information or computer systems. While this method is recognized as a major security threat in the computer industry, little has been done to address it in the library field. This is of particular concern because libraries increasingly have access to databases of both proprietary and personal information. This tutorial is designed to increase the awareness of library staff in regard to the issue of social engineering.

  10. Evaluating Factors of Security Policy on Information Security Effectiveness in Developing Nations: A Case of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, Nkiru Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Information systems of today face more potential security infringement than ever before. The regular susceptibility of data to breaches is a function of systems users' disinclination to follow appropriate security measures. A well-secured system maintains integrity, confidentiality, and availability, while providing appropriate and consistent…

  11. ExpertiSZe, a tool for determining the effects of social security legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Jorgen S.; Kordelaar, P.J.M.; Kordelaar, P.J.M.; Wassink, J.G.J.; van 't Eind, G.J.; Grütters, C.A.F.M.

    1992-01-01

    Social security legislation plays an important role in the Dutch society. In view of this, the effects of social security legislation have to be analysed carefully before new legislation can be made. Due to the growing complexity of legislation on the social security domain, this analysis has become

  12. 31 CFR 1.32 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general. An... such individual's refusal to disclose his social security number. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of... Federal statute, or (2) The disclosure of a social security number to any Federal, State, or local agency...

  13. 8 CFR 103.35 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS POWERS AND DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.35 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The use and collection of Social Security numbers shall be in accordance with 28 CFR 16.56. [40 FR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security...

  14. 29 CFR 71.12 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12 Section... UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 71.12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component unit that requests an individual to disclose his social security account number shall provide the...

  15. 41 CFR 105-64.105 - When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-64.105 When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected? (a) Statutory or regulatory authority must exist for collecting Social Security Numbers for record systems that use the SSNs as a method of... collect Social Security Numbers. (b) In compliance with OMB M-07-16 (Safeguarding Against and Responding...

  16. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... numbers. (a) Each system manager of a system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a method... furnish Social Security numbers without statutory or regulatory authorization and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security numbers voluntarily must be advised that furnishing the number is not...

  17. 24 CFR 5.216 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.216 Section 5.216 Housing and Urban Development...; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for Obtaining Income Information Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and...

  18. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number... General Procedures § 422.104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons eligible for SSN assignment. We can assign you a social security number if you meet the evidence requirements in § 422.107 and...

  19. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b) VA...

  20. 24 CFR 242.68 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban Development... Requirements § 242.68 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers...

  1. 12 CFR 1204.9 - Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 1204.9 Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers? FHFA collects Social Security numbers only when it is necessary and authorized. At least annually, the Privacy... of refusing to provide their Social Security numbers, unless the collection is authorized either by a...

  2. 28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his or her social security number. (b... which is required by Federal statute, or (2) The disclosure of a social security number to any Federal... identity of an individual. (c) Requests for disclosure of social security number. If the Agency requests an...

  3. 38 CFR 3.216 - Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... social security numbers. 3.216 Section 3.216 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 3.216 Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. Any person who applies for or receives..., furnish the Department of Veterans Affairs upon request with his or her social security number and the...

  4. 13 CFR 102.35 - Use and collection of Social Security Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 102.35 Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee... their social security numbers, unless: (1) The collection is authorized either by a statute; or (2) The social security numbers are required under statute or regulation adopted prior to 1975 to verify the...

  5. 78 FR 6168 - Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Service Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2013-0001] Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2012 Service Contract Inventories. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  6. 77 FR 3836 - Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2011-0105] Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2011 Service Contract Inventories. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  7. (Inefficiency of EU Common Foreign and Security Policy: Ukraine, Brexit, Trump and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipec Ondřej

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to explore and analyze key determinants of EU Common Foreign and Security Policy efficiency. For this purpose a 3C analytical approach is used, exploring EU foreign and security policy consistency, capacities and the dimension of cooperation. Article analyzes both horizontal and vertical, consistency of EU Foreign and Security policy especially with connection to Ukraine crises and diverging interests of EU member states. EU capacities are explored with main focus on military spending and challenges related to limited spending. EU military decline is put in contrast with new emerging regional powers. In the area of cooperation article is dedicated mainly to ineffective partnership with Turkey, cold attitude of Trump administration towards Europe and the implications of Brexit for EU foreign and security policy.

  8. INTERNAL MARKET GOVERNMENT SECURITIES IN PROMOTING THE EFFICIENCY OF DEBT POLICY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kuryshchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the effectiveness of debt policy of Ukraine, to its shortcomings and implications for the economy. The evaluation of the domestic government securities market and its impact on the efficiency of debt management.

  9. Single Mothers' Experiences with Pregnancy and Child Rearing in Korea: Discrepancy between Social Services/Policies and Single Mothers' Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Sang Hyung

    2018-05-10

    This study aims to explore single mothers’ experiences with social services/policies for their independent living and to identify gaps between these experiences and the needs of single mothers. A focus group discussion was performed to collect data. Seven single mothers discussed their experiences in significant periods of their lives: pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. Findings from the qualitative thematic analysis show discrepancies between the direction of social services/policies and single mothers’ needs, in terms of difficulties in healthcare, childcare, housing, employment, and income security. To the single mothers in this study, the social safety net is not inclusive, compared to that which is available to two-parent families or adoptive families. It is necessary to intervene in current blind spots of services/policies for single mothers, and to provide a social safety net to strengthen single mothers’ self-reliance and their children’s social security in the long term.

  10. Feminist Policy Analysis: Expanding Traditional Social Work Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanenberg, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to move the methodology of policy analysis beyond the traditional and artificial position of being objective and value-free, this article is a call to those working and teaching in social work to consider a feminist policy analysis lens. A review of standard policy analysis models is presented alongside feminist models. Such a…

  11. Human Development Index and Efficiency level of Social Security Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sepehrdost

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hospitals as one of the main institutions providing health care services play an important role in the health system and allocate a high percentage of health sector's budget to them. This study aimed to answer whether social security hospitals efficiency levels are the same for all provinces in Iran? And whether any relationship exists between the human development indexes (HDI of the provinces and technical efficiency levels of the hospitals?Materials & Methods: Data envelopment analysis model has been used to measure technical efficiency of 65 social security hospitals, including small hospitals (working with lower than one hundred active beds and large hospitals (working with over one hundred active beds during the years 2007 to 2009. Further, the relationship between human development index and technical efficiency of hospitals in the provinces has been analyzed.Results: Results show that the average technical efficiency of small and large hospitals working in low and medium HDI provinces (0.912 and 0.937 are more than the average technical efficiency of hospitals in higher HDI provinces (0.870 and 0.887.Conclusion: It is recommended that social security organization concentrated distribute its hospital services in provinces with lower HDI and higher density of population living under the coverage of organization’s insurance. This will eventually puts its positive effects on per capita income of people, as well as more equitable distribution of income. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:32-38

  12. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS.Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively.Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate.Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  13. How Robust Refugee Protection Policies Can Strengthen Human and National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes the case that refugee protection and national security should be viewed as complementary, not conflicting state goals. It argues that refugee protection can further the security of refugees, affected states, and the international community. Refugees and international migrants can also advance national security by contributing to a state’s economic vitality, military strength, diplomatic standing, and civic values. The paper identifies several strategies that would, if implemented, promote both security and refugee protection. It also outlines additional steps that the US Congress should take to enhance US refugee protection policies and security. Finally, it argues for the efficacy of political engagement in support of pro-protection, pro-security policies, and against the assumption that political populism will invariably impede support for refugee protection.

  14. PRIORITIES OF SOCIAL POLICY OF SEPARATE REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Definition of priorities in the regional social policy takes into account the specific characteristics of the region, in the unity of the Federal and regional social policies, in terms of ordering in the separation of powers. The effectiveness of the policy is determined based on the evaluation of indicators, which characterize: the reproduction of the population; social unrest; expenditure on social sector, private institutions; the standard of living of the population; civil health. Social protection of the population is differentiated solution of various problems resulting from the consummation of social risks. On the analysis of social structure, as well as the study of causal relationships and social risks and social problems based prioritization of social protection of the population.In the system of management of social protection of the population it is impossible to use any one approach to working with people. Currently, a combination of planned and socio-standard approaches based on the development of standards of social protection. The author of the study reflected the results of monitoring the social well-being and needs of the population Vladimir and Nizhny Novgorod regions. The adoption of new programs to support the needy, the implementation of any social security measures will have the greatest efficiency in combination with a constant monitoring of the social well-being and needs of the population - the main object of social protection. Only using the full extent of socio-cultural, legal, economic and managerial resources, it is possible to achieve full development of the system of social services that fully satisfy the needs of the population.

  15. Party politics and Greek security policy from 1974 to 1984: change and continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis explores the effects of political change on Greek security policy during the period 1974 to 1984. This period encompasses significant change in Greece's foreign relations including those with the United States. The central question is: Are the elements of Greek security policy based on long-term basic interests which find consistent expression, or are they a function of domestic political factors, more ideologicall...

  16. Paper recycling and social policy. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R K; Grace, R

    1976-12-01

    The most promising new source of paper for recycling is the household and small commercial business, whose waste papers can be processed if the paper and board industry is willing to invest capital to develop the facilities and the technology needed to upgrade indigenous fibers. Cost-benefit analyses in the United Kingdom indicate that support of this type of paper recycling has more merit than a buffer stock scheme. Efforts to conserve virgin materials by increasing the use of secondary materials could be further strengthened by taxes on the disposal of virgin materials. Paper recycling policies should include a range of sources, from discarded post-consumer waste paper and boxes to the release and use of energy by incineration, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. Waste availability is influenced by product durability, replacement by other products (such as plastic wrap for paper), industry maturity, and social attitudes. Public acceptance of lower-quality paper products and improved technology to remove ink and color should combine to make recycling more feasible. Efforts to develop the household and commercial sector will result in lower import requirements for wood pulp and an improved balance of payments for the United Kingdom. Recycled fibers require less water and energy to process, but the process wastes introduce environmental pollutants. Short- and long-term forecasts show a growth rate trend that varies with paper grade and corresponds with general economic growth. (35 references) (DCK)

  17. Social Policy in Social Work PhD Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Gal, John; Weiss-Gal, Idit

    2018-01-01

    While there has been a long-standing concern about the role of policy within social work education and social work practice, most of the emphasis has been on social work education at the BSW and MSW levels. This article examines policy education at the PhD level. It first explores how policy is taught in social work PhD programs in the United…

  18. Role and participation of women in the establishment and implementation of international security policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marigonë Vrajolli

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the different roles that women have in creating security policies. Further, this paper explains the role of women in initiatives, peacekeeping and peace-building. The paper also explains the international mechanisms that promote the involvement of women in peace and security processes.

  19. Critical water requirements for food, methodology and policy consequences for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.

    2004-01-01

    Food security and increasing water scarcity have a dominant place on the food policy agenda. Food security requires sufficient water of adequate quality because water is a prerequisite for plant growth. Nowadays, agriculture accounts for 70% of the worldwide human fresh water use. The expected

  20. Analysing the Efficacy of Security Policies in Cyber-Physical Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Mauw, Sjouke; Ouchani, Samir; Barthe, Gilles; Markatos, Evangelos; Samarati, Pierangela

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question for an ICT organization wishing to improve its security is whether a security policy together with physical access controls protects from socio-technical threats. We study this question formally. We model the information flow defined by what the organization’s employees do (copy,

  1. eHealth in Belgium, a new "secure" federal network: role of patients, health professions and social security services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Francis Roger

    2011-02-01

    eHealth platform is the official federal network in Belgium (created by law on 21 August 2008) devoted to a secure exchange of health data in many types of applications, such as health care purposes, simplification of administrative procedures and contribution to health policy. It implies a controlled access to decentralized databases and uses encrypted personal data. The national identification number has been chosen in order to authenticate the requester, the patient, and the receiver of information exchange. Authorizations have to be respected in order to obtain personal health data. Several questions are raised about its security: the lack of mandatory request for systematic journaling on accesses to the electronic patient record as well as the absence of explicit procedures for sanctions in case of unauthorized access, the new role of social security administration in managing security where a eHealth manager can be both judge and party (in the function of trusted third party for health data encryption and of a required lawyer for texts proposed by physicians to the Commission for the protection of private life). Another critic concerns the number of physicians in minority and the absence of patients' delegates in the eHealth Board. At a time when the patient is becoming a partner in the care team, should not he be the gate-keeper for the access to his own health record? How could networks help him to get the appropriate knowledge to contribute to care and to write his testament of life? Recent laws (on private life, patient rights and euthanasia) have contributed to a behavioural change in citizens and physician attitudes. Recommendations are made in order to improve the acceptability of eHealth platform. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social Science Research Findings and Educational Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to raise several distinctions regarding the presumed relationship of social science research findings to social policy making. The distinctions are made using Glymour's critique of the Bell Curve. An argument is made that (1 social science models and research findings are largely irrelevant to the actual concerns of policy makers and (2 what is relevant, but overlooked by Glymour, is how ideological factors mediate the process. The forms that ideological mediation may take are indicated.

  3. Research review of nongovernmental organizations' security policies for humanitarian programs in war, conflict, and postconflict environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Elizabeth; Burns, Lauren; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-06-01

    To identify the most and least commonly cited security management messages that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are communicating to their field staff, to determine the types of documentation that NGOs most often use to communicate key security messages, and to distinguish the points of commonality and divergence across organizations in the content of key security messages. The authors undertook a systematic review of available security policies, manuals, and training materials from 20 international humanitarian NGOs using the InterAction Minimum Operating Security Standards as the basis for a review framework. The most commonly cited standards include analytical security issues such as threat and risk assessment processes and guidance on acceptance, protection, and deterrence approaches. Among the least commonly cited standards were considering security threats to national staff during staffing decision processes, incorporating security awareness into job descriptions, and ensuring that national staff security issues are addressed in trainings. NGO staff receive security-related messages through multiple document types, but only 12 of the 20 organizations have a distinct security policy document. Points of convergence across organizations in the content of commonly cited standards were found in many areas, but differences in security risk and threat assessment guidance may undermine communication between aid workers about changes in local security environments. Although the humanitarian community has experienced significant progress in the development of practical staff security guidance during the past 10 years, gaps remain that can hinder efforts to garner needed resources, clarify security responsibilities, and ensure that the distinct needs of national staff are recognized and addressed.

  4. Private support and social securityPrivate support and social security

    OpenAIRE

    Frans van Dijk

    1998-01-01

    The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the `family' and the `community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on so...

  5. Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Casas Patiño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system.

  6. Collaborative Policy Making: Vertical Integration in The Homeland Security Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    national security and the interagency process ( Marcella , 2010). All these documents reviewed focused mainly on national security and overseas...administration, they were considered “the heart and soul of the process” ( Marcella , 2010). While subtle differences exist across administrations, the IPC...and build consensus across the government for action ( Marcella , 2010). During the second term of the Bush administration and during the first years

  7. The Value of a European Security and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-08

    relations has lately dominated US foreign policy. Subsequently some normative and meta- ethical conceptual conclusions will be drawn upon to show how US...relations has lately dominated US foreign policy by analyzing recent 3 policy decisions. After this analysis, some normative meta ethical conclusions...old patterns or as Kagan writes: “Europeans have stepped out of the Hobbesian world of anarchy into the Kantian world of perpetual peace.”13 The fact

  8. Unionism, the Decision-Making Process and Social Security Reform in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the vast literature on social security reform there are relatively few studies that analyze the participation of representatives coming from the union movement in the decision-making process. This article aims to fill part of that gap in Brazilian academic production on unionism and public policy. In situations in which unionist representatives support the ruling party, does the union bloc tend to defend the specific interests of their base of social representation or to follow the guidance of the party coalition of which they are part? The study addresses this research problemby analyzing the participation of the union bloc in the decision-making process of a social security reform, Proposal of Amendment to the Constitution, Article 40 (PEC 40, during the first term of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's government. The main findings of the study confirm the thesis of party predominance. In an institutional political scenario in which party discipline prevails, unionist representatives and senators tend to follow the guidance of the party coalition even under contrary pressures from their electoral base. The research sheds light on the relations involved between the Executive and Legislative branches, in the process of changing public policy, in which a government considered to be allied imposes losses for specific sectors of the union base, notably the active and inactive public servants of the federal government, states and municipalities.

  9. Alcohol use and policy formation: an evolving social problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Amir

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the evolutionary course that the social problem of alcohol use has taken in the United States since the Colonial Era. This article utilizes a range of theoretical models to analyze the evolving nature of alcohol use from an unrecognized to a perceived social problem. The models used include critical constructionism (Heiner, 2002), top-down policy model (Dye, 2001) and Mauss'(1975) understanding of social problems and movements. These theoretical constructs exhibit the relative nature of alcohol use as a social problem in regards to a specific time, place, and social context as well as the powerful and influential role that social elites have in defining alcohol asa social problem. Studies regarding the development of alcohol policy formation are discussed to illuminate the different powers, constituents, and factors that play a role in alcohol policy formation.Finally, implications for future study are discussed [corrected].

  10. Macroeconomic Implications of Changes in Social Security Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bagis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish social insurance system has been feverishly debated for years, particularly through its burden on the economy. The most recent reform is an attempt to neutralize the deterioration within the social security system and its effects on the economy. After the recent reform, ‘the way that retirement benefits are calculated’ is changed unfavorably for workers and the minimum age for retirement is increased. In particular, for an agent with 25 years of social security tax payments, the replacement rate is down from 65 percent to 50 percent. On the other hand, retirement age is up from 60 to 65. The aim of this paper is to investigate the macroeconomic effects of these changes using an OLG model. The author’s findings indicate that labor supply, output and capital stock increase when changes above are applied to the benchmark economy calibrated to the Turkish economy data in 2005. A critical change with the current reform is that the marginal benefit of working has become uniform over ages. In a simulation exercise, the marginal retirement benefit in the benchmark economy is changed to be uniform over ages while keeping the size of social security system unchanged. As a result, the benefit of retiring at a later period increases. However, uniform distribution of the marginal benefits itself decreases both the capital stock and output of the economy. Increasing the retirement age, on the other hand, has positive effects on the economy since agents obtain retirement benefits for fewer years and at an older age. Age increase has substantial positive effects on the labor supply, the capital stock, and the output.

  11. Interest Groups and Strategic Constructivism: Business Actors and Border Security Policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, T.E.

    Evidence suggests that business lobbying shapes European Union (EU) border security policies, but there has been no detailed empirical and theoretical work detailing how interest groups exert influence in this domain. Building on strategic constructivist accounts of policy-making, the article argues

  12. SOCIAL PRIORITIES OF FISCAL POLICY IN POST-CRISIS PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lyutyy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article carried out a comprehensive study of the social priorities of fiscal policy in Ukraine. Efficiency of fiscal instruments in the system of state regulation of social processes in society. Defined the role of the budgetary impact on the social development of society.

  13. Social Media: Developing an Acceptable Use Policy. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The growing use of social media by students and staff has led many schools to consider developing acceptable use policies. There is tremendous opportunity for improving education through the use of social media. There is also potential risk because social media can be used to access age inappropriate information and to engage in aggressive online…

  14. Towards Shibboleth-based security in the e-infrastructure for social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Wei; Daw, Michael; Procter, Rob; Voss, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The e-Infrastructure for e-Social Sciences project leverages Grid computing technology to provide an integrated platform which enables social science researchers to securely access a variety of e-Science resources. Security underpins the e-Infrastructure and a security framework with authentication and authorization functionality is a core component of the e-Infrastructure for social sciences. To build the security framework, we adopt Shibboleth as the basic authentication and authorization i...

  15. EU governance of economic and social policies : Chances and challenges for social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, S.; Klosse, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at establishing to what extent the renewed EU economic and social policy coordination cycles offer opportunities to uphold and further develop the Union’s social objectives. First, it seeks to examine to what extent the legal frameworks in which macroeconomic and social policies

  16. Social security and retirement decision: A positive and normative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Social insurance for the elderly is judged responsible for the widely observed trend towards early retirement. In a world of laissez-faire or in a first-best setting, there would be no such trend. However, when first-best instruments are not available, because health and productivity are not observable, the optimal social insurance policy may imply a distortion on the retirement decision. The main point we make is that while there is no doubt that retirement systems induce an excessive bias t...

  17. Social, state and political society: Reflections on Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Laurentino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.

  18. Principle Of Non-Regression And Social Security: Security And Trust Protection, Reservation Of The Possible And Non-Regression In The Fundamental Social Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Garcia Schwarz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain and analyze, from the perspective of the material and effective dimensions of fundamental social rights, questions that concern the relevance of security and trust for the social pact and, as a consequence, to the non-regression in the fundamental social rights in general and in the social security in particular. It reveals that, while the retrogression is not absolute, retrogression must be fully justified. The research is descriptive and explanatory, documentary-bibliographical.

  19. Guideline of Cyber Security Policy for Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Zeen; Kim, Jang Seong; Kim, Kwang Jo [Information and Communications University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Doo; Kim, Dai Il; Jeong, Choong Heui [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Recently computers and communication systems have been developed very fast and applied to various areas in many applications. This development has raised new vulnerabilities that may endanger the critical systems for nuclear safety and physical protection at the facilities. In order to protect the critical infrastructures from these new cyber attacks, we clearly need deep considerations on the risks and threats through the cyberspace. Based on these needs, many organizations which related to nuclear power plants suggested various cyber security protection methods based on regulation or technical safeguard. Even if security countermeasures against various cyber attacks are important, it is required to establish the best practices of cyber security policy by the vendor and licensee. Based on the policy they can evaluate their activities against various cyber attacks throughout the whole life cycle. In this paper, we discuss how to establish the cyber security policy for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants.

  20. Guideline of Cyber Security Policy for Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Zeen; Kim, Jang Seong; Kim, Kwang Jo; Kang, Young Doo; Kim, Dai Il; Jeong, Choong Heui

    2007-01-01

    Recently computers and communication systems have been developed very fast and applied to various areas in many applications. This development has raised new vulnerabilities that may endanger the critical systems for nuclear safety and physical protection at the facilities. In order to protect the critical infrastructures from these new cyber attacks, we clearly need deep considerations on the risks and threats through the cyberspace. Based on these needs, many organizations which related to nuclear power plants suggested various cyber security protection methods based on regulation or technical safeguard. Even if security countermeasures against various cyber attacks are important, it is required to establish the best practices of cyber security policy by the vendor and licensee. Based on the policy they can evaluate their activities against various cyber attacks throughout the whole life cycle. In this paper, we discuss how to establish the cyber security policy for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants

  1. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  2. Security Policies for Mitigating the Risk of Load Altering Attacks on Smart Grid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, Tatyana; AlMajali, Anas; Neuman, Clifford

    2015-04-01

    While demand response programs implement energy efficiency and power quality objectives, they bring potential security threats to the Smart Grid. The ability to influence load in a system enables attackers to cause system failures and impacts the quality and integrity of power delivered to customers. This paper presents a security mechanism to monitor and control load according to a set of security policies during normal system operation. The mechanism monitors, detects, and responds to load altering attacks. We examined the security requirements of Smart Grid stakeholders and constructed a set of load control policies enforced by the mechanism. We implemented a proof of concept prototype and tested it using the simulation environment. By enforcing the proposed policies in this prototype, the system is maintained in a safe state in the presence of load drop attacks.

  3. [Review of food policy approaches: from food security to food sovereignty (2000-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Giraldo, Luis Alirio; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro

    2015-07-01

    Food policies have attracted special interest due to the global food crisis in 2008 and promotion of the Millennium Development Goals, leading to approaches by different fields. This thematic review aims to describe the main theoretical and methodological approaches to food security and food sovereignty policies. A search was performed in databases of scientific journals from 2000 to 2013. 320 complete articles were selected from a total of 2,699. After reading the articles to apply the inclusion criteria, 55 items were maintained for analysis. In conclusion, with the predominance of food security as a guiding policy, food sovereignty has emerged as a critical response to be included in designing and researching food policies. Food policies are essential for achieving public health goals. Public health should thus take a leading role in linking and orienting such policies.

  4. SOCIAL POLICY AS FACTOR OF STATE INSTITUTIONAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Zhukova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the research of theoretical and methodological aspects of social policy as the factor of institutional state statuses. Methodology. The researching in institutional providing of state social policy which may be considered as the base for performance of correspond reforms which are directed to the life level increasing, is enough popular task in scientific, theoretical and practical aspects. The scientific search of social policy as the factor of institutional status of state is carried out at the base of classical, neoclassical and institutional methodology. At the base of classical methodology it were defined the general approaches with help of dialectical analysis tools and synthesis of social relations array as historical action. With the help of system, structurally-functional analysis of social policy tasks, it’s opened its internal nature and ways of institutional providing. Institutional and neoclassical approaches allowed the specials analysing tools in modelling of dynamics and institute of social policy institute results in the conditions of market transformations. Also in the research process it were used the economic articles about the question of analysis in state social policy and given the statistic data about the analytical report to the annual President’s of Ukraine message to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine „About internal and external condition of Ukraine in year 2015”. Research results showed what in the conditions of socially-economic and political instability, the social sphere Ukraine became the hostage of common crisis in economic, catastrophic decreasing of life level, increasing of social confrontation and rough system mistakes in the process of social institution formation. All of this neutralizes the methods efficiency about improvement of socially-economic condition of population and prevents to the implementation of necessary reforms. Practical value lays in the clear definition of

  5. Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman). In March 2011, Kuwait joined a GCC military intervention to...before the start of [2013]”—a statement that furthered Iraq’s argument that the U.N. Security Council should remove any remaining “Chapter 7” (of the...with alternative mechanisms, as discussed below. On December 15, 2010, the U.N. Security Council passed three resolutions—1956, 1957, and 1958—that

  6. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.

    2009-01-01

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  7. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S. [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  8. Germany and energy security in the 2000s: Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S., E-mail: duffield@gsu.ed [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future.

  9. Urban policy engagement with social sustainability in metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Meg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of social sustainability in comparative theoretical context and as a challenge to the post-political interpretation of sustainability in policy practice at the urban and regional scales. Metro Vancouver provides a case study for improving our understanding of the meaning of social sustainability as a framework for social policy in that it is among the handful of cities around the world currently working to define and enact social sustainability in governance terms. Results of this participant research provide evidence that some cities are politically engaging alternative development pathways using the concept of social sustainability. For sustainable development to retain its promise as an alternative policy framework for cities, social sustainability must be at the forefront.

  10. Information System Security: Army Web Site Administration, Policies, and Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Policy requires heads of DoD Components to establish a process to identify appropriate information for posting to Web sites and to review all information placed on publicly accessible Web sites...

  11. Social Policy in a Global Society: Parallels and Lessons from the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The focus of the 1980s was economic adjustment; in the 1990s, it's social policy reform. ... In Social Policy in a Global Society, international experts examine common social policy ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  12. Trust Evolution Policies for Security in Collaborative Ad Hoc Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Jensen, Christian D.; Connell, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    The vision of pervasive computing has introduced the notion of a vast, networked infrastructure of heterogeneous entities interact through collaborative applications, e.g., playing a multi-player online game on the way to work. This will require interactions between users who may be marginally...... admission policies in a manner similar to what would be expected from human trust assessment. This indicates that trust evolution policies can replace explicit human intervention in application scenarios that are similar to the evaluated prototype....

  13. Social Security And Mental Illness: Reducing Disability With Supported Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Robert E.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Bond, Gary R.; Goldman, Howard H.

    2010-01-01

    Social Security Administration disability programs are expensive, growing, and headed toward bankruptcy. People with psychiatric disabilities now constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding subgroup of program beneficiaries. Evidence-based supported employment is a well-defined, rigorously tested service model that helps people with psychiatric disabilities obtain and succeed in competitive employment. Providing evidence-based supported employment and mental health services to this population could reduce the growing rates of disability and enable those already disabled to contribute positively to the workforce and to their own welfare, at little or no cost (and, depending on assumptions, a possible savings) to the government. PMID:19414885

  14. [Disintegration of the prison system, public security and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixo, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    The defense of human rights, namely one of the most important duties of the legislature, is a considerable challenge in the day-to-day business of parliament. The opinions and practices of elected representatives reflect the security concerns and fears of society that engender a vast process of social exclusion. In this context, the defense of the right to health of persons deprived of liberty seems an especially difficult task, as shown in the interview of State Congressman Marcelo Freixo, the Coordinator of the Human Rights Commission of the Legislative Assembly in Rio de Janeiro and creator of the State Mechanism for Preventing and Combating Torture.

  15. Linking research and food security policies in MENA | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 حزيران (يونيو) 2013 ... Hammou Laamrani works for IDRC as a specialist in agriculture, water, and knowledge management. He believes that ... Food security challenges are also related to the low adoption of technologies to optimize food availability and storage, reduce post-harvest losses, and improve food safety. Unless food ...

  16. Support for Multi-Level Security Policies in DRM Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; Popescu, B.C.; Crispo, B.; Hempelmann, C.F.; Raskin, V.

    2004-01-01

    Digital rights management systems allow copyrighted content to be commercialized in digital format without the risk of revenue loss due to piracy. Making such systems secure is no easy task, given that content needs to be protected while accessed through electronic devices in the hands of

  17. Framework for an African policy towards creating cyber security awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, IZ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber security is a GLOBAL issue. The rest of the world needs Africa to be aware and ready. Furthermore, Africa can only be aware and ready if it is internally organised and collaborates effectively with the rest of the world. The African continent...

  18. 36 CFR 1202.22 - Will NARA need my Social Security Number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Will NARA need my Social Security Number? (a) Before a NARA employee or NARA contractor asks you to provide your social security number (SSN), he or she will ensure that the disclosure is required by... Security Number? 1202.22 Section 1202.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  19. 24 CFR 200.6 - Employer identification and social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification and social security numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of social security numbers and employer identification numbers by applicants and... security numbers. 200.6 Section 200.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  20. An integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Hers, Sebastiaan; Van der Zwaan, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy. Basis of our analysis is the MERGE model, designed to study the interaction between the global economy, energy use, and the impacts of climate change. For our purposes we expanded MERGE with expressions that quantify damages incurred to regional economies as a result of air pollution and lack of energy security. One of the main findings of our cost-benefit analysis is that energy security policy alone does not decrease the use of oil: global oil consumption is only delayed by several decades and oil reserves are still practically depleted before the end of the 21st century. If, on the other hand, energy security policy is integrated with optimal climate change and air pollution policy, the world's oil reserves will not be depleted, at least not before our modeling horizon well into the 22nd century: total cumulative demand for oil decreases by about 24%. More generally, we demonstrate that there are multiple other benefits of combining climate change, air pollution, and energy security policies and exploiting the possible synergies between them. These benefits can be large: for Europe the achievable CO 2 emission abatement and oil consumption reduction levels are significantly deeper for integrated policy than when a strategy is adopted in which one of the three policies is omitted. Integrated optimal energy policy can reduce the number of premature deaths from air pollution by about 14,000 annually in Europe and over 3 million per year globally, by lowering the chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter. Only the optimal strategy combining the three types of energy policy can constrain the global average atmospheric temperature increase to a limit of 3 C with respect to the pre-industrial level. (author)

  1. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  2. Information security in academic libraries: the role of the librarian in planning and introducing institutional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares Lima

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a short discussion about the role of the librarian as a mediator at planning, developing and implementing an Information Security Policy in Academic Libraries, by working together with professionals in the field of Information Technology. It also discusses the main virtual threats and some risks that are prone to infect computers in libraries. Based on the current legislation and on some normative documents about information security, it is confirmed the importance of the librarian take part in the main decision-making related to information security, such as planning a consistent Information Security Policy which be able to see the specific needs of Academic Libraries as institutions prone to cyberattacks. The main topics and guidelines to carry out an Information Security Policy are presented based on the results that were obtained through an action research, by visiting libraries to fill in application forms and to compose reports whose content was analyzed. Finally, the study concludes that Information Security Policy must be validated by managers of sectors or departments which the Academic Library is hierarchically subordinate to.

  3. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Social Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Social Policy and Development Centre's (SPDC) role ... SPDC's main areas of research are poverty, inequality, governance, provincial ... and visibility at the national level, particularly in the capital city, Islamabad

  4. Transnational Social Policies: The New Development Challenges of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sub-Saharan Africa: Community-driven Social Policies ... After a decade of researchers' breast-beating about its evil impacts, a growing body of opinion ...... The authorities were faced with growing rates of juvenile delinquency, prostitution, ...

  5. Transnational Social Policies: The New Development Challenges of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Relationships between social policy and human development are the subject of much research and theorizing. ... In doing so, the book examines the underlining international developmental, ethical, economic, and political issues shaping ...

  6. Macroeconomic policies and increasing social-health inequality in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboli, Rouhollah; Seyedin, Seyed Hesam; Malmoon, Zainab

    2014-08-01

    Health is a complex phenomenon that can be studied from different approaches. Despite a growing research in the areas of Social Determinants of Health (SDH) and health equity, effects of macroeconomic policies on the social aspect of health are unknown in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the effect of macroeconomic policies on increasing of the social-health inequality in Iran. This study was a mixed method research. The study population consisted of experts dealing with social determinants of health. A purposive, stratified and non-random sampling method was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect the data along with a multiple attribute decision-making method for the quantitative phase of the research in which the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was employed for prioritization. The NVivo and MATLAB softwares were used for data analysis. Seven main themes for the effect of macroeconomic policies on increasing the social-health inequality were identified. The result of TOPSIS approved that the inflation and economic instability exert the greatest impact on social-health inequality, with an index of 0.710 and the government policy in paying the subsidies with a 0.291 index has the lowest impact on social-health inequality in the country. It is required to invest on the social determinants of health as a priority to reduce health inequality. Also, evaluating the extent to which the future macroeconomic policies impact the health of population is necessary.

  7. Greek National Security Concerns and the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: Consensus or Divergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    to my tutor.” Alexander the Great, referring to his tutor, Aristotle (356–323 BC) xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION...an actual policy since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Despite his political rhetoric and posturing while in opposition, Papandreou’s tenure...responsibility for global security.”139 Limited in breadth within the Petersberg tasks framework, the ESS focuses its rhetoric on the internal, rather

  8. Cyber Security Policy. A methodology for Determining a National Cyber-Security Alert Level

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin TOFAN; Maria Lavinia ANDREI; Lavinia Mihaela DINCÄ‚

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, assuring the security of the national cyber-space has become a big issue that can only be tackled through collaborative approaches. Threats cannot be confined to a single computer system just as much as computer systems are rendered useless without being con-nected to a supporting network. The authors of this article propose an innovative architecture of a system designated to help governments collect and analyze data about cyber-security in-cidents, from different organizations, di...

  9. 77 FR 51842 - Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 12-X(8); Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633 (8th Cir. 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ..., 1-800-772-1213 or TTY 1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0046] Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR... Social Security Act AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security...

  10. Symptom validity issues in the psychological consultative examination for social security disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    This article is about Social Security Administration (SSA) policy with regard to the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability, particularly with respect to validation of the responses and findings. First, the nature of the consultation and the importance of understanding the boundaries and ethics of the psychologist's role are described. Issues particular to working with low-functioning claimants usually form a large part of these examinations. The psychologist must understand various forms of non-credible behavior during the PCE, and how malingering might be considered among other non-credible presentations. Issues pertaining to symptom validity testing in low-functioning claimants are further explored. SSA policy with respect to symptom validity testing is carefully examined, with an attempt to answer specific concerns and show how psychological science can be of assistance, particularly with evidence-based practice. Additionally, the nature and importance of techniques to avoid the mislabeling of claimants as malingerers are examined. SSA requires the use of accepted diagnostic techniques with which to establish impairment, and this article describes the implementation of that requirement, particularly with respect to validating the findings.

  11. Challenges of EU Security on the Example of Cybeterrorism Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Oleksiewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to traditional threats to information as spying or leaking state secrets and business secrets appeared the new threats, among which the most dangerous is cyberterrorism. Taking into account the problems of cyber-terrorism, includes, in particular, the analysis of legislation aimed at ensuring the security of information systems of individual countries particular, this subject should be also recognized as requiring at the present time the insightful analysis. Therefore, this publication is an attempt of characteristics the determinants of this phenomenon and analysis of the latest legal solutions in the fight against cyber terrorism within the European Union. Moreover, it was made the attempt to find an answer to the question whether the current legal solutions of the European Union in the area of security are an effective tool in the fight against cyberterrorism.

  12. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    by the Ministry of Interior. Bahrain’s opposition asserts that the United States is downplaying regime abuses in order to protect the security... woman , who was unopposed in her district, was elected out of 18 female candidates. The king subsequently named a new Shura Council with 20 Shiites, 19...previous COR). The same woman who had won in 2006 was elected. Municipal elections were conducted concurrently. The king reappointed 30 of the 40 serving

  13. ESPOON$_{{ERBAC}}$: Enforcing Security Policies In Outsourced Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, Muhammad Rizwan; Ion, Mihaela; Russello, Giovanni; Crispo, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Data outsourcing is a growing business model offering services to individuals and enterprises for processing and storing a huge amount of data. It is not only economical but also promises higher availability, scalability, and more effective quality of service than in-house solutions. Despite all its benefits, data outsourcing raises serious security concerns for preserving data confidentiality. There are solutions for preserving confidentiality of data while supporting search on the data stor...

  14. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection —a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer substitution—as being...chemicals, such as chlorine, for purposes such as disinfection .29 Advocates for their inclusion in security regulations cite the presence of such...Science and Technology (S& T ) Directorate is engaged in a Chemical Infrastructure Risk Assessment Project that, among other goals, will assess the

  15. Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    workshop in Muscat to discuss freedom of speech .3 However, evidence that the pace of change has been perceived as slow was demonstrated in 2011 in...change their government, limits on freedom of speech , and societal mores that discriminate against women. The report adds that security force...Research Service 7 Freedom of Expression/Media The State Dept. human rights report for 2011 states that the law provides for limited freedom of speech and

  16. Ukraine's Foreign Policy: from Military Doctrine to Defense Security One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Иванович Кузьмук

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of reforming and developing Ukraine’s Armed Forces on the basis of the analysis of the key provisions of the Strategic defense bulletin adopted in 2012. The author proposes the ways of solving this problem and substantiates the transition in the defense planning from the military doctrine to the doctrine of Ukraine’s security and defense.

  17. Malaysia's social policies on mental health: a critical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, A Rahamuthulla

    2003-01-01

    This article aims to review the social policies on mental health and mental illness in Malaysia. Using critical theory, major policy issues pertaining to mental health and mental illness such as mental health legislation, prevalence rates and quality of services available to the people with mental health problems are discussed in detail. Implications of these issues on persons with mental health problems are critically evaluated. The paper highlights that the other countries in ASEAN region also require similar review by policy literature.

  18. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses policies of 22 European Union member governments, designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) between 2000 and 2011. It categorises these policies by their regulatory strength and identifies the range of issues to which CSR policies are directed. The paper argues...... that Northern European, Scandinavian and UK governments are reconstructing their respective institutional structures to embed CSR concerns more explicitly therein. It concludes that these government CSR initiatives are converging, particularly around their increased regulatory strength and the broadening...

  19. The Limitations of Quantitative Social Science for Informing Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, John; de Vries, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative social science (QSS) has the potential to make an important contribution to public policy. However it also has a number of limitations. The aim of this paper is to explain these limitations to a non-specialist audience and to identify a number of ways in which QSS research could be improved to better inform public policy.

  20. The Pro-Elderly Bias of Social Policies in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamliel-Yehoshua, Haya; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    orientation of social policies in Israel, which is a comparatively young society that has nevertheless aged significantly since independence in 1948. We present a historical overview of the development of policy efforts towards different age groups and estimate an Elderly/Non-Elderly Spending Ratio at four...