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Sample records for social representation theory

  1. The theory of social representations: overview and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Černigoj

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the theory of social representations is one of the most popular, but at the same time one of the most controversial theories in contemporary social psychology. Its author, Serge Moscovici, conceived it with the explicit intention to create an alternative to the prevailing individualistic and psychologising, North-American social psychology. The theory of social representations is aimed at being a new social-psyhological paradigm, which would enable this scientific field to occupy a central place among the social sciencies. This place is supposed to be reserved for the field that would be able to connect the individual and the collective level of explanation of human behaviour. Because of such promisses, the theory of social representations took over the immagination of many european scholars, and research that refers to it in some way is abundant. However, there is also a darker side to the theory. It is incomplete and full of internal inconsistencies. Some authors repeatedly stress these points, but apparently without any considerable success. The theory of social representations has recently been presented in Slovenia (Vec, 1999, but without any serious attempt of evaluation and therefore, in my view, in an unsatisfactory way. Here I try to fill this gap, and so I focus on the logical structure of the theory and at its existing critiques. At the same time I try to explain the reasons for the theory's great popularity from a historical and socio-psychological point of view. In order to accomplish all that, I try to present the theory of social representations first, which — although already attempted many times — is by no means an easy task.

  2. Conspiracy theories as quasi-religious mentality: an integrated account from cognitive science, social representations theory, and frame theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Bradley; Bangerter, Adrian; Bauer, Martin W

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories (CTs) can take many forms and vary widely in popularity, the intensity with which they are believed and their effects on individual and collective behavior. An integrated account of CTs thus needs to explain how they come to appeal to potential believers, how they spread from one person to the next via communication, and how they motivate collective action. We summarize these aspects under the labels of stick, spread, and action. We propose the quasi-religious hypothesis for CTs: drawing on cognitive science of religion, social representations theory, and frame theory. We use cognitive science of religion to describe the main features of the content of CTs that explain how they come to stick: CTs are quasi-religious representations in that their contents, forms and functions parallel those found in beliefs of institutionalized religions. However, CTs are quasi-religious in that CTs and the communities that support them, lack many of the institutional features of organized religions. We use social representations theory to explain how CTs spread as devices for making sense of sudden events that threaten existing worldviews. CTs allow laypersons to interpret such events by relating them to common sense, thereby defusing some of the anxiety that those events generate. We use frame theory to explain how some, but not all CTs mobilize collective counter-conspiratorial action by identifying a target and by proposing credible and concrete rationales for action. We specify our integrated account in 13 propositions.

  3. Institutional Advertising in the Context of Social Representation Theory: The Case of Coca Cola

    OpenAIRE

    MURAT ÇOLPA, Zeynep

    2018-01-01

    Social representation emergesto provide needs of individuals understanding world. Production of socialrepresentations only can be provided by individuals and groups interact eachother that is generally used in the field of communication. In this respect,this study attempts to analyze the instituional advertising in the context ofsocial representation theory. In this study institutionaladvertising of Coca Cola which is a well-known beverage company is inspectedand evaluated. Three sample of Co...

  4. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  5. Introduction to representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Hensel, Sebastian; Liu, Tiankai; Schwendner, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Very roughly speaking, representation theory studies symmetry in linear spaces. It is a beautiful mathematical subject which has many applications, ranging from number theory and combinatorics to geometry, probability theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum field theory. The goal of this book is to give a "holistic" introduction to representation theory, presenting it as a unified subject which studies representations of associative algebras and treating the representation theories of groups, Lie algebras, and quivers as special cases. Using this approach, the book covers a number of standard topics in the representation theories of these structures. Theoretical material in the book is supplemented by many problems and exercises which touch upon a lot of additional topics; the more difficult exercises are provided with hints. The book is designed as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. It should be accessible to students with a strong background in linear algebra and a basic k...

  6. Social Representations of Intelligence

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    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  7. The Theory of Social Representations, his application in the studies of health and disease: the case of the obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurimay Quintero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The social representations about health are the result of the articulation between representations and experiences about health practices. Analyzing the problem of obesity from the perspective of social representations would allow us to understand this issue from an approach that has not been tackled until now. To analyze the problem of obesity from Social Representations viewpoint would enable us to understand it with great potential from an approach that has not been used until now. Objectives: To analyze social representations theory and its application in health and disease processes and obesity in particular. Methods and Material: We searched for documents related to Social Representations and Obesity in different databases for the last six years. Investigations found were analyzed in the thematic area of interest and country of origin. Results were reviewed for their main contributions to the study area. Results: A total of 1822 articles in the field of Social Representations and health were found, the main titles of research were primary health care, medical practice, school health, child health, cancer, HIV or AIDS, high blood pressure, diabetes, sexuality and dietary practices. Concerning social representations and obesity: this is attributed to imputable aspects of the problem to the person (bad habits, lack of exercise, eating junk food and lack of will. Studies found in obese young people identified obesity as a disease that generally refers to causes such as inadequate food intake and sedentary lifestyle, some even claim to be victims of bullying. It was found that obesity in children is not a disease, but a phenotypic expression and considered undesirable. Conclusion: This theory constitutes an interesting option for the study of meanings that people construct or have and their links to obesity.

  8. Group and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2017-01-01

    This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...

  9. Mapping of the Academic Production at Science and Mathematics Education Postgraduate about the Theory of Social Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José Isnaldo de Lima; Curi, Edda; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2016-12-01

    The theory of social representations, appeared in 1961, arrived in Brazil in 1982, and since then has advanced significantly, been used in various areas of knowledge, assumed a significant role also in education. Thus, the aim of this article is to make a mapping of theses and dissertations in post-graduation programs, whose basic area is the Teaching of Science and Mathematics, and used as the theoretical foundation the theory of social representations, highlighted the social groups that are subject of this research. This is a documentary research, and lifting to the "state of knowledge" of two theses and 36 dissertations, defended in ten of the 37 existing programs in the basic area of Science and Mathematics Teaching, with the delimitation of academic masters and doctorates. The data collection was executed on December 2014 and was placed in the virtual libraries of these masters and doctoral programs, these elements were analysed according to some categories established after reading the summaries of the work, and the results showed that the theory of social representations has been used as a theoretical framework in various research groups, established in postgraduate programs in this area, for almost the entire Brazil. As for the subjects involved in this research, three groups were detected, which are: Middle school and high school students, teachers who are in full swing, spread from the early years to higher education, and undergraduates in Science and Mathematics.

  10. Pioneers of representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Charles W

    1999-01-01

    The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book. It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductor...

  11. Categorification and higher representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorified representation theory, or higher representation theory, aims to understand a new level of structure present in representation theory. Rather than studying actions of algebras on vector spaces where algebra elements act by linear endomorphisms of the vector space, higher representation theory describes the structure present when algebras act on categories, with algebra elements acting by functors. The new level of structure in higher representation theory arises by studying the natural transformations between functors. This enhanced perspective brings into play a powerful new set of tools that deepens our understanding of traditional representation theory. This volume exhibits some of the current trends in higher representation theory and the diverse te...

  12. Time, Non-representational Theory and the "Performative Turn"—Towards a New Methodology in Qualitative Social Research

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    Peter Dirksmeier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of their constitution, the usage of performative techniques in qualitative social research must deal with a paradox. Acting as performance takes place in the present and it takes place just once. One result of this is that every representation of a performance be it as text, discussion or film refers to the past. Performative social research solves this paradox by conceptualising performance as a kind of liminal phase of a ritual. Our thesis is that by simple outsourcing the problem of present in the theory of ritual, performative techniques commit the logical mistake of genetic fallacy, i.e., the mistake of forgetting that the primary value or meaning of an event has no necessary connections with its genesis in history. Therefore, a new methodology for qualitative social research after the performative turn requires a theoretical position which does not fall back to a position of causality as the temporal consequence of a cause and effect, as maintained by ritual theory. In this essay we suggest a "non-representational theory" for this venture, and point out how a methodology for qualitative research could be constituted "after" the performative turn. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802558

  13. Time representations in social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

  14. Social representations about cancer

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    Andreja Cirila Škufca

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we are presenting the results of the comparison study on social representations and causal attributions about cancer. We compared a breast cancer survivors group and control group without own experience of cancer of their own. Although social representations about cancer differ in each group, they are closely related to the concept of suffering, dying and death. We found differences in causal attribution of cancer. In both groups we found a category of risky behavior, which attributes a responsibility for a disease to an individual. Besides these factors we found predominate stress and psychological influences in cancer survivors group. On the other hand control group indicated factors outside the ones control e.g. heredity and environmental factors. Representations about a disease inside person's social space are important in co-shaping the individual process of coping with own disease. Since these representations are not always coherent with the knowledge of modern medicine their knowledge and appreciation in the course of treatment is of great value. We find the findingss of applied social psychology important as starting points in the therapeutic work with patients.

  15. Representation theory of finite monoids

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...

  16. Solitons and theory of representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    Problems on the theory of group representations finding application in constructing the quantum variant of the inverse scattering problem are discussed. The multicomponent nonlinear Shroedinger equation is considered as a main example of nonlinear evolution equations (NEE)

  17. Non-Representational Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    Dette kapitel gennemgår den såkaldte ”Non-Representational Theory” (NRT), der primært er kendt fra den Angelsaksiske humangeografi, og som særligt er blevet fremført af den engelske geograf Nigel Thrift siden midten af 2000 årtiet. Da positionen ikke kan siges at være specielt homogen vil kapitlet...

  18. Using social representations theory to make sense of climate change: what scientists and nonscientists in Australia think

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    Gail Moloney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mass media has ensured that the challenging and complex phenomenon of climate change now has the household familiarity of a brand name. But what is it that is understood by climate change, and by whom? What frame of reference is drawn upon to communicate meaningfully about climate change? Do particular subgroups within our society hold different understandings, or have the debate and the prolific dissemination of information about this issue coalesced around a core perception or image of what climate change is? To answer these questions, we conceptualized climate change within the theory of social representations as emergent socially constructed knowledge. We analyzed word association data collected in Australia from persons identifying as having a scientific, government, or general public background (N = 3300. All respondents were asked to write the first words that came to mind when they thought about climate change. Comparative analyses of the word associations reveal that respondents from different backgrounds define climate change in different ways. The results suggest that there is a common core set of concepts shared by the different groups, but there are also a great many differences in how climate change is framed and conceived by respondents. The results are discussed in relation to what they imply for responses to climate change by these social groups and in relation to interventions designed to encourage climate adaptation.

  19. Power, privilege and disadvantage: Intersectionality theory and political representation

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    Eline Severs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article critically reviews the extant literature on social group representation and clarifies the advantages of intersectionality theory for studying political representation. It argues that the merit of intersectionality theory can be found in its ontology of power. Intersectionality theory is founded on a relational conception of political power that locates the constitution of power relations within social interactions, such as political representation. As such, intersectionality theory pushes scholarship beyond studying representation inequalities —that are linked to presumably stable societal positions— to also consider the ways in which political representation (recreates positions of privilege and disadvantage.

  20. Teoria das representações sociais e ciências sociais: trânsito e atravessamentos Theory of social representations and social sciences: transit and crossings

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    Angela Arruda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende assinalar a relação da teoria psicossocial das representações sociais de Serge Moscovici com as ciências sociais, a partir da sua caracterização como uma abordagem de interpenetração da Psicologia com a Sociologia. Primeiramente fará uma breve análise sobre o trânsito entre Psicologia-Psicologia Social e Ciências Sociais, como um dos elementos de explicação para o entrecruzamento da Teoria das Representações Sociais (TRS com as ciências sociais. Em seguida pontuará como este entrecruzamento se coloca na abordagem moscoviciana, e como a TRS não escapa a ele. O argumento da autora é de que a base da relação entre essas áreas e a TRS está na concepção do social, presente no pensamento moscoviciano, o qual, ao mesmo tempo, não negligencia o quanto os aspectos psicológicos participam dos fatos sociais. O texto se encerra com alguns exemplos de pesquisa para ilustrar esta posição.This text intends to pinpoint the relationship between the psychosocial theory of social representations by Serge Moscovici and the social sciences, based on the characterization of this theory as an interpenetrative approach between psychology and sociology. Firstly, the transit between psychology-social psychology and sociology will be briefly presented as one of the elements that explain the intertwining of the Theory of Social Representations (TSR and social sciences. Next, it will be indicated how this intertwining is present in Moscovici's approach and how the TSR cannot escape it. The author's argument is that the relationship between these two fields is based on the conception of the social in Moscovici's thought, which does not neglect the importance of psychological aspects for social facts as well. The text concludes with some examples of research works that illustrate this point of view.

  1. Social representations: a theoretical approach in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane Santos Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the theory of social representations, placing its epistemology and knowing the basic concepts of its approach as a structural unit of knowledge for health studies. Justification: The use of this theory comes from the need to understand social eventsunder the lens of the meanings constructed by the community. Data Synthesis: This was a descriptive study of literature review, which used as a source of data collection the classical authors of social representations supported by articles from electronic search at Virtual Health Library (VHL. The definition and discussion of collected data enabled to introduce two themes, versed on the history and epistemology of representations and on the structuralapproach of representations in health studies. Conclusion: This review allowed highlight the importance of locating the objects of study with regard to contextual issues of individual and collective histories, valuing the plurality of relations, to come closer to reality that is represented by the subjects.

  2. On Representation in Information Theory

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    Joseph E. Brenner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Semiotics is widely applied in theories of information. Following the original triadic characterization of reality by Peirce, the linguistic processes involved in information—production, transmission, reception, and understanding—would all appear to be interpretable in terms of signs and their relations to their objects. Perhaps the most important of these relations is that of the representation-one, entity, standing for or representing some other. For example, an index—one of the three major kinds of signs—is said to represent something by being directly related to its object. My position, however, is that the concept of symbolic representations having such roles in information, as intermediaries, is fraught with the same difficulties as in representational theories of mind. I have proposed an extension of logic to complex real phenomena, including mind and information (Logic in Reality; LIR, most recently at the 4th International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science (Beijing, August, 2010. LIR provides explanations for the evolution of complex processes, including information, that do not require any entities other than the processes themselves. In this paper, I discuss the limitations of the standard relation of representation. I argue that more realistic pictures of informational systems can be provided by reference to information as an energetic process, following the categorial ontology of LIR. This approach enables naïve, anti-realist conceptions of anti-representationalism to be avoided, and enables an approach to both information and meaning in the same novel logical framework.

  3. Quantum control and representation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibort, A; Perez-Pardo, J M

    2009-01-01

    A new notion of controllability for quantum systems that takes advantage of the linear superposition of quantum states is introduced. We call such a notion von Neumann controllability, and it is shown that it is strictly weaker than the usual notion of pure state and operator controllability. We provide a simple and effective characterization of it by using tools from the theory of unitary representations of Lie groups. In this sense, we are able to approach the problem of control of quantum states from a new perspective, that of the theory of unitary representations of Lie groups. A few examples of physical interest and the particular instances of compact and nilpotent dynamical Lie groups are discussed

  4. Representation theory a first course

    CERN Document Server

    Fulton, William

    1991-01-01

    The primary goal of these lectures is to introduce a beginner to the finite­ dimensional representations of Lie groups and Lie algebras. Since this goal is shared by quite a few other books, we should explain in this Preface how our approach differs, although the potential reader can probably see this better by a quick browse through the book. Representation theory is simple to define: it is the study of the ways in which a given group may act on vector spaces. It is almost certainly unique, however, among such clearly delineated subjects, in the breadth of its interest to mathematicians. This is not surprising: group actions are ubiquitous in 20th century mathematics, and where the object on which a group acts is not a vector space, we have learned to replace it by one that is {e. g. , a cohomology group, tangent space, etc. }. As a consequence, many mathematicians other than specialists in the field {or even those who think they might want to be} come in contact with the subject in various ways. It is for ...

  5. Social representations of female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health.

  6. Klein Topological Field Theories from Group Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Loktev

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that any complex (respectively real representation of finite group naturally generates a open-closed (respectively Klein topological field theory over complex numbers. We relate the 1-point correlator for the projective plane in this theory with the Frobenius-Schur indicator on the representation. We relate any complex simple Klein TFT to a real division ring.

  7. Algebraic and analytic methods in representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichtkrull, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of several works from well-recognized figures in the field of Representation Theory. The presentation of the topic is unique in offering several different points of view, which should makethe book very useful to students and experts alike.Presents several different points of view on key topics in representation theory, from internationally known experts in the field

  8. Social representations and normative beliefs of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Tatiana de Lucena; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Boulsfield, Andréa Barbará; Silva, Antônia Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    This study adopted the theory of social representations as a theoretical framework in order to characterize similarities and differences in social representations and normative beliefs of aging for different age groups. The 638 participants responded to self-administered questionnaire and were equally distributed by sex and age. The results show that aging is characterized by positive stereotypes (knowledge and experience); however, retirement is linked to aging, but in a negative way, particularly for men, involving illness, loneliness and disability. When age was considered, it was verified that the connections with the representational elements became more complex for older groups, showing social representation functionality, largely for the elderly. Adulthood seems to be preferred and old age is disliked. There were divergences related to the perception of the beginning of life phases, especially that of old age. Work was characterized as the opposite of aging, and it revealed the need for actions intended for the elderly and retired workers, with post-retirement projects. In addition, it suggests investment in public policies that encourage intergenerational contact, with efforts to reduce intolerance and discrimination based on age of people.

  9. Representation theory of lattice current algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.Yu.; Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich; Faddeev, L.D.; Froehlich, L.D.; Schomerus, V.; Kyoto Univ.

    1996-04-01

    Lattice current algebras were introduced as a regularization of the left-and right moving degrees of freedom in the WZNW model. They provide examples of lattice theories with a local quantum symmetry U q (G). Their representation theory is studied in detail. In particular, we construct all irreducible representations along with a lattice analogue of the fusion product for representations of the lattice current algebra. It is shown that for an arbitrary number of lattice sites, the representation categories of the lattice current algebras agree with their continuum counterparts. (orig.)

  10. A social representations analysis of design science research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available , this study sought to investigate how local computing researchers familiarise themselves with an unfamiliar paradigm and what their perspectives of DSR are. Key theoretical concepts from social representations theory (SRT), such as 'anchoring...

  11. Ergonomic risk: social representations of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Kelle Batista Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared ​​by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating injuries caused by repetitive motion. For students, the ergonomic risk is related to the attitude in the dental office. Conclusion: Prevention of ergonomic risk for dental students has not been incorporated as a set of necessary measures for their health and the patients, to prevent ergonomic hazards that can result in harm to the patient caused by work-related musculoskeletal disorder, which is reflected in a lower quality practice.

  12. K-theory and representation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuku, A.O.

    2003-01-01

    This contribution includes K-theory of orders, group-rings and modules over EI categories, equivariant higher algebraic K-theory for finite, profinite and compact Lie group actions together with their relative generalisations and applications

  13. A teoria das representações sociais nos estudos sobre representações de professores The social representations theory in studies of teacher's representation: analysis of brazilian theses and dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suzana de Stefano Menin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa apresentada analisou 27 teses de doutorado e dissertações de mestrado de programas brasileiros de Pós-Graduação em Educação que usam a teoria de representações sociais para estudar representações de ou sobre professor. Para a realização dessa análise foram investigados, principalmente, aspectos metodológicos relacionados ao uso da TRS, tais como: modo de descrição dos sujeitos da pesquisa e variáveis selecionadas nessa caracterização; descrição do objeto de estudo, sua contextualização e justificação como objeto de representação social; procedimentos de coleta de dados, sua adequação e justificação; tratamento dos dados; procedimentos de análise; síntese dos resultados e sua contribuição para a educação, para a formação de professores e para a TRS. Concluiu-se que a TRS é pouco explorada nos trabalhos, embora, de modo geral, eles contribuam para aclarar as representações que professores têm a respeito de vários campos que compõem sua vida profissional.This study analyzed 27 Ph.D dissertations and master's theses from Brazilian graduate programs in education that use the social representation theory to study representations of or about teachers. For this analysis, principally methodological aspects related to the use of SRT were used, such as: description of the research subjects and the variables selected for this characterization; description of the research object, its contextualization and justification as an object of social representation; procedures adopted for data collection, their suitability and justification; data treatment; analysis procedures; results summary and their contribution towards education, teacher education programs and SRT. It was concluded that SRT has received little attention from researchers, although generally speaking these studies have contributed to clarifying the representations that teachers have about the different fields that constitute their

  14. Hermann Weyl and Representation Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    His work on the theory ofLie groups was motivated by his life-long interest in quantummechanics and relativity. When Weyl entered Lie theory,it mostly focussed on the infinitesimal, and he strove to bringin a global perspective. Time and again, Weyl's ideas arisingin one context have been adapted and applied to wholly ...

  15. Schrodinger representation in renormalizable quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symanzik, K.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the Schrodinger representation arose from work on the Nambu-Goto Ansatz for integration over surfaces. Going beyond semiclassical approximation leads to two problems of nonrenormalizibility and of whether Dirichlet boundary conditions can be imposed on a ''Euclidean'' quantum field theory. The Schrodinger representation is constructed in a way where the principles of general renormalization theory can be refered to. The Schrodinger function of surface terms is studied, as well as behaviour at the boundary. The Schrodinger equation is derived. Completeness, unitarity, and computation of expectation values are considered. Extensions of these methods into other Bose field theories such as Fermi fields and Marjorana fields is straightforward

  16. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  17. Representation Theory of Algebraic Groups and Quantum Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gyoja, A; Shinoda, K-I; Shoji, T; Tanisaki, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Invited articles by top notch expertsFocus is on topics in representation theory of algebraic groups and quantum groupsOf interest to graduate students and researchers in representation theory, group theory, algebraic geometry, quantum theory and math physics

  18. Social representations of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOY, D.

    2013-01-01

    Each year since 2000, the French 'ADEME' (Agency for Environment and Energy Management) conducts a survey on the social representations of greenhouse effect and global warming. This survey is administered by telephone to a representative sample of the French population. The information gathered in the database can answer a series of basic questions concerning public perception in this area. What do the concepts of 'greenhouse effect' and 'global warming' mean for the public? To what extent do people think there is a consensus among scientists to explain these phenomena? Is responsibility for human action clearly established? What kind of solutions, based on public regulation or private initiative can help to remedy this situation? Finally, what were the major changes in public opinion over this 12 years period? (author)

  19. A Social Representations Perspective on Information Systems Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Uri; Berente, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to advocate a "social representations" approach to the study of socio-cognitive processes during information systems (IS) implementation as an alternative to the technological frames framework. Design/methodology/approach - The paper demonstrates how......, it may lead to symptomatic explanations of IS implementation. Alternatively, using the theory of social representations can offer more fundamental causal explanations of IS implementation processes. Research limitations/implications - IS researchers are encouraged to use a social representations approach...... social representations theory can improve research outcomes by applying it to three recent studies that employed the technological frames framework. Findings - It is found that because the technological frames framework is overly technologically centered, temporally bounded, and individually focused...

  20. [Persistence of social representation regarding breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Mora, Clara V

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the social representation of breast cancer and how it has influenced breast cancer prevention and self-care practice in a group of women from the city of Medellin. This was a qualitative study using 19 semi-structured interviews with adult females who had not had breast cancer, using maximum variation criterion as sampling technique. The analysis was orientated by grounded theory. Some women physiologically represented breast cancer while others represented it by its social and psychological effects. They identified its causes with personal and emotional problems and certain daily habits such as inadequate food ("a bodily payback for the abuses which we subject ourselves to"). The word "breast cancer" was associated with inevitable death, terror, suffering, incurability, devastation, powerlessness and pain. This cancer has strong social representation due to its severe implications for females, their attractiveness and self-image. The persistence of breast cancer's negative image is associated with "the life-style myth" (1) for which people tend to blame the patient. Our biological reductionism hides environmental, social and political factors. We are obsessed by the dangers and their control (2) and powerful images are added to these messages such as those in which "one out of nine women will develop breast cancer" to foster self-responsibility (2). However, the ghost of cancer in developing societies in which many people are still trapped is magnified and has also yet to be overcome.

  1. Clifford theory for group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1989-01-01

    Let N be a normal subgroup of a finite group G and let F be a field. An important method for constructing irreducible FG-modules consists of the application (perhaps repeated) of three basic operations: (i) restriction to FN. (ii) extension from FN. (iii) induction from FN. This is the `Clifford Theory' developed by Clifford in 1937. In the past twenty years, the theory has enjoyed a period of vigorous development. The foundations have been strengthened and reorganized from new points of view, especially from the viewpoint of graded rings and crossed products.The purpos

  2. Hermann Weyl and Representation Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    told us to hear the volume of a drum but, about the shape, ... resentation theory of Lie groups which solved fundamental problems, and ..... Cartan's classification of simple Lie algebras depended ..... age of 27 due to general sepsis. Weyl was ...

  3. Molecular orbital theory. Spinor representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, Shigeyuki

    2003-01-01

    The algebra representing electron is spinor. The many electron problem is investigated with the Nambu 2x2 spinor. Operators then are expressed 2x2 matrices. The electron-electron interaction is decomposed into couplings between various electron densities by using the Pauli spin matrices. The diagonal ones of them refer to the direct and exchange interactions and the off-diagonal terms to those for superconducting. The Roothaan theory is rewritten. The approximation beyond the Hartree-Fock is discussed. (author)

  4. Schroedinger representation in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.

    1985-01-01

    Until recently, the Schroedinger representation in quantum field theory had not received much attention, even more so because there were reasons to believe that in the presence of interactions it did not exist in a mathematically well-defined sense. When Symanzik set out to solve this problem, he was motivated by a special 2-dimensional case, the relativistic string model, in which the Schroedinger wave functionals are the primary objects of physical interest. Also, he knew that if it were possible to demonstrate the existence of the Schroedinger representation, the (then unproven) ultraviolet finiteness of the Casimir force in renormalizable quantum field theories would probably follow. (orig./HSI)

  5. A course in finite group representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This graduate-level text provides a thorough grounding in the representation theory of finite groups over fields and rings. The book provides a balanced and comprehensive account of the subject, detailing the methods needed to analyze representations that arise in many areas of mathematics. Key topics include the construction and use of character tables, the role of induction and restriction, projective and simple modules for group algebras, indecomposable representations, Brauer characters, and block theory. This classroom-tested text provides motivation through a large number of worked examples, with exercises at the end of each chapter that test the reader's knowledge, provide further examples and practice, and include results not proven in the text. Prerequisites include a graduate course in abstract algebra, and familiarity with the properties of groups, rings, field extensions, and linear algebra.

  6. Understanding leader representations: Beyond implicit leadership theory

    OpenAIRE

    Knee, Robert Everett

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish evidence for the suggested integration of the theories of connectionism and leadership. Recent theoretical writings in the field of leadership have suggested that the dynamic representations generated by the connectionist perspective is an appropriate approach to understanding how we perceive leaders. Similarly, implicit leadership theory (ILT) explains that our cognitive understandings of leaders are based on a cognitive structure that we u...

  7. Configuration spaces geometry, topology and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Frederick; Concini, Corrado; Feichtner, Eva; Gaiffi, Giovanni; Salvetti, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book collects the scientific contributions of a group of leading experts who took part in the INdAM Meeting held in Cortona in September 2014. With combinatorial techniques as the central theme, it focuses on recent developments in configuration spaces from various perspectives. It also discusses their applications in areas ranging from representation theory, toric geometry and geometric group theory to applied algebraic topology.

  8. Toward a Theory of Representation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    understanding. This report describes research done at the Artificial Inteligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for this...AD-A210 885 Technical Report 1128 Toward a Theory of Representation Design Jeffrey Van Baale MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory DTIC ELECTE A... Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 11. REPORT DATE Advanced Research

  9. El padecimiento ante la enfermedad: Un enfoque desde la teoría de la representación social The experience of illness: An approximation from the theory of the social representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Hueso Montoro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Los actuales modelos de gestión del cuidado proponen un acercamiento a los aspectos más subjetivos inherentes a la enfermedad, entendiendo esa subjetividad como un cúmulo de circunstancias históricas, sociales, culturales, etc, que condicionan la respuesta que la persona desarrolla ante la misma. Este artículo propone una reflexión sobre el fenómeno del padecimiento ante la enfermedad, articulando su argumento principal en torno a la teoría de las representaciones sociales de Moscovici. Los elementos que definen dicha teoría convierten al padecimiento en un fenómeno susceptible de ser abordado como una representación social, en tanto que constituye una fuente de significados individuales y colectivos que condicionan el modo en que un sujeto actúa y responde ante la enfermedad.Nowadays, the models of care management propose an approach to the most subjective aspects inherent in the illness, understanding this as an accumulation of cultural, social, historic circumstances, etc, which influence the answer that the person develops. This article proposes an analysis about the phenomenon of the experience of illness, articulating its main argument around the theory of the social representations of Moscovici. The elements of this theory convert the experience of illness in a susceptible phenomenon to be analyzed as a social representation, because constitutes a source of collective and individual meanings that influence the way in which the person acts and responds to illness.

  10. Homological methods, representation theory, and cluster algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Trepode, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    This text presents six mini-courses, all devoted to interactions between representation theory of algebras, homological algebra, and the new ever-expanding theory of cluster algebras. The interplay between the topics discussed in this text will continue to grow and this collection of courses stands as a partial testimony to this new development. The courses are useful for any mathematician who would like to learn more about this rapidly developing field; the primary aim is to engage graduate students and young researchers. Prerequisites include knowledge of some noncommutative algebra or homological algebra. Homological algebra has always been considered as one of the main tools in the study of finite-dimensional algebras. The strong relationship with cluster algebras is more recent and has quickly established itself as one of the important highlights of today’s mathematical landscape. This connection has been fruitful to both areas—representation theory provides a categorification of cluster algebras, wh...

  11. Theory in Social Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastings, Gerard; Brown, Abraham; Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2010-01-01

    influence this positioning (Social Cognitive Theory and Social Norms) and; (iii) what offerings might encourage them to change their behaviour – or, those in a position to do so, to make the social context more conducive to change (Exchange Theory). Moreover, the chapter outlines how social marketers might......The chapter looks at three important theories which help social marketers to think more systematically about the key questions they need to address:  (i) how does the target group or population feel about a particular behaviour (Stages of Change Theory); (ii) what social and contextual factors...... benefit from a social epistemological approach....

  12. [Social and cultural representations in epilepsy awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arborio, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Representations relating to epilepsy have evolved over the centuries, but the manifestations of epilepsy awaken archaic images linked to death, violence and disgust. Indeed, the generalised epileptic seizure symbolises a rupture with the surrounding environment, "informs it", through the loss of social codes which it causes. The social and cultural context, as well as medical knowledge, influences the representations of the disease. As a result, popular knowledge is founded on the social and cultural representations of a given era, in a given society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Abstraction/Representation Theory for heterotic physical computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, D C

    2015-07-28

    We give a rigorous framework for the interaction of physical computing devices with abstract computation. Device and program are mediated by the non-logical representation relation; we give the conditions under which representation and device theory give rise to commuting diagrams between logical and physical domains, and the conditions for computation to occur. We give the interface of this new framework with currently existing formal methods, showing in particular its close relationship to refinement theory, and the implications for questions of meaning and reference in theoretical computer science. The case of hybrid computing is considered in detail, addressing in particular the example of an Internet-mediated social machine, and the abstraction/representation framework used to provide a formal distinction between heterotic and hybrid computing. This forms the basis for future use of the framework in formal treatments of non-standard physical computers. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Violence against women: adolescents’ social representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Márcia de Almeida Rezende

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women in affectionate intimate relationships is a serious problem that causes damages to its victims. In the social imaginary there are ways of thinking and representations that tend to trivialize this type of violence, considering it a natural practice. In this sense, this article brings a study that aimed to know the social representations elaborated by adolescents on violence against women in affectionate relationships. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview conducted with 22 adolescents, and analyzed through the content analysis technique (BARDIN, 2011. The results revealed that the adolescents represent violence against women objectified in an everyday phenomenon, which happens even in their families. They have also elaborated social representations anchored in patriarchy, in which men use violence as means to dominate partners. It was observed the need for preventive work that would make adolescents aware of patriarchal ideologies present in the society, helping them to construct social representations based on respect and gender equity.

  15. Quantum holonomy theory and Hilbert space representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrup, Johannes [Mathematisches Institut, Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Moeller Grimstrup, Jesper [QHT Gruppen, Copenhagen Area (Denmark)

    2016-11-15

    We present a new formulation of quantum holonomy theory, which is a candidate for a non-perturbative and background independent theory of quantum gravity coupled to matter and gauge degrees of freedom. The new formulation is based on a Hilbert space representation of the QHD(M) algebra, which is generated by holonomy-diffeomorphisms on a 3-dimensional manifold and by canonical translation operators on the underlying configuration space over which the holonomy-diffeomorphisms form a non-commutative C*-algebra. A proof that the state that generates the representation exist is left for later publications. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Quantum theory, groups and representations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Woit, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This text systematically presents the basics of quantum mechanics, emphasizing the role of Lie groups, Lie algebras, and their unitary representations. The mathematical structure of the subject is brought to the fore, intentionally avoiding significant overlap with material from standard physics courses in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The level of presentation is attractive to mathematics students looking to learn about both quantum mechanics and representation theory, while also appealing to physics students who would like to know more about the mathematics underlying the subject. This text showcases the numerous differences between typical mathematical and physical treatments of the subject. The latter portions of the book focus on central mathematical objects that occur in the Standard Model of particle physics, underlining the deep and intimate connections between mathematics and the physical world. While an elementary physics course of some kind would be helpful to the reader, no specific ...

  17. Elliptic hypergeometric functions and the representation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridonov, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: (author)Elliptic hypergeometric functions were discovered around ten years ago. They represent the top level known generalization of the Euler beta integral and Euler-Gauss 2 F 1 hypergeometric function. In general form they are defined by contour integrals involving elliptic gamma functions. We outline the structure of the simplest examples of such functions and discuss their relations to the representation theory of the classical Lie groups and their various deformations. In one of the constructions elliptic hypergeometric integrals describe purely group-theoretical objects having the physical meaning of superconformal indices of four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge field theories

  18. Conformal field theories, representations and lattice constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, L.; Montague, P.

    1996-01-01

    An account is given of the structure and representations of chiral bosonic meromorphic conformal field theories (CFT's), and, in particular, the conditions under which such a CFT may be extended by a representation to form a new theory. This general approach is illustrated by considering the untwisted and Z 2 -twisted theories, H(Λ) and H(Λ) respectively, which may be constructed from a suitable even Euclidean lattice Λ. Similarly, one may construct lattices Λ C and Lambda C by analogous constructions from a doubly-even binary code C. In the case when C is self-dual, the corresponding lattices are also. Similarly, H(Λ) and H(Λ) are self-dual if and only if Λ is. We show that H(Λ C ) has a natural triality structure, which induces an isomorphism H(Λ C )≡H(Λ C ) and also a triality structure on H(Λ C ). For C the Golay code, Λ C is the Leech lattice, and the triality on H(Λ C ) is the symmetry which extends the natural action of (an extension of) Conway's group on this theory to the Monster, so setting triality and Frenkel, Lepowsky and Meurman's construction of the natural Monster module in a more general context. The results also serve to shed some light on the classification of self-dual CFT's. We find that of the 48 theories H(Λ) and H(Λ) with central charge 24 that there are 39 distinct ones, and further that all 9 coincidences are accounted for by the isomorphism detailed above, induced by the existence of a doubly-even self-dual binary code. (orig.). With 8 figs., 2 tabs

  19. SUBJECTIVITY: SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdete Rejane Ferro Zago

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The family, first family group of human beings, is the collective dimension of human existence and becomes responsible for the formation of the first social identity, as well as the constitution of subjectivity. Subjectivity is the inner world of each and every human being. This inner world is made up of emotions, feelings and thoughts. It is through this inner world that the individual relates to the social world, appointed by the outside world. This relationship follows the individual characteristics that mark the individual as unique, originated in shaping the individual, when they built the knowledge and beliefs. social representation as a form of knowledge, socially elaborated, shared with a practical purpose, contributing to the construction of a common reality to a social group. Is thus built up the social representation of the family.

  20. Social Representations of Accounting in Facebook Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Canan; Isabela Augusta Andrade Souza; Kelly Cristina Pereira de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the social representations of accounting that emerge from the contents shared by users of the social network Facebook. The sample studied includes the ten most popular communities organized around accounting, and their last fifty posts. The messages were coded and categorized using the content analysis methodology as well as platform social interaction data such as likes, comments and shares were used to assess the popularity of content / contexts and message formats. Th...

  1. Social representation of the kinesiotherapist profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice ABALAŞE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific approach is focused on identifying the social representation of the profession of physical therapist referring to mental images of social reality to a group consensus meeting. The goal of research identifies social representation of the profession of physical therapist, on the premise that students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport have made a social representation of the profession of physical therapist in accordance with the description of the occupation of COR. Working method was based on the questionnaire. Interpretation of results, the first two items of the questionnaire was done through word association technique, developed by P. Verges (1 and an alternative method for determining the structure and organization of elements representation proposed by. C. Havârneanu (2. Qualitative analysis reveals that students’ specialization Physical Therapy and Special Motricity believes that a therapist uses therapy as a strategy to work, and it must be applied professionally. Respondents considered, as shown in the data collected, that this profession is subject to skills, education, cognitive baggage, all sending to knowledge, experience and passion. The core refers to the complex representation obtained thanks cognitive process by which individuals or groups in familiar transforms abstract and it integrates knowledge of their system.

  2. Social Representations of Accounting in Facebook Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Canan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the social representations of accounting that emerge from the contents shared by users of the social network Facebook. The sample studied includes the ten most popular communities organized around accounting, and their last fifty posts. The messages were coded and categorized using the content analysis methodology as well as platform social interaction data such as likes, comments and shares were used to assess the popularity of content / contexts and message formats. The analysis of the data indicates that the people that congregate around accounting in Facebook communities tend to deal primarily with tributary and bureaucratic issues, suggesting that in these communities accounting is the expression of a praxis whose function is to attend totax issues. Deductions converge to other studies on social representations of accounting in Brazil, reinforcing the idea that accounting is viewed differently by academia, professionals and stakeholders.

  3. The theory of social classes Maurice Halbwachs

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Kozlova

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the basic thesis of Maurice Halbwachs’s theory of social classes outlined in the “Social classes and morphology” (1942): the concept of class is revealed as the object of collective representation, the main characteristics of classes, the criteria for its selection and conditions for classes formation are analyzed.

  4. Anthropology and social theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that anthropology may represent untapped perspectives of relevance to social theory. The article starts by critically reviewing how anthropology has come to serve as the ‘Other’ in various branches of social theory, from Marx and Durkheim to Parsons to Habermas, engaged...... in a hopeless project of positing ‘primitive’ or ‘traditional’ society as the opposite of modernity. In contemporary debates, it is becoming increasingly recognized that social theory needs history, back to the axial age and beyond. The possible role of anthropology in theorizing modernity receives far less...

  5. Whither social theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of Educational Studies in Mathematics offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from...... from a “socio-cultural” approach to learning and rather deploy sociological theories in the analysis of mathematics education practices. In this commentary paper, we will point to what we see to be the contributions of these papers to the field. We will do so by highlighting issues that run through...... the six papers. We will try to synthetize what we think are the benchmarks of the social approach to mathematics education that they propose. We will also take a critical stance and indicate some possible extensions of the use of social theory that are not addressed in this special issue but nonetheless...

  6. The possible social representations of astronomy by students from integrated high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, J. I. L.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present the possible Social Representations, which students of the Integrated High School of the Federal Institute of Alagoas (IFAL) have on the term inductor Astronomy, as well as identifying how they were probably elaborated. Therefore, in agreement with Moscovici (2010) is used the Theory of Social Representations.

  7. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.

  8. Ecological Citizenship and Social Representation of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biagi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the social representations of water in urban cultures of Argentina, placing the subject as a matter of academic and practical interest. Some questions have guided this investigation—What is water for the urban dweller? What are the actions that a citizen is willing to exercise?—A qualitative research was conducted (according to Yin’s case analysis methodology in Gualeguaychú and Buenos Aires. Following the collected data, the authors reconstructed the dominant paradigm in both cities, which was the ecocentric model. However, the acceptance of ecological values and beliefs is not an indicator of the exercise of proecological behavior concerning water. Empirical findings have guided the authors to inquire the degree of relationship between social representations and attributes of Andrew Dobson’s model of ecological citizenship.

  9. Analysis of graphic representations of activity theory in international journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Mazzarotto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Activity theory is a relevant framework for the Design field, and their graphic representations are cognitive artifacts that aid the understanding, use and communication of this theory. However, there is a lack of consistency around the graphics and labels used in these representations. Based on this, the aim of this study was to identify, analyze and evaluate these differences and propose a representation that aims to be more suitable for the theory. For this, uses as method a literature review based on Engeström (2001 and its three generations of visual models, combined with graphical analysis of representations collected in a hundred papers from international journals.

  10. Women's sexuality: from aging to social representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringa, Virginie; Diter, Kevin; Laborde, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    Studies designed in northern countries show that most women are still sexually active after the age of 50. Many factors other than hormones influence sexual life in and after middle age; they include social status, personal characteristics, physical and psychological conditions, relationship factors, and social representations of sexuality. This study aims to analyze various components of sexuality, including its social representations, among women aged 45-55 years, as they reach menopause. Comparison of three groups: all postmenopausal women (277), postmenopausal women not currently using hormonal treatment (HT) (209), postmenopausal women currently using HT (68), with a reference group of premenopausal women (408). All were recruited in a national general population-based survey of sexual behaviors and interviewed by telephone. Practices, sexual function, satisfaction, and representations and expectations concerning sexuality. The women did not differ according to menopausal status for sexual activity, practices (wide range of practices beyond sexual intercourse), dysfunction, or satisfaction. They also attributed equal importance to sexuality. Nevertheless, although postmenopausal women not using HT did not report less sexual activity than premenopausal women, they were less likely to consider that a 3-month period without sex is a sign of difficulty in a relationship (30.3% vs. 47.7%; odds ratio: 0.35 [0.21-0.57], P=0.000). This difference was not observed between postmenopausal women using HT and premenopausal women. Our results suggest that for middle-aged women who are at the onset of menopause, the biological/hormonal changes characterizing menopause do not negatively affect sexual life. Any negative reported effects on sexuality are more likely due to anticipation or negative representations of sexuality around menopause than to biological or hormonal effects. The effect of menopause at this point in women's lives may thus be more symbolic than biological

  11. Social Representations of the Development of Intelligence, Parental Values and Parenting Styles: A Theoretical Model for Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Isabel; Valentim, Joaquim Pires; Carugati, Felice

    2013-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of social representations theory, a substantial body of literature has advocated and shown that, as interpretative systems and forms of knowledge concurring in the construction of a social reality, social representations are guides for action, influencing behaviours and social relations. Based on this assumption,…

  12. Social representations about religion and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Moema da Silva; Santos, Marília Borges Couto; Pinheiro, Tiago Gomes

    2015-01-01

    to identify the social representations about the concepts of spirituality and religion of of health teachers. exploratory and descriptive study, based on a qualitative approach. 25 subjects participated in it. The following instruments were used to collect data: questionnaire to identify the profile; questionnaire of free association, whose inducing words were religion and spirituality, and an interview based on the scale FICA (Puchalski, 2006). the representations about religion and spirituality, for professors, are forged around the faith in God and it gives them meaning and purpose to deal with the challenges of personal and professional living. there are still barriers that need to be overcome with a view to a comprehensive care. For this, it is essential to incorporate spirituality in the process in the curricula of health courses.

  13. Inequivalent coherent state representations in group field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegeles, Alexander; Oriti, Daniele; Tomlin, Casey

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we propose an algebraic formulation of group field theory and consider non-Fock representations based on coherent states. We show that we can construct representations with an infinite number of degrees of freedom on compact manifolds. We also show that these representations break translation symmetry. Since such representations can be regarded as quantum gravitational systems with an infinite number of fundamental pre-geometric building blocks, they may be more suitable for the description of effective geometrical phases of the theory.

  14. Studies on representation of the Lorentz group and gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanitriarivo, R.

    2002-01-01

    This work is focused on studies about the representation of the Lorentz group and gauge theory. The mathematical tools required for the different studies are presented, as well as for the representation of the Lorentz group and for the gauge theory. Representation of the Lorentz group gives the possible types of fields and wave functions that describe particles: fermions are described by spinors and bosons are described by scalar or vector. Each of these entities (spinors, scalars, vectors) are characterized by their behavior under the action of Lorentz transformations.Gauge theory is used to describe the interactions between particles. [fr

  15. Knot invariants and higher representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Ben

    2018-01-01

    The author constructs knot invariants categorifying the quantum knot variants for all representations of quantum groups. He shows that these invariants coincide with previous invariants defined by Khovanov for \\mathfrak{sl}_2 and \\mathfrak{sl}_3 and by Mazorchuk-Stroppel and Sussan for \\mathfrak{sl}_n. The author's technique is to study 2-representations of 2-quantum groups (in the sense of Rouquier and Khovanov-Lauda) categorifying tensor products of irreducible representations. These are the representation categories of certain finite dimensional algebras with an explicit diagrammatic presentation, generalizing the cyclotomic quotient of the KLR algebra. When the Lie algebra under consideration is \\mathfrak{sl}_n, the author shows that these categories agree with certain subcategories of parabolic category \\mathcal{O} for \\mathfrak{gl}_k.

  16. Sexing code subversion, theory and representation

    CERN Document Server

    Herbst, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Critically investigating the gender of programming in popular culture, Sexing Code proposes that the de facto representation of technical ability serves to perpetuate the age-old association of the male with intellect and reason, while identifying the fem

  17. Theory of the unitary representations of compact groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.; Burzynska, M.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction contains some basic notions used in group theory, Lie group, Lie algebras and unitary representations. Then we are dealing with compact groups. For these groups we show the problem of reduction of unitary representation of Wigner's projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and Wigner-Eckart theorem. We show (this is a new approach) the representations reduction formalism by using superoperators in Hilbert-Schmidt space. (author)

  18. The Penrose transform its interaction with representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Baston, Robert J

    1989-01-01

    This advanced text explores the Penrose transform, a major component of classical twistor theory. Geared toward students of physics and mathematics, the treatment presupposes no familiarity with twistor theory and a minimum of representation theory. "Brings to the reader a huge amount of information, well organized and condensed into less than 200 pages." — Mathematical Reviews.

  19. Microfoundations of Social Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Abell, Peter Malcolm

    principle ignores-and is somehow invalidated by-the complex, “emergent” and multi-level nature of social phenomena. We focus on the need to specify and understand 1) component actors and social complexity, 2) theory of action, aggregation, and emergence, 3) process and the context of action. We concurrently......In this short essay we respond to Jepperson and Meyer’s (2011) critique of “action theories” and methodological individualism in sociology. We highlight fundamental problems with their argument, notably their misunderstanding of methodological individualism(s) and the belief that this explanatory...... critique Jepperson and Meyer’s own (implicit but highly problematic and under-specified) theory of action....

  20. Microfoundations of Social Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Abell, Peter Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    ignores – and is somehow invalidated by – the complex, “emergent” and multi-level nature of social phenomena. We focus on the need to specify and understand: 1) component actors and social complexity; 2) theory of action, aggregation, and emergence; 3) self-selection and matching; and 4) process......In this essay we respond to Jepperson and Meyer’s [2011] critique of “action theories” and methodological individualism in sociology. We highlight fundamental problems with their argument, notably their misconception of methodological individualism(s) and the belief that this explanatory principle...... and the context of action. We concurrently critique Jepperson and Meyer’s own (implicit but highly problematic and under-specified) theory of action....

  1. Social Representations on ethical and bioethic aspects in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Araujo Costa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the study aims to analyze the social representations on the ethical and bioethical aspects in the research elaborated by academics of the Dentistry Course. Methods: it is a qualitative research based on the Theory of Social Representations carried out with 80 academics of the Dentistry course. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview script, processed in the IRaMuTeQ and analyzed by the Descending Hierarchical Classification. The study followed the ethical standards recommended by Resolution n. 466/2012, obtaining approval from the Ethics Committee of UNINOVAFAPI University Center. Results: The corpus analyzed in the study is composed of 79 units of initial context (UCI with use of 62%. The results are presented in four classes, namely: 4. The understanding of Ethics and Bioethics in research; 3. Researcher's social position; 1. Legal responsibilities of the researcher and 2. Normative aspects of research ethics - legal basis. Conclusion: Scholars represent ethical and bioethical aspects in research as essential to respect human dignity and protect the lives of research participants, with a focus on normative aspects of research ethics through Research Committees. Their attitudes are guided by their conditions of life, their beliefs and cultures of different social contexts. Keywords: Bioethics, ethics, social psychology.

  2. Prototype Theory Based Feature Representation for PolSAR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Xiaojing; Yang Xiangli; Huang Pingping; Yang Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a new feature representation approach for Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) image based on prototype theory. First, multiple prototype sets are generated using prototype theory. Then, regularized logistic regression is used to predict similarities between a test sample and each prototype set. Finally, the PolSAR image feature representation is obtained by ensemble projection. Experimental results of an unsupervised classification of PolSAR images show that our...

  3. An introduction to group representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Keown, R D M

    1975-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  4. Special functions and the theory of group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Vilenkin, N Ja

    1968-01-01

    A standard scheme for a relation between special functions and group representation theory is the following: certain classes of special functions are interpreted as matrix elements of irreducible representations of a certain Lie group, and then properties of special functions are related to (and derived from) simple well-known facts of representation theory. The book combines the majority of known results in this direction. In particular, the author describes connections between the exponential functions and the additive group of real numbers (Fourier analysis), Legendre and Jacobi polynomials and representations of the group SU(2), and the hypergeometric function and representations of the group SL(2,R), as well as many other classes of special functions.

  5. Social theories for strategic communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihlen, Ø.; Verhoeven, P.; Holtzhausen, D.; Zerfass, A.

    2015-01-01

    Social theory provides strategic communication with a basic understanding of the societal role of the practice, and its ethical and political consequences. This chapter draws out some key conclusions based on a wide reading of social theory approaches. First of all, building on social theory means

  6. Flag varieties an interplay of geometry, combinatorics, and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmibai, V

    2009-01-01

    Flag varieties are important geometric objects and their study involves an interplay of geometry, combinatorics, and representation theory. This book is detailed account of this interplay. In the area of representation theory, the book presents a discussion of complex semisimple Lie algebras and of semisimple algebraic groups; in addition, the representation theory of symmetric groups is also discussed. In the area of algebraic geometry, the book gives a detailed account of the Grassmannian varieties, flag varieties, and their Schubert subvarieties. Because of the connections with root systems, many of the geometric results admit elegant combinatorial description, a typical example being the description of the singular locus of a Schubert variety. This is shown to be a consequence of standard monomial theory (abbreviated SMT). Thus the book includes SMT and some important applications - singular loci of Schubert varieties, toric degenerations of Schubert varieties, and the relationship between Schubert variet...

  7. Talking about sunbed tanning: Social representations and identity-work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer; Murray, Michael; Lamont, Alexandra

    2017-07-01

    Despite the publicised health risks associated with its usage, sunbed tanning remains popular in many Western countries. Previous research indicates that knowledge of the harmful effects does not necessarily lead to a reduction in sunbed use. The aim of this study was to develop a more extensive social psychological understanding of sunbed use, in the United Kingdom, by exploring the social representations of sunbed tanning held by both those who use and who have never used sunbeds. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 sunbed users and 10 who had never used a sunbed. A thematic analysis identified two dimensions in the social representations of both the users and non-users; these were concerned with a) health and b) beauty. However, whereas non-users emphasised the health risks, users downplayed and minimised them, instead emphasising the health benefits. Similarly, whereas non-users emphasised the negative aspects of excessive concern with beauty, sunbed users challenged and distanced themselves from this negativity. Sunbed users were engaged in a form of identity-work to protect themselves from the wider negativity and disapproval of which they were aware. Theoretically, social representations theory has provided a unique lens through which to explore this topic, highlighting the importance of taking into consideration the wider environment in which sunbed use takes place. Preliminary practical suggestions include that health workers should consider identity-work when designing interventions aimed at reducing sunbed use. Findings also suggest that, rather than continuing to educate sunbed users about the risks, campaigns and interventions should challenge the commonly drawn upon arguments about the health benefits. These benefits emerged as a particularly powerful discursive tool for the sunbed users in helping to justify their behaviour, but also to counteract negative stereotypes and assumptions they knew others held of them. Copyright © 2017

  8. Social representations: a theoretical approach in health - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane Santos Bittencourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the theory of social representations, placing its epistemology and knowing the basic concepts of its approach as a structural unit of knowledge for health studies. Justification: The use of this theory comes from the need to understand social events under the lens of the meanings constructed by the community. Data Synthesis: This was a descriptive study of literature review, which used as a source of data collection the classical authors of social representations supported by articles from electronic search at Virtual Health Library (VHL. The definition and discussion of collected data enabled to introduce two themes, versed on the history and epistemology of representations and on the structural approach of representations in health studies. Conclusion: This review allowed highlight the importance of locating the objects of study with regard to contextual issues of individual and collective histories, valuing the plurality of relations, to come closer to reality that is represented by the subjects.

  9. Intercorporeality as a theory of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shogo

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this article is to revisit Merleau-Ponty's notion of intercorporeality (intercorporéité) and elaborate it as a new theory of social cognition. As is well known, theory of mind has been the central issue in the field of social cognition for more than two decades. In reviewing the basic concepts involved in two major theories (theory theory and simulation theory), I make clear that both theories have been missing the embodied dimension because of their mind-body dualistic supposition. The notion of intercorporeality, in accordance with the recent interaction theory, stresses the role of embodied interactions between the self and the other in the process of social understanding. I develop this notion into two directions and describe the related process of social cognition: one is behavior matching and primordial empathy, the other is interactional synchrony and the sense of mutual understanding. Through these embodied interactions, intersubjective meanings are created and directly shared between the self and the other, without being mediated by mental representations.

  10. Diffeomorphism Group Representations in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldin, Gerald A. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sharp, David H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-20

    We explore the role played by the di eomorphism group and its unitary representations in relativistic quantum eld theory. From the quantum kinematics of particles described by representations of the di eomorphism group of a space-like surface in an inertial reference frame, we reconstruct the local relativistic neutral scalar eld in the Fock representation. An explicit expression for the free Hamiltonian is obtained in terms of the Lie algebra generators (mass and momentum densities). We suggest that this approach can be generalized to elds whose quanta are spatially extended objects.

  11. Critical Social Theory: A Portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    The term Critical Social Theory is employed in this article following the tradition of the Frankfurt School, and particularly the work of Herbert Marcuse and his interpretation of the political and social philosophy of Hegel and Marx. Discussing the contribution of G.W.F. Hegel to social theory Marcuse argued that: "Hegel's system brings to a…

  12. Sociological theory and social reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Díez Nicolás

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper pretends to demonstrate the complementary relations between three relatively recent sociological theories, each one of which explains a different aspect of the same social object: the origin, diffusion and change of social and cultural values, aiming at demonstrating that there is not such a thing as a sociological theory that explains all, but rather diverse theories that offer partial explanations of social reality. To that effect, and on the basis of the necessary relationship between theory and research, three different theories are evaluated separately: Hawley’s and Duncan’s theory of the social ecosystem, Galtung’s centre-periphery theory, and Inglehart’s theory of values’ change in modern-industrial societies, offering theoretical and empirical evidence of their complementary relations, based on Spanish and international data. Social ecosystem and centre-periphery theories show a high level of generalization (through space and time and a high level of abstraction, though both can easily operationalize their main concepts through valid and reliable indicators. The theory of values’ change, however, though showing a high level of generalization, is limited in time to the historical period after World War II, and also shows a high level of abstraction. Centre-periphery theory and values’ change theory use individual and collective units of analysis, but social ecosystem theory only uses collective units, by definition. The three theories lead to the conclusion that ‘security’ values will gain a growing importance in present societies.

  13. Social theory and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, H; Waterman, B

    1976-01-01

    Three sociolgists-Talcott Parson, Eliot Freidson, and Mechanic-have explained medical phneomena within a broader theoretical framework. Although all three have made significant contributions, their conclusions remain incomplete on the theoretical level and seldom have been helpful for workers concerned with ongoing problems of health care. Our purpose here is to summarize some of the strengths and weakness of each theoretical position. Parsons has elucidated the sick role as a deviant role in society, the function of physicians as agents of social control, and the normative patterns governing the doctor-patient relationship. The principal problems in Parsons' analysis center on an uncritical acceptance of physicians' social control functions, his inattention tot the ways in which physicians' behavior may inhibit change in society, and overoptimism about the medical profession's ability to regulate itself and to prevent the exploitation of patients. Viewing medical phenomena within a broader theory of the professions in general, Freidson has formulated w wide ranging critique of the medical profession and professional dominance. On the other hand, Freidson's work neglects the full political implications of bringing professional autonomy under control. Mechanic's coceptual approach emphasizes the social psychologic factors, rather than the institutional conditions, which are involved in the genesis of illness behavior. Mechanic also overlooks the ways in which illness behavior, by permitting a controllable from of deviance, fosters institutional stability. In conclusion, we present a breif overview of a theoretical framework whose general orientation is that of Marixian analysis. Several themes recur in this framework: illness as a source of exploitation, the sick role as a conservative mechanism fostering social stability, stratification in medicine, and the imperialsm of large medical institutions and health-related industries.

  14. Social representations of older adults regarding quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marielle Cristina Gonçalves; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Silva, Rafael Celestino da; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção

    2017-01-01

    to identify the social representations of older adults regarding quality of life, and to analyze the care practices adopted to promote it. qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research, applying the Theory of Social Representations. Thirty older people from a Health Academy of Rio de Janeiro participated in the study. The software Alceste was used, and lexical analysis of data was performed. social representations of quality of life are based on the social determinants of health; they evidence knowledge and practices of care by valuing physical activities. The practices promoting quality of life comprise healthy eating habits, daily physical exercise, social participation, interaction and socialization, accomplishment of leisure activities and daily tasks with independence and autonomy, and support and family contact. the elderly have a global understanding of the concept of quality of life, coordinate knowledge built in daily life and knowledge coming from the technical-professional field, which evidences the multidimensionality of the concept. identificar as representações sociais de idosos sobre qualidade de vida e analisar as práticas de cuidado por eles adotadas para promovê-la. pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória, descritiva, com aplicação da Teoria das Representações Sociais. Participaram 30 idosos de uma Academia Carioca de Saúde. Utilizou-se o software Alceste e realizou-se análise lexical dos dados. As representações sociais de qualidade de vida sustentam-se nos determinantes sociais de saúde, evidenciam saberes e práticas de cuidado, com valorização de atividades físicas. As práticas promotoras de qualidade de vida congregam hábitos alimentares saudáveis, exercícios físicos diários, participação social, convívio e interação, realização de atividades de lazer e tarefas cotidianas com independência e autonomia, apoio e contato familiar. Os idosos têm uma compreensão global do conceito de qualidade de vida, articulam

  15. Social representation of Hansen's disease thirty years after the term 'leprosy' was replaced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Maria Leide Wand-del-Rey de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theories of social representation (SC and Central Core (CC, a structural study was undertaken regarding the neologism hanseníase (Hansen's disease, the term adopted by Brazil's Ministry of Health in the 1970s. Carried out during 2001, this study interviewed eight hundred housewives residing in the Rio de Janeiro and Duque de Caxias municipalities. It found that Hansen's disease is part of a process of modernization of common thinking, anchored in the traditional representation of leprosy. This finding is understandable from the perspective that the central structure of a social representation has a historical determination, so short- and middle-term changes are not to be expected. Furthermore, there has been no ongoing investment in social marketing to make the new terminology more widely known. The authors discuss the relation between social representation and the concept of the history of mentalities.

  16. Social representation of Hansen's disease thirty years after the term "leprosy" was replaced in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Leide Wand-del-Rey; Mendes, Carla Maria; Tardin, Rachel Tebaldi; Cunha, Mônica Duarte; Arruda, Angela

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theories of social representation (SC) and Central Core (CC), a structural study was undertaken regarding the neologism hanseniase (Hansen's disease), the term adopted by Brazil's Ministry of Health in the 1970s. Carried out during 2001, this study interviewed eight hundred housewives residing in the Rio de Janeiro and Duque de Caxias municipalities. It found that Hansen's disease is part of a process of modernization of common thinking, anchored in the additional representation of leprosy. This finding is understandable from the perspective that the central structure of a social representation has a historical determination, so short -and middle-term changes are not to be expected. Furthermore, there has been no ongoing investment in social marketing to make the new terminology more widely known. The authors discuss the relation between social representation and the concept of the history of mentalities.

  17. Explanation of the academic failure and the social representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef AÏSSANI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a plethora of research related to attribution in the last few decades. However, very few studies focused on the relationship between understanding the causes of others’ behavior and social representation. The overall objective of this study was to fill the gap by showing that the understanding of the causes behind others’ behavior is influenced by our social believes. We studied the scholar failure social representation of school-teacher.

  18. Social theory and the everyday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    The article argues for the relevance of rediscovering Wittgenstein in social theory with particular focus on his philosophical method. The article is divided into three parts. Part I gives a brief overview of Wittgenstein’s role in the coming of age of the influential 1980s generation of European...... social theory. Parts II and III discuss Wittgenstein’s method and its significance for social theory. In Wittgenstein’s late philosophy, there are deep and unique insights to be gained about doing theoretical research. These insights can be extended to the social sciences. The article argues...... that the tradition of social theory can benefit from being linked to Wittgenstein’s method which suggests a way of theorizing on the basis of detailed case-knowledge; that it can profit from bringing this method into an explicit relation to existing approaches, styles and tools in social theory. Despite its sketchy...

  19. Study on a phase space representation of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaivoson, R.T.R; Raoelina Andriambololona; Hanitriarivo, R.; Raboanary, R.

    2013-01-01

    A study on a method for the establishment of a phase space representation of quantum theory is presented. The approach utilizes the properties of Gaussian distribution, the properties of Hermite polynomials, Fourier analysis and the current formulation of quantum mechanics which is based on the use of Hilbert space and linear operators theory. Phase space representation of quantum states and wave functions in phase space are introduced using properties of a set of functions called harmonic Gaussian functions. Then, new operators called dispersion operators are defined and identified as the operators which admit as eigenstates the basis states of the phase space representation. Generalization of the approach for multidimensional cases is shown. Examples of applications are given.

  20. Holographic representation of space-variant systems: system theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks Ii, R J; Krile, T F

    1976-09-01

    System theory for holographic representation of linear space-variant systems is derived. The utility of the resulting piecewise isoplanatic approximation (PIA) is illustrated by example application to the invariant system, ideal magnifier, and Fourier transformer. A method previously employed to holographically represent a space-variant system, the discrete approximation, is shown to be a special case of the PIA.

  1. Social justice representations of students and teachers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainz Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this empirical study, we designed a questionnaire that seeks to analyse the representation that Spanish students and teachers have about Social Justice. The questionnaire includes a set of different dilemmas about social justice issues, especially in educational context The questions equitably represent three fundamental dimensions in social justice: Representation, Redistribution and Recognition. The questionnaire for students has 30 dilemmas and for teachers has 39 ones. The instrument has been applied to a sample of teachers and students of secondary education in 17 secondary public schools of different Spanish Communities Autonomous. The results show a good reliability of our instrument and differences in social justice conceptions regarding level of education, age and gender. These results show a developmental and gender trend and differences between students and teachers in the accessibility to the three dimensions of Social Justice: Representation, Recognition and Representation.

  2. Representational Realism, Closed Theories and the Quantum to Classical Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Christian

    In this chapter, we discuss the representational realist stance as a pluralistontic approach to inter-theoretic relationships. Our stance stresses the fact that physical theories require the necessary consideration of a conceptual level of discourse which determines and configures the specific field of phenomena discussed by each particular theory. We will criticize the orthodox line of research which has grounded the analysis about QM in two (Bohrian) metaphysical presuppositions - accepted in the present as dogmas that all interpretations must follow. We will also examine how the orthodox project of "bridging the gap" between the quantum and the classical domains has constrained the possibilities of research, producing only a limited set of interpretational problems which only focus in the justification of "classical reality" and exclude the possibility of analyzing the possibilities of non-classical conceptual representations of QM. The representational realist stance introduces two new problems, namely, the superposition problem and the contextuality problem, which consider explicitly the conceptual representation of orthodox QM beyond the mere reference to mathematical structures and measurement outcomes. In the final part of the chapter, we revisit, from representational realist perspective, the quantum to classical limit and the orthodox claim that this inter-theoretic relation can be explained through the principle of decoherence.

  3. Minimal Representations and Reductive Dual Pairs in Conformal Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    A minimal representation of a simple non-compact Lie group is obtained by 'quantizing' the minimal nilpotent coadjoint orbit of its Lie algebra. It provides context for Roger Howe's notion of a reductive dual pair encountered recently in the description of global gauge symmetry of a (4-dimensional) conformal observable algebra. We give a pedagogical introduction to these notions and point out that physicists have been using both minimal representations and dual pairs without naming them and hence stand a chance to understand their theory and to profit from it.

  4. Fundamental Visual Representations of Social Cognition in ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0565 TITLE: Fundamental Visual Representations of Social Cognition in ASD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Foxe, Ph.D...Visual Representations of Social Cognition in ASD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0565 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S... vertical line) adaptation trials are started. This involves moving the target in by 3 degrees of visual angle while the participants eyes are “in

  5. THE FORMATION OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF TRUST IN ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Dzahotovna Gurieva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In adolescence, there is a reorganization of social relationships, so the study of social representations of adolescents about trust as the basis of relations and their formation is of high scientific and practical significance. The result presented article is to analyze the social representations of trust among teenagers in St. Petersburg. The study involved 70 people between the ages of 12 to 17 years (average age 14.6. The authors used a method of interviews, questionnaires, and projective techniques. The results of content analysis, using mathematical and statistical analysis showed the formation of social representations of confidence in adolescence. Goal. The article is devoted the theme of developmental and social psychology. The study focused on the social representations of trust among adolescents. The authors aim to study the formation process of social representations of data. Method and methodology of work. The authors used the method of interviews, questionnaires and projective techniques. Processing of results was carried out using content analysis and statistical analysis. Results. The results showed features of formation of social notions of trust in adolescence, their relationship with age and gender.

  6. Transformative Theory in Social Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    Social-scientific theory usually represents an attempt to describe or explain social phenomena and, sometimes, to criticize them. However, a theory can be transformative in the sense that in using and testing it, researchers may help practitioners transform and improve their social conditions......, institutions or organisations. This idea is illustrated by a research-and-development effort to help conference organisers develop meeting formats that create more learning among delegates than is accomplished by the conventional, lecture-based format. This effort was based on a (transformative) theory...... of conferences as forums for learning and "human co-flourishing." Seventeen learning techniques were derived from the theory and were tested as hypotheses: When implemented in 30 live experiments, did they contribute to learning, as specified by the theory? Properties of transformative theory that distinguish...

  7. The social distance theory of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joe C; Smith, Pamela K

    2013-05-01

    We propose that asymmetric dependence between individuals (i.e., power) produces asymmetric social distance, with high-power individuals feeling more distant than low-power individuals. From this insight, we articulate predictions about how power affects (a) social comparison, (b) susceptibility to influence, (c) mental state inference and responsiveness, and (d) emotions. We then explain how high-power individuals' greater experienced social distance leads them to engage in more abstract mental representation. This mediating process of construal level generates predictions about how power affects (a) goal selection and pursuit, (b) attention to desirability and feasibility concerns, (c) subjective certainty, (d) value-behavior correspondence, (e) self-control, and (f) person perception. We also reassess the approach/inhibition theory of power, noting limitations both in what it can predict and in the evidence directly supporting its proposed mechanisms. Finally, we discuss moderators and methodological recommendations for the study of power from a social distance perspective.

  8. Valued Graphs and the Representation Theory of Lie Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Lemay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quivers (directed graphs, species (a generalization of quivers and their representations play a key role in many areas of mathematics including combinatorics, geometry, and algebra. Their importance is especially apparent in their applications to the representation theory of associative algebras, Lie algebras, and quantum groups. In this paper, we discuss the most important results in the representation theory of species, such as Dlab and Ringel’s extension of Gabriel’s theorem, which classifies all species of finite and tame representation type. We also explain the link between species and K-species (where K is a field. Namely, we show that the category of K -species can be viewed as a subcategory of the category of species. Furthermore, we prove two results about the structure of the tensor ring of a species containing no oriented cycles. Specifically, we prove that two such species have isomorphic tensor rings if and only if they are isomorphic as “crushed” species, and we show that if K is a perfect field, then the tensor algebra of a K -species tensored with the algebraic closure of K is isomorphic to, or Morita equivalent to, the path algebra of a quiver.

  9. True many-particle scattering theory in oscillator representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.F.; Shirokov, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The scattering theory in oscillator representation in case of true multiparticle scattering (TMS) is generalized. All necessary expressions to construct a wave function of several particles system in a discrete or continuous spectra at TMS approximation are obtained. Essential advantage of the method suggested lies in the fact that the most difficult part: construction and diagonolization of the Hamiltonian cutted matrix is to be carried out only once, and then the wave function can be calculated at any designed energy. 23 refs

  10. Information and social representations: a study with familiar of mental suffering carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Martins de Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to contribute for a new perspective of empiric studies in Information Science, in the information denominated researches social information or anthropology slope, through the theory utilization and of the phenomenon of the social representations. The transfer model of the adopted information was the denominated diagramático, propose for Teixeira (1997, that we base in a logic relacional. The research group was formed by family of bearers of mental suffering referenced in the Clínica Psicossocial (CLIPS, located in Ipatinga/MG. For the reception process analysis of the information, they were used the theory objectified and anchorage concepts of the social representations. It empiric research developed that the experience of care and to accompany the treatment of a bearer of mental suffering is the lunatic social representations main element former, of the madness and of the madness treatment. It treatment psicossocial approach proposed in the process of psychiatric reform finds reception in the measure in which it gets if anchor in the experience, in the everyday lived by the family of bearers of mental suffering. In this meaning, the theory job of the social representations enabled a new way of seeing the information and knowledge processes cognitive aspect that can open new perspectives for users' studies in Information Science.

  11. Constructive Representation Theory for the Feynman Operator Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, T L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we survey recent progress on the constructive theory of the Feynman operator calculus. We first develop an operator version of the Henstock-Kurzweil integral, and a new Hilbert space that allows us to construct the elementary path integral in the manner originally envisioned by Feynman. After developing our time-ordered operator theory we extend a few of the important theorems of semigroup theory, including the Hille-Yosida theorem. As an application, we unify and extend the theory of time-dependent parabolic and hyperbolic evolution equations. We then develop a general perturbation theory and use it to prove that all theories generated by semigroups are asympotic in the operator-valued sense of Poincar e. This allows us to provide a general theory for the interaction representation of relativistic quantum theory. We then show that our theory can be reformulated as a physically motivated sum over paths, and use this version to extend the Feynman path integral to include more general interaction...

  12. Representations of algebras of extended supersymmetry and linearised supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejlor, Dzh.

    1985-01-01

    In the lecture an attempt is made to acquaint the reader with the theory of extended supersymmetry, to characterize the corresponding particle spectrum and to explain how it can be used in supersymmetry with the least difficulties. Superalgebras are classified, their irreducible representations are given. Superfields and superspace are introduced, their role in the superalgebra realization is analyzed. Examples of linearized Lagrangians and auxiliary fields for the theories of supergravity with N=1 and N=2 are presented. Methods of spin reduction with the central charges are considered. The possibility to construct supergravity model with N>=3 off mass shell is considered

  13. Surface representations of Wilson loop expectations in lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.; Giffen, C.; Durhuus, B.; Froehlich, J.

    1986-01-01

    Expectations of Wilson loops in lattice gauge theory with gauge group G=Z 2 , U(1) or SU(2) are expressed as weighted sums over surfaces with boundary equal to the loops labelling the observables. For G=Z 2 and U(1), the weights are all positive. For G=SU(2), the weights can have either sign depending on the Euler characteristic of the surface. Our surface (or flux sheet-) representations are partial resummations of the strong coupling expansion and provide some qualitative understanding of confinement. The significance of flux sheets with nontrivial topology for permanent confinement in the SU(2)-theory is elucidated. (orig.)

  14. Specialized mechanisms for theory of mind: are mental representations special because they are mental or because they are representations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam S; Sasaki, Joni Y; German, Tamsin C

    2015-03-01

    Does theory of mind depend on a capacity to reason about representations generally or on mechanisms selective for the processing of mental state representations? In four experiments, participants reasoned about beliefs (mental representations) and notes (non-mental, linguistic representations), which according to two prominent theories are closely matched representations because both are represented propositionally. Reaction times were faster and accuracies higher when participants endorsed or rejected statements about false beliefs than about false notes (Experiment 1), even when statements emphasized representational format (Experiment 2), which should have favored the activation of representation concepts. Experiments 3 and 4 ruled out a counterhypothesis that differences in task demands were responsible for the advantage in belief processing. These results demonstrate for the first time that understanding of mental and linguistic representations can be dissociated even though both may carry propositional content, supporting the theory that mechanisms governing theory of mind reasoning are narrowly specialized to process mental states, not representations more broadly. Extending this theory, we discuss whether less efficient processing of non-mental representations may be a by-product of mechanisms specialized for processing mental states. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Naturalized Nation: Anchoring, Objectification and Naturalized Social Representations of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eemeli Hakoköngäs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the connection between social representations of history and collective memory from the perspective of elementary concepts of social representations theory: anchoring, objectification and naturalization. The aims of the study are to arrive at a conceptual clarity of this connection and demonstrate how to apply basic concepts of social representations theory to the study of collective memory. The study also focuses on the naturalized characteristics of Finnish history. The data consist of the covers of twenty Finnish history books between the years 1965 and 2014. All the covers are embellished with typography or visual images. The covers were analysed using a semiotic approach in which the interest is in the description (denotation, the associations (connotation and the meaning system these construe (myth. The analysis shows how national history is concretized with visual images (objectification, how the meaning of representation is conveyed (anchoring and how collective memory is maintained (naturalization, transmitted and shaped during the years. The results show how the stable collective memories and changing social representations of history are interacting. The most frequently used visual element was the colour blue, which alludes to the Finnish flag, a symbol of the nation that represents the core of Finnish history. The study suggests that it is possible to conceptualize collective memories as naturalized social representations of history. It shows how processes of anchoring and objectification serve as tools of collective memory and how the naturalized conceptions are subtly changed. In addition, the study develops the use of visual semiotic analysis in social representations research.

  16. Mental ill health in the elderly: medical students’ social representations in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Medeiros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to explore medical students’ social representations of mental ill health in older adults. Method It comprises an exploratory and qualitative investigation based on the theory of social representations. Two focus groups with pre-clinical medics (group 1, N=4; group 2, N=4 and 10 individual interviews with clinical medical students were conducted. Thematic analysis at a latent level explored meanings and differences between groups. Results Three overarching themes reflect participants’ representations of mental health problems in later life – mental ill health in old age, polarisation of care, and challenges to care. Primary health care appears as an important strategy to overcome barriers to mental health care in the community. Nevertheless, disqualifying representations, stigma and organization of services constitute the main challenges to quality mental health care in later life. Conclusion This paper highlights the need to address cultural and organizational barriers to promote quality care.

  17. [Social representations of illness: Comparison of "expert" knowledge and "naïve" knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoffrion, C; Dupont, P; Tripodi, D; Roland-Lévy, C

    2016-06-01

    The link between social practices and representations is now well known. But while many studies have focused on the social representation of mental illness, in various populations, few studies have focused on the notion of disease/illness by comparing professionals and non-professionals health workers representations. Indeed, the disease is both a reality described, explained and treated by medicine; for those who are affected by a disease, it is an individual experience with psychological, social and cultural impacts. The social representation is determined by the structure of the social groups in which it develops; therefore, it is a form of knowledge socially shaped and shared by the members of a social group. Several theoretical extensions have been elaborated and particularly, the structural approach and the central core theory. These approaches sustain the arguments of a hierarchical organization of a social representation with a central core surrounded by peripheral zones. The central core is common and shared by the majority of the members of a given group, whereas the peripheral zones provide space for the individualization of the social knowledge. The main goal of our study is to highlight the social representations of disease in health professionals (HP) and in non-health professionals (NHP). The group of HP has been differentiated into three subgroups: "medical doctors", "nurses" and "pharmacists", while that of NHP in two subgroups: those submitted to a "long period medical treatment" and those "without treatment". Our aim is to show that there are different social and professional Representations of disease. The professional representations are specific social representations related to professional contexts. We formulate the following assumptions (a) that the social representations of HP and NHP will be articulated around a common central core. Nevertheless, we expect to find specific peripheral elements related to professional status, based on

  18. [The professional self and hetero image among public health nurses: a study of social representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; Oliveira, Denize Cristina de

    2005-01-01

    The object of this study is the professional image constructed by public health nurses and the objective is to describe and analyze the professional images present in the representations of nurses who deliver direct care to this clientele. The theoretical-methodological reference framework adopted was Social Representations Theory. A qualitative study was developed in Petrópolis-Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, through in-depth interviews with 30 nurses. Alceste 4.5 software was used for the lexical analysis. The results reveal the existence of a professional self-image with three groups of meanings: being a reference for the team, the non-specific image and the image of plaster; and a professional hetero-image with four groups of meanings: administrator, invisible, positive image and superposition. The study of the professional image reflects the construction of the nurse's identity in itself and emphasizes Social Representations Theory as a useful tool for nursing research development.

  19. The Representation of Self Injury and Suicide on Emo Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With this in mind, this baseline study aimed to determine the portrayal of suicide and self-harm on social networking sites by analysing the representation of these behaviours among emo teenagers on the popular social networking site Facebook. A content analysis of two emo groups revealed a glorification, normalisation ...

  20. Representation sociale de l'hygiene chez les populations riveraines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés: Représentation sociale, hygiène, populations riveraines, décharge, environnement, pollution. English Title: Social representation of hygiene in the populations living in the vicinity of Akouedo-Cocody dump (Abidjan-Ivory Coast). English Abstract. Landfills are generally the common option for the final deposit of ...

  1. The Social Representation of Feminism within the On-line Movement “Women Against Feminism”

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Crusmac

    2017-01-01

    The present paper aims to analyse the social representation of feminism within the “Women Against Feminism” (WAF) on-line movement that is based on a shared blog which gained significant coverage in the U.S. and U.K. media since the summer of 2014. Using the method of quantitative content analysis and the insights provided by social representations theory, the paper will disclose what lies behind the concept of ‘feminism’ for the group embracing the WAF movement and also aims to find whether ...

  2. Representation theory of current algebra and conformal field theory on Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiko

    1989-01-01

    We study conformal field theories with current algebra (WZW-model) on general Riemann surfaces based on the integrable representation theory of current algebra. The space of chiral conformal blocks defined as solutions of current and conformal Ward identities is shown to be finite dimensional and satisfies the factorization properties. (author)

  3. Conference on Representation Theory, Number Theory and Invariant Theory: on the Occasion of Roger Howe’s 70th Birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Ju-Lee; Zhu, Chen-Bo

    2017-01-01

    This book contains selected papers based on talks given at the "Representation Theory, Number Theory, and Invariant Theory" conference held at Yale University from June 1 to June 5, 2015. The meeting and this resulting volume are in honor of Professor Roger Howe, on the occasion of his 70th birthday, whose work and insights have been deeply influential in the development of these fields. The speakers who contributed to this work include Roger Howe's doctoral students, Roger Howe himself, and other world renowned mathematicians. Topics covered include automorphic forms, invariant theory, representation theory of reductive groups over local fields, and related subjects.

  4. The Making of Social Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balon, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 515-528 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : social theory * styles of writing * commentary * interpretation * canon * social knowledge Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Naive Theories of Social Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined children's (ages 3-10, Total N = 235) naive theories of social groups, in particular, their expectations about how group memberships constrain social interactions. After introduction to novel groups of people, preschoolers (ages 3-5) reliably expected agents from one group to harm members of the other group (rather than…

  6. Essentialism and Social Representations of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räty, Hannu; Mononen, Noora; Pykäläinen, Elina

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the role of essentialist interpretations in education. A group of university students (N = 196) were asked to rank themselves on a social ladder and respond to a set of statements on essentialist beliefs about social class and differential notions of intelligence. Results showed that it is possible to construct a…

  7. Social representations about criminals and crimes in various professional groups of young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakushenko A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Describes a study whose purpose was to study the peculiarities of social representations of crime and criminals in different groups of students. The sample included 88 people aged 18 to 27 years, divided into four groups, depending on the subject of professionalization - psychologists, lawyers, journalists, representatives of technical professions. The study is based on the ideas of the theory of social representations proposed S.Moskovisi. The main method of study was a survey in a variant form, including an associative technique, the technique of "incomplete sentences", as well as open and closed questions. Associations were analyzed using analysis of prototypical proposed P.Verzhesom. The results obtained by Method "offers Incomplete" were to machine-using content analysis. Testable hypothesis regarding the specifics of professional social representations in various student groups received polnouyu or partial empirical support.

  8. Social representations of health councilors regarding the right to health and citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Luciana Melo de; Shimizu, Helena Eri

    2017-03-30

    To know the structure of the social representations of right to health and citizenship of health municipal councilors. This is a qualitative study, based on the central nucleus theory of social representations, carried out in eight municipalities of the Integrated Region for the Development of the Surroundings of the Federal District, Brazil. The intentional sample consisted of municipal health councilors. Between June and December 2012, free recall questionnaires were used, of which 68 were answered with the inducing term health, and 64 with the inducing term citizenship. Data were analyzed using EVOC software and Bardin's content analysis. The representational field of the right to health is associated with the idea of universal law guaranteed by the Constitution and the Unified Health System (SUS), and of citizenship linked to rights and duties. The conceptions of right to health are understood as a condition for reaching citizenship, and citizenship as social protection.

  9. Social representations of biosecurity in nursing: occupational health and preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Álvaro Francisco Lopes de; Queiroz, Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes; Oliveira, Layze Braz de; Moura, Maria Eliete Batista; Batista, Odinéa Maria Amorim; Andrade, Denise de

    2016-01-01

    to understand the biosecurity social representations by primary care nursing professionals and analyze how they articulate with quality of care. exploratory and qualitative research based on social representation theory. The study participants were 36 nursing workers from primary health care in a state capital in the Northeast region of Brazil. The data were analyzed by descending hierarchical classification. five classes were obtained: occupational accidents suffered by professionals; occupational exposure to biological agents; biosecurity management in primary health care; the importance of personal protective equipment; and infection control and biosecurity. the different positions taken by the professionals seem to be based on a field of social representations related to the concept of biosecurity, namely exposure to accidents and risks to which they are exposed. However, occupational accidents are reported as inherent to the practice.

  10. Social representations of postpartum women on prenatal care in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryjosy Marculino Guerreiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at capturing the social representations of postpartum women on prenatal care in primary health care. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, guided by the Theory of Social Representations, developed in nine Family Health Centers, in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from May to July, 2012. 31 women on postpartum were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, fully transcribed and processed through ALCESTE software - 2010 version. The results observed in the lexical analysis of the interviews revealed the distribution of contents in four classes. Classes 4 and 1 dealing with prenatal care were explored in this study. Social representations of users about the prenatal are anchored in the protocol dimension and socio-educational dimension. The implantation and the maintenance of activities are necessary in order to share knowledge and interaction among the users

  11. Perceptual representation, veridicality, and the interface theory of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (henceforth, HSP) argue that perception was not selected for veridical representation, hence that, contrary to a very widespread consensus, there's much less of the latter than you might expect in perception. And they put forward an alternative "interface" theory, on which perception is an adaptively useful but truth-obscuring veil between perceiver and perceived. But HSP's case against veridical perception, and their case for an alternative account, turn crucially on significant misapprehensions in the early going about what veridicality amounts to. In this paper I'll identify this mistake, and then argue that it both undercuts HSP's arguments against perceptual veridicality and prevents them from seeing that their own preferred conception of perception is itself committed to veridical representation, rather than an alternative to it. In the end, I'll conclude, HSP give us no reasons to abandon the standard view that perception veridically represents the world.

  12. Social Representations of the Process of Ageing in Young and Mature Romanian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate Romanians’ social representations of ageing and positive ageing, as well as the variations of these social representations according to the age and gender of the participants in what regards the centrality of the components and basic cognitive scheme activations. Study 1 was conducted on 80 participants who filled in two associative map tasks (Dafinoiu & Crumpei, 2013 that had as inductors “ageing” and, respectively, “positive ageing”. Results have shown a notable variation between the two social representations, in the sense that the latter was entirely made up of positive associations, whereas the former comprised both positive and negative associations. The second study was conducted on another sample of 80 participants (20 young adult men and 20 young adult women and, respectively, 20 mature adult men and 20 mature adult women and it found by employing the questioning principle (“mise-en-cause”, Moliner, 1994 that two core elements of the social representation of ageing vary in centrality according to the age of the participants. Moreover, variations across age were also encountered in the overall activation of basic cognitive schemes as well as in the activation of the three dimensions: Description, Praxis and Attribution / Evaluation (Rateau, 1995. Results are discussed in the light of their contribution to the social representations theory.

  13. [Social representations of Mexican pregnant teenagers about the puerperal care, lactation, and newborn care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ramírez, Julieta A; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E; Zárate-Guerrero, Gabriel; Franco-Chávez, Sergio A; Covarrubias-Bermúdez, María Á; Zavala-González, Marco A

    2018-01-01

    Puerperal care and feeding of the newborn are guided by entrenched cultural meanings between women, so it is important to know and identify how they are acquired and perpetuated. Regarding this knowledge, the social representations that Mexican pregnant teenagers have about puerperium, lactation and newborn care were studied. An interpretative study was made based on principles of the theory of social representations. Interviews were conducted to obtain information from 30 Mexican adolescents who attended prenatal care at the gynecological obstetrics area in a second-level hospital during 2015. Classical content analysis strategies were applied to analyze the information; this process consisted of coding and categorizing information. A conceptual map was also developed to describe the social representations found. In this study, 190 codes and three social representations were identified: "breastfeeding is a practice based on myths", "newborns are fragile" and "mother and child must be synchronized". Three social representations were identified that explain the practices of adolescents towards breastfeeding and the care of them and their children, which were acquired through family communication and strengthened by the need for support due to the temporary or permanent absence of the couple, personal crises motivated by bodily changes, fear of new modifications due to breastfeeding and ignorance about how carry out breastfeeding and care during the puerperium. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  14. Social representations of human papillomavirus in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Carolina; Acosta, Jesús; Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; Tovar, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Identifying DNA of Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been proposed as a new screening method for cervical cancer control. Conventionally, health education for screening programs is based on scientific information without considering any community cognitive processes. We examine HPV social representations of 124 men and women from diverse educational status living in Bogotá, Colombia. The social representation of HPV involves a series of figurative nuclei derived from meanings linked to scientific information. While women focused on symbols associated to contagion, men focused on its venereal character. Figurative nuclei also included long-term uncertainty, need or urgent treatment, and feelings of imminent death associated with cancer and chronic sexually transmitted infections. The social representation of HPV impeded many participants from clearly understanding written information about HPV transmission, clearance, and cancer risk; they are built into a framework of values, which must be deconstructed to allow women full participation in HPV screening programs.

  15. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  16. On the Schroedinger representation of the Euclidean quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, U.

    1987-04-01

    The theme of the present thesis is the Schroedinger representation of the Euclidean quantum field theory: We define the time development of the quantum field states as functional integral in a novel, mathematically precise way. In the following we discuss the consequences which result from this approach to the Euclidean quantum field theory. Chapter 1 introduces the theory of abstract Wiener spaces which is here proved as suitable mathematical tool for the treatment of the physical problems. In chapter 2 the diffusion theory is formulated in the framework of abstract Wiener spaces. In chapter 3 we define the field functional ψ 5 u, t 7 as functional integral, determine the functional differential equation which ψ satisfies (Schroedinger equation), and summarize the consequences resulting from this. Chapter 4 is dedicated to the attempt to determine the kernel of the time-development operator, by the knowledge of which the time development of each initial state is fixed. In chapter 5 the consequences of the theory presented in chapter 3 and 4 are discussed by means of simple examples. In chapter 6 the renormalization which results for the φ 4 potential from the definition of the functional integral in chapter 3 is calculated up to the first-order perturbation theory, and it is shown that the problems in the Symanzik renormalization procedure can be removed. (orig./HSI) [de

  17. Chern--Simons theory in the Schroedinger representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, G.V.; Jackiw, R.; Trugenberger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    We quantize the (2+1)-dimensional Chern--Simons theory in the functional Schroedinger representation. The realization of gauge transformations on states involves a 1-cocycle. We determine this cocycle; we show how solving the Gauss law constraint in the non-Abelian theory requires quantizing the parameter that normalizes the action; we trivialize the 1-cocycle with a spatially non-local cochain related to a 2-dimensional fermion determinant and we find the physical states that satisfy the Gauss law constraint. The quantum holonomy of physical states involves a contribution that is missed when the constraint is solved before quantization. We compute this quantity for the Abelian theory in Minkowski space, where it exhibits an interesting group theoretic structure. (In a note added in proof the corresponding non-Abelian computation is presented.) Also we consider coupling to external sources and offer yet another derivation of the anomalous statistics and spin of the charge and flux carrying particles---a calculation which is especially simple in the functional Schroedinger representation. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  18. Science Divulgation: The Social Representations of Brazilian Researchers Working in the Field of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Dalira Lúcia Cunha Maradei; Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses the role of scientific divulgation in the interaction between science and society, debating the importance of Astronomy as a prime starter of the scientific divulgation. In the light of Moscovici’s Social Representations Theory, the social representations on scientific divulgation of Brazilian researchers that work in the field of Astronomy are studied. Individuals from different educational trajectories ansewered semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed according to Spink. The results indicate two representations: one for the society at large, moved by passion, based on values and beliefs, and on the satisfaction of seeing the results of their actions on people’s life; and another for their peers. In the first representation, gaps that obstruct the science divulgation emerge, such as the lack of training and the difficulty to use a plain language, the bureaucracy required for the projects’ execution and its negative representation in the media. Other inferences are that Astronomy is neither part of a systematic teaching nor a part of the media at large, and it often presents conceptual mistakes. Those representations find an echo in the theoretical framework, showing that, despite their advances, scientific divulgation and Astronomy Education are in a context of social fragility.

  19. Application of group representation theory to symmetric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Structures with symmetry occur in various problems, such as static and dynamic elastic response, and it is possible to gain partial information about their behaviour from their symmetry alone, using group representation theory. Due to the nature of the method, no numerical results other than the vanishing of certain quantities can be derived, but subsequent numerical calculations may be greatly shortened, and in simple structures, be rendered trivial. Among the applications to simple structures, those of interest in a nuclear context include, hexagonal tubes, bending of a circular tube under hexagonal loading patterns, and hexagonal arrays of fuel pins. (author)

  20. Narrative, memory and social representations: a conversation between history and social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovchelovitch, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores relations between narrative, memory and social representations by examining how social representations express the ways in which communities deal with the historical past. Drawing on a case study of social representations of the Brazilian public sphere, it shows how a specific narrative of origins re-invents history as a useful mythological resource for defending identity, building inter-group solidarity and maintaining social cohesion. Produced by a time-travelling dialogue between multiple sources, this historical narrative is functional both to transform, to stabilise and give resilience to specific social representations of public life. The Brazilian case shows that historical narratives, which tend to be considered as part of the stable core of representational fields, are neither homogenous nor consensual but open polyphasic platforms for the construction of alternative, often contradictory, representations. These representations do not go away because they are ever changing and situated, recruit multiple ways of thinking and fulfil functions of identity, inter-group solidarity and social cohesion. In the disjunction between historiography and the past as social representation are the challenges and opportunities for the dialogue between historians and social psychologists.

  1. Social Representations of Social Media Users toward Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Ozdemir; Bengi Oner Ozkan

    2017-01-01

    While the Syrian refugees crisis has increasingly continued its effect in both Turkey and other neighboring countries and European countries for more than five years, refugees do not adapt themselves to society in country of asylum, and are exposed to social exclusion. The purpose of the study is to explore social representations of social media users toward Syrian refugees in Turkey with a qualitative approach; because social representations may indicate the problems in the in...

  2. Data collection in Internet environment in social representations studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vieira De Lima Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at comparing social representations structures concerning data collection procedures: through internet forms, diffused in the WWW, and through conventional paper and pencil questionnaire methods. O verall 893 individuals participated in the research, 58% of whom were female. A total of 217 questionnaires about the social representation on football (soccer and 218 about the representation on aging were answered by Brazilian university students in classrooms. Electronic versions of the same instrument were diffused through an internet forum linked to the same university. There were 238 answers for the football questionnaire and 230 for the aging one. The instrument asked participants to indicate five wordsor expressions related to one of the social objects. Sample characteristics and structural analyses were carried out separately for the two data collection procedures. Data indicated that internet-based research allows for higher sample diversity, but it is essential to guarantee the adoption of measures that can select only desired participants. Results also pointed out the need to take into account the nature of the social object to be investigated through internet research on representations, seeking to avoid self-selection effects, which can bias results, as it seems to have happened with the football social object.

  3. Theory of Queer Identities: Representation in Contemporary East-European Art and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Kesić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the general theory of identity, gender theory, queer theory and theory of bio/necropolitics, as theoretical platforms, in a few case studies I will analyze the Pride Parade as a form of manifestation of gender body and queer body representations in visual arts, and gender and queer body representations in mass media. My hypothesis is that the key for understanding the chosen case studies is in understanding the relation between their aesthetics, political and social interventions. This will consider political involvement, social injustice, alienation, stereotypes on which ideological manipulations are based etc., as well as the creative strategies used for moving the borders of visual art in searching for authentically-performed creative expressions and engagements. In the time we live it is necessary for the politicization of art to use queer tactics, which work as political strategies of subversion of every stable structure of power. Queer tactics, in my opinion, are weapons in disturbance of the stable social mechanisms, which every power tries to establish and perform over any ‘mass’, in order to transform it to race, gender, tribe, nation or class.   Article received: June 6, 2017; Article accepted: June 20, 2017; Published online: October 15, 2017; Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Kesić, Saša. "Theory of Queer Identities: Representation in Contemporary East-European Art and Culture." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 14 (2017: 123-131. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i14.211

  4. Social representations of science and gender in Science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Heerdt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Social Representations (SR of teachers regarding the Nature of Science (NoS, gender issues in society, Science and in the teaching context. The theoretical approach is Moscovici’s SR associated to NoS discussions, Science feminist theories and Teaching of Science. A number of twenty-two teachers were part of this research. Data were collected through the filmic record. The lexical analysis was performed using the Alceste software. Four classes were formed: NoS, Gender and women in Science, Gender and teaching context, and Gender and society. In the areas of the teachers’ education, it was not possible to find significant differences in SR. Through empirical data, the distinct argumentation of men and women is noticed. The SR of men, naturalized, discriminatory and of gender issue denial in society and Science, is more forceful than of women. It is necessary, in the initial and continued education, the problematization of gender issues in Science.

  5. A social representations analysis of design science research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie Naidoo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Design science research (DSR is a relatively unfamiliar research paradigm within the computing field in South Africa. In light of recent interest in this paradigm, this study sought to explore DSR perspectives among local computing researchers. Key theoretical concepts from social representations theory (SRT such as anchoring and objectification were used to explore how researchers construct their understanding of DSR. A visual approach was used to administer drawing and association tasks to two focus groups; each focus group comprised around 25 participants ranging from doctoral students to experienced researchers. The focus group discussions invoked interesting complementary and distinctive associations about the process and content of DSR – anchored in dominant and conventional research practices. The results also illustrated several ways in which DSR is objectified by the researchers in drawings and metaphorical constructions. We conclude that SRT is useful for exploring beliefs about novel and relatively unfamiliar research practices. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of how computing researchers go about making sense and assigning meaning to changing research practices. The findings are developed into recommendations for introducing changes to research practices. These recommendations can be used to direct efforts to more appropriately accommodate changing research practices within the computing community to broaden knowledge generation.

  6. Critical Theory and Political Socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIK, Domonkos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the relevance of critical theories of modernity in the research of memory transmission and political socialization. Firstly, the relevant concepts of Habermas, Giddens and Bourdieu are overviewed. Secondly, the notion of political culture and memory transmission are reinterpreted from the perspective of these theories, revealing different sources and forms of radicalism. Finally, divergent constellations of modernization are reintroduced as the broadest context of the processes of political formation.

  7. Quantization and representation theory of finite W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Tjin, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we study the finitely generated algebras underlying W algebras. These so called 'finite W algebras' are constructed as Poisson reductions of Kirillov Poisson structures on simple Lie algebras. The inequivalent reductions are labeled by the inequivalent embeddings of sl 2 into the simple Lie algebra in question. For arbitrary embeddings a coordinate free formula for the reduced Poisson structure is derived. We also prove that any finite W algebra can be embedded into the Kirillov Poisson algebra of a (semi)simple Lie algebra (generalized Miura map). Furthermore it is shown that generalized finite Toda systems are reductions of a system describing a free particle moving on a group manifold and that they have finite W symmetry. In the second part we BRST quantize the finite W algebras. The BRST cohomoloy is calculated using a spectral sequence (which is different from the one used by Feigin and Frenkel). This allows us to quantize all finite W algebras in one stroke. Examples are given. In the last part of the paper we study the representation theory of finite W algebras. It is shown, using a quantum inversion of the generalized Miura transformation, that the representations of finite W algebras can be constructed from the representations of a certain Lie subalgebra of the original simple Lie algebra. As a byproduct of this we are able to construct the Fock realizations of arbitrary finite W algebras. (orig.)

  8. Constructal theory of social dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Combines for the first time theories of general physics and applies them to social sciencesOffers a new way to look at social phenomena as part of natural phenomenaA new domain of application of engineering such as thermodynamic optimization, thermoeconomics and "design as science"Discusses how the "flow architectures" of natural sciences are also found in social situationsBoth classes are covered by the same principle (the constructal law)First work to show that the concept of "efficiency" of engineering has a home in physics and social sciencesThe constructal law theory puts a scientific principle behind the major challenges of today and the future: sustainable development, energy sufficiency, equilibria between human settlements and environmental ecosystems, optimal allocation, optimal distribution of finite resources, etc.

  9. Scaffolding scientific discussion using socially relevant representations in networked multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    1999-11-01

    How do students make use of social cues when learning on the computer? This work examines how students in a middle-school science course learned through on-line peer discussion. Cognitive accounts of collaboration stress interacting with ideas, while socially situated accounts stress the interpersonal context. The design of electronic environments allows investigation into the interrelation of cognitive and social dimensions. I use on-line peer discussion to investigate how socially relevant representations in interfaces can aid learning. First, I identify some of the variables that affect individual participation in on-line discussion, including interface features. Individual participation is predicted by student attitudes towards learning from peers. Second, I describe the range of group outcomes for these on-line discussions. There is a large effect of discussion group on learning outcomes which is not reducible to group composition or gross measures of group process. Third, I characterize how students (individually) construct understanding from these group discussions. Learning in the on-line discussions is shown to be a result of sustained interaction over time, not merely encountering or expressing ideas. Experimental manipulations in the types of social cues available to students suggest that many students do use socially relevant representations to support their understanding of multiple viewpoints and science reasoning. Personalizing scientific disputes can afford reflection on the nature of scientific discovery and advance. While there are many individual differences in how social representations are used by students in learning, overall learning benefits for certain social representations can be shown. This work has profound implications for design of collaborative instructional methods, equitable access to science learning, design of instructional technology, and understanding of learning and cognition in social settings.

  10. Changes and stagnation in a social representation of an HIV seropositive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Celia Chapa Romero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At 30 years of the onset of the first case of Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Mexico, the disease has changed during these decades, including its current status as a chronic illness and the spread of it in non-risk groups such as women. From the theory of social representations this disease has been a privileged object of study, but the experience of living with the disease and the condition of gender in the construction of such representations have been addressed to a lesser extent. The aim of this research was to determine the social representation women living with HIV has developed on their health conditions, placing change and permanence, from a diagnosis. There were carried out 12 in-depth interviews with participants from two primary care centers, and it was conduced a categorical content analysis using N Vivo software. The results were classified in 12categories which were grouped into three meta categories 2 types of representational content in the sample: hegemonic (death, illicit sexuality and emancipated (chronicity.The findings revealed the prevalence of traditional norms and values about gender and sexuality rooted in social thinking despite the scientific advances in the field of health. Furthermore, it was found a negotiation of meaning based on experience. Further research is recommended to carry out comparisons between groups of women with HIV in order to be able to establish more precise differences in social position and representational content, in order to develop effective and relevant in both primary prevention and positive strategies

  11. Field theory of interacting open superstrings of fermionic ghost representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Medvedev, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    Field theory of interacting open superstring in fermionic ghost representation based on anticommuting and commuting ghosts corresponding respectively to world sheet bosonic x μ and fermionic φ μ coordinates is presented. The author have to revise once more the field theory of the free Ramond (R) string and starting from general algebraic point of view they obtain that the number of degrees of freedom in the R and NS (Neveu-Schwartz) sectors equalise themselves permitting to construct a supersymmetric operator. It is proposed to solve a specific equation guaranteeing superinvariance in order to find the R-R-NS and NS-R-R vertices in the term of the NS-NS-NS vertex

  12. Medium Theory and Social Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

      the  possibility  for  observation both of a social micro and a social macro level from a medium perspective. In the next  section  the paper  frames  the macro  level by  a  tentative  synthesis of  the medium  theory  and  the  sociological systems theory briefly describing a socio......-evolutionary process where new media alter  the societal capacity to handle complexity  in  time and space.  In  this section it becomes probable  that  by  means  of  different  media,  social  systems  give  different  possibilities  for  actual  social  performance.  In a way,  social  systems  themselves can be......  seen as medium  for  formation. Finally  the  paper  takes  the micro  level  perspective  by  applying  the  theory  to  newsgroups,  interpreting  them as self-organizing interactive systems giving a differentiated and diversified scope for social  inclusion.  ...

  13. Quantum social game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfi, Badredine

    2007-02-01

    Most game-theoretic studies of strategic interaction assume independent individual strategies as the basic unit of analysis. This paper explores the effects of non-independence on strategic interaction. Two types of non-independence effects are considered. First, the paper considers subjective non-independence at the level of the individual actor by looking at how choice ambivalence shapes the decision-making process. Specifically, how do alternative individual choices superpose with one another to “constructively/destructively” shape each other's role within an actor's decision-making process? This process is termed as quantum superposition of alternative choices. Second, the paper considers how inter-subjective non-independence across actors engenders collective strategies among two or more interacting actors. This is termed as quantum entanglement of strategies. Taking into account both types of non-independence effect makes possible the emergence of a new collective equilibrium, without assuming signaling, prior “contract” agreement or third-party moderation, or even “cheap talk”. I apply these ideas to analyze the equilibrium possibilities of a situation wherein N actors play a quantum social game of cooperation. I consider different configurations of large- N quantum entanglement using the approach of density operator. I specifically consider the following configurations: star-shaped, nearest-neighbors, and full entanglement.

  14. Baccalaureate Accounting Student Mentors' Social Representations of Their Mentorship Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Vicky; Brown, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Mentorship has been shown to enhance engagement, participation, and understanding of the workplace through the development of soft-skills and leadership capacity. This research identifies and describes the social representations of second and third year Baccalaureate accounting students relating to their experiences in mentoring first year…

  15. Social Representation of Intercultural Exchange in an International University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an interpretive investigation into the social representation of intercultural exchange at one of the newly established international universities in Japan. The author conducted quasi-structured interviews with 5 staff members and 22 students to gain insight into their perceptions of intercultural exchange and interactions. The…

  16. Rorty and contemporary social theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Srđan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show certain aspects of Rorty’s philosophy that are relevant to social theory, and also to point out the most important divergences of Rorty’s insights from postmodern understanding of social reality. Therefore, in the first part of the paper I will examine both Rorty’s philosophy of edification and all relevant criticisms to his view of philosophy “as a communication of mankind”. Furthermore, I will try to establish to which extent Rorty’s understanding of contingency and its implications really falls close to postmodern thought. I will also argue that the impossibility of philosophical justification of social reality, according to Rorty, does not entail impossibility of moral progress and that the role of social theory is actually in raising the level of inclusion of social interaction and in providing social hope. Moreover, it will be shown that Rorty, unlike Foucault and Derrida, thought that the institutions of Western democracy and liberalism are quite capable to achieve these goals and that accomplishment of this liberal utopia greatly depends on the degree of commitment to moral progress that all actors (writers, social scientists and philosophers within the cultural field share.

  17. A teacher preparation course in the social representation construction concerning being teacher of Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Lima Miranda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of a pre-service teacher education in a construction of social representation about being teacher is the topic of this study, which included the participation of 44 first year and 27 last year undergraduate students from a course of chemistry. The theoretical lens used was Theory of Social Representation. Open questionnaires in which students had to write about their personal view about working as Chemistry teacher were used. In their answers were observed two categories: characteristics and vision of teaching. Comparing the characteristics that those students propose to the achievement of teaching and learning processes was perceived that the attitudes and pedagogical practices were suggest by both groups, what reinforces the many representations about teaching built even before start pre-service teacher education. In the social representation of last year students was observed that the characteristics and vision of teaching no longer centered on the teacher. In addition, was identified the expansion of the components of representation, by adding speeches and contents related to chemistry teaching (particularly the use of everyday life, the understanding phenomena, approached during graduation.

  18. Social representations of entrepreneurship: The role of training in the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Parreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the change in the social representation structure of entrepreneurship in Portuguese students after training sessions in entrepreneurship. Method: An exploratory research was conducted, based on the structural approach of the theory of social representations. A group of 4th-year undergraduate nursing students of a Portuguese nursing school participated in this study: 192 in the pre-intervention phase and 139 in the post-intervention phase (N=331 participants. Social representations of entrepreneurship were assessed through the technique of free association in the pre- and post-test (before and after the 14-hour training. Results: A total of 1200 evocations with 169 different words and an overall mean order of 2.62 were obtained. The arrangement of data into four quadrants in the pre- and post-test found no change in the structure of representations in terms of the core components. However, a higher variability and dispersion of corpus was observed after the training period, which reflects a higher cognitive complexity and awareness for entrepreneurship/ to acquire entrepreneurial skills. Conclusions: The intervention showed a consistency between the central themes of entrepreneurship and its representation structure. It proved to contribute to a process of entrepreneurship change, although it requires a longer and more intense intervention.

  19. Polarised press reporting about HIV prevention: Social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel biomedical HIV prevention option for individuals at high risk of HIV acquisition. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has yielded encouraging results in various clinical trials, opponents argue that pre-exposure prophylaxis poses a number of risks to human health and to sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. Using qualitative thematic analysis and social representation theory, this article explores coverage of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK print media between 2008 and 2015 in order to chart the emerging social representations of this novel HIV prevention strategy. The analysis revealed two competing social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis: (1) as a positive development in the 'battle' against HIV (the hope representation) and (2) as a medical, social and psychological setback in this battle, particularly for gay/bisexual men (the risk representation). These social representations map onto the themes of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a superlatively positive development; pre-exposure prophylaxis as a weapon in the battle against HIV/AIDS; and risk, uncertainty and fear in relation to pre-exposure prophylaxis. The hope representation focuses on taking (individual and collective) responsibility, while the risk representation focuses on attributing (individual and collective) blame. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  20. Nonabelian Jacobian of projective surfaces geometry and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Reider, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The Jacobian of a smooth projective curve is undoubtedly one of the most remarkable and beautiful objects in algebraic geometry. This work is an attempt to develop an analogous theory for smooth projective surfaces - a theory of the nonabelian Jacobian of smooth projective surfaces. Just like its classical counterpart, our nonabelian Jacobian relates to vector bundles (of rank 2) on a surface as well as its Hilbert scheme of points. But it also comes equipped with the variation of Hodge-like structures, which produces a sheaf of reductive Lie algebras naturally attached to our Jacobian. This constitutes a nonabelian analogue of the (abelian) Lie algebra structure of the classical Jacobian. This feature naturally relates geometry of surfaces with the representation theory of reductive Lie algebras/groups. This work’s main focus is on providing an in-depth study of various aspects of this relation. It presents a substantial body of evidence that the sheaf of Lie algebras on the nonabelian Jacobian is an effic...

  1. Scientific Theories and Naive Theories as Forms of Mental Representation: Psychologism Revived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William F.

    This paper analyzes recent work in psychology on the nature of the representation of complex forms of knowledge with the goal of understanding how theories are represented. The analysis suggests that, as a psychological form of representation, theories are mental structures that include theoretical entities (usually nonobservable), relationships among the theoretical entities, and relationships of the theoretical entities to the phenomena of some domain. A theory explains the phenomena in its domain by providing a conceptual framework for the phenomena that leads to a feeling of understanding in the reader/hearer. The explanatory conceptual framework goes beyond the original phenomena, integrates diverse aspects of the world, and shows how the original phenomena follow from the framework. This analysis is used to argue that mental models are the subclass of theories that use causal/mechanical explanatory frameworks. In addition, an argument is made for a new psychologism in the philosophy of science, in which the mental representation of scientific theories must be taken into account.

  2. Representation of coherent states in many-boson theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.

    1978-01-01

    Solution of the Bloch equation for the density matrix of the system of interacting Bose particles in the coherent states representation is obtained. The matrix of the thermodynamical potential functional is represented in the form of the functional series over the eigen-values of the annihilation operator and the coefficient functions are the matrix elements of cluster operators. A simple functional integration in the partition sum leads to the well-known quantum virial expansions and the standard perturbation theory series. Possibilities of application of the expressions obtained to the investigation of the lambda-transition in the liquid He 4 and the generalization to the case of the many-fermion system is discussed

  3. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  4. How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James H; Hilton, Denis J

    2005-12-01

    Socially shared representations of history have been important in creating, maintaining and changing a people's identity. Their management and negotiation are central to interethnic and international relations. We present a narrative framework to represent how collectively significant events become (selectively) incorporated in social representations that enable positioning of ethnic, national and supranational identities. This perspective creates diachronic (temporal) links between the functional (e.g. realistic conflict theory), social identity, and cognitive perspectives on intergroup relations. The charters embedded in these representations condition nations with similar interests to adopt different political stances in dealing with current events, and can influence the perceived stability and legitimacy of social orders. They are also instrumental in determining social identity strategies for reacting to negative social comparisons, and can influence the relationships between national and ethnic identities.

  5. Social Representations of the Integrated High School Students about Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jose Isnaldo de Lima; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2017-07-01

    Astronomy issues are not always adequately handled in the formal education system, as well as, their dissemination in the media is often loaded with sensationalism. However, in this context the students are forming their explanations about it. Therefore, this work has the objective of identifying the possible social representations of students from the Integrated High School on the inductor term Astronomy. It is basically a descriptive research, therefore, a quali-qualitative approach was adopted. The procedures for obtaining the data occurred in the form of a survey, and they involved 653 subjects students from the Integrated High School. The results indicate that the surveyed students have social representations of the object Astronomy, which are based on elements from the formal education space, and also disclosed in the media. In addition, they demonstrate that the students have information about Astronomy, and a value judgment in relation to this science.

  6. Natural semantic networks in the Social Representations of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Emilio Aguilera Arévalo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of social representations of responsibility is a fundamental construct of the present democratic societies. Different empirical techniques such as natural semantic networks can significantly improve the approach to the object of study than the traditional associationist techniques. The present study examines natural semantic networks of six stimulus words with respect to responsibility and irresponsibility at the individual, in group and out group level in a sample of Guatemalan students.

  7. Managerial Spirit from de Social Representations: Venezuelan case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Borjas de Xena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to characterize the central and peripheral structures of the Social Representations (SR on Entrepreneurial Spirit (ES. The SR are ways of social thinking that include information, beliefs, attitudes, practices and experiences. This type of research is complementary. The methodology called for the analysis of content found in secondary literature and in depth interviews. The corpus includes 65 articles in the 2006-2009 period. The results showed that the anchorage of the SR in the Venezuelan context could be characterized as “highly” entrepreneur

  8. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  9. Social exclusion modulates pre-reflective interpersonal body representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Blomberg, Olle; Mandrigin, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    social exclusion condition. The results were that the SAE that normally occurs when the mug is in the avatar’s reaching space is extinguished by the induced social exclusion. This indicates that judgments about one’s own social status modulate the effect of IBR.......Perception of an affordance is enhanced not only when the relevant object is located in one’s own peripersonal space, as compared to when it is located within extrapersonal space, but also when the object is located in another person’s peripersonal space (as measured by a Spatial Alignment Effect...... (SAE)). It has been suggested that this reflects the existence of an interpersonal body representation (IBR) that allows us to represent the perceptual states and action possibilities of others. Here, we address the question of whether IBR can be modulated by higher level/reflective social cognition...

  10. Astronomy: Social Representations of the Integrated High School Students and Graduates in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, J. I. L.

    The topics related to Astronomy are spread through almost all levels of basic education in Brazil and are also disseminated through the mass media, activities that do not always occur in the proper way. However, their students form their explanations about the phenomena studied by Astronomy, that is, they begin to construct their opinions, their beliefs and their attitudes regarding this object or this situation. In this sense, this work was divided in two fronts, which have the following objectives: (1) To identify the social representations of Astronomy elaborated by students of Integrated secondary education and undergraduate students in Physics; (2) To verify to what extent the social representations developed by the investigated students are equivalent; (3) To Investigate if the social representations designed per undergraduate students in Physics about Astronomy undergo changes after these participate in a course on basic subjects of Astronomy, in comparison with those exposed before the mentioned event. On the first front there is a research of a basic nature, where the data were obtained through of survey, and analysed in accordance with the methodologies pertinent to Central Nucleus Theory, the second front deals with an investigation of an applied nature, and the data obtained were explored through statistical analyses. The results indicate that the researchers have been involved in social representations of the object Astronomy, which are based on elements of the formal education space, and also disclosed in the media, in addition, demonstrate that the students have information about Astronomy and a valuation position in relation to this Science. On the second front, the results indicate that there were changes in the social representations of the undergraduate students in Physics about the term inductor Astronomy, after the course, that is, several elements evoked before the course were replaced by others, which were worked during the event.

  11. Near the sill of the conformal window: Gauge theories with fermions in two-index representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrand, Thomas; Shamir, Yigal; Svetitsky, Benjamin

    2013-09-16

    We apply Schroedinger functional methods to two gauge theories with fermions in two-index representations: the SU(3) theory with Nf=2 adjoint fermions, and the SU(4) theory with Nf=6 fermions in the two-index antisymmetric representation. Each theory is believed to lie near the bottom of the conformal window for its respective representation. In the SU(3) theory we find a small beta function in strong coupling but we cannot confirm or rule out an infrared fixed point. In the SU(4) theory we find a hint of walking - a beta function that approaches the axis and then turns away from it. In both theories the mass anomalous dimension remains small even at the strongest couplings, much like the theories with fermions in the two-index symmetric representation investigated earlier.

  12. Social representations of reading: central and peripheral elements of these representations among teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Maria M. Pessoa Pullin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to characterize the structure of the social representations of reading held by fi rst and middle-school teachers from city public schools in a city in the interior of Paraná, Brazil. A free word association test was used for data collection. Of the 322 different words recorded, which were processed by the EVOC software, the elements “know”, “inform” and “essential” seem to be central. For this group of teachers, reading is essential and necessary for knowledge acquisition. Implications of these meanings of reading and suggestions are presented throughout the paper.

  13. Two problems from the theory of semiotic control models. I. Representations of semiotic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, G S

    1981-11-01

    Two problems from the theory of semiotic control models are being stated, in particular the representation of models and the semantic analysis of themtheory of semiotic control models are being stated, in particular the representation of models and the semantic analysis of them. Algebraic representation of semiotic models, covering of representations, their reduction and equivalence are discussed. The interrelations between functional and structural characteristics of semiotic models are investigated. 20 references.

  14. A Lesson on Social Role Theory: An Example of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes M. Dulin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the social role theory, a theory of Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE). Relevance of this topic is briefly discussed, as well as a definition of the theory and its historical background. Empirical research that employs this theory will be discussed.Recommendations will be made for future theory development and implications for social work education will conclude the discussion.

  15. SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrycianne Gonçalves Costa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to apprehend the social representations elaborated by people who have diabetes about the disease. As many as 31 people, with ages ranging from 34 and 76 years old (M = 55.68, SD = 11.6, who responded to a socio-demographic questionnaire and depth interview. The data were submitted to the Alceste software and analyzed using descriptive statistics and lexical analysis. The results showed that the social representations were focused on the ignorance of diabetes, highlighting the surprise of diagnosis, their representations, were also anchored in nutritional and emotional factors which were permeated by negative emotions. Participants who used insulin have ratified responsibilities notions, directed to disease consequences, such as the case of the limbs amputation, those who did not used insulin described the disease linked to the triad of treatment. The results showed the importance of an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on the psychosociological support aimed at developing strategies that can be adopted to control and diabetes care.

  16. Some applications of the representation theory of finite groups. A partial reduction methof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, Arend Jan van

    1972-01-01

    In this thesis we study the representation theory of finite groups and more specifically some aspects of the theory of characters. The technique of symmetrization and/or antisymmetrization of Kronecker powers of representations, which is well-known for the general linear group is applied here to

  17. Social representations elaborated by nurses about climacteric women in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smithanny Barros da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : to understand the social representations elaborated by nurses from the family health strategy concerning the assistance to climacteric women. Methods : qualitative research conducted with 28 nurses. One adopted the reference of procedural approach of the theory of social representations. The interviews were recorded and transcribed completely and processed by the Software of Lexical Analysis of co-occurrence in simple statements of a text, version 4.7. Results: nurses recognize the menopause as a phase of women’s life that needs to be assisted in its entirety, however, they showed difficulty in helping them, as they just carry out the cytological examination collection, request laboratory tests and forward them to a doctor. Conclusion: the climacteric period is a multifaceted phenomenon and the assistance to those people should be systematized from a qualified listening, in an approach that respects its uniqueness and autonomy.

  18. [The work of the intensive care nurse: a study on the social representations structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Iranete Almeida Sousa; da Cruz, Enêde Andrade

    2008-09-01

    This study aims at characterizing the social representations of the nurse in the intensive care unit (ICU) by identifying the central core and the peripheral system. It was carried out in five ICUs from both public and philanthropic teaching, research and assistance hospitals in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). Data were gathered from ninety nurses by means of free evocation from the phrase: nurse's work in an ICU and then processed with the EVOC software. Analysis was performed by building a four-digit chart based on the structural approach to the theory of social representations. Results point out stress, responsibility, integral care and gratification as the core elements. The peripheral system comprised personal and professional attitudes deemed necessary to perform the work. Therefore, it could be concluded that stress and responsible work are relieved by the gratifying feeling of providing integral care, which demands a range of personal and professional attitudes.

  19. Quantum-field theories as representations of a single $^\\ast$-algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Raab, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We show that many well-known quantum field theories emerge as representations of a single $^\\ast$-algebra. These include free quantum field theories in flat and curved space-times, lattice quantum field theories, Wightman quantum field theories, and string theories. We prove that such theories can be approximated on lattices, and we give a rigorous definition of the continuum limit of lattice quantum field theories.

  20. [Social representation of AIDS among students of Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Palacios, Fátima; Leyva-Flores, René

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the social representation of AIDS in a group of high school students aged 16 to 23 years in Mexico City. A non-probabilistic, cross-sectional research was carried out in a public high school in Mexico City. Students of all grades were invited to participate in the study, which took place between 1999 and 2000. Forty-six students participated; 28% male and 72% female. This exploratory field study consisted of three phases, each to address one of three dimensions: cognitive using free association techniques, representational field using semi-structured interviews; and context attitude by means of two discussion groups. In the latter, the information was previously collected for discussion. The cognitive nucleus on AIDS included the association between sex, disease, and death. The representational field of AIDS is constructed around the transmission-prevention unit. Construct elements are virus, contagion, sex, protection, and condom. An ambivalent attitude was identified towards HIV prevention and transmission: "We are only half responsible". Situations such as "rape, blood transfusions, infected syringes" were prominent in the discussion group, deemed beyond their control to prevent transmission, thus explaining the group's ambivalent attitude towards prevention. The usefulness of condoms was associated with prevention of pregnancy rather than with prevention of sexually transmitted infections. The social representation of HIV/AIDS in young students conforms a multidimensional corpus where different elements of scientific order and common sense converge and interact, such as beliefs, myths, taboos, and fears. All of these contribute to construct the meaning of AIDS. The English version of this paper is available at:http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  1. Aspects of a representation of quantum theory in terms of classical probability theory by means of integration in Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, A.

    1981-01-01

    A representation of quantum mechanics in terms of classical probability theory by means of integration in Hilbert space is discussed. This formal hidden-variables representation is analysed in the context of impossibility proofs concerning hidden-variables theories. The structural analogy of this formulation of quantum theory with classical statistical mechanics is used to elucidate the difference between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. (author)

  2. Social behaviour shapes hypothalamic neural ensemble representations of conspecific sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Ryan; Kennedy, Ann; Zelikowsky, Moriel; Grewe, Benjamin F.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Anderson, David J.

    2017-10-01

    All animals possess a repertoire of innate (or instinctive) behaviours, which can be performed without training. Whether such behaviours are mediated by anatomically distinct and/or genetically specified neural pathways remains unknown. Here we report that neural representations within the mouse hypothalamus, that underlie innate social behaviours, are shaped by social experience. Oestrogen receptor 1-expressing (Esr1+) neurons in the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) control mating and fighting in rodents. We used microendoscopy to image Esr1+ neuronal activity in the VMHvl of male mice engaged in these social behaviours. In sexually and socially experienced adult males, divergent and characteristic neural ensembles represented male versus female conspecifics. However, in inexperienced adult males, male and female intruders activated overlapping neuronal populations. Sex-specific neuronal ensembles gradually separated as the mice acquired social and sexual experience. In mice permitted to investigate but not to mount or attack conspecifics, ensemble divergence did not occur. However, 30 minutes of sexual experience with a female was sufficient to promote the separation of male and female ensembles and to induce an attack response 24 h later. These observations uncover an unexpected social experience-dependent component to the formation of hypothalamic neural assemblies controlling innate social behaviours. More generally, they reveal plasticity and dynamic coding in an evolutionarily ancient deep subcortical structure that is traditionally viewed as a ‘hard-wired’ system.

  3. The social representation about handicapped students in inclusive education: the view of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mendonça Vasconcellos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically excluded, handicapped people have been socially included through new standards guided by egalitarian principles. The Social Representation Theory, which studies how the common sense builds “theories” about relevant objects, was used to answer how this situation affects children socially and psychologically in inclusive schools. We use a multimethodological approach with free associations, drawings and focus groups to study the social representations of 39 third and fourth grade students about their handicapped colleagues, all the children being from a state school in Recife, Pernambuco. The data were submitted to content analysis and analysis using the EVOC software, and the results indicate that handicapped children are seen as people limited by a temporary or permanent shortage or disability; they learn differently from others and disrupt classes; they require constant care and protection; they are allowed to join the group, but not to be part of it. The group seems to be outlining the contours of otherness, which shows a representation under construction.

  4. Why social dominance theory has been falsified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John C; Reynolds, Katherine J

    2003-06-01

    Schmitt, Branscombe and Kappen (2003) and Wilson and Lui (2003) present a persuasive series of studies which raise major problems for the conceptualization of social dominance orientation in social dominance theory. Building on these and other data in the literature, this commentary summarizes six fundamental criticisms which can be made of the theory. We conclude that social dominance theory is flawed by conceptual inconsistencies and has been disconfirmed empirically in relation to its key hypothesis of behavioural asymmetry. The reaction of subordinate groups to the social hierarchy is better explained by social identity theory.

  5. Social dominance theory: Its agenda and method

    OpenAIRE

    Sidanius, Jim; Pratto, Felicia; van Laar, Colette; Levin, Shana

    2004-01-01

    The theory has been misconstrued in four primary ways, which are often expressed as the claims of psychological reductionism, conceptual redundancy, biological reductionism, and hierarchy justification. This paper addresses these claims and suggests how social dominance theory builds on and moves beyond social identity theory and system justification theor.

  6. Critical Social Theories. 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Praised for its clarity and accessibility, this fully updated edition of "Critical Social Theories" presents a comprehensive analysis of leading social and cultural theories today. Diverse perspectives are addressed from feminism and cultural studies to postmodernism and critical theory. Written accessibly for students and faculty, the second…

  7. Reflections on History, Education, and Social Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    Historians need social theories to conduct their research whether they are acknowledged or not. Positivist social theories underpinned the professionalization of the writing of history as well as the establishment of the social sciences as "disciplines," in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. August Comte's "science of society" and…

  8. Sociological Theory and Social Reality [ENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN DÍEZ NICOLÁS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pretends to demonstrate the complementary relations between three relatively recent sociological theories, each one of which explains a different aspect of the same social object: the origin, diffusion and change of social and cultural values, aiming at demonstrating that there is not such a thing as a sociological theory that explains all, but rather diverse theories that offer partial explanations of social reality. To that effect, and on the basis of the necessary relationship between theory and research, three different theories are evaluated separately: Hawley?s and Duncan?s theory of the social ecosystem, Galtung?s centre-periphery theory, and Inglehart?s theory of values? change in modern-industrial societies, offering theoretical and empirical evidence of their complementary relations, based on Spanish and international data. Social ecosystem and centre-periphery theories show a high level of generalization (through space and time and a high level of abstraction, though both can easily operationalize their main concepts through valid and reliable indicators. The theory of values? change, however, though showing a high level of generalization, is limited in time to the historical period after World War II, and also shows a high level of abstraction. Centre-periphery theory and values? change theory use individual and collective units of analysis, but social ecosystem theory only uses collective units, by definition. The three theories lead to the conclusion that ?security? values will gain a growing importance in present societies.

  9. The dynamical Yang-Baxter equation, representation theory, and quantum integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    The text is based on an established graduate course given at MIT that provides an introduction to the theory of the dynamical Yang-Baxter equation and its applications, which is an important area in representation theory and quantum groups. The book, which contains many detailed proofs and explicit calculations, will be accessible to graduate students of mathematics, who are familiar with the basics of representation theory of semisimple Lie algebras.

  10. Therapeutic Theory and Social Context: A Social Constructionist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gordon

    1997-01-01

    Explores the foundation of therapeutic theory from the perspective of social constructionism. Proposes a theoretical description of the interaction between an individual and the social context in the formation of therapeutic theory. Then explores this description in relation to the early life and subsequent therapeutic theory of Carl Rogers. (RJM)

  11. [The social representation that adolescents from Jalisco, Mexico have of early detection of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Curiel, Amparo; Villaseñor Farías, Martha; Lidia Nuño Gutiérrez, Bertha; Rodríguez Carlos, Aída Araceli; Salas González, Efraín; López López, José Luis

    2014-10-01

    To describe the social representation that adolescents from Jalisco, Mexico, have of early detection of breast cancer. Qualitative cross, analytical interpretative and based on the theory of social representations. Non-probability sampling. Contact schools in basic education level of 7municipalities of the State of Jalisco, Mexico, through various government and educational institutions. A hundred thirty five schooled adolescents, men and women. Interview with 12 focus group 8-12participants and 1 with 18participants. The interviews were transcribed in Atlas Ti program version 4.1 for a semiotic analysis to identify components of social representation. The precocious detection linked itself to the decrease of deaths for cancer of breast, long treatments and mastectomy, but little coverage was perceived to the mammary health of the teenager. They refer as limiter elements of the precocious detection the aspects of kind, psychological and of access to the information and services of health; since facilitators there was mentioned the transition of the limiter elements to facilitators. A favorable panorama appears on the level of awareness of the teenagers on his mammary health, identifying as a sector highly sensitive to the information about cancer of breast and with disposition to effect actions of early detection; there are identified as important challenge the generation of campaigns, educational materials and spaces of health focused on the teenager. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Focusing on Presentation Instead of Representation: Perspectives on Representational and Non-Representational Language-Games for Educational History and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, Lynn; Smeyers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Debates in science seem to depend on referential language-games, but in other senses they do not. This article addresses non-representational theory. It is a branch of newer approaches to cultural geography that strive to get a handle on spatial relationships not by representing them, but rather by presenting them. In this case, present connotes…

  13. Reference Frame Fields based on Quantum Theory Representations of Real and Complex Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Benioff, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A quantum theory representations of real (R) and complex (C) numbers is given that is based on states of single, finite strings of qukits for any base k > 1. Both unary representations and the possibility that qukits with k a prime number are elementary and the rest composite are discussed. Cauchy sequences of qukit string states are defined from the arithmetic properties. The representations of R and C, as equivalence classes of these sequences, differ from classical kit string state represe...

  14. Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

  15. Characterizing representational learning: A combined simulation and tutorial on perturbation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Kohnle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing, constructing, and translating between graphical, pictorial, and mathematical representations of physics ideas and reasoning flexibly through them (“representational competence” is a key characteristic of expertise in physics but is a challenge for learners to develop. Interactive computer simulations and University of Washington style tutorials both have affordances to support representational learning. This article describes work to characterize students’ spontaneous use of representations before and after working with a combined simulation and tutorial on first-order energy corrections in the context of quantum-mechanical time-independent perturbation theory. Data were collected from two institutions using pre-, mid-, and post-tests to assess short- and long-term gains. A representational competence level framework was adapted to devise level descriptors for the assessment items. The results indicate an increase in the number of representations used by students and the consistency between them following the combined simulation tutorial. The distributions of representational competence levels suggest a shift from perceptual to semantic use of representations based on their underlying meaning. In terms of activity design, this study illustrates the need to support students in making sense of the representations shown in a simulation and in learning to choose the most appropriate representation for a given task. In terms of characterizing representational abilities, this study illustrates the usefulness of a framework focusing on perceptual, syntactic, and semantic use of representations.

  16. Characterizing representational learning: A combined simulation and tutorial on perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje; Passante, Gina

    2017-12-01

    Analyzing, constructing, and translating between graphical, pictorial, and mathematical representations of physics ideas and reasoning flexibly through them ("representational competence") is a key characteristic of expertise in physics but is a challenge for learners to develop. Interactive computer simulations and University of Washington style tutorials both have affordances to support representational learning. This article describes work to characterize students' spontaneous use of representations before and after working with a combined simulation and tutorial on first-order energy corrections in the context of quantum-mechanical time-independent perturbation theory. Data were collected from two institutions using pre-, mid-, and post-tests to assess short- and long-term gains. A representational competence level framework was adapted to devise level descriptors for the assessment items. The results indicate an increase in the number of representations used by students and the consistency between them following the combined simulation tutorial. The distributions of representational competence levels suggest a shift from perceptual to semantic use of representations based on their underlying meaning. In terms of activity design, this study illustrates the need to support students in making sense of the representations shown in a simulation and in learning to choose the most appropriate representation for a given task. In terms of characterizing representational abilities, this study illustrates the usefulness of a framework focusing on perceptual, syntactic, and semantic use of representations.

  17. Contour integral representations for the characters of rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, S.; Panda, S.; Sen, A.

    1989-01-01

    We propose simple Feigin-Fuchs contour integral representations for the characters of a large class of rational conformal field theories. These include the A, D and E series SU(2) WZW theories, the A and D series c<1 minimal theories, and the k=1 SU(N) WZW theories. All these theories are characterized by the absence of the zeroes in the wronskian determinant of the characters in the interior of moduli space. This proposal is verified by several calculations. (orig.)

  18. The Schrödinger representation and its relation to the holomorphic representation in linear and affine field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeckl, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We establish a precise isomorphism between the Schrödinger representation and the holomorphic representation in linear and affine field theory. In the linear case, this isomorphism is induced by a one-to-one correspondence between complex structures and Schrödinger vacua. In the affine case we obtain similar results, with the role of the vacuum now taken by a whole family of coherent states. In order to establish these results we exhibit a rigorous construction of the Schrödinger representation and use a suitable generalization of the Segal-Bargmann transform. Our construction is based on geometric quantization and applies to any real polarization and its pairing with any Kähler polarization.

  19. Geometric representation of the generator of duality in massless and massive p-form field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, Ernesto; Martinez, Yisely; Leal, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We study the invariance under duality transformations in massless and massive p-form field theories and obtain the Noether generators of the infinitesimal transformations that correspond to this symmetry. These generators can be realized in geometrical representations that generalize the loop representation of the Maxwell field, allowing for a geometrical interpretation which is studied.

  20. Numerical Representations and User Behaviour in Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöklint, Mimmi; Constantiou, Ioanna; Trier, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The new technological enhancements and the accessibility to varieties of online applications, enable users to collect personal data and perform self-evaluation through test, comparison and experimentation. The sparked interest in numbers and numbers as self-representative visualisations is promin......The new technological enhancements and the accessibility to varieties of online applications, enable users to collect personal data and perform self-evaluation through test, comparison and experimentation. The sparked interest in numbers and numbers as self-representative visualisations...... theoretical pillars: self-determination theory, heuristic decision making and behavioural economics. A discussion departs from these convictions to investigate user reactions and behaviour when faced with numerical representations in the SNS....

  1. Efectos del Framing y representaciones sociales de epidemias sanitarias: El Caso de la Gripe A (Framing effects and social representations of health epidemics: The case of influenza A )

    OpenAIRE

    Nahia Idoyaga; José Francisco Valencia; Lorena Gil de Montes; Garbiñe Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed how the mass media covered the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic and its influence on the social representation of the disease. Framing theory and a model of collective symbolic coping were both used to explain the influence of the mass media on social representation. The study was based on analyzing information on the influenza A pandemic provided by national newspapers in Mexico and Spain between 2009 and 2010. The results show that that the development of the crisis affected ...

  2. Social representations of nutrition: proposal production of teaching materials chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ventura Fonseca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the stages of production of didactic material of Chemistry (thematic unit on nutrition, and the results of its application in a classroom of basic education. The research was developed in a public school in Rio Grande do Sul, where the researcher acted exploring their own teaching practice, with reference to the records held in his field journal and written productions of the learners. The work is focused on the research, through a questionnaire, social representations of the students, who guided the topics to be addressed in the thematic unit as well as the effects of this focus on the dynamics of teaching. In addition, other actions have been implemented, such as the analysis of the relationship between the subject of nutrition and chemical knowledge presented by textbooks of Chemistry, the research field of Education in Chemistry / Science and the guiding documents of high school. It was found that, considered to be the organization of representations of students in an educational environment problem-solving, the ability to interact with the same scientific concepts was enhanced, facilitating learning processes.

  3. Assemblies, Referendums or Consultations? Social Representations of Citizen Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Ganuza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some studies, Spanish citizens want more participatory processes. There are pro-participatory groups (the young, non-voters, left-wing voters, residents in mid-sized cities, etc., while other groups are less enthusiastic (right-wing voters. In this study we address social representations of participatory democracy and how they are embedded in the political understandings of different groups. The study is based on 16 focus-groups conducted between 2011 and 2013 in Spain. We identify four major visions among the participants: those who prefer a complex deliberative system for citizen participation, those who want more referenda and other expressive channels, those who think it is an unattainable reform, and those who reject these types of political processes.

  4. Social Comparison of Pay and Inequity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Ben

    Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…

  5. A new quantum representation for canonical gravity and SU(2) Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loll, R.

    1990-04-01

    Starting from Rovelli-Smolin's infinite-dimensional graded Poisson-bracket algebra of loop variables, we propose a new way of constructing a corresponding quantum representation. After eliminating certain quadratic constraints, we 'integrate' an infinite-dimensional subalgebra of loop variables, using a formal group law expansion. With the help of techniques from the representation theory of semidirect-product groups, we find an exact quantum representation of the full classical Poisson-bracket algebra of loop variables, without any higher-order correction terms. This opens new ways of tackling the quantum dynamics for both canonical gravity and Yang-Mills theory. (orig.)

  6. A new quantum representation for canonical gravity and SU(2) Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loll, R.

    1991-01-01

    Starting from Rovelli-Smolin's infinite-dimensional graded Poisson-bracket algebra of loop variables, we propose a new way of constructing a corresponding quantum representation. After eliminating certain quadratic constraints, we 'integrate' an infinite-dimensional subalgebra of loop variables, using a formal group law expansion. With the help of techniques from the representation theory of semidirect-product groups, we find an exact quantum representation of the full classical Poisson-bracket algebra of loop variables, without any higher-order correction terms. This opens new ways of tackling the quantum dynamics for both canonical gravity and Yang-Mills theory. (orig.)

  7. Operators and representation theory canonical models for algebras of operators arising in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Palle E T

    1987-01-01

    Historically, operator theory and representation theory both originated with the advent of quantum mechanics. The interplay between the subjects has been and still is active in a variety of areas.This volume focuses on representations of the universal enveloping algebra, covariant representations in general, and infinite-dimensional Lie algebras in particular. It also provides new applications of recent results on integrability of finite-dimensional Lie algebras. As a central theme, it is shown that a number of recent developments in operator algebras may be handled in a particularly e

  8. From needs to goals and representations: Foundations for a unified theory of motivation, personality, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Carol S

    2017-11-01

    Drawing on both classic and current approaches, I propose a theory that integrates motivation, personality, and development within one framework, using a common set of principles and mechanisms. The theory begins by specifying basic needs and by suggesting how, as people pursue need-fulfilling goals, they build mental representations of their experiences (beliefs, representations of emotions, and representations of action tendencies). I then show how these needs, goals, and representations can serve as the basis of both motivation and personality, and can help to integrate disparate views of personality. The article builds on this framework to provide a new perspective on development, particularly on the forces that propel development and the roles of nature and nurture. I argue throughout that the focus on representations provides an important entry point for change and growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Social representations and information security of children and adolescents: the point of view of teachers (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovina I.B.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of attention of the authors is the consideration of information security of children and adolescents as the object of social representations. Discusses the need for the theory of social representations to develop prophylactic and preventive programs in the field of information security of children and adolescents, in particular, says that the effectiveness of prevention and preventive programs is determined by how this information is understood by the target group, through what filters it passes. Briefly outlines the main provisions of the theory of social representations, discusses the functions of social representations, the mechanism of action ideas. Analyzed in a few studies, the focus of which was the presentation on new technologies, particularly mobile phones and the Internet. Presents the results of a series of studies devoted to the study of information security of children and adolescents, including the results of the first part of a research project dedicated to the analysis of how parents and teachers understand information security and what strategies to protect children and adolescents from dangerous information they are ready to use.

  10. Social representations of climate change in Swedish lay focus groups: local or distant, gradual or catastrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.

  11. A sociological stance on fatigue and tiredness: Social inequalities, norms and representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriol, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is complex, representing simultaneously a physiological, psychological and social phenomenon. The sociological approach attempts to understand the experience of fatigue and its characterization at diverse periods and in various social contexts. After giving a sociological history of different forms of fatigue through the ages (acedia, melancholy, neurasthenia, chronic fatigue syndrome, etc.), this article proposes a social epidemiology of fatigue in the current period. Objectification of working and living conditions allows us to illustrate social inequalities in fatigue and exhaustion, but seems to contradict dominant social representations of fatigue today. It invites a critical discussion of contemporary theories of fatigue (such those of Alain Ehrenberg or Byung-Chul Han), which consider that fatigue is a condition of modern man, overwhelmed by his freedom. More modestly, analysis of the fatigue presented here rests on the capacity to be able to find a good balance between too much investment in work or life (which is exhausting) and not enough investment (which leads to boredom and lack of self-fulfillment). This balance depends on fragile and specific social norms in different professional or social circles and cannot be defined a priori. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Unbounded representations of symmetry groups in gauge quantum field theory. II. Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkel, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Within the gauge quantum field theory of the Wightman--Garding type, the integration of representations of Lie algebras is investigated. By means of the covariance condition (substitution rules) for the basic fields, it is shown that a form skew-symmetric representation of a Lie algebra can be integrated to a form isometric and in general unbounded representation of the universal covering group of a corresponding Lie group provided the conditions (Nelson, Sternheimer, etc.), which are well known for the case of Hilbert or Banach representations, hold. If a form isometric representation leaves the subspace from which the physical Hilbert space is obtained via factorization and completion invariant, then the same is proved to be true for its differential. Conversely, a necessary and sufficient condition is derived for the transmission of the invariance of this subspace under a form skew-symmetric representation of a Lie algebra to its integral

  13. The Social Making of Educational Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine; Sandbjerg Hansen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    in power-knowledge constellations. On the backcloth of analyses of the ontology and epistemology operating in these approaches we conclude that they all ignore the systematic study of the social context in which ideas and theories are conceived and we argue for a social space and social history approach...

  14. The social making of educational theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine; Hansen, Christian Sandbjerg

    in power-knowledge constellations. On the backcloth of analyses of the ontology and epistemology operating in these approaches we conclude that they all ignore the systematic study of the social context in which ideas and theories are conceived and we argue for a social space and social history approach...

  15. Social representations and choice energy: a matter of education?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida; Ayllon, Rafaella Menezes, E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The development and use of Nuclear Energy in the history of mankind's many different energy matrixes is one of the most interesting. From the scientific standpoint, it was most definitely a success, however, from the political and public opinion standpoint, not so much. From its discovery until now, the risk perception of this power source has varied greatly in the opinion of the public and even in the scientific community in a direct relationship with the structuring and restructuring of the Social Representations (SR) of the population over time. Is it possible for education to convey the social object 'Nuclear Energy' in a less negative way? Or to prevent emotional reactions of more aversion and developing unfavorable attitudes towards this technology? What is the influence of education on these SRs? With this in mind, this study aims at analyzing the restructuring of the SRs in this area by interviewing students of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), future professors, in order to better understand the constructed SRs and, therefore, point to important information for the rethinking of practices for scientific and learning disclosure. The methodology used was free word association technique, which allows us to obtain the frequency in which each element was retrieved and the average order of retrievals, as well as a questionnaire with close-ended questions. (author)

  16. Social representations and choice energy: a matter of education?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida; Ayllon, Rafaella Menezes; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The development and use of Nuclear Energy in the history of mankind's many different energy matrixes is one of the most interesting. From the scientific standpoint, it was most definitely a success, however, from the political and public opinion standpoint, not so much. From its discovery until now, the risk perception of this power source has varied greatly in the opinion of the public and even in the scientific community in a direct relationship with the structuring and restructuring of the Social Representations (SR) of the population over time. Is it possible for education to convey the social object 'Nuclear Energy' in a less negative way? Or to prevent emotional reactions of more aversion and developing unfavorable attitudes towards this technology? What is the influence of education on these SRs? With this in mind, this study aims at analyzing the restructuring of the SRs in this area by interviewing students of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), future professors, in order to better understand the constructed SRs and, therefore, point to important information for the rethinking of practices for scientific and learning disclosure. The methodology used was free word association technique, which allows us to obtain the frequency in which each element was retrieved and the average order of retrievals, as well as a questionnaire with close-ended questions. (author)

  17. Social representations of nurses about professional autonomy and the use of technologies in the care of patients with wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érick Igor dos Santos

    Full Text Available Objective.To identify the social representations by nurses about professional autonomy in the care of patients with wounds and analyze their interfaces with the constant incorporation of technologies in this care. Methods. This is a qualitative research, outlined from the Theory and method of social representations in its procedural approach and performed with 31 nurses. The interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis software NVivo instrumentalized by 10. Results. The representational content on autonomy is linked mainly to the level of knowledge, power of decision, vocational training and institutional factors. The subjects are positioned favorably to the incorporation of care technologies in professional practice, which involves elements such as cost-effective structure, training, and other resources. Conclusion. It is concluded that autonomy is configured as a prerequisite for the full use of technology and technology is configured as a facilitator for nurses to become more autonomous

  18. Social representations of nurses about professional autonomy and the use of technologies in the care of patients with wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Érick Igor; Grativol Aguiar Dias de Oliveira, Jéssica

    2016-06-01

    To identify the social representations by nurses about professional autonomy in the care of patients with wounds and analyze their interfaces with the constant incorporation of technologies in this care. This is a qualitative research, outlined from the Theory and method of social representations in its procedural approach and performed with 31 nurses. The interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis software NVivo instrumentalized by 10. The representational content on autonomy is linked mainly to the level of knowledge, power of decision, vocational training and institutional factors. The subjects are positioned favorably to the incorporation of care technologies in professional practice, which involves elements such as cost-effective structure, training, and other resources. It is concluded that autonomy is configured as a prerequisite for the full use of technology and technology is configured as a facilitator for nurses to become more autonomous.

  19. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge—as an ontological and/or aesthetic category—has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world. PMID:26290654

  20. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-04-22

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge-as an ontological and/or aesthetic category-has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world.

  1. Building the boundaries of a science: First representations of Italian social psychology between 1875 and 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensales, Gilda; Areni, Alessandra; Del Secco, Alessandra

    2011-11-01

    The present study embraces the critical traditions of "New History" and of social representations theory articulated with the mainstream historiographical tradition of a bibliometric approach. The historical analysis deals with the early representations of Italian social psychology articulated and disseminated by some of the main Italian scientific-cultural and philosophical journals. We examined seven journals published between 1875 and 1954, and gathered 2,030 texts dealing with the various forms of social and collective psychology. We have applied a grid of content analysis whose data have been transcribed to a numerical file. At the same time, we have created a textual file containing the titles of the contributions as well as the names of the authors and scholars reviewed. The two files have been processed by SPAD-T for a correspondence analysis in which both lexical data and category variables have been considered as active variables. Through the scree-test, two factors that explain 18.90% of the variance have been singled out. Their combination has produced a factorial plan able to highlight three distinct areas differently characterized from journals and years. The results are also discussed with regard to the contextual historical frame.

  2. Social Representations of Social Media Users toward Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ozdemir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While the Syrian refugees crisis has increasingly continued its effect in both Turkey and other neighboring countries and European countries for more than five years, refugees do not adapt themselves to society in country of asylum, and are exposed to social exclusion. The purpose of the study is to explore social representations of social media users toward Syrian refugees in Turkey with a qualitative approach; because social representations may indicate the problems in the integration process of Syrian refugees and Turkish society, and the reasons of social exclusion toward Syrian refugees. Accordingly 98 entries, which were taken from frequently used social dictionaries in Turkey, were evaluated by researchers and seven thematic units were formed. Thematic units reflect (i perceived negative features of Syrian refugees, (ii perceived threats in Turkey due to Syrian refugees, (iii criticisms toward Syrian refugees policy of Turkish government, (iv positive attitudes toward Syrian refugees, (v perceived political importance of Syrian refugees, (vi proposed solutions toward perceived Syrian refugees problem, and (vii other criticisms toward Syrian refugees issue. Findings provide useful information which can be used to enable the social adaptation of Syrian refugees into Turkish society

  3. Classification of compactified su( N c ) gauge theories with fermions in all representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Vincent-Genod, Loïc

    2017-12-01

    We classify su( N c ) gauge theories on R^3× S^1 with massless fermions in higher representations obeying periodic boundary conditions along S^1 . In particular, we single out the class of theories that is asymptotically free and weakly coupled in the infrared, and therefore, is amenable to semi-classical treatment. Our study is conducted by carefully identifying the vacua inside the affine Weyl chamber using Verma bases and Frobenius formula techniques. Theories with fermions in pure representations are generally strongly coupled. The only exceptions are the four-index symmetric representation of su(2) and adjoint representation of su( N c ). However, we find a plethora of admissible theories with fermions in mixed representations. A sub-class of these theories have degenerate perturbative vacua separated by domain walls. In particular, su( N c ) theories with fermions in the mixed representations adjoint⊕fundamental and adjoint⊕two-index symmetric admit degenerate vacua that spontaneously break the parity P , charge conjugation C , and time reversal T symmetries. These are the first examples of strictly weakly coupled gauge theories on R^3× S^1 with spontaneously broken C , P , and T symmetries. We also compute the fermion zero modes in the background of monopole-instantons. The monopoles and their composites (topological molecules) proliferate in the vacuum leading to the confinement of electric charges. Interestingly enough, some theories have also accidental degenerate vacua, which are not related by any symmetry. These vacua admit different numbers of fermionic zero modes, and hence, different kinds of topological molecules. The lack of symmetry, however, indicates that such degeneracy might be lifted by higher order corrections. Finally, we study the general phase structure of adjoint⊕fundamental theories in the small circle and decompactification limits.

  4. THREE THEORIES OF COGNITIVE REPRESENTATION AND CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING TRAINING EFFECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.; Kingma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of cognitive representation is the main theme of the three classic theories on how children learn new concepts (Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky). However, these theories do not agree on evaluation standards for training effectiveness. According to Piaget, it is only when stringent criteria

  5. Representation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    ...). The reason this is so is due to hierarchies that we take for granted. By hierarchies I mean that there is a layer of representation of us as individuals, as military professional, as members of a military unit and as citizens of an entire nation...

  6. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Nilba Lima; de Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara

    2013-01-01

    To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressure during pregnancy, prematurity and NICU. We obtained 1007 evocations, distributed as follows: high blood pressure during pregnancy (335) prematurity (333) and NICU (339). These constituted three thematic units: representation of HDPs, prematurity and the NICU. The categories death and negative aspects were inherent to the three units analyzed, followed by coping strategies and needs for care present in HDPs and prematurity. The study had death as its central nucleus, and highlighted the subjective aspects present in the high risk pregnancy and postpartum cycle. It is hoped that this research will contribute to qualifying nursing care for women confronting the problem of HDPs, so that they can cope with less impacts from the adverse effects of high risk pregnancy and birth.

  7. Social Learning, Social Control, and Strain Theories: A Formalization of Micro-level Criminological Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Kristopher Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation proposes theoretical formalization as a way of enhancing theory development within criminology. Differential association, social learning, social control, and general strain theories are formalized in order to identify assumptions of human nature, key theoretical concepts, theoretical knowledge claims, and scope conditions. The resulting formalization allows greater comparability between theories in terms of explanatory power, and additionally provides insights into integrat...

  8. Representaciones sociales a futuro en la publicidad / Future social representations in advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Hellín

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo analizamos las representaciones sociales a futuro construidas en la publicidad.Más específicamente, cómo el modo de presentar u omitir a los participantes y contextos produce el borramiento en el plano simbólico de las relaciones sociales que sustentan el modo de vida implicado en los mensajes publicitarios. Para el análisis tomaremos la noción de análisis multimodal propuesta por Kress y Van Leeuwen (2001. Las representaciones resultantes, parapersuadirnos, acentúan con fuerza los aspectos individuales borrando la inscripción social de toda acción individual. ABSTRACT: This article's purpose is the study of future social representations built in graphic advertising. More specically, how the way participants and contexts are shown produces the erasure in the symbolic plane of the social relations that ground the lifestyle implied by those messages. We will use the multimodal analysis developed by Kress & Van Leeuwen(2001. The outcoming representations, in order to persuade us, heavily stress the individual aspects, erasing the social inscription of any individual action.

  9. Development and application of social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V; Archbold, J

    This article traces the development of social learning theory over the last 30 years, relating the developments to clinical nursing practice. Particular attention is focused on the contribution of Albert Bandura, the American psychologist, and his work on modelling.

  10. Theory for the Public Good? Social Capital Theory in Social Work Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryAnn Overcamp-Martini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available As a concept, social capital is both relatively recent and highly controversial. This analysis overviews the history of social capital theory and the three main theoretical frameworks related to the concept. The components of social capital are discussed, as well as the controversy over its conceptualization. A review of recent studies is provided, particularly in the relationship between social capital and mental health. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the heuristic usefulness of social capital theory in the human behavior and social environment sequence in social work education, opening discourse in civic engagement and participation, collectivity, and the value of social networking.

  11. Human and peoples' rights: social representations among Cameroonian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Kassea, Raul; Sakki, Inari

    2009-12-01

    Social representations of human and peoples' rights were studied among Cameroonian university students (N = 666) with a questionnaire based on the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and Duties. The respondents were asked how important and how well realized they regarded the 39 human and peoples' rights to be. A 13-factor model provided the best fit with Cameroonian students' perceptions of human and peoples' rights. Taken as a whole, our results are in line with previous quantitative studies on human rights, confirming structural similarity but also country-specific variation in the aggregation of specific rights. Moreover, our data showed that Cameroonian students value human and peoples' rights highly (M = 6.18), whereas their fulfillment is not regarded as highly (M = 5.09). Same law for all, equality and freedom, and right to work and living were highly appreciated but lowly realized rights. Higher than average in importance and realization were right to education and self-fulfillment, right to marriage and property, peoples' social and political basic rights and right to life and safety. Low in importance and realization were peoples' right to their country's natural resources and independence, right to meetings, and right to express opinion. Women appreciated the rights more than men and thought of their rights as better realized compared to men. We suggest that when women say that their rights are better fulfilled than men do, it is in comparison with the older generation, who are still very dependent on men. Nowadays, thanks to education and urbanization, young women have wider choices or opportunities for marriage and jobs. Men may feel frustrated in the context of political liberalization because the freedoms are more theoretical than fulfilled; the economic crises and cultural changes have hindered their economic domination and their prerogatives.

  12. The Weyl approach to the representation theory of reflection equation algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saponov, P A

    2004-01-01

    The present paper deals with the representation theory of reflection equation algebra, connected to a Hecke type R-matrix. Up to some reasonable additional conditions, the R-matrix is arbitrary (not necessary originating from quantum groups). We suggest a universal method for constructing finite dimensional irreducible representations in the framework of the Weyl approach well known in the representation theory of classical Lie groups and algebras. With this method a series of irreducible modules is constructed. The modules are parametrized by Young diagrams. The spectrum of central elements s k Tr q L k is calculated in the single-row and single-column representations. A rule for the decomposition of the tensor product of modules into a direct sum of irreducible components is also suggested

  13. Sum-over-histories representation for the causal Green function of free scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1993-10-01

    A set of Green functions G α (x-y), α element of [0, 2π], for free scalar field theory is introduced, varying between the Hadamard Green function Δ 1 (x-y) triple bond 0vertical stroke {φ(x), φ(y)}vertical stroke 0> and the causal Green function G π (x-y)=iΔ(x-y) triple bond [φ(x), φ(y)]. For every α element of [0, 2π] a path-integral representation for G α is obtained both in the configuration space and in the phase space of the classical relativistic particle. Especially setting α=π a sum-over-histories representation for the causal Green function is obtained. Furthermore using BRST theory an alternative path-integral representation for G α is presented. From these path integral representations the composition laws for the G α 's are derived using a modified path decomposition expansion. (orig.)

  14. Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    two weeks to arrive. Source: http://beergame.mit.edu/ Permission Granted – MIT Supply Chain Forum 2005 Professor Sterman –Sloan School of...Management - MITSource: http://web.mit.edu/jsterman/www/ SDG /beergame.html Rules of Engagement The MIT Beer Game Simulation 04-04 Slide Number 10 Professor...Sterman –Sloan School of Management - MITSource: http://web.mit.edu/jsterman/www/ SDG /beergame.html What is the Significance of Representation

  15. Social Representations of Trust Among Teachers and Principals in Cameroonian, Indian, and Finnish Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maija Pirttilä-Backman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative studies on trust often attempt to measure levels of trust, while neglecting local meanings of trust. These studies are usually based on Eurocentric models in Western cultures, though the models may have limited ecological validity. As a result, this study sought to investigate trust as locally produced structures and practices in Cameroon, Finland and India. In each country, teachers and principals were interviewed individually, while nineteen focus groups among teachers were also conducted (N = 111. The theory of social representations provides the methodological framework for the study. Our analyses suggest that in Cameroon understandings of trust were anchored in complementarity, in Finland in contracts, and in India in social hierarchies. We suggest that the Cameroonian representations were more fluid than in the other two countries, which may be due in part to the working arrangements there. In all of the national contexts, numerous metaphors and imagery helped to solidify trust as phenomena built in everyday practices. Cooperation was an important element in the data from all of the country contexts, although it had particular and varying meanings in each. Finally, we interpret culturally embedded dichotomies, or themata, that participants draw upon to imbue workplace trust with meaning. We discuss the analyses and interpretations in terms of local practices and the concrete conditions in which the participants worked.

  16. Symmetry representation theory and its applications in honor of Nolan R. Wallach

    CERN Document Server

    Hunziker, Markus; Willenbring, Jeb

    2014-01-01

    Symmetry has served as an organizing principle in Nolan R. Wallach's fundamental contributions to representation theory, harmonic analysis, algebraic geometry, combinatorics, number theory, differential equations, Riemannian geometry, ring theory, and quantum information theory. This volume is a collection of 19 invited articles that pay tribute to the breadth and depth of Wallach's work. The mostly expository articles are written by distinguished mathematicians and contain sufficient preliminary material so as to reach the widest possible audience. Graduate students, mathematicians, and physicists interested in representation theory and its applications will find many gems in this volume that have not appeared in print elsewhere. Contributors:   D. Barbasch K. Baur M. Bhargava B. Casselman D. Ciubotaru M. Colarusso T. J. Enright S. Evens W. T. Gan A. M. Garsia R. Gomez G. Gour B. H. Gross G. Han P. E. Harris J. Hong R. E. Howe     M. Hunziker B. Kostant H. Kraft R. J. Miatello L. Ni W. A. Pruett G. W. Sch...

  17. Towards a Theory of Socially Shared Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increased sharing of consumptive practices, experiences and evaluations on social media platforms. Such socially shared consumption can range from electronic word-of-mouth to formal online reviews as well as automated product mentions facilitated by social media...... understanding and analysing the growing phenomenon of consumers’ social sharing of consumption on social media platforms The taxonomy consists of five dimensions of socially shared consumption: Phase, Automation, Formality, Expressiveness, and Sentiment. The primary contributions of this research...... applications Based on a review of extant emerging literature on this topic as well as of literature on relevant topics such as social influence, online reviews, theories of the extended self and conspicuous consumption, this paper proposes a new concept, “socially shared consumption” and a taxonomy for better...

  18. Social-dental and social representation aspects of dental caries in the mother-child context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Brger Fadel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate social and dental maternal characteristics related to the child’s caries experience and to verify the social representation of mothers with regard to the oral health-illness process. Methods: The sample consisted of 272 pairs of mothers and children who attending public institutions of early childhood education in Ponta Grossa city. The information of interest was collected through a structured, oral clinical examination and semi-structured interview. The test used for statistical analysis was a chi-square for independence. Results: The results confirmed the association between the mothers’ need for treatment and the children’s dental caries experience as well as their relationship with socio-economic variables. Education, income, number of children and frequency of visits to the dentist were the variables that showed statistical significance. Conclusion: Unfavorable maternal social inclusion, the number of children the mother has, their need for dental treatment and their frequency of visits to the dentist were associated with the children’s dental caries experience. Moreover, it appears that the mother’s social representations was an important tool for health information, and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.

  19. How the public engages with global warming: A social representations approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Joffe, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilises social representations theory to explore common sense conceptualisations of global warming risk using an in-depth, qualitative methodology. Fifty-six members of a British, London-based 2008 public were initially asked to draw or write four spontaneous "first thoughts or feelings" about global warming. These were then explored via an open-ended, exploratory interview. The analysis revealed that first thoughts, either drawn or written, often mirrored the images used by the British press to depict global warming visually. Thus in terms of media framings, it was their visual rather than their textual content that was spontaneously available for their audiences. Furthermore, an in-depth exploration of interview data revealed that global warming was structured around three themata: self/other, natural/unnatural and certainty/uncertainty, reflecting the complex and often contradictory nature of common sense thinking in relation to risk issues.

  20. Optimizing Sparse Representations of Kinetic Distributions via Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Information Theory Robert Martin and Daniel Eckhardt Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRS 1 Ara Drive Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7013 Air Force...momentum, energy, and physical entropy. N/A Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified SAR 7 Robert Martin N/A Research in Industrial Projects for Students...Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 382 – 405, 1998. [7] R. S. Martin , H. Le, D. L. Bilyeu, and S. Gildea, “Plasma model V&V of

  1. Spectroscopy of SU(4) composite Higgs theory with two distinct fermion representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, Venkitesh; DeGrand, Thomas; Golterman, Maarten; Hackett, Daniel C.; Jay, William I.; Neil, Ethan T.; Shamir, Yigal; Svetitsky, Benjamin

    2018-04-01

    We have simulated the SU(4) lattice gauge theory coupled to dynamical fermions in the fundamental and two-index antisymmetric (sextet) representations simultaneously. Such theories arise naturally in the context of composite Higgs models that include a partially composite top quark. We describe the low-lying meson spectrum of the theory and fit the pseudoscalar masses and decay constants to chiral perturbation theory. We infer as well the mass and decay constant of the Goldstone boson corresponding to the nonanomalous U(1) symmetry of the model. Our results are broadly consistent with large-Nc scaling and vector-meson dominance.

  2. Social representations of elderly female participants in an educational training program regarding active aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Marconi Gerth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous strategies have been employed as a means to promote health to the older population. It is believed that information is the primary tool in achieving this goal. Therefore, we used the text “Active aging: a policy framework” as a reference point. Objective: To identify the social representation of a group of elderly women who underwent educational training regarding active aging and to assess their response to this methodological approach, in order to develop an actual educational program for the elderly for future use. Method: This training was performed during six meetings, realized twice a week for one hour each day, which utilized the popular education as the pedagogic theory. The group assessed in this study was composed of 10 elderly women, between 60 and 80 years of age, who attended a community exercise program offered by the city of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained during individual semi-structured interviews. Since this trial consists of a transversal, exploratory, and qualitative study, data were organized and analyzed according to the theoretical reference discourse of collective subject, based on the theory of social representation and analysis of content. Results: The methodology was well accepted by the participants, who responded positively to the method and believed to have learned new information regarding the topics covered. New knowledge was constructed by exchanging ideas and experiences. The method favors networking, strengthens friendship bonds, stimulates physical activity, and promotes healthy habits. Conclusion: The methodology was appropriate for the population studied. Participants really enjoyed the program and recommend that other people attend it.

  3. The graph representation approach to topological field theory in 2 + 1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.P.

    1991-02-01

    An alternative definition of topological quantum field theory in 2+1 dimensions is discussed. The fundamental objects in this approach are not gauge fields as in the usual approach, but non-local observables associated with graphs. The classical theory of graphs is defined by postulating a simple diagrammatic rule for computing the Poisson bracket of any two graphs. The theory is quantized by exhibiting a quantum deformation of the classical Poisson bracket algebra, which is realized as a commutator algebra on a Hilbert space of states. The wavefunctions in this ''graph representation'' approach are functionals on an appropriate set of graphs. This is in contrast to the usual ''connection representation'' approach in which the theory is defined in terms of a gauge field and the wavefunctions are functionals on the space of flat spatial connections modulo gauge transformations

  4. Vaguely defined objects representations, fuzzy sets and nonclassical cardinality theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wygralak, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, an impetuous development of new, unconventional theories, methods, techniques and technologies in computer and information sciences, systems analysis, decision-making and control, expert systems, data modelling, engineering, etc. , resulted in a considerable increase of interest in adequate mathematical description and analysis of objects, phenomena, and processes which are vague or imprecise by their very nature. Classical two-valued logic and the related notion of a set, together with its mathematical consequences, are then often inadequate or insufficient formal tools, and can even become useless for applications because of their (too) categorical character: 'true - false', 'belongs - does not belong', 'is - is not', 'black - white', '0 - 1', etc. This is why one replaces classical logic by various types of many-valued logics and, on the other hand, more general notions are introduced instead of or beside that of a set. Let us mention, for instance, fuzzy sets and derivative concepts, flou...

  5. Social Representations and Uses of Technologies of African High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsenti, Thierry; Kouawo, Achille

    2015-01-01

    This article examines social representations of information and communications technologies (ICT) in high school students in Niamey, Niger, and explores whether these representations are determined by training in and regular use of ICT. A sample of 50 students attending two "lycées" was studied. Only one "lycée" offered…

  6. Applying Representative Bureaucracy Theory to Academia: Representation of Women in Faculty and Administration and Title IX Compliance in Intercollegiate Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-joo; Won, Doyeon

    2016-01-01

    The representative bureaucracy theory posits that the passive representation of women in an organization leads to their active representation in terms of gender equity in policy implementation. The present study examines how women's representation in administration and faculty positions may explain gender equity-oriented policy outcomes, focusing…

  7. Quantization of gauge theories with open algebra in the representation with the third ghost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalin, I.A.; Kallosh, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    We suggest a modified representation of the general BRS construction, which gives in a closed form the quantization of gauge theories with open algebra. Instead of gauging the Lagrange multiplier in this representation, we have the third ghost πsup(α) which appears in the quantization procedure on equal footing with the Faddeev-Popov ghosts anti Csup(α), Csup(α). This new representation is especially convenient in the non-singular gauges of the form 1/2#betta#sub(α#betta#chi)sup(#betta#)sub(chi)sup(α), where both sub(chi)sup(α) and #betta#sub(α#betta#) may arbitrarily depend on quantum fields. In the closed algebra case, we recover the result of Nielsen, whereas for the theories with open algebra we find new ghost couplings of the form anti Csup(n)Csup(n)πsup(m), n = 1, ...; m = 0, 1, ..., n. (orig.)

  8. Constraints on nanomaterial structure from experiment and theory: reconciling partial representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate the design and optimization of nanomaterials for a given application it is necessary to understand the relationship between structure and physical properties. For large nanomaterials, there is imprecise structural information so the full structure is only resolved at the level of partial representations. Here we show how to reconcile partial structural representations using constraints from structural characterization measurements and theory to maximally exploit the limited amount of data available from experiment. We determine a range of parameter space where predictive theory can be used to design and optimize the structure. Using an example of variation of chemical composition profile across the interface of two nanomaterials, we demonstrate how, given experimental and theoretical constraints, to find a region of structure-parameter space within which computationally explored partial representations of the full structure will have observable real-world counterparts. (paper)

  9. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.

  10. The study of social representations in children and adolescents: Lessons from a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anastasie Aim

    Full Text Available An ad hoc review of the existing literature concerning the study of social representations (SRs; Moscovici, 1961/1976 in children and adolescents was conducted in order to put forward theoretical and methodological proposals on the study and development of SRs, and to highlight future directions. The review was performed using the PsycINFO database (up to September 2016, and included 60 eligible works. While the main part of the work sample does not mention theoretical and/or methodological implications (41.7%, other contributions highlight the necessity to take into account: (a the active role of children/adolescents as well as their social interactions in the creation of SRs, (b the relevance of studying SRs in these populations for developing the theory of SRs, (c the expression of SRs in children's everyday actions, (d the use of suitable methods for children/adolescents, and (e the link between the psychology of development and the theory of SRs.

  11. Theories of Social Media: Philosophical Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Qi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although many different views of social media coexist in the field of information systems (IS, such theories are usually not introduced in a consistent framework based on philosophical foundations. This paper introduces the dimensions of lifeworld and consideration of others. The concept of lifeworld includes Descartes’ rationality and Heidegger’s historicity, and consideration of others is based on instrumentalism and Heidegger’s “being-with.” These philosophical foundations elaborate a framework where different archetypal theories applied to social media may be compared: Goffman’s presentation of self, Bourdieu’s social capital, Sartre’s existential project, and Heidegger’s “shared-world.” While Goffman has become a frequent reference in social media, the three other references are innovative in IS research. The concepts of these four theories of social media are compared with empirical findings in IS literature. While some of these concepts match the empirical findings, some other concepts have not yet been investigated in the use of social media, suggesting future research directions. Keywords: Social media, Lifeworld, Consideration of others, Rationality, Historicity, Instrumentalism, Being-with, Presentation of self

  12. A comment on continuous spin representations of the Poincare group and perturbative string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Quevedo, F. [Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); DAMTP/CMS, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Theisen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm (Germany)

    2014-11-04

    We make a simple observation that the massless continuous spin representations of the Poincare group are not present in perturbative string theory constructions. This represents one of the very few model-independent low-energy consequences of these models. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Representations of l-p-i functionals in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordag, M.; Kaschluhn, L.; Matveev, V.A.; Robaschik, D.

    1981-01-01

    A representation of the functions which solve by construction the Slavnov-Taylor identities and contain independent coefficient functions is given. These solutions show the different role of the gauge field which acts in some respect as an ordinary field. The Slavnov-Taylor identities are solved for axial gauge conditions in non-Abelian gauge field theory and in quantum electrodynamics

  14. Vladimir I Arnold - Collected Works Representations of Functions, Celestial Mechanics, and KAM Theory 1957-1965

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Vladimir I; Khesin, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Vladimir Arnold is one of the great mathematical scientists of our time. He is famous for both the breadth and the depth of his work. At the same time he is one of the most prolific and outstanding mathematical authors. This first volume of his Collected Works focuses on representations of functions, celestial mechanics, and KAM theory.

  15. Functionals Hartree-Fock equations in the Schrodinger representation of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.

    1989-08-01

    Hartree-Fock equations for a scalar field theory in the Schrodinger representation are derived. It is shown that renormalization of the total energy in the functional Schrodinger equation is enterely contained in the eigenvalues of the Hartree-Fock hamiltonian. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  16. Scientific Disclosure: Social Representations of Brazilian Researchers Acting in the Field of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, D. L. C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Science dissemination has unquestioned role on intermediate science and society and it is a wide subject of research in education, considering that the construction of knowledge flows in different spaces, and, consequently, produces and disseminates representations. It presents as a motivator for reflection and as a necessary tool to prevent that knowledge do not become synonymous with domination and power. Thereby, the Astronomy assumes a remarkable role as a trigger of scientific dissemination process, due to its interdisciplinary character. From this viewpoint and the theoretical and methodological framework of the Theory of Social Representations (TRS), grounded by Serge Moscovici, this research, qualitative in nature, seek to answer: What are the social representations about scientific dissemination of Brazilian researchers that act in the field of astronomy? The work was based on Longhini, Gomide and Fernandes (2013) research, which delineate the Brazilian scientific community involved in Astronomy, identifying two groups of researchers with different training paths: one with postgraduate in education and related fields, and other with postgraduate in Physics or Astronomy. Thus, this study had the subquestion: Does the researchers of these groups have different conceptions about the practices of science dissemination? A sample was composed of six subjects, three of each formative course, who participated in semi-structured interviews analyzed following the steps outlined by Spink (2012). The results show that the science dissemination is part of the researches schedule's, with a positive image relative to promote scientific knowledge to population and similar on practical approach between the two groups. Point to two social representations of science dissemination: one for society in general, moved by passion, anchored in values and beliefs, in satisfaction of seeing the results that their actions bring to people's lives; and the other to their pairs

  17. Degree of proximity in the construction of social representations: the case of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Isabel; Valentim, Joaquim Pires; Carugati, Felice

    2012-11-01

    The present article is devoted to the empirical endeavor of studying the effect of the degree of proximity, defined by specific socio-educational insertions, on the organization of social representations of intelligence. A questionnaire was answered by a sample of 752 participants belonging to five different social categories with different degrees of proximity and knowledge about intelligence: mothers, fathers, mother-teachers and non-parent students (psychology and science students). The questionnaire included different topics, namely concerning the concept of intelligence, its development and the effectiveness of teaching procedures. Results show that the principles organizing the contents of representations are linked to the personal involvement in intelligence, on which subjects more or less implied take different positions. Results produced suggest, therefore, that the content of representations is directly linked to the activation of social roles and the salience of the object, reflecting the functional character that the organization of representations has to specific social dynamics.

  18. Social representations, individual and collective mind: a study of Wundt, Cattaneo and Moscovici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Luca; Iannaccone, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents a discussion on the role of Social Representations in the articulation between individual and collective dimensions of mental activity. An analysis of some concepts in the works of Wundt and Cattaneo is the starting point for a discussion of the relationship between individual processes, practices, artifacts, symbolic systems and functions of Social Representations in the development of culture and individuals. In this perspective, Social Representations could be considered a space of negotiation of the meaning. The relationship between Social Representations, symbolic systems, practices and sense making involves the elaboration of the tension between continuity and innovation, which is developed through communication and practice along time in the interaction between individual and collective minds.

  19. Social Representations of Aids among rural and urban youngsters on the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Moreira Coutinho e Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the representations of rural and urban youngsters on the subject of aids. It aims to verify if the intensification of the interaction between country and city that provides increasing access to both spaces results in a symbolic homogeneity on some aspects of the disease. The technological progress and the physical mobility advance promote this approach, which provides information to rural youngsters that put them in situations of consonance of attitudes and vulnerabilities in comparison with the urban youngsters. The research used data based on the sample of 131 students from the Curso Técnico em Agropecuária of the federal institute IF Sudeste de Minas Gerais – Campus Barbacena – amongst whom 40 residents in rural areas. The results reveal that the youngsters assume they are aware of aids, but their responses to the questionnaire betray a state of high vulnerability to the disease. The analysis is guided by the social representation theories and shows that stereotypes about diseases remain instilled in the symbolic countryside, collaborating to the convergence of opinions and conducts.

  20. Neural representations of social status hierarchy in human inferior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Harada, Tokiko; Oby, Emily R; Li, Zhang; Parrish, Todd; Bridge, Donna J

    2009-01-01

    Mental representations of social status hierarchy share properties with that of numbers. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the neural representation of numerical magnitude lies within a network of regions within inferior parietal cortex. However the neural basis of social status hierarchy remains unknown. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they compared social status magnitude of people, objects and symbols, as well as numerical magnitude. Both social status and number comparisons recruited bilateral intraparietal sulci. We also observed a semantic distance effect whereby neural activity within bilateral intraparietal sulci increased for semantically close relative to far numerical and social status comparisons. These results demonstrate that social status and number comparisons recruit distinct and overlapping neuronal representations within human inferior parietal cortex.

  1. Social Actors, Political Representation and Democracy in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henio Millán Valenzuela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low representativeness and modernity explain electoral abstention as well as the level of support Mexicans give to democracy. I argue that both raise two conflicts. The first one is the most important and reflects a generalized, but differentiated, claim on the part of citizens for better representation. The second one points to disagreements regarding the Mexican modernization process. Therefore, behind the struggle for representation in Mexico lies the demand for more openness from the State in order for these conflicts to be expressed. These arguments are supported by a quantitative analysis comprising logistic equations and a survey conducted fifteen days after the federal election of 2006.

  2. State institutions and social identity: National representation in soldiers' and civilians' interview talk concerning military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stephen; Condor, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Theory and research deriving from social identity or self-categorization perspectives often starts out with the presumption that social actors necessarily view societal objects such as nations or states as human categories. However, recent work suggests that this may be only one of a number of forms that societal representation may take. For example, nations may be understood variously as peoples, places, or institutions. This paper presents findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in England, in which soldiers and civilians talked about nationhood in relation to military service. Analysis indicated that, in this context, speakers were often inclined to use the terms 'Britain', 'nation', and 'country' as references to a political institution as opposed to a category of people. In addition, there were systematic differences between the ways in which the two samples construed their nation in institutional terms. The civilians were inclined to treat military service as a matter of obedience to the dictates of the Government of the day. In contrast, the soldiers were more inclined to frame military service as a matter of loyalty to state as symbolically instantiated in the body of the sovereign. Implications for work adopting a social identity perspective are discussed.

  3. [Social representations on HIV/AIDS among adolescentes: implications for nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Maria Aparecida; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Rodrigues, Benedita Maria Rêgo Deusdará

    2005-03-01

    With the objective of discussing the implications of the social representations of HIV/AIDS for the interpersonal relations and the practices for protection among adolescents, 15 semidirective interviews were carried out with adolescents, both with and without HIV, assisted at a Hospital School in Rio de Janeiro. The software ALCESTE 4.5 was used for the data analysis. It was observed that the social representation of AIDS is structured around cognitions connected to prevention, revealing a contradiction between the knowledge and the practices reported by the group. It is suggested that the nursing practices should be directed towards the reduction of the distance between practices, representations and scientific knowledge.

  4. Legal Field and Social Representations : Analysis of Damage of The Grounds of Failure in Moral Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Neves de Jesus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to analyze the problem of the failure of judicial decisions, from the observation of the interference of social representations the lack of real motivation of judgments, from the statement of denaturation of the institute moral damage caused by internalized reproduction of concepts and meanings anchored and objectified in the collective unconscious of the various authorities and actors in the legal field. Seeks to understand the social representations reproduced in the legal and social field of the institute, which confirms the problem of inadequate statement of reasons and not resolving legal conflicts social damage morale.

  5. Mental disability and discriminatory practices: effects of social representations of the Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Espinola-Nadurille; Guadalupe, Delgado

    2009-05-01

    The prevalence of mental disorders in Mexico is 26.1%. This shows that an important percentage of the population suffers from mental disability. Despite this the country's healthcare system does not provide the least acceptable standard of care for the mentally disabled. The aim of this study was to describe the general population's social representations of the disabled and analyze their relationship with the discriminatory practices from the state towards the mentally ill with respect to their right to health. This study was a secondary analysis of the First National Survey on Discrimination in Mexico. In the survey 1,437 effective interviews that comprised a representative sample, were obtained from people aged 18 to 60 living in rural and urban settings. The response rate was 76.5%. The assessment tool was a self-administered questionnaire that yielded perceptions, attitudes, values and social representations about discrimination towards groups of people that supposedly were targets of discrimination by the general population. In the survey the mentally ill were included under disability. As a secondary analysis of the survey for the purpose of this study, we selected a subset of questions that provided important information about social representations of the general Mexican population towards persons with disabilities. The general population's social representations of the disabled were analyzed. The disabled are the second group after the elderly perceived as the most discriminated and neglected and bearing more suffering. A whole set of negative representations concerning the disabled, such as lack of acceptance and respect, low self-confidence, mistreatment, incomprehension, isolation, intolerance, indifference and bad attitudes from others, were elicited. Social representations are social correspondents of the discriminatory practices that the state exerts toward the mentally ill with respect to their right to health. These representations serve to

  6. Clifford Algebras and Spinorial Representation of Linear Canonical Transformations in Quantum Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Ranaivoson, R.T.R.; Rakotoson, H.

    2017-11-01

    This work is a continuation of previous works that we have done concerning linear canonical transformations and a phase space representation of quantum theory. It is mainly focused on the description of an approach which permits to establish spinorial representation of linear canonical transformations. It begins with an introduction section in which the reason and context of the content are discussed. The introduction section is followed by a brief recall about Clifford algebra and spin group. The description of the approach is started with the presentation of an adequate parameterization of linear canonical transformations which permits to represent them with special pseudo-orthogonal transformations in an operators space. The establishment of the spinorial representation is deduced using relation between special pseudo-orthogonal groups and spin groups. The cases of one dimension quantum mechanics and general multidimensional theory are both studied. The case of linear canonical transformation related to Minkowski space is particularly studied and it is shown that Lorentz transformation may be considered as particular case of linear canonical transformation. Some results from the spinorial representation are also exploited to define operators which may be used to establish equations for fields if one considers the possibility of envisaging a field theory which admits as main symmetry group the group constituted by linear canonical transformations.

  7. Social Identity Theories and Educational Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean

    2009-01-01

    There is a large body of research in studies of schooling, particularly ethnographic case studies, which posits that collective action among students undermines engagement in school and contributes to educational inequality. In this paper I review studies of engagement from a social identity theory perspective. To what extent can collective action…

  8. Game Theory in the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperman, Dean Patrick; Clark, Chris H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores using game theory in social studies classrooms as a heuristic to aid students in understanding strategic decision making. The authors provide examples of several simple games teachers can use. Next, we address how to help students design their own simple (2 × 2) games.

  9. Schumpeter's general theory of social evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    The recent neo-Schumpeterian and evolutionary economics appears to cover a much smaller range of topics than Joseph Schumpeter confronted. Thus, it has hardly been recognised that Schumpeter wanted to develop a general theory that served the analysis of evolution in any sector of social life...

  10. Social Norms Theory and Concussion Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R.; Baugh, Christine M.; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed…

  11. Critical Social Class Theory for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2017-01-01

    This work of critical social theory explores how formal music education in modern capitalist societies mirrors the hierarchical, means-ends, one-dimensional structures of capitalism. So, rather than consistently or reliably empowering and emancipating children musically, school music can tend to marginalize, exploit, repress, and alienate. The…

  12. The concepts of representation and information in explanatory theories of human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato T. Ramos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Focusing in experimental study of human behavior, this article discusses the concepts of information and mental representation aiming the integration of their biological, computational, and semantic aspects. Assuming that the objective of any communication process is ultimately to modify the receiver’s state, the term correlational information is proposed as a measure of how changes occurring in external world correlate with changes occurring inside an individual. Mental representations are conceptualized as a special case of information processing in which correlational information is received, recorded, but also modified by a complex emergent process of associating new elements. In humans, the acquisition of information and creation of mental representations occurs in a two-step process. First, a sufficiently complex brain structure is necessary to establishing internal states capable to co-vary with external events. Second, the validity or meaning of these representations must be gradually achieved by confronting them with the environment. This contextualization can be considered as part of the process of ascribing meaning to information and representations. The hypothesis introduced here is that the sophisticated psychological constructs classically associated with the concept of mental representation are essentially of the same nature of simple interactive behaviors. The capacity of generating elaborated mental phenomena like beliefs and desires emerges gradually during evolution and, in a given individual, by learning and social interaction.

  13. Hegemonic and polemical beliefs: culture and consumption in the social representation of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monaco, Grégory; Guimelli, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Wine, in France, is a cultural product. However, the issue of wine consumption has been at the centre of a recurring social debate. We decided to focus our study on the effect of consumption practices on this social representation as well as the variations in position-taking in very different normative contexts. Results revealed two distinct social representations according to consumption practice. Moreover, Guttman effect in principal component analysis uncovered a unique phenomenon which showed that participants (consumer vs. non consumer) were inclined to act differently only in the case of polemical issues when they perceived the investigator as a consumer vs. non consumer. Indeed, in the case of hegemonic beliefs they were inclined to act in the same way and their answers were not influenced by the status of the investigator. Results are discussed around the question of the links between social representations and social identity.

  14. THEORY OF GOVERNANCE AND SOCIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina SANDU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article, subordinated to the governance and public sector reform domain, approaches governance theory, a theory that is specific to a society in a profound transformation. The transformation represents a result of globalization and the thematic of social enterprise a mean of appearance within the global arena for social actors as representatives of the new economic governance. Starting from the New Public Management reforms, the article analysis the state and public action changes within the contemporary society and in the same time, realizes a clear distinction between governing and governance and identifies a third way within the economic governance –heterarchy or network management, which refers to horizontal self-organizations between the interdependent actors. The study also illustrates the fact that the development of global political economy is in strong connection with democratization. Thus, the democracy must be affirmed at both global and local levels, and the role of non-state actors must increase, democratization representing a consonance in economic liberalization, state institutional change and development of a powerful public space. The result of the current analysis materializes in the identification of the social enterprise typology, the reference models and comparative experiences of social enterprise. As a conclusion, the study formulates a complex definition of social enterprise concept, which comprises the social and economic criteria, the social aim of the ideal-type of social enterprise. The research methodology is represented by complex methods as follows: the first and the second parts are based on literature and theories analysis, the third part is based on questionnaire application, statistical data collection and comparative empirical studies. The sample the comparative studies is represented by European countries as follows: the references models - United Kingdom, France and Italy and the empirical studies

  15. Social Representation of "Loud Music" in Young Adults: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Zhao, Fei; Widen, Stephen; Auzenne, Jasmin; Beukes, Eldré W; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Mahadeva, Deepthi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to recreational noise, particularly music exposure, is considered one of the biggest public health hazards of our time. Some important influencing factors such as socioeconomic status, educational background, and cross-cultural perspectives have previously been found to be associated with attitudes toward loud music and the use of hearing protection. Although culture seems to play an important role, there is relatively little known about how it influences perceptions regarding loud music exposure in young adults. The present study was aimed to explore cross-cultural perceptions of and reactions to loud music in young adults (18-25 yr) using the theory of social representations. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. The study sample included young adults (n = 534) from five different countries (India, Iran, Portugal, the United States, and the United Kingdom) who were recruited using convenience sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, co-occurrence analysis, and also χ² analysis. Fairly equal numbers of positive and negative connotations (∼40%) were noted in all countries. However, the χ² analysis showed significant differences between the countries (most positive connotations were found in India and Iran, whereas the most negative connotations were found in the United Kingdom and Portugal) regarding the informants' perception of loud music. The co-occurrence analysis results generally indicate that the category "negative emotions and actions" occurred most frequently, immediately followed by the category "positive emotions and actions." The other most frequently occurring categories included "acoustics," "physical aliment," "location," and "ear and hearing problems." These six categories formed the central nodes of the social representation of loud music exposure in the global index. Although some similarities and differences were noted among the social representations toward loud

  16. Predicting behavior change from persuasive messages using neural representational similarity and social network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegors, Teresa K; Tompson, Steven; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Falk, Emily B

    2017-08-15

    Neural activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), identified as engaging in self-related processing, predicts later health behavior change. However, it is unknown to what extent individual differences in neural representation of content and lived experience influence this brain-behavior relationship. We examined whether the strength of content-specific representations during persuasive messaging relates to later behavior change, and whether these relationships change as a function of individuals' social network composition. In our study, smokers viewed anti-smoking messages while undergoing fMRI and we measured changes in their smoking behavior one month later. Using representational similarity analyses, we found that the degree to which message content (i.e. health, social, or valence information) was represented in a self-related processing MPFC region was associated with later smoking behavior, with increased representations of negatively valenced (risk) information corresponding to greater message-consistent behavior change. Furthermore, the relationship between representations and behavior change depended on social network composition: smokers who had proportionally fewer smokers in their network showed increases in smoking behavior when social or health content was strongly represented in MPFC, whereas message-consistent behavior (i.e., less smoking) was more likely for those with proportionally more smokers in their social network who represented social or health consequences more strongly. These results highlight the dynamic relationship between representations in MPFC and key outcomes such as health behavior change; a complete understanding of the role of MPFC in motivation and action should take into account individual differences in neural representation of stimulus attributes and social context variables such as social network composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rethinking social identity theory in international encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    In a globalized business environment, interaction across linguistic boundaries is becoming a normal part of everyday life. In these encounters language differences may affect the formation of social identities among organization members. While studies based on Social Identity Theory perceive...... the link between identity and language to be linear, this article takes a different approach. By drawing on anthropological theories on ethnic identity it is argued that the relation between language and social identity is negotiated in interaction. In the empirical analysis the article focuses...... on the encounter between expatriates and local employees of a Danish subsidiary in England. The findings show that identity making may be actualized by competition for resources and recognition. This can be done by investing certain objects such as the symbolic application of language with certain identifications...

  18. Representation of intangible cultural heritage of Bangladesh through social media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Chowdhury, Md Saiful Alam

    2018-01-01

    with approximately 160 million people is experiencing an exponential growth of social media users. Towards the goal of strategically representing and diffusing ICH through social media, this study explores the current roles of social media in the transmission of ICH in the virtual world through content analysis....... The potential roles of social media in the process of preserving ICH offer a space for building awareness, creating knowledge, and diffusion of innovations....

  19. Empirical Evaluation of Different Feature Representations for Social Circles Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-16

    study and compare the performance on the available labelled Facebook data from the Kaggle competition on learning social circles in networks . We...Kaggle competition on learning social circles in networks [5]. The data consist of hand- labelled friendship egonets from Facebook and a set of 57...16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Social circles detection is a special case of community detection in social network that is currently attracting a

  20. El baile: representación social y práctica saludable Dancing: social representation and healthy behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Ochoa Patiño

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comprender las representaciones sociales del baile en un grupo de practicantes de una academia de la ciudad de Medellin. METODOLOGÍA: estudio cualitativo basado en la teoria del Interaccionismo Simbólico. Se entrevistaron 12 usuarios del programa de baile de la Caja de Compensación Familiar de Antioquia-Comfama. RESULTADOS Y DISCUSIÓN: para las personas del estudio, el baile pasa de ser una necesidad social, expresada en la necesidad de interacción social y reconocimiento, a entenderse y asumirse como un comportamiento saludable. Los testimonios evidencian cómo en esta transición de sentido, de necesidad social a comportamiento saludable, juegan un papel determinante las instituciones que ofrecen el servicio de enseñanza del baile, los profesores de baile, y las relaciones que se suceden en los grupos y en los lugares de clase, práctica y baile. CONCLUSIONES: existen tres agentes de mediación: la institución, la clase y los sitios de baile y práctica, los cuales se mueven en una trama ineludiblemente social, compuesta por procesos psicosociales y determinantes provenientes del contexto social, que hicieron que los participantes cambiaran las maneras de pensar y actuar con respecto al baile: de rumba, cigarrillo y licor a una práctica de promoción de la salud y de bienestarObjective: of this article is to make understandable how dancing academies transform the representation of dancing from social intercourse to health behavior. Methodology: qualitative study following a theoretical perspective, interactive symbolism and analytical strategy based on grounded theory. Twelve participants in the Caja de Compensación Familiar de Antioquia (Comfama sponsored dance program were interviewed. Results and discussion: for the surveyed people dance changes from social rewarding intercourse into healthy behavior. Significant roles are performed by dancing sponsors and dancing teachers and new relationships arise in groups, classrooms

  1. Baccalaureate Accounting Student Mentors’ Social Representations of their Mentorship Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Roy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mentorship has been shown to enhance engagement, participation, and understanding of the workplace through the development of soft-skills and leadership capacity. This research identifies and describes the social representations of second and third year Baccalaureate accounting students relating to their experiences in mentoring first year accounting students. We used an exploratory research method based on a qualitative analysis of 34 semi-structured interviews. Our research intends to answer these question: To what extent is a mandatory Student Peer Mentorship Project useful for second and third year Baccalaureate accounting students in developing their interpersonal and communication skills and leadership capacity?; and How can this experience be transferable to the workplace? The main results show that the mentoring experience has provided Baccalaureate students’ with the opportunity to develop their soft-skills, both interpersonal and communication skills, and has improved their leadership capacity. They took diverse actions to motivate their mentees to succeed, drawing on their own past experience of the school, program, courses, and their professors. They provided mentees with information on what to expect in the first semester in their courses as well as where, how, and when to study. These students mentioned that their intrinsic motivation, their personal satisfaction, and their leadership capacity had increased by helping and supporting their mentees. Also, they felt that they improved their communication skills through the ability to provide information and meet and support new accounting students. Finally, their experience seems as valuable for them as for their mentees and is transferable to the workplace. Il a été démontré que le mentorat améliorait l’engagement, la participation et la compréhension dans le milieu de travail grâce au développement de compétences non techniques et de capacités d’encadrement. Cette

  2. Two-dimensional N=(2,2) lattice gauge theories with matter in higher representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Anosh

    2014-06-01

    We construct two-dimensional N=(2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories on a Euclidean spacetime lattice with matter in the two-index symmetric and anti-symmetric representations of SU(N c ) color group. These lattice theories preserve a subset of the supercharges exact at finite lattice spacing. The method of topological twisting is used to construct such theories in the continuum and then the geometric discretization scheme is used to formulate them on the lattice. The lattice theories obtained this way are gauge-invariant, free from fermion doubling problem and exact supersymmetric at finite lattice spacing. We hope that these lattice constructions further motivate the nonperturbative explorations of models inspired by technicolor, orbifolding and orientifolding in string theories and the Corrigan-Ramond limit.

  3. REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES SOBRE POBREZA EN ESTUDIANTES UNIVERSITARIOS CHILENOS / SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF POVERTY IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Denegri Coria*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl propósito del estudio fue determinar y describir las representaciones sociales de estudiantes universitarios chilenossobre pobreza, sus causas y soluciones. Se empleó la Técnica de Redes Semánticas Naturales (Valdez, 1998, el instrumentose aplicó a 121 estudiantes de las Facultades de Educación y Humanidades y Medicina de la Universidad de La Frontera.Los análisis fueron realizados en base a los valores que arrojan las redes semánticas. Los resultados dan cuenta decontenidos comunes en las representaciones sociales de ambos grupos, matizadas probablemente por la formación académica,observando diferencias en relación a la importancia que asignan a factores de carácter histórico y social. Los hallazgos sediscuten en relación a aspectos estructurales del pensamiento.ABSTRACTThe purpose of the study was to determine and describe the social representations of Chilean university students aboutpoverty, its causes and solutions. We used the technique of semantic network (Valdez, 1998, we applied the instrument to121 students from the Faculties of Education and Humanities and Medicine of the University of La Frontera. The analyseswere carried out based on values of the semantics network. The results indicate common contents in the social representationsof both groups, probably nuanced by academic formation; we observed differences among students groups related to theimportance that they assigned to historic and social factors. We discussed the results about structural aspects thoughts.

  4. Conformal Windows of SU(N) Gauge Theories, Higher Dimensional Representations and The Size of The Unparticle World

    CERN Document Server

    Ryttov, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    We present the conformal windows of SU(N) supersymmetric and nonsupersymmetric gauge theories with vector-like matter transforming according to higher irreducible representations of the gauge group. We determine the fraction of asymptotically free theories expected to develop an infrared fixed point and find that it does not depend on the specific choice of the representation. This result is exact in supersymmetric theories while it is an approximate one in the nonsupersymmetric case. The analysis allows us to size the unparticle world related to the existence of underlying gauge theories developing an infrared stable fixed point. We find that exactly 50 % of the asymptotically free theories can develop an infrared fixed point while for the nonsupersymmetric theories it is circa 25 %. When considering multiple representations, only for the nonsupersymmetric case, the conformal regions quickly dominate over the nonconformal ones. For four representations, 70 % of the asymptotically free space is filled by the ...

  5. Representaciones sociales sobre las personas sin hogar: una herencia aún no superada (Social representations on homeless persons: an inheritance still not overcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Rubio-Martín

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es conocer las representaciones sociales sobre las PSH a principios del siglo XX. Partiendo de una metodología cualitativa, se hizo una recopilación y análisis de prensa. Basando esta estrategia en la incidencia que los medios de comunicación tienen en las representaciones sociales. El marco teórico partió de las teorías sobre las nuevas estrategias de criminalización del sinhogarismo. En los resultados se resalta cómo siguen vivas viejas representaciones estigmatizadoras y excluyentes. Lo que debe ser considerado en las políticas públicas en un contexto de profunda crisis y vulnerabilidad socioeconómica. | The objective of this article is to know the social representations about the Homeless People in the early twentieth century. Starting from a qualitative methodology, a compilation and analysis of the press was made. Basing this strategy on the impact that the media have on social representations. The theoretical framework started from theories about the new strategies of criminalization of homelessness. The results highlight how old and stigmatizing and excluding representations are still alive. What should be considered in public policies in a context of deep crisis and socio-economic vulnerability.

  6. Richard Swedberg, The Art of Social Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carleheden, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    to systematic consideration. Swedberg attributes this strange absence to what he sees as the miserable state of contemporary social theory. We must, he claims, avoid two misconceptions: ‘empiricism’ and ‘abstract theory’. In the first case, theory is reduced to the task of summarizing the outcome of empirical......It is a rare event when a new general field of research opens up within sociology. However, with this book, Richard Swedberg intends to do just that. It is not just another book on social theory. It is a book on ‘theorizing’. And that makes all the difference. Swedberg has chosen the term ‘art......’, but also ‘craft’, to emphasize the practical side of doing theory. This topic has been strangely absent, not just in sociology but in the social sciences in general. In order to see this absence, we should ask ourselves how education in sociology is conventionally organized. The answer is by a taken...

  7. Governance in Blockchain Technologies & Social Contract Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Reijers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is placed in the context of a growing number of social and political critiques of blockchain technologies. We focus on the supposed potential of blockchain technologies to transform political institutions that are central to contemporary human societies, such as money, property rights regimes, and systems of democratic governance. Our aim is to examine the way blockchain technologies canbring about - and justify - new models of governance. To do so, we draw on the philosophical works of Hobbes, Rousseau, and Rawls, analyzing blockchain governance in terms of contrasting social contract theories. We begin by comparing the justifications of blockchain governance offered by members of the blockchain developers’ community with the justifications of governance presented within social contract theories. We then examine the extent to which the model of governance offered by blockchain technologies reflects key governance themes and assumptions located within social contract theories, focusing on the notions of sovereignty, the initial situation, decentralization and distributive justice.

  8. Representations of happiness and life satisfaction in the group of educated and socially active young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokurina, Irina G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the differences in the social representations of happiness among optimists and pessimists in the group of socially active, educated young members of the international youth organization Association Internationale des Etudiants en Sciences Economiques et Commerciales . To assess the degree of optimism and pessimism we used the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS developed by E. Diener, while social representation, divided into the nucleus and peripheral zones, were examined using Verges’ technique within the framework of the concept of social mindsets offered by S. Moskovichi. It has been shown that, irrespective of the optimism or pessimism of the participants, the nucleus of their representations of happiness contains such a value as love. However, only in optimists’ representations is this value combined in the nucleus with the values of family and friendship. In the pessimists’ nucleus zone of the representation of happiness, love is presented as an independent value, primarily associated with striking emotional experiences, which has aspects of psychological addiction. Considerable differences between optimists and pessimists have also been found in the peripheral zone of the representation of happiness. Only optimists have such associations as “knowledge”, “children”, and “faith” in their peripheral area. In our opinion, the major scale of differences between optimists and pessimists is formed by the factor of sociocentricity and egocentricity.

  9. Game theory, social choice and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    There are problems to whose solution I would attach an infinitely greater import­ ancf! than to those of mathematics, for example touching ethics, or our relation to God, or conceming our destiny and our future; but their solution lies wholly beyond us and completely outside the province 0 f science. J. F. C. Gauss For a1l his prescience in matters physical and mathematieal, the great Gauss apparently did not foresee one development peculiar to OUT own time. The development I have in mind is the use of mathematical reasoning - in partieu­ lar the axiomatic method - to explicate alternative concepts of rationality and morality. The present bipartite collection of essays (Vol. 11, Nos. 2 and 3 of this journal) is entitled 'Game Theory, Social Choiee, and Ethics'. The eight papers represent state-of-the-art research in formal moral theory. Their intended aim is to demonstrate how the methods of game theory, decision theory, and axiomatic social choice theory can help to illuminate ethical questions central not...

  10. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Navarrete

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  11. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Jairo A; Dartnell, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a) we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b) we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c) we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  12. The social motivation theory of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Coralie; Kohls, Gregor; Troiani, Vanessa; Brodkin, Edward S; Schultz, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as theory-of-mind deficits or executive dysfunction, and has granted comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas to provide an integrated account of social motivation at the behavioral, biological and evolutionary levels. We conclude that ASD can be construed as an extreme case of diminished social motivation and, as such, provides a powerful model to understand humans' intrinsic drive to seek acceptance and avoid rejection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Game theory, conditional preferences, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Wynn C; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.

  14. Sum-over-histories representation for the causal Green function of free scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1995-01-01

    A set of Green functions scrG α (x-y), α element-of[0,2π] for free scalar field theory is introduced, varying between the Hadamard Green function Δ 1 (x-y)==left-angle 0|{cphi(x),cphi(y)}|0 right-angle and the causal Green function scrG π (x-y)=iΔ(x-y)==[cphi(x),cphi(y)]. For every α element-of[0,2π] a path integral representation for scrG α is obtained both in configuration space and in the phase space of the classical relativistic particle. Setting α=π a sum-over-histories representation for the causal Green function is obtained. Furthermore, a reduced phase space integral representation for the scrG α 's is stated and an alternative BRST path integral representation for scrG α is presented. From these path integral representations the composition laws for the scrG α 's are derived using a modified path decomposition expansion

  15. The mental representation of social connections: generalizability extended to Beijing adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C Hawkley

    Full Text Available Social connections are essential for the survival of a social species like humans. People differ in the degree to which they are sensitive to perceived deficits in their social connections, but evidence suggests that they nevertheless construe the nature of their social connections similarly. This construal can be thought of as a mental representation of a multi-faceted social experience. A three-dimensional mental representation has been identified with the UCLA Loneliness Scale and consists of Intimate, Relational, and Collective Connectedness reflecting beliefs about one's individual, dyadic, and collective (group social value, respectively. Moreover, this mental representation has been replicated with other scales and validated across age, gender, and racial/ethnic lines in U.S. samples. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which this three-dimensional representation applies to people whose social lives are experienced in a collectivistic rather than individualistic culture. To that end, we used confirmatory factor analyses to assess the fit of the three-dimensional mental structure to data collected from Chinese people living in China. Two hundred sixty-seven young adults (16-25 yrs and 250 older adults (50-65 yrs in Beijing completed the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and demographic and social activity questionnaires. Results revealed adequate fit of the structure to data from young and older Chinese adults. Moreover, the structure exhibited equivalent fit in young and older Chinese adults despite changes in the Chinese culture that exposed these two generations to different cultural experiences. Social activity variables that discriminated among the three dimensions in the Chinese samples corresponded well with variables that discriminated among the three dimensions in the U.S.-based samples, indicating cultural commonalities in the factors predicting dimensions of people's representations of their social connections

  16. The mental representation of social connections: generalizability extended to Beijing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkley, Louise C; Gu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yue-Jia; Cacioppo, John T

    2012-01-01

    Social connections are essential for the survival of a social species like humans. People differ in the degree to which they are sensitive to perceived deficits in their social connections, but evidence suggests that they nevertheless construe the nature of their social connections similarly. This construal can be thought of as a mental representation of a multi-faceted social experience. A three-dimensional mental representation has been identified with the UCLA Loneliness Scale and consists of Intimate, Relational, and Collective Connectedness reflecting beliefs about one's individual, dyadic, and collective (group) social value, respectively. Moreover, this mental representation has been replicated with other scales and validated across age, gender, and racial/ethnic lines in U.S. samples. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which this three-dimensional representation applies to people whose social lives are experienced in a collectivistic rather than individualistic culture. To that end, we used confirmatory factor analyses to assess the fit of the three-dimensional mental structure to data collected from Chinese people living in China. Two hundred sixty-seven young adults (16-25 yrs) and 250 older adults (50-65 yrs) in Beijing completed the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and demographic and social activity questionnaires. Results revealed adequate fit of the structure to data from young and older Chinese adults. Moreover, the structure exhibited equivalent fit in young and older Chinese adults despite changes in the Chinese culture that exposed these two generations to different cultural experiences. Social activity variables that discriminated among the three dimensions in the Chinese samples corresponded well with variables that discriminated among the three dimensions in the U.S.-based samples, indicating cultural commonalities in the factors predicting dimensions of people's representations of their social connections. Equivalence of the

  17. Representation and Incorporation of Close Others' Responses: The RICOR Model of Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eliot R; Mackie, Diane M

    2015-08-03

    We propose a new model of social influence, which can occur spontaneously and in the absence of typically assumed motives. We assume that perceivers routinely construct representations of other people's experiences and responses (beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and behaviors), when observing others' responses or simulating the responses of unobserved others. Like representations made accessible by priming, these representations may then influence the process that generates perceivers' own responses, without intention or awareness, especially when there is a strong social connection to the other. We describe evidence for the basic properties and important moderators of this process, which distinguish it from other mechanisms such as informational, normative, or social identity influence. The model offers new perspectives on the role of others' values in producing cultural differences, the persistence and power of stereotypes, the adaptive reasons for being influenced by others' responses, and the impact of others' views about the self. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Probabilistic representation in syllogistic reasoning: A theory to integrate mental models and heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Masasi

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new theory of syllogistic reasoning. The proposed model assumes there are probabilistic representations of given signature situations. Instead of conducting an exhaustive search, the model constructs an individual-based "logical" mental representation that expresses the most probable state of affairs, and derives a necessary conclusion that is not inconsistent with the model using heuristics based on informativeness. The model is a unification of previous influential models. Its descriptive validity has been evaluated against existing empirical data and two new experiments, and by qualitative analyses based on previous empirical findings, all of which supported the theory. The model's behavior is also consistent with findings in other areas, including working memory capacity. The results indicate that people assume the probabilities of all target events mentioned in a syllogism to be almost equal, which suggests links between syllogistic reasoning and other areas of cognition. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding of thought bubbles as mental representations in children with autism: implications for theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Sharyn; Durkin, Kevin

    2004-12-01

    Standard false belief tasks indicate that normally developing children do not fully develop a theory of mind until the age of 4 years and that children with autism have an impaired theory of mind. Recent evidence, however, suggests that children as young as 3 years of age understand that thought bubbles depict mental representations and that these can be false. Twelve normally developing children and 11 children with autism were tested on a standard false belief task and a number of tasks that employed thought bubbles to represent mental states. While the majority of normally developing children and children with autism failed the standard false belief task, they understood that (i) thought bubbles represent thought, (ii) thought bubbles can be used to infer an unknown reality, (iii) thoughts can be different, and (iv) thoughts can be false. These results indicate that autistic children with a relatively low verbal mental age may be capable of understanding mental representations.

  20. A representation of the exchange relation for affine Toda field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.; Dorey, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Vertex operators are constructed providing representations of the exchange relations containing either the S-matrix of a real coupling (simply-laced) affine Toda field theory, or its minimal counterpart. One feature of the construction is that the bootstrap relations for the S-matrices follow automatically from those for the conserved quantities, via an algebraic interpretation of the fusing of two particles to form a single bound state. (orig.)

  1. The Representation of Self Injury and Suicide on Emo Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blamed both social networking and the teenage emo subculture for romanticising suicide and encouraging and ... music, dress and lifestyle broadly celebrating the unbottling of angst) have increased the incidence of ... Despite this, little research has been done to determine social media's effects on positive perceptions of ...

  2. African-American Children's Representation of Personal and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowling, Claire M.; Brock, Sheri J.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 12 grade five elementary school students' attitudes and beliefs concerning personal and social responsibility in physical education. Factors used to identify students' attitudes and beliefs were initially divided into the six levels of Hellison's Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR), namely: irresponsibility,…

  3. Social Capital Theory: Implications for Women's Networking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes social capital theory as a framework for exploring women's networking and social capital resources. It presents the foundational assumptions of the theory, the benefits and risks of social capital engagement, a feminist critique of social capital, and the role of social capital in adult learning.

  4. Nekrasov and Argyres-Douglas theories in spherical Hecke algebra representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong

    2017-06-01

    AGT conjecture connects Nekrasov instanton partition function of 4D quiver gauge theory with 2D Liouville conformal blocks. We re-investigate this connection using the central extension of spherical Hecke algebra in q-coordinate representation, q being the instanton expansion parameter. Based on AFLT basis together with intertwiners we construct gauge conformal state and demonstrate its equivalence to the Liouville conformal state, with careful attention to the proper scaling behavior of the state. Using the colliding limit of regular states, we obtain the formal expression of irregular conformal states corresponding to Argyres-Douglas theory, which involves summation of functions over Young diagrams.

  5. Nekrasov and Argyres–Douglas theories in spherical Hecke algebra representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chaiho, E-mail: rimpine@sogang.ac.kr; Zhang, Hong, E-mail: kilar@itp.ac.cn

    2017-06-15

    AGT conjecture connects Nekrasov instanton partition function of 4D quiver gauge theory with 2D Liouville conformal blocks. We re-investigate this connection using the central extension of spherical Hecke algebra in q-coordinate representation, q being the instanton expansion parameter. Based on AFLT basis together with intertwiners we construct gauge conformal state and demonstrate its equivalence to the Liouville conformal state, with careful attention to the proper scaling behavior of the state. Using the colliding limit of regular states, we obtain the formal expression of irregular conformal states corresponding to Argyres–Douglas theory, which involves summation of functions over Young diagrams.

  6. Social Cognitive Theory in Mobile Banking Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Ratten

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the behavior Australian youths have toward mobile banking. Social cognitive theory is the theoretical framework in which a conceptual model is empirically tested. The conceptual model includes five constructs (media, modeling, outcome expectancy, learning orientation and entrepreneurial orientation), which are proposed to influence an individual’s intention to adopt mobile banking. The conceptual model is tested in a sample of Australian youths and the analysis supports ...

  7. Covariant representation theory of the Poincaré algebra and some of its extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, Rutger

    2010-01-01

    There has been substantial calculational progress in the last few years for gauge theory amplitudes which involve massless four dimensional particles. One of the central ingredients in this has been the ability to keep precise track of the Poincaré algebra quantum numbers of the particles involved. Technically, this is most easily done using the well-known four dimensional spinor helicity method. In this article a natural generalization to all dimensions higher than four is obtained based on a covariant version of the representation theory of the Poincaré algebra. Covariant expressions for all possible polarization states, both bosonic and fermionic, are constructed. For the fermionic states the analysis leads directly to pure spinors. The natural extension to the representation theory of the on-shell supersymmetry algebra results in an elementary derivation of the supersymmetry Ward identities for scattering amplitudes with massless or massive legs in any integer dimension from four onwards. As a proof-of-concept application a higher dimensional analog of the vanishing helicity-equal amplitudes in four dimensions is presented in (super) Yang-Mills theory, Einstein (super-)gravity and superstring theory in a flat background.

  8. A sampling-based computational strategy for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions with evidence theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. D. (Prostat, Mesa, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Storlie, Curtis B. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC)

    2006-10-01

    Evidence theory provides an alternative to probability theory for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions that derives from epistemic uncertainty in model inputs, where the descriptor epistemic is used to indicate uncertainty that derives from a lack of knowledge with respect to the appropriate values to use for various inputs to the model. The potential benefit, and hence appeal, of evidence theory is that it allows a less restrictive specification of uncertainty than is possible within the axiomatic structure on which probability theory is based. Unfortunately, the propagation of an evidence theory representation for uncertainty through a model is more computationally demanding than the propagation of a probabilistic representation for uncertainty, with this difficulty constituting a serious obstacle to the use of evidence theory in the representation of uncertainty in predictions obtained from computationally intensive models. This presentation describes and illustrates a sampling-based computational strategy for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions with evidence theory. Preliminary trials indicate that the presented strategy can be used to propagate uncertainty representations based on evidence theory in analysis situations where naive sampling-based (i.e., unsophisticated Monte Carlo) procedures are impracticable due to computational cost.

  9. Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South: Towards ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-25

    Apr 25, 2018 ... Yet, social theory, largely developed and tested in the Global North, ... 15-project research programme, Social Theories of Urban Violence in the ... adapt existing theoretical and conceptual frameworks, others develop and test ...

  10. Parents Representations of the Legal Socialization of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient knowledge about the impact of parental education on the development strategies of justice of children and adolescents in destabilizing the social conditions of modern society determines the relevance of the author's work. The study involved 64 subjects (39 women and 25 men aged 24 to 48 years, with minor children, including 30 subjects with a harmonious style of parenting and 34 - with disharmonious style. We used a questionnaire "Analysis of family relationships" (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitskis, a technique of studying legal awareness of J. Tapp and F. Levine, as well as specially designed questionnaires, aimed at studying the cognitive (knowledge of parents about legal socialization and behavioral (conversations on topics of law, reinforcement and punishment of right and wrong actions, monitoring of performance, personal example components of legal socialization. We obtained new empirical evidence on the relation between the features of legal socialization of children and parent-child relationship, clarified the role of the individual types of parental attitudes in the formation of the legal socialization of children, revealed the factors of parental attitudes that hinder and facilitate the process of legal socialization of children

  11. Social energy exchange theory for postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmontier, Bobbie; Waite, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD), a significant health problem affecting about 19.4% of postpartum women worldwide, may result in long-term cognitive and behavior problems in children, spousal depression, widespread family dysfunction, and chronic and increasingly severe maternal depression. Although current theoretical frameworks provide a rich context for studying PPD,none provides a framework that specifically addresses the dynamic relationship of the inner personal experience with the social and cultural context of PPD. The authors propose the social energy exchange theory for postpartum depression to understand how PPD impedes this dynamic relationship and suggest it as a theoretical framework for the study of interventions that would target intra- and interpersonal disturbance within the social and cultural context.

  12. Social Representations of the Environment in Press Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislei Mocelin Polli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues are given prominence in the media and scientific circles. From the 60’s until early 2010 there were changes in the way people related to the environment, with a paradigm shift occurring regarding the environment. This study sought to identify the representational content disseminated by the press media on the environment in different periods. A qualitative survey was therefore conducted of documents, and data were obtained through texts published in a magazine with national circulation. The data were analyzed using the ALCESTE program with a Lexicographic Analysis. It was identified that the press media reflects the paradigm shifts, and publications dating from the late 60’s are compatible with the old paradigm, evolving over time, and are now compatible with the new environmental paradigm. The results indicate that currently the environment needs care in all its aspects and lack of care creates global impacts.

  13. Bury Your Gays and Social Media Fan Response: Television, LGBTQ Representation, and Communitarian Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Erin B

    2017-10-12

    Although visibility has increased, there are still television tropes used that can have potentially harmful effects on LGBTQ persons seeking identification through television characters. This essay explores the representation of women-loving women (WLW) on television and how fans respond via social media with regard to their identity and representation. Specifically, by examining the fan culture through a communitarian ethics lens (with an emphasis on duty and mutuality), fans are explored before and after a lesbian character's death and how their responses created a social movement regarding the current television environment's treatment of WLW characters. Media anthropology and virtual ethnographic observations on Twitter and Tumblr were used to answer how fans were responding to WLW representation via social media and how they engaged with communitarian ethics. Implications and criticisms are discussed.

  14. Social representations of genetically modified foods and public willingness to consume such foods in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2018-04-20

    This study highlighted the relevance of how social representations of genetically modified (GM) foods influence the Taiwanese public's willingness to consume GM foods. Moderated regression analysis results revealed that the social representation dimensions of adherence to technology and food as a necessity positively influenced the public's willingness to consume GM foods; however, the dimension of resistance to and suspicion of novelties had a negative influence. Food technology neophobia played a role in predicting people's willingness to consume GM foods and exerted moderating effects to enhance the negative relationship between the respondents' resistance to and suspicion of novelties and their willingness to consume GM foods. This neophobia also changed the positive relationship between food as a necessity and willingness to consume GM foods into negative. One-way ANOVA results revealed that food technology neophobia influences the public's specific social representations of GM foods, personal domain-specific innovativeness, and willingness to consume GM foods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. The representation theory of the symmetry group of lattice fermions as a basis for kinematics in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, H.; Schaefer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The symmetry group of staggered lattice fermions is discussed as a discrete subgroup of the symmetry group of the Dirac-Kaehler equation. For the representation theory of this group, G. Mackey's generalization of E.P. Wigner's procedure for the construction of unitary representations of groups with normal subgroups is used. A complete classification of these irreducible representations by ''momentum stars'', ''flavour orbits'' and ''reduced spins'' is given. (orig.)

  16. Social representations of the health care of the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous population by health workers 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Mirian Benites; Shimizu, Helena Eri; Bermudez, Ximena Pamela Díaz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the social representations of health care of the Mbyá-Guarani ethnic group by multidisciplinary teams from the Special Indigenous Health District in the south coast of Rio Grande do Sul state (Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena Litoral Sul do Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil. Method: a qualitative method based on the theory of social representations was used. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 20 health workers and by participant observation. The interviews were analyzed with ALCESTE software, which conducts a lexical content analysis using quantitative techniques for the treatment of textual data. Results: there were disagreements in the health care concepts and practices between traditional medicine and biomedicine; however, some progress has been achieved in the area of intermedicality. The ethnic boundaries established between health workers and indigenous peoples based on their representations of culture and family, together with the lack of infrastructure and organization of health actions, are perceived as factors that hinder health care in an intercultural context. Conclusion: a new basis for the process of indigenous health care needs to be established by understanding the needs identified and by agreement among individuals, groups, and health professionals via intercultural exchange. PMID:28177056

  17. [Vulnerability of women in common-law marriage to becoming infected with HIV/AIDS: a study of social representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Larissa Silva Abreu; Paiva, Mirian Santos; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; da Nóbrega, Sheva Maia

    2012-04-01

    This article discusses the social representations of women living in common-law marriage in terms of their vulnerability to becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. Data were obtained through the free association of words, and consisted of an excerpt of a study founded on the Social Representations Theory developed with HIV-negative women living in the state capital and cities in the interior of Bahia. The correspondence factor analysis showed significance for the variables: origin, education level and time spent in common-law marriage. Their acceptance of marital affairs emerged as a vulnerability factor for respondents with one to five years spent in common-law marriage, living in cities in the interior. Women from the capital, with 6-10 years spent in common-law marriage, reported monogamy as a form of prevention. Women with a longer common-law marriage who had completed only a primary education reported feeling invulnerable, which was the opposite of those with one to five years in common-law marriage with a secondary education. Results show there is a need for more interventions aiming to denaturalize the socio-cultural coercions that generate representations and make women in common-law marriages more vulnerable to AIDS.

  18. Features of Representations in General Chemistry Textbooks: A Peek through the Lens of the Cognitive Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Gillaspie, Merry

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) determine the prevalence of various features of representations in five general chemistry textbooks used in the United States, and (2) use cognitive load theory to draw implications of the various features of analyzed representations. We adapted the Graphical Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough et al., 2010) to look at…

  19. Essay: A Complicated Relationship: Right-Wing Populism, Media Representation and Journalism Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hafez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current upswing of right-wing populism in the United States and in Europe is a challenge not only for policy makers, but also for journalism theory. If and how to report on right-wing politicians, movements and issues is a delicate question that various strands of theory answer differently. Functionalist systems theory is in favor of large-scale coverage due to the stimulating news values of populist debates, although the precise character of the political integration remains unclear. In contrast, rational democratic deliberation theory is to be interpreted as a complete rebuttal of the irrational character of populism. The argument here would be that we must not allow the media be dominated by irrational debates. At the same time, democratic media theory is all but uniform in dealing with the phenomenon. While traditional rational public sphere theory is clearly anti-populist, paradoxically left-liberal and postmodern public sphere theory, anti-elitist and radically post-modern as it is, can be used as an argument for better representation of marginalized voices, including right-wing populists.

  20. Econodynamics the theory of social production

    CERN Document Server

    Pokrovskii, Vladimir N

    2012-01-01

    In this book the theory of social production is systematically formulated in terms and concepts of classical political economy and neo-classical economics. In this way the subject becomes accessible not only to professional researchers in the areas of theory of production and economic growth, but also to the educated reader who is curious about the principles behind the functioning of a national economy. The book can be considered as an introduction for students with a background in physics, chemistry and engineering, who wish to specialize in economics. The author explains how the growth of production is connected with achievements in technological consumption of labour and energy. The theory allows one to analyse the past and the present of the social production system and to build scripts of the future progress. The book could be interesting for energy specialists who are  engaged in planning and analysing production and consumption of energy carriers and determining energy policy, and for economists who...

  1. Social representations of disability based on children's cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Mendivelso Leal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La corporación universitaria CENDA y la línea de investigación de actividad física y discapacidad desde el 2004 hasta la actualidad ha venido desarrollando proyectos de investigación con los estudiantes de la Licenciatura en Educación Física Recreación y Deporte. Las representaciones sociales en la discapacidad a partir de la cinematografía infantil se orientan a determinar cómo son trabajadas las representaciones sociales en la discapacidad a través de las películas infantiles y las interpretaciones que pueden asimilar los niños y niñas frente a estas. En la justificación se argumenta la incidencia que tienen las películas infantiles en la interpretación de la realidad social, creando ideas e imaginarios que influyen en la vida de cada persona. El Marco Teórico del trabajo resalta la importancia que tiene en la investigación las representaciones sociales en la interpretación y construcción de la realidad a nivel individual y grupal. También se exponen los argumentos conceptuales relacionados con la discapacidad, siendo trabajados los aspectos generales en torno a ésta, precisando las diferencias que existen entre Deficiencia, Discapacidad y Minusvalía, la relación entre discapacidad y representaciones sociales, y los elementos de mayor incidencia en la discapacidad y el cuerpo. Seguidamente se presentan ideas puntuales sobre el cine, la relación que se da entre éste y la discapacidad, la relevancia de la cinematografía infantil, la propuesta del cine Danés para niños y los festivales de cine infantil de mayor renombre a nivel mundial

  2. Elemental representation and configural mappings: combining elemental and configural theories of associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, I P L; Forrest, C L; McLaren, R P

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we present our first attempt at combining an elemental theory designed to model representation development in an associative system (based on McLaren, Kaye, & Mackintosh, 1989) with a configural theory that models associative learning and memory (McLaren, 1993). After considering the possible advantages of such a combination (and some possible pitfalls), we offer a hybrid model that allows both components to produce the phenomena that they are capable of without introducing unwanted interactions. We then successfully apply the model to a range of phenomena, including latent inhibition, perceptual learning, the Espinet effect, and first- and second-order retrospective revaluation. In some cases, we present new data for comparison with our model's predictions. In all cases, the model replicates the pattern observed in our experimental results. We conclude that this line of development is a promising one for arriving at general theories of associative learning and memory.

  3. Social Representations of Latin American History and (PostColonial Relations in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Alves Brasil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Social representations of history play an important role in defining the identity of national and supranational groups such as Latin America, and also influencing present-day intergroup relations. In this paper, we discuss a study that aimed to analyse and compare social representations of Latin American history among Brazilian, Chilean, and Mexican participants. We conducted a survey with 213 university students, aged 18 to 35 years old, from these three countries, through an online questionnaire with open-ended questions about important events and people in the region's history. Despite the reference to different historical events and the existence of national specificities, several common topics were noteworthy across the three samples. There was a centrality of events involving political issues, conflicts and revolutions, as well as a recency effect and a sociocentric bias, replicating previous research about social representations of world history in different countries. There was also a strong prominence of colonization and independence issues in all samples. Through an emphasis on a common narrative of struggle and overcoming difficulties, the participants’ social representations of Latin American history may favour mobilization and resistance, challenging the stability and legitimacy of the existing social order. Furthermore, the findings are discussed in terms of their potential connections with present-day intergroup relations within Latin America, and between Latin America and other parts of the world.

  4. Unbounded representations of symmetry groups in gauge quantum field theory. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkel, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Symmetry groups and especially the covariance (substitution rules) of the basic fields in a gauge quantum field theory of the Wightman-Garding type are investigated. By means of the continuity properties hidden in the substitution rules it is shown that every unbounded form-isometric representation U of a Lie group has a form-skew-symmetric differential deltaU with dense domain in the unphysical Hilbert space. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the closures of U and deltaU as well as for the isometry of U are derived. It is proved that a class of representations of the transition group enforces a relativistic confinement mechanism, by which some or all basic fields are confined but certain mixed products of them are not. (orig.)

  5. Soup kitchen users' social representations of healthy eating associated with their household food security status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina BENTO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether what users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, think about a healthy diet and the challenges they face to eat healthy are associated with their household food security status. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,656 users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Socioeconomic and household food security data, and healthy-eating discourses were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were submitted to descriptive analyses for constructing frequency distribution tables, and to univariate analysis. Discourse analysis was based on the social representation theory. Results: To cut, reduce, avoid, not eat, eat less, and decrease carbohydrates, salt, meats, various beverages, and other foods are the most frequent changes (71.4% that food-secure users have made or intend to make. Food-insecure users intended to eat more fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and other foods (34.4%. The main obstacles food-secure and food-insecure users face to adopt a healthier diet are lack of time (82.9% and low income (53.5%, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: What users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte think about food and the obstacles they face to adopt a healthier diet are related to their household food security status. The results provide valuable data for effective proposals of food and nutrition education, which should act on the producers of subjectivity in this group and consider this group's food and nutrition security status.

  6. Social representation of "music" in young adults: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Zhao, Fei; Widén, Stephen; Auzenne, Jasmin; Beukes, Eldré W; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Mahadeva, Deepthi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore perceptions of and reactions to music in young adults (18-25 years) using the theory of social representations (TSR). The study used a cross-sectional survey design and included participants from India, Iran, Portugal, USA and UK. Data were analysed using various qualitative and quantitative methods. The study sample included 534 young adults. The Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the countries regarding the informants' perception of music. The most positive connotations about music were found in the responses obtained from Iranian participants (82.2%), followed by Portuguese participants (80.6%), while the most negative connotations about music were found in the responses obtained from Indian participants (18.2%), followed by Iranian participants (7.3%). The participants' responses fell into 19 main categories based on their meaning; however, not all categories were found in all five countries. The co-occurrence analysis results generally indicate that the category "positive emotions or actions" was the most frequent category occurring in all five countries. The results indicate that music is generally considered to bring positive emotions for people within these societies, although a small percentage of responses indicate some negative consequences of music.

  7. Menopausia: representaciones sociales y prácticas Social representations and practices of menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Pelcastre-Villafuerte

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Caracterizar los significados que se atribuyen al proceso de la menopausia como una primera aproximación al mundo representacional de este evento. Material y métodos. Estudio cualitativo, hecho entre septiembre y octubre de 1998 con 20 mujeres de entre 45 y 65 años de edad, residentes en los municipios de Cuernavaca y Emiliano Zapata del estado de Morelos, México. Se efectuaron sendas entrevistas a profundidad, utilizando una guía con los siguientes apartados: datos sociodemográficos, diagnóstico, sentimientos y sensaciones, cambios en el estilo de vida, cambios fisiológicos e información. Resultados. Se halla una representación que se construye alrededor de la menopausia en términos de cese de la fertilidad y entrada al envejecimiento. Esta caracterización tiene que ver también con otras construcciones como la concepción de la mujer, del cuerpo y de la sexualidad. Conclusiones. En este artículo se retoman principalmente los resultados con relación a las prácticas de las mujeres como consecuencia de la vivencia que tienen de la menopausia, entre las que sobresale la visita al médico. Se discuten las implicaciones desde el marco de la construcción social de los significados. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To characterize the meanings attributed to menopause, as a first approximation to the representational world of this event. Material and Methods. A qualitative study was conducted between September and Octuber 1998, in twenty women aged 45-65 years, residents of Cuernavaca and Emiliano Zapata, municipalities of Morelos state, Mexico. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted using a guide, to collect data on sociodemographic variables, diagnosis, feelings and emotions, changes in life style, and physiological changes. Results. Findings show that menopause is represented as the end of fertility and the beginning of old age

  8. Les representations sociales des musees par les jeunes de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La participation culturelle des jeunes reste un élément fondamental de la vie sociale. Ainsi, les musées sont des institutions culturelles qui contribuent à cette perspective. Mais, il est à constater que les visites muséales sont presque absentes des activités culturelles des jeunes. Le présent article propose une analyse des ...

  9. Institutional Theory as a Framework for Practitioners of Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrawal, Anirudh; Hockerts, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The chapter proposes institutional theory as a framework for reflecting on social entrepreneurship. We advocate institutional theory as a tool for practitioners to reflect upon the legitimacy, survivability and scalability of social enterprises because institutional theory frameworks can reduce...... risks associated with emerging fields such as social entrepreneurship. In order to illustrate our claim, we present four cases of social entrepreneurship and reflect on them through different institutional theory frameworks. At the end of the chapter, we propose a future agenda for practitioners...... interested in social entrepreneurship from an institutional theory perspective....

  10. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  11. Representações sociais de enfermeiros sobre o portador de tuberculose Social representations of nurses about tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaneide Leal Ataíde Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as representações sociais de enfermeiros sobre o doente com tuberculose. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa com referencial na Teoria das Representações Sociais. Para produção dos dados utilizou-se a técnica de entrevista individual, com 52 enfermeiros, utilizando um roteiro com questões fechadas sobre o perfil pessoal e profissional e outro com 27 questões abertas que exploraram saberes e fazeres em seu cotidiano com os doentes. Para análise utilizou-se a de conteúdo temática. RESULTADOS: Os enfermeiros constroem representações sociais baseadas no estereótipo do doente, os associam à ideia de receptáculos da doença, além de associar a vulnerabilidade ao adoecimento à condição social. CONCLUSÃO: As representações sociais sobre o doente com tuberculose se organizam a partir do medo amparado em características físicas, psicológicas e sociais que ajudam os enfermeiros a delinear a figura-tipo do doente como perigoso.OBJECTIVE: To describe the social representations of nurses about tuberculosis patients. METHODS: A qualitative research was undertaken, based on Social Representations Theory. To produce the data, the individual interview technique was applied, involving 52 nurses, using a script with closed questions about the personal and professional profile and another script with 27 open questions that explored knowledge and action in their daily work with the patients. For analysis, thematic content analysis was applied. RESULTS: The nurses build social representations based on the stereotyped patients, associate them with the idea of receptacles of the disease, besides linking vulnerability with illness and social conditions. CONCLUSION: Social representations about tuberculosis patients are organized based on fear, resting on physical, psychological and social characteristics that help the nurses to outline fhe type-figure of the patient as dangerous.

  12. Salud bucal: representaciones sociales en madres gestantes de una población urbana. Medellín, Colombia Oral health: social representations among pregnant mothers. Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Escobar-Paucar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la teoría de las representaciones sociales, se realizó una investigación cualitativa con el propósito de comprender las representaciones sociales del proceso salud-enfermedad bucal en madres gestantes de una población urbana. Se entrevistaron 28 mujeres adultas asistentes al programa prenatal en una institución de salud de la ciudad de Medellín. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas y se analizaron mediante codificación abierta, axial y selectiva, de acuerdo con la teoría fundada. Los hallazgos revelaron que si bien para las madres gestantes la boca del hijo no ocupa un lugar preponderante al inicio del ciclo vital, gana importancia con el proceso de crecimiento y desarrollo del niño, cuando además de su papel en la masticación y alimentación, adquiere una carga social relevante. El análisis dio cuenta de cómo confluyen en las madres de una población urbana representaciones arraigadas en la tradición, con nuevas visiones en cuya construcción hay elementos de los discursos profesionales y de los medios de comunicación; entre ellas, la estrecha relación salud bucal-dientes, la salud atada a prácticas saludables y a la utilización de servicios de salud y salud bucal como ventaja social, relacionada con la estética.Based on the theory of social representations, a qualitative investigation was conducted in order to assess social representations in oral heath in pregnant mothers living in an urban environment. Twenty-eight pregnant adult women attending a prenatal program at a health institution in the city of Medellín, Colombia, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded and transcribed; analysis was performed through open, axial and selective coding, in line with grounded theory. Findings revealed that although pregnant mothers are not greatly concerned about oral health after birth and in early childhood, it increases in importance during growth and development of the child when, besides chewing and

  13. On the problem of representability and the Bogolyubov-Hartree-Fock theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoerr, Hans Konrad

    2013-11-22

    The general topic of this thesis is an approximation of the ground state energy for many-particle quantum systems. In particular the Bogolyubov-Hartree-Fock theory and the representability of one- and two-particle density matrices are studied. After an introductory chapter we specify some basic notation of many-body quantum mechanics in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 we consider boson, as well as fermion systems. We first tackle the question of representability for bosons, i.e., the question which conditions a one- and a two-particle operator must satisfy to ensure that they are the one- and the two-particle density matrix of a state. For a particle number-conserving system, the representability conditions up to second order for bosons are well-known and called admissibility, P-, and G-conditions. Since, however, most physical systems consisting of bosons are not particle number-conserving, we give an alternative for such systems: Generalizing the two-particle density matrix, we observe that the representability conditions up to second order hold if and only if this generalized two-particle density matrix is positive semi-definite and the one- and the two-particle density matrices fulfill trace class and symmetry conditions. Moreover, we study the Bogolyubov-Hartree-Fock energy of boson and fermion systems. We generalize Lieb's variational principle which in its original formulation holds for purely repulsive particle interactions for fermions only. Our second main result is the following: for bosons, as well as for fermions the infimum of the energy for a variation over pure quasifree states coincides with the one for a variation over all quasifree states under the assumption that the Hamiltonian is bounded below. In the last section of Chapter 3 we specify the relation between centered quasifree states and their corresponding generalized one-particle density matrix, which finds an application in the variational process in the Bogolyubov-Hartree-Fock theory. It is

  14. On the problem of representability and the Bogolyubov-Hartree-Fock theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoerr, Hans Konrad

    2013-01-01

    The general topic of this thesis is an approximation of the ground state energy for many-particle quantum systems. In particular the Bogolyubov-Hartree-Fock theory and the representability of one- and two-particle density matrices are studied. After an introductory chapter we specify some basic notation of many-body quantum mechanics in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 we consider boson, as well as fermion systems. We first tackle the question of representability for bosons, i.e., the question which conditions a one- and a two-particle operator must satisfy to ensure that they are the one- and the two-particle density matrix of a state. For a particle number-conserving system, the representability conditions up to second order for bosons are well-known and called admissibility, P-, and G-conditions. Since, however, most physical systems consisting of bosons are not particle number-conserving, we give an alternative for such systems: Generalizing the two-particle density matrix, we observe that the representability conditions up to second order hold if and only if this generalized two-particle density matrix is positive semi-definite and the one- and the two-particle density matrices fulfill trace class and symmetry conditions. Moreover, we study the Bogolyubov-Hartree-Fock energy of boson and fermion systems. We generalize Lieb's variational principle which in its original formulation holds for purely repulsive particle interactions for fermions only. Our second main result is the following: for bosons, as well as for fermions the infimum of the energy for a variation over pure quasifree states coincides with the one for a variation over all quasifree states under the assumption that the Hamiltonian is bounded below. In the last section of Chapter 3 we specify the relation between centered quasifree states and their corresponding generalized one-particle density matrix, which finds an application in the variational process in the Bogolyubov-Hartree-Fock theory. It is

  15. Representation dependence of k -strings in pure Yang-Mills theory via supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Pellizzani, Vito

    2017-12-01

    We exploit a conjectured continuity between super Yang-Mills on R3×S1 and pure Yang-Mills to study k -strings in the latter theory. As expected, we find that Wilson-loop correlation functions depend on the N-ality of a representation R to the leading order. However, the next-to-leading order correction is not universal and is given by the group characters, in the representation R , of the permutation group. We also study W-bosons in super Yang-Mills. We show that they are deconfined on the string world sheet, and therefore, they can change neither the string N-ality nor its tension. This phenomenon mirrors the fact that soft gluons do not screen probe charges with nonzero N-ality in pure Yang-Mills. Finally, we comment on the scaling law of k -strings in super Yang-Mills and compare our findings with strings in Seiberg-Witten theory, deformed Yang-Mills theory, and holographic studies that were performed in the 't Hooft large-N limit.

  16. Social neuroscience and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol E

    2014-01-01

    The role of theory of mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorders and other communication impairments has been an active area of research in the last 30 years. Advances in neuroimaging in the last 10 years have led to the rise of the field of social neuroscience, which has markedly increased the understanding of the neurophysiological/neuroanatomical and neurochemical nature of ToM functioning and deficits in typically developing individuals and in children and adults with a variety of social and communication impairments. The goal of this paper is to (a) describe the current concepts of ToM based on neuroscience research, and (b) present a framework for the dimensions of ToM that have been identified, which can be used to guide assessment and intervention for persons with deficits in ToM that affect social interactions. This article presents neuroscience research that has documented the neurophysiological/neuroanatomical bases for cognitive and affective ToM and interpersonal and intrapersonal ToM as well as neurochemical and epigenetic influences on ToM. This information provides an important framework for assessing ToM deficits in persons with social and communication impairments and developing interventions that target the specific dimensions of ToM deficits. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Consumers' willingness to buy products with environmental and ethical claims: the roles of social representations and social identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Onwezen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how social representations and consumers' identification with organic food consumers affects intentions to buy products that make environmental and ethical claims. For the purposes of the study, an online panel study was conducted on a representative sample of consumers

  18. Rio de Janeiro's Waterfront: Urbanism and social representation of reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Iwata

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-modernity and economic globalization is inciting the competition among countries, regions and cities, in search of investments, consumers and resources. To pursue a new position in this global market, cities use new urban practices to re-discover and re-invent their identities and traditions, taken as attributes to attract consumers. In the city of Rio de Janeiro, the mythical dimension of the South Zone is inseparable and incorporated to its identity. In evaluating the history of Rio de Janeiro’s seaside, the social construction of its imagery and the projects that redesigned its urban signs, we can identify an intermittence of urban interventions, marked by the lack of a continuous management of the waterfront. We verify that, even though tourist marketing appraises the seaside as the main image of the city, it does not receive proportional attention from urban interventions, may be in account of not being understood as a social construction. We conclude that the importance of caring for the seaside must not be understood only as an esthetical question, but also as the valorization of Rio de Janeiro’s image, its inhabitants’ self-esteem and citizenship itself.

  19. Soap opera families: some elements of social representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Meira Menandro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soap operas are a cultural phenomenon of recognized importance in Brazilian society. They have come into the atention of investigators since they represent concrete social processes that are not strange to the spectator´s reality. A large variety of social themes have already been discussed in soap operas, characterizing a broad spectrum which covers from daily ordinary events up to controversial situation of rupture, forcing public debate. This investigation at empted to identify and analyze how family arrangements, as well as familial and conjugal daily routine, were portrayed in six soap opera plots exhibited between 2003 and 2008 by Rede Globo network. The data collection was performed by the analysis of the soap operas chapter synopses, and the data was organized and discussed using the classic content analysis technique. The way Brazilian family is portrayed in the weekly TV fiction incorporates new family arrangements, presenting new relationship construction possibilities originated during the last decades, in opposition to the conservative raditions

  20. Racial Assumptions Color the Mental Representation of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ryan F; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the racial content of perceivers' mental images of different socioeconomic categories. We selected participants who were either high or low in prejudice toward the poor. These participants saw 400 pairs of visually noisy face images. Depending on condition, participants chose the face that looked like a poor person, a middle income person, or a rich person. We averaged the faces selected to create composite images of each social class. A second group of participants rated the stereotypical Blackness of these images. They also rated the face images on a variety of psychological traits. Participants high in economic prejudice produced strongly class-differentiated mental images. They imagined the poor to be Blacker than middle income and wealthy people. They also imagined them to have less positive psychological characteristics. Participants low in economic prejudice also possessed images of the wealthy that were relatively White, but they represented poor and middle class people in a less racially differentiated way. We discuss implications for understanding the intersections of race and class in social perception.

  1. Development and cross-cultural validation of a shortened social representations scale of new foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, J.

    2013-01-01

    The original 27-item social representations scale, developed by Bäckström et al. (2004), consists of five dimensions: suspicion, adherence to technology, adherence to natural food, eating as an enjoyment, and eating as a necessity. The aim of the present study is twofold. First, in study 1, we

  2. Social Representations of Cybersecurity by University Students and Implications for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Suzanne D.; Jung, Yoonhyuk

    2015-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become an essential topic in introductory information systems (IS) core courses. As an aid to course design, the exploratory research in this paper uses a social representations lens to elucidate the perceptions of cybersecurity and cybersecurity threats held by students. Analysis of qualitative survey data from 152 students at a…

  3. Trust and social representations of the management of threatened and endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Cvetkovich; Patricia L. Winter

    2003-01-01

    Using quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses, observations during focus group discussions, and qualitative assessment of discussion statements, the present study examined trust and social representations of the U.S. Forest Service's management of Southern California national forests for the protection of endangered species. Supporting expectations based...

  4. Self-Representations of Social and Academic Competence: Contextual Correlates in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabella, Russell A.; Diener, Marissa L.

    2010-01-01

    Self-representations of 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-graders' social and academic competence were examined in relation to children's personal (grade/age); family (attachment to parents, marital conflict, anxiety related to conflict); and school (teacher appraisals) contexts. Children who reported higher levels of security of attachment to parents and lower…

  5. The Social Representations of HIV/AIDS and Condom Use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found a partial support to the social representation hypothesis that blame out-groups and African sexuality, may be sensitive to a broader construct of distancing. Personal moral attitudes about the sexual practices may be associated with safer sex. The results suggested the value of pursuing the investigation of ...

  6. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; J?rchel, Amrei C.; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22....

  7. [Social representations of municipal counselors regarding social control in health in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Pereira, Marcio Florentino; Cardoso, Antonio José Costa; Bermudez, Ximena Pamela Claudia Dias

    2013-08-01

    This study seeks to analyze the social representations of municipal health counselors regarding social control in health. Sixty interviews were conducted with counselors of nineteen counties within the Integrated Federal District Region and Surrounding Areas (RIDE-DF). Data analysis was conducted with the use of French Alceste software, which included two thematic groups. The first dealt with the weaknesses of health councils, consisting of four categories: limitations in decision-making powers, bureaucratization of everyday practices, weaknesses in social participation and limitations in the practice of representation. The second dealt with the health system in RIDE-DF, consisting of only one category that expresses the precarious organization of health care in RIDE-DF. Social representation of social control, with a focus on social participation appears to be constrained by a ritual, namely the bureaucratization of policies and practices in the councils. This form of hierarchical and bureaucratic organization and operation of the council, based on a centralizing management model, has distanced the counselors from discussing health needs geared to the construction of public Health Projects.

  8. A Comparison of Symbolic Racism Theory and Social Dominance Theory as Explanations for Racial Policy Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidanius, Jim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Defines symbolic racism theory and social dominance theory. Compares the two theories and how they affect racial policy attitudes such as busing, affirmative action, and welfare. Explains that the study reanalyses data previously collected. Discusses symbolic racism as a legitimizing myth. Reports that social dominance theory was more consistent…

  9. Theories and simulations of complex social systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mago, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Research into social systems is challenging due to their complex nature. Traditional methods of analysis are often difficult to apply effectively as theories evolve over time. This can be due to a lack of appropriate data, or too much uncertainty. It can also be the result of problems which are not yet understood well enough in the general sense so that they can be classified, and an appropriate solution quickly identified. Simulation is one tool that deals well with these challenges, fits in well with the deductive process, and is useful for testing theory. This field is still relatively new, and much of the work is necessarily innovative, although it builds upon a rich and varied foundation. There are a number of existing modelling paradigms being applied to complex social systems research. Additionally, new methods and measures are being devised through the process of conducting research. We expect that readers will enjoy the collection of high quality research works from new and accomplished researchers. ...

  10. SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF RUSSIAN AND BYELORUSSIANS ABOUT MAN’S ROLES DEPENDING ON COMMUNICATION WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS OF CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Brazhnik Julia Vladimirovna; Gritsenko Valentina Vasilevna

    2012-01-01

    Given article is devoted the analysis of social representations of young men about man's roles. On sample of Russian and Byelorussians (334 persons) by means of a scale of cultural values (G.Hofstede) and the modified variant of a technique «Semantic differential» directed on studying of representations of young men about traditional man's roles (the getter, the defender, the professional figure, the head of the family, the husband, the father), social representations about man's roles depend...

  11. The genetical theory of social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Laurent; Rousset, François

    2014-05-19

    We survey the population genetic basis of social evolution, using a logically consistent set of arguments to cover a wide range of biological scenarios. We start by reconsidering Hamilton's (Hamilton 1964 J. Theoret. Biol. 7, 1-16 (doi:10.1016/0022-5193(64)90038-4)) results for selection on a social trait under the assumptions of additive gene action, weak selection and constant environment and demography. This yields a prediction for the direction of allele frequency change in terms of phenotypic costs and benefits and genealogical concepts of relatedness, which holds for any frequency of the trait in the population, and provides the foundation for further developments and extensions. We then allow for any type of gene interaction within and between individuals, strong selection and fluctuating environments and demography, which may depend on the evolving trait itself. We reach three conclusions pertaining to selection on social behaviours under broad conditions. (i) Selection can be understood by focusing on a one-generation change in mean allele frequency, a computation which underpins the utility of reproductive value weights; (ii) in large populations under the assumptions of additive gene action and weak selection, this change is of constant sign for any allele frequency and is predicted by a phenotypic selection gradient; (iii) under the assumptions of trait substitution sequences, such phenotypic selection gradients suffice to characterize long-term multi-dimensional stochastic evolution, with almost no knowledge about the genetic details underlying the coevolving traits. Having such simple results about the effect of selection regardless of population structure and type of social interactions can help to delineate the common features of distinct biological processes. Finally, we clarify some persistent divergences within social evolution theory, with respect to exactness, synergies, maximization, dynamic sufficiency and the role of genetic arguments.

  12. Model representations of kerogen structures: An insight from density functional theory calculations and spectroscopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Philippe F; Kim, Eunja; Wang, Yifeng; Kruichak, Jessica N; Mills, Melissa M; Matteo, Edward N; Pellenq, Roland J-M

    2017-08-01

    Molecular structures of kerogen control hydrocarbon production in unconventional reservoirs. Significant progress has been made in developing model representations of various kerogen structures. These models have been widely used for the prediction of gas adsorption and migration in shale matrix. However, using density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) calculations and vibrational spectroscopic measurements, we here show that a large gap may still remain between the existing model representations and actual kerogen structures, therefore calling for new model development. Using DFPT, we calculated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra for six most widely used kerogen structure models. The computed spectra were then systematically compared to the FTIR absorption spectra collected for kerogen samples isolated from Mancos, Woodford and Marcellus formations representing a wide range of kerogen origin and maturation conditions. Limited agreement between the model predictions and the measurements highlights that the existing kerogen models may still miss some key features in structural representation. A combination of DFPT calculations with spectroscopic measurements may provide a useful diagnostic tool for assessing the adequacy of a proposed structural model as well as for future model development. This approach may eventually help develop comprehensive infrared (IR)-fingerprints for tracing kerogen evolution.

  13. The Role of Attachment Representation in the Relationship between Depressive Symptomatology and Social Withdrawal in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Ollendick, Thomas H.; King, Neville J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relationships among attachment representation, social withdrawal, and depressive symptomatology in childhood. A total of 326 children aged 8 to 10 years participated in the study. Children completed a family drawing procedure to assess attachment representation, the Children's Depression Inventory and the Social Withdrawal…

  14. Experience with adults shapes multisensory representation of social familiarity in the brain of a songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle George

    Full Text Available Social animals learn to perceive their social environment, and their social skills and preferences are thought to emerge from greater exposure to and hence familiarity with some social signals rather than others. Familiarity appears to be tightly linked to multisensory integration. The ability to differentiate and categorize familiar and unfamiliar individuals and to build a multisensory representation of known individuals emerges from successive social interactions, in particular with adult, experienced models. In different species, adults have been shown to shape the social behavior of young by promoting selective attention to multisensory cues. The question of what representation of known conspecifics adult-deprived animals may build therefore arises. Here we show that starlings raised with no experience with adults fail to develop a multisensory representation of familiar and unfamiliar starlings. Electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity throughout the primary auditory area of these birds, while they were exposed to audio-only or audiovisual familiar and unfamiliar cues, showed that visual stimuli did, as in wild-caught starlings, modulate auditory responses but that, unlike what was observed in wild-caught birds, this modulation was not influenced by familiarity. Thus, adult-deprived starlings seem to fail to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals. This suggests that adults may shape multisensory representation of known individuals in the brain, possibly by focusing the young's attention on relevant, multisensory cues. Multisensory stimulation by experienced, adult models may thus be ubiquitously important for the development of social skills (and of the neural properties underlying such skills in a variety of species.

  15. Parental and God Representations Among Individuals with Psychosis: A Grounded Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, Tracy A; Ottaviano, Patricia; Taveras, Alexa; Sepulveda, Carolyn; Torres, Julian

    2016-12-01

    Religiousness, spirituality, and social support have all been identified as having a positive impact on overall mental health outcomes. The current study describes quantitative and qualitative assessment of parental and God representations among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 46). Six salient themes emerged; participants described the importance of caregiver love and nurturance, need for God, loss of family members, love of God, concrete support provided by parents, and the ability to tolerate ambivalent feelings toward parents. Participants linked their relationships with parents and God to their process of recovery. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  16. The Schroedinger representation for φ4 theory and the O(N) σ-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachos, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this work we apply the field theoretical Schrodinger representation to the massive φ 4 theory and the O(N) σ model in 1+1 dimensions. The Schrodinger equation for the φ 4 theory is reviewed and then solved classically and semiclassically to obtain the vacuum functional as an expansion of local functionals. These results are compared with equivalent ones derived from the path integral formulation to prove their agreement with the conventional field theoretical methods. For the O(N)σ model we construct the functional Laplacian, which is the principal ingredient of the corresponding Schrodinger equation. This result is used to construct the generalised Virasoro operators for this model and study their algebra. (Author)

  17. The presa and the mother: social representations in the prison universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Lemos Silvério

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to problematize the exercise of motherhood in prison the brazilian from the contradiction of the social representations that surround these women – the prey and the mother. From a literature review we present the construction of the representation of the mother in contemporary society, the vision of crime female while a breach of the standards of the genre, and, finally, the clash between the roles of criminal and a mother who are on poles diametrically opposite, grounded in the denial of identity in addition to the district of the person transgressive.

  18. Social Representations Of Violence Against Rural Women: Unveiling Senses In Multiple Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cocco Costa

    Full Text Available We analyze the social representations of violence against women from the perspective of city managers, professionals and health workers in rural settings of the southern half of Rio Grande do Sul. The study has a qualitative approach and adds a theoretical/methodological perspective of social representations. The data were generated by means of the associative method, question-stimulus of words and expressions emergence. The analysis of word association was performed with EVOC software, considering frequency and order of association with inducing terms. Participants recognize violence against women as gender destination that induces consent, resignation, guilt and fear, and results in naturalization and trivialization of this social phenomenon. We highlight the need to produce ruptures in established and traditional forms of health care, in the conservative and stereotypical views of violence, favoring access to friendly service and avoiding the reproduction of gender inequalities.

  19. Social Representations Of Violence Against Rural Women: Unveiling Senses In Multiple Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cocco Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the social representations of violence against women from the perspective of city managers, professionals and health workers in rural settings of the southern half of Rio Grande do Sul. The study has a qualitative approach and adds a theoretical/methodological perspective of social representations. The data were generated by means of the associative method, question-stimulus of words and expressions emergence. The analysis of word association was performed with EVOC software, considering frequency and order of association with inducing terms. Participants recognize violence against women as gender destination that induces consent, resignation, guilt and fear, and results in naturalization and trivialization of this social phenomenon. We highlight the need to produce ruptures in established and traditional forms of health care, in the conservative and stereotypical views of violence, favoring access to friendly service and avoiding the reproduction of gender inequalities.

  20. Kac--Moody current algebras of D = 2 massless gauge theories, their representations and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Nahm, W.; Narain, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    We give a classification of the Kac--Moody current algebras of all the possible massless fermion-gauge theories in two dimensions. It is shown that only Kac--Moody algebras based on A/sub N/, B/sub N/, C/sub N/, and D/sub N/ in the Cartan classification with all possible central charge occur.The representation of local fermion fields and simply laced Kac--Moody algebras with minimal central charge in terms of free boson fields on a compactified space is discussed in detail, where stress is laid on the role played by the boundary conditions on the various collective modes. Fractional solitons and the possible soliton representation of certain nonsimply laced algebras is also analysed. We briefly discuss the relationship between the massless bound state sector of these two-dimensional gauge theories and the critically coupled two-dimensional nonlinear sigma model, which share the same current algebra. Finally we briefly discuss the relevance of Sp(n) Kac--Moody algebras to the physics of monopole-fermion systems. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  1. Feminist Theory and the Media Representation of a Woman-of-Color Superintendent: Is the World Ready for Cyborgs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiko

    2000-01-01

    Discusses recent feminist theory, in particular feminist theory related to "cyborg" identity and examines some media representations of a woman-of-color superintendent. Suggests that the cyborg image offers alternative ways to consider the issue of diversity and educational leadership, including the superintendency. (Author/SLD)

  2. A social network model for the development of a 'Theory of Mind'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harré, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    A "Theory of Mind" is one of the most important skills we as humans have developed; It enables us to infer the mental states and intentions of others, build stable networks of relationships and it plays a central role in our psychological make-up and development. Findings published earlier this year have also shown that we as a species as well as each of us individually benefit from the enlargement of the underlying neuro-anatomical regions that support our social networks, mediated by our Theory of Mind that stabilises these networks. On the basis of such progress and that of earlier work, this paper draws together several different strands from psychology, behavioural economics and network theory in order to generate a novel theoretical representation of the development of our social-cognition and how subsequent larger social networks enables much of our cultural development but at the increased risk of mental disorders.

  3. Social representations of consumption of drugs in a university context, Medellin, Colombia, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Henao H

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify and characterize the social representationsof drug use in a university context. Methodology: aframework was built by collecting the contributions of symbolicinteractionism, interpretive ethnography, and textualanalysis. Data collection was performed through 27 semistructuredinterviews and 7 focus groups. Likewise, the ReadingParadigm, proposed by a cultural hermeneutics of anthropologicalnature, was used as an analysis technique. Resultsand discussion: we observed social representations such asdrug use as a socializing element facilitating social relationsand as an element that gives meaning to life by putting thesubject in a context where he or she is accepted. Conclusion:certain socially constructed forms of knowledge appear in thesignifiers of drugs. They generate, through the functions of socialrepresentations, satisfiers that make it possible, throughcommunication, to construct languages that shape the identitywithin the group and favor adaptation to the social environmentof the university.

  4. Social Justice and Lesbian Feminism: Two Theories Applied to Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Levy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in contemporary social work include the use of an eclectic theory base. In an effort to incorporate multiple theories, this article will examine the social problem of homophobia using two different theoretical perspectives: John Rawls’ theory of social justice and lesbian feminist theory.Homophobia, a current social problem, can be defined as “dislike or hatred toward homosexuals, including both cultural and personal biases against homosexuals” (Sullivan, 2003, p. 2. Rawls’ theory of justice and lesbian feminist theory are especially relevant to the issue of homophobia and provide a useful lens to understanding this social problem. In this article, these two theories will be summarized, applied to the issue of homophobia, and compared and contrasted based on their utility.

  5. Political representation for social justice in nursing: lessons learned from participant research with destitute asylum seekers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthill, Fiona

    2016-09-01

    The concept of social justice is making a revival in nursing scholarship, in part in response to widening health inequalities and inequities in high-income countries. In particular, critical nurse scholars have sought to develop participatory research methods using peer researchers to represent the 'voice' of people who are living in marginalized spaces in society. The aim of this paper is to report on the experiences of nurse and peer researchers as part of a project to explore the experiences of people who find themselves destitute following the asylum process in the UK. In seeking to explore social injustice, three challenges are identified: lack of a robust political theory, institutional/professional constraints and an absence of skills to engage with the politics of social (in)justice. Each challenge is presented, opposing voices outlined and some possible solutions are suggested. The work of political theorist Nancy Fraser is used as a conceptual framework, in particular her focus on mis/framing and political representation for social justice. In addition, it is suggested that social justice needs to be further embedded in nursing policy and curriculum. Finally, nurses are encouraged to develop practical political skills to engage with both politics and the media in a neoliberal globalizing world. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Representacion social del alcoholismo de personas alcohólicas Social representation of alcoholism in alcoholic persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alonso Alvarez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo realiza una valoración general de la categoría representación social así como de su importancia en la investigación psicosocial del alcoholismo. Se estudian 100 sujetos alcohólicos, 50 en tratamiento y 50 sin tratamiento, de la ciudad de São João del Rei. A los mismos se les aplicó entrevista y asociación libre. Se analiza tanto la representación social de la muestra de alcohólicos como una comparación de los subgrupos que la integran. Se concluye que no es posible hablar de una representación general del alcoholismo, existe una representación diferente en los subgrupos en función de si reciben o no tratamiento y del consumo o no del alcohol.This article carries out a general evaluation on the Social Representation category and its importance in the psychosocial investigation of alcoholism. One-hundred alcoholic persons were studied, 50 in treatment and 50 without treatment, residents in São João del Rei/MG. The techniques of interview and free association were applied. The social representation of alcoholism is analyzed in the sample as well as in each subgroup that was part of it. It was concluded that there is no general representation of alcoholism, but there are differences in the social representation of alcoholism among the subgroups, depending whether they receive treatment or not and if there is alcohol consumption.

  7. Conformal windows of SU(N) gauge theories, higher dimensional representations, and the size of the unparticle world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We present the conformal windows of SU(N) supersymmetric and nonsupersymmetric gauge theories with vectorlike matter transforming according to higher irreducible representations of the gauge group. We determine the fraction of asymptotically free theories expected to develop an infrared fixed point and find that it does not depend on the specific choice of the representation. This result is exact in supersymmetric theories while it is an approximate one in the nonsupersymmetric case. The analysis allows us to size the unparticle world related to the existence of underlying gauge theories developing an infrared stable fixed point. We find that exactly 50% of the asymptotically free theories can develop an infrared fixed point while for the nonsupersymmetric theories it is circa 25%. When considering multiple representations, only for the nonsupersymmetric case, the conformal regions quickly dominate over the nonconformal ones. For four representations, 70% of the asymptotically free space is filled by the conformal region. According to our theoretical landscape survey the unparticle physics world occupies a sizable amount of the particle world, at least in theory space, and before mixing it (at the operator level) with the nonconformal one

  8. El impacto de las representaciones sociales en la psicología de los conocimientos sociales: problemas y perspectivas The impact of social representations on the psychology of social knowledge: issues and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Castorina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios psicológicos sobre la formación de nociones sociales de los niños se han llevado a cabo en los términos de una actividad intelectual exclusivamente individual y en una secuencia temporal. Se muestran las dificultades de este enfoque, como por ejemplo, que no explican la perduración de nociones "personalizadas" de la historia durante el desarrollo, más allá del avance propiamente conceptual. Se propone utilizar a la teoría de las representaciones sociales, que considera a al niño como un actor social y cuyo foco está en los valores, que no pueden ser organizados en una secuencia lógica. Luego, se examinan los problemas que involucra utilizar las representaciones sociales en la psicología del desarrollo: si su definición es aceptable, si corresponde al orden simbólico y no a una actividad individual; si son irracionales o tienen otra lógica que los conceptos individuales. Finalmente, se aclaran cuáles son las condiciones epistémicas mínimas para establecer un diálogo entre algunos programas de investigación en psicología del conocimiento y la psicología de las representaciones sociales.Psychological studies on the formation of social notions by children have been conducted in terms of an exclusively individual intellectual activity in a time sequence. We show the difficulties of this approach, which does not, for example, explain the persistence of "personalized" notions of history during development, besides actual conceptual advancement. We propose to use the theory of social representations, which considers the child as a social actor and focuses on values, which may not be organized in a logical sequence. We then examine the issues posed by using social representations in developmental psychology: whether its definition is acceptable, whether it corresponds to the symbolic order and not to an individual activity; whether it is irrational or has a logic other than individual concepts. We finally shed light on

  9. Rights and Responsibilities in the Light of Social Contract Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Morte, Michael W.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the influence of the social contract on American institutions, due process when liberty and property are involved, the nature of an individual's responsibility to the government, and the application of social contract theory to education. (Author/IRT)

  10. The social representations of dance in physical education classes in the early years of primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Schiebelbein Capri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey of social representations of dance in the context of School Physical Education. The survey was conducted in two city schools and two private schools in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. The observation and the questionnaire were the instruments used to collect data. Five teachers of Physical Education and 331 students of Primary Education (5th year of Primary Education took part in the research. The results indicate that the social representations of dance teachers are related to holidays and anniversaries of the school and students, to pleasure and to musical preference. The practice of dance in the school has room for choreographic creations, June Festival rehearsals, and school presentations.

  11. Commercializing Fantasies: Social Representations of Prostitution, Dilemmas of the Profession and the Construction of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Guimarães

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents facts, perceptions and social representations on the daily life of female commercial sex workers (FCSW. We evaluated 8 educational intervention programs on STD/AIDS addressed to FCSW in cities of southern, south-eastern and north-eastern Brazilian regions. In those places, we conducted in-depth interviews and focal groups. Results indicate that the representation of a woman who sells her body is resignified as the performance of erotic fantasies. Possibilities of greater autonomy are hampered by discrimination and psychological tension. Client and police-driven violence were remarkable. Condom use plays a relevant role in sex negotiation but it is neglected when relationships involve affection or as a result of competition. We conclude, from the perspective of autonomy, that FCSW´s autonomy is limited by social class, economical crisis and stigma, leading to discrimination, violence and STD/HIV contagion risk.

  12. Racism and Ethnocentrism: Social Representations of Preservice Teachers in the Context of Multi- and Intercultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Carignan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a constructivist inquiry paradigm, the authors attempted in their content analysis to understand the social representations on race and ethnocentrism of preservice secondary teachers studying in an urban university in a Midwest city in the United States. Although social representations can be understood as something in which our participants deeply believe, this study suggests that racial and ethnocentric biases should be examined in the context of multi- and intercultural education. The authors favor a way of revisiting taken-for-granted ideas toward traditional, liberal, and critical or radical multiculturalism. They argue for the recognition not only of the differences and diversity of students (multicultural perspective but also of the way in which teachers understand, communicate, and interact with them (intercultural perspective.

  13. Application of fuzzy logic to social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mordeson, John N; Clark, Terry D

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy social choice theory is useful for modeling the uncertainty and imprecision prevalent in social life yet it has been scarcely applied and studied in the social sciences. Filling this gap, Application of Fuzzy Logic to Social Choice Theory provides a comprehensive study of fuzzy social choice theory.The book explains the concept of a fuzzy maximal subset of a set of alternatives, fuzzy choice functions, the factorization of a fuzzy preference relation into the ""union"" (conorm) of a strict fuzzy relation and an indifference operator, fuzzy non-Arrowian results, fuzzy versions of Arrow's

  14. Social perception and "spectator theories" of other minds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Søren; Krueger, Joel William

    2013-01-01

    We resist Schilbach et al.'s characterization of the "social perception" approach to social cognition as a "spectator theory" of other minds. We show how the social perception view acknowledges the crucial role interaction plays in enabling social understanding. We also highlight a dilemma...

  15. Role Socialization Theory: The Sociopolitical Realities of Teaching Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned about the socialization of physical education (PE) teachers using occupational socialization theory (OST). However, important to understanding any socialization process is explaining how the roles that individuals play are socially constructed and contextually bound. OST falls short of providing a comprehensive overview of…

  16. Social Class and Work-Related Decisions: Measurement, Theory, and Social Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Fitzpatrick, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    In this reaction to Diemer and Ali's article, "Integrating Social Class Into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications," the authors point out concerns with binary schema of social class, highlight the contribution of social class to the social cognitive career theory, argue for a more nuanced look at ways that work…

  17. Family Caregivers’ Social Representations of Death in a Palliative Care Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Lessard; Bernard-Simon Leclerc; Suzanne Mongeau

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to consider the social representations of death of family caregivers in a palliative care context. The authors focused on the analysis of 23 interviews with family caregivers who cared for a terminally ill person at home and/or in a specialized palliative care unit, in Québec, Canada. The finding showed that family caregivers had different images that specifically represented death: (a) ...

  18. Non-Perturbative Asymptotic Improvement of Perturbation Theory and Mellin-Barnes Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Friot

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a method mixing Mellin-Barnes representation and Borel resummation we show how to obtain hyperasymptotic expansions from the (divergent formal power series which follow from the perturbative evaluation of arbitrary ''N-point'' functions for the simple case of zero-dimensional φ4 field theory. This hyperasymptotic improvement appears from an iterative procedure, based on inverse factorial expansions, and gives birth to interwoven non-perturbative partial sums whose coefficients are related to the perturbative ones by an interesting resurgence phenomenon. It is a non-perturbative improvement in the sense that, for some optimal truncations of the partial sums, the remainder at a given hyperasymptotic level is exponentially suppressed compared to the remainder at the preceding hyperasymptotic level. The Mellin-Barnes representation allows our results to be automatically valid for a wide range of the phase of the complex coupling constant, including Stokes lines. A numerical analysis is performed to emphasize the improved accuracy that this method allows to reach compared to the usual perturbative approach, and the importance of hyperasymptotic optimal truncation schemes.

  19. On the Representation Theory of the Ultrahyperbolic BMS group UHB(2, 2). I. General Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melas, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    The Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group B is the common asymptotic group of all asymptotically flat (lorentzian) space-times, and is the best candidate for the universal symmetry group of General Relativity (G.R.). B admits generalizations to real space-times of any signature, to complex space-times, and supersymmetric generalizations for any space- time dimension. With this motivation McCarthy constructed the strongly continuous unitary irreducible representations (IRs) of B some time ago, and he identified B(2,2) as the generalization of B appropriate to the to the 'ultrahyperbolic signature' (+,+,−,−) and asymptotic flatness in null directions. We continue this programme by introducing a new group UHB(2, 2) in the group theoretical study of ultrahyperbolic G.R. which happens to be a proper subgroup of B(2, 2). In this short paper we report on the first general results on the representation theory of UHB(2, 2). In particular the main general results are that the all little groups of UHB(2, 2) are compact and that the Wigner-Mackey's inducing construction is exhaustive despite the fact that UHB(2, 2) is not locally compact in the employed Hilbert topology. At the end of the paper we comment on the significance of these results

  20. First results on the representation theory of the Ultrahyperbolic BMS group UHB(2, 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melas, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    The Bondi–Metzner–Sachs (BMS) group B is the common asymptotic group of all asymptotically flat (lorentzian) space–times, and is the best candidate for the universal symmetry group of General Relativity (G.R.). B admits generalizations to real space–times of any signature, to complex space–times, and supersymmetric generalizations for any space— time dimension. With this motivation McCarthy constructed the strongly continuous unitary irreducible representations (IRs) of B some time ago, and he identified B(2,2) as the generalization of B appropriate to the to the ultrahyperbolic signature (+,+,−,−) and asymptotic flatness in null directions. We continue this programme by introducing a new group UHB(2, 2) in the group theoretical study of ultrahyperbolic G.R. which happens to be a proper subgroup of B(2, 2). We report on the first general results on the representation theory of UHB(2, 2). In particular the main general results are that the all little groups of UHB(2, 2) are compact and that the Wigner–Mackeys inducing construction is exhaustive despite the fact that UHB(2, 2) is not locally compact in the employed Hilbert topology. (paper)

  1. New BCJ representations for one-loop amplitudes in gauge theories and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Song; Schlotterer, Oliver; Zhang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    We explain a procedure to manifest the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson duality between color and kinematics in n-point one-loop amplitudes of a variety of supersymmetric gauge theories. Explicit amplitude representations are constructed through a systematic reorganization of the integrands in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism. Our construction holds for any nonzero number of supersymmetries and does not depend on the number of spacetime dimensions. The cancellations from supersymmetry multiplets in the loop as well as the resulting power counting of loop momenta is manifested along the lines of the corresponding superstring computations. The setup is used to derive the one-loop version of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye formula for the loop integrands of gravitational amplitudes.

  2. Nonadiabatic dynamics in the semiclassical Liouville representation: Locality, transformation theory, and the energy budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Craig C., E-mail: cmartens@uci.edu

    2016-12-20

    In this paper, we revisit the semiclassical Liouville approach to describing molecular dynamics with electronic transitions using classical trajectories. Key features of the formalism are highlighted. The locality in phase space and presence of nonclassical terms in the generalized Liouville equations are emphasized and discussed in light of trajectory surface hopping methodology. The representation dependence of the coupled semiclassical Liouville equations in the diabatic and adiabatic bases are discussed and new results for the transformation theory of the Wigner functions representing the corresponding density matrix elements given. We show that the diagonal energies of the state populations are not conserved during electronic transitions, as energy is stored in the electronic coherence. We discuss the implications of this observation for the validity of imposing strict energy conservation in trajectory based methods for simulating nonadiabatic processes.

  3. Identifying autism from neural representations of social interactions: neurocognitive markers of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Marcel Adam; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Buchweitz, Augusto; Keller, Timothy A; Mitchell, Tom M

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a psychiatric/neurological condition in which alterations in social interaction (among other symptoms) are diagnosed by behavioral psychiatric methods. The main goal of this study was to determine how the neural representations and meanings of social concepts (such as to insult) are altered in autism. A second goal was to determine whether these alterations can serve as neurocognitive markers of autism. The approach is based on previous advances in fMRI analysis methods that permit (a) the identification of a concept, such as the thought of a physical object, from its fMRI pattern, and (b) the ability to assess the semantic content of a concept from its fMRI pattern. These factor analysis and machine learning methods were applied to the fMRI activation patterns of 17 adults with high-functioning autism and matched controls, scanned while thinking about 16 social interactions. One prominent neural representation factor that emerged (manifested mainly in posterior midline regions) was related to self-representation, but this factor was present only for the control participants, and was near-absent in the autism group. Moreover, machine learning algorithms classified individuals as autistic or control with 97% accuracy from their fMRI neurocognitive markers. The findings suggest that psychiatric alterations of thought can begin to be biologically understood by assessing the form and content of the altered thought's underlying brain activation patterns.

  4. Mexican high school students' social representations of mathematics, its teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sierra, Gustavo; Miranda-Tirado, Marisa

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a qualitative research that identifies Mexican high school students' social representations of mathematics. For this purpose, the social representations of 'mathematics', 'learning mathematics' and 'teaching mathematics' were identified in a group of 50 students. Focus group interviews were carried out in order to obtain the data. The constant comparative style was the strategy used for the data analysis because it allowed the categories to emerge from the data. The students' social representations are: (A) Mathematics is…(1) important for daily life, (2) important for careers and for life, (3) important because it is in everything that surrounds us, (4) a way to solve problems of daily life, (5) calculations and operations with numbers, (6) complex and difficult, (7) exact and (6) a subject that develops thinking skills; (B) To learn mathematics is…(1) to possess knowledge to solve problems, (2) to be able to solve everyday problems, (3) to be able to make calculations and operations, and (4) to think logically to be able to solve problems; and (C) To teach mathematics is…(1) to transmit knowledge, (2) to know to share it, (3) to transmit the reasoning ability, and (4) to show how to solve problems.

  5. INTERPLAY OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS, TRAUMA AND VICTIMIZATION IN INTRACTABLE CONFLICTS: THE CASE OF THE CYPRUS CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Lavinia Bădulescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intractable conflicts are conflicts that persist over a long period of time, resist various attempts of resolution, and present sporadic episodes of violence juxtaposed with periods of relative calm. Also, they contain a large share of psychosocial factors which lend to their uniqueness while also adding to their complexity. The Cypriot conflict is such a conflict. It has been on the agenda of the international community for over four decades, it has gone through a number of occasional violent episodes that fluctuated in frequency and intensity, and has resisted various peace mediation efforts. As a result, the conflicting parties remained locked in an adversarial relationship and fixed in terms of fundamental grievances. This paper aims to explore the interplay of social representations, trauma and victimization in the Cyprus conflict, and their implications on the prospects for its further settlement. Specifically, using discourse analysis as a research method, this paper analyses both the Greek-Cypriot and Turkish-Cypriot official discourse during 1983-2012 in order to see how the two parties represent the conflict, and whether past trauma and victimization influence their social representations. Close attention to the key themes emerging from the two parties’ official discourse helps to deepen understanding of the role and effect social representations, trauma and victimization play in the perpetuation of the Cyprus conflict.

  6. Improving Feature Representation Based on a Neural Network for Author Profiling in Social Media Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Adorno, Helena; Markov, Ilia; Sidorov, Grigori; Posadas-Durán, Juan-Pablo; Sanchez-Perez, Miguel A; Chanona-Hernandez, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a lexical resource for preprocessing social media data. We show that a neural network-based feature representation is enhanced by using this resource. We conducted experiments on the PAN 2015 and PAN 2016 author profiling corpora and obtained better results when performing the data preprocessing using the developed lexical resource. The resource includes dictionaries of slang words, contractions, abbreviations, and emoticons commonly used in social media. Each of the dictionaries was built for the English, Spanish, Dutch, and Italian languages. The resource is freely available.

  7. Words about body and soul: social representations relating to health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsbring, Pia

    2012-11-01

    The purpose was to examine a sample of Stockholm residents' social representations of their physical and mental health and ill-health. Four open-ended questions were answered by 1240 people between 18-80 years. A thematic analysis revealed nine aspects of health: physical, lifestyle, psychological, social, recreational, work and study, treatment, other and multifactorial aspects. Some cross-cutting themes were described to have an impact on health: empowerment, health-conscious lifestyle, life balance and life perspective. A key result is the interdependence between physical and mental health that was described by the respondents.

  8. The decline of faith in progress.Posmaterialism, ideology and religiosity in the social representations of technoscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Torres Albero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary societies, social representations of technoscience have become more complex and polyhedral, moving away from traditional positive conceptions. We explore the growing importance of ambivalence in their analysis, as well as questioning the cognitive deficit model as an explanatory theory. We note that cognitive shortcuts linked to the level of religiosity and post-materialist values have a decisive role in shaping the positions on controversial aspects of science and technology. Furthermore, we conclude that these links vary in different national cultures. In Spain, the problematization of the impacts of technoscience is associated with both lower levels of religiosity and the increase of post-materialist concerns due to the secularization of the society.

  9. Unitary representations of some infinite-dimensional Lie algebras motivated by string theory on AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Oleg

    1999-01-01

    We consider some unitary representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras motivated by string theory on AdS 3 . These include examples of two kinds: the A,D,E type affine Lie algebras and the N=4 superconformal algebra. The first presents a new construction for free field representations of affine Lie algebras. The second is of a particular physical interest because it provides some hints that a hybrid of the NSR and GS formulations for string theory on AdS 3 exists

  10. More similarities than differences in contemporary theories of social development?: a plea for theory bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Many contemporary theories of social development are similar and/or share complementary constructs. Yet, there have been relatively few efforts toward theoretical integration. The present chapter represents a call for increased theory bridging. The problem of theoretical fragmentation in psychology is reviewed. Seven highlighted reasons for this predicament include differences between behavioral sciences and other sciences, theoretical paradigms as social identities, the uniqueness assumption, information overload, field fixation, linguistic fragmentation, and few incentives for theoretical integration. Afterward, the feasibility of theoretical synthesis is considered. Finally, some possible directions are proposed for theoretical integration among five contemporary theories of social and gender development: social cognitive theory, expectancy-value theory, cognitive-developmental theory, gender schema theory, and self-categorization theory.

  11. Applying Social Capital Theory and the Technology Acceptance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying Social Capital Theory and the Technology Acceptance Model in information and knowledge sharing research. ... Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... The paper explains the components, relevance and practical applicability of the two theories to information and knowledge sharing research.

  12. Elaborations of grounded theory in information research: arenas/social worlds theory, discourse and situational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, A.C.; Sen, B.A.; Rosa, A.; Ellis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores elaborations of Grounded Theory in relation to Arenas/Social Worlds Theory. The notions of arenas and social worlds were present in early applications of Grounded Theory but have not been as much used or recognised as the general Grounded Theory approach, particularly in the information studies field. The studies discussed here are therefore very unusual in information research. The empirical contexts of these studies are those of (1) the role of discourse in the organisat...

  13. Social Role Theory and Social Role Valorization for Care Management Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas J; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes that social role theory (SRT) and social role valorization (SRV) be established as organizing theories for care managers. SRT is a recognized sociological theory that has a distinctive place in care management practice. SRV is an adjunct for SRT that focuses on people who are devalued by being in a negative social position and supports behavior change and movement to a valued social position.

  14. Incorporating political socialization theory into baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S G

    1996-01-01

    Political socialization theory explains how an individual develops a political belief system. As the health care system undergoes dramatic changes, nursing faculty should use political socialization theory to enhance the education of student nurses. A political thread can be woven through the nursing curricula, and students can be socialized to the political role. The new generation of nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity. Political socialization theory can guide nursing faculty as knowledge of the political system and political skills are incorporated into nursing curricula.

  15. Emancipatory Nursing Praxis: A Theory of Social Justice in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Robin R

    Emancipatory nursing praxis (ENP) is a middle-range nursing theory of social justice developed from an international, grounded theory study of the critical factors influencing nurses' perceptions of their role in social justice. The ENPs implementing processes (becoming, awakening, engaging, and transforming) and 2 conditional contexts (relational and reflexive) provide an in-depth understanding of the transformative learning process that determines nurse engagement in social justice. Interpretive findings include the voice of Privilege primarily informed ENP theory, the lack of nursing educational and organizational support in social justice role development, and the advocate role should expand to include the role of an ally.

  16. Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite the swift spread of social network concepts and their applications and the rising use of network analysis in social science, there is no book that provides a thorough general introduction for the serious reader. "Understanding Social Networks" fills that gap by explaining the big ideas that underlie the social network phenomenon.…

  17. Wittgenstein and the linguistic turn in social theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jens Christian

    of Winch in social theory, the wider and more recent influence of Wittgenstein in areas such as technology and science studies, social theory, feminist and gender studies and conversation and discourse analysis is also considered. Historically, the readings of Wittgenstein in the social sciences have taken...... of the linguistic turn in social theory, the linguistic turn is a double-edged sword of both profound insights and limits; the claim is that the limits of the linguistic turn are the strengths of functionalist, structuralist and materialist approaches to the social sciences. The approach of the critical turn...... is to develop a more comprehensive social theory that is sensitive to these strengths and thus supersedes the limits of the linguistic turn. This paper suggests a different approach. Against the critical turn, the paper argues that the limits of the linguistic turn are identical with the very assumptions...

  18. La representación social de la democracia de adolescentes argentinos (The social representation of democracy of Argentinean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late twentieth century, several studies have shown the distancing and dissatisfaction of citizens of different ages in relation to political parties, which has led to the phenomenon known as a crisis of political representation. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the social representations of democracy of Argentinean adolescents. A study was conducted using intentional sampling that included 376 participants between the ages of 16 and 18 years (M=16.87, SD=0.734. The participants were administered the word association technique with the word “democracy” as the inductor term. The results show that the central core of the participants’ social representation of democracy consisted of the following terms: “vote, freedom, equality, rights, people, freedom of expression, participation, and opinion”. In conclusion, the participants thought of democracy in terms of values and operating mechanisms inherent to the representative democracy political system, although they did not associate it with politics or a government institution.

  19. AIDS and jail: social representations of women in freedom deprivation situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Raquel Soares Guedes Trigueiro

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To graspthe AIDS social representations built by freedom-deprived women. METHOD Descriptive study with a quali-quantitative approach that involved 174 convicted women in a women's prison in a capital city of the Brazilian northeastern region. Aword-association test was applied in October and November 2014, using AIDS as a stimulus. The corpuswas processed usingIramuteq software. Descending Hierarchical Classification and Correspondence Factor Analysis were applied. RESULTS The content that comprises the social representation of AIDS was influenced by the prison context, which was pervaded by a lack of assistance, lack of knowledge, discrimination, and suffering that disclosed vulnerability to HIV/AIDS factors such as unprotected sex and object sharing. This underlines the stigma and fear of the illness, in addition to favoring and supporting negative feelings and a sense of rejection. CONCLUSION To consider the use of this representational amalgam to ensure a comprehensive, contextualized care can help redirect practices, motivate self-care practices, and reduce prejudiced attitudes.

  20. The "Other" Speaks Up. When Social Science (Representations Provoke Reactance from the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses science communication problems: How do researchers convey social science representations and findings to the researched? How are the latter described in research reports? How do they react when they read or hear such reports and when they subsequently engage in discourse with researchers? Typically, social science researchers approach a field site with an attitude of curiosity that is unburdened by an immediate pressure to act. The field inhabitants, by contrast, are subject to the practical constraints of these everyday worlds; they identify personally with their milieu and its protagonists, and they are correspondingly sensitive. The present paper describes their defensive reactions, taking as an example the reception of a research project presented at conferences attended by a mixed audience. It highlights the reactions and strategies displayed by the researched in the contexts of discourse and meaning negotiation in response to unwelcome representations. And it offers several interpretations of the interactions between the researchers and the researched. Field members may oppose the revelation of contextual and causal factors construing it as "washing dirty laundry in public". Researchers react to this in their textual representations, and their reactions may take the form of score-settling. The present paper asks how such contradictory, conflict-laden constellations and perspectives in the discourse between the observers and the observed can be productively dealt with. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102233

  1. The representation of politics and social movements on the new digital media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María García-Arranz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, representation is presented as an area of controversy in political and symbolic battles. The absence of any dialogue and the unbridgeable distance between representatives and represented has resulted in the revolutionary activation of social movements that have managed to coordinate the overall question with  the compelling individuality of today’s society. In this context, the media create and determine, with its speech, the social representations and the evaluation of the behavior of political and social leaders in a time when the ways in which public discourse is created is qualitatively transformed. This research note outlines the situation of politics and its social representation in the published opinion in the spanish digital newspapers, delving into the changes that put us in a significantly different public sphere of that we have known so far. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Family cumulative risk and at-risk kindergarteners' social competence: the mediating role of parent representations of the attachment relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lauren A; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Owusu, Erika; McLear, Caitlin; Smith-Darden, Joanne

    2018-08-01

    Secure attachment relationships have been linked to social competence in at-risk children. In the current study, we examined the role of parent secure base scripts in predicting at-risk kindergarteners' social competence. Parent representations of secure attachment were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between lower family cumulative risk and children's social competence. Participants included 106 kindergarteners and their primary caregivers recruited from three urban charter schools serving low-income families as a part of a longitudinal study. Lower levels of cumulative risk predicted greater secure attachment representations in parents, and scores on the secure base script assessment predicted children's social competence. An indirect relationship between lower cumulative risk and kindergarteners' social competence via parent secure base script scores was also supported. Parent script-based representations of the attachment relationship appear to be an important link between lower levels of cumulative risk and low-income kindergarteners' social competence. Implications of these findings for future interventions are discussed.

  3. Winners, Socially Displaced and Cinderellas: Representations of Race and Social Climbing in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pisano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the study of articles published in Colombian magazines (particularly Cromos magazine in the second half of the twentieth century, this article proposes the analysis of some representations about upward mobility of black people. Consideration is given to the stories of some characters at different times: the judge Jose Antonio Camacho, the boxer Kid Pambelé, the model Laura Mosquera and the pianist Teresa Gómez. Although they emerged in different professional contexts, narratives about their paths have in common the emphasis on how the class representations articulated with the race and gender ones and were used to show the difficulty for a black person to be inserted in a social context different from the popular sectors, showing both their alleged incompatibility with the values of the middle class as well as the inability to fully integrate into a society dominated by whites.

  4. A grounded theory of Internet and social media use by young people who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynan, Amanda; Goldbart, Juliet; Murray, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual grounded theory for how young people with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), perceive using the Internet and social media. The aims of the research were to understand and contextualise their perceptions of access and use and explore implications for self-representation and social participation; to date literature on this topic is limited. A constructivist grounded theory research approach concurrently collected and analysed interview data from 25 participants (aged 14-24 years) who use AAC and additional sources. A conceptual grounded theory was developed around an emergent core category that showed young people who use AAC have a clear desire to use the Internet and social media. This was underpinned by eight supporting categories: reported use, described support, online challenges, access technology, speech generating device (SGD) issues, self-determination, self-representation and online social ties. The conceptual grounded theory supports understanding of facilitators and challenges to use of the Internet and social media by young people with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy who use AAC. The grounded theory illustrates how the desire to use the Internet and social media is based upon perceived benefits for enriching social relationships and enhancing opportunities for self-representation and self-determination that are synonymous with identified antecedents for community-based social inclusion. Some of the participants are engaging with the Internet and social media through collaborative practice and the implications for how this phenomenon may impact on orthographic literacy and the personal care workforce are raised.

  5. Social representation of domestic violence against women among Nursing Technicians and Community Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Daiane Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the social representations of the Nursing Technicians and Community Health Agents about domestic violence against women. METHOD A qualitative study carried out in the city of Rio Grande, RS, in which evocations and interviews were collected between July and November 2013. For the treatment of data were used the EVOC 2005 software and the context analysis. RESULT It is a structured representation, in which the central nucleus contains conceptual, imaging and attitudinal elements, namely: abuse, aggression, physical aggression, cowardice and lack of respect. Such terms were present in the context of the interviews. The professionals acknowledged that violence is not limited to physical aspects and were judgemental about the acts of the aggressor. CONCLUSION This knowledge may enable the problematization of the studied phenomenon with the team, and facilitate the search for prevention and intervention strategies for victims, offenders and managers of health services.

  6. Social Cognitive Career Theory and Middle School Student Career Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickinger, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of social cognitive career theory, social cognitive career variables, demographic variables, and the contextual variable, parent support, were examined to determine their predictive value for eighth-grade students' career exploration behavior. Results suggest that the social cognitive career variable, intentions/goals,…

  7. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  8. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J; Domínguez D, Juan F; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades-rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism-contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences-plural rationality theory-shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.

  9. Regge poles and Mandelstam representation in potential scattering; Poles de regge et representation de Mandelstam en theorie du potentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessis, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    We deal with the scattering of two spinless particles interacting by a superposition of Yukawa potentials. We first obtain an upper bound for the scattering amplitude for simultaneous complex values of energy and angular momentum. We then show that the Regge poles remain confined in small domains of the complex angular momentum plane, we study the variation of these domains when the energy (complex) varies. These first results allow us to deduce an upper bound for the double spectral function, this upper bound is used to rigorously show that the Schroedinger equation implies the Mandelstam representation for the type of potentials we deal with. Finally, the problem of subtractions is entirely solved, showing that the Mellin transform of the double spectral function can be analytically continued into the different simple spectral functions. (author) [French] On traite de la diffusion de deux particules sans spin interagissant par l'intermediaire d'une superposition de potentiels de Yukawa. Nous obtenons tout d'abord une majorante pour l'amplitude de diffusion pour des valeurs simultanement complexes de l'energie et du moment cinetique. On montre alors que les Poles de Regge restent confines dans des domaines restreints du plan complexe du moment cinetique, domaines dont nous etudions la variation pour des valeurs complexes de l'energie. Ces premiers resultats nous permettent alors de deduire une majorante pour la fonction spectrale double, majorante qui est utilisee pour demontrer rigoureusement que l'equation de Schroedinger implique la representation de Mandelstam pour la classe des potentiels envisages. Enfin le probleme des soustractions est entierement resolu, en montrant que la transformee de Mellin de la fonction spectrale double se prolonge analytiquement dans les diverses fonctions spectrales simples. (auteur)

  10. Mirror representations innate versus determined by experience: a viewpoint from learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Martin A

    2014-04-01

    From the viewpoint of pattern recognition and computational learning, mirror neurons form an interesting multimodal representation that links action perception and planning. While it seems unlikely that all details of such representations are specified by the genetic code, robust learning of such complex representations likely requires an appropriate interplay between plasticity, generalization, and anatomical constraints of the underlying neural architecture.

  11. The Emergence and Representation of Knowledge about Social and Nonsocial Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Melo, Hans Ludwig; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Primates are remarkably adept at ranking each other within social hierarchies, a capacity that is critical to successful group living. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the neurobiology underlying this quintessential aspect of primate cognition. In our experiment, participants first acquired knowledge about a social and a nonsocial hierarchy and then used this information to guide investment decisions. We found that neural activity in the amygdala tracked the development of knowledge about a social, but not a nonsocial, hierarchy. Further, structural variations in amygdala gray matter volume accounted for interindividual differences in social transitivity performance. Finally, the amygdala expressed a neural signal selectively coding for social rank, whose robustness predicted the influence of rank on participants’ investment decisions. In contrast, we observed that the linear structure of both social and nonsocial hierarchies was represented at a neural level in the hippocampus. Our study implicates the amygdala in the emergence and representation of knowledge about social hierarchies and distinguishes the domain-general contribution of the hippocampus. PMID:23141075

  12. SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS DEL GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE BRAZILIAN NURSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Éder Dias da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One is a documentary investigation whose objective to characterize the social representations on the gynecological cancer gifts in theses and dissertations of the Brazilian infirmary in the period from 2001 to 2007. The investigation source was the Bank of Thesis and Dissertations of the Brazilian Association of Infirmary. 51 studies had been identified. The analysis of the dices originated the following thematic categories: Imaginary the Social one of Women in front of the Gynecological Cancer; The daily one of the mastectomizada woman; The gynecological cancer and its treatment; Prevention of the gynecological cancer in the vision of the infirmary. The studies caused to apprehend the aspects of the psycho-social context, so important and necessary in the sense more atenciosamente to watch the welfare practice of the infirmary.

  13. Revisiting the Wittgensteinian Legacy: Perspectives on Representational and Non-Representational Language-Games for Educational History and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeyers, Paul; Fendler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Debates in science seem to depend on referential language-games, but in other senses they do not. Language works in more complex ways, even in work that purports to be purely scientific. This article investigates the scope and limitations of language-games in educational history and theory. The study addresses concepts and pictures as examples of…

  14. Intercorporeality and aida: Developing an interaction theory of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shogo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to develop an interaction theory (IT) of social cognition. The central issue in the field of social cognition has been theory of mind (ToM), and there has been debate regarding its nature as either theory-theory or as simulation theory. Insights from phenomenology have brought a second-person perspective based on embodied interactions into the debate, thereby forming a third position known as IT. In this article, I examine how IT can be further elaborated by drawing on two phenomenological notions-Merleau-Ponty's intercorporeality and Kimura's aida . Both of these notions emphasize the sensory-motor, perceptual, and non-conceptual aspects of social understanding and describe a process of interpersonal coordination in which embodied interaction gains autonomy as an emergent system. From this perspective, detailed and nuanced social understanding is made possible through the embodied skill of synchronizing with others.

  15. Theory in social simulation: Status-Power theory, national culture and emergence of the glass ceiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    This is a conceptual exploration of the work of some
    eminent social scientists thought to be amenable to agent-based
    modelling of social reality. Kemper’s status-power theory and
    Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture are the central
    theories. The article reviews empirical work on

  16. Theory and model use in social marketing health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Nadina Raluca; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that theories and models can serve as valuable frameworks for the design and evaluation of health interventions. However, evidence on the use of theories and models in social marketing interventions is sparse. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify to what extent papers about social marketing health interventions report using theory, which theories are most commonly used, and how theory was used. A systematic search was conducted for articles that reported social marketing interventions for the prevention or management of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, HIV, STDs, and tobacco use, and behaviors related to reproductive health, physical activity, nutrition, and smoking cessation. Articles were published in English, after 1990, reported an evaluation, and met the 6 social marketing benchmarks criteria (behavior change, consumer research, segmentation and targeting, exchange, competition and marketing mix). Twenty-four articles, describing 17 interventions, met the inclusion criteria. Of these 17 interventions, 8 reported using theory and 7 stated how it was used. The transtheoretical model/stages of change was used more often than other theories. Findings highlight an ongoing lack of use or underreporting of the use of theory in social marketing campaigns and reinforce the call to action for applying and reporting theory to guide and evaluate interventions.

  17. Transformative Theory in Social and Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2016-01-01

    and institutions. This idea is illustrated by a research-and-development project in Denmark, headed by the author, which used transformative theory to design professional conferences that are more conducive to participant learning and involvement than is the conventional, lecture-based format. A number of learning...... techniques were derived from the theory and were tested as hypotheses: When implemented in thirty live conference experiments, did they contribute to learning, as specified by the theory? Used in this manner, transformative theory may supplement the aspirations motivating change agents by some of the well...

  18. What are lay theories of social class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.

  19. Tweets and Mobilisation: Collective Action Theory and Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody McClain Brown

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between social protest and social media from the theoretical perspective of the Collective Action Research Program. While the literature shows strong empirical evidence for a positive relationship between social media use and incidents of social protest, the theoretical underpinnings of this relationship remain contested and often unspecified. In order to provide a stronger theoretical basis for this relationship this paper explores theories of collective action, focusing on how social media can assist in solving the dissident collective action problem. It argues that using collective action theory to understand social media and protest can better inform our understanding of how and why social media shares a positive relationship with incidents of social protest.

  20. Application of Attachment Theory in Clinical Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas Joseph; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2015-11-01

    This article proposes the use of attachment theory in clinical social work practice. This theory is very appropriate in this context because of its fit with social work concepts of person-in-situation, the significance of developmental history in the emergence of psychosocial problems, and the content of human behavior in the social environment. A literature review supports the significance of the theory. Included are ideas about how attachment styles and working models may be used in assessment and treatment to help clients achieve a secure attachment style.

  1. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J.; Domínguez D., Juan F.; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades—rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism—contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences—plural rationality theory—shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience. PMID:26441506

  2. Emotion, rationality and decision-making: How to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eVerweij

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades –rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism– contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences –plural rationality theory– shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.

  3. [Social representation of a healthcare team on family planning and female sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolino, Clarice

    2004-12-01

    The objective in this qualitative study was to obtain the discourse of the members of a healthcare team on family planning and female sterilization, and those practical effects on the work of the team. Marxist dialectic and social representations were used as references. Data were obtained by interviews and observations of certain activities of the members of the healthcare team and were subjected to analysis of the discourse. Family planning and female sterilization were considered to be rights, which pertained to the women, although the exercise of those rights is hindered by the limitations of access to contraceptive methods in general.

  4. The neural representation of social status in the extended face-processing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jessica E; Collins, Jessica A; Olson, Ingrid R

    2017-12-01

    Social status is a salient cue that shapes our perceptions of other people and ultimately guides our social interactions. Despite the pervasive influence of status on social behavior, how information about the status of others is represented in the brain remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that social status information is embedded in our neural representations of other individuals. Participants learned to associate faces with names, job titles that varied in associated status, and explicit markers of reputational status (star ratings). Trained stimuli were presented in an functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment where participants performed a target detection task orthogonal to the variable of interest. A network of face-selective brain regions extending from the occipital lobe to the orbitofrontal cortex was localized and served as regions of interest. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we found that face-selective voxels in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex - a region involved in social and nonsocial valuation, could decode faces based on their status. Similar effects were observed with two different status manipulations - one based on stored semantic knowledge (e.g., different careers) and one based on learned reputation (e.g., star ranking). These data suggest that a face-selective region of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex may contribute to the perception of social status, potentially underlying the preferential attention and favorable biases humans display toward high-status individuals. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND SOCIAL COGNITION: CONTRIBUTIONS TO NURSING AND HEALTH RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alonso Caravaca Morera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analizar el potencial que el Paradigma Teórico de las Representaciones Sociales y la Cognición Social poseen en las investigaciones en enfermería y salud. Método: reflexión construida con el apoyo de autores considerados referencias en la elaboración, complementación y difusión de este paradigma, con importante trayectoria en el área de la psicología social y ciencias de la salud. Resultados: partiendo de la especificidad del objeto epistemológico de la enfermería que es el cuidado, las Representaciones Sociales podrían ser consideradas como elementos autóctonos de las cogniciones lego/seglares y cotidianas, que auxilian en la construcción social de la realidad y en la organización de prácticas de atención. Conclusión: a la luz de estos registros, se resalta que el valor heurístico de las Representaciones Sociales y la Cognición Social, ha venido sustentándose desde su propuesta en la década de 1960. Consecuentemente, los tres modelos advenidos como resultado irrefutable del desarrollo del campo de estudio de las representaciones sociales en salud, han permitido una aproximación significativa por parte de algunas investigaciones en enfermería y áreas afines.

  6. Two takes on the social brain: a comparison of theory of mind tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbini, Maria Ida; Koralek, Aaron C; Bryan, Ronald E; Montgomery, Kimberly J; Haxby, James V

    2007-11-01

    We compared two tasks that are widely used in research on mentalizing--false belief stories and animations of rigid geometric shapes that depict social interactions--to investigate whether the neural systems that mediate the representation of others' mental states are consistent across these tasks. Whereas false belief stories activated primarily the anterior paracingulate cortex (APC), the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PC), and the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ)--components of the distributed neural system for theory of mind (ToM)--the social animations activated an extensive region along nearly the full extent of the superior temporal sulcus, including a locus in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), as well as the frontal operculum and inferior parietal lobule (IPL)--components of the distributed neural system for action understanding--and the fusiform gyrus. These results suggest that the representation of covert mental states that may predict behavior and the representation of intentions that are implied by perceived actions involve distinct neural systems. These results show that the TPJ and the pSTS play dissociable roles in mentalizing and are parts of different distributed neural systems. Because the social animations do not depict articulated body movements, these results also highlight that the perception of the kinematics of actions is not necessary to activate the mirror neuron system, suggesting that this system plays a general role in the representation of intentions and goals of actions. Furthermore, these results suggest that the fusiform gyrus plays a general role in the representation of visual stimuli that signify agency, independent of visual form.

  7. Social theory and the cognitive-emotional brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Pessoa's (2013) arguments imply that various leading approaches in the social sciences have not adequately conceptualized how emotion and cognition influence human decision making and social behavior. This is particularly unfortunate, as these approaches have been central to the efforts to build bridges between neuroscience and the social sciences. We argue that it would be better to base these efforts on other social theories that appear more compatible with Pessoa's analysis of the brain.

  8. Tourist typology in social contact: An addition to existing theories

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Daisy X.F.; Zhang, H.Q.; Jenkins, C.L.; Tavitiyaman, P.

    2017-01-01

    Tourist-host social contact, as a unique type of social contact, is not getting sufficient attention in tourism academia considering its remarkable impacts on tourists’ travel attitudes, behaviors and long-term perceptions. The objectives of the current study are to explore the dimensions of tourist-host social contact and to contribute to the theory of tourist typology according to their dynamic nature in tourist-host social interaction. Forty-five in-depth interviews were conducted to gener...

  9. Symbolic Interactionism and Social Action Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrione, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    An explanation and elaboration of existing theory on interaction, this article describes a point of convergence between Parsons' Voluntaristic Theory of Action and Blumer's conceptualization of Symbolic Interactionism and develops specific problems of divergence in these normative and interpretive models of interaction. (JC)

  10. Toward a Multiple Perspective in Family Theory and Practice: The Case of Social Exchange Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Conflict Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Mark R.; LeCroy, Craig W.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the complementarity of three often-used theories in family research: social exchange theory, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory. Provides a case example in which a multiple perspective is applied to a problem of marital discord. Discusses implications for the clinician. (Author/WAS)

  11. Social Learning Theory in the Age of Social Media: Implications for Educational Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Following the research of Albert Bandura, the advent of social media has changed the platform for social interaction and human experience. Educators have a unique opportunity to apply the concepts of Bandura's Social Learning Theory toward enhanced student engagement and learning in a social media context. This article synthesizes current research…

  12. Incorporating Political Socialization Theory into Baccalaureate Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra Godman

    1996-01-01

    Nurses must incorporate a political component into their professional role identity to meet the future challenges of the health care system. Political socialization theory can assist faculty in adding a political thread to the curriculum. (SK)

  13. Implications of social judgement theory for persuasive advertising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of social judgement theory for persuasive advertising campaigns. ... The way the consumers perceive an advertising campaign will, therefore, determine how they will respond to the advertisement. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-25

    Apr 25, 2018 ... Book cover: Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  15. Male and Female Social Actor Representation in Four Corners 4: A Critical Discourse Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Roohani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the linguistic representation of male and female social actors in the Four Corners 4 textbook, drawing on CDA. More specifically, van Leeuwen’s (1996 framework, which highlights the connection of linguistic and social practices, is used as the analytical framework to examine gendered social actors in this English language teaching (ELT textbook. To this end, content analysis was done to explore the frequency and proportion of each social actor. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis showed that there were some differences, though not statistically significant, between males and females regarding substitution, individualization, and activation. Males, in contrast with females, were included more as active and famous actors in social circumstances and they were more individualized. In addition, they were more activated through circumstantialization and participation. On the other hand, the case of formalization was mostly observed for males. Moreover, males and females were distributed equally in the textbook in terms of classification, genericization, and collectivization. The results reveal that the gender bias still exists, though to a small degree, in this ELT textbook, which is taught as a substitution for the previous ELT textbooks in many language schools in Iran.

  16. Cuerpos heridos, vida alterada: representaciones sociales de mujeres y hombres Wounded bodies, life altered: social representations of women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilda Souza de Santana Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las mujeres y hombres con úlceras de miembros inferiores experiencian un deterioro continuo y progresivo que altera la vida en los ámbitos físico, social y emocional. Objetivo: captar las Representaciones Sociales sobre el cuerpo herido de mujeres y hombres que viven con heridas. Método: cualitativo. Participaron 25 mujeres y 25 hombres usuarios de uno hospital público de Brasil, en los años 2008-2009. Los datos fueron colectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad, las cuales fueron sometidas al análisis de contenido. Resultados: las mujeres representan sus cuerpos como repugnantes y poco atrayentes. Los hombres representan sus cuerpos como frágiles, inhabilitados para el trabajo. Conclusiones: las representaciones sobre el cuerpo herido influencian en la forma como mujeres y hombres enfermos presentan sus cuerpos, se sienten frente a otros cuerpos, y se comportan frente a los cambios producidos por las heridas.Introduction: Men and women having lower limb ulcers cope with a continuous and progressive deterioration which alter their lives physically, socially and emotionally. Objective: To understand the Social Representations concerning men and women's wounded bodies that live with ulcers. Method: Qualitative study with 25 women and 25 men from a public hospital in Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. The data were collected through interviews which were submitted to content analyses. Results: women represent their bodies as disgusting and little attractive. Men represent their bodies as fragile, not capable to work. Conclusions: The representations regarding wounded bodies influence the way ill women and men present their bodies, how they feel before other bodies and how they face the changes caused by the wounds.

  17. Descriptions of euthanasia as social representations: comparing the views of Finnish physicians and religious professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhänkangas, Leila; Smets, Tinne; Cohen, Joachim; Utriainen, Terhi; Deliens, Luc

    2014-03-01

    In many western societies health professionals play a powerful role in people's experiences of dying. Religious professionals, such as pastors, are also confronted with the issues surrounding death and dying in their work. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the ways in which death-related topics, such as euthanasia, are constructed in a given culture are affected by the views of these professionals. This qualitative study addresses the ways in which Finnish physicians and religious professionals perceive and describe euthanasia and conceptualises these descriptions and views as social representations. Almost all the physicians interviewed saw that euthanasia does not fit the role of a physician and anchored it to different kinds of risks such as the slippery slope. Most of the religious and world-view professionals also rejected euthanasia. In this group, euthanasia was rejected on the basis of a religious moral code that forbids killing. Only one of the religious professionals - the freethinker with an atheist world-view - accepted euthanasia and described it as a personal choice, as did the one physician interviewed who accepted it. The article shows how the social representations of euthanasia are used to protect professional identities and to justify their expert knowledge of death and dying. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Learning from Your Network of Friends: A Trajectory Representation Learning Model Based on Online Social Ties

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    Location-Based Social Networks (LBSNs) capture individuals whereabouts for a large portion of the population. To utilize this data for user (location)-similarity based tasks, one must map the raw data into a low-dimensional uniform feature space. However, due to the nature of LBSNs, many users have sparse and incomplete check-ins. In this work, we propose to overcome this issue by leveraging the network of friends, when learning the new feature space. We first analyze the impact of friends on individuals's mobility, and show that individuals trajectories are correlated with thoseof their friends and friends of friends (2-hop friends) in an online setting. Based on our observation, we propose a mixed-membership model that infers global mobility patterns from users' check-ins and their network of friends, without impairing the model's complexity. Our proposed model infers global patterns and learns new representations for both usersand locations simultaneously. We evaluate the inferred patterns and compare the quality of the new user representation against baseline methods on a social link prediction problem.

  19. Social representations of drinking water: subsidies for water quality surveillance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Rose Ferraz; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Barletto, Marisa

    2015-09-01

    A qualitative study was developed aimed at understanding the social representations of water consumption by a segment of the population of a small town in Brazil. A total of 19 semi-structured interviews were carried out and subjected to a content analysis addressing opinion on drinking water, characteristics of drinking water and its correlation to health and diseases, criteria for water usage and knowledge on the source and accountability for drinking-water quality. Social representations of drinking water predominantly incorporate the municipal water supply and sanitation provider and its quality. The identification of the municipal water supply provider as alone responsible for maintaining water quality indicated the lack of awareness of any health surveillance programme. For respondents, chlorine was accountable for conferring colour, odour and taste to the water. These physical parameters were reported as the cause for rejecting the water supplied and suggest the need to review the focus of health-educational strategies based on notions of hygiene and water-borne diseases. The study allowed the identification of elements that could contribute to positioning the consumers vs. services relationship on a level playing field, enabling dialogue and exchange of knowledge for the benefit of public health.

  20. Social representations of adolescents on quality of life: structurally-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Missias Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to conduct a comparatively analysis and describe the contents of the structure of the social representations of adolescents on quality of life. It involves descriptive, quantitative research, with the benchmark of a structural approach to social representations. The informants included 316 adolescents from three public schools in Jequié in the State of Bahia. The Spontaneous Word-Choice Eliciting Technique using the key expression "Quality of Life" was used for data collection. The responses were processed using Evoc 2003 software, which generated the Four-House Chart. The results reveal the core nucleus of the terms: healthy eating; physical activity; money; and sex. In the 1st outer circle, the words absence of disease, condoms, liberty, marijuana, housing, work and living well are featured. In the 2nd outer circle, there appeared the words difficulty, family, peace and power, and the contrasting elements of well-being and soccer. The overall consensus is that adolescents associate quality of life with sports and other healthy behavior activities, and are influenced by the desires and curiosities of adolescence.

  1. Deep learning for constructing microblog behavior representation to identify social media user’s personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of information technology, the Internet has gradually become a part of everyday life. People would like to communicate with friends to share their opinions on social networks. The diverse behavior on socials networks is an ideal reflection of users’ personality traits. Existing behavior analysis methods for personality prediction mostly extract behavior attributes with heuristic analysis. Although they work fairly well, they are hard to extend and maintain. In this paper, we utilize a deep learning algorithm to build a feature learning model for personality prediction, which could perform an unsupervised extraction of the Linguistic Representation Feature Vector (LRFV activity without supervision from text actively published on the Sina microblog. Compared with other feature extractsion methods, LRFV, as an abstract representation of microblog content, could describe a user’s semantic information more objectively and comprehensively. In the experiments, the personality prediction model is built using a linear regression algorithm, and different attributes obtained through different feature extraction methods are taken as input of the prediction model, respectively. The results show that LRFV performs better in microblog behavior descriptions, and improves the performance of the personality prediction model.

  2. Learning from Your Network of Friends: A Trajectory Representation Learning Model Based on Online Social Ties

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed

    2017-02-07

    Location-Based Social Networks (LBSNs) capture individuals whereabouts for a large portion of the population. To utilize this data for user (location)-similarity based tasks, one must map the raw data into a low-dimensional uniform feature space. However, due to the nature of LBSNs, many users have sparse and incomplete check-ins. In this work, we propose to overcome this issue by leveraging the network of friends, when learning the new feature space. We first analyze the impact of friends on individuals\\'s mobility, and show that individuals trajectories are correlated with thoseof their friends and friends of friends (2-hop friends) in an online setting. Based on our observation, we propose a mixed-membership model that infers global mobility patterns from users\\' check-ins and their network of friends, without impairing the model\\'s complexity. Our proposed model infers global patterns and learns new representations for both usersand locations simultaneously. We evaluate the inferred patterns and compare the quality of the new user representation against baseline methods on a social link prediction problem.

  3. Constructing nurses' professional identity through social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willetts, Georgina; Clarke, David

    2014-04-01

    The profession of nursing continues to struggle with defining and clarifying its professional identity. The definitive recognition of nursing as a profession was the moving of training from the hospital apprentice model to the tertiary sector. However, this is only part of the story of professional identity in nursing. Once training finishes and enculturation into the workplace commences, professional identity becomes a complicated social activity. This paper proposes social identity theory as a valuable research framework to assist with clarifying and describing the professional identity of nurses. The paper outlines the key elements of a profession and then goes on to describe the main concepts of social identity theory. Lastly, a connection is made between the usefulness of using social identity theory in researching professional identity in nursing, recognizing the contextual nature of the social activity of the profession within its workplace environment. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Social representations of electricity network technologies: exploring processes of anchoring and objectification through the use of visual research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine-Wright, Hannah; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore everyday thinking about the UK electricity network, in light of government policy to increase the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources. Existing literature on public perceptions of electricity network technologies was broadened by adopting a more socially embedded conception of the construction of knowledge using the theory of social representations (SRT) to explore symbolic associations with network technologies. Drawing and association tasks were administered within nine discussion groups held in two places: a Scottish town where significant upgrades to the local transmission network were planned and an English city with no such plans. Our results illustrate the ways in which network technologies, such as high voltage (HV) pylons, are objectified in talk and drawings. These invoked positive as well as negative symbolic and affective associations, both at the level of specific pylons, and the 'National Grid' as a whole and are anchored in understanding of other networks such as mobile telecommunications. We conclude that visual methods are especially useful for exploring beliefs about technologies that are widespread, proximal to our everyday experience but nevertheless unfamiliar topics of everyday conversation.

  5. Three-index symmetric matter representations of SU(2) in F-theory from non-Tate form Weierstrass models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevers, Denis [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Taylor, Washington [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-29

    We give an explicit construction of a class of F-theory models with matter in the three-index symmetric (4) representation of SU(2). This matter is realized at codimension two loci in the F-theory base where the divisor carrying the gauge group is singular; the associated Weierstrass model does not have the form associated with a generic SU(2) Tate model. For 6D theories, the matter is localized at a triple point singularity of arithmetic genus g=3 in the curve supporting the SU(2) group. This is the first explicit realization of matter in F-theory in a representation corresponding to a genus contribution greater than one. The construction is realized by “unHiggsing” a model with a U(1) gauge factor under which there is matter with charge q=3. The resulting SU(2) models can be further unHiggsed to realize non-Abelian G{sub 2}×SU(2) models with more conventional matter content or SU(2){sup 3} models with trifundamental matter. The U(1) models used as the basis for this construction do not seem to have a Weierstrass realization in the general form found by Morrison-Park, suggesting that a generalization of that form may be needed to incorporate models with arbitrary matter representations and gauge groups localized on singular divisors.

  6. The cinema forum as a pedagogical tool to analyze the social representation of the teacher in the cinematographic discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Marcela Marentes Rodríguez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is the product of research and implementation of the group of graduates from the faculty of education Uniminuto entitled “El cine foro como herramienta pedagógica para analizar la representación social del maestro”.In this sense, the article briefly displays the presentation of the project and the various theoretical and legal bases around the cine-foro as a pedagogical resource that permits to analyze the different representations of teacher. Consequently, these theoretical references (the projection of films and forums from a semiotic analysis of each study as the social context and social representation of teacher, are the result of the integration of mass media in a pedagogical context and it is taken the cine-foro as a pedagogical resource. That permits to think about the social representation that students have about the teacher.

  7. Physical Activity Participation: Social Cognitive Theory versus the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzewaltowski, David A; Noble, John M; Shaw, Jeff M

    1990-12-01

    Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

  8. A theory of social thermoregulation in human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Coan, James A; Wagemans, Fieke M A; Missler, Marjolein A; van Beest, Ilja; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Tops, Mattie

    2015-01-01

    Beyond breathing, the regulation of body temperature-thermoregulation-is one of the most pressing concerns for many animals. A dysregulated body temperature has dire consequences for survival and development. Despite the high frequency of social thermoregulation occurring across many species, little is known about the role of social thermoregulation in human (social) psychological functioning. We outline a theory of social thermoregulation and reconsider earlier research on people's expectations of their social world (i.e., attachment) and their prediction of the social world. We provide support and outline a research agenda that includes consequences for individual variation in self-regulatory strategies and capabilities. In our paper, we discuss physiological, neural, and social processes surrounding thermoregulation. Emphasizing social thermoregulation in particular, we appeal to the economy of action principle and the hierarchical organization of human thermoregulatory systems. We close with future directions of a crucial aspect of human functioning: the social regulation of body temperature.

  9. Applications of Social Cognitive Theory to Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Virginia H.

    2008-01-01

    Social cognitive theory emphasizes a dynamic interactive process to explain human functioning. This theory ascribes a central role to cognitive processes in which the individual can observe others and the environment, reflect on that in combination with his or her own thoughts and behaviors, and alter his or her own self-regulatory functions…

  10. Democratic Socialism: Toward a Fifth Theory of the Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Robert G.

    For more than 25 years, the "four theories" paradigm has been dominant in the study of the relationships among the press, society, and the state. Asserting that the major approaches to such study are the libertarian, social responsibility, authoritarian, and Soviet/communist theories, this paradigm fails to account for economic and…

  11. Educational Theory and the Social Vision of the Scottish Enlightenment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Ryan Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The Scottish Enlightenment is celebrated for its many contributions to the natural sciences, the social sciences and the moral sciences. But for all this attention, one aspect of the Scottish Enlightenment has been almost entirely neglected: its educational theory. This paper aims to illuminate the relationship between the educational theory of…

  12. Practice Theory and Research: Exploring the Dynamics of Social Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, G.; Weenink, D.; Lamers, M.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an upsurge in scholarship concerned with theories of social practices in various fields including sociology, geography and management studies. This book provides a systematic introduction and overview of recent formulations of practice theory organised around three important themes:

  13. Moral functioning: socio-psychological approach.Social intuitionist theory of John Haidt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Zaikin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the methodological aspect of developing social intuitionist approach to moral psychology. The paper reveals the possibility of applying this approach to the study of morality and moral functioning today, emphasizes the representation of issues in moral psychology methodological origins of social psychology, both in Russia and abroad. Social and psychological foundations of social intuitionist approach are described in detail. The research results show that the child perceiving the concept of fairness and variability in the framework of a specific group membership is culturally determined. The matter of special consideration is the theory of the American social psychologist George Haidt. The results of his work and his colleagues’ works are presented herein describing the concept of cultural variable moral intuitions, the findings of empirical studies carried out in the framework of this approach are summarized. The paper reveals the fundamental provisions of the social and intuitionistic theory. The comparative analysis of the social intuitionistic and cognitive approaches in moral psychology is presented. The conclusion that the relativistic understanding of morality is not an obstacle to its study, and the presence of various determinants of moral functioning should be based on further empirical research. The authors conceptualized the current state of social intuitionistic theory of moral functioning, which describes the theoretical and methodological sources of this area (Rawls, 2010; Freud, 2005; Hume, 1996; Hare’s, 1981. As justification for this approach the paper considers the phenomena studied in psychology, social cognition, and those that create the possibility of developing this area, namely affective motivation (Zajonc, 1980, fair-world hypothesis (Lerner, 1965, the objectivity of the illusion (Perkins, Allen, & Hafner , 1983, the phenomenon of «naive realism» (Griffin, & Ross, 1991, group interaction in a

  14. Characterizing Representational Learning: A Combined Simulation and Tutorial on Perturbation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje; Passante, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Analyzing, constructing, and translating between graphical, pictorial, and mathematical representations of physics ideas and reasoning flexibly through them ("representational competence") is a key characteristic of expertise in physics but is a challenge for learners to develop. Interactive computer simulations and University of…

  15. Characterising expert representations during real-time action : A Skill Theory application to soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J. R.; Van Der Steen, Steffie; De Meij, Mart; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2014-01-01

    In various domains, experts are found to possess elaborate domain-specific representations they developed over years. In this study, we provide the first systematic attempt to characterise the short-term representations among individuals with different expertise levels. We showed videos of soccer

  16. Theory Ain't Practice: Four Novice Researchers Navigate Dilemmas of Representation within Immigrant Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Marina; Hansen, Sarah; Horii, Sachiko; Un, Silvy

    2014-01-01

    This article illuminates instances in which four graduate students have struggled with issues of representation--of themselves and of immigrant participants--at their research sites and in their writing. These dilemmas are situated within the literature on the politics of representation in qualitative research. Although these dilemmas are not…

  17. Econodynamics the theory of social production

    CERN Document Server

    Pokrovskii, Vladimir N

    2018-01-01

    This book, now in its third edition, explores how human populations grow, based on their creative abilities.  To reconsider the theory of economic growth from a physicist's perspective, the book analyses the concepts of value and utility and their relationship to thermodynamic concepts. This approach allows the author to include characteristics of technology in descriptions of development and to formulate a phenomenological (macroeconomic, no-price fluctuations are discussed) theory of production as a set of evolutionary equations in one-sector and multi-sector approximations. The theory is proved to be useful for describing both national economies and global production in ancient times. This monograph presents the topics in a compact and consistent manner and can be used by students with a background in physics and other natural sciences who wish to specialize in economics. It explains how the growth of production is connected with advances in technology, consumption of labour and energy and makes it possib...

  18. GIS and the Social Sciences : Theory and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballas, Dimitris; Clarke, Graham; Franklin, Rachel S.; Newing, Andy

    2017-01-01

    GIS and the Social Sciences offers a uniquely social science approach on the theory and application of GIS with a range of modern examples. It explores how human geography can engage with a variety of important policy issues through linking together GIS and spatial analysis, and demonstrates the

  19. Social phobia in developmental period: From theory to therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolar Dušan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary integrative theoretical and therapeutic concepts of social phobia in developmental period have been presented in the study. Besides current neurobiological theories, a very important hypothesis about behavioral inhibition has been represented as a predisposition of social phobia. The cognitive-behavioral theories of social phobia are dominant among psychological theories. The integrative concept of social phobia is the most realistic approach to this disorder and the bridge between biological and psychological theories. The interaction between biological and psychological etiological factors is represented through different therapeutical approaches to social phobia. Therapy of social phobia is integrative and involves different therapeutical modalities in different phases of therapy. In integrative psychotherapy, we use cognitive-behavioral therapy, dynamic oriented supportive psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy and phenomenological-existential psychotherapy. The cognitive-behavioral therapy yields the best results. The medicaments in use are the following: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mono-amine oxidase inhibitors, high-potency benzodiazepines, new antiepileptic drugs and rarely (3-blockers. The combination of integrative psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy is the most optimal therapeutic approach to social phobia. This integrative and to patient adapted treatment will produce the best results in management of children's and adolescent's social phobia.

  20. Contributions of Socialization Theory to Consumer Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Scott

    1978-01-01

    Socialization theory can contribute to consumer research because it focuses on (1) youth and development, (2) interaction of factors affecting consumer behavior, and (3) linkages between mental processes and overt behavior. Various approaches to socialization research and consumer research are described, including cognitive development and…

  1. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  2. Socially bold personality in the real communication and Internet communication: the analysis of representations of people of the different age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogodina A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the results of the study, subject of which is the submis- sion of the respondents of the different age groups about the social and bold personality. Required property of the respondents was the presence in the Internet environment and participation in various social networks. They assessed social and bold personal- ity in such contexts of communication, as real communication and Internet communication. Analyses were undertaken to determine the structural and content features of emotional and semantic representations of the phenomenon of the social and bold personality, depending on the context of communication, but also the detection of age-sensitive representations of the young respondents (19—35 years, middle-aged respondents (36-55 years and older respondents (from 56 to 70 years. The concept of the “social and bold personality in real communion” is shown to have a high semantic relevance, strongly marked positive emotional coloration and a similar factor structure for respondents of all age groups. The concept of the “social and bold personality in online communication” with a high semantic significance in the perception of the young respondents moves into a zone of moderate and semantic importance in representations of the middle-aged and older respondents. In representations of the respondents of all age groups, the attractiveness of the "social and bold personality in Internet communication" is less than in comparison with the "social and bold personality in the real communication". The age-specific of the social representations about social and bold personality in the real and virtual communication has been analysed in detail.

  3. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  4. Affine.m—Mathematica package for computations in representation theory of finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Anton

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present Affine.m-a program for computations in representation theory of finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras and describe implemented algorithms. The algorithms are based on the properties of weights and Weyl symmetry. Computation of weight multiplicities in irreducible and Verma modules, branching of representations and tensor product decomposition are the most important problems for us. These problems have numerous applications in physics and we provide some examples of these applications. The program is implemented in the popular computer algebra system Mathematica and works with finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras. Catalogue identifier: AENA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, UK Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 844 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 045 908 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: i386-i686, x86_64. Operating system: Linux, Windows, Mac OS, Solaris. RAM: 5-500 Mb Classification: 4.2, 5. Nature of problem: Representation theory of finite-dimensional Lie algebras has many applications in different branches of physics, including elementary particle physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics. Representations of affine Lie algebras appear in string theories and two-dimensional conformal field theory used for the description of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems. Also Lie symmetries play a major role in a study of quantum integrable systems. Solution method: We work with weights and roots of finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras and use Weyl symmetry extensively. Central problems which are the computations of weight multiplicities, branching and fusion coefficients are solved using one general recurrent

  5. Coagulation kinetics beyond mean field theory using an optimised Poisson representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, James [Department of Mathematics, UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ford, Ian J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-21

    Binary particle coagulation can be modelled as the repeated random process of the combination of two particles to form a third. The kinetics may be represented by population rate equations based on a mean field assumption, according to which the rate of aggregation is taken to be proportional to the product of the mean populations of the two participants, but this can be a poor approximation when the mean populations are small. However, using the Poisson representation, it is possible to derive a set of rate equations that go beyond mean field theory, describing pseudo-populations that are continuous, noisy, and complex, but where averaging over the noise and initial conditions gives the mean of the physical population. Such an approach is explored for the simple case of a size-independent rate of coagulation between particles. Analytical results are compared with numerical computations and with results derived by other means. In the numerical work, we encounter instabilities that can be eliminated using a suitable “gauge” transformation of the problem [P. D. Drummond, Eur. Phys. J. B 38, 617 (2004)] which we show to be equivalent to the application of the Cameron-Martin-Girsanov formula describing a shift in a probability measure. The cost of such a procedure is to introduce additional statistical noise into the numerical results, but we identify an optimised gauge transformation where this difficulty is minimal for the main properties of interest. For more complicated systems, such an approach is likely to be computationally cheaper than Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. Follow the money? Value theory and social inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Pitts, Frederick H. Pitts

    2014-01-01

    The paper seeks to conceptualise Marxian value theory as a problem for social research to investigate. It is argued that so conceptualised, value can only be encountered by the study of the ‘totality of social relations’ in capitalist society, inside the workplace and outside in the wider sphere of everyday life. It first gives a brief overview of the author’s interpretation of the theory of value. It then suggests a way of conceptualising the theory of value as an object of research. It is c...

  7. A Theory of Top Income Taxation and Social Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco M. Gonzalez; Jean-Francois Wen

    2014-01-01

    The development of the welfare state in the Western economies between 1930 and 1990 coincided with a puzzling pattern in the taxation of top incomes. Effective tax rates at the top increased sharply but then gradually decreased, even as social transfers continued rising. We propose a new theory of the development of the welfare state to explain these facts. Our main insight is that social insurance and top income taxation are substitutes for averting social confl?ict. We emphasize the role of...

  8. Organizational Epistemology, Education and Social Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2007-01-01

    Organizational learning or epistemology has emerged in order to manage the creation of knowledge and innovation within contemporary capitalism. Its insights are being applied also to the public sector. Much of the research in organizational learning has drawn upon the discipline of psychology, particularly constructivist theory. Two approaches in…

  9. Sport and Social Change. Socialist Feminist Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Catherine

    1988-01-01

    Though the number of women in sport and the productive labor force have increased, the lower levels of support and pay indicate devaluing by a capitalist patriarchal society. A socialist feminist theory of sport participation by women foresees the possibility of a nonpatriarchal capitalist society. (JD)

  10. A bio-behavioral model of addiction treatment: applying dual representation theory to craving management and relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly

    2005-01-01

    A bio-behavioral approach to drug addiction treatment is outlined. The presented treatment model uses dual representation theory as a guiding framework for understanding the bio-behavioral processes activated during the application of expressive therapeutic methods. Specifically, the treatment model explains how visual processing techniques can supplement traditional relapse prevention therapy protocols, to help clients better manage cravings and control triggers in hard-to-treat populations such as chronic substance-dependent persons.

  11. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Frank [The Open University, Faculty of Maths, Computing and Technology, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  12. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  13. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have done on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) in order to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ...

  14. AIDS and jail: social representations of women in freedom deprivation situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigueiro, Débora Raquel Soares Guedes; Almeida, Sandra Aparecida de; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Costa, Gilka Paiva Oliveira; Bezerra, Valéria Peixoto; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    To graspthe AIDS social representations built by freedom-deprived women. Descriptive study with a quali-quantitative approach that involved 174 convicted women in a women's prison in a capital city of the Brazilian northeastern region. Aword-association test was applied in October and November 2014, using AIDS as a stimulus. The corpuswas processed usingIramuteq software. Descending Hierarchical Classification and Correspondence Factor Analysis were applied. The content that comprises the social representation of AIDS was influenced by the prison context, which was pervaded by a lack of assistance, lack of knowledge, discrimination, and suffering that disclosed vulnerability to HIV/AIDS factors such as unprotected sex and object sharing. This underlines the stigma and fear of the illness, in addition to favoring and supporting negative feelings and a sense of rejection. To consider the use of this representational amalgam to ensure a comprehensive, contextualized care can help redirect practices, motivate self-care practices, and reduce prejudiced attitudes. Apreenderas representações sociais sobre a aids construídas por mulheres privadas de liberdade. Estudo descritivo, com abordagem quali-quantitativa que envolveu 174 apenadas de Presídio Feminino situado em capital do nordeste brasileiro. Aplicou-se o Teste de Associação Livre de Palavras, em outubro e novembro de 2014, utilizando-se do estímulo aids. O corpus foi processado pelo software Iramuteq, sendo efetuadas a Classificação Hierárquica Descendente e Análise Fatorial de Correspondência. Os conteúdos que compõem a representação social sobre aids são influenciados pelo contexto prisional, permeado dedesassistência, desconhecimento, discriminação e condições de sofrimento, revelando fatores de vulnerabilidade ao HIV/Aids como atividade sexual desprotegida e compartilhamento de objetos; reiterando o estigma e o temor à doença; e favorecendo e sustentando sentimentos negativos e de rejei

  15. Social Class on Campus: Theories and Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Will

    2011-01-01

    This is at once a playful text with a serious purpose: to provide the reader with the theoretical lenses to analyze the dynamics of social class. It will appeal to students, and indeed anyone interested in how class mediates relationships in higher education, both because of its engaging tone, and because it uses the college campus as a microcosm…

  16. Social Movement Theory: Past, Present and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stekelenburg, Jacquelien

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the

  17. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-07

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  18. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory, technological factors (TAM, and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively, which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  19. The social life of bonding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, M; Manderson, L

    1995-09-01

    'Bonding' as a crucial factor of the early post-partum entered obstetric and paediatric practice after the publication of Maternal and Infant Bonding in 1976 by Klaus and Kennell. The concept has held its place since, as witnessed by medical textbook accounts of it, and the perception of 'instantaneous bonding' as a vital component of the ideal birth experience has dominated media representations of childbirth and, until very recently, feminist writing. Only during the last few years has this literature taken into account research findings concerning the guilt and anxiety experienced by women whose expectations regarding 'bonding' are not realised. While it is now generally acknowledged that maternal attachment develops over an extended period of time, 'bonding' as used extensively in both popular and scientific literature conflates a wide range of meanings and blurs the boundaries between process and outcome. This facilitates the entry of ideological elements into a field which is, by its very nature, deeply significant for human experience. We therefore argue for a continuing critical appraisal of the role of 'bonding' in both general and scientific research.

  20. A performative and poetical narrative of critical social theory in nursing education: an ending and threshold of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapum, Jennifer; Hamzavi, Neda; Veljkovic, Katarina; Mohamed, Zubaida; Pettinato, Adriana; Silver, Sarabeth; Taylor, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a poetical and performative narrative is shared to examine how the use of stories to critically self-reflect on oppression facilitates an understanding of critical social theory in nursing education and impacts social justice. A fusion of prose with a poetical narrative is employed; the latter is reserved to capture the immediacy of personal, emotive, and embodied storied experiences. This deeply intimate and dialogical story begins with a pedagogical experiment created to facilitate nursing students' understanding of critical social theory. Drawing upon Paulo Freire's work, the nursing teacher in a professional development course attempted to deconstruct power relations and cultivate an open and safe learning environment by sharing a poem that depicts her oppression. Students then anonymously wrote a word/statement about their oppression. The teacher created a composite poem from students' words and shared it with the class; it was a powerful moment that highlighted their shared humanity. As a way to further explore stories and consider how to preserve these words, a small group of students and the teacher formed the 'the oppression group'. Towards the end, we conclude an unfinished story by realizing that the chains of oppression are loosening and humanity is surfacing. There is still a camouflaging of an authentic self. There are still stories to be told. The group is not yet certain if a social representation of an authentic self is possible and if all stories can be told. It has become apparent that the personal can play out in social justice as enacted in the classroom between teacher and students and provides an entry point into the development of the capacity to be social agents in nursing. The group simultaneously concludes the story with both an ending and a threshold of social justice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Family Caregivers’ Social Representations of Death in a Palliative Care Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Lessard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to consider the social representations of death of family caregivers in a palliative care context. The authors focused on the analysis of 23 interviews with family caregivers who cared for a terminally ill person at home and/or in a specialized palliative care unit, in Québec, Canada. The finding showed that family caregivers had different images that specifically represented death: (a losses as different kinds of “deaths,” (b palliative care as a place to negotiate with death, and (c last times as confirmation of the end. These images highlight the meaning attributed to the body and the position of the dying person in our Western society. Representations of palliative care reveal a kind of paradox, a place of respect and of “gentle death,” and a place where death is almost too omnipresent. They also show the strong beliefs surrounding the use of painkillers at the end of life. Finally, these images refer to end-of-life personal rituals viewed as support for the passage into a new state of being. This study provides a better understanding of the common sense of death for family caregivers in a palliative care context and of the meanings of this emotional subject.

  2. SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE BODY AFTER THE ILLNESS BY PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mesaque Martins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyze the social representations of body for men after the illness from prostate cancer. Narrative interviews were conducted with 08 men with ages ranging from 50 and 70 years, diagnosed with this disease and who had undergone oncological treatment, for at least one year. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. The results show that before the illness, the participants represented their bodies as strong, resistant and healthy taking in the hegemonic masculinity model an important anchorage point for these representations. The absence of symptoms that cause bodily discomforts contributed to the feeling of healthy body. The search for health services only occurred after the manifestation of the first symptoms and its exacerbations, which limited their daily actions and change their daily lives. Participants mentioned the illness by prostate cancer and oncological treatment proposals, in particular the prostatectomy, as a remarkable experience that producer of great physical and psychological discomfort. After the illness, the men began to represent their bodies as fragile, sick and weak. Those interviewed point to the impact of body changes, especially those related to sexual and urological dysfunctions in ways of thinking, feeling and acting in relation to his masculinity. Accordingly, the limitations imposed by illness and oncological treatments are opposed to the hegemonic masculinity model, favoring the feeling of being less a man than before the illness.

  3. Does Social Value Orientation Theory Apply to Social Relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Danielle Lewis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research asks whether Social Value Orientations (SVOs apply to the social relations of exchange networks. SVO literature identifies three types of orientation to rational action, determined by how actors value outcomes to self and other. Only the individualist is the self-interested, rational actor previously seen in exchange networks. The prosocial actor seeks to maximize joint outcomes and equality whereas the competitor seeks to maximize differences between self and other. The competitor and individualist are frequently collapsed into a proself type. Whereas SVO research has focused on games and social dilemmas, this research places prosocials and proselfs in equal, weak, and strong power exchange structures. We show that, if SVO applies, the behaviors of proself and prosocial will be very different. Experimental results demonstrate, however, that prosocials’ actions in exchanges are indistinguishable from activities of proselfs.

  4. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  5. Social representations of premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Pía; Violeta Prina, Martina; Martínez Cáceres, María José; Bauer, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity is a public health problem that calls to focus on its causes and consequences through a trans disciplinary approach. There are no studies analyzing premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm. To identify social representations associated with premature birth of individuals born preterm in the 1990s in Argentina. Twelve focus groups were conducted with individuals born preterm with a birth weightparents' memories and experiences, overprotection body, education, relationship with the medical practice and knowledge. The methodology used allowed to create a space for mutual recognition and reflection for participants. Prematurity is a significant element, especially in those who suffered major sequelae. Adolescents and youth give a warning on the negative effects caused by overprotective parents and reveal the possibility of redefining the challenges associated with their history of premature birth.

  6. Social Representation of Cyberbullying and Adolescent Suicide: A Mixed-Method Analysis of News Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Subramanian, Roma; Miles, Stephanie; Hinnant, Amanda; Andsager, Julie L

    2017-09-01

    Cyberbullying has provoked public concern after well-publicized suicides of adolescents. This mixed-methods study investigates the social representation of these suicides. A content analysis of 184 U.S. newspaper articles on death by suicide associated with cyberbullying or aggression found that few articles adhered to guidelines suggested by the World Health Organization and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention to protect against suicidal behavioral contagion. Few articles made reference to suicide or bullying prevention resources, and most suggested that the suicide had a single cause. Thematic analysis of a subset of articles found that individual deaths by suicide were used as cautionary tales to prompt attention to cyberbullying. This research suggests that newspaper coverage of these events veers from evidence-based guidelines and that more work is needed to determine how best to engage with journalists about the potential consequences of cyberbullying and suicide coverage.

  7. The social representations about the GAY among students on the outskirts of rio de janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Luz Gonzaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2014v11n2p162 The aim of this work was to identify the social representations about homosexuality among the regular high school students, at a public school in the Baixada Fluminense, outskirt of Rio de Janeiro, according to sexual orientation and gender. We applied a matter of free association of words from the inducing word "GAY" as well as an open question on "What do you think of the same-sex union?” Our data demonstrated a conflicting and undefined belief about being GAY in both sexes, as well as collective speeches about the same-sex union fully accepted by the girls and familiar homophobia, by the boys.

  8. Emotional and social representations of future teachers about sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aránzazu Cejudo Cortés Carmen María

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Health Education programs for young people have drastically increased in recent years in Spanish universities. In part, this is due to the fact that new cases of infection of a sexually transmitted disease continue happening, especially at this stage, and universities as an educational space in which a large number of young people are concentrated, must address this problem. Training young students in promoting healthy sexual habits will prevent not only new infections, but also facilitate the acquisition of competences in the students of the health and socio-educational areas, necessary for their later professional development. This research provides some information about the knowledge and attitudes of students of educational qualifications about HIV/AIDS, with particular relevance to the emotions and social representations that the students have about this fact and that can interfere in their lack of information making them more vulnerable to the disease.

  9. Social representations of adolescents on sexual relations and the use of condoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elys de Oliveira Bezerra

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to identify how adolescents structure the social representations of sexual intercourse and use of condoms. Exploratory and descriptive research was conducted with a convenience sample consisting of 234 students of a public secondary school in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, between July 2009 and April 2010. Data were collected using a questionnaire with variables on socioeconomic status and sexual behaviour, and Free Association test with three terms: 'sex', 'unprotected sex' and 'sex with a condom'. Sexual intercourse was represented by love and affection among the women, while men associated sex to pleasure, desire and attraction toward the female body. The condom was considered important by both groups, but men represented condoms as being something bad that restricts pleasure. Health professionals are granted the opportunity to identify vulnerabilities of this population to DST/HIV/AIDS and work with these vulnerabilities in the most appropriate way.

  10. SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE CARE OF THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE PRESERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Yazmina Araiza-Delgado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the major challenges facing society is the care of the environment, and for this reason the thematic becomes important for the education system that aims to educate citizens to be able to engage harmoniously into the environment where they are embedded. Therefore, this is research´s aims to understand the social representations of the school student teachers Normal Ricardo Flores Magon regarding the care of the environment, starting from the course Environmental Education for Sustainability and was conducted from a qualitative perspective, to gather information were used the survey and the portfolio of the students as instruments. The results were: the persistence of an anthropocentric paradigm therefore is responsibility to the teacher’s trainers of educators to change this view where prevails a critical and self-centered approach.

  11. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    , and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...

  12. Social Capital, culture and theories of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De la Peña García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a critical review of the concept of social capital, focusing on the theoretical underpinnings of the communitarian approach. It argues that this approach has a culturalist bias that omits key issues of inequality, conflict and power, making it a tool that is unlikely to contribute significantly to poverty reduction or development. As an example, it describes the adoption of the concept by the World Bank and provides a case study of rural community organization in Ecuador.

  13. Practice cannot be reduced to theory: Knowledge, representations, and change in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    Clancey, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Changing views of the nature of human knowledge change how we design organizations, facilities, and technology to promote learning: Learning is not transfer; using a plan is not executing a program; explanation is not reciting rules from memory. Such rationalist views of knowledge inhibit change and stifle innovate uses of technology. Representations of work (plans, policies, procedures) and their meaning develop in work itself. Representations guide, but do not strictly control human behavio...

  14. Sparse representation, modeling and learning in visual recognition theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This unique text/reference presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art in sparse representations, modeling and learning. The book examines both the theoretical foundations and details of algorithm implementation, highlighting the practical application of compressed sensing research in visual recognition and computer vision. Topics and features: provides a thorough introduction to the fundamentals of sparse representation, modeling and learning, and the application of these techniques in visual recognition; describes sparse recovery approaches, robust and efficient sparse represen

  15. Social Network Theory in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Peter A.

    Collaborative groups are important both in the learning environment of engineering education and, in the real world, the business of engineering design. Selecting appropriate individuals to form an effective group and monitoring a group's progress are important aspects of successful task performance. This exploratory study looked at using the concepts of cognitive social structures, structural balance, and centrality from social network analysis as well as the measures of emotional intelligence. The concepts were used to analyze potential team members to examine if an individual's ability to perceive emotion in others and the self and to use, understand, and manage those emotions are a factor in a group's performance. The students from a capstone design course in computer engineering were used as volunteer subjects. They were formed into groups and assigned a design exercise to determine whether and which of the above-mentioned tools would be effective in both selecting teams and predicting the quality of the resultant design. The results were inconclusive with the exception of an individual's ability to accurately perceive emotions. The instruments that were successful were the Self-Monitoring scale and the accuracy scores derived from cognitive social structures and Level IV of network levels of analysis.

  16. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2015-11-04

    Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments.

  17. Social diffusion of energy-related practices and representations: Patterns and policies in Portugal and Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiaux, Françoise; Schmidt, Luísa; Horta, Ana; Correia, Augusta

    2016-01-01

    The social-class dimension of energy consumption has been rather neglected relative to other theoretical approaches to energy use, despite its potential deployment in energy policies. This paper aims at investigating energy policy-related inequalities across social classes with respect to three dimensions highlighted by environmental-justice theories: income distribution, procedures producing unequal distributional outcomes, and cultural and political recognition of vulnerable and marginalised social groups. These inequalities can be exacerbated or reduced by social diffusion processes, both vertical and horizontal. These processes include policy instruments intending to lower energy consumption in the residential sector. To empirically ground the analysis, two countries with contrasting patterns of income inequalities, Portugal and Belgium, are compared on the basis of qualitative data collected in 2009–2011. We discuss the relevance of integrating the social diffusion dimension in energy policies and propose several policy instruments to do so. One of our main contribution is to argue that both vertical and horizontal diffusion across social classes, if adequately translated into policy instruments, can boost the uptake of residential energy retrofits and other energy saving practices.

  18. Social capital theory related to corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate social responsibility and its relationship to strategic management dealing with acquisition, development and utilisation of essential inputs. They influence the design of processes related to the creation of products or services that satisfy customers’ needs. Authors claim that the successful securing, deployment and development of any input is of human origin or linked to human activity which means that the nature of relationships plays a crucial role. As businesses are not isolated, they operate on a global scale where the question of trust is very important. The concept of social capital stresses that trust in norms and reciprocity facilitate increased productivity in individuals, teams and organisations. Social capital promotes value-added collaboration including on-going and demonstrative transparency which can secure closer bonding among those group members. Business responsibility, CSR and Putnam’s definition of social capital is shown on real case studies as a sign of importance for credibility and effectiveness of any CSR efforts. It is evident that the good will and support garnered from CSR can be fragile and easily damaged.

  19. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intention based on the social cognitive career theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh T.P. Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Entrepreneurial intention plays a major role in entrepreneurship academia and practice. However, little is known about the intentions of entrepreneurs in the social area of venture creation. This paper aims to formulate a well-organized model of social entrepreneurial intention. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on intention models in entrepreneurship literature in general and social entrepreneurship in particular to identify gaps. Based on these findings, a new conceptual model is formulated. Findings - There is no research to be found which uses the social cognitive career theory (SCCT to explain about an individual’s intention to become a social entrepreneur, although this theory is recently suggested as an inclusive framework for entrepreneurial intention (Doan Winkel et al., 2011. It is also supportive by the empirical research of Segal et al. (2002. Therefore, a conceptual model of entrepreneurial intention in the field of social entrepreneurship is formulated based on adapting and extending the SCCT. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the social entrepreneurship literature by providing new insights about social entrepreneurial intention. The result has important implications for theory and practice. In theory, it is the first model offering the SCCT as the background of formation for social entrepreneurial intention, with a distinct perspective of social entrepreneurship as a career. It raises a future direction for researchers to test this model. In practice, this framework provides a broad view of factors that could contribute to the success of the would-be a social entrepreneur.