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Sample records for social recognition performance

  1. Individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance depends on a functional circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L; Weinert, D

    2016-11-01

    In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated. Wild type (WT) animals show a clear and well-synchronized daily activity rhythm, whereas in arrhythmic (AR) hamsters, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) do not generate a circadian signal. The aim of the study was to investigate putative consequences of these deteriorations in the circadian system for animalś cognitive abilities. Hamsters were bred and kept under standardized housing conditions with food and water ad libitum and a 14l/10 D lighting regimen. Experimental animals were assigned to different groups (WT and AR) according to their activity pattern obtained by means of infrared motion sensors. Before the experiments, the animals were given to develop a dominant-subordinate relationship in a dyadic encounter. Experiment 1 dealt with individual recognition of social rank. Subordinate and dominant hamsters were tested in an open arena for their behavioral responses towards a familiar (known from the agonistic encounters) or an unfamiliar hamster (from another agonistic encounter) which had the same or an opposite social rank. The investigation time depended on the social rank of the WT subject hamster and its familiarity with the stimulus animal. Both subordinate and dominant WT hamsters preferred an unfamiliar subordinate stimulus animal. In contrast, neither subordinate nor dominant AR hamsters preferred any of the stimulus animals. Thus, disruptions in circadian

  2. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats reduces social interaction and social recognition performance and increases oxytocin receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2017-09-17

    Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genius begins at home: Shared social identity enhances the recognition of creative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Ryan, Michelle K; Millard, Kathryn

    2017-11-01

    The present research examines the extent to which the recognition of creative performance is structured by social group membership. It does this by analysing the award of merit prizes for Best Actor and Actress in a Leading Role for the international award of US-based Oscars and British-based BAFTAs since BAFTA's inception of this category in 1968. For both awards, the exclusive assessment criterion is the quality of artists' performance in the international arena. Results show that US artists won a greater proportion of Oscars than BAFTAs (odds ratio: 2.10), whereas British artists won a greater proportion of BAFTAs than Oscars (OR: 2.26). Furthermore, results support the hypothesis that these patterns are more pronounced as the diagnostic value of a quality indicator increases - that is, in the conferring of actual awards rather than nominations. Specifically, US artists won a greater proportion of Oscar awards than nominations (OR: 1.77), while British artists won a greater proportion of BAFTA awards than nominations (OR: 1.62). Additional analyses show that the performances of in-group actors in movies portraying in-group culture (US culture in the case of Oscars, British culture in the case of BAFTAs) are more likely to be recognized than the performances of in-group actors in movies portraying the culture of other (out-)groups. These are the first data to provide clear evidence from the field that the recognition of exceptional creative performance is enhanced by shared social identity between perceivers and performers. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala on social recognition memory performance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eNoack

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Different lines of investigation suggest that the medial amygdala is causally involved in the processing of information linked to social behaviour in rodents. Here we investigated the consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala by bilateral injections of lidocaine on long-term social recognition memory as tested in the social discrimination task. Lidocaine or control NaCl solution was infused immediately before learning or before retrieval. Our data show that lidocaine infusion immediately before learning did not affect long-term memory retrieval. However, intra-amygdalar lidocaine infusions immediately before choice interfered with correct memory retrieval. Analysis of the aggressive behaviour measured simultaneously during all sessions in the social recognition memory task support the impression that the lidocaine dosage used here was effective as it – at least partially – reduced the aggressive behaviour shown by the experimental subjects towards the juveniles. Surprisingly, also infusions of NaCl solution blocked recognition memory at both injection time points. The results are interpreted in the context of the importance of the medial amygdala for the processing of non-volatile odours as a major contributor to the olfactory signature for social recognition memory.

  5. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  6. The coevolution of recognition and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Rory; Forber, Patrick

    2016-05-26

    Recognition of behavioral types can facilitate the evolution of cooperation by enabling altruistic behavior to be directed at other cooperators and withheld from defectors. While much is known about the tendency for recognition to promote cooperation, relatively little is known about whether such a capacity can coevolve with the social behavior it supports. Here we use evolutionary game theory and multi-population dynamics to model the coevolution of social behavior and recognition. We show that conditional harming behavior enables the evolution and stability of social recognition, whereas conditional helping leads to a deterioration of recognition ability. Expanding the model to include a complex game where both helping and harming interactions are possible, we find that conditional harming behavior can stabilize recognition, and thereby lead to the evolution of conditional helping. Our model identifies a novel hypothesis for the evolution of cooperation: conditional harm may have coevolved with recognition first, thereby helping to establish the mechanisms necessary for the evolution of cooperation.

  7. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recognition and Judgement in Social Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Søren

    2009-01-01

    to recognition. In the first part, I outline the normative ideal and show its relevance for practical social work on the basis of social clients' experiences of disrespect. In the second, I expalin the concept of judgement and criticise the prevailing forms of judgement to be found in the social institutions...

  9. Person Recognition in Social Media Photos

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seong Joon; Benenson, Rodrigo; Fritz, Mario; Schiele, Bernt

    2017-01-01

    People nowadays share large parts of their personal lives through social media. Being able to automatically recognise people in personal photos may greatly enhance user convenience by easing photo album organisation. For human identification task, however, traditional focus of computer vision has been face recognition and pedestrian re-identification. Person recognition in social media photos sets new challenges for computer vision, including non-cooperative subjects (e.g. backward viewpoints...

  10. Activation of Supraoptic Oxytocin Neurons by Secretin Facilitates Social Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Yuki; Yoshida, Masahide; Takashima, Akihide; Takanami, Keiko; Yoshida, Shoma; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamagata, Takanori; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2017-02-01

    Social recognition underlies social behavior in animals, and patients with psychiatric disorders associated with social deficits show abnormalities in social recognition. Oxytocin is implicated in social behavior and has received attention as an effective treatment for sociobehavioral deficits. Secretin receptor-deficient mice show deficits in social behavior. The relationship between oxytocin and secretin concerning social behavior remains to be determined. Expression of c-Fos in oxytocin neurons and release of oxytocin from their dendrites after secretin application were investigated. Social recognition was examined after intracerebroventricular or local injection of secretin, oxytocin, or an oxytocin receptor antagonist in rats, oxytocin receptor-deficient mice, and secretin receptor-deficient mice. Electron and light microscopic immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine whether oxytocin neurons extend their dendrites into the medial amygdala. Supraoptic oxytocin neurons expressed the secretin receptor. Secretin activated supraoptic oxytocin neurons and facilitated oxytocin release from dendrites. Secretin increased acquisition of social recognition in an oxytocin receptor-dependent manner. Local application of secretin into the supraoptic nucleus facilitated social recognition, and this facilitation was blocked by an oxytocin receptor antagonist injected into, but not outside of, the medial amygdala. In the medial amygdala, dendrite-like thick oxytocin processes were found to extend from the supraoptic nucleus. Furthermore, oxytocin treatment restored deficits of social recognition in secretin receptor-deficient mice. The results of our study demonstrate that secretin-induced dendritic oxytocin release from supraoptic neurons enhances social recognition. The newly defined secretin-oxytocin system may lead to a possible treatment for social deficits. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Estrogenic involvement in social learning, social recognition and pathogen avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Phan, Anna; Valsecchi, Paola; Kavaliers, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Sociality comes with specific cognitive skills that allow the proper processing of information about others (social recognition), as well as of information originating from others (social learning). Because sociality and social interactions can also facilitate the spread of infection among individuals the ability to recognize and avoid pathogen threat is also essential. We review here various studies primarily from the rodent literature supporting estrogenic involvement in the regulation of social recognition, social learning (socially acquired food preferences and mate choice copying) and the recognition and avoidance of infected and potentially infected individuals. We consider both genomic and rapid estrogenic effects involving estrogen receptors α and β, and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1, along with their interactions with neuropeptide systems in the processing of social stimuli and the regulation and expression of these various socially relevant behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social appraisal influences recognition of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or anger in Experiment 1; fear, happiness, anger, or neutral in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a contextual face, which appeared simultaneously in the periphery of the screen, expressed an emotion (fear, happiness, anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. We manipulated gaze direction to be able to distinguish between a mere contextual effect (gaze away from both the target face and the participant) and a specific social appraisal effect (gaze toward the target face). Results of both experiments provided evidence for a social appraisal effect in emotion recognition, which differed from the mere effect of contextual information: Whereas facial expressions were identical in both conditions, the direction of the gaze of the contextual face influenced emotion recognition. Social appraisal facilitated the recognition of anger, happiness, and fear when the contextual face expressed the same emotion. This facilitation was stronger than the mere contextual effect. Social appraisal also allowed better recognition of fear when the contextual face expressed anger and better recognition of anger when the contextual face expressed fear. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Recognition of social identity in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nick; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the identity of others, from the individual to the group level, is a hallmark of society. Ants, and other social insects, have evolved advanced societies characterized by efficient social recognition systems. Colony identity is mediated by colony specific signature mixtures, a blend...

  14. Stability, Specialization and Social Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, R.P.; Lazarova, E.A.; Ruys, P.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Yang s theory of economic specialization under increasing returns to scale (Yang 2001) is a formal development of the fundamental Smith-Young theorem on the extent of the market and the social division of labor.In this theory specialization and, thus, the social division of labor is firmly embedded

  15. Employee Recognition and Performance: A Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bradler, Christiane; Dur, Robert; Neckermann, Susanne; Non, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in 'Management Science' . This paper reports the results from a controlled field experiment designed to investigate the causal effect of unannounced, public recognition on employee performance. We hired more than 300 employees to work on a three-hour data-entry task. In a random sample of work groups, workers unexpectedly received recognition after two hours of work. We find that recognition increases subsequent performance substantially, and particu...

  16. Self-face recognition in social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-06-01

    The concept of "social self" is often described as a representation of the self-reflected in the eyes or minds of others. Although the appearance of one's own face has substantial social significance for humans, neuroimaging studies have failed to link self-face recognition and the likely neural substrate of the social self, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). We assumed that the social self is recruited during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for comparison of social values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the modulation of neural responses to the faces of the self and of a close friend in a social context. We identified an enhanced response in the ventral MPFC and right occipitoparietal sulcus in the social context specifically for the self-face. Neural response in the right lateral parietal and inferior temporal cortices, previously claimed as self-face-specific, was unaffected for the self-face but unexpectedly enhanced for the friend's face in the social context. Self-face-specific activation in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and self-face-specific reduction of activation in the left middle temporal gyrus and the right supramarginal gyrus, replicating a previous finding, were not subject to such modulation. Our results thus demonstrated the recruitment of a social self during self-face recognition in the social context. At least three brain networks for self-face-specific activation may be dissociated by different patterns of response-modulation in the social context, suggesting multiple dynamic self-other representations in the human brain. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Recognition of social identity in ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick eBos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the identity of others, from the individual to the group level, is a hallmark of society. Ants, and other social insects, have evolved advanced societies characterized by efficient social recognition systems. Colony identity is mediated by colony specific signature mixtures, a blend of hydrocarbons present on the cuticle of every individual (the label. Recognition occurs when an ant encounters another individual, and compares the label it perceives to an internal representation of its own colony odor (the template. A mismatch between label and template leads to rejection of the encountered individual. Although advances have been made in our understanding of how the label is produced and acquired, contradictory evidence exists about information processing of recognition cues. Here, we review the literature on template acquisition in ants and address how and when the template is formed, where in the nervous system it is localized, and the possible role of learning. We combine seemingly contradictory evidence in to a novel, parsimonious theory for the information processing of nestmate recognition cues.

  18. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-02-28

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The 2007 performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 8 January 2007 to 16 April 2007. Interconnection with the 5-yearly review, a number of modifications to the procedures relating to the performance appraisal and merit recognition are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from January onwards. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  20. [Respiratory handicap. Recognition, evaluation and social benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, J; Pujet, J C

    1983-01-01

    The medico-social aspects of respiratory handicap pose some perplexing problems, notably in their recognition, rigorous evaluation and in the granting of social security benefits. The clinical and respiratory function data should be standardised and classified according to type and significance of respiratory disease and also according to the degree of co-operation and understanding of the patient. The respiratory handicap should be evaluated after considering the functional disability engendered by the disorder and their socio-professional repercussions. The abnormality in the lungs should be measured by resting tests; the degree of disability by exercise studies; the socio-professional handicap by ergonometric tests to assess the scale of the demands and requirements of family and social and professional life, indeed the cultural and economic style of the individual concerned. Such combined studies would enable recognition of severe chronic respiratory handicap leading to decisions for exemption certificates, such as cases of severe respiratory failure in patients requiring supplementary treatment for oxygen therapy or assisted ventilation. The benefits and grants offered to those with respiratory handicaps would involve a number of rights relating to: care, work, costs of replacement of workers in the event of prolonged sick leave or the benefits of an invalidity pension. There will be other allowances such as invalidity cards, lodging special studies and other rights particularly relating to lodging and special equipment. The present scale is difficult to use both because of its lack of specificity and its ill-chosen terminology. For better balance between the handicap and the benefits offered, a common and more flexible system, with a printed table should be at hand for the doctor to use for certain decisions: long term illness, period of invalidity or early retirement because of medical incapacity. Within each table a sub-section should exist to allow for

  1. Employee Recognition and Performance: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Bradler (Christiane); A.J. Dur (Robert); S. Neckermann (Susanne); J.A. Non (Arjan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reports the results from a controlled field experiment designed to investigate the causal effect of public recognition on employee performance. We hired more than 300 employees to work on a three-hour data-entry task. In a random sample of work groups, workers unexpectedly

  2. Employee recognition and performance: A field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradler, C.; Dur, R.; Neckermann, S.; Non, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a controlled field experiment designed to investigate the causal effect of public recognition on employee performance. We hired more than 300 employees to work on a three-hour data-entry task. In a random sample of work groups, workers unexpectedly received

  3. Social emotion recognition, social functioning, and attempted suicide in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Sahakian, Barbara J; Mulsant, Benoit H; Houck, Patricia R; Reynolds, Charles F; Clark, Luke

    2012-03-01

    : Lack of feeling connected and poor social problem solving have been described in suicide attempters. However, cognitive substrates of this apparent social impairment in suicide attempters remain unknown. One possible deficit, the inability to recognize others' complex emotional states has been observed not only in disorders characterized by prominent social deficits (autism-spectrum disorders and frontotemporal dementia) but also in depression and normal aging. This study assessed the relationship between social emotion recognition, problem solving, social functioning, and attempted suicide in late-life depression. : There were 90 participants: 24 older depressed suicide attempters, 38 nonsuicidal depressed elders, and 28 comparison subjects with no psychiatric history. We compared performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test and measures of social networks, social support, social problem solving, and chronic interpersonal difficulties in these three groups. : Suicide attempters committed significantly more errors in social emotion recognition and showed poorer global cognitive performance than elders with no psychiatric history. Attempters had restricted social networks: they were less likely to talk to their children, had fewer close friends, and did not engage in volunteer activities, compared to nonsuicidal depressed elders and those with no psychiatric history. They also reported a pattern of struggle against others and hostility in relationships, felt a lack of social support, perceived social problems as impossible to resolve, and displayed a careless/impulsive approach to problems. : Suicide attempts in depressed elders were associated with poor social problem solving, constricted social networks, and disruptive interpersonal relationships. Impaired social emotion recognition in the suicide attempter group was related.

  4. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal’s territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

  5. Social Approach and Emotion Recognition in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracey A.; Porter, Melanie A.; Langdon, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to…

  6. Clinical Strategies for Sampling Word Recognition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert S; Carney, Edward

    2018-04-17

    Computer simulation was used to estimate the statistical properties of searches for maximum word recognition ability (PB max). These involve presenting multiple lists and discarding all scores but that of the 1 list that produced the highest score. The simulations, which model limitations inherent in the precision of word recognition scores, were done to inform clinical protocols. A secondary consideration was a derivation of 95% confidence intervals for significant changes in score from phonemic scoring of a 50-word list. The PB max simulations were conducted on a "client" with flat performance intensity functions. The client's performance was assumed to be 60% initially and 40% for a second assessment. Thousands of estimates were obtained to examine the precision of (a) single lists and (b) multiple lists using a PB max procedure. This method permitted summarizing the precision for assessing a 20% drop in performance. A single 25-word list could identify only 58.4% of the cases in which performance fell from 60% to 40%. A single 125-word list identified 99.8% of the declines correctly. Presenting 3 or 5 lists to find PB max produced an undesirable finding: an increase in the word recognition score. A 25-word list produces unacceptably low precision for making clinical decisions. This finding holds in both single and multiple 25-word lists, as in a search for PB max. A table is provided, giving estimates of 95% critical ranges for successive presentations of a 50-word list analyzed by the number of phonemes correctly identified.

  7. Neural androgen receptors modulate gene expression and social recognition but not social investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Karlsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of sex and androgen receptors (ARs for social preference and social memory is rather unknown. In this study of mice we compared males, females and males lacking ARs specifically in the nervous system, ARNesDel, with respect to social preference, assessed with the three-chambered apparatus test, and social recognition, assessed with the social discrimination procedure. In the social discrimination test we also evaluated the tentative importance of the sex of the stimulus animal. Novel object recognition and olfaction were investigated to complement the results from the social tests. Gene expression analysis was performed to reveal molecules involved in the effects of sex and androgens on social behaviors. All three test groups showed social preference in the three-chambered apparatus test. In both social tests an AR-independent sexual dimorphism was seen in the persistence of social investigation of female conspecifics, whereas the social interest towards male stimuli mice was similar in all groups. Male and female controls recognized conspecifics independent of their sex, whereas ARNesDel males recognized female but not male stimuli mice. Moreover, the non-social behaviors were not affected by AR deficiency. The gene expression analyses of hypothalamus and amygdala indicated that Oxtr, Cd38, Esr1, Cyp19a1, Ucn3, Crh and Gtf2i were differentially expressed between the three groups. In conclusion, our results suggest that ARs are required for recognition of male but not female conspecifics, while being dispensable for social investigation towards both sexes. In addition, the AR seems to regulate genes related to oxytocin, estrogen and William’s syndrome.

  8. A role for CA3 in social recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ming-Ching; Huang, Arthur J Y; Wintzer, Marie E; Ohshima, Toshio; McHugh, Thomas J

    2018-02-02

    Social recognition memory is crucial for survival across species, underlying the need to correctly identify conspecifics, mates and potential enemies. In humans the hippocampus is engaged in social and episodic memory, however the circuit mechanisms of social memory in rodent models has only recently come under scrutiny. Work in mice has established that the dorsal CA2 and ventral CA1 regions play critical roles, however a more comprehensive comparative analyses of the circuits and mechanisms required has not been reported. Here we employ conditional genetics to examine the differential contributions of the hippocampal subfields to social memory. We find that the deletion of NMDA receptor subunit 1 gene (NR1), which abolishes NMDA receptor synaptic plasticity, in CA3 pyramidal cells led to deficits in social memory; however, mice lacking the same gene in DG granule cells performed indistinguishable from controls. Further, we use conditional pharmacogenetic inhibition to demonstrate that activity in ventral, but not dorsal, CA3 is necessary for the encoding of a social memory. These findings demonstrated CA3 pyramidal cell plasticity and transmission contribute to the encoding of social stimuli and help further identify the distinct circuits underlying the role of the hippocampus in social memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of the medial or basolateral amygdala upon social anxiety and social recognition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Shanshan; Liu, Xu; Fu, Qunying

    2014-01-01

    Though social anxiety and social recognition have been studied extensively, the roles of the medial or basolateral amygdala in the control of social anxiety and social recognition remain to be determined. This study investigated the effects of excitotoxic bilateral medial or basolateral amygdala lesions upon social anxiety and social recognition in-mice. Animals at 9 weeks of age were given bilateral medial or basolateral amygdala lesions via infusion of N-methyl- D-aspartate and then were used for behavioral tests: anxiety-related tests (including open-field test, light-dark test, and elevated-plus maze test), social behavior test in a novel environment, social recognition test, and flavor recognition test. Medial or basolateral amygdala-lesioned mice showed lower levels of anxiety and increased social behaviors in a novel environment. Destruction of the medial or basolateral amygdala neurons impaired social recognition but not flavor recognition. The medial or basolateral amygdala is involved in the control of anxiety-related behavior (social anxiety and social behaviors) in mice. Moreover, both the medial and the basolateral amygdala are essential for social recognition but not flavor recognition in mice.

  10. Cataract influence on iris recognition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Czajka, Adam; Maciejewicz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental study revealing weaker performance of the automatic iris recognition methods for cataract-affected eyes when compared to healthy eyes. There is little research on the topic, mostly incorporating scarce databases that are often deficient in images representing more than one illness. We built our own database, acquiring 1288 eye images of 37 patients of the Medical University of Warsaw. Those images represent several common ocular diseases, such as cataract, along with less ordinary conditions, such as iris pattern alterations derived from illness or eye trauma. Images were captured in near-infrared light (used in biometrics) and for selected cases also in visible light (used in ophthalmological diagnosis). Since cataract is a disorder that is most populated by samples in the database, in this paper we focus solely on this illness. To assess the extent of the performance deterioration we use three iris recognition methodologies (commercial and academic solutions) to calculate genuine match scores for healthy eyes and those influenced by cataract. Results show a significant degradation in iris recognition reliability manifesting by worsening the genuine scores in all three matchers used in this study (12% of genuine score increase for an academic matcher, up to 175% of genuine score increase obtained for an example commercial matcher). This increase in genuine scores affected the final false non-match rate in two matchers. To our best knowledge this is the only study of such kind that employs more than one iris matcher, and analyzes the iris image segmentation as a potential source of decreased reliability

  11. Orexin signaling during social defeat stress influences subsequent social interaction behaviour and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacret, Darrell; Grafe, Laura A; Dobkin, Jane; Gotter, Anthony L; Rengerb, John J; Winrow, Christopher J; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2018-06-11

    Orexins are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that influence arousal, feeding, reward pathways, and the response to stress. However, the role of orexins in repeated stress is not fully characterized. Here, we examined how orexins and their receptors contribute to the coping response during repeated social defeat and subsequent anxiety-like and memory-related behaviors. Specifically, we used Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to stimulate orexins prior to each of five consecutive days of social defeat stress in adult male rats. Additionally, we determined the role of the orexin 2 receptor in these behaviors by using a selective orexin 2 receptor antagonist (MK-1064) administered prior to each social defeat. Following the 5 day social defeat conditioning period, rats were evaluated in social interaction and novel object recognition paradigms to assess anxiety-like behavior and recognition memory, respectively. Activation of orexin neurons by DREADDs prior to each social defeat decreased the average latency to become defeated across 5 days, indicative of a passive coping strategy that we have previously linked to a stress vulnerable phenotype. Moreover, stimulation of orexin signaling during defeat conditioning decreased subsequent social interaction and performance in the novel object recognition test indicating increased subsequent anxiety-like behavior and reduced working memory. Blocking the orexin 2 receptor during repeated defeat did not alter these effects. Together, our results suggest that orexin neuron activation produces a passive coping phenotype during social defeat leading to subsequent anxiety-like behaviors and memory deficits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. genetic overexpression of NR2B subunit enhances social recognition memory for different strains and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephanie A; Tsien, Joe Z

    2012-01-01

    The ability to learn and remember conspecifics is essential for the establishment and maintenance of social groups. Many animals, including humans, primates and rodents, depend on stable social relationships for survival. Social learning and social recognition have become emerging areas of interest for neuroscientists but are still not well understood. It has been established that several hormones play a role in the modulation of social recognition including estrogen, oxytocin and arginine vasopression. Relatively few studies have investigated how social recognition might be improved or enhanced. In this study, we investigate the role of the NMDA receptor in social recognition memory, specifically the consequences of altering the ratio of the NR2B:NR2A subunits in the forebrain regions in social behavior. We produced transgenic mice in which the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor was overexpressed postnatally in the excitatory neurons of the forebrain areas including the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. We investigated the ability of both our transgenic animals and their wild-type littermate to learn and remember juvenile conspecifics using both 1-hr and 24-hr memory tests. Our experiments show that the wild-type animals and NR2B transgenic mice preformed similarly in the 1-hr test. However, transgenic mice showed better performances in 24-hr tests of recognizing animals of a different strain or animals of a different species. We conclude that NR2B overexpression in the forebrain enhances social recognition memory for different strains and animal species.

  13. Roles of the basolateral amygdala and hippocampus in social recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Maaswinkel, H.; Baars, A.M.; Spruijt, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus have a large impact on social behavior of rats. In this study we investigated whether a social recognition test was also affected by those lesions. An NMDA-induced lesion of the basolateral amygdala did not impair the ability to distinguish a familiar from an

  14. Social-cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: generalization of effects of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole

    2011-09-01

    In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR--primarily targeted at facial affect recognition-or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)--primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre-post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches.

  15. Social context predicts recognition systems in ant queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of group-members is a key feature of sociality. Ants use chemical communication to discriminate nestmates from intruders, enhancing kin cooperation and preventing parasitism. The recognition code is embedded in their cuticular chemical profile, which typically varies between colonies....... We predicted that ants might be capable of accurate recognition in unusual situations when few individuals interact repeatedly, as new colonies started by two to three queens. Individual recognition would be favoured by selection when queens establish dominance hierarchies, because repeated fights...... for dominance are costly; but it would not evolve in absence of hierarchies. We previously showed that Pachycondyla co-founding queens, which form dominance hierarchies, have accurate individual recognition based on chemical cues. Here, we used the ant Lasius niger to test the null hypothesis that individual...

  16. The CC chemokine receptor 5 regulates olfactory and social recognition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkonde, Y V; Shelton, R; Villarreal, M; Sigala, J; Mishra, P K; Ahuja, S S; Barea-Rodriguez, E; Moretti, P; Ahuja, S K

    2011-12-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that regulate cell migration and are thought to play an important role in a broad range of inflammatory diseases. The availability of chemokine receptor blockers makes them an important therapeutic target. In vitro, chemokines are shown to modulate neurotransmission. However, it is not very clear if chemokines play a role in behavior and cognition. Here we evaluated the role of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) in various behavioral tasks in mice using Wt (Ccr5⁺/⁺) and Ccr5-null (Ccr5⁻/⁻)mice. Ccr5⁻/⁻ mice showed enhanced social recognition. Administration of CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), one of the CCR5-ligands, impaired social recognition. Since the social recognition task is dependent on the sense of olfaction, we tested olfactory recognition for social and non-social scents in these mice. Ccr5⁻/⁻ mice had enhanced olfactory recognition for both these scents indicating that enhanced performance in social recognition task could be due to enhanced olfactory recognition in these mice. Spatial memory and aversive memory were comparable in Wt and Ccr5⁻/⁻ mice. Collectively, these results suggest that chemokines/chemokine receptors might play an important role in olfactory recognition tasks in mice and to our knowledge represents the first direct demonstration of an in vivo role of CCR5 in modulating social behavior in mice. These studies are important as CCR5 blockers are undergoing clinical trials and can potentially modulate behavior. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2009-07-22

    Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.

  18. Recognition in ants: social origin matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Meunier

    Full Text Available The ability of group members to discriminate against foreigners is a keystone in the evolution of sociality. In social insects, colony social structure (number of queens is generally thought to influence abilities of resident workers to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates. However, whether social origin of introduced individuals has an effect on their acceptance in conspecific colonies remains poorly explored. Using egg-acceptance bioassays, we tested the influence of social origin of queen-laid eggs on their acceptance by foreign workers in the ant Formica selysi. We showed that workers from both single- and multiple-queen colonies discriminated against foreign eggs from single-queen colonies, whereas they surprisingly accepted foreign eggs from multiple-queen colonies. Chemical analyses then demonstrated that social origins of eggs and workers could be discriminated on the basis of their chemical profiles, a signal generally involved in nestmate discrimination. These findings provide the first evidence in social insects that social origins of eggs interfere with nestmate discrimination and are encoded by chemical signatures.

  19. [Neural basis of self-face recognition: social aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2012-07-01

    Considering the importance of the face in social survival and evidence from evolutionary psychology of visual self-recognition, it is reasonable that we expect neural mechanisms for higher social-cognitive processes to underlie self-face recognition. A decade of neuroimaging studies so far has, however, not provided an encouraging finding in this respect. Self-face specific activation has typically been reported in the areas for sensory-motor integration in the right lateral cortices. This observation appears to reflect the physical nature of the self-face which representation is developed via the detection of contingency between one's own action and sensory feedback. We have recently revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex, implicated in socially nuanced self-referential process, is activated during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for reference. The posterior cingulate cortex has also exhibited this activation modulation, and in the separate experiment showed a response to attractively manipulated self-face suggesting its relevance to positive self-value. Furthermore, the regions in the right lateral cortices typically showing self-face-specific activation have responded also to the face of one's close friend under the rich social context. This observation is potentially explained by the fact that the contingency detection for physical self-recognition also plays a role in physical social interaction, which characterizes the representation of personally familiar people. These findings demonstrate that neuroscientific exploration reveals multiple facets of the relationship between self-face recognition and social-cognitive process, and that technically the manipulation of social context is key to its success.

  20. A simple centrality index for scientific social recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Osame; Soares, Leonardo D. H.; Cardoso, George C.

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a new centrality index for bipartite networks of papers and authors that we call K-index. The K-index grows with the citation performance of the papers that cite a given researcher and can be seen as a measure of scientific social recognition. Indeed, the K-index measures the number of hubs, defined in a self-consistent way in the bipartite network, that cites a given author. We show that the K-index can be computed by simple inspection of the Web of Science platform and presents several advantages over other centrality indexes, in particular Hirsch h-index. The K-index is robust to self-citations, is not limited by the total number of papers published by a researcher as occurs for the h-index and can distinguish in a consistent way researchers that have the same h-index but very different scientific social recognition. The K-index easily detects a known case of a researcher with inflated number of papers, citations and h-index due to scientific misconduct. Finally, we show that, in a sample of twenty-eight physics Nobel laureates and twenty-eight highly cited non-Nobel-laureate physicists, the K-index correlates better to the achievement of the prize than the number of papers, citations, citations per paper, citing articles or the h-index. Clustering researchers in a K versus h plot reveals interesting outliers that suggest that these two indexes can present complementary independent information.

  1. [Graduate Students in Medicine Course: Motivation, Socialization and Academic Recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Alves, Cristina; Barbosa, Joselina; Ribeiro, Laura; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2017-04-28

    Students with a previous degree have personal and professional experiences that can contribute to a different academic path during the medical course. This study aims to: 1) analyze both satisfaction and impact of academic recognition; 2) investigate whether motivations and expectations at entrance are maintained along the course; 3) to evaluate socialization after regress to higher education. To accomplish the first objective a questionnaire was administered to 82 students who entered the medical school from 2011/2012 to 2013/2014. For the second and third goals a focus group was run (three groups with five students each, representing the three academic years). Students felt satisfied with the recognition, and 50% of them believe that accreditations replace knowledge acquired with the curricular units, and 47% preferred to obtain accreditation. Academic achievement was negatively associated with the satisfaction of recognition and positively with age, background and registration cycle. Socialization of these students is distinct from the younger ones, their motivations at entrance are intrinsic and, contrary to expectations, are maintained along the course. Students prefer recognition instead of attending the curricular units. The most satisfied with the recognition accomplish less credits and the younger ones, from health area and enrolled in the clinical cycle, accomplish more. Along the course, motivations become more solid, expectations change and socialization is carried out with greater responsibility.

  2. Facial and prosodic emotion recognition in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Lien; Chen, Jian-Ting; Liang, Kuei-Yu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2017-07-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have a cognitive preference to negatively evaluate emotional information. In particular, the preferential biases in prosodic emotion recognition in SAD have been much less explored. The present study aims to investigate whether SAD patients retain negative evaluation biases across visual and auditory modalities when given sufficient response time to recognise emotions. Thirty-one SAD patients and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy participants completed a culturally suitable non-verbal emotion recognition task and received clinical assessments for social anxiety and depressive symptoms. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine group differences in emotion recognition. Compared to healthy participants, SAD patients were significantly less accurate at recognising facial and prosodic emotions, and spent more time on emotion recognition. The differences were mainly driven by the lower accuracy and longer reaction times for recognising fearful emotions in SAD patients. Within the SAD patients, lower accuracy of sad face recognition was associated with higher severity of depressive and social anxiety symptoms, particularly with avoidance symptoms. These findings may represent a cross-modality pattern of avoidance in the later stage of identifying negative emotions in SAD. This pattern may be linked to clinical symptom severity.

  3. Hessian-regularized co-training for social activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weifeng; Li, Yang; Lin, Xu; Tao, Dacheng; Wang, Yanjiang

    2014-01-01

    Co-training is a major multi-view learning paradigm that alternately trains two classifiers on two distinct views and maximizes the mutual agreement on the two-view unlabeled data. Traditional co-training algorithms usually train a learner on each view separately and then force the learners to be consistent across views. Although many co-trainings have been developed, it is quite possible that a learner will receive erroneous labels for unlabeled data when the other learner has only mediocre accuracy. This usually happens in the first rounds of co-training, when there are only a few labeled examples. As a result, co-training algorithms often have unstable performance. In this paper, Hessian-regularized co-training is proposed to overcome these limitations. Specifically, each Hessian is obtained from a particular view of examples; Hessian regularization is then integrated into the learner training process of each view by penalizing the regression function along the potential manifold. Hessian can properly exploit the local structure of the underlying data manifold. Hessian regularization significantly boosts the generalizability of a classifier, especially when there are a small number of labeled examples and a large number of unlabeled examples. To evaluate the proposed method, extensive experiments were conducted on the unstructured social activity attribute (USAA) dataset for social activity recognition. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms baseline methods, including the traditional co-training and LapCo algorithms.

  4. Hessian-regularized co-training for social activity recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Liu

    Full Text Available Co-training is a major multi-view learning paradigm that alternately trains two classifiers on two distinct views and maximizes the mutual agreement on the two-view unlabeled data. Traditional co-training algorithms usually train a learner on each view separately and then force the learners to be consistent across views. Although many co-trainings have been developed, it is quite possible that a learner will receive erroneous labels for unlabeled data when the other learner has only mediocre accuracy. This usually happens in the first rounds of co-training, when there are only a few labeled examples. As a result, co-training algorithms often have unstable performance. In this paper, Hessian-regularized co-training is proposed to overcome these limitations. Specifically, each Hessian is obtained from a particular view of examples; Hessian regularization is then integrated into the learner training process of each view by penalizing the regression function along the potential manifold. Hessian can properly exploit the local structure of the underlying data manifold. Hessian regularization significantly boosts the generalizability of a classifier, especially when there are a small number of labeled examples and a large number of unlabeled examples. To evaluate the proposed method, extensive experiments were conducted on the unstructured social activity attribute (USAA dataset for social activity recognition. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms baseline methods, including the traditional co-training and LapCo algorithms.

  5. Neural correlates of recognition memory of social information in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Social dysfunction is a hallmark characteristic of schizophrenia. Part of it may stem from an inability to efficiently encode social information into memory and retrieve it later. This study focused on whether patients with schizophrenia show a memory boost for socially relevant information and engage the same neural network as controls when processing social stimuli that were previously encoded into memory. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls performed a social and nonsocial picture recognition memory task while being scanned. We calculated memory performance using d'. Our main analysis focused on brain activity associated with recognition memory of social and nonsocial pictures. Our study included 28 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Healthy controls demonstrated a memory boost for socially relevant information. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to show enhanced recognition sensitivity for social pictures. At the neural level, patients did not engage the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) as much as controls while recognizing social pictures. Our study did not include direct measures of self-referential processing. All but 3 patients were taking antipsychotic medications, which may have altered both the behavioural performance during the picture recognition memory task and brain activity. Impaired social memory in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with altered DMPFC activity. A reduction of DMPFC activity may reflect less involvement of self-referential processes during memory retrieval. Our functional MRI results contribute to a better mapping of the neural disturbances associated with social memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia and may facilitate the development of innovative treatments, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation.

  6. Prosocial effects of prolactin in male rats: Social recognition, social approach and social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donhoffner, Mary E; Al Saleh, Samar; Schink, Olivia; Wood, Ruth I

    2017-11-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) are pituitary hormones essential for lactation, but also promote sexual behavior. OT stimulates social behaviors, such as recognition, approach, and learning, but less is known about PRL in these behaviors. Since PRL and OT have complementary functions in reproduction, we hypothesized that PRL increases social recognition, approach, and learning. Male Long-Evans rats received ovine PRL (oPRL; 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0mg/kg), the PRL antagonist bromocriptine (0.1, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg) or saline 20 mins before testing for recognition of familiar vs. unfamiliar stimulus males. Saline controls preferred the unfamiliar male (psocial approach, we determined if PRL restores approach 2h after defeat by an aggressive male. Defeated rats avoided the aggressive male. 2mg/kg oPRL, before or after defeat, restored approach towards the aggressive male (psocial learning, we tested social transmission of food preference. Rats choose between two unfamiliar flavors, one of which they have previously been exposed to through interaction with a demonstrator rat. Vehicle controls preferred chow with the demonstrated flavor over the novel flavor. oPRL-treated rats were similar. Bromocriptine-treated rats failed to show a preference. When tested one week later, only oPRL-treated rats preferred the demonstrated flavor. The results suggest that PRL is required for social recognition and learning, and that increasing PRL enhances social memory and approach, similar to OT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aberrant neural networks for the recognition memory of socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit several cognitive deficits, including memory impairment. Problems with recognition memory can hinder socially adaptive behavior. Previous investigations have suggested that altered activation of the frontotemporal area plays an important role in recognition memory impairment. However, the cerebral networks related to these deficits are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain networks required for recognizing socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia performing an old-new recognition task. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 controls participated in this study. First, the subjects performed the theme-identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, pictures depicting social situations were presented with three words, and the subjects were asked to select the best theme word for each picture. The subjects then performed an old-new recognition task in which they were asked to discriminate whether the presented words were old or new. Task performance and neural responses in the old-new recognition task were compared between the subject groups. An independent component analysis of the functional connectivity was performed. The patients with schizophrenia exhibited decreased discriminability and increased activation of the right superior temporal gyrus compared with the controls during correct responses. Furthermore, aberrant network activities were found in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients. The functional connectivity analysis showed aberrant connectivity in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients with schizophrenia, and these aberrations possibly contribute to their low recognition performance and social dysfunction. These results suggest that the frontopolar and language comprehension networks are potential therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. UNCONSTRAINED HANDWRITING RECOGNITION : LANGUAGE MODELS, PERPLEXITY, AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marti, U-V.; Bunke, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a number of language models and their behavior in the recognition of unconstrained handwritten English sentences. We use the perplexity to compare the different models and their prediction power, and relate it to the performance of a recognition system under different

  9. Long-Term Social Recognition Memory in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Natália; Oliveira, Rui F

    2017-08-01

    In species in which individuals live in stable social groups, individual recognition is expected to evolve to allow individuals to remember past interactions with different individuals and adjust future behavior toward them accordingly. Thus, social memory is expected to be a ubiquitous component of social cognition of social species. However, few studies have investigated the occurrence of social memory in non-mammals. Here we evaluated the ability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to recognize different conspecifics and to retain this information in long lasting (i.e. 24 h) memories. We used a social discrimination paradigm, adapted from mouse studies, in which the focal individual meets two pairs of conspecifics in two consecutive days: one conspecific is the same in both days and the other is different between days 1 and 2. If animals have the ability to discriminate between different conspecifics, it is predicted that they will spend more time exploring the novel than the familiar (i.e. already seen in day 1) conspecific. In this study, zebrafish with access to both olfactory and visual conspecific cues exhibited consistent recognition of a previously encountered (familiar) conspecific after a 24 h delay. This result supports the hypothesis that long-term social memory, previously described in mammals, is also present in zebrafish, hence extending the evidence for the presence of this type of memory to teleost fish.

  10. Gender differences in the relationship between social communication and emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Radha; Skuse, David; Wakefield, Justin; Micali, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the association between autistic traits and emotion recognition in a large community sample of children using facial and social motion cues, additionally stratifying by gender. A general population sample of 3,666 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were assessed on their ability to correctly recognize emotions using the faces subtest of the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy, and the Emotional Triangles Task, a novel test assessing recognition of emotion from social motion cues. Children with autistic-like social communication difficulties, as assessed by the Social Communication Disorders Checklist, were compared with children without such difficulties. Autistic-like social communication difficulties were associated with poorer recognition of emotion from social motion cues in both genders, but were associated with poorer facial emotion recognition in boys only (odds ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 2.6, p = .0001). This finding must be considered in light of lower power to detect differences in girls. In this community sample of children, greater deficits in social communication skills are associated with poorer discrimination of emotions, implying there may be an underlying continuum of liability to the association between these characteristics. As a similar degree of association was observed in both genders on a novel test of social motion cues, the relatively good performance of girls on the more familiar task of facial emotion discrimination may be due to compensatory mechanisms. Our study might indicate the existence of a cognitive process by which girls with underlying autistic traits can compensate for their covert deficits in emotion recognition, although this would require further investigation. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is having similar eye movement patterns during face learning and recognition beneficial for recognition performance? Evidence from hidden Markov modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-12-01

    The hidden Markov model (HMM)-based approach for eye movement analysis is able to reflect individual differences in both spatial and temporal aspects of eye movements. Here we used this approach to understand the relationship between eye movements during face learning and recognition, and its association with recognition performance. We discovered holistic (i.e., mainly looking at the face center) and analytic (i.e., specifically looking at the two eyes in addition to the face center) patterns during both learning and recognition. Although for both learning and recognition, participants who adopted analytic patterns had better recognition performance than those with holistic patterns, a significant positive correlation between the likelihood of participants' patterns being classified as analytic and their recognition performance was only observed during recognition. Significantly more participants adopted holistic patterns during learning than recognition. Interestingly, about 40% of the participants used different patterns between learning and recognition, and among them 90% switched their patterns from holistic at learning to analytic at recognition. In contrast to the scan path theory, which posits that eye movements during learning have to be recapitulated during recognition for the recognition to be successful, participants who used the same or different patterns during learning and recognition did not differ in recognition performance. The similarity between their learning and recognition eye movement patterns also did not correlate with their recognition performance. These findings suggested that perceptuomotor memory elicited by eye movement patterns during learning does not play an important role in recognition. In contrast, the retrieval of diagnostic information for recognition, such as the eyes for face recognition, is a better predictor for recognition performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of acute social isolation on long-term social recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Noam; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-10-01

    The abilities to recognize individual animals of the same species and to distinguish them from other individuals are the basis for all mammalian social organizations and relationships. These abilities, termed social recognition memory, can be explored in mice and rats using their innate tendency to investigate novel social stimuli more persistently than familiar ones. Using this methodology it was found that social recognition memory is mediated by a specific neural network in the brain, the activity of which is modulated by several molecules, such the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. During the last 15 years several independent studies have revealed that social recognition memory of mice and rats depends upon their housing conditions. Specifically, long-term social recognition memory cannot be formed as shortly as few days following social isolation of the animal. This rapid and reversible impairment caused by acute social isolation seems to be specific to social memory and has not been observed in other types of memory. Here we review these studies and suggest that this unique system may serve for exploring of the mechanisms underlying the well-known negative effects of partial or perceived social isolation on human mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Primate auditory recognition memory performance varies with sound type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi-Wing; Plakke, Bethany; Poremba, Amy

    2009-10-01

    Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g., social status, kinship, environment), have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition and/or memory. The present study employs a delayed matching-to-sample task with auditory stimuli to examine auditory memory performance of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), wherein two sounds are determined to be the same or different. Rhesus macaques seem to have relatively poor short-term memory with auditory stimuli, and we examine if particular sound types are more favorable for memory performance. Experiment 1 suggests memory performance with vocalization sound types (particularly monkey), are significantly better than when using non-vocalization sound types, and male monkeys outperform female monkeys overall. Experiment 2, controlling for number of sound exemplars and presentation pairings across types, replicates Experiment 1, demonstrating better performance or decreased response latencies, depending on trial type, to species-specific monkey vocalizations. The findings cannot be explained by acoustic differences between monkey vocalizations and the other sound types, suggesting the biological, and/or ethological meaning of these sounds are more effective for auditory memory. 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Performance systems and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...... from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...

  15. Evaluation of Activity Recognition Algorithms for Employee Performance Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Mehreen Mumtaz; Hafiz Adnan Habib

    2012-01-01

    Successful Human Resource Management plays a key role in success of any organization. Traditionally, human resource managers rely on various information technology solutions such as Payroll and Work Time Systems incorporating RFID and biometric technologies. This research evaluates activity recognition algorithms for employee performance monitoring. An activity recognition algorithm has been implemented that categorized the activity of employee into following in to classes: job activities and...

  16. Neuroanatomical Markers of Social Hierarchy Recognition in Humans: A Combined ERP/MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-García, Hernando; Burgaleta, Miguel; Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria

    2015-07-29

    Social hierarchy is an ubiquitous principle of social organization across animal species. Although some progress has been made in our understanding of how humans infer hierarchical identity, the neuroanatomical basis for perceiving key social dimensions of others remains unexplored. Here, we combined event-related potentials and structural MRI to reveal the neuroanatomical substrates of early status recognition. We designed a covertly simulated hierarchical setting in which participants performed a task either with a superior or with an inferior player. Participants showed higher amplitude in the N170 component when presented with a picture of a superior player compared with an inferior player. Crucially, the magnitude of this effect correlated with brain morphology of the posterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, insula, fusiform gyrus, and caudate nucleus. We conclude that early recognition of social hierarchies relies on the structural properties of a network involved in the automatic recognition of social identity. Humans can perceive social hierarchies very rapidly, an ability that is key for social interactions. However, some individuals are more sensitive to hierarchical information than others. Currently, it is unknown how brain structure supports such fast-paced processes of social hierarchy perception and their individual differences. Here, we addressed this issue for the first time by combining the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) and the high spatial resolution of structural MRI. This methodological approach allowed us to unveil a novel association between ERP neuromarkers of social hierarchy perception and the morphology of several cortical and subcortical brain regions typically assumed to play a role in automatic processes of social cognition. Our results are a step forward in our understanding of the human social brain. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510843-08$15.00/0.

  17. Transgenerational effects of prenatal bisphenol A on social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, Jennifer T; Goldsby, Jessica A; Rissman, Emilie F

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made endocrine disrupting compound used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics. It is found in plastic bottles, canned food linings, thermal receipts and other commonly used items. Over 93% of people have detectable BPA levels in their urine. Epidemiological studies report correlations between BPA levels during pregnancy and activity, anxiety, and depression in children. We fed female mice control or BPA-containing diets that produced plasma BPA concentrations similar to concentrations in humans. Females were mated and at birth, pups were fostered to control dams to limit BPA exposure to gestation in the first generation. Sibling pairs were bred to the third generation with no further BPA exposure. First (F1) and third (F3) generation juveniles were tested for social recognition and in the open field. Adult F3 mice were tested for olfactory discrimination. In both generations, BPA exposed juvenile mice displayed higher levels of investigation than controls in a social recognition task. In F3 BPA exposed mice, dishabituation to a novel female was impaired. In the open field, no differences were noted in F1 mice, while in F3, BPA lineage mice were more active than controls. No impairments were detected in F3 mice, all were able to discriminate different male urine pools and urine from water. No sex differences were found in any task. These results demonstrate that BPA exposure during gestation has long lasting, transgenerational effects on social recognition and activity in mice. These findings show that BPA exposure has transgenerational actions on behavior and have implications for human neurodevelopmental behavioral disorders. © 2013.

  18. Primate Auditory Recognition Memory Performance Varies With Sound Type

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Wing, Ng; Bethany, Plakke; Amy, Poremba

    2009-01-01

    Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g. social status, kinship, environment),have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition, and/or memory. The present study employs a de...

  19. Joint Attention, Social-Cognition, and Recognition Memory in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanguk; Mundy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention (JA), or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that JA affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of JA in adults, Initiating Joint Attention (IJA) and Responding to Joint Attention (RJA). Distinguishing these types of JA in research is important because they are thought to reflect unique, as well as common constellations of processes involved in human social-cognition and social learning. We tested the validity of the differentiation of IJA and RJA in our paradigm in two studies of picture recognition memory in undergraduate students. Study 1 indicated that young adults correctly identified more pictures they had previously viewed in an IJA condition (67%) than in a RJA (58%) condition, η2 = 0.57. Study 2 controlled for IJA and RJA stimulus viewing time differences, and replicated the findings of Study 1. The implications of these results for the validity of the paradigm and research on the affects of JA on adult social-cognition are discussed. PMID:22712011

  20. Joint attention, social cognition and recognition memory in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanguk eKim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention, or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that joint attention affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality (VR paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of joint attention in adults, Initiating Joint Attention (IJA and Responding to Joint Attention (RJA. Distinguishing these types of joint attention in research is important because they are thought to reflect unique, as well as common constellations of processes involved in human social-cognition and social learning. We tested the validity of the differentiation of IJA and RJA in our paradigm in two studies of picture recognition memory in undergraduate students. Study 1 indicated that young adults correctly identified more pictures they had previously viewed in an IJA condition (67% than in a RJA (58% condition, η2 = .57. Study 2 controlled for IJA and RJA stimulus viewing time differences, and replicated the findings of Study 1. The implications of these results for the validity of the paradigm and research on the affects of joint attention on adult social-cognition are discussed.

  1. Interplay of oxytocin, vasopressin, and sex hormones in the regulation of social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Christopher S; Phan, Anna; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2012-02-01

    Social Recognition is a fundamental skill that forms the basis of behaviors essential to the proper functioning of pair or group living in most social species. We review here various neurobiological and genetic studies that point to an interplay of oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), and the gonadal hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in the mediation of social recognition. Results of a number of studies have shown that OT and its actions at the medial amygdala seem to be essential for social recognition in both sexes. Estrogens facilitate social recognition, possibly by regulating OT production in the hypothalamus and the OT receptors at the medial amygdala. Estrogens also affect social recognition on a rapid time scale, likely through nongenomic actions. The mechanisms of these rapid effects are currently unknown but available evidence points at the hippocampus as the possible site of action. Male rodents seem to be more dependent on AVP acting at the level of the lateral septum for social recognition than female rodents. Results of various studies suggest that testosterone and its metabolites (including estradiol) influence social recognition in males primarily through the AVP V1a receptor. Overall, it appears that gonadal hormone modulation of OT and AVP regulates and fine tunes social recognition and those behaviors that depend upon it (e.g., social bonds, social hierarchies) in a sex specific manner. This points at an important role for these neuroendocrine systems in the regulation of the sex differences that are evident in social behavior and of sociality as a whole.

  2. Organisational Social Capital through Corporate Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Henorel Niţu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.

  3. Organisational Social Capital through Corporate Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Niţu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.

  4. Performative Social Science and Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gergen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of "Performative Social Science," which is defined as the deployment of different forms of artistic performance in the execution of a scientific project. Such forms may include art, theater, poetry, music, dance, photography, fiction writing, and multi-media applications. Performative research practices are in their developmental stage, with most of the major work appearing in the last two decades. Frequently based on a social constructionist metatheory, supporters reject a realist, or mapping view of representation, and explore varieties of expressive forms for constructing worlds relevant to the social sciences. The performative orientation often relies on a dramaturgical approach that encompasses value-laden, emotionally charged topics and presentations. Social scientists invested in social justice issues and political perspectives have been especially drawn to this approach. Performative social science invites productive collaborations among various disciplinary fields and between the sciences and arts. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101119

  5. Impact of eye detection error on face recognition performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Günther, Manuel; El Shafey, Laurent; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2015-01-01

    The locations of the eyes are the most commonly used features to perform face normalisation (i.e. alignment of facial features), which is an essential preprocessing stage of many face recognition systems. In this study, the authors study the sensitivity of open source implementations of five face

  6. Chronic minocycline treatment improves social recognition memory in adult male Fmr1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Suk Yu; Chiu, Christine; Vetrici, Mariana; Christie, Brian R

    2016-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a mutation in the Fmr1 gene that leads to silencing of the gene and a loss of its gene product, Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Some of the key behavioral phenotypes for FXS include abnormal social anxiety and sociability. Here we show that Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice exhibit impaired social recognition when presented with a novel mouse, and they display normal social interactions in other sociability tests. Administering minocycline to Fmr1 KO mice throughout critical stages of neural development improved social recognition memory in the novel mouse recognition task. To determine if synaptic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could have played a role in this improvement, we examined PSD-95, a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family, and signaling molecules (ERK1/2, and Akt) linked to synaptic plasticity in the PFC. Our analyses indicated that while minocycline treatment can enhance behavioral performance, it does not enhance expression of PSD-95, ERK1/2 or Akt in the PFC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor underlie intrastrain, but not interstrain, social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, A H; Lee, H-J; Edds, J; Young, W S

    2009-07-01

    We studied three lines of oxytocin (Oxt) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) knockout (KO) male mice [Oxt(-/-), total Oxtr(-/-) and partial forebrain Oxtr (Oxtr(FB/FB))] with established deficits in social recognition to further refine our understanding of their deficits with regard to stimulus female's strain. We used a modified social discrimination paradigm in which subjects are singly housed only for the duration of the test. Additionally, stimulus females are singly housed throughout testing and are presented within corrals for rapid comparison of investigation by subject males. Wild-type (WT) males from all three lines discriminated between familiar and novel females of three different strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c and Swiss-Webster). No KO males discriminated between familiar and novel BALB/c or C57BL/6 females. Male Oxt(-/-) and Oxtr(-/-) mice, but not Oxtr(FB/FB) mice, discriminated between familiar and novel Swiss-Webster females. As this might indicate a global deficit in individual recognition for Oxtr(FB/FB) males, we examined their ability to discriminate between females from different strains and compared performance with Oxtr(-/-) males. WT and KO males from both lines were able to distinguish between familiar and novel females from different strains, indicating the social recognition deficit is not universal. Instead, we hypothesize that the Oxtr is involved in 'fine' intrastrain recognition, but is less important in 'broad' interstrain recognition. We also present the novel finding of decreased investigation across tests, which is likely an artifact of repeated testing and not because of stimulus female's strain or age of subject males.

  8. Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Regions Required for the Consolidation of Social Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimizu, Toshiyuki; Kenney, Justin W; Okano, Emiko; Kadoma, Kazune; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-04-12

    Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory. Importantly, significant inductions of the CREB target immediate-early genes c-fos and Arc were observed in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (basolateral region) when social recognition memory was generated. Pharmacological experiments using a microinfusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin showed that protein synthesis in these brain regions is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. These findings suggested that social recognition memory is consolidated through the activation of CREB-mediated gene expression in the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala. Network analyses suggested that these four brain regions show functional connectivity with other brain regions and, more importantly, that the hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas the ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions. We have found that a brain network composed of the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here, we identify brain networks composed of multiple brain regions for the consolidation of social recognition memory. We

  9. Social Hackers: Integration in the Host Chemical Recognition System by a Paper Wasp Social Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, S.; Sledge, M. F.; Dani, F. R.; Cervo, R.; Massolo, A.; Fondelli, L.

    Obligate social parasites in the social insects have lost the worker caste and the ability to establish nests. As a result, parasites must usurp a host nest, overcome the host recognition system, and depend on the host workers to rear their offspring. We analysed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of live parasite females of the paper wasp social parasite Polistes sulcifer before and after usurpation of host nests, using the non-destructive technique of solid-phase micro-extraction. Our results reveal that hydrocarbon profiles of parasites change after usurpation of host nests to match the cuticular profile of the host species. Chemical evidence further shows that the parasite queen changes the odour of the nest by the addition of a parasite-specific hydrocarbon. We discuss the possible role of this in the recognition and acceptance of the parasite and its offspring in the host colony.

  10. Social phobia in Brazilian university students: prevalence, under-recognition and academic impairment in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Carlos Alberto; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; de Lima Osório, Flávia; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Magalhães, Pedro V; Kapczinski, Flávio; Filho, Alaor Santos; Freitas-Ferrari, Maria Cecília; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the fact that public speaking is a common academic activity and that social phobia has been associated with lower educational achievement and impaired academic performance, little research has examined the prevalence of social phobia in college students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of social phobia in a large sample of Brazilian college students and to examine the academic impact of this disorder. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the MINI-SPIN, used as the indicator of social phobia in the screening phase, were applied to 2319 randomly selected students from two Brazilian universities. For the second phase (diagnostic confirmation), four psychiatrists and one clinical psychologist administered the SCID-IV to subjects with MINI-SPIN scores of 6 or higher. The prevalence of social phobia among the university students was 11.6%. Women with social phobia had significantly lower grades than those without the disorder. Fear of public speaking was the most common social fear. Only two of the 237 students with social phobia (0.8%) had previously received a diagnosis of social phobia and were under treatment. Social phobia comorbidities were not evaluated in this study. The methods of assessment employed by the universities (written exams) may mask the presence of social phobia. This was not a population-based study, and thus the results are not generalizable to the entire population with social phobia. Preventive strategies are recommended to reduce the under-recognition and the adverse impact of social phobia on academic performance and overall quality of life of university students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-performance speech recognition using consistency modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digalakis, Vassilios; Murveit, Hy; Monaco, Peter; Neumeyer, Leo; Sankar, Ananth

    1994-12-01

    The goal of SRI's consistency modeling project is to improve the raw acoustic modeling component of SRI's DECIPHER speech recognition system and develop consistency modeling technology. Consistency modeling aims to reduce the number of improper independence assumptions used in traditional speech recognition algorithms so that the resulting speech recognition hypotheses are more self-consistent and, therefore, more accurate. At the initial stages of this effort, SRI focused on developing the appropriate base technologies for consistency modeling. We first developed the Progressive Search technology that allowed us to perform large-vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) experiments. Since its conception and development at SRI, this technique has been adopted by most laboratories, including other ARPA contracting sites, doing research on LVSR. Another goal of the consistency modeling project is to attack difficult modeling problems, when there is a mismatch between the training and testing phases. Such mismatches may include outlier speakers, different microphones and additive noise. We were able to either develop new, or transfer and evaluate existing, technologies that adapted our baseline genonic HMM recognizer to such difficult conditions.

  12. Deep Recurrent Convolutional Neural Network: Improving Performance For Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zewang; Sun, Zheng; Liu, Jiaqi; Chen, Jingwen; Huo, Zhao; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A deep learning approach has been widely applied in sequence modeling problems. In terms of automatic speech recognition (ASR), its performance has significantly been improved by increasing large speech corpus and deeper neural network. Especially, recurrent neural network and deep convolutional neural network have been applied in ASR successfully. Given the arising problem of training speed, we build a novel deep recurrent convolutional network for acoustic modeling and then apply deep resid...

  13. The Relationship between Emotion Recognition Ability and Social Skills in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Beth T.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between emotion recognition ability and social skills in 42 young children with autistic disorder aged 4-7 years. The analyses revealed that accuracy in recognition of sadness, but not happiness, anger or fear, was associated with higher ratings on the Vineland-II Socialization domain, above and beyond the…

  14. Emotion recognition and social skills in child and adolescent offspring of parents with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Leslie E; Bridgwater, Miranda A; Haas, Gretchen L

    2017-05-01

    Emotion recognition, a social cognition domain, is impaired in people with schizophrenia and contributes to social dysfunction. Whether impaired emotion recognition emerges as a manifestation of illness or predates symptoms is unclear. Findings from studies of emotion recognition impairments in first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia are mixed and, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the link between emotion recognition and social functioning in that population. This study examined facial affect recognition and social skills in 16 offspring of parents with schizophrenia (familial high-risk/FHR) compared to 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC), ages 7-19. As hypothesised, FHR children exhibited impaired overall accuracy, accuracy in identifying fearful faces, and overall recognition speed relative to controls. Age-adjusted facial affect recognition accuracy scores predicted parent's overall rating of their child's social skills for both groups. This study supports the presence of facial affect recognition deficits in FHR children. Importantly, as the first known study to suggest the presence of these deficits in young, asymptomatic FHR children, it extends findings to a developmental stage predating symptoms. Further, findings point to a relationship between early emotion recognition and social skills. Improved characterisation of deficits in FHR children could inform early intervention.

  15. Culture/Religion and Identity: Social Justice versus Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    Recognition is the main word attached to multicultural perspectives. The multicultural call for recognition, the one calling for the recognition of cultural minorities and identities, the one now voiced by liberal states all over and also in Israel was a more difficult one. It took the author some time to realize that calling for the recognition…

  16. Impact of Social Cognition on Alcohol Dependence Treatment Outcome: Poorer Facial Emotion Recognition Predicts Relapse/Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia I; Derntl, Birgit; Osthaus, Friederike; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Despite growing evidence for neurobehavioral deficits in social cognition in alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical relevance remains unclear, and little is known about its impact on treatment outcome. This study prospectively investigated the impact of neurocognitive social abilities at treatment onset on treatment completion. Fifty-nine alcohol-dependent patients were assessed with measures of social cognition including 3 core components of empathy via paradigms measuring: (i) emotion recognition (the ability to recognize emotions via facial expression), (ii) emotional perspective taking, and (iii) affective responsiveness at the beginning of inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence. Subjective measures were also obtained, including estimates of task performance and a self-report measure of empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index). According to treatment outcomes, patients were divided into a patient group with a regular treatment course (e.g., with planned discharge and without relapse during treatment) or an irregular treatment course (e.g., relapse and/or premature and unplanned termination of treatment, "dropout"). Compared with patients completing treatment in a regular fashion, patients with relapse and/or dropout of treatment had significantly poorer facial emotion recognition ability at treatment onset. Additional logistic regression analyses confirmed these results and identified poor emotion recognition performance as a significant predictor for relapse/dropout. Self-report (subjective) measures did not correspond with neurobehavioral social cognition measures, respectively objective task performance. Analyses of individual subtypes of facial emotions revealed poorer recognition particularly of disgust, anger, and no (neutral faces) emotion in patients with relapse/dropout. Social cognition in AUD is clinically relevant. Less successful treatment outcome was associated with poorer facial emotion recognition ability at the beginning of

  17. Social security and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sangheon; Torm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how social security provision - a key determinant of formality - impacts on small and medium-sized firm performance in Viet Nam. Based on enterprise census data covering all registered firms from 2006 to 2011, the authors find that firms which increase their social...... security coverage by 10 per cent experience a revenue gain of 1.4-2.0 per cent per worker and a profit gain of up to 1.8 per cent, depending on the survival time of the firm. However, given the time lag between 'investment' (in social security contributions) and returns (enhanced firm performance...

  18. Effects of sex and gonadectomy on social investigation and social recognition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Sara A; Haziri, Kaltrina; Hansson, Evelyn; Kettunen, Petronella; Westberg, Lars

    2015-11-25

    An individual's ability to recognise and pay attention to others is crucial in order to behave appropriately in various social situations. Studies in humans have shown a sex bias in sociability as well as social memory, indicating that females have better face memory and gaze more at the eyes of others, but information about the factors that underpin these differences is sparse. Our aim was therefore to investigate if sociability and social recognition differ between female and male mice, and if so, to what extent gonadal hormones may be involved. Intact and gonadectomised male and female mice were assessed for sociability and social recognition using the three-chambered sociability paradigm, as well as the social discrimination test. Furthermore, we conducted a novel object recognition test, a locomotor activity test and an odour habituation/dishabituation test. The present study showed that the ability to recognise other individuals is intact in males with and without gonads, as well as in intact females, whereas it is hampered in gonadectomised females. Additionally, intact male mice displayed more persistent investigatory behaviour compared to the other groups, although the intact females showed elevated basal locomotor activity. In addition, all groups had intact object memory and habituated to odours. Our results suggest that intact male mice investigate conspecifics more than females do, and these differences seem to depend upon circulating hormones released from the testis. As these results seem to contrast what is known from human studies, they should be taken into consideration when using the three-chambered apparatus, and similar paradigms as animal models of social deficits in e.g. autism. Other behavioural tests, and animal models, may be more suitable for translational studies between patients and experimental animals.

  19. Emotion recognition and social cognition in temporal lobe epilepsy and the effect of epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlerova, Jana; Cavanna, Andrea E; Bradac, Ondrej; Javurkova, Alena; Raudenska, Jaroslava; Marusic, Petr

    2014-07-01

    The abilities to identify facial expression from another person's face and to attribute mental states to others refer to preserved function of the temporal lobes. In the present study, we set out to evaluate emotion recognition and social cognition in presurgical and postsurgical patients with unilateral refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of TLE surgery and to identify the main risk factors for impairment in these functions. We recruited 30 patients with TLE for longitudinal data analysis (14 with right-sided and 16 with left-sided TLE) and 74 patients for cross-sectional data analysis (37 with right-sided and 37 with left-sided TLE) plus 20 healthy controls. Besides standard neuropsychological assessment, we administered an analog of the Ekman and Friesen test and the Faux Pas Test to assess emotion recognition and social cognition, respectively. Both emotion recognition and social cognition were impaired in the group of patients with TLE, irrespective of the focus side, compared with healthy controls. The performance in both tests was strongly dependent on the intelligence level. Beyond intelligence level, earlier age at epilepsy onset, longer disease duration, and history of early childhood brain injury predicted social cognition problems in patients with TLE. Epilepsy surgery within the temporal lobe seems to have neutral effect on patients' performances in both domains. However, there are a few individual patients who appear to be at risk of postoperative decline, even when seizure freedom is achieved following epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Corporate social Responsibility : Linkage Business Performance and Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Ezni Balqiah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of corporate social responsibility (CSR are perceived differently by parties associated with those activities because CSR is driven by different motives. This study investigates how CSR activities – CSR activities concerning health and well-being of mothers and children – act as liaisons between business performance (brand attitude and loyalty and social performance (children’s quality of life. A survey was conducted in Indonesia on 450 respondents–customers of firms in industries related to natural resources and in regards to children’s well-being. The data were considered via factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results show business, stakeholder, and moral motives. Brand attitude and loyalty can influence perceptions toward these motive. Further, these motives could increase or decrease social performance. Companies should consider the type of CSR activities to engage in because the activities can be perceived as being driven by different motives and have different impacts on social performance. This result suggests that companies can harmonize business aspects and social aspects of CSR in creating value.

  1. Loneliness and the social monitoring system: Emotion recognition and eye gaze in a real-life conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, G.M.A.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Goossens, L.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Verhagen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the belongingness regulation theory (Gardner et al., 2005, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull., 31, 1549), this study focuses on the relationship between loneliness and social monitoring. Specifically, we examined whether loneliness relates to performance on three emotion recognition tasks and

  2. Predicting automatic speech recognition performance over communication channels from instrumental speech quality and intelligibility scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, L.F.; Möller, S.; Beerends, J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of automatic speech recognition based on coded-decoded speech heavily depends on the quality of the transmitted signals, determined by channel impairments. This paper examines relationships between speech recognition performance and measurements of speech quality and intelligibility

  3. Effects of compression and individual variability on face recognition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Delia P.; Arndt, Craig M.; McCabe, Steven A.; D'Amato, Donald P.

    2004-08-01

    The Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 requires that the Visa Waiver Program be available only to countries that have a program to issue to their nationals machine-readable passports incorporating biometric identifiers complying with applicable standards established by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). In June 2002, the New Technologies Working Group of ICAO unanimously endorsed the use of face recognition (FR) as the globally interoperable biometric for machine-assisted identity confirmation with machine-readable travel documents (MRTDs), although Member States may elect to use fingerprint and/or iris recognition as additional biometric technologies. The means and formats are still being developed through which biometric information might be stored in the constrained space of integrated circuit chips embedded within travel documents. Such information will be stored in an open, yet unalterable and very compact format, probably as digitally signed and efficiently compressed images. The objective of this research is to characterize the many factors that affect FR system performance with respect to the legislated mandates concerning FR. A photograph acquisition environment and a commercial face recognition system have been installed at Mitretek, and over 1,400 images have been collected of volunteers. The image database and FR system are being used to analyze the effects of lossy image compression, individual differences, such as eyeglasses and facial hair, and the acquisition environment on FR system performance. Images are compressed by varying ratios using JPEG2000 to determine the trade-off points between recognition accuracy and compression ratio. The various acquisition factors that contribute to differences in FR system performance among individuals are also being measured. The results of this study will be used to refine and test efficient face image interchange standards that ensure highly accurate recognition, both

  4. Social Process Variables Affecting Reading Performance in Delayed Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Christopher

    1978-01-01

    Examines the relationship between 14 social process variables and the reading performances of 180 slow learners, ages 7-15. Finds that two of those factors (brith trauma and being held back in school) emerge as predictors of reading comprehension, word recognition, and spelling. (RL)

  5. Facial Recognition of Happiness Is Impaired in Musicians with High Music Performance Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Alini Daniéli Viana; Camargo, Cristielli M; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Osório, Flávia L

    2018-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be defined as a lasting and intense apprehension connected with musical performance in public. Studies suggest that MPA can be regarded as a subtype of social anxiety. Since individuals with social anxiety have deficits in the recognition of facial emotion, we hypothesized that musicians with high levels of MPA would share similar impairments. The aim of this study was to compare parameters of facial emotion recognition (FER) between musicians with high and low MPA. 150 amateur and professional musicians with different musical backgrounds were assessed in respect to their level of MPA and completed a dynamic FER task. The outcomes investigated were accuracy, response time, emotional intensity, and response bias. Musicians with high MPA were less accurate in the recognition of happiness ( p  = 0.04; d  = 0.34), had increased response bias toward fear ( p  = 0.03), and increased response time to facial emotions as a whole ( p  = 0.02; d  = 0.39). Musicians with high MPA displayed FER deficits that were independent of general anxiety levels and possibly of general cognitive capacity. These deficits may favor the maintenance and exacerbation of experiences of anxiety during public performance, since cues of approval, satisfaction, and encouragement are not adequately recognized.

  6. Early life stress impairs social recognition due to a blunted response of vasopressin release within the septum of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Michael; Bredewold, Remco; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Veenema, Alexa H

    2011-07-01

    Early life stress poses a risk for the development of psychopathologies characterized by disturbed emotional, social, and cognitive performance. We used maternal separation (MS, 3h daily, postnatal days 1-14) to test whether early life stress impairs social recognition performance in juvenile (5-week-old) and adult (16-week-old) male Wistar rats. Social recognition was tested in the social discrimination test and defined by increased investigation by the experimental rat towards a novel rat compared with a previously encountered rat. Juvenile control and MS rats demonstrated successful social recognition at inter-exposure intervals of 30 and 60 min. However, unlike adult control rats, adult MS rats failed to discriminate between a previously encountered and a novel rat after 60 min. The social recognition impairment of adult MS rats was accompanied by a lack of a rise in arginine vasopressin (AVP) release within the lateral septum seen during social memory acquisition in adult control rats. This blunted response of septal AVP release was social stimulus-specific because forced swimming induced a rise in septal AVP release in both control and MS rats. Retrodialysis of AVP (1 μg/ml, 3.3 μl/min, 30 min) into the lateral septum during social memory acquisition restored social recognition in adult MS rats at the 60-min interval. These studies demonstrate that MS impairs social recognition performance in adult rats, which is likely caused by blunted septal AVP activation. Impaired social recognition may be linked to MS-induced changes in other social behaviors like aggression as shown previously. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hippocampus lesions induced deficits in social and spatial recognition in Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekita, Tomoko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies of rodents reported that the hippocampus plays an important role in social behavior as well as spatial behavior. However, there are inconsistencies between reports of the effects of hippocampal lesions on social behavior. The present study sought to clarify the aspects of social behavior in which the hippocampus plays a role in the degu, Octodon degus, a social rodent. We examined the effects of hippocampal lesions on social behavior in the degu using familiar and novel partners. When placed in a familiar environment with a familiar partner after surgery, sham operation control (S.Cont) degus exhibited affinitive behavior longer compared with hippocampal lesioned (HPC) degus. In a novel environment, S.Cont degus exhibited longer aggressive behavior toward novel partners, and longer affinitive behavior with familiar partners compared with HPC degus. HPC degus did not show evidence of differentiation in social behavior, regardless of partner's novelty. The results of an anxiety test confirmed that these findings could not be attributed to changes in emotional state. We conducted an object-recognition test with the same subjects. HPC degus showed an impairment in spatial recognition but not object recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that the degu hippocampus plays an important role not only in spatial recognition but also social recognition. The changes in social behavior resulting from hippocampal lesions were interpreted as due to an impairment of social recognition rather than an impairment in novelty detection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Lee, Anna W; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W; Choleris, Elena

    2012-02-28

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85-100%) and low (40-60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Recognition memory for social and non-social odors: differential effects of neurotoxic lesions to the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Leila M; Allen, Timothy A; Ly, Denise; Fortin, Norbert J

    2012-01-01

    The contributions of the hippocampus (HC) and perirhinal cortex (PER) to recognition memory are currently topics of debate in neuroscience. Here we used a rapidly-learned (seconds) spontaneous novel odor recognition paradigm to assess the effects of pre-training N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions to the HC or PER on odor recognition memory. We tested memory for both social and non-social odor stimuli. Social odors were acquired from conspecifics, while non-social odors were household spices. Conspecific odor stimuli are ethologically-relevant and have a high degree of overlapping features compared to non-social household spices. Various retention intervals (5 min, 20 min, 1h, 24h, or 48 h) were used between study and test phases, each with a unique odor pair, to assess changes in novelty preference over time. Consistent with findings in other paradigms, modalities, and species, we found that HC lesions yielded no significant recognition memory deficits. In contrast, PER lesions caused significant deficits for social odor recognition memory at long retention intervals, demonstrating a critical role for PER in long-term memory for social odors. PER lesions had no effect on memory for non-social odors. The results are consistent with a general role for PER in long-term recognition memory for stimuli that have a high degree of overlapping features, which must be distinguished by conjunctive representations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Identity Development through Social Interactions, Action, and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Sarah Riggs

    2015-01-01

    This article uses sociocultural identity theory to explore how practice, action, and recognition can facilitate environmental identity development. Recognition, a construct not previously explored in environmental identity literature, is particularly examined. The study is based on a group of diverse teens who traveled to South Asia to participate…

  11. Single prolonged stress impairs social and object novelty recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Andrew L; Fitzpatrick, Chris J; Perrine, Shane A

    2013-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from exposure to a traumatic event and manifests as re-experiencing, arousal, avoidance, and negative cognition/mood symptoms. Avoidant symptoms, as well as the newly defined negative cognitions/mood, are a serious complication leading to diminished interest in once important or positive activities, such as social interaction; however, the basis of these symptoms remains poorly understood. PTSD patients also exhibit impaired object and social recognition, which may underlie the avoidance and symptoms of negative cognition, such as social estrangement or diminished interest in activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that single prolonged stress (SPS), models PTSD phenotypes, including impairments in learning and memory. Therefore, it was hypothesized that SPS would impair social and object recognition memory. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to SPS then tested in the social choice test (SCT) or novel object recognition test (NOR). These tests measure recognition of novelty over familiarity, a natural preference of rodents. Results show that SPS impaired preference for both social and object novelty. In addition, SPS impairment in social recognition may be caused by impaired behavioral flexibility, or an inability to shift behavior during the SCT. These results demonstrate that traumatic stress can impair social and object recognition memory, which may underlie certain avoidant symptoms or negative cognition in PTSD and be related to impaired behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Recognition Memory Requires Two Stages of Protein Synthesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gerald; Engelmann, Mario; Richter, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory recognition memory was tested in adult male mice using a social discrimination task. The testing was conducted to begin to characterize the role of protein synthesis and the specific brain regions associated with activity in this task. Long-term olfactory recognition memory was blocked when the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was…

  13. Lateral septal vasopressin in rats : Role in social and object recognition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, H.G J; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The capacity of male rats to remember familiar conspecifics is called social recognition. It is a form of short-term memory modulated by lateral septal (LS) vasopressin (VP). The specificity of this phenomenon was studied by examining whether recognition of previously investigated objects is also

  14. Formal Implementation of a Performance Evaluation Model for the Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nyuo Shin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to usability features, practical applications, and its lack of intrusiveness, face recognition technology, based on information, derived from individuals' facial features, has been attracting considerable attention recently. Reported recognition rates of commercialized face recognition systems cannot be admitted as official recognition rates, as they are based on assumptions that are beneficial to the specific system and face database. Therefore, performance evaluation methods and tools are necessary to objectively measure the accuracy and performance of any face recognition system. In this paper, we propose and formalize a performance evaluation model for the biometric recognition system, implementing an evaluation tool for face recognition systems based on the proposed model. Furthermore, we performed evaluations objectively by providing guidelines for the design and implementation of a performance evaluation system, formalizing the performance test process.

  15. Social power and recognition of emotional prosody: High power is associated with lower recognition accuracy than low power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskul, Ayse K; Paulmann, Silke; Weick, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Listeners have to pay close attention to a speaker's tone of voice (prosody) during daily conversations. This is particularly important when trying to infer the emotional state of the speaker. Although a growing body of research has explored how emotions are processed from speech in general, little is known about how psychosocial factors such as social power can shape the perception of vocal emotional attributes. Thus, the present studies explored how social power affects emotional prosody recognition. In a correlational study (Study 1) and an experimental study (Study 2), we show that high power is associated with lower accuracy in emotional prosody recognition than low power. These results, for the first time, suggest that individuals experiencing high or low power perceive emotional tone of voice differently. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory mus...

  17. An investigation of the effect of race-based social categorization on adults’ recognition of emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, B. Nicole; Segal, Shira C.

    2018-01-01

    Emotion recognition is important for social interaction and communication, yet previous research has identified a cross-cultural emotion recognition deficit: Recognition is less accurate for emotions expressed by individuals from a cultural group different than one’s own. The current study examined whether social categorization based on race, in the absence of cultural differences, influences emotion recognition in a diverse context. South Asian and White Canadians in the Greater Toronto Area completed an emotion recognition task that required them to identify the seven basic emotional expressions when posed by members of the same two groups, allowing us to tease apart the contributions of culture and social group membership. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no mutual in-group advantage in emotion recognition: Participants were not more accurate at recognizing emotions posed by their respective racial in-groups. Both groups were more accurate at recognizing expressions when posed by South Asian faces, and White participants were more accurate overall compared to South Asian participants. These results suggest that in a diverse environment, categorization based on race alone does not lead to the creation of social out-groups in a way that negatively impacts emotion recognition. PMID:29474367

  18. An investigation of the effect of race-based social categorization on adults' recognition of emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Nicole Reyes

    Full Text Available Emotion recognition is important for social interaction and communication, yet previous research has identified a cross-cultural emotion recognition deficit: Recognition is less accurate for emotions expressed by individuals from a cultural group different than one's own. The current study examined whether social categorization based on race, in the absence of cultural differences, influences emotion recognition in a diverse context. South Asian and White Canadians in the Greater Toronto Area completed an emotion recognition task that required them to identify the seven basic emotional expressions when posed by members of the same two groups, allowing us to tease apart the contributions of culture and social group membership. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no mutual in-group advantage in emotion recognition: Participants were not more accurate at recognizing emotions posed by their respective racial in-groups. Both groups were more accurate at recognizing expressions when posed by South Asian faces, and White participants were more accurate overall compared to South Asian participants. These results suggest that in a diverse environment, categorization based on race alone does not lead to the creation of social out-groups in a way that negatively impacts emotion recognition.

  19. An investigation of the effect of race-based social categorization on adults' recognition of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, B Nicole; Segal, Shira C; Moulson, Margaret C

    2018-01-01

    Emotion recognition is important for social interaction and communication, yet previous research has identified a cross-cultural emotion recognition deficit: Recognition is less accurate for emotions expressed by individuals from a cultural group different than one's own. The current study examined whether social categorization based on race, in the absence of cultural differences, influences emotion recognition in a diverse context. South Asian and White Canadians in the Greater Toronto Area completed an emotion recognition task that required them to identify the seven basic emotional expressions when posed by members of the same two groups, allowing us to tease apart the contributions of culture and social group membership. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no mutual in-group advantage in emotion recognition: Participants were not more accurate at recognizing emotions posed by their respective racial in-groups. Both groups were more accurate at recognizing expressions when posed by South Asian faces, and White participants were more accurate overall compared to South Asian participants. These results suggest that in a diverse environment, categorization based on race alone does not lead to the creation of social out-groups in a way that negatively impacts emotion recognition.

  20. Improving human object recognition performance using video enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Lucy S.; Lewis, Colin; Oakley, John P.

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric scattering causes significant degradation in the quality of video images, particularly when imaging over long distances. The principle problem is the reduction in contrast due to scattered light. It is known that when the scattering particles are not too large compared with the imaging wavelength (i.e. Mie scattering) then high spatial resolution information may be contained within a low-contrast image. Unfortunately this information is not easily perceived by a human observer, particularly when using a standard video monitor. A secondary problem is the difficulty of achieving a sharp focus since automatic focus techniques tend to fail in such conditions. Recently several commercial colour video processing systems have become available. These systems use various techniques to improve image quality in low contrast conditions whilst retaining colour content. These systems produce improvements in subjective image quality in some situations, particularly in conditions of haze and light fog. There is also some evidence that video enhancement leads to improved ATR performance when used as a pre-processing stage. Psychological literature indicates that low contrast levels generally lead to a reduction in the performance of human observers in carrying out simple visual tasks. The aim of this paper is to present the results of an empirical study on object recognition in adverse viewing conditions. The chosen visual task was vehicle number plate recognition at long ranges (500 m and beyond). Two different commercial video enhancement systems are evaluated using the same protocol. The results show an increase in effective range with some differences between the different enhancement systems.

  1. Performance Assessment of Dynaspeak Speech Recognition System on Inflight Databases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barry, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    .... To aid in the assessment of various commercially available speech recognition systems, several aircraft speech databases have been developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate...

  2. Neural basis of distorted self-face recognition in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Kyeong; Yoon, Hyung-Jun; Shin, Yu-Bin; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The observer perspective causes patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) to excessively inspect their performance and appearance. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of distorted self-face recognition in non-social situations in patients with SAD. Twenty patients with SAD and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in this fMRI study. Data were acquired while participants performed a Composite Face Evaluation Task, during which they had to press a button indicating how much they liked a series of self-faces, attractively transformed self-faces, and attractive others' faces. Patients had a tendency to show more favorable responses to the self-face and unfavorable responses to the others' faces compared with controls, but the two groups' responses to the attractively transformed self-faces did not differ. Significant group differences in regional activity were observed in the middle frontal and supramarginal gyri in the self-face condition (patients self-face condition (patients > controls); and the middle frontal, supramarginal, and angular gyri in the attractive others' face condition (patients > controls). Most fronto-parietal activities during observation of the self-face were negatively correlated with preference scores in patients but not in controls. Patients with SAD have a positive point of view of their own face and experience self-relevance for the attractively transformed self-faces. This distorted cognition may be based on dysfunctions in the frontal and inferior parietal regions. The abnormal engagement of the fronto-parietal attentional network during processing face stimuli in non-social situations may be linked to distorted self-recognition in SAD.

  3. Anisomycin administered in the olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus impaired social recognition memory consolidation in different time-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, R R; Pereira-Caixeta, A R; Moraes, M F D; Pereira, G S

    2014-10-01

    To identify an individual as familiar, rodents form a specific type of memory named social recognition memory. The olfactory bulb (OB) is an important structure for social recognition memory, while the hippocampus recruitment is still controversial. The present study was designed to elucidate the OB and the dorsal hippocampus contribution to the consolidation of social memory. For that purpose, we tested the effect of anisomycin (ANI), which one of the effects is the inhibition of protein synthesis, on the consolidation of social recognition memory. Swiss adult mice with cannulae implanted into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or into the OB were exposed to a juvenile during 5 min (training session; TR), and once again 1.5 h or 24 h later to test social short-term memory (S-STM) or social long-term memory (S-LTM), respectively. To study S-LTM consolidation, mice received intra-OB or intra-CA1 infusion of saline or ANI immediately, 3, 6 or 18 h after TR. ANI impaired S-LTM consolidation in the OB, when administered immediately or 6h after TR. In the dorsal hippocampus, ANI was amnesic only if administered 3 h after TR. Furthermore, the infusion of ANI in either OB or CA1, immediately after training, did not affect S-STM. Moreover, ANI administered into the OB did not alter the animal's performance in the buried food-finding task. Altogether, our results suggest the consolidation of S-LTM requires both OB and hippocampus participation, although in different time points. This study may help shedding light on the specific roles of the OB and dorsal hippocampus in social recognition memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impaired recognition of social emotion in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Soo Young; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Byun, Min Soo; Park, Hye Youn; Kim, Yong Chul

    2013-11-01

    Multiple brain areas involved in nociceptive, autonomic, and social-emotional processing are disproportionally changed in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Little empirical evidence is available involving social cognitive functioning in patients with chronic pain conditions. We investigated the ability of patients with CRPS to recognize the mental/emotional states of other people. Forty-three patients with CRPS and 30 healthy controls performed the Reading Mind in the Eyes Test, which consists of photos in which human eyes express various emotional and mental states. Neuropsychological tests, including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the stop-signal test, and the reaction time test, were administered to evaluate other cognitive functions. Patients with CRPS were significantly less accurate at recognizing emotional states in other persons, but not on other cognitive tests, compared with control subjects. We found a significant association between the deficit in social-emotion recognition and the affective dimension of pain, whereas this deficit was not related to the sensory dimension of pain. Our findings suggest a disrupted ability to recognize others' mental/emotional states in patients with CRPS. This article demonstrated a deficit in inferring mental/emotional states of others in patients with CRPS that was related to pain affect. Our study suggests that additional interventions directed toward reducing distressful affective pain may be helpful to restore social cognitive processing in patients with CRPS. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing Theories of Recognition Memory by Predicting Performance Across Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David G.; Duncan, Matthew J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Signal-detection theory (SDT) accounts of recognition judgments depend on the assumption that recognition decisions result from a single familiarity-based process. However, fits of a hybrid SDT model, called dual-process theory (DPT), have provided evidence for the existence of a second, recollection-based process. In 2 experiments, the authors…

  6. The influence of combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training on amygdala response during face emotion recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; D'Esposito, Mark; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2013-08-30

    Both cognitive and social-cognitive deficits impact functional outcome in schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation studies indicate that targeted cognitive and/or social-cognitive training improves behavioral performance on trained skills. However, the neural effects of training in schizophrenia and their relation to behavioral gains are largely unknown. This study tested whether a 50-h intervention which included both cognitive and social-cognitive training would influence neural mechanisms that support social ccognition. Schizophrenia participants completed a computer-based intervention of either auditory-based cognitive training (AT) plus social-cognition training (SCT) (N=11) or non-specific computer games (CG) (N=11). Assessments included a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task of facial emotion recognition, and behavioral measures of cognition, social cognition, and functional outcome. The fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Results were strongest for emotion recognition of happy, surprise and fear: relative to CG participants, AT+SCT participants showed a neural activity increase in bilateral amygdala, right putamen and right medial prefrontal cortex. Across all participants, pre-to-post intervention neural activity increase in these regions predicted behavioral improvement on an independent emotion perception measure (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Among AT+SCT participants alone, neural activity increase in right amygdala predicted behavioral improvement in emotion perception. The findings indicate that combined cognition and social-cognition training improves neural systems that support social-cognition skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with High Functioning Autism and Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Sims, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing facial affect is essential for effective social functioning. This study examines emotion recognition abilities in children aged 7-13 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA = 19), Social Phobia (SP = 17), or typical development (TD = 21). Findings indicate that all children identified certain emotions more quickly (e.g., happy [less…

  8. Description and Recognition of the Concept of Social Capital in Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkaboni, Forouzan; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2013-01-01

    The current research is intended to describe and recognize the concept of social capital in higher education based on theoretical method in a descriptive-analytical approach. Description and Recognition of the data, gathered from theoretical and experimental studies, indicated that social capital is one of the most important indices for…

  9. Towards social touch intelligence: developing a robust system for automatic touch recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Merel Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Touch behavior is of great importance during social interaction. Automatic recognition of social touch is necessary to transfer the touch modality from interpersonal interaction to other areas such as Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). This paper describes a PhD research program on the automatic

  10. From Redistribution to Recognition: How School Principals Perceive Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Where there are people, there is social in/justice. Using Nancy Fraser's framework, this qualitative research examines how school principals perceive social justice in schools. Twenty-one elementary and secondary school principals were interviewed in the Greater Toronto Area. The study provides some empirical evidence on the ways social…

  11. Social identity and the recognition of creativity in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adarves-Yorno, Inmaculada; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, S. Alexander

    This paper develops an analysis of creativity that is informed by the social identity approach. Two studies are reported that support this analysis. Study I (N = 73) manipulated social identity salience and the content of group norms. The group norm was either conservative (i.e. promoted no change)

  12. Theory of Mind, Emotion Recognition and Social Perception in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: findings from the NAPLS-2 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Mariapaola; Liu, Lu; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel H; Heinssen, Robert; Addington, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Social cognition, the mental operations that underlie social interactions, is a major construct to investigate in schizophrenia. Impairments in social cognition are present before the onset of psychosis, and even in unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting that social cognition may be a trait marker of the illness. In a large cohort of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and healthy controls, three domains of social cognition (theory of mind, facial emotion recognition and social perception) were assessed to clarify which domains are impaired in this population. Six-hundred and seventy-five CHR individuals and 264 controls, who were part of the multi-site North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study, completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test , the Penn Emotion Recognition task , the Penn Emotion Differentiation task , and the Relationship Across Domains , measures of theory of mind, facial emotion recognition, and social perception, respectively. Social cognition was not related to positive and negative symptom severity, but was associated with age and IQ. CHR individuals demonstrated poorer performance on all measures of social cognition. However, after controlling for age and IQ, the group differences remained significant for measures of theory of mind and social perception, but not for facial emotion recognition. Theory of mind and social perception are impaired in individuals at CHR for psychosis. Age and IQ seem to play an important role in the arising of deficits in facial affect recognition. Future studies should examine the stability of social cognition deficits over time and their role, if any, in the development of psychosis.

  13. Genetic Mapping in Mice Reveals the Involvement of Pcdh9 in Long-Term Social and Object Recognition and Sensorimotor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruining, Hilgo; Matsui, Asuka; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Kahn, René S; Van't Spijker, Heleen M; Akkermans, Guus; Stiedl, Oliver; van Engeland, Herman; Koopmans, Bastijn; van Lith, Hein A; Oppelaar, Hugo; Tieland, Liselotte; Nonkes, Lourens J; Yagi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Burbach, J Peter H; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Kas, Martien J

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis of basic mouse behaviors is a powerful tool to identify novel genetic phenotypes contributing to neurobehavioral disorders. Here, we analyzed genetic contributions to single-trial, long-term social and nonsocial recognition and subsequently studied the functional impact of an identified candidate gene on behavioral development. Genetic mapping of single-trial social recognition was performed in chromosome substitution strains, a sophisticated tool for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) of complex traits. Follow-up occurred by generating and testing knockout (KO) mice of a selected QTL candidate gene. Functional characterization of these mice was performed through behavioral and neurological assessments across developmental stages and analyses of gene expression and brain morphology. Chromosome substitution strain 14 mapping studies revealed an overlapping QTL related to long-term social and object recognition harboring Pcdh9, a cell-adhesion gene previously associated with autism spectrum disorder. Specific long-term social and object recognition deficits were confirmed in homozygous (KO) Pcdh9-deficient mice, while heterozygous mice only showed long-term social recognition impairment. The recognition deficits in KO mice were not associated with alterations in perception, multi-trial discrimination learning, sociability, behavioral flexibility, or fear memory. Rather, KO mice showed additional impairments in sensorimotor development reflected by early touch-evoked biting, rotarod performance, and sensory gating deficits. This profile emerged with structural changes in deep layers of sensory cortices, where Pcdh9 is selectively expressed. This behavior-to-gene study implicates Pcdh9 in cognitive functions required for long-term social and nonsocial recognition. This role is supported by the involvement of Pcdh9 in sensory cortex development and sensorimotor phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published

  14. Novel insights into the ontogeny of nestmate recognition in Polistes social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorotti, Lisa; Cappa, Federico; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Cervo, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The importance of early experience in animals' life is unquestionable, and imprinting-like phenomena may shape important aspects of behaviour. Early learning typically occurs during a sensitive period, which restricts crucial processes of information storage to a specific developmental phase. The characteristics of the sensitive period have been largely investigated in vertebrates, because of their complexity and plasticity, both in behaviour and neurophysiology, but early learning occurs also in invertebrates. In social insects, early learning appears to influence important social behaviours such as nestmate recognition. Yet, the mechanisms underlying recognition systems are not fully understood. It is currently believed that Polistes social wasps are able to discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates following the perception of olfactory cues present on the paper of their nest, which are learned during a strict sensitive period, immediately after emergence. Here, through differential odour experience experiments, we show that workers of Polistes dominula develop correct nestmate recognition abilities soon after emergence even in absence of what have been so far considered the necessary cues (the chemicals spread on nest paper). P. dominula workers were exposed for the first four days of adult life to paper fragments from their nest, or from a foreign conspecific nest or to a neutral condition. Wasps were then transferred to their original nests where recognition abilities were tested. Our results show that wasps do not alter their recognition ability if exposed only to nest material, or in absence of nest material, during the early phase of adult life. It thus appears that the nest paper is not used as a source of recognition cues to be learned in a specific time window, although we discuss possible alternative explanations. Our study provides a novel perspective for the study of the ontogeny of nestmate recognition in Polistes wasps and in other social insects.

  15. Joint Attention, Social-Cognition, and Recognition Memory in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwanguk; Mundy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention, or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that joint attention affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality (VR) paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of joint attenti...

  16. Common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with human social recognition skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuse, David H; Lori, Adriana; Cubells, Joseph F; Lee, Irene; Conneely, Karen N; Puura, Kaija; Lehtimäki, Terho; Binder, Elisabeth B; Young, Larry J

    2014-02-04

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are evolutionarily conserved regulators of social perception and behavior. Evidence is building that they are critically involved in the development of social recognition skills within rodent species, primates, and humans. We investigated whether common polymorphisms in the genes encoding the oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptors influence social memory for faces. Our sample comprised 198 families, from the United Kingdom and Finland, in whom a single child had been diagnosed with high-functioning autism. Previous research has shown that impaired social perception, characteristic of autism, extends to the first-degree relatives of autistic individuals, implying heritable risk. Assessments of face recognition memory, discrimination of facial emotions, and direction of gaze detection were standardized for age (7-60 y) and sex. A common SNP in the oxytocin receptor (rs237887) was strongly associated with recognition memory in combined probands, parents, and siblings after correction for multiple comparisons. Homozygotes for the ancestral A allele had impairments in the range -0.6 to -1.15 SD scores, irrespective of their diagnostic status. Our findings imply that a critical role for the oxytocin system in social recognition has been conserved across perceptual boundaries through evolution, from olfaction in rodents to visual memory in humans.

  17. Does aging impair first impression accuracy? Differentiating emotion recognition from complex social inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-09-01

    Young adults can be surprisingly accurate at making inferences about people from their faces. Although these first impressions have important consequences for both the perceiver and the target, it remains an open question whether first impression accuracy is preserved with age. Specifically, could age differences in impressions toward others stem from age-related deficits in accurately detecting complex social cues? Research on aging and impression formation suggests that young and older adults show relative consensus in their first impressions, but it is unknown whether they differ in accuracy. It has been widely shown that aging disrupts emotion recognition accuracy, and that these impairments may predict deficits in other social judgments, such as detecting deceit. However, it is unclear whether general impression formation accuracy (e.g., emotion recognition accuracy, detecting complex social cues) relies on similar or distinct mechanisms. It is important to examine this question to evaluate how, if at all, aging might affect overall accuracy. Here, we examined whether aging impaired first impression accuracy in predicting real-world outcomes and categorizing social group membership. Specifically, we studied whether emotion recognition accuracy and age-related cognitive decline (which has been implicated in exacerbating deficits in emotion recognition) predict first impression accuracy. Our results revealed that emotion recognition accuracy did not predict first impression accuracy, nor did age-related cognitive decline impair it. These findings suggest that domains of social perception outside of emotion recognition may rely on mechanisms that are relatively unimpaired by aging. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. A Social Recognition Approach to Autonomy: The Role of Equality-Based Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renger, Daniela; Renger, Sophus; Miché, Marcel; Simon, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by philosophical reasoning about the connection between equality and freedom, we examined whether experiences of (equality-based) respect increase perceived autonomy. This link was tested with generalized experiences of respect and autonomy people make in their daily lives (Study 1) and with more specific experiences of employees at the workplace (Study 2). In both studies, respect strongly and independently contributed to perceived autonomy over and above other forms of social recognition (need-based care and achievement-based social esteem) and further affected (life/work) satisfaction. Study 3 experimentally confirmed the hypothesized causal influence of respect on perceived autonomy and demonstrated that this effect further translates into social cooperation. The respect-cooperation link was simultaneously mediated by perceived autonomy and superordinate collective identification. We discuss how the recognition approach, which differentiates between respect, care, and social esteem, can enrich research on autonomy.

  19. Vaginocervical stimulation enhances social recognition memory in rats via oxytocin release in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrazolo-López, A; Kendrick, K M; Aburto-Arciniega, M; Arriaga-Avila, V; Morimoto, S; Frias, M; Guevara-Guzmán, R

    2008-03-27

    The ability of vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) to promote olfactory social recognition memory at different stages of the ovarian cycle was investigated in female rats. A juvenile social recognition paradigm was used and memory retention tested at 30 and 300 min after an adult was exposed to a juvenile during three 4-min trials. Results showed that an intact social recognition memory was present at 30 min in animals with or without VCS and at all stages of the estrus cycle. However, whereas no animals in any stage of the estrus cycle showed retention of the specific recognition memory at 300 min, those in the proestrus/estrus phase that received VCS 10 min before the trial started did. In vivo microdialysis studies showed that there was a significant release of oxytocin after VCS in the olfactory bulb during proestrus. There was also increased oxytocin immunoreactivity within the olfactory bulb after VCS in proestrus animals compared with diestrus ones. Furthermore, when animals received an infusion of an oxytocin antagonist directly into the olfactory bulb, or a systemic administration of alpha or beta noradrenaline-antagonists, they failed to show evidence for maintenance of a selective olfactory recognition memory at 300 min. Animals with vagus or pelvic nerve section also showed no memory retention when tested after 300 min. These results suggest that VCS releases oxytocin in the olfactory bulb to enhance the social recognition memory and that this may be due to modulatory actions on noradrenaline release. The vagus and pelvic nerves are responsible for carrying the information from the pelvic area to the CNS.

  20. Attention to Social Stimuli and Facial Identity Recognition Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Brock, J.; Palermo, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a reduced preference for viewing social stimuli in the environment and impaired facial identity recognition. Methods: Here, we directly tested a link between these two phenomena in 13 ASD children and 13 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls.…

  1. Social cognition intervention in schizophrenia: Description of the training of affect recognition program - Indian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonse, Umesh; Behere, Rishikesh V; Frommann, Nicole; Sharma, Psvn

    2018-01-01

    Social cognition refers to mental operations involved in processing of social cues and includes the domains of emotion processing, Theory of Mind (ToM), social perception, social knowledge and attributional bias. Significant deficits in ToM, emotion perception and social perception have been demonstrated in schizophrenia which can have an impact on socio-occupational functioning. Intervention modules for social cognition have demonstrated moderate effect sizes for improving emotion identification and discrimination. We describe the Indian version of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) program and a pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of administering this intervention program in the Indian population. We also discuss the cultural sensibilities in adopting an intervention program for the Indian setting. To the best of our knowledge this is the first intervention program for social cognition for use in persons with schizophrenia in India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Making Employee Recognition a Tool for Achieving Improved Performance: Implication for Ghanaian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoatemaa, Abena Serwaa; Kyeremeh, Dorcas Darkoah

    2016-01-01

    Many organisations are increasingly making use of employee recognition to motivate employees to achieve high performance and productivity. Research has shown that effective recognition occurs in organisations that have strong supportive culture, understand the psychology of praising employees for their good work, and apply the principles of…

  3. The relation between the secrecy rate of biometric template protection and biometric recognition performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical result relating the maximum achievable security of the family of biometric template protection systems known as key-binding systems to the recognition performance of a biometric recognition system that is optimal in Neyman-Pearson sense is derived. The relation allows for the

  4. The Impact of Image Quality on the Performance of Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    The performance of a face recognition system depends on the quality of both test and reference images participating in the face comparison process. In a forensic evaluation case involving face recognition, we do not have any control over the quality of the trace (image captured by a CCTV at a crime

  5. Face recognition performance of individuals with Asperger syndrome on the Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2011-12-01

    Although face recognition deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome (AS), are widely acknowledged, the empirical evidence is mixed. This in part reflects the failure to use standardized and psychometrically sound tests. We contrasted standardized face recognition scores on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) for 34 individuals with AS with those for 42, IQ-matched non-ASD individuals, and age-standardized scores from a large Australian cohort. We also examined the influence of IQ, autistic traits, and negative affect on face recognition performance. Overall, participants with AS performed significantly worse on the CFMT than the non-ASD participants and when evaluated against standardized test norms. However, while 24% of participants with AS presented with severe face recognition impairment (>2 SDs below the mean), many individuals performed at or above the typical level for their age: 53% scored within +/- 1 SD of the mean and 9% demonstrated superior performance (>1 SD above the mean). Regression analysis provided no evidence that IQ, autistic traits, or negative affect significantly influenced face recognition: diagnostic group membership was the only significant predictor of face recognition performance. In sum, face recognition performance in ASD is on a continuum, but with average levels significantly below non-ASD levels of performance. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Who is the boss? Individual recognition memory and social hierarchy formation in crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morales, Nayeli; Mendoza-Ángeles, Karina; Porras-Villalobos, Mercedes; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth; Roldán-Roldán, Gabriel; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Under laboratory conditions, crayfish establish hierarchical orders through agonistic encounters whose outcome defines the dominant one and one, or more, submissive animals. These agonistic encounters are ritualistic, based on threats, pushes, attacks, grabs, and avoidance behaviors that include retreats and escape responses. Agonistic behavior in a triad of unfamiliar, size-matched animals is intense on the first day of social interaction and the intensity fades on daily repetitions. The dominant animal keeps its status for long periods, and the submissive ones seem to remember 'who the boss is'. It has been assumed that animals remember and recognize their hierarchical status by urine signals, but the putative substance mediating this recognition has not been reported. The aim of this work was to characterize this hierarchical recognition memory. Triads of unfamiliar crayfish (male animals, size and weight-matched) were faced during standardized agonistic protocols for five consecutive days to analyze memory acquisition dynamics (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, dominant crayfish were shifted among triads to disclose whether hierarchy depended upon individual recognition memory or recognition of status. The maintenance of the hierarchical structure without behavioral reinforcement was assessed by immobilizing the dominant animal during eleven daily agonistic encounters, and considering any shift in the dominance order (Experiment 3). Standard amnesic treatments (anisomycin, scopolamine or cold-anesthesia) were given to all members of the triads immediately after the first interaction session to prevent individual recognition memory consolidation and evaluate its effect on the hierarchical order (Experiment 4). Acquisition of hierarchical recognition occurs at the first agonistic encounter and agonistic behavior gradually diminishes in the following days; animals keep their hierarchical order despite the inability of the dominant crayfish to attack the submissive

  7. Nestmate recognition in social insects and the role of hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    A unique and critical analysis of the wealth of research conducted on the biology, biochemistry and chemical ecology of the rapidly growing field of insect cuticular hydrocarbons. Authored by leading experts in their respective fields, the twenty chapters show the complexity that has been...... discovered in the nature and role of hydrocarbons in entomology. Covers, in great depth, aspects of chemistry (structures, qualitative and quantitative analysis), biochemistry (biosynthesis, molecular biology, genetics, evolution), physiology, taxonomy, and ecology. Clearly presents to the reader the array...... of data, ideas, insights and historical disagreements that have been accumulated during the past half century. An emphasis is placed on the role of insect hydrocarbons in chemical communication, especially among the social insects. Includes the first review on the chemical synthesis of insect hydrocarbons...

  8. Selection to outsmart the germs: The evolution of disease recognition and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sharon E; Bonnell, Tyler R; Byrne, Richard W; Chapman, Colin A

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of providing care to diseased conspecifics must have been a turning point during the evolution of hominin sociality. On a population level, care may have minimized the costs of socially transmitted diseases at a time of increasing social complexity, although individual care-givers probably incurred increased transmission risks. We propose that care-giving likely originated within kin networks, where the costs may have been balanced by fitness increases obtained through caring for ill kin. We test a novel hypothesis of hominin cognitive evolution in which disease may have selected for the cognitive ability to recognize when a conspecific is infected. Because diseases may produce symptoms that are likely detectable via the perceptual-cognitive pathways integral to social cognition, we suggest that disease recognition and social cognition may have evolved together. Using agent-based modeling, we test 1) under what conditions disease can select for increasing disease recognition and care-giving among kin, 2) whether providing care produces greater selection for cognition than an avoidance strategy, and 3) whether care-giving alters the progression of the disease through the population. The greatest selection was produced by diseases with lower risks to the care-giver and prevalences low enough not to disrupt the kin networks. When care-giving and avoidance strategies were compared, only care-giving reduced the severity of the disease outbreaks and subsequent population crashes. The greatest selection for increased cognitive abilities occurred early in the model runs when the outbreaks and population crashes were most severe. Therefore, over the course of human evolution, repeated introductions of novel diseases into naïve populations could have produced sustained selection for increased disease recognition and care-giving behavior, leading to the evolution of increased cognition, social complexity, and, eventually, medical care in humans. Finally, we lay

  9. 'Blue' social capital and work performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    (Progoulaki & Roe 2011). This challenges social capital on board, i.e. the resources inherent in network cooperation associated with norms of reciprocity and trust (Putnam 2000: 19). Fragmentizing ‘blue’ social capital should however be restored, because work performance depends on the quality of cooperation...... findings suggest that a balance between three types of social capital – bonding, bridging and linking – is needed to achieve a high-performance work system (Gittell et al. 2010). Hence, main actors within the shipping sector should take ‘blue’ social capital into account in order to increase work...... efficiency and economic performance....

  10. The Influence of Recognition and Social Support on European Health Professionals' Occupational Stress: A Demands-Control-Social Support-Recognition Bayesian Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrero, Susana; Lopez-Garcia, Jose R; Herrera, Sixto; Fontaneda, Ignacio; Báscones, Sonia Muñoz; Mariscal, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals undergo high levels of occupational stress as a result of their working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a model that focuses on healthcare professionals so as to analyze the influence that job demands, control, social support, and recognition have on the likelihood that a worker will experience stress. The data collected correspond to 2,211 healthcare workers from 35 countries, as reported in the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The results obtained from this study allow us to infer stress under several working condition scenarios and to identify the more relevant variables in order to reduce this stress in healthcare professionals, which is of paramount importance to managing the stress of workers in this sector. The Bayesian network proposed indicates that emotional demands have a greater influence on raising the likelihood of stress due to workload than do family demands. The results show that the support of colleagues, in general, has less effect on reducing stress than social support from superiors. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that, in high-demand and low-control situations, recognition clearly impacts stress, drastically reducing it.

  11. Social Networking and Academic Performance: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleck, Tenzin; Lajoie, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquitous use of social networking sites by students and the potential impacts of such use on academic performance are of both theoretical and practical importance. Hence, this paper addresses the question: how does the use of social networking sites influence academic performance? The present review synthesizes the empirical findings of the…

  12. Global precedence effects account for individual differences in both face and object recognition performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian; Starrfelt, Randi

    2018-03-20

    There has been an increase in studies adopting an individual difference approach to examine visual cognition and in particular in studies trying to relate face recognition performance with measures of holistic processing (the face composite effect and the part-whole effect). In the present study we examine whether global precedence effects, measured by means of non-face stimuli in Navon's paradigm, can also account for individual differences in face recognition and, if so, whether the effect is of similar magnitude for faces and objects. We find evidence that global precedence effects facilitate both face and object recognition, and to a similar extent. Our results suggest that both face and object recognition are characterized by a coarse-to-fine temporal dynamic, where global shape information is derived prior to local shape information, and that the efficiency of face and object recognition is related to the magnitude of the global precedence effect.

  13. Job stress, recognition, job performance and intention to stay at work among Jordanian hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda Fawzi; Al-Zaru, Ibtisam Moawiah

    2008-04-01

    To investigate: (1) relationships between job stress, recognition of nurses' performance, job performance and intention to stay among hospital nurses; and (2) the buffering effect of recognition of staff performance on the 'stress-intention to stay at work' relationship. Workplace stress tremendously affects today's workforce. Recognition of nurses' performance needs further investigation to determine if it enhances the level of intention to stay at work and if it can buffer the negative effects of stress on nurses' intention to stay at work. The sample of the present study was a convenience one. It consisted of 206 Jordanian staff nurses who completed a structured questionnaire. The findings of the study indicated a direct and a buffering effect of recognition of nurses' performance on job stress and the level of intention to stay at work. The results of the study indicated the importance of recognition for outstanding performance as well as achievements. Implications for nursing management The results of this study support the need to focus on the implementation of recognition strategies in the workplace to reduce job stress and enhance retention.

  14. Recognition judgments and the performance of the recognition heuristic depend on the size of the reference class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Hoffrage

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of three experiments, participants made inferences about which one of a pair of two objects scored higher on a criterion. The first experiment was designed to contrast the prediction of Probabilistic Mental Model theory (Gigerenzer, Hoffrage, and Kleinbolting, 1991 concerning sampling procedure with the hard-easy effect. The experiment failed to support the theory's prediction that a particular pair of randomly sampled item sets would differ in percentage correct; but the observation that German participants performed practically as well on comparisons between U.S. cities (many of which they did not even recognize than on comparisons between German cities (about which they knew much more ultimately led to the formulation of the recognition heuristic. Experiment 2 was a second, this time successful, attempt to unconfound item difficulty and sampling procedure. In Experiment 3, participants' knowledge and recognition of each city was elicited, and how often this could be used to make an inference was manipulated. Choices were consistent with the recognition heuristic in about 80% of the cases when it discriminated and people had no additional knowledge about the recognized city (and in about 90% when they had such knowledge. The frequency with which the heuristic could be used affected the percentage correct, mean confidence, and overconfidence as predicted. The size of the reference class, which was also manipulated, modified these effects in meaningful and theoretically important ways.

  15. Molecular recognition in myxobacterial outer membrane exchange: functional, social and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Through cooperative interactions, bacteria can build multicellular communities. To ensure that productive interactions occur, bacteria must recognize their neighbours and respond accordingly. Molecular recognition between cells is thus a fundamental behaviour, and in bacteria important discoveries have been made. This MicroReview focuses on a recently described recognition system in myxobacteria that is governed by a polymorphic cell surface receptor called TraA. TraA regulates outer membrane exchange (OME), whereby myxobacterial cells transiently fuse their OMs to efficiently transfer proteins and lipids between cells. Unlike other transport systems, OME is rather indiscriminate in what OM goods are transferred. In contrast, the recognition of partnering cells is discriminatory and only occurs between cells that bear identical or closely related TraA proteins. Therefore TraA functions in kin recognition and, in turn, OME helps regulate social interactions between myxobacteria. Here, I discuss and speculate on the social and evolutionary implications of OME and suggest it helps to guide their transition from free-living cells into coherent and functional populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Neural activity during emotion recognition after combined cognitive plus social cognitive training in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive remediation training has been shown to improve both cognitive and social cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia, but the mechanisms that support this behavioral improvement are largely unknown. One hypothesis is that intensive behavioral training in cognition and/or social cognition restores the underlying neural mechanisms that support targeted skills. However, there is little research on the neural effects of cognitive remediation training. This study investigated whether a 50 h (10-week) remediation intervention which included both cognitive and social cognitive training would influence neural function in regions that support social cognition. Twenty-two stable, outpatient schizophrenia participants were randomized to a treatment condition consisting of auditory-based cognitive training (AT) [Brain Fitness Program/auditory module ~60 min/day] plus social cognition training (SCT) which was focused on emotion recognition [~5-15 min per day] or a placebo condition of non-specific computer games (CG) for an equal amount of time. Pre and post intervention assessments included an fMRI task of positive and negative facial emotion recognition, and standard behavioral assessments of cognition, emotion processing, and functional outcome. There were no significant intervention-related improvements in general cognition or functional outcome. fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Specifically, in comparison to CG, AT+SCT participants had a greater pre-to-post intervention increase in postcentral gyrus activity during emotion recognition of both positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, among all participants, the increase in postcentral gyrus activity predicted behavioral improvement on a standardized test of emotion processing (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Results indicate that combined cognition and social cognition training impacts neural mechanisms that support social cognition skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Neural activity during emotion recognition after combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I.; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C.; Miyakawa, Asako; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive remediation training has been shown to improve both cognitive and social-cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia, but the mechanisms that support this behavioral improvement are largely unknown. One hypothesis is that intensive behavioral training in cognition and/or social-cognition restores the underlying neural mechanisms that support targeted skills. However, there is little research on the neural effects of cognitive remediation training. This study investigated whether a 50 hour (10-week) remediation intervention which included both cognitive and social-cognitive training would influence neural function in regions that support social-cognition. Twenty-two stable, outpatient schizophrenia participants were randomized to a treatment condition consisting of auditory-based cognitive training (AT) [Brain Fitness Program/auditory module ~60 minutes/day] plus social-cognition training (SCT) which was focused on emotion recognition [~5–15 minutes per day] or a placebo condition of non-specific computer games (CG) for an equal amount of time. Pre and post intervention assessments included an fMRI task of positive and negative facial emotion recognition, and standard behavioral assessments of cognition, emotion processing, and functional outcome. There were no significant intervention-related improvements in general cognition or functional outcome. FMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Specifically, in comparison to CG, AT+SCT participants had a greater pre-to-post intervention increase in postcentral gyrus activity during emotion recognition of both positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, among all participants, the increase in postcentral gyrus activity predicted behavioral improvement on a standardized test of emotion processing (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Results indicate that combined cognition and social-cognition training impacts neural mechanisms that support social-cognition skills. PMID:22695257

  18. Helping, mediating, and gaining recognition: The everyday identity work of Romanian health social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocănel, Alexandra; Lazăr, Florin; Munch, Shari; Harmon, Cara; Rentea, Georgiana-Cristina; Gaba, Daniela; Mihai, Anca

    2018-03-01

    Health social work is a field with challenges, opportunities, and ways of professing social work that may vary between different national contexts. In this article, we look at how Romanian health social workers construct their professional identity through their everyday identity work. Drawing on a qualitative study based on interviews with 21 health social workers working in various organizational contexts, we analyze what health social workers say they do and how this shapes their self-conception as professionals. Four main themes emerged from participants' descriptions: being a helping professional, being a mediator, gaining recognition, and contending with limits. Through these themes, participants articulated the everyday struggles and satisfactions specific to working as recently recognized professionals in Romanian health and welfare systems not always supportive of their work.

  19. Neural basis of distorted self-face recognition in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with SAD have a positive point of view of their own face and experience self-relevance for the attractively transformed self-faces. This distorted cognition may be based on dysfunctions in the frontal and inferior parietal regions. The abnormal engagement of the fronto-parietal attentional network during processing face stimuli in non-social situations may be linked to distorted self-recognition in SAD.

  20. The SocioBox: A novel paradigm to assess complex social recognition in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilja Krueger-Burg

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in social skills are central to mental disease, and developing tools for their assessment in mouse models is essential. Here we present the SocioBox, a new behavioral paradigm to measure social recognition memory. Using this paradigm, we show that male wildtype mice of different strains can readily identify an unfamiliar mouse among 5 newly acquainted animals. In contrast, female mice exhibit lower locomotor activity during social exploration in the SocioBox compared to males and do not seem to discriminate between acquainted and unfamiliar mice, likely reflecting inherent differences in gender-specific territorial tasks. In addition to a simple quantification of social interaction time of mice grounded on predefined spatial zones (zone-based method, we developed a set of unbiased, data-driven analysis tools based on heat map representations and characterized by greater sensitivity. First proof-of-principle that the SocioBox allows diagnosis of social recognition memory deficits is provided using male PSD-95 heterozygous knockout mice, a mouse model related to psychiatric pathophysiology.

  1. Predicting Performance of a Face Recognition System Based on Image Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, we focus on several aspects of models that aim to predict performance of a face recognition system. Performance prediction models are commonly based on the following two types of performance predictor features: a) image quality features; and b) features derived solely from

  2. Performance Comparison of Assorted Color Spaces for Multilevel Block Truncation Coding based Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    H.B. Kekre; Sudeep Thepade; Karan Dhamejani; Sanchit Khandelwal; Adnan Azmi

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a performance analysis of Multilevel Block Truncation Coding based Face Recognition among widely used color spaces. In [1], Multilevel Block Truncation Coding was applied on the RGB color space up to four levels for face recognition. Better results were obtained when the proposed technique was implemented using Kekre’s LUV (K’LUV) color space [25]. This was the motivation to test the proposed technique using assorted color spaces. For experimental analysis, two face databas...

  3. Social Networks and Sales Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that an informal network can itself be a basis for the increase in a sales manager’s performance. Informal networks create a structure that surpasses the formal hierarchical structure defined by the firm. We concentrated on the advice network and considered two different views of network structure that claim to have impact on performance. To explore this claim, we examined whether sales managers develop either a highly cohesive network structure (i.e. Coleman’s view or one containing structural holes (i.e. Burt’s view in order to achieve higher sales. We also investigated the matter of tie strength put forward by Granovetter in his seminal 1973 work. Census data was collected from about 500 personnel from an agricultural input retailer having 23 divisions. Estimates from a sample of 101 sales managers showed the importance of a highly cohesive structure (degree centrality for the three measures of sales manager’s performance. The strong ties have a positive impact on performance, suggesting the importance of building up strong bonds with network contacts. Sales managers’ age, time within the retailer and education also influence performance. These results imply that firms should stimulate contacts among personnel to spread technical and commercial information.

  4. Digital Technologies for Social Innovation: An Empirical Recognition on the New Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Maiolini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though scholars’ attention has been placed on Social Innovation (SI, little evidence has been provided with regards to which tools are actually used to address social needs and foster Social Innovation initiatives. The purpose of the article is twofold. Firstly, the article offers empirical recognition to SI by investigating, on a large-scale, social and innovative activities conducted by start-ups and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs across the world between 2001 and 2014. Secondly, the article intends to capture SI core businesses and underlying complementarities between products, markets, and technologies and show in which way digital media and IT are essentially tracing innovation trajectories over a multitude of industries, leading the current industrial patterns of SI, and continually fostering its cross-industry nature.

  5. An Investigation of a New Social Networks Contact Suggestion Based on Face Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Zelinka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated comparison of faces in the photographs is a well established discipline. The main aim of this paper is to describe an approach whereby face recognition can be used in suggestion of a new contacts. The new contact suggestion is a common technique used across all main social networks. Our approach uses a freely available face comparison called "Betaface" together with our automated processig of the user´s Facebook profile. The research´s main point of interest is the comparison of friend´s facial images in a social network itself, how to process such a great amount of photos and what additional sources of data should be used. In this approach we used our automated processing algorithm Betaface in the social network Facebook and for the additional data, the Flickr social network was used. The results and their quality are discussed at the end.

  6. Improvement of dizocilpine-induced social recognition deficits in mice by brexpiprazole, a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Noriko; Futamura, Takashi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive impairment, including impaired social cognition, is largely responsible for the deterioration in social life suffered by patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). Brexpiprazole (7-{4-[4-(1-benzothiophen-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]butoxy}quinolin-2(1H)-one), a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator, was developed to offer efficacious and tolerable therapy for different psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and adjunctive treatment of MDD. In this study, we investigated whether brexpiprazole could improve social recognition deficits (one of social cognition deficits) in mice, after administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine). Dosing with dizocilpine (0.1mg/kg) induced significant impairment of social recognition in mice. Brexpiprazole (0.01, 0.03, 0.1mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated dizocilpine-induced social recognition deficits, without sedation or a reduction of exploratory behavior. In addition, brexpiprazole alone had no effect on social recognition in untreated control mice. By contrast, neither risperidone (0.03mg/kg, p.o.) nor olanzapine (0.03mg/kg, p.o.) altered dizocilpine-induced social recognition deficits. Finally, the effect of brexpiprazole on dizocilpine-induced social recognition deficits was antagonized by WAY-100,635, a selective serotonin 5-HT1A antagonist. These results suggest that brexpiprazole could improve dizocilpine-induced social recognition deficits via 5-HT1A receptor activation in mice. Therefore, brexpiprazole may confer a beneficial effect on social cognition deficits in patients with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Performance vs. Financial Performance: CSR Disclosures as an indicator of social performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Yılmaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, it is gaining more and more dominance in both academic and business life that the company exists for and has responsibilities toward a wider group of stakeholders and it must have some objectives other than profitability. To achieve sustainable development and growth, the companies must assume more duties, which is called the term “corporate social responsibility (CSR.” In the literature, it is questioned whether CSR activities benefit the company or not; whether there is any relationship exists between CSR activities and the company’s financial performance and the direction of the relationship. We aimed to explore that whether there is any effect corporate social performance (CSP on financial performance and position and vice versa. We performed content analysis through annual reports and derived a social score composed of the items included in disclosure guidelines and some criteria used in CSR ratings. We also used several financial position and financial performance indicators. In order to explore the relationship between CSP and financial indicators, we run panel data regressions. We found significant results for some of the indicators, where some of the indicators gave insignificant results. The reporting of CSR activities is in very low levels. The conscious toward CSR and sustainability must be promoted and the companies must assume more active roles. The reporting of those activities is also important.

  8. Relating corporate social investment with financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kgabo L. Kobo; Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2017-01-01

    Previous researchers have found conflicting results between CSI and firm financial performance. This paper moves this debate further by examining the extent to which corporate social investment (CSI) relates with corporate financial performance (CFP) from a developing country perspective. The main aim of the paper was to determine the relationship between CSI, stock price, sales turnover and return on equity (ROE) amongst the socially responsible investing (SRI) companies in the Johannesburg ...

  9. Facing the Problem: Impaired Emotion Recognition During Multimodal Social Information Processing in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedtfeld, Inga; Defiebre, Nadine; Regenbogen, Christina; Mier, Daniela; Fenske, Sabrina; Kirsch, Peter; Lis, Stefanie; Schmahl, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has revealed alterations and deficits in facial emotion recognition in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). During interpersonal communication in daily life, social signals such as speech content, variation in prosody, and facial expression need to be considered simultaneously. We hypothesized that deficits in higher level integration of social stimuli contribute to difficulties in emotion recognition in BPD, and heightened arousal might explain this effect. Thirty-one patients with BPD and thirty-one healthy controls were asked to identify emotions in short video clips, which were designed to represent different combinations of the three communication channels: facial expression, speech content, and prosody. Skin conductance was recorded as a measure of sympathetic arousal, while controlling for state dissociation. Patients with BPD showed lower mean accuracy scores than healthy control subjects in all conditions comprising emotional facial expressions. This was true for the condition with facial expression only, and for the combination of all three communication channels. Electrodermal responses were enhanced in BPD only in response to auditory stimuli. In line with the major body of facial emotion recognition studies, we conclude that deficits in the interpretation of facial expressions lead to the difficulties observed in multimodal emotion processing in BPD.

  10. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems.

  11. Friends with Faces: How Social Networks Can Enhance Face Recognition and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Nikolaos; Kazmi, Wajahat; Toulis, Panos

    The "friendship" relation, a social relation among individuals, is one of the primary relations modeled in some of the world's largest online social networking sites, such as "FaceBook." On the other hand, the "co-occurrence" relation, as a relation among faces appearing in pictures, is one that is easily detectable using modern face detection techniques. These two relations, though appearing in different realms (social vs. visual sensory), have a strong correlation: faces that co-occur in photos often belong to individuals who are friends. Using real-world data gathered from "Facebook," which were gathered as part of the "FaceBots" project, the world's first physical face-recognizing and conversing robot that can utilize and publish information on "Facebook" was established. We present here methods as well as results for utilizing this correlation in both directions. Both algorithms for utilizing knowledge of the social context for faster and better face recognition are given, as well as algorithms for estimating the friendship network of a number of individuals given photos containing their faces. The results are quite encouraging. In the primary example, doubling of the recognition accuracy as well as a sixfold improvement in speed is demonstrated. Various improvements, interesting statistics, as well as an empirical investigation leading to predictions of scalability to much bigger data sets are discussed.

  12. Automatic target recognition performance losses in the presence of atmospheric and camera effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2010-04-01

    The importance of networked automatic target recognition systems for surveillance applications is continuously increasing. Because of the requirement of a low cost and limited payload, these networks are traditionally equipped with lightweight, low-cost sensors such as electro-optical (EO) or infrared sensors. The quality of imagery acquired by these sensors critically depends on the environmental conditions, type and characteristics of sensors, and absence of occluding or concealing objects. In the past, a large number of efficient detection, tracking, and recognition algorithms have been designed to operate on imagery of good quality. However, detection and recognition limits under nonideal environmental and/or sensor-based distortions have not been carefully evaluated. We introduce a fully automatic target recognition system that involves a Haar-based detector to select potential regions of interest within images, performs adjustment of detected regions, segments potential targets using a region-based approach, identifies targets using Bessel K form-based encoding, and performs clutter rejection. We investigate the effects of environmental and camera conditions on target detection and recognition performance. Two databases are involved. One is a simulated database generated using a 3-D tool. The other database is formed by imaging 10 die-cast models of military vehicles from different elevation and orientation angles. The database contains imagery acquired both indoors and outdoors. The indoors data set is composed of clear and distorted images. The distortions include defocus blur, sided illumination, low contrast, shadows, and occlusions. All images in this database, however, have a uniform (blue) background. The indoors database is applied to evaluate the degradations of recognition performance due to camera and illumination effects. The database collected outdoors includes a real background and is much more complex to process. The numerical results

  13. The Interplay between Gaze Following, Emotion Recognition, and Empathy across Adolescence; a Pubertal Dip in Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne van Rooijen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During puberty a dip in face recognition is often observed, possibly caused by heightened levels of gonadal hormones which in turn affects the re-organization of relevant cortical circuitry. In the current study we investigated whether a pubertal dip could be observed in three other abilities related to social information processing: gaze following, emotion recognition from the eyes, and empathizing abilities. Across these abilities we further explored whether these measurements revealed sex differences as another way to understand how gonadal hormones affect processing of social information. Results show that across adolescence, there are improvements in emotion recognition from the eyes and in empathizing abilities. These improvements did not show a dip, but are more plateau-like. The gaze cueing effect did not change over adolescence. We only observed sex differences in empathizing abilities, with girls showing higher scores than boys. Based on these results it appears that gonadal hormones are not exerting a unified influence on higher levels of social information processing. Further research should also explore changes in (visual information processing around puberty onset to find a more fitted explanation for changes in social behavior across adolescence.

  14. Emotion Recognition and Social/Role Dysfunction in Non-Clinical Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R.; Smith, Ashley K.; Orr, Joseph M.; Gupta, Tina; Millman, Zachary B.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2013-01-01

    As researchers continue to understand non-clinical psychosis (NCP- brief psychotic-like experiences occurring in 5–7% of the general population; van Os et al., 2009), it is becoming evident that functioning deficits and facial emotion recognition (FER) impairment characterize this phenomenon. However, the extent to which these domains are related remains unclear. Social/role functioning and FER were assessed in 65 adolescents/young adults exhibiting Low and High-NCP. Results indicate that FER and social/role functioning deficits were present in the High-NCP group, and that the domains were associated in this group alone. Taken together, findings suggest that a core emotive deficit is tied to broader social/role dysfunction in NCP. PMID:23182437

  15. Effects of X-ray radiation on complex visual discrimination learning and social recognition memory in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Davis

    Full Text Available The present report describes an animal model for examining the effects of radiation on a range of neurocognitive functions in rodents that are similar to a number of basic human cognitive functions. Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform an automated intra-dimensional set shifting task that consisted of their learning a basic discrimination between two stimulus shapes followed by more complex discrimination stages (e.g., a discrimination reversal, a compound discrimination, a compound reversal, a new shape discrimination, and an intra-dimensional stimulus discrimination reversal. One group of rats was exposed to head-only X-ray radiation (2.3 Gy at a dose rate of 1.9 Gy/min, while a second group received a sham-radiation exposure using the same anesthesia protocol. The irradiated group responded less, had elevated numbers of omitted trials, increased errors, and greater response latencies compared to the sham-irradiated control group. Additionally, social odor recognition memory was tested after radiation exposure by assessing the degree to which rats explored wooden beads impregnated with either their own odors or with the odors of novel, unfamiliar rats; however, no significant effects of radiation on social odor recognition memory were observed. These data suggest that rodent tasks assessing higher-level human cognitive domains are useful in examining the effects of radiation on the CNS, and may be applicable in approximating CNS risks from radiation exposure in clinical populations receiving whole brain irradiation.

  16. Effects of X-ray radiation on complex visual discrimination learning and social recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine M; Roma, Peter G; Armour, Elwood; Gooden, Virginia L; Brady, Joseph V; Weed, Michael R; Hienz, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The present report describes an animal model for examining the effects of radiation on a range of neurocognitive functions in rodents that are similar to a number of basic human cognitive functions. Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform an automated intra-dimensional set shifting task that consisted of their learning a basic discrimination between two stimulus shapes followed by more complex discrimination stages (e.g., a discrimination reversal, a compound discrimination, a compound reversal, a new shape discrimination, and an intra-dimensional stimulus discrimination reversal). One group of rats was exposed to head-only X-ray radiation (2.3 Gy at a dose rate of 1.9 Gy/min), while a second group received a sham-radiation exposure using the same anesthesia protocol. The irradiated group responded less, had elevated numbers of omitted trials, increased errors, and greater response latencies compared to the sham-irradiated control group. Additionally, social odor recognition memory was tested after radiation exposure by assessing the degree to which rats explored wooden beads impregnated with either their own odors or with the odors of novel, unfamiliar rats; however, no significant effects of radiation on social odor recognition memory were observed. These data suggest that rodent tasks assessing higher-level human cognitive domains are useful in examining the effects of radiation on the CNS, and may be applicable in approximating CNS risks from radiation exposure in clinical populations receiving whole brain irradiation.

  17. Effects of X-Ray Radiation on Complex Visual Discrimination Learning and Social Recognition Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine M.; Roma, Peter G.; Armour, Elwood; Gooden, Virginia L.; Brady, Joseph V.; Weed, Michael R.; Hienz, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The present report describes an animal model for examining the effects of radiation on a range of neurocognitive functions in rodents that are similar to a number of basic human cognitive functions. Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform an automated intra-dimensional set shifting task that consisted of their learning a basic discrimination between two stimulus shapes followed by more complex discrimination stages (e.g., a discrimination reversal, a compound discrimination, a compound reversal, a new shape discrimination, and an intra-dimensional stimulus discrimination reversal). One group of rats was exposed to head-only X-ray radiation (2.3 Gy at a dose rate of 1.9 Gy/min), while a second group received a sham-radiation exposure using the same anesthesia protocol. The irradiated group responded less, had elevated numbers of omitted trials, increased errors, and greater response latencies compared to the sham-irradiated control group. Additionally, social odor recognition memory was tested after radiation exposure by assessing the degree to which rats explored wooden beads impregnated with either their own odors or with the odors of novel, unfamiliar rats; however, no significant effects of radiation on social odor recognition memory were observed. These data suggest that rodent tasks assessing higher-level human cognitive domains are useful in examining the effects of radiation on the CNS, and may be applicable in approximating CNS risks from radiation exposure in clinical populations receiving whole brain irradiation. PMID:25099152

  18. The Doors and People Test: The effect of frontal lobe lesions on recall and recognition memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    MacPherson, S. E.; Turner, M. S.; Bozzali, M.; Cipolotti, L.; Shallice, T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Memory deficits in patients with frontal lobe lesions are most apparent on free recall tasks that require the selection, initiation, and implementation of retrieval strategies. The effect of frontal lesions on recognition memory performance is less clear with some studies reporting recognition memory impairments but others not. The majority of these studies do not directly compare recall and recognition within the same group of frontal patients, assessing only recall or recognition...

  19. Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act on OT receptors and not AVP V1a receptors to enhance social recognition in adult Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhimin; Larkin, Tony E; Malley, Maureen O'; Albers, H Elliott

    2016-05-01

    Social recognition is a fundamental requirement for all forms of social relationships. A majority of studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying social recognition in rodents have investigated relatively neutral social stimuli such as juveniles or ovariectomized females over short time intervals (e.g., 2h). The present study developed a new testing model to study social recognition among adult males using a potent social stimulus. Flank gland odors are used extensively in social communication in Syrian hamsters and convey important information such as dominance status. We found that the recognition of flank gland odors after a 3min exposure lasted for at least 24h, substantially longer than the recognition of other social cues in rats and mice. Intracerebroventricular injections of OT and AVP prolonged the recognition of flank gland odor for up to 48h. Selective OTR but not V1aR agonists, mimicked these enhancing effects of OT and AVP. Similarly, selective OTR but not V1aR antagonists blocked recognition of the odors after 20min. In contrast, the recognition of non-social stimuli was not blocked by either the OTR or the V1aR antagonists. Our findings suggest both OT and AVP enhance social recognition via acting on OTRs and not V1aRs and that the recognition enhancing effects of OT and AVP are limited to social stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Face Recognition Performance Improvement using a Similarity Score of Feature Vectors based on Probabilistic Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRIKOTE, G.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved performance algorithm of face recognition to identify two face mismatch pairs in cases of incorrect decisions. The primary feature of this method is to deploy the similarity score with respect to Gaussian components between two previously unseen faces. Unlike the conventional classical vector distance measurement, our algorithms also consider the plot of summation of the similarity index versus face feature vector distance. A mixture of Gaussian models of labeled faces is also widely applicable to different biometric system parameters. By comparative evaluations, it has been shown that the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is superior to that of the conventional algorithm by an average accuracy of up to 1.15% and 16.87% when compared with 3x3 Multi-Region Histogram (MRH direct-bag-of-features and Principal Component Analysis (PCA-based face recognition systems, respectively. The experimental results show that similarity score consideration is more discriminative for face recognition compared to feature distance. Experimental results of Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW data set demonstrate that our algorithms are suitable for real applications probe-to-gallery identification of face recognition systems. Moreover, this proposed method can also be applied to other recognition systems and therefore additionally improves recognition scores.

  1. Assessment of the Metrological Performance of Seismic Tables for a QMS Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A Silva; Costa, A Campos; Candeias, P; Martins, L Lages; Martins, A C Freitas; Ferreira, A C; Sousa, J Alves e

    2016-01-01

    Seismic testing and analysis using large infrastructures, such as shaking tables and reaction walls, is performed worldwide requiring the use of complex instrumentation systems. To assure the accuracy of these systems, conformity assessment is needed to verify the compliance with standards and applications, and the Quality Management Systems (QMS) is being increasingly applied to domains where risk analysis is critical as a way to provide a formal recognition. This paper describes an approach to the assessment of the metrological performance of seismic shake tables as part of a QMS recognition, with the analysis of a case study of LNEC Seismic shake table. (paper)

  2. Assessment of the Metrological Performance of Seismic Tables for a QMS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Ribeiro, A.; Campos Costa, A.; Candeias, P.; Sousa, J. Alves e.; Lages Martins, L.; Freitas Martins, A. C.; Ferreira, A. C.

    2016-11-01

    Seismic testing and analysis using large infrastructures, such as shaking tables and reaction walls, is performed worldwide requiring the use of complex instrumentation systems. To assure the accuracy of these systems, conformity assessment is needed to verify the compliance with standards and applications, and the Quality Management Systems (QMS) is being increasingly applied to domains where risk analysis is critical as a way to provide a formal recognition. This paper describes an approach to the assessment of the metrological performance of seismic shake tables as part of a QMS recognition, with the analysis of a case study of LNEC Seismic shake table.

  3. LSD Acutely Impairs Fear Recognition and Enhances Emotional Empathy and Sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan; Liechti, Matthias E

    2016-10-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and has been evaluated as an adjunct to psychotherapy to treat anxiety in patients with life-threatening illness. LSD is well-known to induce perceptual alterations, but unknown is whether LSD alters emotional processing in ways that can support psychotherapy. We investigated the acute effects of LSD on emotional processing using the Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). The effects of LSD on social behavior were tested using the Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. Two similar placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, crossover studies were conducted using 100 μg LSD in 24 subjects and 200 μg LSD in 16 subjects. All of the subjects were healthy and mostly hallucinogen-naive 25- to 65-year-old volunteers (20 men, 20 women). LSD produced feelings of happiness, trust, closeness to others, enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy on the MET, and impaired the recognition of sad and fearful faces on the FERT. LSD enhanced the participants' desire to be with other people and increased their prosocial behavior on the SVO test. These effects of LSD on emotion processing and sociality may be useful for LSD-assisted psychotherapy.

  4. Viewpoint Integration for Hand-Based Recognition of Social Interactions from a First-Person View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Sven; Crandall, David J; Yu, Chen

    2015-11-01

    Wearable devices are becoming part of everyday life, from first-person cameras (GoPro, Google Glass), to smart watches (Apple Watch), to activity trackers (FitBit). These devices are often equipped with advanced sensors that gather data about the wearer and the environment. These sensors enable new ways of recognizing and analyzing the wearer's everyday personal activities, which could be used for intelligent human-computer interfaces and other applications. We explore one possible application by investigating how egocentric video data collected from head-mounted cameras can be used to recognize social activities between two interacting partners (e.g. playing chess or cards). In particular, we demonstrate that just the positions and poses of hands within the first-person view are highly informative for activity recognition, and present a computer vision approach that detects hands to automatically estimate activities. While hand pose detection is imperfect, we show that combining evidence across first-person views from the two social partners significantly improves activity recognition accuracy. This result highlights how integrating weak but complimentary sources of evidence from social partners engaged in the same task can help to recognize the nature of their interaction.

  5. Vasopressin infusion into the lateral septum of adult male rats rescues progesterone-induced impairment in social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, M E; Mena, J D; Auger, C J

    2013-08-29

    It is well established that social recognition memory is mediated, in part, by arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP cells within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) send AVP-ergic projections to the lateral septum (LS). We have demonstrated that progesterone treatment decreases AVP immunoreactivity within the BST, the MeA and the LS, and that progesterone treatment impairs social recognition. These data suggested that progesterone may impair social recognition memory by decreasing AVP. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that infusions of AVP into the LS would rescue the progesterone-induced impairment in social recognition within adult male rats. One week after adult male rats underwent cannula surgery, they were given systemic injections of either a physiological dose of progesterone or oil control for 3 days. Four hours after the last injection, we tested social recognition memory using the social discrimination paradigm, a two-trial test that is based on the natural propensity for rats to be highly motivated to investigate novel conspecifics. Immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile, each animal received bilateral infusions of either AVP or artificial cerebrospinal fluid into the LS. Our results show that, as expected, control animals exhibited normal social discrimination. In corroboration with our previous results, animals given progesterone have impaired social discrimination. Interestingly, animals treated with progesterone and AVP exhibited normal social discrimination, suggesting that AVP treatment rescued the impairment in social recognition caused by progesterone. These data also further support a role for progesterone in modulating vasopressin-dependent behavior within the male brain. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vasopressin infusion into the lateral septum of adult male rats rescues progesterone induced impairment in social recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E.; Mena, Jesus D.; Auger, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that social recognition memory is mediated, in part, by arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP cells within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and medial amygdala (MeA) send AVP-ergic projections to the lateral septum (LS). We have demonstrated that progesterone treatment decreases AVP immunoreactivity within the BST, the MeA and the LS, and that progesterone treatment impairs social recognition. These data suggested that progesterone may impair social recognition memory by decreasing AVP. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that infusions of AVP into the LS would rescue the progesterone induced impairment in social recognition within adult male rats. One week after adult male rats underwent cannula surgery, they were given systemic injections of either a physiological dose of progesterone or oil control for three days. Four hours after the last injection, we tested social recognition memory using the social discrimination paradigm, a two-trial test that is based on the natural propensity for rats to be highly motivated to investigate novel conspecifics. Immediately after the first exposure to a juvenile, each animal received bilateral infusions of either AVP or artificial CSF (aCSF) into the LS. Our results show that, as expected, control animals exhibited normal social discrimination. In corroboration with our previous results, animals given progesterone have impaired social discrimination. Interestingly, animals treated with progesterone and AVP exhibited normal social discrimination, suggesting that AVP treatment rescued the impairment in social recognition caused by progesterone. These data also further support a role for progesterone in modulating vasopressin dependent behavior within the male brain. PMID:23639881

  7. Vomeronasal organ lesion disrupts social odor recognition, behaviors and fitness in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjuan; Zhang, Jinhua; Liu, Dingzhen; Zhang, Jianxu

    2014-06-01

    Most studies support the viewpoint that the vomeronasal organ has a profound effect on conspecific odor recognition, scent marking and mating behavior in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in social odor recognition, social interaction and fitness is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a series of behavioral and physiological tests to examine the referred points in golden hamster. We found that male hamsters with vomeronasal organ lesion showed no preference between a predator odor (the anal gland secretion of the Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) and putative female pheromone components (myristic acid and palmitic acid), but were still able to discriminate between these 2 kinds of odors. In behavioral tests of anxiety, we found that vomeronasal organ removal causes female hamsters to spend much less time in center grids and to cross fewer center grids and males to make fewer crossings between light and dark boxes than sham-operated controls. This indicates that a chronic vomeronasal organ lesion induced anxious responses in females. In aggressive behavioral tests, we found that a chronic vomeronasal organ lesion decreased agonistic behavior in female hamsters but not in males. The pup growth and litter size show no differences between the 2 groups. All together, our data suggested that vomeronasal organ ablation disrupted the olfactory recognition of social chemosignals in males, and induced anxiety-like and aggressive behavior changes in females. However, a vomeronasal organ lesion did not affect the reproductive capacity and fitness of hamsters. Our studies may have important implications concerning the role of the vomeronasal organ in golden hamsters and also in rodents. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The effect of Trier Social Stress Test (TSST on item and associative recognition of words and pictures in healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGuez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, has repeatedly been shown to alter memory performance. Although factors influencing memory performance such as stimulus nature (verbal /pictorial and emotional valence have been extensively studied, results whether stress impairs or improves memory are still inconsistent. This study aimed at exploring the effect of TSST on item versus associative memory for neutral, verbal, and pictorial stimuli. 48 healthy subjects were recruited, 24 participants were randomly assigned to the TSST group and the remaining 24 participants were assigned to the control group. Stress reactivity was measured by psychological (subjective state anxiety ratings and physiological (Galvanic skin response recording measurements. Subjects performed an item-association memory task for both stimulus types (words, pictures simultaneously, before, and after the stress/non-stress manipulation. The results showed that memory recognition for pictorial stimuli was higher than for verbal stimuli. Memory for both words and pictures was impaired following TSST; while the source for this impairment was specific to associative recognition in pictures, a more general deficit was observed for verbal material, as expressed in decreased recognition for both items and associations following TSST. Response latency analysis indicated that the TSST manipulation decreased response time but at the cost of memory accuracy. We conclude that stress does not uniformly affect memory; rather it interacts with the task’s cognitive load and stimulus type. Applying the current study results to patients diagnosed with disorders associated with traumatic stress, our findings in healthy subjects under acute stress provide further support for our assertion that patients’ impaired memory originates in poor recollection processing following depletion of attentional resources.

  9. Social context, social abstention, and problem recognition correlated with adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Gitte Wrist; Foldspang, Anders; Elving, Lisbeth Bach

    1992-01-01

    indicated the workplace and 66% the home as principal sites of UI occurrence. Thirty-one percent had experienced UI in specific situations such as during anxiety, sexual intercourse, or sleep. Nineteen percent had abstained from social activities, 17% from non-intimate social activity and 6% from sexual...... with episodes of UI occurring at home and in specific situations such as during anxiety and sleep. The experience of UI during sexual intercourse was related to all types of abstention. The perception of UI as a social or hygienic problem depended on the duration since first UI episode as well as social context...... and abstention. The everyday life consequences of UI are widespread and may cause serious relational problems for the individual. Stress UI manifests itself as a somatic condition leading to abstention from sport and other non-intimate social activities. Urge UI and the role of the experience of UI during sexual...

  10. Social trait judgment and affect recognition from static faces and video vignettes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Lindsey G; Park, Sohee

    2014-09-01

    Social impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, present from the pre-morbid stage and predictive of outcome, but the etiology of this deficit remains poorly understood. Successful and adaptive social interactions depend on one's ability to make rapid and accurate judgments about others in real time. Our surprising ability to form accurate first impressions from brief exposures, known as "thin slices" of behavior has been studied very extensively in healthy participants. We sought to examine affect and social trait judgment from thin slices of static or video stimuli in order to investigate the ability of schizophrenic individuals to form reliable social impressions of others. 21 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 20 matched healthy participants (HC) were asked to identify emotions and social traits for actors in standardized face stimuli as well as brief video clips. Sound was removed from videos to remove all verbal cues. Clinical symptoms in SZ and delusional ideation in both groups were measured. Results showed a general impairment in affect recognition for both types of stimuli in SZ. However, the two groups did not differ in the judgments of trustworthiness, approachability, attractiveness, and intelligence. Interestingly, in SZ, the severity of positive symptoms was correlated with higher ratings of attractiveness, trustworthiness, and approachability. Finally, increased delusional ideation in SZ was associated with a tendency to rate others as more trustworthy, while the opposite was true for HC. These findings suggest that complex social judgments in SZ are affected by symptomatology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Within-individual variation in bullfrog vocalizations: implications for a vocally mediated social recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A

    2004-12-01

    Acoustic signals provide a basis for social recognition in a wide range of animals. Few studies, however, have attempted to relate the patterns of individual variation in signals to behavioral discrimination thresholds used by receivers to discriminate among individuals. North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) discriminate among familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on individual variation in advertisement calls. The sources, patterns, and magnitudes of variation in eight acoustic properties of multiple-note advertisement calls were examined to understand how patterns of within-individual variation might either constrain, or provide additional cues for, vocal recognition. Six of eight acoustic properties exhibited significant note-to-note variation within multiple-note calls. Despite this source of within-individual variation, all call properties varied significantly among individuals, and multivariate analyses indicated that call notes were individually distinct. Fine-temporal and spectral call properties exhibited less within-individual variation compared to gross-temporal properties and contributed most toward statistically distinguishing among individuals. Among-individual differences in the patterns of within-individual variation in some properties suggest that within-individual variation could also function as a recognition cue. The distributions of among-individual and within-individual differences were used to generate hypotheses about the expected behavioral discrimination thresholds of receivers.

  12. The Doors and People Test: The effect of frontal lobe lesions on recall and recognition memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha S; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Memory deficits in patients with frontal lobe lesions are most apparent on free recall tasks that require the selection, initiation, and implementation of retrieval strategies. The effect of frontal lesions on recognition memory performance is less clear with some studies reporting recognition memory impairments but others not. The majority of these studies do not directly compare recall and recognition within the same group of frontal patients, assessing only recall or recognition memory performance. Other studies that do compare recall and recognition in the same frontal group do not consider recall or recognition tests that are comparable for difficulty. Recognition memory impairments may not be reported because recognition memory tasks are less demanding. This study aimed to investigate recall and recognition impairments in the same group of 47 frontal patients and 78 healthy controls. The Doors and People Test was administered as a neuropsychological test of memory as it assesses both verbal and visual recall and recognition using subtests that are matched for difficulty. Significant verbal and visual recall and recognition impairments were found in the frontal patients. These results demonstrate that when frontal patients are assessed on recall and recognition memory tests of comparable difficulty, memory impairments are found on both types of episodic memory test. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Computer-Assisted Face Processing Instruction Improves Emotion Recognition, Mentalizing, and Social Skills in Students with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Linda Marie; Wall, Carla Anne; Fogel, Adam; Shic, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a computer-based social skills intervention called "FaceSay"™ was associated with improvements in affect recognition, mentalizing, and social skills of school-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). "FaceSay"™ offers students simulated practice with eye gaze, joint attention,…

  14. Pattern recognition in cyclic and discrete skills performance from inertial measurement units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Ludovic; L'Hermette, Maxime; Komar, John; Orth, Dominic; Mell, Florian; Merriaux, Pierre; Grenet, Pierre; Caritu, Yanis; Hérault, Romain; Dovgalecs, Vladislavs; Davids, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare and validate an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) relative to an optic system, and to propose methods for pattern recognition to capture behavioural dynamics during sport performance. IMU validation was conducted by comparing the motions of the two arms of a

  15. Stock Performance of Socially Responsible Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tzu-Man

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year Corporate Responsibility Magazine selects and ranks 100 companies on the basis of their corporate social responsibility. This study investigates the stock performance of socially responsible companies in the U.S. The monthly stock returns for these companies are analyzed and compared with the market performance, with the S&P 500 index designated as a proxy for the market. The empirical evidence suggests that these 100 companies outperform the market in their monthly stock returns. We also narrow down the number of companies selected to the top 75, 50, 25, and 10 firms. As we narrow down the companies selected, the difference between their returns and the market returns also narrows. In other words, a portfolio that includes all top 100 companies provides the best stock performance. We extend the analysis to long-term annual stock performance. We find that these socially responsible companies′ annual returns are higher than the market returns for up to seven years after they are listed. We also conduct the same analysis on the top 75, 50, 25, and 10 firms, respectively. Similarly, the larger the number of these top 100 companies, the greater the tendency to generate higher annual returns. We suspect that because the difference between the socially responsible companies′ average returns and the market returns is not dramatic, with a bigger population and thus a larger sample size, the difference becomes more significant. However, in practice, transaction costs must be considered. This study is limited in that it does not consider transaction costs. Nevertheless, we hope to shed some light on the issue of socially responsible companies′ stock performance to encourage companies to start thinking about the importance of corporate social responsibility.

  16. Timing of presentation and nature of stimuli determine retroactive interference with social recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Judith Camats; Wotjak, Carsten T; Stork, Oliver; Engelmann, Mario

    2015-05-01

    The present study was designed to further investigate the nature of stimuli and the timing of their presentation, which can induce retroactive interference with social recognition memory in mice. In accordance with our previous observations, confrontation with an unfamiliar conspecific juvenile 3h and 6h, but not 22 h, after the initial learning session resulted in retroactive interference. The same effect was observed with the exposure to both enantiomers of the monomolecular odour carvone, and with a novel object. Exposure to a loud tone (12 KHz, 90 dB) caused retroactive interference at 6h, but not 3h and 22 h, after sampling. Our data show that retroactive interference of social recognition memory can be induced by exposing the experimental subjects to the defined stimuli presented <22 h after learning in their home cage. The distinct interference triggered by the tone presentation at 6h after sampling may be linked to the intrinsic aversiveness of the loud tone and suggests that at this time point memory consolidation is particularly sensitive to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Social Responsibility Performance Outcomes Model: Building Socially Responsible Companies through Performance Improvement Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of performance improvement professionals and human resources development professionals in helping organizations realize the ethical and financial power of corporate social responsibility. Explains the social responsibility performance outcomes model, which incorporates the concepts of societal needs and outcomes. (LRW)

  18. Emotional facial expressions differentially influence predictions and performance for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Jason S; Rhodes, Matthew G; Cleary, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how participants' predictions of future memory performance are influenced by emotional facial expressions. Participants made judgements of learning (JOLs) predicting the likelihood that they would correctly identify a face displaying a happy, angry, or neutral emotional expression in a future two-alternative forced-choice recognition test of identity (i.e., recognition that a person's face was seen before). JOLs were higher for studied faces with happy and angry emotional expressions than for neutral faces. However, neutral test faces with studied neutral expressions had significantly higher identity recognition rates than neutral test faces studied with happy or angry expressions. Thus, these data are the first to demonstrate that people believe happy and angry emotional expressions will lead to better identity recognition in the future relative to neutral expressions. This occurred despite the fact that neutral expressions elicited better identity recognition than happy and angry expressions. These findings contribute to the growing literature examining the interaction of cognition and emotion.

  19. SOCIAL PERFORMANCE ENHANCES FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE. BENEFITS FROM CSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gazzola patrizia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to show how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR should not be considered a cost to bear as an economic social actor but an investment that will contribute to the competitiveness and growth of the firm. In the first part we consider capitalistic firm as systems for the creation of economic and financial value for their shareholders. We measure their performance by a system of monetary values. In the second part we do not limit our view to simply the shareholders, but we consider, instead a vast group of stakeholders because it is important not only to make profits, but also how companies make them . In these years characterized by the financial crisis, where many big companies went bankrupt, more and more companies are speaking about ethics and CSR. For a firm, acting socially responsible, means for example having fair compensations, promoting transparency and the respect of employees, neutralizing conflicts of interest, as well as taking care of the environment. CSR is today a topic for discussion not only for business people but also for politicians, media, researchers, NGOs and consumers. Growing awareness of CSR is evident in the growth of voluntary codes of corporate conduct, in the growth of companies that are using self-reporting on social and environmental practices, and in increasingly social and ethical investment funds. The public and governments of the world have been steadily increasing pressure on corporations to increase their CSR. Recently the European Commission has put forward a new, simpler definition of corporate social responsibility as “the responsibility of enterprises for their impacts on society” (European Commission 25/10/2011. Companies have realized that to increase their market share or keep their market share, they must adopt CSR, but the synergy between social performance and financial performance is not automatic; rather it is the result of efforts that combine managerial

  20. Social Cognition in Borderline Personality Disorder: Evidence for Disturbed Recognition of the Emotions, Thoughts, and Intentions of Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Preißler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disturbed relatedness is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD, and impaired social cognition or deficits in mentalization are hypothesized to underlie this feature. To date, only weak empirical evidence argues for impairment in the recognition of emotions, thoughts, or intentions in BPD. Data from facial emotion recognition research indicate that these abilities are altered in BPD only if tasks are complex. The present study aims to assess social cognitive abilities in BPD. Sixty-four women with BPD and 38 healthy controls watched the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC, a newly developed film displaying social interactions, and asking for an assessment of the intentions, emotions, and thoughts of the characters. In addition, participants completed an established but less ecologically valid measure of social cognition (Reading the Mind in the Eyes; RME. In the RME task, BPD patients did not display impairment in social cognition compared to healthy controls. By contrast, on the more sensitive MASC, women with BPD showed significantly impaired abilities in social cognition compared to healthy controls in their recognition of emotions, thoughts, and intentions. Comorbid PTSD, intrusions, and sexual trauma negatively predicted social cognitive abilities on the more sensitive MASC. Thus, our results suggest impaired social cognitive abilities in BPD. Especially for comorbid PTSD, intrusive symptoms and history of sexual trauma predicted poor outcomes on social cognition tasks.

  1. Vasopressin regulates social recognition in juvenile and adult rats of both sexes, but in sex- and age-specific ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, A H; Bredewold, R; De Vries, G J

    2012-01-01

    In adult male rats, vasopressin (AVP) facilitates social recognition via activation of V1a receptors within the lateral septum. Much less is known about how AVP affects social recognition in adult females or in juvenile animals of either sex. We found that administration of the specific V1a receptor antagonist d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2)]AVP into the lateral septum of adult rats impaired, whereas AVP extended, social discrimination in both sexes. In juveniles, however, we detected a sex difference, such that males but not females showed social discrimination. Interestingly, administration of the V1a receptor antagonist to juveniles (either intracerebroventricularly or locally in the lateral septum) did not prevent social discrimination, but instead significantly decreased the investigation of a novel as opposed to a familiar animal in both sexes, with stronger effects in males. V1a receptors were found to be abundantly expressed in the lateral septum with higher binding density in females than in males. These findings demonstrate that activation of V1a receptors in the lateral septum is important for social recognition in both sexes, and that the roles of septal V1a receptors in social recognition change during development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Competition, Time Horizon and Corporate Social Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Smid, H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper develops and tests a conceptual framework on the relationships between competition, time horizon and corporate social performance (CSP). We hypothesize that more intense competition discourages CSP by lowering the time horizon of companies. We test the hypothesis on a sample of

  3. Wanting it Too Much: An Inverse Relation Between Social Motivation and Facial Emotion Recognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Garman, Heather D.; Spaulding, Christine J.; Webb, Sara Jane; Mikami, Amori Yee; Morris, James P.; Lerner, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social motivation and early-stage face perception as frameworks for understanding impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) in a well-characterized sample of youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Early-stage face perception (N170 event-related potential latency) was recorded while participants completed a standardized FER task, while social motivation was obtained via parent report. Participants with greater social motivation exhibited poorer FER, while those w...

  4. Overexpression of the NR2A subunit in the forebrain impairs long-term social recognition and non-social olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S A; Tsien, J Z

    2014-04-01

    Animals must recognize and remember conspecifics and potential mates, and distinguish these animals from potential heterospecific competitors and predators. Despite its necessity, aged animals are known to exhibit impaired social recognition memory. As the brain ages, the ratio of NR2A:NR2B in the brain increases over time and has been postulated to underlie the cognitive decline observed during the aging process. Here, we test the hypothesis that an increased NR2A:NR2B subunit ratio underlies long-term social recognition memory. Using transgenic overexpression of NR2A in the forebrain regions, we investigated the ability of these mice to learn and remember male and female conspecifics, mice of another strain and animals of another rodent species, the rat. Furthermore, due to the importance of olfaction in social recognition, we tested the olfactory memory in the NR2A transgenic mice. Our series of behavioral experiments revealed significant impairments in the NR2A transgenic mice in long-term social memory of both male and female conspecifics. Additionally, the NR2A transgenic mice are unable to recognize mice of another strain or rats. The NR2A transgenic mice also exhibited long-term memory impairments in the olfactory recognition task. Taken together, our results provide evidence that an increased NR2A:NR2B ratio in the forebrain leads to reduced long-term memory function, including the ethologically important memories such as social recognition and olfactory memory.

  5. Interpersonal value profiles and analysis of adolescent academic performance and social thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jesús eGázquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify interpersonal value profiles and find out whether there were any differences in academic performance and social thinking. The study sample was 885 high school students of whom 49.8% (N=441 were boys and 50.2% (N=444 were girls. The results show that students with low Benevolence and Conformity levels showed higher prevalence of failures and repeated the year more often. Furthermore, students with a high level of Recognition and Leadership and low Conformity and Benevolence are socially incompetent students. Intervention programs should to achieve high levels of kindness and consideration, respect for rules and generosity, and diminish the perception of recognition by others and exertion of authority. Thus, this study shows the values that must be worked on to improve students’ Academic Performance and social competence.

  6. Social and attention-to-detail subclusters of autistic traits differentially predict looking at eyes and face identity recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua; McKone, Elinor; Zirnsak, Marc; Moore, Tirin; O'Kearney, Richard; Apthorp, Deborah; Palermo, Romina

    2017-02-01

    This study distinguished between different subclusters of autistic traits in the general population and examined the relationships between these subclusters, looking at the eyes of faces, and the ability to recognize facial identity. Using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) measure in a university-recruited sample, we separate the social aspects of autistic traits (i.e., those related to communication and social interaction; AQ-Social) from the non-social aspects, particularly attention-to-detail (AQ-Attention). We provide the first evidence that these social and non-social aspects are associated differentially with looking at eyes: While AQ-Social showed the commonly assumed tendency towards reduced looking at eyes, AQ-Attention was associated with increased looking at eyes. We also report that higher attention-to-detail (AQ-Attention) was then indirectly related to improved face recognition, mediated by increased number of fixations to the eyes during face learning. Higher levels of socially relevant autistic traits (AQ-Social) trended in the opposite direction towards being related to poorer face recognition (significantly so in females on the Cambridge Face Memory Test). There was no evidence of any mediated relationship between AQ-Social and face recognition via reduced looking at the eyes. These different effects of AQ-Attention and AQ-Social suggest face-processing studies in Autism Spectrum Disorder might similarly benefit from considering symptom subclusters. Additionally, concerning mechanisms of face recognition, our results support the view that more looking at eyes predicts better face memory. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Does the presence of priming hinder subsequent recognition or recall performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Shauna M; Gordon, Barry; Stark, Craig E L

    2008-02-01

    Declarative and non-declarative memories are thought be supported by two distinct memory systems that are often posited not to interact. However, Wagner, Maril, and Schacter (2000a) reported that at the time priming was assessed, greater behavioural and neural priming was associated with lower levels of subsequent recognition memory, demonstrating an interaction between declarative and non-declarative memory. We examined this finding using a similar paradigm, in which participants made the same or different semantic word judgements following a short or long lag and subsequent memory test. We found a similar overall pattern of results, with greater behavioural priming associated with a decrease in recognition and recall performance. However, neither various within-participant nor various between-participant analyses revealed significant correlations between priming and subsequent memory performance. These data suggest that both lag and task have effects on priming and declarative memory performance, but that they are largely independent and occur in parallel.

  8. Social pathologies, false developments and the heteronomy of the social: Social theory and the negative side of recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Luiz Gustavo da Cunha de

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore a tension between two concepts designed to expose social discomforts in Axel Honneth’s mature work, namely social pathologies and anomie. Particular emphasis will be given to how they contribute or obstruct Honneth’s apprehension of social tensions. In the first session of this exposition I will show that Honneth’s interpretation of social pathologies is based on a conception of society as an organic whole (I. While this interpretation represents a slight change regarding Honneth’s understanding of social pathologies in Das Recht der Freiheit, it does not change the fact that in his work subsequent to that book the concept of false developments has not been properly theorized. Accordingly, social discomforts related to deviations from expected patterns of a normative reconstruction remain largely ignored. This calls for a perspective more fully able to grasp the heteronomy of social life (II. As a result, in Honneth’s mature work there seems to be a tension between the aims of a normative reconstruction and those of social critique, mainly due to an inability of the author to combine both elements of his social theory. In its final section (III, the paper will address that tension in order to critically contribute to Honneth’s attempt to link normative reconstruction, social analysis and criticism.

  9. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ITS FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Miruna Zapciu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of corporate social responsibility (CSR has grown exponentially in the last two decades. There are different views of the role of the firm in society and disagreement as to whether wealth maximization should be the sole goal of a corporation. Nevertheless, there still remains a debate about the legitimacy and value of corporate responses to CSR concerns. This paper examines the effect of CSR on financial performance. It examines the effect CSR- related shareholder proposals lead to positive announcements returns and superior accounting performance. Also, the channels through which companies benefit from CSR are examined. The paper finds that CSR improves employee satisfaction and helps companies cater to customers that are responsive to sustainable practices and that the adoption of CSR proposals is associated with an increase in labor productivity and sales growth. The results indicate that the sign of the relationship is positive and statistically significant relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance, supporting the view that socially responsible corporate performance can be associated with a series of bottom-line benefits.

  10. Emotional tears facilitate the recognition of sadness and the perceived need for social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, Martijn J H; Krahmer, Emiel J; Swerts, Marc G J; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2013-02-12

    The tearing effect refers to the relevance of tears as an important visual cue adding meaning to human facial expression. However, little is known about how people process these visual cues and their mediating role in terms of emotion perception and person judgment. We therefore conducted two experiments in which we measured the influence of tears on the identification of sadness and the perceived need for social support at an early perceptional level. In two experiments (1 and 2), participants were exposed to sad and neutral faces. In both experiments, the face stimuli were presented for 50 milliseconds. In experiment 1, tears were digitally added to sad faces in one condition. Participants demonstrated a significant faster recognition of sad faces with tears compared to those without tears. In experiment 2, tears were added to neutral faces as well. Participants had to indicate to what extent the displayed individuals were in need of social support. Study participants reported a greater perceived need for social support to both sad and neutral faces with tears than to those without tears. This study thus demonstrated that emotional tears serve as important visual cues at an early (pre-attentive) level.

  11. Social Capital, ICT Use and Company Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles; Lopez-Nicolas, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    to information and opportunity predicted company performance, particularly for small start-up companies. The pattern of results complements prior work that establishes the importance of social capital in regional business clusters by demonstrating how certain ICT uses complement personal relationships to enhance......This study explores how some uses of ICTs, as well as having social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region located...... in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Responding companies included established producers of biotechnology-related products as well as small biotechnology start-up firms emphasizing research and development.  The results suggest that when ICT use was aimed at accessing and enhancing human and intellectual capital...

  12. Social Capital, ICT Use and Company Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinfield, Charles; Scupola, Ada; López-Nicolás, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    to information and opportunity predicted company performance, particularly for small start-up companies. The pattern of results complements prior work that establishes the importance of social capital in regional business clusters by demonstrating how ICT use complements personal relationships to enhance......This study explores how some kinds of ICT uses, as well as social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region located...... in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Responding companies included established producers of biotechnology-related products as well as small biotechnology start-up firms emphasizing research and development.  The results suggest that when ICT use was aimed at accessing and enhancing human and intellectual capital...

  13. Performance Study of the First 2D Prototype of Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Gregory [Fermilab; Hoff, James [Fermilab; Jindariani, Sergo [Fermilab; Liu, Tiehui [Fermilab; Olsen, Jamieson [Fermilab; Tran, Nhan [Fermilab; Joshi, Siddhartha [Northwestern U.; Li, Dawei [Northwestern U.; Ogrenci-Memik, Seda [Northwestern U.

    2017-09-24

    Extremely fast pattern recognition capabilities are necessary to find and fit billions of tracks at the hardware trigger level produced every second anticipated at high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running conditions. Associative Memory (AM) based approaches for fast pattern recognition have been proposed as a potential solution to the tracking trigger. However, at the HL-LHC, there is much less time available and speed performance must be improved over previous systems while maintaining a comparable number of patterns. The Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) Project aims to achieve the target pattern density and performance goal using 3DIC technology. The first step taken in the VIPRAM work was the development of a 2D prototype (protoVIPRAM00) in which the associative memory building blocks were designed to be compatible with the 3D integration. In this paper, we present the results from extensive performance studies of the protoVIPRAM00 chip in both realistic HL-LHC and extreme conditions. Results indicate that the chip operates at the design frequency of 100 MHz with perfect correctness in realistic conditions and conclude that the building blocks are ready for 3D stacking. We also present performance boundary characterization of the chip under extreme conditions.

  14. Immigrants, Labour Market Performance, and Social Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the date of arrival, we study long-term labour market and social insurance outcomes for all major immigrant cohorts to Norway since 1970. Immigrants from high-income countries performed as natives, while labour migrants from low-income source countries had declining employment rates and increasing disability programme participation over the lifecycle. Refugees and family migrants assimilated during the initial period upon arrival but labour market convergence halt...

  15. Immigrants, Labor Market Performance, and Social Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the date of arrival, we study long- term labor market and social insurance outcomes for all major immigrant cohorts to Norway since 1970. Immigrants from highincome countries performed as natives, while labor migrants from low- income source countries had declining employment rates and increasing disability program participation over the lifecycle. Refugees and family migrants assimilated during the initial period upon arrival, but labor market convergence halted ...

  16. Superior recognition performance for happy masked and unmasked faces in both younger and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eSvard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aging literature it has been shown that even though emotion recognition performance decreases with age, the decrease is less for happiness than other facial expressions. Studies in younger adults have also revealed that happy faces are more strongly attended to and better recognized than other emotional facial expressions. Thus, there might be a more age independent happy face advantage in facial expression recognition. By using a backward masking paradigm and varying stimulus onset asynchronies (17–267 ms the temporal development of a happy face advantage, on a continuum from low to high levels of visibility, was examined in younger and older adults. Results showed that across age groups, recognition performance for happy faces was better than for neutral and fearful faces at durations longer than 50 ms. Importantly, the results showed a happy face advantage already during early processing of emotional faces in both younger and older adults. This advantage is discussed in terms of processing of salient perceptual features and elaborative processing of the happy face. We also investigate the combined effect of age and neuroticism on emotional face processing. The rationale was previous findings of age related differences in physiological arousal to emotional pictures and a relation between arousal and neuroticism. Across all durations, there was an interaction between age and neuroticism, showing that being high in neuroticism might be disadvantageous for younger, but not older adults’ emotion recognition performance during arousal enhancing tasks. These results indicate that there is a relation between aging, neuroticism, and performance, potentially related to physiological arousal.

  17. Modulation of recognition memory performance by light requires both melanopsin and classical photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K. E.; Hasan, Sibah; Hughes, Steven; Hankins, Mark W.; Foster, Russell G.; Bannerman, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute light exposure exerts various effects on physiology and behaviour. Although the effects of light on brain network activity in humans are well demonstrated, the effects of light on cognitive performance are inconclusive, with the size, as well as direction, of the effect depending on the nature of the task. Similarly, in nocturnal rodents, bright light can either facilitate or disrupt performance depending on the type of task employed. Crucially, it is unclear whether the effects of light on behavioural performance are mediated via the classical image-forming rods and cones or the melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Here, we investigate the modulatory effects of light on memory performance in mice using the spontaneous object recognition task. Importantly, we examine which photoreceptors are required to mediate the effects of light on memory performance. By using a cross-over design, we show that object recognition memory is disrupted when the test phase is conducted under a bright light (350 lux), regardless of the light level in the sample phase (10 or 350 lux), demonstrating that exposure to a bright light at the time of test, rather than at the time of encoding, impairs performance. Strikingly, the modulatory effect of light on memory performance is completely abolished in both melanopsin-deficient and rodless–coneless mice. Our findings provide direct evidence that melanopsin-driven and rod/cone-driven photoresponses are integrated in order to mediate the effect of light on memory performance. PMID:28003454

  18. Modulation of the storage of social recognition memory by neurotransmitter systems in the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Lorena E S; Zinn, Carolina G; Schmidt, Scheila D; Saenger, Bruna F; Ferreira, Flávia F; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2017-09-15

    The insular cortex (IC) receives projections from prefrontal, entorhinal and cingulate cortex, olfactory bulb and basal nuclei and has reciprocal connections with the amygdala and entorhinal cortex. These connections suggest a possible involvement in memory processes; this has been borne out by data on several behaviors. Social recognition memory (SRM) is essential to form social groups and to establish hierarchies and social and affective ties. Despite its importance, knowledge about the brain structures and the neurotransmitter mechanisms involved in its processing is still scarce. Here we study the participation of NMDA-glutamatergic, D1/D5-dopaminergic, H2-histaminergic, β-adrenergic and 5-HT 1A -serotoninergic receptors of the IC in the consolidation of SRM. Male Wistar rats received intra-IC infusions of substances acting on these receptors immediately after the sample phase of a social discrimination task and 24h later were exposed to a 5-min retention test. The intra-IC infusion of antagonists of D1/D5, β-adrenergic or 5-HT 1A receptors immediately after the sample phase impaired the consolidation of SRM. These effects were blocked by the concomitant intra-IC infusion of agonists of these receptors. Antagonists and agonists of NMDA and H2 receptors had no effect on SRM. The results suggest that the dopaminergic D1/D5, β-adrenergic and serotonergic 5-HT 1A receptors in the IC, but not glutamatergic NMDA and the histaminergic H2 receptors, participate in the consolidation of SRM in the IC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration on face recognition performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Deanna J; Smith, Nicholas D; Binns, Alison M; Crabb, David P

    2018-04-01

    There is a well-established research base surrounding face recognition in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, much of this existing research does not differentiate between results obtained for 'wet' AMD and 'dry' AMD. Here, we test the hypothesis that face recognition performance is worse in patients with dry AMD compared with visually healthy peers. Patients (>60 years of age, logMAR binocular visual acuity 0.7 or better) with dry AMD of varying severity and visually healthy age-related peers (controls) completed a modified version of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT). Percentage of correctly identified faces was used as an outcome measure for performance for each participant. A 90% normative reference limit was generated from the distribution of CFMT scores recorded in the visually healthy controls. Scores for AMD participants were then specifically compared to this limit, and comparisons between average scores in the AMD severity groups were investigated. Thirty patients (median [interquartile range] age of 76 [70, 79] years) and 34 controls (median age of 70 [64, 75] years) were examined. Four, seventeen and nine patients were classified as having early, intermediate and late AMD (geographic atrophy) respectively. Five (17%) patients recorded a face recognition performance worse than the 90% limit (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.46) set by controls; four of these had geographic atrophy. Patients with geographic atrophy identified fewer faces on average (±SD) (61% ± 22%) than those with early and intermediate AMD (75 ± 11%) and controls (74% ± 11%). People with dry AMD may not suffer from problems with face recognition until the disease is in its later stages; those with late AMD (geographic atrophy) are likely to have difficulty recognising faces. The results from this study should influence the management and expectations of patients with dry AMD in both community practice and hospital clinics.

  20. MK-801-induced deficits in social recognition in rats: reversal by aripiprazole, but not olanzapine, risperidone, or cannabidiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Serena; Watanabe, Akihito; Yamasaki, Yuki; Amada, Naoki; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Stott, Colin; Riedel, Gernot

    2015-12-01

    Deficiencies in social activities are hallmarks of numerous brain disorders. With respect to schizophrenia, social withdrawal belongs to the category of negative symptoms and is associated with deficits in the cognitive domain. Here, we used the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) for induction of social withdrawal in rats and assessed the efficacy of several atypical antipsychotics with different pharmacological profiles as putative treatment. In addition, we reasoned that the marijuana constituent cannabidiol (CBD) may provide benefit or could be proposed as an adjunct treatment in combination with antipsychotics. Hooded Lister rats were tested in the three-chamber version for social interaction, with an initial novelty phase, followed after 3 min by a short-term recognition memory phase. No drug treatment affected sociability. However, distinct effects on social recognition were revealed. MK-801 reduced social recognition memory at all doses (>0.03 mg/kg). Predosing with aripiprazole dose-dependently (2 or 10 mg/kg) prevented the memory decline, but doses of 0.1 mg/kg risperidone or 1 mg/kg olanzapine did not. Intriguingly, CBD impaired social recognition memory (12 and 30 mg/kg) but did not rescue the MK-801-induced deficits. When CBD was combined with protective doses of aripiprazole (CBD-aripiprazole at 12 :  or 5 : 2 mg/kg) the benefit of the antipsychotic was lost. At the same time, activity-related changes in behaviour were excluded as underlying reasons for these pharmacological effects. Collectively, the combined activity of aripiprazole on dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT1A receptors appears to provide a significant advantage over risperidone and olanzapine with respect to the rescue of cognitive deficits reminiscent of schizophrenia. The differential pharmacological properties of CBD, which are seemingly beneficial in human patients, did not back-translate and rescue the MK-801-induced social memory deficit.

  1. Transnational Geographies of Academic Distinction: The Role of Social Capital in the Recognition and Evaluation of "Overseas" Credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Johanna L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role of specific and place-based social capital in the recognition and evaluation of international credentials. Whilst research on labour market segmentation has contributed towards an understanding of the spatial variability of the value of human capital, very little attention has been paid to the ways in which the…

  2. Performance Evaluation of Speech Recognition Systems as a Next-Generation Pilot-Vehicle Interface Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2016-01-01

    During the flight trials known as Gulfstream-V Synthetic Vision Systems Integrated Technology Evaluation (GV-SITE), a Speech Recognition System (SRS) was used by the evaluation pilots. The SRS system was intended to be an intuitive interface for display control (rather than knobs, buttons, etc.). This paper describes the performance of the current "state of the art" Speech Recognition System (SRS). The commercially available technology was evaluated as an application for possible inclusion in commercial aircraft flight decks as a crew-to-vehicle interface. Specifically, the technology is to be used as an interface from aircrew to the onboard displays, controls, and flight management tasks. A flight test of a SRS as well as a laboratory test was conducted.

  3. Alterations in Resting-State Activity Relate to Performance in a Verbal Recognition Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A.; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe; Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Taler, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    In the brain, resting-state activity refers to non-random patterns of intrinsic activity occurring when participants are not actively engaged in a task. We monitored resting-state activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) both before and after a verbal recognition task. We show a strong positive correlation between accuracy in verbal recognition and pre-task resting-state alpha power at posterior sites. We further characterized this effect by examining resting-state post-task activity. We found marked alterations in resting-state alpha power when comparing pre- and post-task periods, with more pronounced alterations in participants that attained higher task accuracy. These findings support a dynamical view of cognitive processes where patterns of ongoing brain activity can facilitate –or interfere– with optimal task performance. PMID:23785436

  4. A Compact Methodology to Understand, Evaluate, and Predict the Performance of Automatic Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called “context-probability” estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good. PMID:24967605

  5. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization...

  6. Interpersonal value profiles and analysis of adolescent academic performance and social thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Gázquez, José J.; Sainz, Jorge; Pérez-Fuentes, María del C.; Molero, María del M.; Soler, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify interpersonal value profiles and find out whether there were any differences in academic performance and social thinking. The study sample was 885 high school students of whom 49.8% (N = 441) were boys and 50.2% (N = 444) were girls. The results show that students with low Benevolence and Conformity levels showed higher prevalence of failures and repeated the year more often. Furthermore, students with a high level of Recognition and Leadership and ...

  7. Novel approaches to improve iris recognition system performance based on local quality evaluation and feature fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Chen, Huiling; He, Fei; Pang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    For building a new iris template, this paper proposes a strategy to fuse different portions of iris based on machine learning method to evaluate local quality of iris. There are three novelties compared to previous work. Firstly, the normalized segmented iris is divided into multitracks and then each track is estimated individually to analyze the recognition accuracy rate (RAR). Secondly, six local quality evaluation parameters are adopted to analyze texture information of each track. Besides, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to get the weights of these evaluation parameters and corresponding weighted coefficients of different tracks. Finally, all tracks' information is fused according to the weights of different tracks. The experimental results based on subsets of three public and one private iris image databases demonstrate three contributions of this paper. (1) Our experimental results prove that partial iris image cannot completely replace the entire iris image for iris recognition system in several ways. (2) The proposed quality evaluation algorithm is a self-adaptive algorithm, and it can automatically optimize the parameters according to iris image samples' own characteristics. (3) Our feature information fusion strategy can effectively improve the performance of iris recognition system.

  8. Wanting it Too Much: An Inverse Relation Between Social Motivation and Facial Emotion Recognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Heather D; Spaulding, Christine J; Webb, Sara Jane; Mikami, Amori Yee; Morris, James P; Lerner, Matthew D

    2016-12-01

    This study examined social motivation and early-stage face perception as frameworks for understanding impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) in a well-characterized sample of youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Early-stage face perception (N170 event-related potential latency) was recorded while participants completed a standardized FER task, while social motivation was obtained via parent report. Participants with greater social motivation exhibited poorer FER, while those with shorter N170 latencies exhibited better FER for child angry faces stimuli. Social motivation partially mediated the relationship between a faster N170 and better FER. These effects were all robust to variations in IQ, age, and ASD severity. These findings augur against theories implicating social motivation as uniformly valuable for individuals with ASD, and augment models suggesting a close link between early-stage face perception, social motivation, and FER in this population. Broader implications for models and development of FER in ASD are discussed.

  9. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M.; Alonso, Andrea G.; Immormino, Marisa A.; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. PMID:26630388

  10. Performance Recognition for Sulphur Flotation Process Based on Froth Texture Unit Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important indicator of flotation performance, froth texture is believed to be related to operational condition in sulphur flotation process. A novel fault detection method based on froth texture unit distribution (TUD is proposed to recognize the fault condition of sulphur flotation in real time. The froth texture unit number is calculated based on texture spectrum, and the probability density function (PDF of froth texture unit number is defined as texture unit distribution, which can describe the actual textual feature more accurately than the grey level dependence matrix approach. As the type of the froth TUD is unknown, a nonparametric kernel estimation method based on the fixed kernel basis is proposed, which can overcome the difficulty when comparing different TUDs under various conditions is impossible using the traditional varying kernel basis. Through transforming nonparametric description into dynamic kernel weight vectors, a principle component analysis (PCA model is established to reduce the dimensionality of the vectors. Then a threshold criterion determined by the TQ statistic based on the PCA model is proposed to realize the performance recognition. The industrial application results show that the accurate performance recognition of froth flotation can be achieved by using the proposed method.

  11. Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, David; Spiro, Adena S; Jenner, Andrew M; Garner, Brett; Karl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in cognitive ability and widespread pathophysiological changes caused by neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative damage, and altered cholesterol homeostasis are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to reverse cognitive deficits of AD transgenic mice and to exert neuroprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. Here we evaluate the preventative properties of long-term CBD treatment in male AβPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 (AβPP × PS1) mice, a transgenic model of AD. Control and AD transgenic mice were treated orally from 2.5 months of age with CBD (20 mg/kg) daily for 8 months. Mice were then assessed in the social preference test, elevated plus maze, and fear conditioning paradigms, before cortical and hippocampal tissues were analyzed for amyloid load, oxidative damage, cholesterol, phytosterols, and inflammation. We found that AβPP × PS1 mice developed a social recognition deficit, which was prevented by CBD treatment. CBD had no impact on anxiety or associative learning. The prevention of the social recognition deficit was not associated with any changes in amyloid load or oxidative damage. However, the study revealed a subtle impact of CBD on neuroinflammation, cholesterol, and dietary phytosterol retention, which deserves further investigation. This study is the first to demonstrate CBD's ability to prevent the development of a social recognition deficit in AD transgenic mice. Our findings provide the first evidence that CBD may have potential as a preventative treatment for AD with a particular relevance for symptoms of social withdrawal and facial recognition.

  12. Indomethacin counteracts the effects of chronic social defeat stress on emotional but not recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Aránzazu; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    We have previously observed the impairing effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) on emotional memory in mice. Given the relation between stress and inflammatory processes, we sought to study the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin in reversing the detrimental effects of CSDS on emotional memory in mice. The effects of CSDS and indomethacin on recognition memory were also evaluated. Male CD1 mice were randomly divided into four groups: non-stressed + saline (NS+SAL); non-stressed + indomethacin (NS+IND); stressed + saline (S+SAL); and stressed + indomethacin (S+IND). Stressed animals were exposed to a daily 10 min agonistic confrontation (CSDS) for 20 days. All subjects were treated daily with saline or indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.). 24 h after the CSDS period, all the mice were evaluated in a social interaction test to distinguish between those that were resilient or susceptible to social stress. All subjects (n = 10-12 per group) were then evaluated in inhibitory avoidance (IA), novel object recognition (NOR), elevated plus maze and hot plate tests. As in control animals (NS+SAL group), IA learning was observed in the resilient groups, as well as in the susceptible mice treated with indomethacin (S+IND group). Recognition memory was observed in the non-stressed and the resilient mice, but not in the susceptible animals. Also, stressed mice exhibited higher anxiety levels. No significant differences were observed in locomotor activity or analgesia. In conclusion, CSDS induces anxiety in post-pubertal mice and impairs emotional and recognition memory in the susceptible subjects. The effects of CSDS on emotional memory, but not on recognition memory and anxiety, are reversed by indomethacin. Moreover, memory impairment is not secondary to the effects of CSDS on locomotor activity, emotionality or pain sensitivity.

  13. Indomethacin counteracts the effects of chronic social defeat stress on emotional but not recognition memory in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aránzazu Duque

    Full Text Available We have previously observed the impairing effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS on emotional memory in mice. Given the relation between stress and inflammatory processes, we sought to study the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin in reversing the detrimental effects of CSDS on emotional memory in mice. The effects of CSDS and indomethacin on recognition memory were also evaluated. Male CD1 mice were randomly divided into four groups: non-stressed + saline (NS+SAL; non-stressed + indomethacin (NS+IND; stressed + saline (S+SAL; and stressed + indomethacin (S+IND. Stressed animals were exposed to a daily 10 min agonistic confrontation (CSDS for 20 days. All subjects were treated daily with saline or indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.. 24 h after the CSDS period, all the mice were evaluated in a social interaction test to distinguish between those that were resilient or susceptible to social stress. All subjects (n = 10-12 per group were then evaluated in inhibitory avoidance (IA, novel object recognition (NOR, elevated plus maze and hot plate tests. As in control animals (NS+SAL group, IA learning was observed in the resilient groups, as well as in the susceptible mice treated with indomethacin (S+IND group. Recognition memory was observed in the non-stressed and the resilient mice, but not in the susceptible animals. Also, stressed mice exhibited higher anxiety levels. No significant differences were observed in locomotor activity or analgesia. In conclusion, CSDS induces anxiety in post-pubertal mice and impairs emotional and recognition memory in the susceptible subjects. The effects of CSDS on emotional memory, but not on recognition memory and anxiety, are reversed by indomethacin. Moreover, memory impairment is not secondary to the effects of CSDS on locomotor activity, emotionality or pain sensitivity.

  14. Loss of GluN2D subunit results in social recognition deficit, social stress, 5-HT2C receptor dysfunction, and anhedonia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideko; Kamegaya, Etsuko; Hagino, Yoko; Takamatsu, Yukio; Sawada, Wakako; Matsuzawa, Maaya; Ide, Soichiro; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Mishina, Masayoshi; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2017-01-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel is involved in various physiological functions, including learning and memory. The GluN2D subunit of the NMDA receptor has low expression in the mature brain, and its role is not fully understood. In the present study, the effects of GluN2D subunit deficiency on emotional and cognitive function were investigated in GluN2D knockout (KO) mice. We found a reduction of motility (i.e., a depressive-like state) in the tail suspension test and a reduction of sucrose preference (i.e., an anhedonic state) in GluN2D KO mice that were group-housed with littermates. Despite apparently normal olfactory function and social interaction, GluN2D KO mice exhibited a decrease in preference for social novelty, suggesting a deficit in social recognition or memory. Golgi-Cox staining revealed a reduction of the complexity of dendritic trees in the accessory olfactory bulb in GluN2D KO mice, suggesting a deficit in pheromone processing pathway activation, which modulates social recognition. The deficit in social recognition may result in social stress in GluN2D KO mice. Isolation housing is a procedure that has been shown to reduce stress in mice. Interestingly, 3-week isolation and treatment with agomelatine or the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C (5-HT 2C ) receptor antagonist SB242084 reversed the anhedonic-like state in GluN2D KO mice. In contrast, treatment with the 5-HT 2C receptor agonist CP809101 induced depressive- and anhedonic-like states in isolated GluN2D KO mice. These results suggest that social stress that is caused by a deficit in social recognition desensitizes 5-HT 2c receptors, followed by an anhedonic- and depressive-like state, in GluN2D KO mice. The GluN2D subunit of the NMDA receptor appears to be important for the recognition of individuals and development of normal emotionality in mice. 5-HT 2C receptor antagonism may be a therapeutic target for treating social stress-induced anhedonia. This article is part of the Special

  15. Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Pattern Recognition from Multi-spectral Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a classification and performance evaluation framework for the recognition of urban patterns in medium (Landsat ETM, TM and MSS and very high resolution (WorldView-2, Quickbird, Ikonos multi-spectral satellite images is presented. The study aims at exploring the potential of machine learning algorithms in the context of an object-based image analysis and to thoroughly test the algorithm’s performance under varying conditions to optimize their usage for urban pattern recognition tasks. Four classification algorithms, Normal Bayes, K Nearest Neighbors, Random Trees and Support Vector Machines, which represent different concepts in machine learning (probabilistic, nearest neighbor, tree-based, function-based, have been selected and implemented on a free and open-source basis. Particular focus is given to assess the generalization ability of machine learning algorithms and the transferability of trained learning machines between different image types and image scenes. Moreover, the influence of the number and choice of training data, the influence of the size and composition of the feature vector and the effect of image segmentation on the classification accuracy is evaluated.

  16. Improving iris recognition performance using segmentation, quality enhancement, match score fusion, and indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Noore, Afzel

    2008-08-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for iris segmentation, quality enhancement, match score fusion, and indexing to improve both the accuracy and the speed of iris recognition. A curve evolution approach is proposed to effectively segment a nonideal iris image using the modified Mumford-Shah functional. Different enhancement algorithms are concurrently applied on the segmented iris image to produce multiple enhanced versions of the iris image. A support-vector-machine-based learning algorithm selects locally enhanced regions from each globally enhanced image and combines these good-quality regions to create a single high-quality iris image. Two distinct features are extracted from the high-quality iris image. The global textural feature is extracted using the 1-D log polar Gabor transform, and the local topological feature is extracted using Euler numbers. An intelligent fusion algorithm combines the textural and topological matching scores to further improve the iris recognition performance and reduce the false rejection rate, whereas an indexing algorithm enables fast and accurate iris identification. The verification and identification performance of the proposed algorithms is validated and compared with other algorithms using the CASIA Version 3, ICE 2005, and UBIRIS iris databases.

  17. Cooperation, social capital and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernandes Gonçalves da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define social capital as social infrastructure and to try to include this variable in an economic growth model. Considering social capital in such a way could have an impact on the productivity of production factors. Firstly, I will discuss how institutional variables can affect growth. Secondly, after analyzing several definitions of social capital, I will point out the benefits and problems of each one and will define social capital as social infrastructure, aiming to introduce this variable into an economic growth model. Finally, I will try to open the way for subsequent empirical studies, both in the area of measuring the stock of social infrastructure as well as those comparing economies, with the idea of showing the impact of social infrastructure on economic growth.

  18. Social Recognition Memory: The Effect of Other People's Responses for Previously Seen and Unseen Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Mathews, Sorcha A.; Skagerberg, Elin M.

    2005-01-01

    When people discuss their memories, what one person says can influence what another personal reports. In 3 studies, participants were shown sets of stimuli and then given recognition memory tests to measure the effect of one person's response on another's. The 1st study (n=24) used word recognition with participant-confederate pairs and found that…

  19. Socially Responsible Investments : Methodology, Risk and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature on socially responsible investments (SRI). Over the past decade, SRI has experienced an explosive growth around the world. Particular to the SRI funds is that both financial goals and social objectives are pursued. While corporate social responsibility (CSR) -

  20. Specificity and multiplicity in the recognition of individuals: implications for the evolution of social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, R H

    2013-02-01

    Recognition of conspecifics occurs when individuals classify sets of conspecifics based on sensory input from them and associate these sets with different responses. Classification of conspecifics can vary in specificity (the number of individuals included in a set) and multiplicity (the number of sets differentiated). In other words, the information transmitted varies in complexity. Although recognition of conspecifics has been reported in a wide variety of organisms, few reports have addressed the specificity or multiplicity of this capability. This review discusses examples of these patterns, the mechanisms that can produce them, and the evolution of these mechanisms. Individual recognition is one end of a spectrum of specificity, and binary classification of conspecifics is one end of a spectrum of multiplicity. In some cases, recognition requires no more than simple forms of learning, such as habituation, yet results in individually specific recognition. In other cases, recognition of individuals involves complex associations of multiple cues with multiple previous experiences in particular contexts. Complex mechanisms for recognition are expected to evolve only when simpler mechanisms do not provide sufficient specificity and multiplicity to obtain the available advantages. In particular, the evolution of cooperation and deception is always promoted by specificity and multiplicity in recognition. Nevertheless, there is only one demonstration that recognition of specific individuals contributes to cooperation in animals other than primates. Human capacities for individual recognition probably have a central role in the evolution of complex forms of human cooperation and deception. Although relatively little studied, this capability probably rivals cognitive abilities for language. © 2012 The Author. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. Constant Light Desynchronizes Olfactory versus Object and Visuospatial Recognition Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K E; Hasan, Sibah; Choi, Harry M C; Brown, Laurence A; Jagannath, Aarti; Hughes, Steven; Hankins, Mark W; Foster, Russell G; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Bannerman, David M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2017-03-29

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and behavior to the varying demands of the 24 h day. The master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it regulates circadian oscillators in tissues throughout the body to prevent internal desynchrony. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that, under standard 12 h:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles, object, visuospatial, and olfactory recognition performance in C57BL/6J mice is consistently better at midday relative to midnight. However, under repeated exposure to constant light ( r LL), recognition performance becomes desynchronized, with object and visuospatial performance better at subjective midday and olfactory performance better at subjective midnight. This desynchrony in behavioral performance is mirrored by changes in expression of the canonical clock genes Period1 and Period2 ( Per1 and Per2 ), as well as the immediate-early gene Fos in the SCN, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. Under r LL, rhythmic Per1 and Fos expression is attenuated in the SCN. In contrast, hippocampal gene expression remains rhythmic, mirroring object and visuospatial performance. Strikingly, Per1 and Fos expression in the olfactory bulb is reversed, mirroring the inverted olfactory performance. Temporal desynchrony among these regions does not result in arrhythmicity because core body temperature and exploratory activity rhythms persist under r LL. Our data provide the first demonstration that abnormal lighting conditions can give rise to temporal desynchrony between autonomous circadian oscillators in different regions, with different consequences for performance across different sensory domains. Such a dispersed network of dissociable circadian oscillators may provide greater flexibility when faced with conflicting environmental signals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates physiology and behavior across the 24 h day by

  2. Constant Light Desynchronizes Olfactory versus Object and Visuospatial Recognition Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K.E.; Hasan, Sibah; Brown, Laurence A.; Jagannath, Aarti; Hankins, Mark W.; Foster, Russell G.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and behavior to the varying demands of the 24 h day. The master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it regulates circadian oscillators in tissues throughout the body to prevent internal desynchrony. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that, under standard 12 h:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles, object, visuospatial, and olfactory recognition performance in C57BL/6J mice is consistently better at midday relative to midnight. However, under repeated exposure to constant light (rLL), recognition performance becomes desynchronized, with object and visuospatial performance better at subjective midday and olfactory performance better at subjective midnight. This desynchrony in behavioral performance is mirrored by changes in expression of the canonical clock genes Period1 and Period2 (Per1 and Per2), as well as the immediate-early gene Fos in the SCN, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. Under rLL, rhythmic Per1 and Fos expression is attenuated in the SCN. In contrast, hippocampal gene expression remains rhythmic, mirroring object and visuospatial performance. Strikingly, Per1 and Fos expression in the olfactory bulb is reversed, mirroring the inverted olfactory performance. Temporal desynchrony among these regions does not result in arrhythmicity because core body temperature and exploratory activity rhythms persist under rLL. Our data provide the first demonstration that abnormal lighting conditions can give rise to temporal desynchrony between autonomous circadian oscillators in different regions, with different consequences for performance across different sensory domains. Such a dispersed network of dissociable circadian oscillators may provide greater flexibility when faced with conflicting environmental signals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates physiology and behavior across the 24 h day by

  3. Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with Cannabidiol Treatment in a Prenatal Infection (poly I:C) Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Ashleigh L; Solowij, Nadia; Babic, Ilijana; Huang, Xu-Feng; Weston-Green, Katrina

    2017-06-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties; however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were administered polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (poly I:C) (POLY; 4 mg/kg) or saline (CONT) at gestation day 15. Male offspring (PN56) were injected twice daily with 10 mg/kg CBD (CONT+CBD, POLY+CBD; n=12 per group) or vehicle (VEH; CONT+VEH, POLY+VEH; n=12 per group) for 3 weeks. Body weight, food and water intake was measured weekly. The Novel Object Recognition and rewarded T-maze alternation tests assessed recognition and working memory, respectively, and the social interaction test assessed sociability. POLY+VEH offspring exhibited impaired recognition and working memory, and reduced social interaction compared to CONT+VEH offspring (psocial interaction deficits in the poly I:C model (p0.05). In conclusion, chronic CBD administration can attenuate the social interaction and cognitive deficits induced by prenatal poly I:C infection. These novel findings present interesting implications for potential use of CBD in treating the cognitive deficits and social withdrawal of schizophrenia.

  4. The effects of initial testing on false recall and false recognition in the social contagion of memory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mark J; Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In three experiments, participants studied photographs of common household scenes. Following study, participants completed a category-cued recall test without feedback (Exps. 1 and 3), a category-cued recall test with feedback (Exp. 2), or a filler task (no-test condition). Participants then viewed recall tests from fictitious previous participants that contained erroneous items presented either one or four times, and then completed final recall and source recognition tests. The participants in all conditions reported incorrect items during final testing (a social contagion effect), and across experiments, initial testing had no impact on false recall of erroneous items. However, on the final source-monitoring recognition test, initial testing had a protective effect against false source recognition: Participants who were initially tested with and without feedback on category-cued initial tests attributed fewer incorrect items to the original event on the final source-monitoring recognition test than did participants who were not initially tested. These data demonstrate that initial testing may protect individuals' memories from erroneous suggestions.

  5. The influence of social disclosure on the relationship between Corporate Financial Performance and Corporate Social Performance*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editinete André da Rocha Garcia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study’s general objective is to investigate the moderating effect of Corporate Social Performance Disclosure (D-CSP on the relationship between Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Corporate Financial Performance (CFP. Based on this objective, the study presented a model in which D-CSP acts as a moderator in relation to primary stakeholders (employees, community, and suppliers. D-CSP is a mechanism through which the various social aspects involved in discretionary policies, actions, and activities identified in the management for stakeholders process can be evaluated. A sample of 1,147 companies belonging to 10 different sectors and five continents was used to test the model. Data were collected from the Bloomberg database, totaling 5,735 observations, from 2010 to 2014. The relationship was tested using the multiple linear regression model involving panel data with fixed effects, and the Newey-West robust standard errors correction. Three constructs, D-CSP, CSP, and CFP, were used to perform the tests. As a CSP measure, the CSP of the employee, supplier, and community stakeholders was used. As a D-CSP measure, the CSP disclosure scores available from the database were used, and return on assets (ROA was used as a CFP measure. The tests carried out indicated the existence of a positive moderating effect of disclosure on the relationship between the CSP of primary stakeholders and CFP. Besides presenting a positive CSP in relation to the primary stakeholders the results enable it to be inferred that these results need to be disclosed, thus contributing to higher corporate financial performance.

  6. Chronic cannabidiol treatment improves social and object recognition in double transgenic APPswe/PS1∆E9 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, David; Low, Jac Kee; Logge, Warren; Garner, Brett; Karl, Tim

    2014-08-01

    Patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit a decline in cognitive abilities including an inability to recognise familiar faces. Hallmark pathological changes in AD include the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ), tau protein hyperphosphorylation as well as pronounced neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity and oxidative damage. The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) exerts neuroprotective, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and promotes neurogenesis. CBD also reverses Aβ-induced spatial memory deficits in rodents. Thus we determined the therapeutic-like effects of chronic CBD treatment (20 mg/kg, daily intraperitoneal injections for 3 weeks) on the APPswe/PS1∆E9 (APPxPS1) transgenic mouse model for AD in a number of cognitive tests, including the social preference test, the novel object recognition task and the fear conditioning paradigm. We also analysed the impact of CBD on anxiety behaviours in the elevated plus maze. Vehicle-treated APPxPS1 mice demonstrated impairments in social recognition and novel object recognition compared to wild type-like mice. Chronic CBD treatment reversed these cognitive deficits in APPxPS1 mice without affecting anxiety-related behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition in an AD transgenic mouse model. Our findings suggest that CBD may have therapeutic potential for specific cognitive impairments associated with AD.

  7. Practice makes imperfect: Working memory training can harm recognition memory performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trumbo, Michael C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haass, Michael J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hunter, Michael A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva, Austin [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stevens-Adams, Susan M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bunting, Michael F. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Center for Advanced Study of Language; O?Rourke, Polly [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Center for Advanced Study of Language

    2016-07-05

    There is a great deal of debate concerning the benefits of working memory (WM) training and whether that training can transfer to other tasks. Although a consistent finding is that WM training programs elicit a short-term near-transfer effect (i.e., improvement in WM skills), results are inconsistent when considering persistence of such improvement and far transfer effects. In this study, we compared three groups of participants: a group that received WM training, a group that received training on how to use a mental imagery memory strategy, and a control group that received no training. Although the WM training group improved on the trained task, their posttraining performance on nontrained WM tasks did not differ from that of the other two groups. In addition, although the imagery training group’s performance on a recognition memory task increased after training, the WM training group’s performance on the task decreased after training. Participants’ descriptions of the strategies they used to remember the studied items indicated that WM training may lead people to adopt memory strategies that are less effective for other types of memory tasks. Our results indicate that WM training may have unintended consequences for other types of memory performance.

  8. Effects of repeated 9 and 30-day exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on social recognition behavior and estrogen receptors expression in olfactory bulb of Wistar female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Mondragón, C; Arriaga-Avila, V; Martínez-Abundis, E; Barrera-Mera, B; Mercado-Gómez, O; Guevara-Guzmán, R

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the short- and long-term effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on social recognition behavior and expression of α- and β-estrogen receptors (ER). Rats were exposed to 60-Hz electromagnetic fields for 9 or 30 days and tested for social recognition behavior. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assays were performed to evaluate α- and β-ER expression in the olfactory bulb of intact, ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized+estradiol (E2) replacement (OVX+E2). Ovariectomization showed impairment of social recognition after 9 days of EMF exposure and a complete recovery after E2 replacement and so did those after 30 days. Short EMF exposure increased expression of β-ER in intact, but not in the others. Longer exposure produced a decrease in intact but an increase in OVX and OVX+E2. Our findings suggest a significant role for β-estrogen receptors and a lack of effect for α-estrogen receptors on a social recognition task. EMF: extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ERs: estrogen receptors; OB: olfactory bulb; OVX: ovariectomized; OVX + E 2 : ovariectomized + estradiol replacement; IEI: interexposure interval; β-ER: beta estrogen receptor; E 2 : replacement of estradiol; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; WB: Western blot; PBS: phosphate-buffer saline; PB: phosphate-buffer.

  9. Global precedence effects account for individual differences in both face and object recognition performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Starrfelt, Randi

    2018-01-01

    examine whether global precedence effects, measured by means of non-face stimuli in Navon's paradigm, can also account for individual differences in face recognition and, if so, whether the effect is of similar magnitude for faces and objects. We find evidence that global precedence effects facilitate...... both face and object recognition, and to a similar extent. Our results suggest that both face and object recognition are characterized by a coarse-to-fine temporal dynamic, where global shape information is derived prior to local shape information, and that the efficiency of face and object recognition...

  10. Kinect Who’s Coming - Applying Kinect to Human Body Height Measurement to Improve Character Recognition Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of relevant research on character recognition has been carried out, but a certain amount of time is needed to compare faces from a large database. The Kinect is able to obtain three-dimensional coordinates for an object (x & y axes and depth, and in recent years research on its applications has expanded from use in gaming to that of image measurement. This study uses Kinect skeleton information to conduct body height measurements with the aim of improving character recognition performance. Time spent searching and comparing characters is reduced by creating height categories. The margin of error for height used in this investigation was ± 5 cm; therefore, face comparisons were only executed for people in the database within ±5 cm of the body height measured, reducing the search time needed. In addition, using height and facial features simultaneously to conduct character recognition can also reduce the frequency of mistaken recognition. The Kinect was placed on a rotary stage and the position of the head on the body frame was used to conduct body tracking. Body tracking can be used to reduce image distortion caused by the lens of the Kinect. EmguCV was used for image processing and character recognition. The methods proposed in this study can be used in public safety, student attendance registration, commercial VIP recognition and many others.

  11. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Social support and performance anxiety of college music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris

    2011-09-01

    This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.

  13. The Influence of Social Networks on High School Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shanab, Emad; Al-Tarawneh, Heyam

    2015-01-01

    Social networks are becoming an integral part of people's lives. Students are spending much time on social media and are considered the largest category that uses such application. This study tries to explore the influence of social media use, and especially Facebook, on high school students' performance. The study used the GPA of students in four…

  14. Effects of Social Incentives on Task Performance in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendusky, Philip G.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of 60 elderly volunteers on two cancellation tasks was examined under one of three experimental conditions: social praise, social reproof, or no comment. The clear implications from these data are that social incentives may well facilitate behavioral change in the aged. (Author)

  15. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Alonso, Andrea G; Immormino, Marisa A; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Financial Performance of Socially Responsible Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwiński Paweł

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes rate-of-return and risk related to investments in socially responsible and conventional country indices. The socially responsible indices are the DJSI Korea, DJSI US and Respect Index, and the corresponding conventional country indices are the Korea Stock Exchange Composite KOSPI, Dow Jones Industrial Average and WIG20TR. We conclude that investing in the analyzed SRI indices do not yield systematically better results than investing in the respective conventional indices, both in terms of neoclassical risk and return rate.

  17. Psychopathology and Academic Performance, Social Well-Being, and Social Preference at School : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and

  18. The effect of image resolution on the performance of a face recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of image resolution on the error rates of a face verification system. We do not restrict ourselves to the face recognition algorithm only, but we also consider the face registration. In our face recognition system, the face registration is done by finding

  19. Social skills knowledge and performance among adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tina R; Miklowitz, David J; Mullen, Kimberley L

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated social skills deficits among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Adolescents with DMS-IV bipolar disorder (n = 18) and their parents completed social skills assessments when they were experiencing minimal mood symptoms. The control group (n = 18) consisted of adolescents with no history of psychiatric disorders. Participants and their parents rated the adolescents' social performance using the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters. We measured the adolescents' knowledge of appropriate social skills using the Interpersonal Negotiation Strategy Interview. Raters 'blind' to psychiatric status rated the adolescents' responses and their social interactions with an examiner during the assessment. Adolescents with bipolar disorder displayed significantly more social skills performance deficits than controls. No significant differences emerged between the groups in social skills knowledge. Ratings of social interactions with the examiner failed to distinguish bipolar from control teens, but raters were successful in guessing the psychiatric status of the participants. These findings indicate that bipolar adolescents lag behind their peers in social skills performance, but not social skills knowledge. Results support the hypothesis that difficulties with emotion regulation interfere with the consistent exhibition of appropriate social behaviors.

  20. Universities and Corporate Social Responsibility Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the need for universities to carry out corporate social responsibility programmes. Two theories were used as theoretical framework for the study (stakeholder's theory and uncertainty reduction theory). The qualitative research method was used as the research method while personal interview was used ...

  1. Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate social responsibility is an approach whereby a company considers the interests of all stakeholders, both within the organisation and in society and applies those interests while developing its strategy and during execution; it offers organisations various opportunities not only to differentiate themselves from ...

  2. Universities and Corporate Social Responsibility Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    CSR universities can pay attention to; these areas are: economic responsibility, ... The idea or thinking of corporate social ... commonly accepted that a good reputation can create a strong competitive advantage ...... Universalities also need to take into consideration philanthropic ..... Critical Perspectives on Accounting. Vol.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS FOR REPORTING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Isai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over time, accounting evolved from grounding on financial reports based on economic and financial performance, to the highlighting of issues based on financial, social and environmental aspects, which measures overall performance by integrating financial, social and environmental performance. In this context, economic entities should show interest and consideration in social and environmental issues in order to ensure sustainable development in accordance with the requirements of the EU framework. Corporate social responsibility is an important premise of business, being seen as a source of competitive advantage and a strategic approach to all organizations with economic potential.

  4. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2...; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization established in the United...

  5. The Impact of Social Networks on Students’ Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jusuf Zekiri

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the impact of using social media and its impact on students’ performance and success. This research tries to identify the relationship between students’ use of social networks and their success in their studies. It tries also to find out whether time spent impacts students’ performance and success. Whether students use social media more for entertainment or for teaching and information sharing purposes. The paper uses a quantitative approach for col...

  6. Social identity performance : Extending the strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Olivier; Spears, Russell; Reicher, Stephen

    This article extends the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) by considering the various ways in which relations of visibility to an audience can affect the public expression of identity-relevant norms (identity performance). It is suggested that social identity performance can

  7. Correlation between social responsibility and efficient performance in Croatian enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Vitezić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to establish if there is a correlation between efficiency and socially responsible business performance in Croatian enterprises. The research is based on the hypothesis that higher corporate efficiency affects social responsibility development in enterprises and vice versa, that socially more responsible corporate performance have a positive effect on efficiency. In their research, many authors have proved the correlation between social responsibility and financial performance, reputation of the enterprise and added value. Cases from transition countries, which transferred to market economy and focused on socially responsible management and sustainability, have not been the subject of research. The social responsibility concept implies balance between economic, ecological and social goals, which means distribution of assets on several actors, so it may be predicted that more efficient enterprises will sooner accept the sustainability concept and act more responsibly. Except for theoretical social responsibility hypothesis, the initial point in the empirical section is dynamic analysis of business activities of Croatian entrepreneurs in the period between 1993 and 2010, on the basis of which a sample of enterprises was chosen, which submit transparent reports on social responsibility. The main result obtained by univariate analysis confirms that socially more responsible enterprises have better financial results, i.e. they are more efficient, and also have better reputation. The research also had limitations in relation to qualitative determination of the social responsibility impact on efficiency. The conclusion is derived that there is a causal relationship between efficiency and social responsibility, i.e. higher efficiency level enables higher allocation of resources with the purpose of socially more responsible corporate performance and vice versa; socially responsible corporate performance have an impact on

  8. Emotion recognition in robots in a social game for autistic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barakova, E.I.; Sturm, J.; Bekker, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a framcwork for a social game thar has as a goal improvillg the social interaction skilIs through associative play. It describes the design of the game: platform and an ongoing study on the perception of emotional expressioll from morion cues for communication alld social

  9. Dietary choline supplementation in adult rats improves performance on a test of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Hayarelis; Hall, Geoffrey; Gallo, Milagros; de Brugada, Isabel

    2018-04-22

    In two experiments adult rats (aged at least 6 months at the start of the procedure) received a diet enriched with added choline for a period of 10 weeks; control subjects were maintained on a standard diet during this time. All rats then underwent the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) procedure in which they were exposed to a pair of objects and then tested, after a retention interval, to a display with one object changed. Exploration of the changed object indicates retention and use of information acquired during the exposure phase. All subjects showed retention with a 24-h interval (Experiments 1 and 2) and when retested after a further 24 h (Experiment 1). But when tested for the first time after a 48-h interval (Experiment 2), control subjects showed no evidence of retention, exploring both objects equally, whereas those given the dietary supplement continued to show a preference for the changed object. This supports the conclusion that dietary choline supplementation can enhance performance on a task regarded as a test of declarative memory, and will do so even when the supplementations is given in adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term social recognition memory is mediated by oxytocin-dependent synaptic plasticity in the medial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Rotem; Tendler, Alex; Wagner, Shlomo

    2014-09-01

    Recognition of specific individuals is fundamental to mammalian social behavior and is mediated in most mammals by the main and accessory olfactory systems. Both these systems innervate the medial amygdala (MeA), where activity of the neuropeptide oxytocin is thought to mediate social recognition memory (SRM). The specific contribution of the MeA to SRM formation and the specific actions of oxytocin in the MeA are unknown. We used the social discrimination test to evaluate short-term and long-term SRM in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 38). The role of protein synthesis in the MeA was investigated by local application of the protein synthesis blocker anisomycin (n = 11). Synaptic plasticity was assessed in vivo by recording the MeA evoked field potential responses to stimulation of the main (n = 21) and accessory (n = 56) olfactory bulbs before and after theta burst stimulation. Intracerebroventricular administration of saline, oxytocin, or oxytocin receptor antagonist was used to measure the effect of oxytocin on synaptic plasticity. Anisomycin application to the MeA prevented the formation of long-term SRM. In addition, the responses of MeA neurons underwent long-term depression (LTD) after theta burst stimulation of the accessory olfactory bulb, but not the main accessory bulb, in an oxytocin-dependent manner. No LTD was found in socially isolated rats, which are known to lack long-term SRM. Finally, accessory olfactory bulb stimulation before SRM acquisition blocked long-term SRM, supporting the involvement of LTD in the MeA in formation of long-term SRM. Our results indicate that long-term SRM in rats involves protein synthesis and oxytocin-dependent LTD in the MeA. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Below and beyond the recognition of emotional facial expressions in alcohol dependence: from basic perception to social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Fabien; Campanella, Salvatore; Kornreich, Charles; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Studies that have carried out experimental evaluation of emotional skills in alcohol-dependence have, up to now, been mainly focused on the exploration of emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding. In the present paper, we provide some complements to the recent systematic literature review published by Donadon and de Lima Osório on this crucial topic. We also suggest research avenues that must be, in our opinion, considered in the coming years. More precisely, we propose, first, that a battery integrating a set of emotional tasks relating to different processes should be developed to better systemize EFE decoding measures in alcohol-dependence. Second, we propose to go below EFE recognition deficits and to seek for the roots of those alterations, particularly by investigating the putative role played by early visual processing and vision-emotion interactions in the emotional impairment observed in alcohol-dependence. Third, we insist on the need to go beyond EFE recognition deficits by suggesting that they only constitute a part of wider emotional deficits in alcohol-dependence. Importantly, since the efficient decoding of emotions is a crucial ability for the development and maintenance of satisfactory interpersonal relationships, we suggest that disruption of this ability in alcohol-dependent individuals may have adverse consequences for their social integration. One way to achieve this research agenda would be to develop the field of affective and social neuroscience of alcohol-dependence, which could ultimately lead to major advances at both theoretical and therapeutic levels.

  12. Are olfactory cues involved in nest recognition in two social species of estrildid finches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Reliably recognizing their own nest provides parents with a necessary skill to invest time and resources efficiently in raising their offspring and thereby maximising their own reproductive success. Studies investigating nest recognition in adult birds have focused mainly on visual cues of the nest or the nest site and acoustic cues of the nestlings. To determine whether adult songbirds also use olfaction for nest recognition, we investigated the use of olfactory nest cues for two estrildid finch species, zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata and Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica during the nestling and fledgling phase of their offspring. We found similar behavioural responses to nest odours in both songbird species. Females preferred the odour of their own nest over a control and avoided the foreign conspecific nest scent over a control during the nestling phase of their offspring, but when given the own odour and the foreign conspecific odour simultaneously we did not find a preference for the own nest odour. Males of both species did not show any preferences at all. The behavioural reaction to any nest odour decreased after fledging of the offspring. Our results show that only females show a behavioural response to olfactory nest cues, indicating that the use of olfactory cues for nest recognition seems to be sex-specific and dependent on the developmental stage of the offspring. Although estrildid finches are known to use visual and acoustic cues for nest recognition, the similar behavioural pattern of both species indicates that at least females gain additional information by olfactory nest cues during the nestling phase of their offspring. Thus olfactory cues might be important in general, even in situations in which visual and acoustic cues are known to be sufficient.

  13. The Influence of Proactive Socialization Behaviors and Team Socialization on Individual Performance in the Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the role and the social exchange theories, this research investigated the direct and indirect antecedents of three dimensions of team performance (proficiency, adaptivity, proactivity) developed through cooperative education. The theoretical model examined how proactive socialization behaviors led to team socialization and team…

  14. The Relationship between Binaural Benefit and Difference in Unilateral Speech Recognition Performance for Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yang-soo; Li, Yongxin; Kang, Hou-Yong; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Objective The full benefit of bilateral cochlear implants may depend on the unilateral performance with each device, the speech materials, processing ability of the user, and/or the listening environment. In this study, bilateral and unilateral speech performances were evaluated in terms of recognition of phonemes and sentences presented in quiet or in noise. Design Speech recognition was measured for unilateral left, unilateral right, and bilateral listening conditions; speech and noise were presented at 0° azimuth. The “binaural benefit” was defined as the difference between bilateral performance and unilateral performance with the better ear. Study Sample 9 adults with bilateral cochlear implants participated. Results On average, results showed a greater binaural benefit in noise than in quiet for all speech tests. More importantly, the binaural benefit was greater when unilateral performance was similar across ears. As the difference in unilateral performance between ears increased, the binaural advantage decreased; this functional relationship was observed across the different speech materials and noise levels even though there was substantial intra- and inter-subject variability. Conclusions The results indicate that subjects who show symmetry in speech recognition performance between implanted ears in general show a large binaural benefit. PMID:21696329

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance: Evidence from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jong-Seo; Kwak, Young-Min; Choe, Chongwoo

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the empirical relation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance in Korea using a sample of 1122 firm-years during 2002-2008. We measure corporate social responsibility by both an equal-weighted CSR index and a stakeholder-weighted CSR index suggested by Akpinar et al. (2008). Corporate financial performance is measured by ROE, ROA and Tobin’s Q. We find a positive and significant relation between corporate financial performance and t...

  16. Social performance deficits in social anxiety disorder: reality during conversation and biased perception during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voncken, Marisol J; Bögels, Susan M

    2008-12-01

    Cognitive models emphasize that patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are mainly characterized by biased perception of their social performance. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence showing that SAD patients suffer from actual deficits in social interaction. To unravel what characterizes SAD patients the most, underestimation of social performance (defined as the discrepancy between self-perceived and observer-perceived social performance), or actual (observer-perceived) social performance, 48 patients with SAD and 27 normal control participants were observed during a speech and conversation. Consistent with the cognitive model of SAD, patients with SAD underestimated their social performance relative to control participants during the two interactions, but primarily during the speech. Actual social performance deficits were clearly apparent in the conversation but not in the speech. In conclusion, interactions that pull for more interpersonal skills, like a conversation, elicit more actual social performance deficits whereas, situations with a performance character, like a speech, bring about more cognitive distortions in patients with SAD.

  17. Construction of corporate social performance indicators for Czech manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Dočekalová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to map out the level of social performance measurement of Czech companies, i.e. what social performance indicators companies monitor and what information they provide to their stakeholders and to construct alternative corporate social performance indicators. Based on an analysis of 24 corporate voluntary reports and results of an empirical research performed among 79 large companies operating in the manufacturing industry, it was found that companies partially monitor their social performance, but from the perspective of international standards (e.g. Global Reporting Initiative, International Federation of Accountants it is still insufficient. Czech companies usually provide only absolute numbers which disguise real trends and do not allow year on year comparison or comparison with other companies. Czech companies should provide a comprehensive picture of their overall performance, they should not focus only on financial indicators based on accounting data, since it is known that the performance measurement based only on financial and economic performance does not lead to long-term success and sustainability of organizations. Companies should monitor more their impact on society within which they operate. Proposed corporate social performance indicators in a measurable and thus manageable way express social issues.

  18. Academic Performance and the Use of Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Ribeiro Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the use of social networks influences on the academic performance of students in the undergraduate program in accounting. Data were collected from 322 students of the course of a federal University of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The regression results show that the variables "gender", "motivation" and "classification in the University entrance examination" are significant in explaining students' academic performance measured by the Grade Point Average (GPA. The results show that the performance of male students is lower than that of female students at the level of 5%. Also was identified that the greater the student's motivation level, the greater your academic performance (at the level of 1 percent. Finally, it was observed that the best ranked students in the University entrance examination, the higher their academic performance. However, none of the variables relating to the use of social networks ("familiarity with technological resources", "hours", "Internet hours on social networks" and "use of social networks to study" presented relation with academic performance. In other words, these results show that the use of social networks does not have positive or negative impacts directly on academic performance. We can conclude for the sample analyzed, that use of social networks during the academic period does not influence significantly the performance of the students. However, you can verify that the motivation is directly related to the academic performance of the Accounting student with regard to perception of motivation, to familiarity with technological resources and the use of applications.

  19. Performance pay, sorting and social motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Variable pay links pay and performance but may also help firms in attracting more productive employees. Our experiment investigates the impact of performance pay on both incentives and sorting and analyzes the influence of repeated interactions between firms and employees on these effects. We show that (i) the opportunity to switch from a fixed wage to variable pay scheme increases the average effort level and its variance; (ii) high skill employees concentrate under t...

  20. Effects of Age and Working Memory Capacity on Speech Recognition Performance in Noise Among Listeners With Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Cole, Stacey Samuels

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if younger and older listeners with normal hearing who differ on working memory span perform differently on speech recognition tests in noise. Older adults typically exhibit poorer speech recognition scores in noise than younger adults, which is attributed primarily to poorer hearing sensitivity and more limited working memory capacity in older than younger adults. Previous studies typically tested older listeners with poorer hearing sensitivity and shorter working memory spans than younger listeners, making it difficult to discern the importance of working memory capacity on speech recognition. This investigation controlled for hearing sensitivity and compared speech recognition performance in noise by younger and older listeners who were subdivided into high and low working memory groups. Performance patterns were compared for different speech materials to assess whether or not the effect of working memory capacity varies with the demands of the specific speech test. The authors hypothesized that (1) normal-hearing listeners with low working memory span would exhibit poorer speech recognition performance in noise than those with high working memory span; (2) older listeners with normal hearing would show poorer speech recognition scores than younger listeners with normal hearing, when the two age groups were matched for working memory span; and (3) an interaction between age and working memory would be observed for speech materials that provide contextual cues. Twenty-eight older (61 to 75 years) and 25 younger (18 to 25 years) normal-hearing listeners were assigned to groups based on age and working memory status. Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 words and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers sentences were presented in noise using an adaptive procedure to measure the signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to 50% correct performance. Cognitive ability was evaluated with two tests of working memory (Listening

  1. PLASMA OXYTOCIN LEVELS PREDICT SOCIAL CUE RECOGNITION IN INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Keller, William R.; Koenig, James I.; Gold, James M.; Frost, Katherine H.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Lower endogenous levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin may be an important biological predictor of social cognition impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Prior studies have demonstrated that lower-level social cognitive processes (e.g., facial affect perception) are significantly associated with reduced plasma oxytocin levels in SZ; however, it is unclear whether higher-level social cognition, which requires inferential processes and knowledge not directly presented in the stimulus, is associated ...

  2. Predicting word-recognition performance in noise by young listeners with normal hearing using acoustic, phonetic, and lexical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Rachel; Wilson, Richard H

    2008-06-01

    To analyze the 50% correct recognition data that were from the Wilson et al (this issue) study and that were obtained from 24 listeners with normal hearing; also to examine whether acoustic, phonetic, or lexical variables can predict recognition performance for monosyllabic words presented in speech-spectrum noise. The specific variables are as follows: (a) acoustic variables (i.e., effective root-mean-square sound pressure level, duration), (b) phonetic variables (i.e., consonant features such as manner, place, and voicing for initial and final phonemes; vowel phonemes), and (c) lexical variables (i.e., word frequency, word familiarity, neighborhood density, neighborhood frequency). The descriptive, correlational study will examine the influence of acoustic, phonetic, and lexical variables on speech recognition in noise performance. Regression analysis demonstrated that 45% of the variance in the 50% point was accounted for by acoustic and phonetic variables whereas only 3% of the variance was accounted for by lexical variables. These findings suggest that monosyllabic word-recognition-in-noise is more dependent on bottom-up processing than on top-down processing. The results suggest that when speech-in-noise testing is used in a pre- and post-hearing-aid-fitting format, the use of monosyllabic words may be sensitive to changes in audibility resulting from amplification.

  3. Below and beyond the recognition of emotional facial expressions in alcohol dependence: from basic perception to social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Hondt F

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fabien D’Hondt,1 Salvatore Campanella,2 Charles Kornreich,2 Pierre Philippot,1 Pierre Maurage1 1Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology, Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Medical Psychology and Addictology, ULB Neuroscience Institute (UNI, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: Studies that have carried out experimental evaluation of emotional skills in alcohol-dependence have, up to now, been mainly focused on the exploration of emotional facial expressions (EFE decoding. In the present paper, we provide some complements to the recent systematic literature review published by Donadon and de Lima Osório on this crucial topic. We also suggest research avenues that must be, in our opinion, considered in the coming years. More precisely, we propose, first, that a battery integrating a set of emotional tasks relating to different processes should be developed to better systemize EFE decoding measures in alcohol-dependence. Second, we propose to go below EFE recognition deficits and to seek for the roots of those alterations, particularly by investigating the putative role played by early visual processing and vision–emotion interactions in the emotional impairment observed in alcohol-dependence. Third, we insist on the need to go beyond EFE recognition deficits by suggesting that they only constitute a part of wider emotional deficits in alcohol-dependence. Importantly, since the efficient decoding of emotions is a crucial ability for the development and maintenance of satisfactory interpersonal relationships, we suggest that disruption of this ability in alcohol-dependent individuals may have adverse consequences for their social integration. One way to achieve this research agenda would be to develop the field of affective and social neuroscience of alcohol-dependence, which could ultimately lead to major advances at both theoretical

  4. Automatic recognition of touch gestures in the corpus of social touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Merel Madeleine; Poel, Mannes; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    For an artifact such as a robot or a virtual agent to respond appropriately to human social touch behavior, it should be able to automatically detect and recognize touch. This paper describes the data collection of CoST: Corpus of Social Touch, a data set containing 7805 captures of 14 different

  5. Financial and social performance of socially responsible investments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the performance of socially responsible investments in the Netherlands. It appears that the financial performance of the various types of socially responsible investments differs considerably. We construct a proxy for mutual funds' CSR policies and use information about the environmental

  6. Dynamic Social Networks in High Performance Football Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…

  7. Can Social Learning Increase Learning Speed, Performance or Both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinerman, J.V.; Stork, J.; Rebolledo Coy, M.A.; Hubert, J.G.; Eiben, A.E.; Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Haasdijk, Evert

    2017-01-01

    Social learning enables multiple robots to share learned experiences while completing a task. The literature offers contradicting examples of its benefits; robots trained with social learning reach a higher performance, an increased learning speed, or both, compared to their individual learning

  8. Towards a Social Networks Model for Online Learning & Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kon Shing Kenneth; Paredes, Walter Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we develop a theoretical model to investigate the association between social network properties, "content richness" (CR) in academic learning discourse, and performance. CR is the extent to which one contributes content that is meaningful, insightful and constructive to aid learning and by social network properties we…

  9. Socializing processes in relation to the recognition of unskilled adults’ prior learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe

    for the workplace-based training. However the study can contribute to the discussion of the value of practical experiences: are practical experiences creditable in educational programs? The study shows that the recognition and assessment of prior learning requires that the students can verbalize and preferably also......The ordinary Danish VET programs are organized as dual programs in which the students alternate between school-based education and training and workplace-based training. The adult students in the course “From unskilled worker to skilled worker in record time” are automatically credited...

  10. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  11. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  12. 8. Binge Drinking and Psychomotor Performance in Female Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    among female social drinkers; to compare motor skills performance between ... Harmful alcohol use is high in males but women ... mean different things in different contexts . Binge ... occasionally thereby putting their brains at risk of damage.

  13. Speech variability effects on recognition accuracy associated with concurrent task performance by pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present study of the responses of pairs of pilots to aircraft warning classification tasks using an isolated word, speaker-dependent speech recognition system, the induced stress was manipulated by means of different scoring procedures for the classification task and by the inclusion of a competitive manual control task. Both speech patterns and recognition accuracy were analyzed, and recognition errors were recorded by type for an isolated word speaker-dependent system and by an offline technique for a connected word speaker-dependent system. While errors increased with task loading for the isolated word system, there was no such effect for task loading in the case of the connected word system.

  14. Hornets Have It: A Conserved Olfactory Subsystem for Social Recognition in Hymenoptera?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Couto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eusocial Hymenoptera colonies are characterized by the presence of altruistic individuals, which rear their siblings instead of their own offspring. In the course of evolution, such sterile castes are thought to have emerged through the process of kin selection, altruistic traits being transmitted to following generation if they benefit relatives. By allowing kinship recognition, the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs might be instrumental for kin selection. In carpenter ants, a female-specific olfactory subsystem processes CHC information through antennal detection by basiconic sensilla. It is still unclear if other families of eusocial Hymenoptera use the same subsystem for sensing CHCs. Here, we examined the existence of such a subsystem in Vespidae (using the hornet Vespa velutina, a family in which eusociality emerged independently of ants. The antennae of both males and female hornets contain large basiconic sensilla. Sensory neurons from the large basiconic sensilla exclusively project to a conspicuous cluster of small glomeruli in the antennal lobe, with anatomical and immunoreactive features that are strikingly similar to those of the ant CHC-sensitive subsystem. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings further show that sensory neurons within hornet basiconic sensilla preferentially respond to CHCs. Although this subsystem is not female-specific in hornets, the observed similarities with the olfactory system of ants are striking. They suggest that the basiconic sensilla subsystem could be an ancestral trait, which may have played a key role in the advent of eusociality in these hymenopteran families by allowing kin recognition and the production of altruistic behaviors toward relatives.

  15. Cross spectral, active and passive approach to face recognition for improved performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzien, A.; Kowalski, M.; Szustakowski, M.

    2017-08-01

    Biometrics is a technique for automatic recognition of a person based on physiological or behavior characteristics. Since the characteristics used are unique, biometrics can create a direct link between a person and identity, based on variety of characteristics. The human face is one of the most important biometric modalities for automatic authentication. The most popular method of face recognition which relies on processing of visual information seems to be imperfect. Thermal infrared imagery may be a promising alternative or complement to visible range imaging due to its several reasons. This paper presents an approach of combining both methods.

  16. Corporate sustainability: environmental, social, economic and corporate performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate sustainability and environmental and social issues of the integration of corporate performance measurement that may lead to sustainable economic success. Sustainability is a strategy of the process of sustainable development. Sustainability of businesses and sustainable performance can be defined as an integration of environmental, social and economic performance. First and foremost, businesses will want to know what indicators can be used to measure environmental, social and economic performance. What is the mutual relationship between environmental, social and economic performance? How can firms arrive at a comprehensive assessment of their performance in relation to sustainability? The aim of this paper is to analyze corporate environmental, social and economic performance and to analyze their mutual relationships. The final part of the article is an assessment of the contemporary situation and draft Key Performance Indicators (KPI for assessment of corporate sustainability that will be the subject of further research in a selected NACE-CZ sector and in accordance with Corporate Sustainability Reporting. KPI provide businesses with a means of measuring progress toward achieving objectives.

  17. Verbal memory and Performance IQ predict theory of mind and emotion recognition ability in children with autistic spectrum disorders and in psychiatric control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, J K; van der Wees, M; Swaab-Barneveld, H; van der Gaag, R J

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the developmental and cognitive correlates of theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition ability in children with autism (N = 20), with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 20), and in psychiatric control children (N = 20). The diagnostic groups were person-to-person matched on age and verbal IQ. The age of the children was between 8 and 18 years; their Full Scale IQ was at least 65. The test battery included tasks for the matching and the context recognition of emotional expressions, and a set of first- and second-order ToM tasks. The relationships between composite domain scores and the subjects' age, Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, verbal memory, visual memory, and gender were examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Further, the subjects who reliably and consistently passed the tasks of a domain and those who could not were compared on developmental and cognitive characteristics. Overall, the results of the various analyses converged and indicated that verbal memory, Performance IQ, age and gender were the best predictors of social cognitive ability.

  18. Computerised working memory based cognitive remediation therapy does not affect Reading the Mind in the Eyes test performance or neural activity during a Facial Emotion Recognition test in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothersill, David; Dillon, Rachael; Hargreaves, April; Castorina, Marco; Furey, Emilia; Fagan, Andrew J; Meaney, James F; Fitzmaurice, Brian; Hallahan, Brian; McDonald, Colm; Wykes, Til; Corvin, Aiden; Robertson, Ian H; Donohoe, Gary

    2018-05-27

    Working memory based cognitive remediation therapy (CT) for psychosis has recently been associated with broad improvements in performance on untrained tasks measuring working memory, episodic memory and IQ, and changes in associated brain regions. However, it is unclear if these improvements transfer to the domain of social cognition and neural activity related to performance on social cognitive tasks. We examined performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (Eyes test) in a large sample of participants with psychosis who underwent working memory based CT (N = 43) compared to a Control Group of participants with psychosis (N = 35). In a subset of this sample, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine changes in neural activity during a facial emotion recognition task in participants who underwent CT (N = 15) compared to a Control Group (N = 15). No significant effects of CT were observed on Eyes test performance or on neural activity during facial emotion recognition, either at pworking memory based CT does not significantly impact an aspect of social cognition which was measured behaviourally and neurally. It provides further evidence that deficits in the ability to decode mental state from facial expressions are dissociable from working memory deficits, and suggests that future CT programs should target social cognition in addition to working memory for the purposes of further enhancing social function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurogenesis Inhibition Prevents Enriched Environment to Prolong and Strengthen Social Recognition Memory, But Not to Increase BDNF Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Caixeta, Ana Raquel; Guarnieri, Leonardo O; Pena, Roberta R; Dias, Thomáz L; Pereira, Grace Schenatto

    2017-07-01

    Hippocampus-dependent memories, such as social recognition (SRM), are modulated by neurogenesis. However, the precise role of newborn neurons in social memory processing is still unknown. We showed previously that 1 week of enriched environment (EE) is sufficient to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus (HIP) and the olfactory bulb (OB) of mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1 week of EE would enhance SRM persistence and strength. In addition, as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate some of the neurogenesis effects on memory, we also tested if 1 week of EE would increase BDNF expression in the HIP and OB. We also predicted that neurogenesis inhibition would block the gain of function caused by EE on both SRM and BDNF expression. We found that EE increased BDNF expression in the HIP and OB of mice; at the same time, it allowed SRM to last longer. In addition, mice on EE had their SRM unaffected by memory consolidation interferences. As we predicted, treatment with the anti-mitotic drug AraC blocked EE effects on SRM. Surprisingly, neurogenesis inhibition did not affect the BDNF expression, increased by EE. Together, our results suggest that newborn neurons improve SRM persistence through a BDNF-independent mechanism. Interestingly, this study on social memory uncovered an unexpected dissociation between the effect of adult neurogenesis and BDNF expression on memory persistence, reassuring the idea that not all neurogenesis effects on memory are BDNF-dependent.

  20. The Interplay between Gaze Following, Emotion Recognition, and Empathy across Adolescence; a Pubertal Dip in Performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, R.; Junge, C.M.M.; Kemner, C.

    2018-01-01

    During puberty a dip in face recognition is often observed, possibly caused by heightened levels of gonadal hormones which in turn affects the re-organization of relevant cortical circuitry. In the current study we investigated whether a pubertal dip could be observed in three other abilities

  1. Exploring How User Routine Affects the Recognition Performance of a Lock Pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wide, Lisa; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2015-01-01

    To protect an Android smartphone against attackers, a lock pattern can be used. Nevertheless, shoulder-surfing and smudge attacks can be used to get access despite of this protection. To combat these attacks, biometric recognition can be added to the lock pattern, such that the lock-pattern

  2. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety : An investigation of pathways in the social anxiety-social rejection relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, Marisol J.; Dijk, Corine; de Jong, Peter J.; Roelofs, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor

  3. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety: an investigation of pathways in the social anxiety - social rejection relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, M.J.; Dijk, C.; de Jong, P.J.; Roelofs, J.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor

  4. Perceiving social inequity: when subordinate-group positioning on one dimension of social hierarchy enhances privilege recognition on another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby; Tost, Leigh Plunkett

    2013-08-01

    Researchers have suggested that viewing social inequity as dominant-group privilege (rather than subordinate-group disadvantage) enhances dominant-group members' support for social policies aimed at lessening such inequity. However, because viewing inequity as dominant-group privilege can be damaging to dominant-group members' self-images, this perspective is frequently resisted. In the research reported here, we explored the circumstances that enhance the likelihood of dominant-group members' viewing inequity as privilege. Because social hierarchies have multiple vertical dimensions, individuals may have high status on one dimension but low status on another. We predicted that occupying a subordinate position on one dimension of social hierarchy could enhance perceptions of one's own privilege on a different dimension of hierarchy, but that this tendency would be diminished among individuals who felt they had achieved a particularly high level of success. Results from three studies that considered gender-based and race-based hierarchies in organizational settings supported our hypothesis.

  5. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Impact of Social Networks on Students’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Zekiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the impact of using social media and its impact on students’ performance and success. This research tries to identify the relationship between students’ use of social networks and their success in their studies. It tries also to find out whether time spent impacts students’ performance and success. Whether students use social media more for entertainment or for teaching and information sharing purposes. The paper uses a quantitative approach for collecting the primary data. The data was collected by surveying 255 respondents from South East European University. The data analyses were done by SPSS so" ware program. Cronbach alpha is used for testing the validity and reliability of variables used in this study. The hypotheses were tested using One Simple T-test. The obtained empirical results show that a great number of students are aware of advantages and disadvantages by the social media. Thus, due to a great percent of times spent on social networking activities, the performance and the success of students suffer setbacks which could lead to a poor performance and they might fail to create a balance between the social media and academic activities. Furthermore, it is about their addiction, the loss of time leading to consequences in their academic development, and they are also influenced to a great extent negatively by the social networking sites, because their attention is focused on chatting and music while their academic activities are neglected. Finally, based on the results of survey, we can conclude that impact of social media on the academic performance of students should focus more on the positive side than on the negative side to achieve balance. Hence, creating more pages for research and academic activities will enable students to improve their performance, thereby avoiding a distraction which leads to deviation from their academic work.

  7. A Pilot Study Examining a Computer-Based Intervention to Improve Recognition and Understanding of Emotions in Young Children with Communication and Social Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Neri L

    2017-06-01

    A common social impairment in individuals with ASD is difficulty interpreting and or predicting emotions of others. To date, several interventions targeting teaching emotion recognition and understanding have been utilized both by researchers and practitioners. The results suggest that teaching emotion recognition is possible, but that the results do not generalize to non-instructional contexts. This study sought to replicate earlier findings of a positive impact of teaching emotion recognition using a computer-based intervention and to extend it by testing for generalization on live models in the classroom setting. Two boys and one girl, four to eight years in age, educated in self-contained classrooms for students with communication and social skills deficits, participated in this study. A multiple probe across participants design was utilized. Measures of emotion recognition and understanding were assessed at baseline, intervention, and one month post-intervention to determine maintenance effects. Social validity was assessed through parent and teacher questionnaires. All participants showed improvements in measures assessing their recognition of emotions in faces, generalized knowledge to live models, and maintained gains one month post intervention. These preliminary results are encouraging and should be utilized to inform a group design, in order to test efficacy with a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Wild chimpanzees can perform social grooming and social play behaviors simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masaki

    2013-10-01

    Reliable evidence was obtained of the simultaneous performance of social grooming and social play behaviors by individuals among wild chimpanzees of the M group in Mahale Mountains National Park. I observed three cases of this performance: in an old female, a young female, and an adult male. While the agent was grooming the back of an adult bimanually, an infant or a juvenile approached the agent. The agent then started playing with the infant/juvenile using only the right hand, while simultaneously grooming the back of the adult with the left hand. In one case, an old female continued the simultaneous performance for about 1 min. Such performances probably occur at low frequency because they are not often required. The similarity in the neurobiological bases and the functions of social grooming and social play behaviors, both of which include repetitive contact with the body of another individual, may facilitate their simultaneous performance.

  9. Aggression, recognition and qualification : On the social psychology of adult education in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Weber

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the emotional aspects of a professional training process in the light of the participants’ experienced societal status. A detailed text analysis of interviews with a group of social pedagogue staff in Danish Youth clubs focuses on a particular vulnerability and their aggressive perception of other students with social problems, and interprets it partly as a reaction on the paradoxical situation adults in continuing education, and partly in the perspective of their experience of not being recognized as a profession. The last section of the article further explains the deep hermeneutic text analysis applied, which combines psychoanalytical concepts of socialisation with a language game approach.

  10. Proactive personality and job performance: a social capital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeffery A

    2005-09-01

    This study of 126 employee-supervisor dyads examined a mediated model of the relationship between proactive personality and job performance. The model, informed by the social capital perspective, suggests that proactive employees reap performance benefits by means of developing social networks that provide them the resources and latitude to pursue high-level initiatives. Structural equation modeling suggested that the relationship between proactive personality and job performance is mediated by network building and initiative taking on the part of the employee. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Performance and turnover intentions: a social exchange perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biron, M.; Boon, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - Prior research has yielded mixed results regarding the relationship between performance and turnover intentions. Drawing from social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to propose that the performance-turnover intentions association may be contingent upon individuals' exchange

  12. Performative Social Science: A Consideration of Skills, Purpose and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Roberts

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent work applying a notion of "performance" in the study and representation of lives. It tries to clarify some of the issues involved—including the meaning of "performance"—and "performative"—the range of possible approaches (e.g., in addition to drama—other arts and the relationship between "subjects", "researcher" and "audience". An immediate concern is the nature of the researcher—as having the necessary skills and abilities or knowledge involved in "performance" (in researching, writing, recording and representing, as engaged (to some extent in "artistic" endeavour, and moving between a number of "roles" and social relations in "performing" with/to others (the "researched" group, audience and society. An important issue for social science in crossing or bridging the social science-arts, in taking up "performative approaches", is "What remains distinctive about the social science if it becomes involved with performance approaches?" As a source for comparison (and inspiration, some brief reference will be made to the work of KANDINSKY—who moved across disciplinary boundaries and artistic practices—as ethnographer, painter, teacher, designer, theorist and poet. Finally, perhaps, there is a deeper "turn" indicated by the "turn to performance" in the study of lives, a more "complete" portrait of the individual as an active, communicative and sensual being. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802588

  13. Effects of selective activation of M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors on object recognition memory performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Claire R; Lebois, Evan P; Shagarabi, Shezza L; Hernandez, Norma A; Manns, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine signaling through muscarinic receptors has been shown to benefit memory performance in some conditions, but pan-muscarinic activation also frequently leads to peripheral side effects. Drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 muscarinic receptors could potentially improve memory while minimizing side effects mediated by the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. The ability of three recently developed drugs that selectively activate M1 or M4 receptors to improve recognition memory was tested by giving Long-Evans rats subcutaneous injections of three different doses of the M1 agonist VU0364572, the M1 positive allosteric modulator BQCA or the M4 positive allosteric modulator VU0152100 before performing an object recognition memory task. VU0364572 at 0.1 mg/kg, BQCA at 1.0 mg/kg and VU0152100 at 3.0 and 30.0 mg/kg improved the memory performance of rats that performed poorly at baseline, yet the improvements in memory performance were the most statistically robust for VU0152100 at 3.0 mg/kg. The results suggested that selective M1 and M4 receptor activation each improved memory but that the likelihood of obtaining behavioral efficacy at a given dose might vary between subjects even in healthy groups depending on baseline performance. These results also highlighted the potential of drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 receptors to improve memory performance in individuals with impaired memory.

  14. Paradigms of Social Aesthetics in Themne Oral Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadu Wurie Khan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on a long-term study from 1987 to the present and incorporating storytelling apprenticeship, ethnographic fieldwork, and (largely informal interviews, this paper discusses the dynamic nature of oral art as manifested through Themne storytellers’ efforts to vary the oral performance. It explores the relationship between multimedia resources, both intrinsic and external to the performance environment, as well as artistic variation and social aesthetics, along with the audiences’ appreciation and interpretation of oral performances. It argues that the impulse toward social aesthetics is responsible for the oral artists’ deployment of multimedia resources and their varying of oral narratives during storytelling. Specifically, it examines how sociability, the physical setting of performance, and belief systems or worldview function as paradigms of social aesthetics, focusing on their influence on artistic variation and creativity among the Themne of Sierra Leone.

  15. Social Recognition, Participation, and the Dynamic between the Environment and Personal Factors of Students with Deafblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2007-01-01

    The study describes environmental and personal factors that, from the student perspective, impede participation in education in secondary upper schools by students with postlingual deafblindness. The discussion is framed by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The researchers use the theory of social recognition…

  16. Automatic Understanding of Affective and Social Signals by Multimodal Mimicry Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; D' Mello, S.; Graesser, A.; Schuller, B.; Martin, J-C.

    2011-01-01

    Human mimicry is one of the important behavioral cues displayed during social interaction that inform us about the interlocutors' interpersonal states and attitudes. For example, the absence of mimicry is usually associated with negative attitudes. A system capable of analyzing and understanding

  17. Recognition, Resources, Responsibilities: Using Students' Stories of Family to Renew the South African Social Work Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozalek, V.G.

    2004-01-01

    This PhD project aims to demonstrate the importance of giving space to local student voices as forms of subjugated knowledges to inform the curriculum on Family and Child Care. It does so by reflecting upon the process and product of critical autobiographical assignments which social work students

  18. Absent Presences: The Recognition of Social Class and Gender Dimensions within Peer Assessment Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossouard, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the discursive characteristics of peer assessment interactions, drawing upon recent research into formative assessment within a task design involving extended project-based work tackled in groups by pupils. Case studies were conducted within two schools in socially deprived areas of Scotland. They included classroom…

  19. The Under-Recognition of the Significance of Social Class Conceptions of Education in Piketty's "Capital"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Piketty's "Capital" has created enormous interest around the world, not least in educational circles. One reason for this may be his readiness to refer, in a book largely focused on economic history, to the ways that education has, and might, contribute to better and more equal social outcomes. This article welcomes this approach, but…

  20. Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance: A Link for the Indian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal Tyagi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses the issue of the relationship between Corporate Social performance and corporate Financial Performance in Indian context under good management theory. The study used S&P ESG India Index as a proxy of CSP/ CSR (Corporate social performance or Corporate Social Responsibility of Indian firms for the first time over the 2005–2011 periods. We designed econometric models and controlled industry specific attributes and performed Weighted Least Square method for the analysis. Overall results show neutral though modest negative relationship between the CSP and CFP which eventually informs that if there would be any relationship, it would be negative.

  1. A High Performance Banknote Recognition System Based on a One-Dimensional Visible Light Line Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Ho; Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2015-06-15

    An algorithm for recognizing banknotes is required in many fields, such as banknote-counting machines and automatic teller machines (ATM). Due to the size and cost limitations of banknote-counting machines and ATMs, the banknote image is usually captured by a one-dimensional (line) sensor instead of a conventional two-dimensional (area) sensor. Because the banknote image is captured by the line sensor while it is moved at fast speed through the rollers inside the banknote-counting machine or ATM, misalignment, geometric distortion, and non-uniform illumination of the captured images frequently occur, which degrades the banknote recognition accuracy. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method for recognizing banknotes. The experimental results using two-fold cross-validation for 61,240 United States dollar (USD) images show that the pre-classification error rate is 0%, and the average error rate for the final recognition of the USD banknotes is 0.114%.

  2. Fault diagnosis and performance monitoring for pumps by means of vibration measurement and pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabner, A.; Weiss, F.P.

    1984-12-01

    In recent years the early detection of malfunctions with noise and vibration analysis techniques has become a more and more important method for increasing availability and safety of various components in technical plants. The possibility of pattern recognition assisted vibration monitoring and its practical realization are demonstrated by failure diagnosis and trend analysis of the condition of large centrifugal pumps in hydraulic circuits. Some problems as, e.g., the finding of dynamic failure models, signal analysis, feature extraction and statistical pattern recognition, which helps automatically to decide whether the pump works normally or not, are discussed in more detail. In the paper it is shown that for various types of machines the chance of success of condition based maintenance can be enhanced by such an automatic vibration monitoring. (author)

  3. The Effects of Certain Background Noises on the Performance of a Voice Recognition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Principles in Experimental Design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962. Woodworth, R.S. and H. Schlosberg, Experimental Psychology, (Revised edition), New...collection iheet APPENDIX II EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL AND SUBJECTS’ INSTRICTJONS THIS IS AN EXPERIMENT DESIGNED TO EVALUJATE SOME ," lE RECOGNITION EQUIPMENT. I...37. CDR Paul Chatelier OUSD R&E Room 3D129 Pentagon Washington, D.C. 20301 38. Ralph Cleveland NFMSO Code 9333 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 39. Clay Coler

  4. Genetic mapping in mice reveals the involvement of Pcdh9 in long-term social and object recognition and sensorimotor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, Hilgo; Matsui, Asuka; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Kahn, René S.; Van'T Spijker, Heleen M.; Akkermans, Guus; Stiedl, Oliver; Van Engeland, Herman; Koopmans, Bastijn; Van Lith, Hein A.; Oppelaar, Hugo; Tieland, Liselotte; Nonkes, Lourens J.; Yagi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Burbach, J. Peter H; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Kas, Martien J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantitative genetic analysis of basic mouse behaviors is a powerful tool to identify novel genetic phenotypes contributing to neurobehavioral disorders. Here, we analyzed genetic contributions to single-trial, long-term social and nonsocial recognition and subsequently studied the

  5. Genetic Mapping in Mice Reveals the Involvement of Pcdh9 in Long-Term Social and Object Recognition and Sensorimotor Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, Hilgo; Matsui, Asuka; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Kahn, René S; Van't Spijker, Heleen M; Akkermans, Guus; Stiedl, Oliver; van Engeland, Herman; Koopmans, Bastijn; van Lith, Hein A; Oppelaar, Hugo; Tieland, Liselotte; Nonkes, Lourens J; Yagi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Burbach, J Peter H; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Kas, Martien J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative genetic analysis of basic mouse behaviors is a powerful tool to identify novel genetic phenotypes contributing to neurobehavioral disorders. Here, we analyzed genetic contributions to single-trial, long-term social and nonsocial recognition and subsequently studied the

  6. The effects of stimulus novelty and familiarity on neuronal activity in the amygdala of monkeys performing recognition memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F A; Rolls, E T

    1993-01-01

    The function of the amygdala in behavioural responses to novel stimuli and its possible function in recognition memory were investigated by recording the responses of 659 amygdaloid neurons in monkeys performing recognition memory and visual discrimination tasks. The aim was to determine the contribution of the amygdala in the encoding of familiarity and therefore its role in supporting memory-related neuronal mechanisms in the basal forebrain. The responses of three groups of neurons reflected different forms of memory. One group (n = 10) responded maximally to novel stimuli and significantly less so to the same stimuli when they were familiar. The calculated memory spans of these neurons were in the range of 2-10 intervening trials, and this short-term retention of information may reflect the operation of a neural mechanism encoding memory for the recency of stimulus presentation. Two other groups responded to the sight of particular categories of familiar stimuli: to foods (n = 6) or to faces (n = 10). The responses of some of these stimulus-selective neurons declined with repeated presentations of foods (3/4 tests) and faces (2/6 tests). The activity of these latter two groups of neurons may be involved in behavioural responses to familiar visual stimuli, particularly when such stimuli have affective or motivational significance. We conclude that the neurophysiological data provide evidence of amygdaloid mechanisms for the recognition of recently seen visual stimuli. However, these amygdaloid mechanisms do not appear to be sufficient to support the performance of long-term recognition memory tasks without additional and complementary functions carried out by other ventromedial temporal, prefrontal and diencephalic structures which also project to the basal forebrain.

  7. Discrepancies between parent and adolescent beliefs about daily life topics and performance on an emotion recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D; Thomas, Sarah A; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions-particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment-predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents' and children and adolescents' abilities to decode and identify others' emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents' and adolescents' emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54 % African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals).

  8. Caffeine reverses age-related deficits in olfactory discrimination and social recognition memory in rats. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Rui D S; Batista, Luciano C; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2005-06-01

    Caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, has been suggested as a potential drug to counteract age-related cognitive decline since critical changes in adenosinergic neurotransmission occur with aging. In the present study, olfactory discrimination and short-term social memory of 3, 6, 12 and 18 month-old rats were assessed with the olfactory discrimination and social recognition tasks, respectively. The actions of caffeine (3.0, 10.0 and 30.0 mg/kg, i.p.), the A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and the A2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in relation to age-related effects on olfactory functions were also studied. The 12 and 18 month-old rats exhibited significantly impaired performance in both models, demonstrating deficits in their odor discrimination and in their ability to recognize a juvenile rat after a short period of time. Acute treatment with caffeine or ZM241385, but not with DPCPX, reversed these age-related olfactory deficits. The present results suggest the participation of adenosine receptors in the control of olfactory functions and confirm the potential of caffeine for the treatment of aged-related cognitive decline.

  9. Impaired social interaction and enhanced sensitivity to phencyclidine-induced deficits in novel object recognition in rats with cortical cholinergic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, S; Kehr, J; Olson, L; Mattsson, A

    2011-11-10

    Dysregulated cholinergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, particularly negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of neocortical cholinergic innervation and of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) on social interaction and novel object recognition (NOR), a declarative memory task. The cholinergic corticopetal projection was lesioned by local infusion of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin into nucleus basalis magnocellularis of adult male Lister hooded rats. Behavior was assessed 2.5 weeks later in a social interaction paradigm followed by the NOR task. We found that selective cholinergic denervation of neocortex led to a significant reduction in duration of social interaction, specifically active social interaction. Acute administration of PCP (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a marked decrease of active social interaction, such that there was no longer a difference between intact and denervated animals. Neither cholinergic denervation alone, nor PCP (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) alone blocked the ability of rats to recognize a novel object. However, when animals lacking cortical cholinergic innervation were challenged by PCP, they were no longer able to recognize a novel object. This study indicates that rats lacking cholinergic innervation of neocortex have impaired social interaction and specifically that the duration of active contact is shortened. Animals with severe cortical cholinergic hypofunction maintain the ability to perform in a declarative memory test, although the task is carried out less intensively. However, a provocation of psychosis-like behavior by a dose of PCP that does not by itself impair performance in normal animals, will abolish the ability to recognize novel objects in animals lacking cortical cholinergic innervation. The present findings support a possible role for cortical cholinergic hypofunction in the negative and cognitive

  10. A working model for the assessment of disruptions in social behavior among aged rats: The role of sex differences, social recognition, and sensorimotor processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Amy E; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spencer, Robert L; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Conti, Melissa M; Bishop, Christopher; Deak, Terrence

    2016-04-01

    Aging results in a natural decline in social behavior, yet little is known about the processes underlying these changes. Engaging in positive social interaction is associated with many health benefits, including reduced stress reactivity, and may serve as a potential buffer against adverse consequences of aging. The goal of these studies was to establish a tractable model for the assessment of social behavior deficits associated with late aging. Thus, in Exp. 1, 1.5-, 3-, and 18-month-old male Fischer 344 (F344) rats were assessed for object investigation, and social interaction with a same-aged partner (novel/familiar), or a different-aged partner, thereby establishing working parameters for studies that followed. Results revealed that 18-month-old males exhibited reductions in social investigation and social contact behavior, with this age-related decline not influenced by familiarity or age of the social partner. Subsequently, Exp. 2 extended assessment of social behavior to both male and female F344 rats at multiple ages (3, 9, 18, and 24 months), after which a series of sensorimotor performance tests were conducted. In this study, both males and females exhibited late aging-related reductions in social interactions, but these changes were more pronounced in females. Additionally, sensorimotor performance was shown to be impaired in 24-month-olds, but not 18-month-olds, with this deficit more evident in males. Finally, Exp. 3 examined whether aging-related inflammation could account for declines in social behavior during late aging by administering naproxen (0, 7, 14, and 28 mg/kg; s.c.)-a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-to 18-month-old females. Results from this study revealed that social behavior was unaffected by acute or repeated (6 days) naproxen, suggesting that aging-related social deficits in females may not be a consequence of a general aging-related inflammation and/or malaise. Together, these findings demonstrate that aging-related declines in

  11. Rapid and reversible impairments of short- and long-term social recognition memory are caused by acute isolation of adult rats via distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar-Gold, Hadar; Gur, Rotem; Wagner, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM) can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior.

  12. Rapid and reversible impairments of short- and long-term social recognition memory are caused by acute isolation of adult rats via distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadar Shahar-Gold

    Full Text Available Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP. In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior.

  13. CHALLENGES IN PERFORMANCE METRICS IN SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuti Monika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues have been penetrating the financial world over the decades at corporate and sector levels. In the field of sustainable finance, socially responsible investments (SRI are a dynamically evolving segment which has become a special industry in asset allocation and investments out of a niche movement. This article aims to highlight the trends, investors’ motives and performances of these investments. It concludes that controversies around the terminology, performance metrics and return of socially responsible investments, have not been resolved in academic literature yet.

  14. Associative organization of nursing: struggles for the social recognition of the profession (1943-1946).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Kyvia Rayssa Bezerra; Queirós, Paulo Joaquim Pina; Pereira, Laís de Araújo; Peres, Maria Angélica de Almeida; Almeida, Antonio José de; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco

    2017-01-01

    To describe the circumstances that determine the creation of the Brazilian Association of Graduate Nurses of the Federal District Section and analyze its implications for the reorganization of the field of nursing. Qualitative, socio-historical, documentary study. The analysis generated the following category: Creation of a new group to guarantee unity: Brazilian Association of Graduate Nurses in the Federal District Section. The economic crisis resulting from the Second World War, the creation of the Paulista Association of Graduate Nurses and the increase in the number of Schools of Nursing in the country were decisive for the Brazilian Association of Graduate Nurses to reformulate its statute as to guarantee its unit. The creation of the Federal District Section consisted of one of the strategies of the Association to reorganize the field of nursing, in order to ensure the recognition of the profession by the society. Descrever as circunstâncias que determinam a criação da Associação Brasileira de Enfermeiras Diplomadas Seção do Distrito Federal e analisar as implicações dessa criação para a reorganização do campo da enfermagem. Estudo qualitativo, sócio-histórico, documental. A análise gerou a seguinte categoria: Criação de um novo grupo para garantir a unidade: Associação Brasileira de Enfermeiras Diplomadas Seção do Distrito Federal. A crise econômica, decorrente da Segunda Guerra Mundial, a criação da Associação Paulista de Enfermeiras Diplomadas e o aumento do número de escolas de enfermagem no país foram determinantes para que a Associação Brasileira de Enfermeiras Diplomadas reformulasse seu estatuto, de modo a garantir sua unidade. A criação da Seção do Distrito Federal consistiu em uma das estratégias da associação para reorganizar o campo da enfermagem, de modo a assegurar o reconhecimento da profissão pela sociedade.

  15. Multiplex network analysis of employee performance and employee social relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Ying; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-01-01

    In human resource management, employee performance is strongly affected by both formal and informal employee networks. Most previous research on employee performance has focused on monolayer networks that can represent only single categories of employee social relationships. We study employee performance by taking into account the entire multiplex structure of underlying employee social networks. We collect three datasets consisting of five different employee relationship categories in three firms, and predict employee performance using degree centrality and eigenvector centrality in a superimposed multiplex network (SMN) and an unfolded multiplex network (UMN). We use a quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) analysis and a regression analysis to demonstrate that the different categories of relationship are mutually embedded and that the strength of their impact on employee performance differs. We also use weighted/unweighted SMN/UMN to measure the predictive accuracy of this approach and find that employees with high centrality in a weighted UMN are more likely to perform well. Our results shed new light on how social structures affect employee performance.

  16. A High Performance Banknote Recognition System Based on a One-Dimensional Visible Light Line Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ho Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for recognizing banknotes is required in many fields, such as banknote-counting machines and automatic teller machines (ATM. Due to the size and cost limitations of banknote-counting machines and ATMs, the banknote image is usually captured by a one-dimensional (line sensor instead of a conventional two-dimensional (area sensor. Because the banknote image is captured by the line sensor while it is moved at fast speed through the rollers inside the banknote-counting machine or ATM, misalignment, geometric distortion, and non-uniform illumination of the captured images frequently occur, which degrades the banknote recognition accuracy. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method for recognizing banknotes. The experimental results using two-fold cross-validation for 61,240 United States dollar (USD images show that the pre-classification error rate is 0%, and the average error rate for the final recognition of the USD banknotes is 0.114%.

  17. Temporal-pattern recognition by single neurons in a sensory pathway devoted to social communication behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2009-07-29

    Sensory systems often encode stimulus information into the temporal pattern of action potential activity. However, little is known about how the information contained within these patterns is extracted by postsynaptic neurons. Similar to temporal coding by sensory neurons, social information in mormyrid fish is encoded into the temporal patterning of an electric organ discharge. In the current study, sensitivity to temporal patterns of electrosensory stimuli was found to arise within the midbrain posterior exterolateral nucleus (ELp). Whole-cell patch recordings from ELp neurons in vivo revealed three patterns of interpulse interval (IPI) tuning: low-pass neurons tuned to long intervals, high-pass neurons tuned to short intervals, and bandpass neurons tuned to intermediate intervals. Many neurons within each class also responded preferentially to either increasing or decreasing IPIs. Playback of electric signaling patterns recorded from freely behaving fish revealed that the IPI and direction tuning of ELp neurons resulted in selective responses to particular social communication displays characterized by distinct IPI patterns. The postsynaptic potential responses of many neurons indicated a combination of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input, and the IPI tuning of ELp neurons was directly related to rate-dependent changes in the direction and amplitude of postsynaptic potentials. These results suggest that differences in the dynamics of short-term synaptic plasticity in excitatory and inhibitory pathways may tune central sensory neurons to particular temporal patterns of presynaptic activity. This may represent a general mechanism for the processing of behaviorally relevant stimulus information encoded into temporal patterns of activity by sensory neurons.

  18. Peer Influence on Academic Performance: A Social Network Analysis of Social-Emotional Intervention Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Zhang, Linlin; Hanish, Laura D; Miller, Cindy F; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Kochel, Karen P; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Longitudinal social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine how a social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention may be associated with peer socialization on academic performance. Fifth graders (N = 631; 48 % girls; 9 to 12 years) were recruited from six elementary schools. Intervention classrooms (14) received a relationship building intervention (RBI) and control classrooms (8) received elementary school as usual. At pre- and post-test, students nominated their friends, and teachers completed assessments of students' writing and math performance. The results of longitudinal SNA suggested that the RBI was associated with friend selection and peer influence within the classroom peer network. Friendship choices were significantly more diverse (i.e., less evidence of social segregation as a function of ethnicity and academic ability) in intervention compared to control classrooms, and peer influence on improved writing and math performance was observed in RBI but not control classrooms. The current findings provide initial evidence that SEL interventions may change social processes in a classroom peer network and may break down barriers of social segregation and improve academic performance.

  19. Competition and institutional drivers of corporate social performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Research into corporate social performance (CSP) recently shifted to studying its political economic dimensions. In this paper, we test the influence of price and technological competition and two institutional factors, mandatory reporting and monitoring by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and

  20. Corporate social performance as a bottom of line for consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.M.; Schuyt, T.N.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study replicates Paul, Zalka, Downes, Perry, and Friday's scale to measure U.S. consumer sensitivity to corporate social performance (CSP) in another sample-namely, that of Dutch consumers. In addition, theories on the effects of sociodemographic variables on environmental concern have been

  1. Corporate Social Performance: From Output Measurement to Impact Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E.H. Maas (Karen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAll organisations have social, environmental and economic impacts that effect people, their communities and the natural environment. Impacts include intended as well as unintended effects and negative as well as positive effects. Current practice in performance measurement tends to focus

  2. Task clarification, performance feedback, and social praise: Procedures for improving the customer service of bank tellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, C R; Anderson, D C; Abel, D M; Sergio, J P

    1988-01-01

    Customer service for bank tellers was defined in terms of 11 verbal behavior categories. An audio-recording system was used to track the occurrence of behaviors in these categories for six retail banking tellers. Three behavior management interventions (task clarification, performance feedback, and social praise), applied in sequence, were designed to improve overall teller performance with regard to the behavioral categories targeted. Clarification was accomplished by providing clear delineation of the various target categories, with specific examples of the behaviors in each. Feedback entailed presentation of ongoing verbal and visual information regarding teller performance. Praise consisted of verbal recognition of teller performance by branch managers. Results showed that clarification effects emerged quickly, producing an overall increase in desired behaviors of 12% over baseline. Feedback and praise effects occurred more gradually, resulting in overall increases of 6% and 7%, respectively. A suspension of all procedures led to a decline in overall performance, whereas reinstatement of feedback and praise was again accompanied by performance improvement. These findings extend the generality of behavior management applications and help to distinguish between possible antecedent and consequent effects of performance feedback.

  3. Relationship of Ethical Leadership, Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seong Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR has become a major part of the foodservice industry due to external forces which encourage enterprises’ responsiveness. In reality, consumers’ social concern influences their attitudes towards foodservice firms’ socially responsible practices and purchase decisions, thereby influencing senior management to react. Considering this issue, this study examines the impact of senior management’s ethical leadership in evaluating operational, commercial, and economic performances along with the mediating role of CSR in the foodservice industry. A conceptual model was formulated and empirically tested based on responses from 196 foodservice franchise firms in South Korea. The results indicated ethical leadership significantly influenced CSR and operational performance, while CSR also had a positive effect on operational and commercial performances. Additionally, operational performance had a significantly positive influence on commercial performance, which subsequently enhanced economic performance. Overall, the findings highlight the role that ethical leadership exhibited by senior management of foodservice franchises influenced initiation of CSR activities, which provide implications for research and industry practice and is outlined.

  4. A performance comparison of two emotion-recognition implementations using OpenCV and Cognitive Services API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Prieto Luis Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions represent feelings about people in several situations. Various machine learning algorithms have been developed for emotion detection in a multimedia element, such as an image or a video. These techniques can be measured by comparing their accuracy with a given dataset in order to determine which algorithm can be selected among others. This paper deals with the comparison of two implementations of emotion recognition in faces, each implemented with specific technology. OpenCV is an open-source library of functions and packages mostly used for computer-vision analysis and applications. Cognitive services is a set of APIs containing artificial intelligence algorithms for computer-vision, speech, knowledge, and language processing. Two Android mobile applications were developed in order to test the performance between an OpenCV algorithm for emotion recognition and an implementation of Emotion cognitive service. For this research, one thousand tests were carried out per experiment. Our findings show that the OpenCV implementation got a better performance than the Cognitive services application. In both cases, performance can be improved by increasing the sample size per emotion during the training step.

  5. Performance-intensity functions of Mandarin word recognition tests in noise: test dialect and listener language effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danzheng; Shi, Lu-Feng

    2013-06-01

    This study established the performance-intensity function for Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin bisyllabic word recognition tests in noise in native speakers of Wu Chinese. Effects of the test dialect and listeners' first language on psychometric variables (i.e., slope and 50%-correct threshold) were analyzed. Thirty-two normal-hearing Wu-speaking adults who used Mandarin since early childhood were compared to 16 native Mandarin-speaking adults. Both Beijing and Taiwan bisyllabic word recognition tests were presented at 8 signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in 4-dB steps (-12 dB to +16 dB). At each SNR, a half list (25 words) was presented in speech-spectrum noise to listeners' right ear. The order of the test, SNR, and half list was randomized across listeners. Listeners responded orally and in writing. Overall, the Wu-speaking listeners performed comparably to the Mandarin-speaking listeners on both tests. Compared to the Taiwan test, the Beijing test yielded a significantly lower threshold for both the Mandarin- and Wu-speaking listeners, as well as a significantly steeper slope for the Wu-speaking listeners. Both Mandarin tests can be used to evaluate Wu-speaking listeners. Of the 2, the Taiwan Mandarin test results in more comparable functions across listener groups. Differences in the performance-intensity function between listener groups and between tests indicate a first language and dialectal effect, respectively.

  6. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static

  7. A study of fuzzy logic ensemble system performance on face recognition problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, A.; Lipinskiy, L.

    2017-02-01

    Some problems are difficult to solve by using a single intelligent information technology (IIT). The ensemble of the various data mining (DM) techniques is a set of models which are able to solve the problem by itself, but the combination of which allows increasing the efficiency of the system as a whole. Using the IIT ensembles can improve the reliability and efficiency of the final decision, since it emphasizes on the diversity of its components. The new method of the intellectual informational technology ensemble design is considered in this paper. It is based on the fuzzy logic and is designed to solve the classification and regression problems. The ensemble consists of several data mining algorithms: artificial neural network, support vector machine and decision trees. These algorithms and their ensemble have been tested by solving the face recognition problems. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection.

  8. [Face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Inagaki, Masumi

    2012-07-01

    The present study aimed to review previous research conducted on face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Face recognition is a key question in the ASD research field because it can provide clues for elucidating the neural substrates responsible for the social impairment of these patients. Historically, behavioral studies have reported low performance and/or unique strategies of face recognition among ASD patients. However, the performance and strategy of ASD patients is comparable to those of the control group, depending on the experimental situation or developmental stage, suggesting that face recognition of ASD patients is not entirely impaired. Recent brain function studies, including event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have investigated the cognitive process of face recognition in ASD patients, and revealed impaired function in the brain's neural network comprising the fusiform gyrus and amygdala. This impaired function is potentially involved in the diminished preference for faces, and in the atypical development of face recognition, eliciting symptoms of unstable behavioral characteristics in these patients. Additionally, face recognition in ASD patients is examined from a different perspective, namely self-face recognition, and facial emotion recognition. While the former topic is intimately linked to basic social abilities such as self-other discrimination, the latter is closely associated with mentalizing. Further research on face recognition in ASD patients should investigate the connection between behavioral and neurological specifics in these patients, by considering developmental changes and the spectrum clinical condition of ASD.

  9. Object-Based Attention on Social Units: Visual Selection of Hands Performing a Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Xu, Haokui; Duan, Jipeng; Shen, Mowei

    2018-05-01

    Traditionally, objects of attention are characterized either as full-fledged entities or either as elements grouped by Gestalt principles. Because humans appear to use social groups as units to explain social activities, we proposed that a socially defined group, according to social interaction information, would also be a possible object of attentional selection. This hypothesis was examined using displays with and without handshaking interactions. Results demonstrated that object-based attention, which was measured by an object-specific attentional advantage (i.e., shorter response times to targets on a single object), was extended to two hands performing a handshake but not to hands that did not perform meaningful social interactions, even when they did perform handshake-like actions. This finding cannot be attributed to the familiarity of the frequent co-occurrence of two handshaking hands. Hence, object-based attention can select a grouped object whose parts are connected within a meaningful social interaction. This finding implies that object-based attention is constrained by top-down information.

  10. Social sustainability business practices and organisational performance in Nigerian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewo Babajide Michael

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines employee involvement in organisational affairs as an important facet of social sustainability in the Nigerian banking sector, because providing good customer service requires committed employees rather than coerced labour. Data extracted through quantitative content analysis from the financial reports of fifteen commercial banks were analysed using descriptive statistics, Z test, one-way ANOVA, correlation and regression analysis techniques. e study found that employee involvement correlates positively and significantly with organisational performance; and banks differ in performance on the account of the level of employee involvement; firms with deeper level of employee involvement performed better than others with shallow level of employee involvement, thus stressing the relevance of employee involvement as an aspect of social sustainability business practices. Organisations are enjoined to involve their employees more to achieve better results; and embrace the modern philosophy of regarding employees as strategic resources that can be used to bolster core competence.

  11. Host recognition by the specialist hoverfly Microdon mutabilis, a social parasite of the ant Formica lemani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrogge, Karsten; Napper, Emma K V; Birkett, Michael A; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Wadhams, Lester J; Thomas, Jeremy A

    2008-02-01

    The larva of the hoverfly Microdon mutabilis is a specialist social parasite of the ant Formica lemani that is adapted to local groups of F. lemani colonies but mal-adapted to colonies of the same species situated only a few hundred meters away. At a study site in Ireland, F. lemani shares its habitat with four other ant species. All nest under stones, making the oviposition choice by M. mutabilis females crucial to offspring survival. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, as an extreme specialist, M. mutabilis should respond to cues derived from its host rather than from its microenvironment, a phenomenon that has hitherto only been addressed in the context of herbivorous insects and their parasitoids. In behavioral assays, M. mutabilis females reacted to volatiles from F. lemani colonies by extending their ovipositors, presumably probing for an oviposition substrate. This behavior was not observed toward negative controls or volatiles from colonies of Myrmica scabrinodis, the host ant of the closely related Microdon myrmicae. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG) that used antennal preparations of M. mutabilis located a single physiologically active compound within an extract of heads of F. lemani workers. Coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) tentatively identified the compound as a methylated methylsalicylate. GC co-injection of the extract with authentic samples showed that of the four possible isomers (methyl 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-methylsalicylate), only methyl 6-methylsalicylate co-eluted with the EAG-active peak. Furthermore, the response to methyl 6-methylsalicylate was four times higher than to those of the other isomers. Coupled GC-EAG and GC-MS also revealed physiological responses to two constituents, 3-octanone and 3-octanol, of the M. scabrinodis alarm pheromone. However, the behavioral trials did not reveal any behavior that could be attributed to these compounds. Results are discussed in the context of four phases of host

  12. Proactive and coactive interference in age-related performance in a recognition-based operation span task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeintl, Melanie; Kliegel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Generally, older adults perform worse than younger adults in complex working memory span tasks. So far, it is unclear which processes mainly contribute to age-related differences in working memory span. The aim of the present study was to investigate age effects and the roles of proactive and coactive interference in a recognition-based version of the operation span task. Younger and older adults performed standard versions and distracter versions of the operation span task. At retrieval, participants had to recognize target words in word lists containing targets as well as proactive and/or coactive interference-related lures. Results show that, overall, younger adults outperformed older adults in the recognition of target words. Furthermore, analyses of error types indicate that, while younger adults were only affected by simultaneously presented distracter words, older adults had difficulties with both proactive and coactive interference. Results suggest that age effects in complex span tasks may not be mainly due to retrieval deficits in old age. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Intelligent Tutor with Emotion Recognition and Student Emotion Management for Math Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari­a Luci­a Barron Estrada

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the development, implementation, and testing of an Intelligent Tutoring System for math in third grade elementary students, it identifies and manages the emotional state of the student; it produces affective feedback for the student during the course that also it is part of a social network. Emotions are recognized via facial expressions by means of an artificial neural network. The social network and the intelligent tutoring system with affective management have been tested in public and private elementary schools with very satisfying results.

  14. WAY 267,464, a non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist, impairs social recognition memory in rats through a vasopressin 1A receptor antagonist action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Callum; Ramos, Linnet; Reekie, Tristan A; Narlawar, Rajeshwar; Kassiou, Michael; McGregor, Iain S

    2015-08-01

    Recent in vitro studies suggest that the oxytocin receptor (OTR) agonist WAY 267,464 has vasopressin 1A receptor (V1AR) antagonist effects. This might limit its therapeutic potential due to the positive involvement of the V1AR in social behavior. The objective of this study was to assess functional V1AR antagonist-like effects of WAY 267,464 in vivo using a test of social recognition memory. Adult experimental rats were tested for their recognition of a juvenile conspecific rat that they had briefly met 30 or 120 min previously. The modulatory effects of vasopressin (AVP), the selective V1AR antagonist SR49059, and WAY 267,464 were examined together with those of the selective OTR antagonist Compound 25 (C25). Drugs were administered immediately after the first meeting. Control rats showed recognition of juveniles at a 30 min, but not a 120 min retention interval. AVP (0.005, but not 0.001 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)) improved memory such that recognition was evident after 120 min. This was prevented by pretreatment with SR49059 (1 mg/kg) and WAY 267,464 (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg). Given alone, SR49059 (1 mg/kg) and WAY 267,464 (30 and 100 mg/kg) impaired memory at a 30 min retention interval. The impairment with WAY 267,464 was not prevented by C25 (5 mg/kg), suggesting V1AR rather than OTR mediation of the effect. Given alone, C25 also impaired memory. These results highlight a tonic role for endogenous AVP (and oxytocin) in social recognition memory and indicate that WAY 267,464 functions in vivo as a V1AR antagonist to prevent the memory-enhancing effects of AVP.

  15. Ethanol and Caffeine effects on social interaction and recognition in mice: Involvement of adenosine A2A and A1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López-Cruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol and caffeine are frequently consumed in combination and have opposite effects on the adenosine system: ethanol metabolism leads to an increase in adenosine levels, while caffeine is a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist. These receptors are highly expressed in striatum and olfactory tubercle, brain areas involved in exploration and social interaction in rodents. Ethanol modulates social interaction processes, but the role of adenosine in social behavior is still poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to study the impact of ethanol, caffeine and their combination on social behavior, and to explore the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors on those actions. Male CD1 mice were evaluated in a social interaction three-chamber paradigm, for preference of conspecific vs. object, and also for long-term recognition memory of familiar vs. novel conspecific. Ethanol showed a biphasic effect, with low doses (0.25 g/kg increasing social contact and higher doses (1.0-1.5 g/kg reducing social interaction. However, no dose changed social preference; mice always spent more time sniffing the conspecific than the object, independently of the ethanol dose. Ethanol, even at doses that did not change social exploration, produced amnestic effects on social recognition the following day. Caffeine reduced social contact (15.0-60.0 mg/kg, and even blocked social preference at higher doses (30.0-60.0 mg/kg. The A1 antagonist CPT (3-9 mg/kg did not modify social contact or preference on its own, and the A2A antagonist MSX-3 (1.5-6 mg/kg increased social interaction at all doses. Ethanol at intermediate doses (0.5-1.0 g/kg was able to reverse the reduction in social exploration induced by caffeine (15.0-30.0 mg/kg. Although there was no interaction between ethanol and CPT or MSX-3 on social exploration in the first day, MSX-3 blocked the amnestic effects of ethanol observed on the following day. Thus, ethanol impairs the formation of social

  16. Ethanol and Caffeine Effects on Social Interaction and Recognition in Mice: Involvement of Adenosine A2A and A1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cruz, Laura; San-Miguel, Noemí; Bayarri, Pilar; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercé

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are frequently consumed in combination and have opposite effects on the adenosine system: ethanol metabolism leads to an increase in adenosine levels, while caffeine is a non-selective adenosine A 1 /A 2A receptor antagonist. These receptors are highly expressed in striatum and olfactory tubercle, brain areas involved in exploration and social interaction in rodents. Ethanol modulates social interaction processes, but the role of adenosine in social behavior is still poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to study the impact of ethanol, caffeine and their combination on social behavior, and to explore the involvement of A 1 and A 2A receptors on those actions. Male CD1 mice were evaluated in a social interaction three-chamber paradigm, for preference of conspecific vs. object, and also for long-term recognition memory of familiar vs. novel conspecific. Ethanol showed a biphasic effect, with low doses (0.25 g/kg) increasing social contact and higher doses (1.0-1.5 g/kg) reducing social interaction. However, no dose changed social preference; mice always spent more time sniffing the conspecific than the object, independently of the ethanol dose. Ethanol, even at doses that did not change social exploration, produced amnestic effects on social recognition the following day. Caffeine reduced social contact (15.0-60.0 mg/kg), and even blocked social preference at higher doses (30.0-60.0 mg/kg). The A 1 antagonist Cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT; 3-9 mg/kg) did not modify social contact or preference on its own, and the A 2A antagonist MSX-3 (1.5-6 mg/kg) increased social interaction at all doses. Ethanol at intermediate doses (0.5-1.0 g/kg) was able to reverse the reduction in social exploration induced by caffeine (15.0-30.0 mg/kg). Although there was no interaction between ethanol and CPT or MSX-3 on social exploration in the first day, MSX-3 blocked the amnestic effects of ethanol observed on the following day. Thus, ethanol impairs the

  17. The Performance Implications of Fit among Environment, Strategy, Structure, Control System and Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fauzi

    2009-12-01

    domain will be contingent upon strategic behaviors, which are behaviors of members in an organization. The paper integrates the contextual variables including business environment, strategy, organization structure, and control system with corporate performance by using corporate social performance as moderating variable by means of a recent literatures study from strategic management and accounting field.

  18. Impact of body posture on laterality judgement and explicit recognition tasks performed on self and others' hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conson, Massimiliano; Errico, Domenico; Mazzarella, Elisabetta; De Bellis, Francesco; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Judgments on laterality of hand stimuli are faster and more accurate when dealing with one's own than others' hand, i.e. the self-advantage. This advantage seems to be related to activation of a sensorimotor mechanism while implicitly processing one's own hands, but not during explicit one's own hand recognition. Here, we specifically tested the influence of proprioceptive information on the self-hand advantage by manipulating participants' body posture during self and others' hand processing. In Experiment 1, right-handed healthy participants judged laterality of either self or others' hands, whereas in Experiment 2, an explicit recognition of one's own hands was required. In both experiments, the participants performed the task while holding their left or right arm flexed with their hand in direct contact with their chest ("flexed self-touch posture") or with their hand placed on a wooden smooth surface in correspondence with their chest ("flexed proprioceptive-only posture"). In an "extended control posture", both arms were extended and in contact with thighs. In Experiment 1 (hand laterality judgment), we confirmed the self-advantage and demonstrated that it was enhanced when the subjects judged left-hand stimuli at 270° orientation while keeping their left arm in the flexed proprioceptive-only posture. In Experiment 2 (explicit self-hand recognition), instead, we found an advantage for others' hand ("self-disadvantage") independently from posture manipulation. Thus, position-related proprioceptive information from left non-dominant arm can enhance sensorimotor one's own body representation selectively favouring implicit self-hands processing.

  19. Lessons from Philippines MPA Management: Social Ecological Interactions, Participation, and MPA Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Julia; Pollnac, Richard; Christie, Patrick

    2018-06-01

    International interest in increasing marine protected area (MPA) coverage reflects broad recognition of the MPA as a key tool for marine ecosystems and fisheries management. Nevertheless, effective management remains a significant challenge. The present study contributes to enriching an understanding of best practices for MPA management through analysis of archived community survey data collected in the Philippines by the Learning Project (LP), a collaboration with United States Coral Triangle Initiative (USCTI), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and partners. We evaluate stakeholder participation and social ecological interactions among resource users in MPA programs in the Palawan, Occidental Mindoro, and Batangas provinces in the Philippines. Analysis indicates that a complex suite of social ecological factors, including demographics, conservation beliefs, and scientifically correct knowledge influence participation, which in turn is related to perceived MPA performance. Findings indicate positive feedbacks within the system that have potential to strengthen perceptions of MPA success. The results of this evaluation provide empirical reinforcement to current inquiries concerning the role of participation in influencing MPA performance.

  20. Lessons from Philippines MPA Management: Social Ecological Interactions, Participation, and MPA Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Julia; Pollnac, Richard; Christie, Patrick

    2018-06-01

    International interest in increasing marine protected area (MPA) coverage reflects broad recognition of the MPA as a key tool for marine ecosystems and fisheries management. Nevertheless, effective management remains a significant challenge. The present study contributes to enriching an understanding of best practices for MPA management through analysis of archived community survey data collected in the Philippines by the Learning Project (LP), a collaboration with United States Coral Triangle Initiative (USCTI), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and partners. We evaluate stakeholder participation and social ecological interactions among resource users in MPA programs in the Palawan, Occidental Mindoro, and Batangas provinces in the Philippines. Analysis indicates that a complex suite of social ecological factors, including demographics, conservation beliefs, and scientifically correct knowledge influence participation, which in turn is related to perceived MPA performance. Findings indicate positive feedbacks within the system that have potential to strengthen perceptions of MPA success. The results of this evaluation provide empirical reinforcement to current inquiries concerning the role of participation in influencing MPA performance.

  1. Congruence and Performance of Value Concepts in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo Beckers

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two value concepts are dominant in the social sciences: (1 Schwartz's theory of basic human values, measured through the Portrait Values Questionnaire (ESS and (2 Inglehart's postmaterialism and Welzel's extension to the self-expression values scale (WVS/EVS. To advance research in values, two questions need to be addressed: (1 Are the concepts and measurements of values in the different approaches interchangeable? (2 Which of the concepts performs better for explaining moral and social attitudes? This study contributes to the discussion on value concepts by comparing these value instruments using individual level data from an online access panel (n = 762 and assessing the performance of values instruments for microexplanations of moral (end-of-life attitudes and sexual morality and social attitudes (xenophobia. Overall, the measurement model of basic human values with the PVQ provides a sound basis for comparing the Schwartz values to postmaterialism and self-expression values. In both cases, there are positive correlations with universalism and self-direction and negative correlations with tradition/conformity and security, which do not exceed 0.4. Regarding the performance, it turns out that the Schwartz values are in toto a more powerful tool than both Inglehart's postmaterialism and Welzel's self-expression values, in terms of explained variance as well as in terms of standardized effects.

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility Performance during Crisis. A EU Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Dornean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the impact of the financial crisis on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR performance, emphasizing the case of companies from European Union (EU countries. An empirical analysis is conducted using the database available on Global Report Initiative (GRI. For accomplishing this, we will use Wilcoxon signed rank sum test, in order to test the CSR performance evolution for period 2007 – 2015. According to the GRI reporting guidelines we transform the application level of report standards in a point score system. The results indicated increased CSR performance before, during and after the financial crisis except for 2015, which confirm the results obtained by other researchers. The present study is important both for managers and policymakers: for managers to continue their CSR actions because is demonstrated the positive relationship between CSR and financial performance; and for authorities who have to adopt more incentives for supporting companies involved in CSR activities.

  3. A systematic review of neuropsychological performance in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Pedersen, Anders Degn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the neuropsychological performance of patients with anxiety disorders, yet the literature does not provide a systematic review of the results concerning adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Aims: The primary...... aim of this paper is to review the literature on neuropsychological performance in adult patients with SAD. Methods: This paper is a systematic review of empirical studies investigating neuropsychological performance as assessed by cognitive tests. Results: 30 papers were located comprising a total...... number of 698 adult patients with SAD. The review revealed indication for decreased performance regarding visual scanning and visuoconstructional ability as well as some indication for verbal memory difficulties. Conclusion: The impact of possible confounding variables on the neuropsychological...

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive.

  5. Social competence in children with brain disorders : A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Tessa B; Post, Wendy J; Tucha, Oliver; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Kamps, Willem A; Kingma, Annette

    Social competence, i.e. appropriate or effective social functioning, is an important determinant of quality of life. Social competence consists of social skills, social performance and social adjustment. The current paper reviews social skills, in particular emotion recognition performance and its

  6. Bilingual recognition memory: stronger performance but weaker levels-of-processing effects in the less fluent language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Gutiérrez, Marisela

    2012-04-01

    The effects of bilingual proficiency on recognition memory were examined in an experiment with Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants learned lists of words in English and Spanish under shallow- and deep-encoding conditions. Overall, hit rates were higher, discrimination greater, and response times shorter in the nondominant language, consistent with effects previously observed for lower frequency words. Levels-of-processing effects in hit rates, discrimination, and response time were stronger in the dominant language. Specifically, with shallow encoding, the advantage for the nondominant language was larger than with deep encoding. The results support the idea that memory performance in the nondominant language is impacted by both the greater demand for cognitive resources and the lower familiarity of the words.

  7. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2015-01-01

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum

  8. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum.

  9. Performance of social network sensors during Hurricane Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Kryvasheyeu

    Full Text Available Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the "friendship paradox", is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users' network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours; and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple "sentiment sensing" technique that can detect and locate disasters.

  10. Performance of Social Network Sensors during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the “friendship paradox”, is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users’ network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple “sentiment sensing” technique that can detect and locate disasters. PMID:25692690

  11. Neonatal paternal deprivation impairs social recognition and alters levels of oxytocin and estrogen receptor α mRNA expression in the MeA and NAcc, and serum oxytocin in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Wu, Ruiyong; Tai, Fadao; Zhang, Xia; Yu, Peng; An, Xiaolei; Qiao, Xufeng; Hao, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Paternal care is necessary for the healthy development of social behavior in monogamous rodents and social recognition underpins social behavior in these animals. The effects of paternal care on the development of social recognition and underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms, especially the involvement of oxytocin and estrogen pathways, remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed from neonatal pups and mother alone raised the offspring) on social recognition in mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), a socially monogamous rodent. Paternal deprivation was found to inhibit the development of social recognition in female and male offspring according to a habituation-dishabituation paradigm. Paternal deprivation resulted in increased inactivity and reduced investigation during new encounters with other animals. Paternal deprivation reduced oxytocin receptor (OTR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression in the medial amygdala and nucleus accumbens. Paternal deprivation reduced serum oxytocin (OT) concentration in females, but had no effect on males. Our results provide substantial evidence that paternal deprivation inhibits the development of social recognition in female and male mandarin voles and alters social behavior later in life. This is possibly the result of altered expression of central OTR and ERα and serum OT levels caused by paternal deprivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VARIANCES IN BACKPROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK USED FOR HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Vairaprakash Gurusamy *1 & K.Nandhini2

    2017-01-01

    A Neural Network is a powerful data modeling tool that is able to capture and represent complex input/output relationships. The motivation for the development of neural network technology stemmed from the desire to develop an artificial system that could perform "intelligent" tasks similar to those performed by the human brain.Back propagation was created by generalizing the Widrow-Hoff learning rule to multiple-layer networks and nonlinear differentiable transfer functions. The term back pro...

  13. Assessing the Performance of Automatic Speech Recognition Systems When Used by Native and Non-Native Speakers of Three Major Languages in Dictation Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Julián; Kirkedal, Andreas Søeborg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a two-part experiment aiming to assess and compare the performance of two types of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems on two different computational platforms when used to augment dictation workflows. The experiment was performed with a sample of speakers...

  14. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside attenuates recognition memory deficits and social withdrawal produced by the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and induces anxiolytic-like behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevlopoulou, Aikaterini; Touzlatzi, Ntilara; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine impairs cognition and can mimic certain aspects of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered as an intracellular messenger in the brain, and its abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to counteract schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits produced by ketamine in rats. The ability of SNP to reverse ketamine-induced memory deficits and social withdrawal were assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT) and the social interaction test, respectively. Furthermore, since anxiety disorders are noted to occur commonly in schizophrenics, the effects of SNP on anxiety-like behaviour were examined using the light/dark test. Locomotor activity was also assessed as an independent measure of the potential motoric effects of this NO donor. SNP (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) reversed ketamine (3 mg/kg)-induced short-term recognition memory deficits. SNP (1 mg/kg) counteracted the ketamine (8 mg/kg)-induced social isolation in the social interaction test. The anxiolytic-like effects in the light/dark test of SNP (1 mg/kg) cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Our findings illustrate a functional interaction between the nitrergic and glutamatergic system that may be of relevance for schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. The data also suggest a role of NO in anxiety.

  15. Oxytocin attenuates deficits in social interaction but not recognition memory in a prenatal valproic acid-induced mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Higuchi, Momoko; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have reported that oxytocin ameliorates behavioral abnormalities in both animal models and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the mechanisms underlying the ameliorating effects of oxytocin remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of intranasal oxytocin on impairments in social interaction and recognition memory in an ASD mouse model in which animals are prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA). We found that a single intranasal administration of oxytocin restored social interaction deficits for up to 2h in mice prenatally exposed to VPA, but there was no effect on recognition memory impairments. Additionally, administration of oxytocin across 2weeks improved prenatal VPA-induced social interaction deficits for at least 24h. In contrast, there were no effects on the time spent sniffing in control mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that intranasal administration of oxytocin increased c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nuclei (PVN), prefrontal cortex, and somatosensory cortex, but not the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions of VPA-exposed mice, suggesting the former regions may underlie the effects of oxytocin. These findings suggest that oxytocin attenuates social interaction deficits through the activation of higher cortical areas and the PVN in an ASD mouse model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of operating experience for early recognition of deteriorating safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.A.; Berg, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges facing nuclear power plants is to recognize the early signs of degrading safety performance before regulatory requirements are imposed or serious incidents or accidents occur. Today, the nuclear industry is striving for collecting more information on occurrences that could improve the operational safety performance. To achieve this, the reporting threshold has been lowered from incidents to anomalies with minor or no impact to safety. Industry experience (also outside nuclear industry) has shown that these are typical issues which should be considered when looking for such early warning signs. Therefore, it is important that nuclear power plant operators have the capability to trend, analyse and recognize early warning signs of deteriorating performance. It is necessary that plant operators are sensitive to these warning signs which may not be immediately evident. Reviewing operating experience is one of the main tasks for plant operators in their daily activities. Therefore, self assessment should be at the centre of any operational safety performance programme. One way of applying a self assessment program is through the following four basic elements: operational data, events, safety basis, and related experience. This approach will be described in the paper in more details. (authors)

  17. Gender Recognition from Unconstrained and Articulated Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition. PMID:24977203

  18. Gender recognition from unconstrained and articulated human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition.

  19. Social jetlag negatively correlates with academic performance in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Ella, Krisztina; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Roenneberg, Till; Káldi, Krisztina

    2014-06-01

    Discrepancies between sleep timing on workdays and weekends, also known as social jetlag (SJL), affect the majority of the population and have been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this study, we explored the relationship between SJL and academic performance in a sample of undergraduates of the Semmelweis University. We assessed SJL and other sleep-related parameters with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) (n = 753). Academic performance was measured by the average grade based on weekly test results as well as scores acquired on the final test (n = 247). The average mid-sleep point on free days in the Hungarian sample fits well the regression line plotted for longitudes within the Central European Time Zone and chronotypes, confirming that sunlight has a major impact on chronotype. Multivariate analysis showed negative effect of SJL on the weekly average grade (p = 0.028, n = 247) during the lecture term with its highly regular teaching schedules, while this association disappeared in the exam period (p = 0.871, n = 247) when students had no scheduled obligations (lower SJL). We also analyzed the relationship between the time of the weekly tests and academic performance and found that students with later sleep times on free days achieved worse in the morning (p = 0.017, n = 129), while the inverse tendency was observed for the afternoon test-takers (p = 0.10, n = 118). We did not find significant association between academic performance and sleep duration or sleep debt on work days. Our data suggest that circadian misalignment can have a significant negative effect on academic performance. One possible reason for this misalignment is socially enforced sleep times.

  20. SOCIAL LEGITIMACY VERSUS BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES OF ANDALUSIAN GOLF COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José, Riquel Ligero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts an analysis of organizational motivations when developing policies for environmental liability. Specifically, to compare the production of social legitimacy to the improvement of organizational performance, we proceeded to test two models in a sector which in recent years has opened a wide debate on environmental sustainability. We refer to golf tourism in Andalusia, in which there has been a considerable increase in such facilities. We have used the statistical technique Partial Least Square (PLS.

  1. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak

    2009-02-01

    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  2. Investigating social gaze as an action-perception online performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouriel eGrynszpan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In interpersonal interactions, linguistic information is complemented by non-linguistic information originating largely from facial expressions. The study of online face-to-face social interaction thus entails investigating the multimodal simultaneous processing of oral and visual percepts. Moreover, gaze in and of itself functions as a powerful communicative channel. In this respect, gaze should not be examined as a purely perceptive process but also as an active social performance. We designed a task involving multimodal deciphering of social information based on virtual characters, embedded in naturalistic backgrounds, who directly address the participant with non-literal speech and meaningful facial expressions. Eighteen adult participants were to interpret an equivocal sentence which could be disambiguated by examining the emotional expressions of the character speaking to them face-to-face. To examine self-control and self-awareness of gaze in this context, visual feedback is provided to the participant by a real-time gaze-contingent viewing window centered on the focal point, while the rest of the display is blurred. Eye-tracking data showed that the viewing window induced changes in gaze behaviour, notably longer visual fixations. Notwithstanding, only half the participants ascribed the window displacements to their eye movements. These results highlight the dissociation between non volitional gaze adaptation and self-ascription of agency. Such dissociation provides support for a two-step account of the sense of agency composed of pre-noetic monitoring mechanisms and reflexive processes. We comment upon these results, which illustrate the relevance of our method for studying online social cognition, especially concerning Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD where poor pragmatic understanding of oral speech are considered linked to visual peculiarities that impede face exploration.

  3. Do Cross-Listed Firms Report Better Social Responsibility Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guangyou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the corporate social responsibility (CSR disclosure of cross-listed companies in China, to bridge the gap between existent CSR literature and the literature on cross-listing. Mann- Whitney-U and Wilcoxon ranking tests document the traditional bonding effect regarding reported corporate financial performance. Furthermore, the test results and findings of this study extend the financial bonding effect to other dimensions of corporate responsibility. In addition to better economic returns to owners, the bonding effect marks better reported CSR performance for cross-listed companies in terms of pay raises for employees, creation of new jobs, desirable stock option plans for management, and increased input in environmental protection and energy-saving activities.

  4. Education scolaire, performance et equite sociale: des relations problematiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lenoir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using critical theory, this paper first confronts critically the relationship between education and performance in light of globalisation and its underlying neo‑‑ liberal ideology. This comparison reveals that there is a definite compatibility between them, but it is fully slanted towards efficiency logic and human capital production. Then, adopting a critical attitude, the paper questions this direction, in the name of the emancipation and citizenship prospects, which brought the school system reorganisation by democratic nation‑‑ states. The current choices have distorted these objectives and have redirected them towards utilitarian learnings and an increasingly therapeutic socialisation. Finally, the paper stresses the inseparability between the performance issue, the social equity issue and the education/teaching effectiveness issue in order to highlight the need for taking into account qualitative dimensions, which stem from the background and the pupils, so as to focus much more on learning processes, rather than on learning outcomes themselves.

  5. Active explorers show low learning performance in a social insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eve UDINO; Margot PEREZ; Claudio CARERE; Patrizia d'ETTORRE

    2017-01-01

    An intriguing question in behavioral biology is whether consistent individual differences (called animal personalities) relate to variation in cognitive performance because commonly measured personality traits may be associated with risk-reward trade-offs.Social insects,whose learning abilities have been extensively characterized,show consistent behavioral variability,both at colony and at individual level.We investigated the possible link between personality traits and learning performance in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops.Exploratory activity,sociability,and aggression were assessed twice in ant foragers.Behaviors differed among individuals,they were partly repeatable across time and exploratory activity correlated positively with aggression.Learning abilities were quantified by differential conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response,a task that requires cue perception and information storage.We found that exploratory activity of individual ants significantly predicted learning performance:"active-explorers" were slower in learning the task than "inactive-explorers".The results suggest for the first time a link between a personality trait and cognitive performance in eusocial insects,and that the underlying individual variability could affect colony performance and success.

  6. Social roles and performance of social-ecological systems: evidence from behavioral lab experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Perez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social roles are thought to play an important role in determining the capacity for collective action in a community regarding the use of shared resources. Here we report on the results of a study using a behavioral experimental approach regarding the relationship between social roles and the performance of social-ecological systems. The computer-based irrigation experiment that was the basis of this study mimics the decisions faced by farmers in small-scale irrigation systems. In each of 20 rounds, which are analogous to growing seasons, participants face a two-stage commons dilemma. First they must decide how much to invest in the public infrastructure, e.g., canals and water diversion structures. Second, they must decide how much to extract from the water made available by that public infrastructure. Each round begins with a 60-second communication period before the players make their investment and extraction decisions. By analyzing the chat messages exchanged among participants during the communication stage of the experiment, we coded up to three roles per participant using the scheme of seven roles known to be important in the literature: leader, knowledge generator, connector, follower, moralist, enforcer, and observer. Our study supports the importance of certain social roles (e.g., connector previously highlighted by several case study analyses. However, using qualitative comparative analysis we found that none of the individual roles was sufficient for groups to succeed, i.e., to reach a certain level of group production. Instead, we found that a combination of at least five roles was necessary for success. In addition, in the context of upstream-downstream asymmetry, we observed a pattern in which social roles assumed by participants tended to differ by their positions. Although our work generated some interesting insights, further research is needed to determine how robust our findings are to different action situations, such as

  7. Development and Comparative Study of Effects of Training Algorithms on Performance of Artificial Neural Network Based Analog and Digital Automatic Modulation Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Julius Popoola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes two new classifiers that automatically recognise twelve combined analog and digital modulated signals without any a priori knowledge of the modulation schemes and the modulation parameters. The classifiers are developed using pattern recognition approach. Feature keys extracted from the instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous phase and the spectrum symmetry of the simulated signals are used as inputs to the artificial neural network employed in developing the classifiers. The two developed classifiers are trained using scaled conjugate gradient (SCG and conjugate gradient (CONJGRAD training algorithms. Sample results of the two classifiers show good success recognition performance with an average overall recognition rate above 99.50% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR value from 0 dB and above with the two training algorithms employed and an average overall recognition rate slightly above 99.00% and 96.40% respectively at - 5 dB SNR value for SCG and CONJGRAD training algorithms. The comparative performance evaluation of the two developed classifiers using the two training algorithms shows that the two training algorithms have different effects on both the response rate and efficiency of the two developed artificial neural networks classifiers. In addition, the result of the performance evaluation carried out on the overall success recognition rates between the two developed classifiers in this study using pattern recognition approach with the two training algorithms and one reported classifier in surveyed literature using decision-theoretic approach shows that the classifiers developed in this study perform favourably with regard to accuracy and performance probability as compared to classifier presented in previous study.

  8. Measuring the economic performance of socially responsible companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Fernández-Guadaño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use different economic variables to establish whether there are differences in economic performance between companies as a result of their inclusion in the sustainability index. This paper presents a one-dimensional exploratory study which compares the socially responsible companies included in the Spanish sustainability index, FTSE4Good Ibex, with the rest of the indices in the IBEX family. Parametric testing was used to study whether there are differences between the two types of companies. The results demonstrate that there are no statistically significant differences in economic performance between the two groups. Morover, it is confirmed that companies with good practices are as profitable as the rest, but it also demonstrates that the economic-financial behaviour is not better as a result of being in the sustainability index. The basic conclusion is that adhering to social and environmental standards does not harm a firm’s competitive position and, therefore, provide support for the development policy of responsible practices so that they become a tool to help improve the resilience of the economy and investor trust.

  9. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupt recognition of social hierarchy during antiphonal communication in naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosida, Shigeto; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    Generation of the motor patterns of emotional sounds in mammals occurs in the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain and is not directly controlled by the cortex. The medial frontal cortex indirectly controls vocalizations, based on the recognition of social context. We examined whether the medial frontal cortex was responsible for antiphonal vocalization, or turn-taking, in naked mole-rats. In normal turn-taking, naked mole-rats vocalize more frequently to dominant individuals than to subordinate ones. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupted differentiation of call rates to the stimulus animals, which had varied social relationships to the subject. However, medial frontal cortex lesions did not affect either the acoustic properties of the vocalizations or the timing of the vocal exchanges. This suggests that the medial frontal cortex may be involved in social cognition or decision making during turn-taking, while other regions of the brain regulate when animals vocalize and the vocalizations themselves.

  10. Spoken Word Recognition Errors in Speech Audiometry: A Measure of Hearing Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Coene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report provides a detailed analysis of incorrect responses from an open-set spoken word-repetition task which is part of a Dutch speech audiometric test battery. Single-consonant confusions were analyzed from 230 normal hearing participants in terms of the probability of choice of a particular response on the basis of acoustic-phonetic, lexical, and frequency variables. The results indicate that consonant confusions are better predicted by lexical knowledge than by acoustic properties of the stimulus word. A detailed analysis of the transmission of phonetic features indicates that “voicing” is best preserved whereas “manner of articulation” yields most perception errors. As consonant confusion matrices are often used to determine the degree and type of a patient’s hearing impairment, to predict a patient’s gain in hearing performance with hearing devices and to optimize the device settings in view of maximum output, the observed findings are highly relevant for the audiological practice. Based on our findings, speech audiometric outcomes provide a combined auditory-linguistic profile of the patient. The use of confusion matrices might therefore not be the method best suited to measure hearing performance. Ideally, they should be complemented by other listening task types that are known to have less linguistic bias, such as phonemic discrimination.

  11. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.

  12. Glucose administration prior to a divided attention task improves tracking performance but not word recognition: evidence against differential memory enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew B; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Greer, Joanna; Elliott, Jade; Kennedy, David O

    2009-01-01

    The cognition-enhancing effects of glucose administration to humans have been well-documented; however, it remains unclear whether this effect preferentially targets episodic memory or other cognitive domains. The effect of glucose on the allocation of attentional resources during memory encoding was assessed using a sensitive dual-attention paradigm. One hundred and twenty volunteers (mean age 21.60, SD 4.89, 77 females) took part in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups study where each consumed a 25-g glucose drink or a placebo. Half of the participants in each drink condition attempted to track a moving on-screen target during auditory word presentation. The distance between the cursor and the tracking target was used as an index of attentional cost during encoding. Effects of drink and tracking on recognition memory and drink on tracking performance were assessed. Self-rated appetite and mood were co-monitored. Co-performing the tracking task significantly impaired memory performance irrespective of drink condition. In the placebo-tracking condition, there was a cost to tracking manifest as greater deviation from target during and immediately following word presentation. Compared with placebo, the glucose drink significantly improved tracking performance during encoding. There were significant time-related changes in thirst and alertness ratings but these were not differentially affected by drink or tracking conditions. Tracking but not memory was enhanced by glucose. This finding suggests that, under certain task conditions, glucose administrations does not preferentially enhance memory performance. One mechanism through which glucose acts as a cognition enhancer is through allowing greater allocation of attentional resources.

  13. Rapid and Accurate Machine Learning Recognition of High Performing Metal Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Michael; Boyd, Peter G; Daff, Thomas D; Aghaji, Mohammad Zein; Woo, Tom K

    2014-09-04

    In this work, we have developed quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models using advanced machine learning algorithms that can rapidly and accurately recognize high-performing metal organic framework (MOF) materials for CO2 capture. More specifically, QSPR classifiers have been developed that can, in a fraction of a section, identify candidate MOFs with enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity (>1 mmol/g at 0.15 bar and >4 mmol/g at 1 bar). The models were tested on a large set of 292 050 MOFs that were not part of the training set. The QSPR classifier could recover 945 of the top 1000 MOFs in the test set while flagging only 10% of the whole library for compute intensive screening. Thus, using the machine learning classifiers as part of a high-throughput screening protocol would result in an order of magnitude reduction in compute time and allow intractably large structure libraries and search spaces to be screened.

  14. A bibliometric analysis of 30 years of research and theory on Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Social Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, F.G.A.; Groenewegen, P.; den Hond, F.

    2005-01-01

    Social responsibilities of businesses and their managers have been discussed since the 1950s. Yet no consensus about progress has been achieved in the corporate social responsibility/corporate social performance literature. In this article, we seek to analyze three views on this literature. One view

  15. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal

  16. Different importance of the volatile and non-volatile fractions of an olfactory signature for individual social recognition in rats versus mice and short-term versus long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Julia; Richter, Karin; Laube, Gregor; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Veh, Rüdiger W; Engelmann, Mario

    2010-11-01

    When tested in the olfactory cued social recognition/discrimination test, rats and mice differ in their retention of a recognition memory for a previously encountered conspecific juvenile: Rats are able to recognize a given juvenile for approximately 45 min only whereas mice show not only short-term, but also long-term recognition memory (≥ 24 h). Here we modified the social recognition/social discrimination procedure to investigate the neurobiological mechanism(s) underlying the species differences. We presented a conspecific juvenile repeatedly to the experimental subjects and monitored the investigation duration as a measure for recognition. Presentation of only the volatile fraction of the juvenile olfactory signature was sufficient for both short- and long-term recognition in mice but not rats. Applying additional volatile, mono-molecular odours to the "to be recognized" juveniles failed to affect short-term memory in both species, but interfered with long-term recognition in mice. Finally immunocytochemical analysis of c-Fos as a marker for cellular activation, revealed that juvenile exposure stimulated areas involved in the processing of olfactory signals in both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb in mice. In rats, we measured an increased c-Fos synthesis almost exclusively in cells of the accessory olfactory bulb. Our data suggest that the species difference in the retention of social recognition memory is based on differences in the processing of the volatile versus non-volatile fraction of the individuals' olfactory signature. The non-volatile fraction is sufficient for retaining a short-term social memory only. Long-term social memory - as observed in mice - requires a processing of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of the olfactory signature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. La abierta competencia entre el reconocimiento jurídico y la valoración social: el caso de la violencia de pareja = The open competition between legal recognition and social assessment: the case of partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoff, María Carolina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using evidence from Mexico, this article analyzes the problem of women’s subjective appropriation of rights within the framework of new laws about gender equality and legislation against gender-based violence. Although we found evidence that supports an incipient social transformation, from a culture of traditional feminine virtues to a culture of rights, there are still many obstacles that prevent women’s full embracement of a culture of rights. At the individual level, women experience a contradiction between claiming their individual rights (having a life free of violence or keeping their social value and recognition (based on prescribed gender roles

  18. Social CRM Adoption and its Impact on Performance Outcomes: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marolt Marjeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Social customer relationship management (social CRM is an emerging concept that integrates traditional CRM and social media in order to provide benefits for organizations and customers. Despite the benefits that social CRM can bring, many organizations are still at the early stage of adoption. To move beyond social marketing and to exploit opportunities offered by sales and customer service, organizations need to be aware of factors that drive social CRM adoption and different implications of social CRM adoption for performance outcomes. This paper aims to provide a review of scholarly literature on social CRM adoption with the focus on factors and performance outcomes.

  19. Investigating social gaze as an action-perception online performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Simonin, Jérôme; Martin, Jean-Claude; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Gaze represents a major non-verbal communication channel in social interactions. In this respect, when facing another person, one's gaze should not be examined as a purely perceptive process but also as an action-perception online performance. However, little is known about processes involved in the real-time self-regulation of social gaze. The present study investigates the impact of a gaze-contingent viewing window on fixation patterns and the awareness of being the agent moving the window. In face-to-face scenarios played by a virtual human character, the task for the 18 adult participants was to interpret an equivocal sentence which could be disambiguated by examining the emotional expressions of the character speaking. The virtual character was embedded in naturalistic backgrounds to enhance realism. Eye-tracking data showed that the viewing window induced changes in gaze behavior, notably longer visual fixations. Notwithstanding, only half of the participants ascribed the window displacements to their eye movements. These participants also spent more time looking at the eyes and mouth regions of the virtual human character. The outcomes of the study highlight the dissociation between non-volitional gaze adaptation and the self-ascription of agency. Such dissociation provides support for a two-step account of the sense of agency composed of pre-noetic monitoring mechanisms and reflexive processes, linked by bottom-up and top-down processes. We comment upon these results, which illustrate the relevance of our method for studying online social cognition, in particular concerning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) where the poor pragmatic understanding of oral speech is considered linked to visual peculiarities that impede facial exploration.

  20. Actual and perceived expertise : the role of social comparison in the mastery of right and left recognition in novice-expert dyads

    OpenAIRE

    Grossen, Michèle; Iannaccone, Antonio; Liengme Bessire, Marie-Jeanne; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2010-01-01

    In line with the post-Piagetian strand, this article presents a study exploring the role of social comparison with regard to the individual benefits children might gain after a peer interaction session. 52 7-8 year-old children participated in the expenment. The task involved the recognition of right and left on one's own or another's body. The experimental design was a classical pretest-post-test design including an additional session in which the perceptions each child had of hisker own lev...

  1. Takaful Operators’ Corporate Social Performance (CSP: An Industry Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamat Amirul Afif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Takaful operators which are part of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs derive their fundamental principles from shariah. These religious based institutions are expected to fulfill the two important roles in their business operations: commercially profitable and socially responsible. Nevertheless, their societal role is rarely measured and discussed. Therefore, this study appraised the societal role of takaful operators by assessing the components which have been proposed under the corporate social performance (CSP theme for IFIs. This study has arranged structured interview sessions with the Chief Investment Officers and Heads of Investment of each of the eleven takaful operators in Malaysia. The Delphi-style technique was adopted when developing the interview questions. The questions were developed in the form of a five-point Likert scale, addressing specific issues on CSP of takaful operators. In addition, information on takaful operators’ CSR activities, zakat and tax payment were gathered from the companies’ websites and annual report of takaful operators. The study concludes that takaful operators in Malaysia have achieved their societal role through two channels: CSP programmes financed from companies’ profits and fulfillment of CSP as a result of business-community agenda. This study covers every takaful operator in Malaysia and the results reflect industry opinion.

  2. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  3. Relationship of Perceived Stress, Perfectionism and Social Support with Students’ Academic Burnout and -Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourseyyed SM

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.

  4. Effect of physical workload and modality of information presentation on pattern recognition and navigation task performance by high-fit young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabi, Maryam; Zhang, Wenjuan; Pankok, Carl; Lau, Mei Ying; Shirley, James; Kaber, David

    2017-11-01

    Many occupations require both physical exertion and cognitive task performance. Knowledge of any interaction between physical demands and modalities of cognitive task information presentation can provide a basis for optimising performance. This study examined the effect of physical exertion and modality of information presentation on pattern recognition and navigation-related information processing. Results indicated males of equivalent high fitness, between the ages of 18 and 34, rely more on visual cues vs auditory or haptic for pattern recognition when exertion level is high. We found that navigation response time was shorter under low and medium exertion levels as compared to high intensity. Navigation accuracy was lower under high level exertion compared to medium and low levels. In general, findings indicated that use of the haptic modality for cognitive task cueing decreased accuracy in pattern recognition responses. Practitioner Summary: An examination was conducted on the effect of physical exertion and information presentation modality in pattern recognition and navigation. In occupations requiring information presentation to workers, who are simultaneously performing a physical task, the visual modality appears most effective under high level exertion while haptic cueing degrades performance.

  5. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  6. Performance Comparison of Several Pre-Processing Methods in a Hand Gesture Recognition System based on Nearest Neighbor for Different Background Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Setyawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis and comparison of several pre-processing methods used in a hand gesture recognition system. The pre-processing methods are based on the combinations of several image processing operations, namely edge detection, low pass filtering, histogram equalization, thresholding and desaturation. The hand gesture recognition system is designed to classify an input image into one of six possible classes. The input images are taken with various background conditions. Our experiments showed that the best result is achieved when the pre-processing method consists of only a desaturation operation, achieving a classification accuracy of up to 83.15%.

  7. Impact of social innovation on organisational performance and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.; Vaas, F.

    2010-01-01

    Social innovation is an organisational capability, defined as a strategic renewal in organising & organisational behaviour. This capability may consist of four resources: strategic orientation, product-market improvement, flexible work & organising smarter. Social innovation is theoretically rooted

  8. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  9. The Impact of Social Capital on Crowdfunding Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Aprilia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effects of social capital—namely structural,relational, and cognitive dimensions—on crowdfunding performance usingKitabisa.com as a case study for 2013-2015. Using robust ordinary least squares methods, we find two important results. Structural dimension, which is measured by Facebook friends owned by an entrepreneur, affects crowdfundingsuccess. The cognitive dimension, which is measured by the number of wordsthat are written by entrepreneurs in the platform, also affects crowdfundingopportunities in order to wage a successful campaign. Using logistic regressiontechnique, this study finds the same result, namely that the structural dimensionand cognitive dimension have a positive relationship to the performance ofcrowdfunding. From a logistic regression, we can conclude that the number ofFacebook friends and the amount of words to describe the project significantlypositively influence the chances of success of the project; the more the number offriends and the number of words on a project, the greater chance of a project toachieve success. This study concludes Facebook friends owned by entrepreneurand number of words affect positively crowdfunding opportunities toward asuccessful campaign.

  10. Socially Responsible Investments : Methodology, Risk Exposure and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature on socially responsible investments (SRI). Over the past decade, SRI has experienced an explosive growth around the world. Particular to the SRI funds is that both financial goals and social objectives are pursued. While corporate social responsibility (CSR) -

  11. Social Networks Use, Loneliness and Academic Performance among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovska, Gordana; Angelkovska, Slagana; Grncarovska, Svetlana Pandiloska

    2016-01-01

    The world is extensively changed by Social Networks Sites (SNSs) on the Internet. A large number of children and adolescents in the world have access to the internet and are exposed to the internet at a very early age. Most of them use the Social Networks Sites with the purpose of exchanging academic activities and developing a social network all…

  12. The impact of social media on business performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.T.; Mogos, S.; van Hillegersberg, J.; van Heck, E.; Connolly, R.

    2013-01-01

    Social media are gaining popularity and are increasingly used in regular operations of many companies, including start-ups, small, medium-sized, and large organizations. The purpose of this research is to explore the impact of social media and to analyze to what extent social media have impact on

  13. The Link between Corporate Social Performance and Financial Performance: Evidence from Indonesian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fauzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship of corporate social performance (CSP to corporate financial performance (CFP to determine if CSP is related to firm performance.  Additionally, it examines whether firm size or industry affects the relationships between CSR and CSP. This study  advances the literature as it examines this relationship for companies in a developing country, Indonesia, along with examining the impact of moderating variables on this relationship. Two models were developed: the first model was derived using slack resource theory and the second model was developed using the good management theory. Through the examination of 383 firms, the result of the study failed to find a significant relationship between CSP and CFP in either model.  Further analysis, using the slack resource theory, did find that company size had a significant positive moderating effect on the relationship between CSP and CFP.

  14. The Effect of Cognitive and Relational Social Capital on Structural Social Capital and Micro-Enterprise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajennd A/L Muniady

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and its dimensions are highly interrelated, and the outcome of social capital provides entrepreneurs with resources and knowledge that are not available in the first place. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of relational and cognitive social capital on structural social capital and the effect of structural social capital on the performance of micro-enterprises owned and managed by women in Peninsular Malaysia. This study uses a cross-sectional approach, and quantitative data are collected through structured interviews. It was found that cognitive social capital has a significant positive effect on structural social capital, and structural social capital has a significant positive effect on micro-enterprise performance. It was found that relational social capital has a positive but insignificant effect on structural social capital. Therefore, women entrepreneurs should emphasize on making the communication process easier and on ensuring that their business values, norms, interpretation, and meaning are shared and communicated to relevant parties to improve network ties and to build a dense network, which is essential in providing access to resources and knowledge. This, in return, is expected to improve the micro-enterprise performance in Malaysia.

  15. Predicting performance and performance satisfaction: mindfulness and beliefs about the ability to deal with social barriers in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecharz, Jan; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Scholz, Urte; Schwarzer, Ralf; Siekanska, Malgorzata; Cieslak, Roman

    2014-05-01

    This research investigates the role of beliefs about the ability to deal with specific social barriers and its relationships to mindfulness, football performance, and satisfaction with one's own and team performance. Study 1 aimed at eliciting these social barriers. Study 2 tested (i) whether self-efficacy referring to social barriers would predict performance over and above task-related self-efficacy and collective efficacy and (ii) the mediating role of self-efficacy to overcome social barriers in the relationship between mindfulness and performance. Participants were football (soccer) players aged 16-21 years (Study 1: N=30; Study 2: N=101, longitudinal sample: n=88). Study 1 resulted in eliciting 82 social barriers referring to team, peer leadership, and coaches. Study 2 showed that task-related self-efficacy and collective efficacy explained performance satisfaction at seven-month follow-up, whereas self-efficacy referring to social barriers explained shooting performance at seven-month follow-up. Indirect associations between mindfulness and performance were found with three types of self-efficacy referring to social barriers, operating as parallel mediators. Results provide evidence for the role of beliefs about the ability to cope with social barriers and show a complex interplay between different types of self-efficacy and collective efficacy in predicting team sport performance.

  16. Pengaruh Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Dan Environmental Performance Terhadap Economic Performance Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Novitasari; Heriningsih, Sucahyo

    2012-01-01

    This research is aimed to examine effect Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) Disclosure and EnvironmentalPerformance on Economic Performance.This research used Corporate Social Responsibility Index (CSDI) asmeasure of CSR, Proper Index as measure of Environmental Performance and Return on Equity (ROE) asmeasure of Economic Performance. The samples of this research are 11 manufactur firms listed at IndonesianStock Exchange year 2006 until 2009. The research hyphotesis were tested using mu...

  17. Does cortisol modulate emotion recognition and empathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesenberg, Moritz; Weber, Juliane; Schulze, Lars; Schaeuffele, Carmen; Roepke, Stefan; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Emotion recognition and empathy are important aspects in the interaction and understanding of other people's behaviors and feelings. The Human environment comprises of stressful situations that impact social interactions on a daily basis. Aim of the study was to examine the effects of the stress hormone cortisol on emotion recognition and empathy. In this placebo-controlled study, 40 healthy men and 40 healthy women (mean age 24.5 years) received either 10mg of hydrocortisone or placebo. We used the Multifaceted Empathy Test to measure emotional and cognitive empathy. Furthermore, we examined emotion recognition from facial expressions, which contained two emotions (anger and sadness) and two emotion intensities (40% and 80%). We did not find a main effect for treatment or sex on either empathy or emotion recognition but a sex × emotion interaction on emotion recognition. The main result was a four-way-interaction on emotion recognition including treatment, sex, emotion and task difficulty. At 40% task difficulty, women recognized angry faces better than men in the placebo condition. Furthermore, in the placebo condition, men recognized sadness better than anger. At 80% task difficulty, men and women performed equally well in recognizing sad faces but men performed worse compared to women with regard to angry faces. Apparently, our results did not support the hypothesis that increases in cortisol concentration alone influence empathy and emotion recognition in healthy young individuals. However, sex and task difficulty appear to be important variables in emotion recognition from facial expressions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of EphA4 impairs short-term spatial recognition memory performance and locomotor habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, R; Winter, C; Wieske, F; Kempf, A; Yee, B K; Schwab, M E; Singer, P

    2012-11-01

    EphA4 receptor (EphA4) tyrosine kinase is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity in the mature brain, but its relevance to the control of normal behavior remains largely unexplored. This study is the first attempt to obtain a behavioral profile of constitutive homozygous and heterozygous EphA4 knockout mice. A deficit in locomotor habituation in the open field, impairment in spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reduced probability of spatial spontaneous alternation in the T-maze were identified in homozygous EphA4(-/-) mice, while heterozygo us EphA4(+/-) mice appeared normal on these tests in comparison with wild-type (WT) controls. The multiple phenotypes observed in EphA4(-/-) mice might stem from an underlying deficit in habituation learning, reflecting an elementary form of nonassociative learning that is in contrast to Pavlovian associative learning, which appeared unaffected by EphA4 disruption. A deficit in motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod was also demonstrated only in EphA4(-/-) mice--a finding in keeping with the presence of abnormal gait in EphA4(-/-) mice--although they were able to improve performance over training. There was no evidence for substantial changes in major neurochemical markers in various brain regions rich in EphA4 as shown by post-mortem analysis. This excludes the possibility of major neurochemical compensation in the brain of EphA4(-/-) mice. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time the behavioral significance of EphA4 disruption, supporting further investigation of EphA4 as a possible target for behavioral interventions where habituation deficits are prominent. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Quantitative and pattern recognition analysis of five marker compounds in Raphani semen using high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeon Woo; Lee, Joo Sang; Zhao, Bing Tian; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun [College of Pharmacy, Drug Research and Development Center, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Ah [College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Rhan Woo [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array (PDA) analytical method was developed for the quantitative analysis of Raphani Semen (RS). This method was successfully used to determine the five main phenolic compounds found in RS specimens from different production regions. The compounds included sinapine thiocyanate (1), β-d-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (2), isorhamnetin 3,4′-di-O-β-d-glucoside (3), β-d-(3-O-sinapoyl)-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (4), and β-d-(3,4-O-disinapoyl)-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (5). The marker compounds were separated using an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column (5.0 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm i.d.) by gradient elution with acetonitrile/water/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as the mobile phase (flow rate, 1.0 mL/min). This method was fully validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and robustness. The HPLC analytical method was validated to conduct a pattern recognition analysis by repeatedly analyzing 56 seed samples including 55 RS (C01–C49 and K50–K55) and 1 Brassicae Semen samples. In addition, a content standard for RS was proposed. Compounds 1 and 4 were revealed as major components in the HPLC chromatogram, and their contents ranged from 0.06 to 0.20 and 0.02 to 0.35 mg/g, respectively. These results demonstrate the successful development of an analytical method suitable for evaluating the quality and distinguishing the origin of RS. In addition, we briefly describe the crucial liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical conditions for the precise simultaneous quantification of the marker compounds.

  20. Quantitative and pattern recognition analysis of five marker compounds in Raphani semen using high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeon Woo; Lee, Joo Sang; Zhao, Bing Tian; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Eun, Rhan Woo

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array (PDA) analytical method was developed for the quantitative analysis of Raphani Semen (RS). This method was successfully used to determine the five main phenolic compounds found in RS specimens from different production regions. The compounds included sinapine thiocyanate (1), β-d-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (2), isorhamnetin 3,4′-di-O-β-d-glucoside (3), β-d-(3-O-sinapoyl)-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (4), and β-d-(3,4-O-disinapoyl)-fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (5). The marker compounds were separated using an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column (5.0 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm i.d.) by gradient elution with acetonitrile/water/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as the mobile phase (flow rate, 1.0 mL/min). This method was fully validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and robustness. The HPLC analytical method was validated to conduct a pattern recognition analysis by repeatedly analyzing 56 seed samples including 55 RS (C01–C49 and K50–K55) and 1 Brassicae Semen samples. In addition, a content standard for RS was proposed. Compounds 1 and 4 were revealed as major components in the HPLC chromatogram, and their contents ranged from 0.06 to 0.20 and 0.02 to 0.35 mg/g, respectively. These results demonstrate the successful development of an analytical method suitable for evaluating the quality and distinguishing the origin of RS. In addition, we briefly describe the crucial liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical conditions for the precise simultaneous quantification of the marker compounds

  1. Measuring economic performance, social progress and sustainability using an index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The energy crisis and a greater awareness among the general public regarding the issue of climate change have, between them, led to a notable increase in the interest shown by governments in relation to the problem of environmental sustainability. An example has been the initiative taken by the President of France to set up a commission, known as the Sarkozy Commission, named after the President, bringing together renowned economists to study and propose forms of economic performance measurement related to social progress. This article aims to propose a methodology to establish a quantitative definition of sustainability structured on the principles of minimum and maximum entropy production, and, based on this, outline a way of organizing the many sources of, and kinds of energy, we have available to us in order of the intensity of their respective environmental impacts. Based on this, we could produce an Environmental Sustainability Index, linked to existing statistical indicators of human development, and thereby arrive at a Sustainable Human Development Index, which would be positively or negatively influenced by parameters linked to environmental sustainability and quality of life. In order to ensure that this index can produce practical results, the WTO (World Trade Organization) would have to establish a scale of increments, to be applied to export tariffs on products originating in countries with different indexes. (author)

  2. Research Less Violent? Or the Ethics of Performative Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabi Redwood

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I construct an argument which positions research as an inherently violent activity in which the strange is made to appear familiar thereby forcing the otherness of the other into some kind of order, and transforming the unknown into the knowable. Through organising data and imposing an order—which is arguably the point of any analysis and representation—the wild profusion of things is tamed (to use a Foucauldian metaphor. Thus ambiguity and difference are flattened out, and indeterminacy is overlaid with "findings". Furthermore, research can also be seen as an activity in which the moral choices, ethical and analytical decisions, and personal investments of the researcher are secreted away and so are made to appear natural and innocent. I argue that there is an opportunity for performative social science research to remember the ethical consequences of analysis and representation and to take responsibility for the violence of taming the wild profusion of data. This opportunity resides in its potential to show, not tell; to be open to the future, another happening, another event rather than to settle for one final conclusion and close down other possibilities; and to provoke critique, resistance and political action rather than appeal for agreement, conformity and indifference. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802608

  3. Social networks, geographic proximity, and firm performance in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses panel data to assess the relative importance of social networks and geographic proximity to micro, small, and medium enterprises in Viet Nam. The results suggest that a larger social network, and hiring employees mainly through social networks, are both correlated with higher value added per worker. The number of government officials and civil servants in a firm's network emerges as particularly important. When the quality of contacts is controlled for, firms with tighter soci...

  4. Social networks and performance in distributed learning communities

    OpenAIRE

    Cadima, Rita; Ojeda Rodríguez, Jordi; Monguet Fierro, José María

    2012-01-01

    Social networks play an essential role in learning environments as a key channel for knowledge sharing and students' support. In distributed learning communities, knowledge sharing does not occur as spontaneously as when a working group shares the same physical space; knowledge sharing depends even more on student informal connections. In this study we analyse two distributed learning communities' social networks in order to understand how characteristics of the social structure can enhance s...

  5. Oxytocin improves emotion recognition for older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted; Murray, Janice E; Glue, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Older adults (≥60 years) perform worse than young adults (18-30 years) when recognizing facial expressions of emotion. The hypothesized cause of these changes might be declines in neurotransmitters that could affect information processing within the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuropeptide oxytocin that functions to increase neurotransmission. Research suggests that oxytocin benefits the emotion recognition of less socially able individuals. Men tend to have lower levels of oxytocin and older men tend to have worse emotion recognition than older women; therefore, there is reason to think that older men will be particularly likely to benefit from oxytocin. We examined this idea using a double-blind design, testing 68 older and 68 young adults randomly allocated to receive oxytocin nasal spray (20 international units) or placebo. Forty-five minutes afterward they completed an emotion recognition task assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, neutral, and sad faces. Older males receiving oxytocin showed improved emotion recognition relative to those taking placebo. No differences were found for older females or young adults. We hypothesize that oxytocin facilitates emotion recognition by improving neurotransmission in the group with the worst emotion recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bias or reality? : negative perceptions of ambiguous social cues, social performance and physical arousal in socially anxious youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miers, Anne Claire

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the negative perceptions of socially anxious youth in three different cognitive domains: (a) interpretation of ambiguous social situations, (b) self-evaluation of social skills and nervous behaviors, and (c) perception of physical arousal during social situations. It also

  7. The Relationship Between Goal Orientation, Social Comparison Responses, Self-Efficacy, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Carmen; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Peiro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As

  8. The associations between organizational social capital, perceived health, and employeese performance in two dutch companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheppingen, A.R. van; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Have, K.C.J.M. ten; Bos, E.H.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between organizational (bonding, bridging, and linking) social capital, employees' health, and employees' performance. METHODS: Linear regression on cross-sectional data among 718 employees in two Dutch companies. RESULTS: Organizational social capital was

  9. Debates actuales en torno a las políticas del reconocimiento: constitución de los sujetos y cambio social Current discussions about the policies of recognition: constitution of the subjects and social change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Ramaglia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las perspectivas que ofrece la teoría del reconocimiento para comprender las transformaciones que vienen sucediéndose de modo acelerado en las sociedades contemporáneas se han convertido en un eje de debate en la filosofía social y política. En particular se examinan algunas de las propuestas teóricas que parten de la consideración del sentido antropológico del reconocimiento y su relectura desde la definición que tiene en la cultura moderna, en pensadores como Rousseau y Hegel, para ofrecer diferentes claves de interpretación de los procesos de cambio social que han ido produciéndose en la actualidad. Una de las opciones analizadas se vincula con el filósofo frankfurtiano Axel Honneth, quien ha desarrollado un conjunto de tesis acerca de la relevancia del reconocimiento recíproco en relación a las dinámicas que movilizan los conflictos sociales. Además de la necesidad de contrastar este planteo con otros enfoques contemporáneos, se revisan algunos supuestos y alcances de la teoría del reconocimiento desde una perspectiva crítica que se contextualiza en el marco de las transformaciones producidas con la globalización y la crisis reciente que atraviesan las sociedades capitalistas. Desde este punto de vista, interesa indagar sobre la significación de las manifestaciones alternativas de los movimientos sociales en sus formas novedosas de protesta y reclamo de justicia. En este sentido, se ensayan algunos lineamientos en torno a las políticas del reconocimiento, en cuanto esta discusión implica una evaluación de la igualdad y la diferencia como principios normativos y orientadores de los cambios materiales y culturales que se presentan en el mundo actual.The perspectives provided by the recognition theory to understand the transformations that have been happening in contemporary societies, have swiftly turned into a focus of discussion in social and political philosophy. Especially there are examined some theoretical

  10. Use of social media in health promotion: purposes, key performance indicators, and evaluation metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiger, Brad L; Thackeray, Rosemary; Van Wagenen, Sarah A; Hanson, Carl L; West, Joshua H; Barnes, Michael D; Fagen, Michael C

    2012-03-01

    Despite the expanding use of social media, little has been published about its appropriate role in health promotion, and even less has been written about evaluation. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) outline purposes for social media in health promotion, (b) identify potential key performance indicators associated with these purposes, and (c) propose evaluation metrics for social media related to the key performance indicators. Process evaluation is presented in this article as an overarching evaluation strategy for social media.

  11. Influence of Individuals’ Social Media Promotion on the Company’s Performance : Case: Spotted by Locals

    OpenAIRE

    Kukhalashvili, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explored the connection between individuals’ social media promotion and its influence on the company’s performance. The definitions of social media and social media marketing were covered, taking into consideration both the advantages and disadvantages of using it within a company’s strategy. The main task was to find out what impact social media on marketing a company’s performance (readership) on the web. The literature review helped provide valuable information about th...

  12. Performance related pay (PRP) to social workers in Danish Job Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg Jensen, Maya; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?......This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?...

  13. Social Capital and School Performance: A Local-Level Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagens, Gregory K.

    Scholars theorize that social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups. Robert Putnam claims to have found support for this theory in his studies of Italy and the United States. In each case he concludes that the presence of social capital generalized norms of trust and reciprocity is sufficient to predict progress on a variety…

  14. Impact of SNR, masker type and noise reduction processing on sentence recognition performance and listening effort as indicated by the pupil dilation response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Wendt, Dorothea; Kramer, Sophia E

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that activating the noise reduction scheme in hearing aids results in a smaller peak pupil dilation (PPD), indicating reduced listening effort, at 50% and 95% correct sentence recognition with a 4-talker masker. The objective of this study was to measure the effect...... of the noise reduction scheme (on or off) on PPD and sentence recognition across a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) from +16 dB to -12 dB and two masker types (4-talker and stationary noise). Relatively low PPDs were observed at very low (-12 dB) and very high (+16 dB to +8 dB) SNRs presumably due...... to 'giving up' and 'easy listening', respectively. The maximum PPD was observed with SNRs at approximately 50% correct sentence recognition. Sentence recognition with both masker types was significantly improved by the noise reduction scheme, which corresponds to the shift in performance from SNR function...

  15. 'The Great Fiasco' of the 1948 presidential election polls: status recognition and norms conflict in social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusinchi, Dominic

    2018-05-14

    All three 'scientific' pollsters (Crossley, Gallup and Roper) wrongly predicted incumbent President Harry Truman's defeat in the 1948 presidential election, and thus faced a potentially serious legitimacy crisis. This 'fiasco' occurred at a most inopportune time. Social science was embroiled in a policy debate taking place in the halls of Congress. It was fighting a losing battle to be included, along with the natural sciences, in the National Science Foundation, for which legislation was being drafted. Faced with the failure of the polls, the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) intervened quickly to prevent social science's adversaries from using this event to degrade further its status. After all, many social scientists considered the sample survey as the paramount tool of social research, and sampling as one of social science's greatest innovation. Concurrently, there was an ongoing conflict among polling practitioners themselves-between advocates of probability sampling and users of quotas, like the pollsters. The SSRC committee appointed to evaluate the polling debacle managed to keep this contentious issue of sampling from becoming the centre of attention. Given the inauspicious environment in which this event happened, the SSRC did not wish to advertise the fact that the house of social science was in turmoil.

  16. Developing a Social Enterprise Performance Scale and Examining the Relationship Between Entrepreneurs’ Personality Traits and Their Perceived Enterprise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Tung Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the lack of measurement tools and the research gap regarding social entrepreneurship, three studies were conducted to develop a new measure of social enterprise (SE performance that is empirically valid and easy to administer. The purpose of this measure was to examine the relationship between entrepreneurs’ personality traits and their perceived SE performance. The results indicated that SE performance can be assessed using four dimensions: personal issues, social aspects, business elements, and service programmes. Extraversion positively influenced service programmes, and openness negatively affected service programmes. Neuroticism and conscientiousness positively predicted personal issues and service programmes, and agreeableness positively predicted all dimensions of perceived SE performance. The results also demonstrated the curvilinear relationship of the U-shaped curve between neuroticism and personal issues and the social aspects of SE performance. Furthermore, the results showed the curvilinear relationship of the inverted U-shaped curve between agreeableness and the four dimensions of SE performance.

  17. Developing a Social Enterprise Performance Scale and Examining the Relationship Between Entrepreneurs’ Personality Traits and Their Perceived Enterprise Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chao-Tung; Peng, Li-Pei; Yao, Shu-Nung; Liang, Chaoyun

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the lack of measurement tools and the research gap regarding social entrepreneurship, three studies were conducted to develop a new measure of social enterprise (SE) performance that is empirically valid and easy to administer. The purpose of this measure was to examine the relationship between entrepreneurs’ personality traits and their perceived SE performance. The results indicated that SE performance can be assessed using four dimensions: personal issues, so...

  18. People with chronic facial pain perform worse than controls at a facial emotion recognition task, but it is not all about the emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, H; Wallwork, S B; Mohr, G; Butler, D S; Moseley, G L

    2015-04-01

    Alexithymia, or a lack of emotional awareness, is prevalent in some chronic pain conditions and has been linked to poor recognition of others' emotions. Recognising others' emotions from their facial expression involves both emotional and motor processing, but the possible contribution of motor disruption has not been considered. It is possible that poor performance on emotional recognition tasks could reflect problems with emotional processing, motor processing or both. We hypothesised that people with chronic facial pain would be less accurate in recognising others' emotions from facial expressions, would be less accurate in a motor imagery task involving the face, and that performance on both tasks would be positively related. A convenience sample of 19 people (15 females) with chronic facial pain and 19 gender-matched controls participated. They undertook two tasks; in the first task, they identified the facial emotion presented in a photograph. In the second, they identified whether the person in the image had a facial feature pointed towards their left or right side, a well-recognised paradigm to induce implicit motor imagery. People with chronic facial pain performed worse than controls at both tasks (Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL) task P facial pain were worse than controls at both the FEEL emotion recognition task and the left/right facial expression task and performance covaried within participants. We propose that disrupted motor processing may underpin or at least contribute to the difficulty that facial pain patients have in emotion recognition and that further research that tests this proposal is warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A model for evaluating the social performance of construction waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hongping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Scant attention is paid to social performance of construction waste management (CWM). ► We develop a model for assessing the social performance of CWM. ► With the model, the social performance of CWM can be quantitatively simulated. - Abstract: It has been determined by existing literature that a lot of research efforts have been made to the economic performance of construction waste management (CWM), but less attention is paid to investigation of the social performance of CWM. This study therefore attempts to develop a model for quantitatively evaluating the social performance of CWM by using a system dynamics (SD) approach. Firstly, major variables affecting the social performance of CWM are identified and a holistic system for assessing the social performance of CWM is formulated in line with feedback relationships underlying these variables. The developed system is then converted into a SD model through the software iThink. An empirical case study is finally conducted to demonstrate application of the model. Results of model validation indicate that the model is robust and reasonable to reflect the situation of the real system under study. Findings of the case study offer helpful insights into effectively promoting the social performance of CWM of the project investigated. Furthermore, the model exhibits great potential to function as an experimental platform for dynamically evaluating effects of management measures on improving the social performance of CWM of construction projects.

  20. Social Factors and Performance of Elite which Hinder Organizational Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Boguslavski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite possible differences in official ideology the drawbacks of social organization and the absence of sound approach to social and personal conflicts cause constant demolition of existing formal institutions for the sake of the survival of the system. The neglect of these drawbacks brings about old problems to be transferred to the “new” state. The level of social and human capital and its proper utilization guarantees progressive development. The shifts in organizational policy is also reflected by the consequent shift in the theoretical paradigm, from treatment of a participant of the structure as an object, then as the user and finally as the client. The lack of social capital generates a vicious cycle, which brings about the necessity of object-based relations and the spread of all-pervasive protecting informality to compensate for object-based relations.

  1. A Preliminary study on the Biased Attention and Interpretation in the Recognition of Face-body Compound of the Individuals with Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun eKim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the processes through which individuals with social anxiety attend to and interpret compound emotional expressions of the face and body. Incongruent face-body compound images that combined an angry face (or body with a fearful, sad, or happy body (or face were presented to a social anxiety group (SA; n=22 and a healthy control group (HC; n=22. The participants were instructed to interpret the emotional state of the image, and their eye-movements and behavioral responses were measured. The results revealed that both group showed longer scanpath length during the recognition of compound images which combined angry face with angry, fearful, sadness, or happy body. The SA group also showed longer scanpath length in congruent face-body compound images of fear and sad. Additionally, the SA group fixated for a shorter period of time on the face and longer on the body than the HC group. Regarding emotion interpretation, the SA group was more likely to interpret the emotional state of incongruent face-body compound images based on the body than the HC group. These findings provide a preliminary observation that individuals with social anxiety showed different attentional bias pattern by congruency of face-body compound images and that it might have biased their interpretations of the emotional states.

  2. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  3. Nicotinic α7 and α4β2 agonists enhance the formation and retrieval of recognition memory: Potential mechanisms for cognitive performance enhancement in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Samantha L; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Zarroug, Samah H O; Harte, Michael K; Neill, Jo C

    2016-04-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction has been shown to be central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and has also been postulated to contribute to cognitive dysfunction observed in various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Deficits are found across a number of cognitive domains and in spite of several attempts to develop new therapies, these remain an unmet clinical need. In the current study we investigated the efficacy of donepezil, risperidone and selective nicotinic α7 and α4β2 receptor agonists to reverse a delay-induced deficit in recognition memory. Adult female Hooded Lister rats received drug treatments and were tested in the novel object recognition (NOR) task following a 6h inter-trial interval (ITI). In all treatment groups, there was no preference for the left or right identical objects in the acquisition trial. Risperidone failed to enhance recognition memory in this paradigm whereas donepezil was effective such that rats discriminated between the novel and familiar object in the retention trial following a 6h ITI. Although a narrow dose range of PNU-282987 and RJR-2403 was tested, only one dose of each increased recognition memory, the highest dose of PNU-282987 (10mg/kg) and the lowest dose of RJR-2403 (0.1mg/kg), indicative of enhanced cognitive performance. Interestingly, these compounds were also efficacious when administered either before the acquisition or the retention trial of the task, suggesting an important role for nicotinic receptor subtypes in the formation and retrieval of recognition memory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. How fast is famous face recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys eBarragan-Jason

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid recognition of familiar faces is crucial for social interactions. However the actual speed with which recognition can be achieved remains largely unknown as most studies have been carried out without any speed constraints. Different paradigms have been used, leading to conflicting results, and although many authors suggest that face recognition is fast, the speed of face recognition has not been directly compared to fast visual tasks. In this study, we sought to overcome these limitations. Subjects performed three tasks, a familiarity categorization task (famous faces among unknown faces, a superordinate categorization task (human faces among animal ones and a gender categorization task. All tasks were performed under speed constraints. The results show that, despite the use of speed constraints, subjects were slow when they had to categorize famous faces: minimum reaction time was 467 ms, which is 180 ms more than during superordinate categorization and 160 ms more than in the gender condition. Our results are compatible with a hierarchy of face processing from the superordinate level to the familiarity level. The processes taking place between detection and recognition need to be investigated in detail.

  5. Who's afraid of the boss: cultural differences in social hierarchies modulate self-face recognition in Chinese and Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Sook-Lei; Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2011-02-16

    Human adults typically respond faster to their own face than to the faces of others. However, in Chinese participants, this self-face advantage is lost in the presence of one's supervisor, and they respond faster to their supervisor's face than to their own. While this "boss effect" suggests a strong modulation of self-processing in the presence of influential social superiors, the current study examined whether this effect was true across cultures. Given the wealth of literature on cultural differences between collectivist, interdependent versus individualistic, independent self-construals, we hypothesized that the boss effect might be weaker in independent than interdependent cultures. Twenty European American college students were asked to identify orientations of their own face or their supervisors' face. We found that European Americans, unlike Chinese participants, did not show a "boss effect" and maintained the self-face advantage even in the presence of their supervisor's face. Interestingly, however, their self-face advantage decreased as their ratings of their boss's perceived social status increased, suggesting that self-processing in Americans is influenced more by one's social status than by one's hierarchical position as a social superior. In addition, when their boss's face was presented with a labmate's face, American participants responded faster to the boss's face, indicating that the boss may represent general social dominance rather than a direct negative threat to oneself, in more independent cultures. Altogether, these results demonstrate a strong cultural modulation of self-processing in social contexts and suggest that the very concept of social positions, such as a boss, may hold markedly different meanings to the self across Western and East Asian cultures.

  6. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations Between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye eVan der Fluit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test, as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale. Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. In addition, a significant improvement in performance was seen with the added scaffolding particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning.

  7. Caffeine improves adult mice performance in the object recognition task and increases BDNF and TrkB independent on phospho-CREB immunocontent in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelo S; Botton, Paulo H; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Ardais, Ana Paula; Moreira, Julia D; Souza, Diogo O; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2008-09-01

    Caffeine is one of the most psychostimulants consumed all over the world that usually presents positive effects on cognition. In this study, effects of caffeine on mice performance in the object recognition task were tested in different intertrial intervals. In addition, it was analyzed the effects of caffeine on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, immunocontent to try to establish a connection between the behavioral finding and BDNF, one of the neurotrophins strictly involved in memory and learning process. CF1 mice were treated during 4 consecutive days with saline (0.9g%, i.p.) or caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p., equivalent dose corresponding to 2-3 cups of coffee). Caffeine treatment was interrupted 24h before the object recognition task analysis. In the test session performed 15min after training session, caffeine-treated mice recognized more efficiently both the familiar and the novel object. In the test session performed 90min and 24h after training session, caffeine did not change the time spent in the familiar object but increased the object recognition index, when compared to control group. Western blotting analysis of hippocampus from caffeine-treated mice revealed an increase in BDNF and TrkB immunocontent, compared to their saline-matched controls. Phospho-CREB immunocontent did not change with caffeine treatment. Our results suggest that acute treatment with caffeine improves recognition memory, and this effect may be related to an increase of the BDNF and TrkB immunocontent in the hippocampus.

  8. Psychological contract breach and work performance: Is social exchange a buffer or an intensifier?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Chiaburu, D.S.; Jansen, P.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how social exchanges modify the relationship between psychological contract breach and work performance. It aims to present two concurrent hypotheses, based on theoretical interaction effects of social exchanges (conceptualized as social exchange

  9. Gender differences in recognition of toy faces suggest a contribution of experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Kaitlin F.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    When there is a gender effect, women perform better then men in face recognition tasks. Prior work has not documented a male advantage on a face recognition task, suggesting that women may outperform men at face recognition generally either due to evolutionary reasons or the influence of social roles. Here, we question the idea that women excel at all face recognition and provide a proof of concept based on a face category for which men outperform women. We developed a test of face learning t...

  10. Performance Comparison of Several Pre-Processing Methods in a Hand Gesture Recognition System based on Nearest Neighbor for Different Background Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lionnie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis and comparison of several pre-processing  methods  used  in  a  hand  gesture  recognition  system.  The  preprocessing methods are based on the combinations ofseveral image processing operations,  namely  edge  detection,  low  pass  filtering,  histogram  equalization, thresholding and desaturation. The hand gesture recognition system is designed to classify an input image into one of six possibleclasses. The input images are taken with various background conditions. Our experiments showed that the best result is achieved when the pre-processing method consists of only a desaturation operation, achieving a classification accuracy of up to 83.15%.

  11. Social capital, trust, and firm performance: the value of corporate social responsibility during the financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Lins, K V; Servaes, H; Tamayo, A

    2017-01-01

    During the 2008-2009 financial crisis, firms with high social capital, measured as corporate social responsibility (CSR) intensity, had stock returns that were four to seven percentage points higher than firms with low social capital. High-CSR firms also experienced higher profitability, growth, and sales per employee relative to low-CSR firms, and they raised more debt. This evidence suggests that the trust between the firm and both its stakeholders and investors, built through investments i...

  12. A performance comparison of two emotion-recognition implementations using OpenCV and Cognitive Services API

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Prieto Luis Antonio; Komínkova-Oplatková Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Emotions represent feelings about people in several situations. Various machine learning algorithms have been developed for emotion detection in a multimedia element, such as an image or a video. These techniques can be measured by comparing their accuracy with a given dataset in order to determine which algorithm can be selected among others. This paper deals with the comparison of two implementations of emotion recognition in faces, each implemented with specific technology. OpenCV is an op...

  13. Predictive factor analysis for successful performance of iris recognition-assisted dynamic rotational eye tracking during laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Ashok Kumar, Dhivya; Agarwal, Amar; Jacob, Soosan; Sarvanan, Yoga; Agarwal, Athiya

    2010-02-01

    To analyze the predictive factors associated with success of iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking on a laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) platform with active assessment and correction of intraoperative cyclotorsion. Interventional case series. Two hundred seventy-five eyes of 142 consecutive candidates underwent LASIK with attempted iris recognition and dynamic rotational tracking on the Technolas 217z100 platform (Techolas Perfect Vision, St Louis, Missouri, USA) at a tertiary care ophthalmic hospital. The main outcome measures were age, gender, flap creation method (femtosecond, microkeratome, epi-LASIK), success of static rotational tracking, ablation algorithm, pulses, and depth; preablation and intraablation rotational activity were analyzed and evaluated using regression models. Preablation static iris recognition was successful in 247 eyes, without difference in flap creation methods (P = .6). Age (partial correlation, -0.16; P = .014), amount of pulses (partial correlation, 0.39; P = 1.6 x 10(-8)), and gender (P = .02) were significant predictive factors for the amount of intraoperative cyclodeviation. Tracking difficulties leading to linking the ablation with a new intraoperatively acquired iris image were more with femtosecond-assisted flaps (P = 2.8 x 10(-7)) and the amount of intraoperative cyclotorsion (P = .02). However, the number of cases having nonresolvable failure of intraoperative rotational tracking was similar in the 3 flap creation methods (P = .22). Intraoperative cyclotorsional activity depends on the age, gender, and duration of ablation (pulses delivered). Femtosecond flaps do not seem to have a disadvantage over microkeratome flaps as far as iris recognition and success of intraoperative dynamic rotational tracking is concerned. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Theory of mind and its relationship with executive functions and emotion recognition in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Marengo, Juan; Perez, Ana; Huepe, David; Font, Fernanda Giralt; Rial, Veronica; Gonzalez-Gadea, María Luz; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-09-01

    Impaired social cognition has been claimed to be a mechanism underlying the development and maintenance of borderline personality disorder (BPD). One important aspect of social cognition is the theory of mind (ToM), a complex skill that seems to be influenced by more basic processes, such as executive functions (EF) and emotion recognition. Previous ToM studies in BPD have yielded inconsistent results. This study assessed the performance of BPD adults on ToM, emotion recognition, and EF tasks. We also examined whether EF and emotion recognition could predict the performance on ToM tasks. We evaluated 15 adults with BPD and 15 matched healthy controls using different tasks of EF, emotion recognition, and ToM. The results showed that BPD adults exhibited deficits in the three domains, which seem to be task-dependent. Furthermore, we found that EF and emotion recognition predicted the performance on ToM. Our results suggest that tasks that involve real-life social scenarios and contextual cues are more sensitive to detect ToM and emotion recognition deficits in BPD individuals. Our findings also indicate that (a) ToM variability in BPD is partially explained by individual differences on EF and emotion recognition; and (b) ToM deficits of BPD patients are partially explained by the capacity to integrate cues from face, prosody, gesture, and social context to identify the emotions and others' beliefs. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Differential modulation of lateral septal vasopressin receptor blockade in spatial learning, social recognition, and anxiety-related behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    The role of lateral septal vasopressin (VP) in the modulation of spatial memory, social memory, and anxiety-related behavior was studied in adult, male Wistar rats. Animals were equipped with osmotic minipumps delivering the VP-antagonist d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (1 ng/0.5 mu l per h) bilaterally into

  16. Sport Motor Competencies and the Experience of Social Recognition among Peers in Physical Education--A Video-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimminger, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Being recognized as a competent and accepted member in the peer group is one of the most important basic human needs for children and youth. However, it is the peer group itself that decides which competencies are estimated and which are not, and through this process, a social order as well as peer power constellations is created.…

  17. The relation of emotion recognition and social behavioral problems in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Maraike; Aarnoudse, Cecilia; Boon, Maartje; Veenstra, Wencke

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) often show cognitive and behavioral problems (Martin et al., 2011). Huijbregts et al. (2010) investigated cognitive problems in children with NF1 focusing on social information processing. They found that bottom-up as well as top-down processes

  18. A cultural setting where the other-race effect on face recognition has no social-motivational component and derives entirely from lifetime perceptual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Reynolds, Katherine J; Irons, Jessica L; McKone, Elinor

    2015-11-01

    Competing approaches to the other-race effect (ORE) see its primary cause as either a lack of motivation to individuate social outgroup members, or a lack of perceptual experience with other-race faces. Here, we argue that the evidence supporting the social-motivational approach derives from a particular cultural setting: a high socio-economic status group (typically US Whites) looking at the faces of a lower status group (US Blacks) with whom observers typically have at least moderate perceptual experience. In contrast, we test motivation-to-individuate instructions across five studies covering an extremely wide range of perceptual experience, in a cultural setting of more equal socio-economic status, namely Asian and Caucasian participants (N = 480) tested on Asian and Caucasian faces. We find no social-motivational component at all to the ORE, specifically: no reduction in the ORE with motivation instructions, including for novel images of the faces, and at all experience levels; no increase in correlation between own- and other-race face recognition, implying no increase in shared processes; and greater (not the predicted less) effort applied to distinguishing other-race faces than own-race faces under normal ("no instructions") conditions. Instead, the ORE was predicted by level of contact with the other-race. Our results reject both pure social-motivational theories and also the recent Categorization-Individuation model of Hugenberg, Young, Bernstein, and Sacco (2010). We propose a new dual-route approach to the ORE, in which there are two causes of the ORE-lack of motivation, and lack of experience--that contribute differently across varying world locations and cultural settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feeling safe but appearing anxious: Differential effects of alcohol on anxiety and social performance in individuals with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Stephan; Cooper, Ruth; Bantin, Trisha; Hermann, Christiane; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2017-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) co-occur frequently and there is preliminary evidence that alcohol might reduce social anxiety. It is, however, unclear which mechanisms contribute to the anxiety reducing effect, particularly regarding key aspects of social anxiety such as deficits in social performance. We compared self-rated and physiological measures of anxiety as well as self- and observer-rated social performance in a sample of 62 individuals with SAD and 60 nonanxious control participants during a speech task after receiving either alcohol, an alcohol-free placebo drink or orange juice. SAD patients reported more anxiety during the speech task than did control participants. Furthermore, SAD patients underestimated their performance in comparison to observer ratings. Alcohol reduced self-report anxiety only in SAD patients, while observers rated all participants as less competent when intoxicated. Although individuals with SAD experience a reduction in anxiety when drinking alcohol, simultaneous decreases in social performance might contribute to negative reactions from others and consequently increase the risk of further alcohol use to cope with these negative reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Organizational configurations and performance of Dutch social housing associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, S.W.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper starts from the idea that organizations “are best understood as clusters of interconnected structures and practices” (Fiss, 2007:1180). At the beginning of the study, organizational features of Dutch social housing associations were identified (Cloudt & Geurts, 2013) and checked for

  1. The social-material performance of cozy interiority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jeppe Trolle

    2012-01-01

    Based on ethnographic observations and interviews in cafés in Copenhagen, and online descriptions in which users review their experience of cafés, this paper focuses on how materiality and sociality inter-relate to constitute a relaxed, pleasant sense of atmosphere: That which in Denmark as known...

  2. Social Networks and Performance in Distributed Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ojeda, Jordi; Monguet, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks play an essential role in learning environments as a key channel for knowledge sharing and students' support. In distributed learning communities, knowledge sharing does not occur as spontaneously as when a working group shares the same physical space; knowledge sharing depends even more on student informal connections. In this…

  3. Shareholder Engagement on Environmental, Social, and Governance Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkó, Tamás; Cremers, M.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    We study investor activism promoting environmental, social and governance (ESG) improvements using a proprietary dataset covering 660 companies globally over 2005-2014. Targets have a higher market share, analyst coverage, stock returns, and liquidity. The engagements lead to significant ESG rating

  4. SOCIAL CONTEXT, MANAGEMENT, AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE : When human capital and social capital serve as substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Favero, Nathan; Compton, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    Do internal (administrative human capital) and external (social capital) resources work to reinforce the effects of each other? Work from multiple disciplines has approached this question, and we advance this literature with a theory of social and administrative resources as potential substitutes

  5. Performing Gender in the Workplace: Gender Socialization, Power, and Identity among Women Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Organizational cultures shape and reinforce socially appropriate roles for men and women. Drawing on a performativity framework, which assumes that gender is socially constructed through gendered "performances," this study employs interviews with and observations of six women faculty members to examine how dominant discourses define and maintain…

  6. THE STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (CASE STUDY: ARDABIL REGIONAL WATER COMPANY'S MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ebrahimpoor‎

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among dimensions of social intelligence, social skills, social information processing, social awareness, social desirability of organizational performance. Methods: This research was a descriptive study. The population in this study comprised all experts, assistants and managers of regional water companies in Ardabil province, and was about 164 randomly selected people. And to gather data from field methods the means of questionnaires were used. Tromso questionnaire was chosen and designed to measure social intelligence and organizational performance by assessing specific questions about Balanced Scorecard as independent variable. To achieve the multiplier effect of each variable on the dependent variable, Pearson correlation test was performed. Results indicated that social skills, social information processing, social awareness and social desirability of improving organizational performance had the most important part in social information processing, and social awareness and social skills played a secondary role in improving performance.

  7. The association between imitation recognition and socio-communicative competencies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Sarah M; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D

    2015-01-01

    Imitation recognition provides a viable platform from which advanced social cognitive skills may develop. Despite evidence that non-human primates are capable of imitation recognition, how this ability is related to social cognitive skills is unknown. In this study, we compared imitation recognition performance, as indicated by the production of testing behaviors, with performance on a series of tasks that assess social and physical cognition in 49 chimpanzees. In the initial analyses, we found that males were more responsive than females to being imitated and engaged in significantly greater behavior repetitions and testing sequences. We also found that subjects who consistently recognized being imitated performed better on social but not physical cognitive tasks, as measured by the Primate Cognitive Test Battery. These findings suggest that the neural constructs underlying imitation recognition are likely associated with or among those underlying more general socio-communicative abilities in chimpanzees. Implications regarding how imitation recognition may facilitate other social cognitive processes, such as mirror self-recognition, are discussed.

  8. I Hear You Eat and Speak: Automatic Recognition of Eating Condition and Food Type, Use-Cases, and Impact on ASR Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantke, Simone; Weninger, Felix; Kurle, Richard; Ringeval, Fabien; Batliner, Anton; Mousa, Amr El-Desoky; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new recognition task in the area of computational paralinguistics: automatic recognition of eating conditions in speech, i. e., whether people are eating while speaking, and what they are eating. To this end, we introduce the audio-visual iHEARu-EAT database featuring 1.6 k utterances of 30 subjects (mean age: 26.1 years, standard deviation: 2.66 years, gender balanced, German speakers), six types of food (Apple, Nectarine, Banana, Haribo Smurfs, Biscuit, and Crisps), and read as well as spontaneous speech, which is made publicly available for research purposes. We start with demonstrating that for automatic speech recognition (ASR), it pays off to know whether speakers are eating or not. We also propose automatic classification both by brute-forcing of low-level acoustic features as well as higher-level features related to intelligibility, obtained from an Automatic Speech Recogniser. Prediction of the eating condition was performed with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier employed in a leave-one-speaker-out evaluation framework. Results show that the binary prediction of eating condition (i. e., eating or not eating) can be easily solved independently of the speaking condition; the obtained average recalls are all above 90%. Low-level acoustic features provide the best performance on spontaneous speech, which reaches up to 62.3% average recall for multi-way classification of the eating condition, i. e., discriminating the six types of food, as well as not eating. The early fusion of features related to intelligibility with the brute-forced acoustic feature set improves the performance on read speech, reaching a 66.4% average recall for the multi-way classification task. Analysing features and classifier errors leads to a suitable ordinal scale for eating conditions, on which automatic regression can be performed with up to 56.2% determination coefficient.

  9. Role Performance of Social Institutions in Student Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Lara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the influence of social institutions on the involvement of students in school activities. The descriptive method of research was used. Purposive sampling was utilized which involved 30 Presidents of all accredited student organizations. The study specifically determined the degree of involvement of students in school activities; and identified the roles of social institutions and the extent of their influence on the involvement of students in college activities. Interviews, documentary analysis and a survey using a questionnaire-checklist were utilized to gather data and information. The study revealed that family and school have a strong influence on the participation of students in school activities. This was so because student leaders are often in direct contact with people who provide support and spend a long time with them. The Church and community are revealed as moderate influences. The moderate influence of social institutions is because students are not exposed to a variety of activities that are equally important in the development of their abilities and skills. It was found that students had limited involvement in church and community undertakings because of the demands put upon them by their academic and non-academic school activities. There is a need to improve students’ participation in the Church and community activities that have moderate influence in order to strengthen their roles

  10. Group social rank is associated with performance on a spatial learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Ellis J G; van Horik, Jayden O; Whiteside, Mark A; Madden, Joah R

    2018-02-01

    Dominant individuals differ from subordinates in their performances on cognitive tasks across a suite of taxa. Previous studies often only consider dyadic relationships, rather than the more ecologically relevant social hierarchies or networks, hence failing to account for how dyadic relationships may be adjusted within larger social groups. We used a novel statistical method: randomized Elo-ratings, to infer the social hierarchy of 18 male pheasants, Phasianus colchicus , while in a captive, mixed-sex group with a linear hierarchy. We assayed individual learning performance of these males on a binary spatial discrimination task to investigate whether inter-individual variation in performance is associated with group social rank. Task performance improved with increasing trial number and was positively related to social rank, with higher ranking males showing greater levels of success. Motivation to participate in the task was not related to social rank or task performance, thus indicating that these rank-related differences are not a consequence of differences in motivation to complete the task. Our results provide important information about how variation in cognitive performance relates to an individual's social rank within a group. Whether the social environment causes differences in learning performance or instead, inherent differences in learning ability predetermine rank remains to be tested.

  11. Corporate social responsibility and financial performance: Fact or fiction? A look at Ghanaian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Ofori

    2014-02-01

    Research purpose: This article examined the impact of corporate social responsibility on financial performance using empirical evidence from the Ghanaian banking sector. Motivation for the study: Although corporate social responsibility is a hot topic in Ghana and banks do practise it, no detailed study has been conducted to ascertain whether banks derive any benefits therefrom. Research design, approach and method: A sample size of 22 banks was involved. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain primary data whilst archival records were used to gather the secondary data. Main findings: The findings revealed that banks in Ghana view corporate social responsibility practices to be a strategic tool; banks are motivated to practise corporate social responsibility by legitimate reasons as much as they are motivated by profitability and sustainability reasons. Also, although there is a positive relationship between corporate social responsibility practices and financial performance, the financial performance of banks in Ghana does not depend significantly on their corporate social responsibility practices but rather on other control variables, such as growth, origin, debt ratio, and size. Practical implications: Properly adopted and implemented, corporate social responsibility can pay its way by contributing toward firm performance. Contribution: There is a positive but currently insignificant relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance amongst Ghanaian banks. However, given the numerous benefits of corporate social responsibility, it is recommended that firms continue to give priority to this practice.

  12. Social Anxiety, Affect, Cortisol Response and Performance on a Speech Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Wladyslaw; Blaut, Agata; Klosowska, Joanna; Slowik, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by increased emotional reactivity to social stimuli, but results of studies focusing on affective reactions of socially anxious subjects in the situation of social exposition are inconclusive, especially in the case of endocrinological measures of affect. This study was designed to examine individual differences in endocrinological and affective reactions to social exposure as well as in performance on a speech task in a group of students (n = 44) comprising subjects with either high or low levels of social anxiety. Measures of salivary cortisol and positive and negative affect were taken before and after an impromptu speech. Self-ratings and observer ratings of performance were also obtained. Cortisol levels and negative affect increased in both groups after the speech task, and positive affect decreased; however, group × affect interactions were not significant. Assessments conducted after the speech task revealed that highly socially anxious participants had lower observer ratings of performance while cortisol increase and changes in self-reported affect were not related to performance. Socially anxious individuals do not differ from nonanxious individuals in affective reactions to social exposition, but reveal worse performance at a speech task. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A meta-analysis and scoping review of social cognition performance in social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, India; Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Battaglia, Marco; Achim, Amélie M

    2014-03-01

    Social cognition deficits are observed in a variety of psychiatric illnesses. However, data concerning anxiety disorders are sparse and difficult to interpret. This meta-analysis aims at determining if social cognition is affected in social phobia (SP) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to non-clinical controls and the specificity of such deficits relatively to other anxiety disorders. The scoping review aims to identify research gaps in the field. Forty studies assessing mentalizing, emotion recognition, social perception/knowledge or attributional style in anxiety disorders were included, totalizing 1417 anxious patients and 1321 non-clinical controls. Results indicate distinct patterns of social cognition impairments: people with PTSD show deficits in mentalizing (effect size d = -1.13) and emotion recognition (d = -1.6) while other anxiety disorders including SP showed attributional biases (d = -0.53 to d = -1.15). The scoping review identified several under investigated domains of social cognition in anxiety disorders. Some recommendations are expressed for future studies to explore the full range of social cognition in anxiety disorders and allow direct comparisons between different disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The joint effects of personality and workplace social exchange relationships in predicting task performance and citizenship performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Dishan; Van Dyne, Linn

    2007-09-01

    This field study examines the joint effects of social exchange relationships at work (leader-member exchange and team-member exchange) and employee personality (conscientiousness and agreeableness) in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Consistent with trait activation theory, matched data on 230 employees, their coworkers, and their supervisors demonstrated interactions in which high quality social exchange relationships weakened the positive relationships between personality and performance. Results demonstrate the benefits of consonant predictions in which predictors and outcomes are matched on the basis of specific targets. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. (c) 2007 APA.

  15. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  16. Social isolation induces deficit of latent learning performance in mice: a putative animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Hirofumi; Ono, Kazuya; Murakami, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2013-02-01

    Social isolation of rodents (SI) elicits a variety of stress responses such as increased aggressiveness, hyper-locomotion, and reduced susceptibility to pentobarbital. To obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities to psychiatric disorders, we examined the effect of SI on latent learning as an index of spatial attention, and discussed the availability of SI as an epigenetic model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Except in specially stated cases, 4-week-old male mice were housed in a group or socially isolated for 3-70 days before experiments. The animals socially isolated for 1 week or more exhibited spatial attention deficit in the water-finding test. Re-socialized rearing for 5 weeks after 1-week SI failed to attenuate the spatial attention deficit. The effect of SI on spatial attention showed no gender difference or correlation with increased aggressive behavior. Moreover, SI had no effect on cognitive performance elucidated in a modified Y-maze or an object recognition test, but it significantly impaired contextual and conditional fear memory elucidated in the fear-conditioning test. Drugs used for ADHD therapy, methylphenidate (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) and caffeine (0.5-1 mg/kg, i.p.), improved SI-induced latent learning deficit in a manner reversible with cholinergic but not dopaminergic antagonists. Considering the behavioral features of SI mice together with their susceptibility to ADHD drugs, the present findings suggest that SI provides an epigenetic animal model of ADHD and that central cholinergic systems play a role in the effect of methylphenidate on SI-induced spatial attention deficit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ecological Momentary Assessment of social functioning in schizophrenia: impact of performance appraisals and affect on social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., "I succeeded/failed"; "I was liked/rejected"), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Time-lagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Social networks : Effects on Identification, Performance and Satisfaction Effects on identification, performance and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stormbroek-Burgers, van R.G.B.M.; Montfort, van K.; Sluis, van der E.C. (Lidewey)

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to research on the impact of social networks on organizational outcomes in the context of the increasing number of professionals in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to get insight into the characteristics of professionals’ social networks and to examine the effect of

  19. Applying a social network analysis (SNA) approach to understanding radiologists' performance in reading mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Taba, Seyedamir; Hossain, Liaquat; Heard, Robert; Brennan, Patrick; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Rationale and objectives: Observer performance has been widely studied through examining the characteristics of individuals. Applying a systems perspective, while understanding of the system's output, requires a study of the interactions between observers. This research explains a mixed methods approach to applying a social network analysis (SNA), together with a more traditional approach of examining personal/ individual characteristics in understanding observer performance in mammography. Materials and Methods: Using social networks theories and measures in order to understand observer performance, we designed a social networks survey instrument for collecting personal and network data about observers involved in mammography performance studies. We present the results of a study by our group where 31 Australian breast radiologists originally reviewed 60 mammographic cases (comprising of 20 abnormal and 40 normal cases) and then completed an online questionnaire about their social networks and personal characteristics. A jackknife free response operating characteristic (JAFROC) method was used to measure performance of radiologists. JAFROC was tested against various personal and network measures to verify the theoretical model. Results: The results from this study suggest a strong association between social networks and observer performance for Australian radiologists. Network factors accounted for 48% of variance in observer performance, in comparison to 15.5% for the personal characteristics for this study group. Conclusion: This study suggest a strong new direction for research into improving observer performance. Future studies in observer performance should consider social networks' influence as part of their research paradigm, with equal or greater vigour than traditional constructs of personal characteristics.

  20. Social networks and small businesses performance in West African border regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuépié, Mathias; Tenikue, Michel; Walther, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    burden that leads to a negative economic impact. Testing the effect of social networks between small traders and three categories of actors, we find that the most well-connected actors are also the most successful in terms of monthly profit. The effects of social networks are, however, dependent...... with traditional religious leaders has a negative effect on economic performance. Our work has two implications: first, collecting data on social networks remains challenging due to endogeneity. Second, network-enhancing policies should aim at improving both the internal connectivity of economic actors......This paper studies the link between economic performance and social networks in West Africa. Using data collected about 358 small-scale traders in five border markets, we show that social network can simultaneously be a resource which positively contributes to labor market outcomes and a social...

  1. Does social insurance enrollment improve citizen assessment of local government performance? Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Gao, Qin

    2018-02-01

    Although many studies claim that social policies are "carrots" that authoritarian leaders use to garner public support, the assumption that social benefits can boost public support of government has been rarely tested empirically, especially at the local levels. This article investigates the effects of social insurance enrollment on citizens' assessment of local government performance using data from the 2010 China Family Panel Study. We use propensity score matching to reduce selection bias and ordered probit regressions with fixed effects to examine these possible effects. We find that social insurance enrollment had a significant positive effect on rural citizens' assessment of government performance, but this effect did not exist for their urban and migrant peers. This discrepancy could be largely due to the groups' different expectations for government redistribution and their distinct experiences of China's social welfare reform. We conclude that the Chinese authoritarian government has achieved partial success in its attempt to use social policies to maintain popular support. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Use of Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) in the Assessment of Speech Recognition Performance of Cochlear Implantees with Normal and Malformed Cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Anjali R; Banik, Arun A

    2017-09-01

    The present study aims to use the model-based test Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT), to assess speech recognition performance in early and late implanted hearing impaired children with normal and malformed cochlea. The LNT was administered to 46 children with congenital (prelingual) bilateral severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss, using Nucleus 24 cochlear implant. The children were grouped into Group 1-(early implantees with normal cochlea-EI); n = 15, 31/2-61/2 years of age; mean age at implantation-3½ years. Group 2-(late implantees with normal cochlea-LI); n = 15, 6-12 years of age; mean age at implantation-5 years. Group 3-(early implantees with malformed cochlea-EIMC); n = 9; 4.9-10.6 years of age; mean age at implantation-3.10 years. Group 4-(late implantees with malformed cochlea-LIMC); n = 7; 7-12.6 years of age; mean age at implantation-6.3 years. The following were the malformations: dysplastic cochlea, common cavity, Mondini's, incomplete partition-1 and 2 (IP-1 and 2), enlarged IAC. The children were instructed to repeat the words on hearing them. Means of the word and phoneme scores were computed. The LNT can also be used to assess speech recognition performance of hearing impaired children with malformed cochlea. When both easy and hard lists of LNT are considered, although, late implantees (with or without normal cochlea), have achieved higher word scores than early implantees, the differences are not statistically significant. Using LNT for assessing speech recognition enables a quantitative as well as descriptive report of phonological processes used by the children.

  3. Objective Prediction of Hearing Aid Benefit Across Listener Groups Using Machine Learning: Speech Recognition Performance With Binaural Noise-Reduction Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc R.; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger

    2018-01-01

    The simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE) was adopted and validated to predict the individual speech-in-noise recognition performance of listeners with normal and impaired hearing with and without a given hearing-aid algorithm. FADE uses a simple automatic speech recognizer (ASR) to estimate the lowest achievable speech reception thresholds (SRTs) from simulated speech recognition experiments in an objective way, independent from any empirical reference data. Empirical data from the literature were used to evaluate the model in terms of predicted SRTs and benefits in SRT with the German matrix sentence recognition test when using eight single- and multichannel binaural noise-reduction algorithms. To allow individual predictions of SRTs in binaural conditions, the model was extended with a simple better ear approach and individualized by taking audiograms into account. In a realistic binaural cafeteria condition, FADE explained about 90% of the variance of the empirical SRTs for a group of normal-hearing listeners and predicted the corresponding benefits with a root-mean-square prediction error of 0.6 dB. This highlights the potential of the approach for the objective assessment of benefits in SRT without prior knowledge about the empirical data. The predictions for the group of listeners with impaired hearing explained 75% of the empirical variance, while the individual predictions explained less than 25%. Possibly, additional individual factors should be considered for more accurate predictions with impaired hearing. A competing talker condition clearly showed one limitation of current ASR technology, as the empirical performance with SRTs lower than −20 dB could not be predicted. PMID:29692200

  4. Objective Prediction of Hearing Aid Benefit Across Listener Groups Using Machine Learning: Speech Recognition Performance With Binaural Noise-Reduction Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc R; Warzybok, Anna; Kollmeier, Birger

    2018-01-01

    The simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE) was adopted and validated to predict the individual speech-in-noise recognition performance of listeners with normal and impaired hearing with and without a given hearing-aid algorithm. FADE uses a simple automatic speech recognizer (ASR) to estimate the lowest achievable speech reception thresholds (SRTs) from simulated speech recognition experiments in an objective way, independent from any empirical reference data. Empirical data from the literature were used to evaluate the model in terms of predicted SRTs and benefits in SRT with the German matrix sentence recognition test when using eight single- and multichannel binaural noise-reduction algorithms. To allow individual predictions of SRTs in binaural conditions, the model was extended with a simple better ear approach and individualized by taking audiograms into account. In a realistic binaural cafeteria condition, FADE explained about 90% of the variance of the empirical SRTs for a group of normal-hearing listeners and predicted the corresponding benefits with a root-mean-square prediction error of 0.6 dB. This highlights the potential of the approach for the objective assessment of benefits in SRT without prior knowledge about the empirical data. The predictions for the group of listeners with impaired hearing explained 75% of the empirical variance, while the individual predictions explained less than 25%. Possibly, additional individual factors should be considered for more accurate predictions with impaired hearing. A competing talker condition clearly showed one limitation of current ASR technology, as the empirical performance with SRTs lower than -20 dB could not be predicted.

  5. Recognition of tennis serve performed by a digital player: comparison among polygon, shadow, and stick-figure models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Ida

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the cognitive effect of human character models on the observer's ability to extract relevant information from computer graphics animation of tennis serve motions. Three digital human models (polygon, shadow, and stick-figure were used to display the computationally simulated serve motions, which were perturbed at the racket-arm by modulating the speed (slower or faster of one of the joint rotations (wrist, elbow, or shoulder. Twenty-one experienced tennis players and 21 novices made discrimination responses about the modulated joint and also specified the perceived swing speeds on a visual analogue scale. The result showed that the discrimination accuracies of the experienced players were both above and below chance level depending on the modulated joint whereas those of the novices mostly remained at chance or guessing levels. As far as the experienced players were concerned, the polygon model decreased the discrimination accuracy as compared with the stick-figure model. This suggests that the complicated pictorial information may have a distracting effect on the recognition of the observed action. On the other hand, the perceived swing speed of the perturbed motion relative to the control was lower for the stick-figure model than for the polygon model regardless of the skill level. This result suggests that the simplified visual information can bias the perception of the motion speed toward slower. It was also shown that the increasing the joint rotation speed increased the perceived swing speed, although the resulting racket velocity had little correlation with this speed sensation. Collectively, observer's recognition of the motion pattern and perception of the motion speed can be affected by the pictorial information of the human model as well as by the perturbation processing applied to the observed motion.

  6. Recognition of tennis serve performed by a digital player: comparison among polygon, shadow, and stick-figure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Hirofumi; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Ishii, Motonobu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cognitive effect of human character models on the observer's ability to extract relevant information from computer graphics animation of tennis serve motions. Three digital human models (polygon, shadow, and stick-figure) were used to display the computationally simulated serve motions, which were perturbed at the racket-arm by modulating the speed (slower or faster) of one of the joint rotations (wrist, elbow, or shoulder). Twenty-one experienced tennis players and 21 novices made discrimination responses about the modulated joint and also specified the perceived swing speeds on a visual analogue scale. The result showed that the discrimination accuracies of the experienced players were both above and below chance level depending on the modulated joint whereas those of the novices mostly remained at chance or guessing levels. As far as the experienced players were concerned, the polygon model decreased the discrimination accuracy as compared with the stick-figure model. This suggests that the complicated pictorial information may have a distracting effect on the recognition of the observed action. On the other hand, the perceived swing speed of the perturbed motion relative to the control was lower for the stick-figure model than for the polygon model regardless of the skill level. This result suggests that the simplified visual information can bias the perception of the motion speed toward slower. It was also shown that the increasing the joint rotation speed increased the perceived swing speed, although the resulting racket velocity had little correlation with this speed sensation. Collectively, observer's recognition of the motion pattern and perception of the motion speed can be affected by the pictorial information of the human model as well as by the perturbation processing applied to the observed motion.

  7. Social responsibility and financial performance: The role of good corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rodriguez-Fernandez

    2016-04-01

    The results of this analysis have practical applications in the boardroom; they are proof that all social policies increment financial resources, and vice versa, that increased financial performances lead to greater social benefits. As a consequence, this paper encourages all board members to seriously weigh investing financial resources in developing policies that boost the levels of social behavior components in order to contribute globally to the improvement of society.

  8. Psychological contract breach and work performance:Is social exchange a buffer or an intensifier?

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Chiaburu, Dan S.; Jansen, Paul G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how social exchanges modify the relationship between psychological contract breach and work performance. It aims to present two concurrent hypotheses, based on theoretical interaction effects of social exchanges (conceptualized as social exchange relationships, POS, and trust). Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from a sample of 266 employees in a service sector company in the USA. Regression analysis was used to explore the moder...

  9. A reciprocal model of face recognition and autistic traits: evidence from an individual differences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W R; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Scherf, K Suzanne; Sherf, Suzanne K; Tanaka, James W

    2014-01-01

    Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ)). We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals.

  10. Neural substrates of social facilitation effects on incentive-based performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chib, Vikram S; Adachi, Ryo; O’Doherty, John P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Throughout our lives we must perform tasks while being observed by others. Previous studies have shown that the presence of an audience can cause increases in an individual’s performance as compared to when they are not being observed—a phenomenon called ‘social facilitation’. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect, in the context of skilled-task performance for monetary incentives, are not well understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor brain activity while healthy human participants performed a skilled-task during conditions in which they were paid based on their performance and observed and not observed by an audience. We found that during social facilitation, social signals represented in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) enhanced reward value computations in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We also found that functional connectivity between dmPFC and ventral striatum was enhanced when participants exhibited social facilitation effects, indicative of a means by which social signals serve to modulate brain regions involved in regulating behavioral motivation. These findings illustrate how neural processing of social judgments gives rise to the enhanced motivational state that results in social facilitation of incentive-based performance. PMID:29648653

  11. Social Skills Training for Young Adolescents: Cognitive and Performance Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathryn L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An assertiveness training curriculum that was an expansion of two previous programs with young adolescents was presented to 22 fifth graders. Results did not show that training facilitated assertiveness on the performance components. Suggestions are offered for designing programs aimed at developing adolescents' assertive behavior in ways that…

  12. Binge drinking and psychomotor performance in female social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adverse effects of BD on cognitive functions such as psychomotor skills negatively impact on women's daily living. Methodology: Using a matched-pairs design and snowball sampling method, the present study investigated the relationship between binge drinking and psychomotor performance in a population of female ...

  13. Effects of Zaprinast and Rolipram on Olfactory and Visual Memory in the Social Transmission of Food Preference and Novel Object Recognition Tests in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuzan Akar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors in central nervous system has been investigated and shown to stimulate neuronal functions and increase neurogenesis in Alzheimer patients. The aim of this study is to investigate effect of PDE5 inhibitor zaprinast and PDE4 inhibitor rolipram on visual memory in novel object recognition (NOR test, on olfactory memory in social transmission of food preference (STFP test, and also on locomotion and anxiety in open field test in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg, rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, or physiological saline. Zaprinast (10 mg/kg significantly increased cued/non-cued food eaten compared to control group, while rolipram had a partial effect on retention trial of STFP test. Zaprinast (10 mg/kg and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg significantly increased ratio index (RI compared to control group in retention trial of NOR test. There was no significant effect of zaprinast and rolipram on total distance moved, speed, and center zone duration in open field test. Results of this study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced visual memory in NOR test, however zaprinast exerted a significant memory-enhancing effect compared to rolipram in STFP test in mice.

  14. Reconsidering the relevance of social license pressure and government regulation for environmental performance of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to

  15. The Analysis of Social Teachers' Performance in the Senior High Schools of Ciamis Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadi, Endang; Yuniarsih, Tjutju; Disman; Supardan, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    This research is intended to analyze the principal's leadership, school cultures, teachers' welfare, achievement motivation and the competence of social teachers at Senior High Schools in Ciamis regency and their effects towards the teachers' performance. Population of this research are Social teachers at Senior High Schools in Ciamis regency,…

  16. Social Networks and Students' Performance in Secondary Schools: Lessons from an Open Learning Centre, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhingi, Wilkins Ndege; Mutavi, Teresia; Kokonya, Donald; Simiyu, Violet Nekesa; Musungu, Ben; Obondo, Anne; Kuria, Mary Wangari

    2015-01-01

    Given the known positive and negative effects of uncontrolled social networking among secondary school students worldwide, it is necessary to establish the relationship between social network sites and academic performances among secondary school students. This study, therefore, aimed at establishing the relationship between secondary school…

  17. Social networks of nursing staff and organizational performance. A study in long-term care facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, A.P.A van

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, there has been increasing attention for the role of social networks in explaining performance differences between organizations. Yet, research on social networks within healthcare organizations in general and long-term care facilities specifically has been rare, despite growing

  18. Social identity threat and performance motivation : the interplay between ingroup and outgroup domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Belle

    2007-01-01

    Being a member of a socially devalued group (e.g., women, ethnic minorities) threatens social identity, leading people to lower their investment in performance domains that determine societal status (e.g., education, career success). The experiments discussed in this dissertation show that offering

  19. Longitudinal associations between depressive problems, academic performance, and social functioning in adolescent boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, C.E.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between

  20. Longitudinal Associations Between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between

  1. Mapping the Social Side of Pre-Service Teachers: Connecting Closeness, Trust, and Efficacy with Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yi-Hwa; Daly, Alan J.; Canrinus, Esther T.; Forbes, Cheryl A.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Cornelissen, Frank; Van Lare, Michelle; Hsiao, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study foregrounds the important, but often understudied social side of pre-service teacher development and its relation to teaching performance in one university-based teacher preparation program in the US. We examine the extent to which pre-service elementary teachers' social relationships and perceptions of peer trust and…

  2. Adapting Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Social Work Students' Performance and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…

  3. The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial Involvement of Black Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…

  4. Mapping the social side of pre-service teachers : connecting closeness, trust, and efficacy with performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liou, Yi Hwa; Daly, Alan J.; Canrinus, Esther T.; Forbes, Cheryl A.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304352802; Cornelissen, Frank; Van Lare, Michelle; Hsiao, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study foregrounds the important, but often understudied social side of pre-service teacher development and its relation to teaching performance in one university-based teacher preparation program in the US. We examine the extent to which pre-service elementary teachers’ social

  5. Motivational mechanisms (BAS) and prefrontal cortical activation contribute to recognition memory for emotional words. rTMS effect on performance and EEG (alpha band) measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Cobelli, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    The present research addressed the question of where memories for emotional words could be represented in the brain. A second main question was related to the effect of personality traits, in terms of the Behavior Activation System (BAS), in emotional word recognition. We tested the role of the left DLPFC (LDLPFC) by performing a memory task in which old (previously encoded targets) and new (previously not encoded distractors) positive or negative emotional words had to be recognized. High-BAS and low-BAS subjects were compared when a repetitive TMS (rTMS) was applied on the LDLPFC. We found significant differences between high-BAS vs. low-BAS subjects, with better performance for high-BAS in response to positive words. In parallel, an increased left cortical activity (alpha desynchronization) was observed for high-BAS in the case of positive words. Thus, we can conclude that the left approach-related hemisphere, underlying BAS, may support faster recognition of positive words. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A model for evaluating the social performance of construction waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongping

    2012-06-01

    It has been determined by existing literature that a lot of research efforts have been made to the economic performance of construction waste management (CWM), but less attention is paid to investigation of the social performance of CWM. This study therefore attempts to develop a model for quantitatively evaluating the social performance of CWM by using a system dynamics (SD) approach. Firstly, major variables affecting the social performance of CWM are identified and a holistic system for assessing the social performance of CWM is formulated in line with feedback relationships underlying these variables. The developed system is then converted into a SD model through the software iThink. An empirical case study is finally conducted to demonstrate application of the model. Results of model validation indicate that the model is robust and reasonable to reflect the situation of the real system under study. Findings of the case study offer helpful insights into effectively promoting the social performance of CWM of the project investigated. Furthermore, the model exhibits great potential to function as an experimental platform for dynamically evaluating effects of management measures on improving the social performance of CWM of construction projects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Independent Coactors May Improve Performance and Lower Workload: Viewing Vigilance Under Social Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claypoole, Victoria L; Szalma, James L

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an independent coactor on vigilance task performance. It was hypothesized that the presence of an independent coactor would improve performance in terms of the proportion of false alarms while also increasing perceived workload and stress. Vigilance, or the ability to maintain attention for extended periods, is of great interest to human factors psychologists. Substantial work has focused on improving vigilance task performance, typically through motivational interventions. Of interest to vigilance researchers is the application of social facilitation as a means of enhancing vigilance. Social facilitation seeks to explain how social presence may improve performance. A total of 100 participants completed a 24-min vigil either alone or in the presence of an independent (confederate) coactor. Participants completed measures of perceived workload and stress. The results indicated that performance (i.e., proportion of false alarms) was improved for those who completed the vigil in the presence of an independent coactor. Interestingly, perceived workload was actually lower for those who completed the vigil in the presence of an independent coactor, although perceived stress was not affected by the manipulation. Authors of future research should extend these findings to other forms of social facilitation and examine vigilance task performance in social contexts in order to determine the utility of social presence for improving vigilance. The use of coactors may be an avenue for organizations to consider utilizing to improve performance because of its relative cost-effectiveness and easy implementation.

  8. 77 FR 9590 - Recognition and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ..., or social service purpose? 5. Discussion of withdrawal of recognition. Are the current procedures for withdrawal of recognition for an organization effective? See 8 CFR 1292.2(c). If not, how can the process be... services in order to ensure that they are serving a non-profit, religious, charitable, or social service...

  9. Entanglements in Practice: Performing Anonymity Through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Susan V.; Orlikowski, Wanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems researchers have shown an increasing interest in the notion of sociomateriality. In this paper, we continue this exploration by focusing specifically on entanglement: the inseparability of meaning and matter. Our particular approach is differentiated by its grounding in a relational and performative ontology, and its use of agential realism. We explore some of the key ideas of entanglement through a comparison of two phenomena in the travel sector: an institutionalized acc...

  10. Family-Friendly Management, Organizational Performance and Social Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, S. A.; de Menezes, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on family-friendly practices has concentrated on the predictors of their use, particularly from the perspective of either institutional theory or the high involvement or commitment management vogue. This paper first shows how such perspectives can be used to generate hypotheses about the link between family-friendly management and organizational performance. Second, the paper reports research designed to test these, using data from a national representative sample of workplaces acros...

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlia Sari; Christine Tjen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressivene...

  12. Social cognition and work performance of persons with schizophrenia in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Panmi; Siu, Andrew M H

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits have a significant impact on the community and vocational functioning of persons with schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationship between social-cognitive abilities and vocational functioning in a Chinese population. We recruited 30 outpatients with schizophrenia to participate. We administered the Chinese Social Cognition and Screening Questionnaire (C-SCSQ) to assess Theory of Mind (ToM), attributional bias, and neurocognition; the Facial Expression Identification Test (FEIT) to assess emotion perception (EP) ability, and the Chinese Work Personality Profile (CWPP) to assess work performance in a simulated work setting. ToM showed a significant negative correlation with attributional bias. The neurocognitive measure displayed a significant positive correlation with ToM and EP. The structural equation model was a good fit to the data (CFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.12), and showed that social-cognitive abilities had a significant impact (-0.41) on work performance. Of the four social-cognitive domains, ToM and paranoid attributional style (PAS) contributed significantly to variations in work performance. These results support the theory that social-cognitive abilities have an impact on work performance. ToM has a positive impact whereas PAS has an adverse effect. Persons with schizophrenia present specific deficits in their social-cognitive abilities, which have significant impact on their work performance and employability.

  13. Using Emotional Intelligence and Social Support to Predict Job Performance of Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Haider, Taj; Brown, David; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The theory of emotional intelligence (EI) has been developed to evaluate and highlight the importance of emotional health, especially on job performance. Purpose: No study has examined EI's role on the performance of public health educators; therefore, this study examined the role of EI and social support on the performance of health…

  14. [Neurological disease and facial recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.

  15. Does corporate governance shape the relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Thai Minh, Hahn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The theoretical and empirical relationships between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance are not without controversy. Yet, CSR activities are increasingly undertaken by a large number of firms, not only in developed countries but also in emerging

  16. Formal and Informal Work Group Relationships With Performance: A Moderation Model Using Social

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knost, Benjamin R

    2006-01-01

    .... This field study, conducted at a military training course, attempted to further refine this social network-performance relationship by modeling characteristics of both the formal and informal work...

  17. An examination of the impact of executive compensation disparity on corporate social performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, T.A.; David, P.; Shao, F.; Fox, C.J.; Westermann-Behaylo, M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between top management team compensation disparity and corporate social performance. We argue that pay structures with high disparity are reflective of transactional, individualistic organizations that foster a shareholder orientation. In contrast, pay structures with

  18. Analysis and modeling of social influence in high performance computing workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Shuai; Shae, Zon Yin; Zhang, Xiangliang; Jamjoom, Hani T.; Fong, Liana

    2011-01-01

    Social influence among users (e.g., collaboration on a project) creates bursty behavior in the underlying high performance computing (HPC) workloads. Using representative HPC and cluster workload logs, this paper identifies, analyzes, and quantifies

  19. Brief Report: Suitability of the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) for the Assessment of Social Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at examining whether the "Social Skills Performance Assessment" (SSPA; Patterson et al. in "Schizophr Res" 48(2-3):351-360, 2001) is a suitable performance-based measure to assess social skills in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). For this purpose, social skills of individuals with ASD and…

  20. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal lobe is