WorldWideScience

Sample records for social problems community

  1. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  2. Organisational Problem Based Learning and Social Communities for SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Emma; Hamburg, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights reasons for SMEs low uptake of training and argues that current offerings are not suitable for their needs. It highlights the need to leverage the benefits of work based learning through the use of technology. Social media and web 2.0 has significantly changed the way people learn and access knowledge. The body of knowledge…

  3. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D; Piek, Jan P

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  4. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  5. Social Media and Higher Education: The Problem of Anonymous Electronic Threats to the Campus Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Cristin Lee; Platt, R. Eric; Malone Schaffer, Lenore; Foster, Holly

    2017-01-01

    This case is for use in graduate courses pertaining to student affairs and higher education administration. It presents challenges higher education professionals face concerning anonymous social media, and specifically how threats made through anonymous social media platforms such as Yik Yak affect the entire university community. The anonymity of…

  6. Avoidant personality problems--their association with somatic and mental health, lifestyle, and social network. A community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssøn, Ingrid; Dahl, Alv A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the associations between the presence of avoidant personality problems (APPs) and 5 areas of impairment: demography, somatic issues, mental health, lifestyle, and social issues. Avoidant personality problem was defined by confirmation of the 2 avoidant personality disorder items of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen and and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) short version (MINI-SPIN) screening assessment for generalized social anxiety disorder sum score of 6 or more. The questionnaires were administered in a Norwegian population survey (the Oslo Health Study-HUBRO). Cases consisted of 280 individuals with APP and 5 randomly selected controls without APP (n = 1400). The APP group more frequently reported living alone, lower level of education, and lower income than controls. Poor self-rated health, presence of somatic disease, muscular pain, frequent use of analgesics, and visits at a general practitioner were significantly more common in the APP group than among controls. The APP group had significantly higher proportion of caseness of mental distress, low general self-efficacy, and insomnia, and this result held up in multivariate analyses. The APP group showed statistically significant higher proportions of physical inactivity, obesity, daily smoking, and alcohol problems compared with controls. As for social impairment, a significantly higher proportion of the APP group reported "not having enough good friends," "high powerlessness," and low community activism, and the 2 former variables held up in multivariate analyses. In this population-based study, we found that high levels of APP, defined closely to avoidant personality disorder, were significantly associated with demographic, somatic, and mental impairment; low general self-efficacy; and insomnia affecting work ability. In addition, APP showed associations with negative lifestyle, alcohol problems, and social impairment reporting lack of good friends and lack of

  7. Mental health problems and social supports among homeless mothers and children victims of domestic and community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostanis, P; Tischler, V; Cumella, S; Bellerby, T

    2001-01-01

    Children and mothers who have suffered domestic or neighbourhood violence constitute a high risk group, although it has not been clear whether their mental health needs are specifically related to the type of violence. This paper reports on the prevalence of mental health problems in homeless parents and children who have experienced domestic and neighbourhood violence and their access to social support networks. Three groups of families who had become homeless were compared: those experiencing domestic violence (48 with 75 children), victims of neighbourhood violence (14 with 29 children), and those who became homeless for other reasons (31 with 54 children). Mothers completed a service use semi-structured interview, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, the Family Support Scales, and the SF-36 Health Status Questionnaire. Levels of psychiatric morbidity were high in the group experiencing domestic violence (35.7% in children and 21.9% in mothers) and higher still in those who were victims of neighbourhood violence (52.2% in children and 50% in mothers). Levels of social support were found to be an important factor, particularly in relation to professional support and support from other family members, as they predicted both child and maternal psychopathology. Mental health interventions for victims of domestic and neighbourhood violence should be integrated with community programmes of social reintegration. Mental health professionals should work in close collaboration with Housing Departments, Social Services, Education and the Police.

  8. What are the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Australia? A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcharavongvan, Pasitpon; Hepworth, Julie; Lim, Joanne; Marley, John

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Brisbane, Australia. Five focus groups with Thai migrants were conducted. The qualitative data were examined using thematic content analysis that is specifically designed for focus group analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) positive experiences in Australia, (2) physical health problems, (3) mental health problems, and (4) familial and social health problems. This study revealed key health needs related to chronic disease and mental health, major barriers to health service use, such as language skills, and facilitating factors, such as the Thai Temple. We concluded that because the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants were complex and culture bound, the development of health and community services for Thai migrants needs to take account of the ways in which Thai culture both negatively impacts health and offer positive solutions to problems.

  9. Enuresis: A Social Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E.

    1978-01-01

    Several theories and treatments of enuresis are described. The authors conclude that enuresis is a social problem (perhaps due to maturational lag, developmental delay or faulty learning) which requires teacher and parental tolerance and understanding. (SE)

  10. Networks in social policy problems

    CERN Document Server

    Scotti, marco

    2012-01-01

    Network science is the key to managing social communities, designing the structure of efficient organizations and planning for sustainable development. This book applies network science to contemporary social policy problems. In the first part, tools of diffusion and team design are deployed to challenges in adoption of ideas and the management of creativity. Ideas, unlike information, are generated and adopted in networks of personal ties. Chapters in the second part tackle problems of power and malfeasance in political and business organizations, where mechanisms in accessing and controlling informal networks often outweigh formal processes. The third part uses ideas from biology and physics to understand global economic and financial crises, ecological depletion and challenges to energy security. Ideal for researchers and policy makers involved in social network analysis, business strategy and economic policy, it deals with issues ranging from what makes public advisories effective to how networks influenc...

  11. SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing social and environmental problems, the principles of Socio-Economic Sustainable development have gained prime importance. Human activities and their after-effects, direct and indirect, strongly influence nature and its resources. Keeping the huge role played by mankind in sustaining the glory of nature in mind, development goals need to be shaped in accordance with the parallel development and benefit of nature. India, as a developing nation, has a landmark role to play i...

  12. Social Innovation Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrustegui, Alfonso Unceta; Castro-Spila, Javier; Luna, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of hybridity and governance have been an important line of research in the context of social companies and public institutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore these notions in the framework of hybrid communities of social innovation by showing the importance of intangible capital in the improvement of functional skills,…

  13. Sociological interpretation of social problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Katsora

    2015-04-01

    The article considers such sociological approaches to social problems as social pathology, social disorganization, functional and critical approaches, the approach of value conflict, constructionsite approach and the approach of «labelling». Each approach has its own peculiarities of consideration of social problems, that is related with the historical period in which it arose and settled down, and the views of members of a particular sociological approach to social problems. Also, the article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of sociological approaches to dealing the social problems.

  14. COMMUNITARIAN DIMENSION OF SOCIAL INTEGRITY PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Yu. Brodetskaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The article focuses on the study analysis of the theoretical and methodological preconditions of the social integrity phenomenon research. The nature of the modern social and cultural changes discloses a crisis of the social theory that is aimed to study the conditions and mechanisms of the social modernity development. Modern social theory appears against the background of the classical research methodology issues – Aristotle's political philosophy, which interprets sociality as a political aspect. However, modern social theory attempts to overcome the crisis of the rational project by forming a communitarians’ ideology. In order to solve the problem of the social integrity and order, being an alternative to the rationalistic individualism of society liberal theory, the theory of communitarism reveals the potential of communities. The communities are those models of social that can overcome individualism of a modern man and society, destroy the cult of statism. Thus, as a research methodology of the social integrity issues the communitarian approach is used, as it actualizes the potential of the communities. This methodological step reveals the social at a qualitatively different socio-cultural level of analysis, as a certain model of the human relations that base not only on the economic and legal relations (relations, property, division of labor and power, etc., but also, and above all, on the spiritual ones (culture of community, communication, informal regulation of relations, etc.. The scientific novelty of this work is to try to expand the heuristic possibilities of the com munitarian theory in terms of the analysis of the social integrity problems in order to create a comprehensive research methodology of the problem. Conclusions. Thus, the study of the community potential, its mechanisms and the logic of its generation and presentation in the modern society allows to reveal the conditions of the

  15. Social behavioural epistemology and the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Milind

    2017-07-01

    The progress of science is influenced substantially by social behaviour of and social interactions within the scientific community. Similar to innovations in primate groups, the social acceptance of an innovation depends not only upon the relevance of the innovation but also on the social dominance and connectedness of the innovator. There are a number of parallels between many well-known phenomena in behavioural evolution and various behavioural traits observed in the scientific community. It would be useful, therefore, to use principles of behavioural evolution as hypotheses to study the social behaviour of the scientific community. I argue in this paper that a systematic study of social behavioural epistemology is likely to boost the progress of science by addressing several prevalent biases and other problems in scientific communication and by facilitating appropriate acceptance/rejection of novel concepts.

  16. Can Architecture Design Solve Social Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, S. W.; TSB Darjosanjoto, E.; Sulistyarso, H.

    2017-03-01

    Most of architects and urban designers believe physical design gives impact on our social life. For example, a sign or landmark in the middle of a city makes people find orientation easier. In vice verse, most of social scientists believe it is social dynamic that plays role in shaping our space. How people spend their time moving from real space into cyber space is a proof that life style and IT give impact to space usage. This paper argues that interaction between physical design and social change is a two ways process. Both design aspect and social dynamic influence each other. This paper aims to examine how designing of gated community plays important role in increasing or decreasing segregation, both spatially and socially. The paper explores some architectural design principles applied in a gated community called CitraLand in west Surabaya, Indonesia, and addresses segregation between CitraLanders and outside kampung. We find CitraLand is designed openly and fully accessible for outsiders. It provides public spaces and several accessible gates and streets without walls and fences making all places inside and outside CitraLand spatially integrated. What’s interesting is it still reinforces social segregation due to its policy on prohibiting using the public park. We believe CitraLand’s planning and designing has successfully solved segregation problem spatially not socially.

  17. Access to water: Technical and social solutions help communities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... English · Français ... Access to water: Technical and social solutions help communities make the most of ... IDRC-supported research engages communities, and countries, in developing durable solutions to water problems.

  18. Mindfulness Facets, Social Anxiety, and Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety: Testing Mediators of Drinking Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Sarfan, Laurel D.; Parsons, E. Marie; Magee, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants (N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness...

  19. Emergence of communities and diversity in social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xiao; Cao, Shinan; Shen, Zhesi; Zhang, Boyu; Wang, Wen-Xu; Cressman, Ross; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how communities emerge is a fundamental problem in social and economic systems. Here, we experimentally explore the emergence of communities in social networks, using the ultimatum game as a paradigm for capturing individual interactions. We find the emergence of diverse communities in static networks is the result of the local interaction between responders with inherent heterogeneity and rational proposers in which the former act as community leaders. In contrast, communities ...

  20. Community Core Evolution in Mobile Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Community detection in social networks attracts a lot of attention in the recent years. Existing methods always depict the relationship of two nodes using the temporary connection. However, these temporary connections cannot be fully recognized as the real relationships when the history connections among nodes are considered. For example, a casual visit in Facebook cannot be seen as an establishment of friendship. Hence, our question is the following: how to cluster the real friends in mobile social networks? In this paper, we study the problem of detecting the stable community core in mobile social networks. The cumulative stable contact is proposed to depict the relationship among nodes. The whole process is divided into timestamps. Nodes and their connections can be added or removed at each timestamp, and historical contacts are considered when detecting the community core. Also, community cores can be tracked through the incremental computing, which can help to recognize the evolving of community structure. Empirical studies on real-world social networks demonstrate that our proposed method can effectively detect stable community cores in mobile social networks.

  1. Community core evolution in mobile social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Xiao, Weidong; Tang, Daquan; Tang, Jiuyang; Wang, Zhenwen

    2013-01-01

    Community detection in social networks attracts a lot of attention in the recent years. Existing methods always depict the relationship of two nodes using the temporary connection. However, these temporary connections cannot be fully recognized as the real relationships when the history connections among nodes are considered. For example, a casual visit in Facebook cannot be seen as an establishment of friendship. Hence, our question is the following: how to cluster the real friends in mobile social networks? In this paper, we study the problem of detecting the stable community core in mobile social networks. The cumulative stable contact is proposed to depict the relationship among nodes. The whole process is divided into timestamps. Nodes and their connections can be added or removed at each timestamp, and historical contacts are considered when detecting the community core. Also, community cores can be tracked through the incremental computing, which can help to recognize the evolving of community structure. Empirical studies on real-world social networks demonstrate that our proposed method can effectively detect stable community cores in mobile social networks.

  2. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  3. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  4. Community care and social services.

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, D.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of community care is to enable people with various types of disability to live in their own homes, rather than in institutions. This involves the provision of support and services at home by various agencies. After a critical report in 1986 identified problems with coordination and flexibility of community care services, the white paper Caring for People (1989) stated the government's aim to provide a "needs led," responsive range of services, promoting maximum independence of those w...

  5. Social capital and community heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the

  6. Study on sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems. As a result of consideration, the followings were found. (1) In general, solutions to some kinds of questions can be deduced from basic laws using some theories or methodologies in the field of the natural science or engineering. The approach to resolve maintenance related social problems is similar to the approach in the natural science or engineering. (2) The points of view based on fundamental human rights, market principles and community principles, and so on, are very important in resolving maintenance related social problems and can be placed as theories or tools for resolution. (3) If such theories or tools for resolving maintenance related social problems as described above are systematically prepared, it is estimated that it becomes very much easier to resolve maintenance related social problems. (author)

  7. Community-powered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.

  8. Finding Community Structures In Social Activity Data

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2015-01-01

    Social activity data sets are increasing in number and volume. Finding community structure in such data is valuable in many applications. For example, understand- ing the community structure of social networks may reduce the spread of epidemics

  9. Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Husain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur, centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2 were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012 and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

  10. Community Psychology, Evaluation, and Social Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Community psychology blends psychological science, a community-level perspective on social issues, and a social justice orientation. Despite important difference between community psychology and program evaluation, program evaluation is a key component of many community psychologists' practice and holds a central place in my own. In this…

  11. Social Promotion: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.; Owens, Ray C.

    1976-01-01

    Social promotion is accomplishing what it was intended to do; it is relieving the various grades of over-age, floundering students. If we are to help these potential failures, we must devise new educational systems. (Editor)

  12. Urban-Rural Problems. Contemporary Social Problems Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee

    Various social problems are created by migration of low-income rural people into urban areas. These people are classified "low income" because their material level-of-living is often less than that found in urban areas. The dominant national values for material well-being are based upon urban middle class standards, thus creating a social problem…

  13. Penerapan Corporate Social Responsibility dengan Konsep Community Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Suriany

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Business is not only economic institution, but social institution too. As social institution, business has responsibility to help society in solving social problem. This responsibility called Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. CSR pays attention about social problem and environment, so CSR support continuous development to help government role. Nowadays, our government has national development’s agenda. One of them is tourism sector (Visit Indonesia Year 2008 programmed. But tourism sector has challenge in human resources. In this case, business role in practice CSR is needed to help tourism sector. With CSR activities, the quality of local community will increase to participate in tourism activities. CSR activities include training that based on research. When the quality of local community increase, local community can practice the concept of community based tourism (CBT. In the future, Indonesia has a power to compete with other countries.

  14. Seeding Social Capital? Urban Community Gardening and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital...... is an increasingly important concept in international research and measures of social capital have been associated with various measures of health. In a meta-analysis of literature published between 2000 and 2016 regarding community gardens’ social advantages, through the lens of the concept of social capital......, it is demonstrated that several studies substantiate that urban community gardens create social capital, both bonding and bridging, and exhibit indications of linking. It is moreover identified how there is much to be learned from future research, illuminating how urban community gardens can foster social capital...

  15. Finding Community Structures In Social Activity Data

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2015-05-19

    Social activity data sets are increasing in number and volume. Finding community structure in such data is valuable in many applications. For example, understand- ing the community structure of social networks may reduce the spread of epidemics or boost advertising revenue; discovering partitions in tra c networks can help to optimize routing and to reduce congestion; finding a group of users with common interests can allow a system to recommend useful items. Among many aspects, qual- ity of inference and e ciency in finding community structures in such data sets are of paramount concern. In this thesis, we propose several approaches to improve com- munity detection in these aspects. The first approach utilizes the concept of K-cores to reduce the size of the problem. The K-core of a graph is the largest subgraph within which each node has at least K connections. We propose a framework that accelerates community detection. It first applies a traditional algorithm that is relatively slow to the K-core, and then uses a fast heuristic to infer community labels for the remaining nodes. The second approach is to scale the algorithm to multi-processor systems. We de- vise a scalable community detection algorithm for large networks based on stochastic block models. It is an alternating iterative algorithm using a maximum likelihood ap- proach. Compared with traditional inference algorithms for stochastic block models, our algorithm can scale to large networks and run on multi-processor systems. The time complexity is linear in the number of edges of the input network. The third approach is to improve the quality. We propose a framework for non- negative matrix factorization that allows the imposition of linear or approximately linear constraints on each factor. An example of the applications is to find community structures in bipartite networks, which is useful in recommender systems. Our algorithms are compared with the results in recent papers and their quality and e

  16. Community Involvement in School: Social Relationships in a Bedroom Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe how community involvement in school is associated with the social relationships existing/lacking within a bedroom community. Thirty-five interviews with school council members, teachers, and community members highlighted that traditional forms of community involvement in school generate…

  17. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  18. Stress, social support and problem drinking among women in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.

  19. Brand communities embedded in social networks ?

    OpenAIRE

    Zaglia, Melanie E.

    2013-01-01

    Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social ...

  20. Access to water: Technical and social solutions help communities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Access to water: Technical and social solutions help communities make the most of available sources. 08 décembre 2010. Image. IDRC Communications. LASTING IMPACTS. IDRC-supported research engages communities, and countries, in developing durable solutions to water problems. Whatever the challenge, people ...

  1. Emergence of communities and diversity in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Cao, Shinan; Shen, Zhesi; Zhang, Boyu; Wang, Wen-Xu; Cressman, Ross; Stanley, H Eugene

    2017-03-14

    Communities are common in complex networks and play a significant role in the functioning of social, biological, economic, and technological systems. Despite widespread interest in detecting community structures in complex networks and exploring the effect of communities on collective dynamics, a deep understanding of the emergence and prevalence of communities in social networks is still lacking. Addressing this fundamental problem is of paramount importance in understanding, predicting, and controlling a variety of collective behaviors in society. An elusive question is how communities with common internal properties arise in social networks with great individual diversity. Here, we answer this question using the ultimatum game, which has been a paradigm for characterizing altruism and fairness. We experimentally show that stable local communities with different internal agreements emerge spontaneously and induce social diversity into networks, which is in sharp contrast to populations with random interactions. Diverse communities and social norms come from the interaction between responders with inherent heterogeneous demands and rational proposers via local connections, where the former eventually become the community leaders. This result indicates that networks are significant in the emergence and stabilization of communities and social diversity. Our experimental results also provide valuable information about strategies for developing network models and theories of evolutionary games and social dynamics.

  2. editorial note african social work to tackling emerging social problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    In Malawi, social work training started with a community development certificate in 1964 and later a certificate in social welfare in 1978. .... that his main motivation for writing these memoirs was to recognise those who worked with and helped ...

  3. Problems and challenges in social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, P N; Novelli, W D

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the problems that arise when general marketing principles are applied to social programs. Social marketing is conceptualized as the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social ideal or practice in a target group. These problems can occur in 8 basic decision-making areas: market analysis, market segmentation, product strategy development, pricing strategy development, channel strategy development, communications strategy development, organizational design and planning, and evaluation. Social marketers find that they have less good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behavior, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketers in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and more difficulty formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing, and controlling distribution channels comprise another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Social marketers also find that their communications options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with use of paid advertisements, pressures not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. Moreover, social marketers must function in organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated, and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effectiveness measures or estimating the contribution their program has made toward the achievement of certain objectives. If all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed.

  4. Relationship of social factors including trust, control over life decisions, problems with transport and safety, to psychological distress in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne W; Chittleborough, Catherine; Gill, Tiffany K; Winefield, Helen; Baum, Fran; Hiller, Janet E; Goldney, Robert; Tucker, Graeme; Hugo, Graeme

    2012-03-01

    Psychological distress encompasses anxiety and depression with the previous studies showing that psychological distress is unequally distributed across population groups. This paper explores the mechanisms and processes which may affect the distribution of psychological distress, including a range of individual and community level socioeconomic determinants. Representative cross-sectional data was collected for respondents aged 16+ from July 2008 to June 2009, as a part of the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). Univariate and multivariate analyses (n = 5,763) were conducted to investigate the variables that were associated with psychological distress. The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 8.9%. In the multivariate model, females, those aged 16-49, respondents single with children, unable to work or unemployed, with a poorer family financial situation, earning $20,000 or less, feeling safe in their home some or none of the time, feeling as though they have less then total control over life decisions and sometimes experiencing problems with transport, were significantly more likely to experience psychological distress. This paper has demonstrated the relationship between low-income, financial pressure, less than optimal safety and control, and high-psychological distress. It is important that the groups highlighted as vulnerable be targeted in policy, planning, and health promotion and prevention campaigns.

  5. Consumer engagement in social networks brand community

    OpenAIRE

    Rybakovas, Paulius

    2016-01-01

    Consumers increasingly integrate social media into their day-to-day lives. For companies consumer engagement in a brand community on social network is becoming increasingly important for developing relations with consumers. Consumer engagement in a brand community on social network creates a dynamic relationship between the community members and the brand which contributes to an increase in consumer loyalty to the brand. The literature is abundant of studies, which examines the consumer engag...

  6. Mindfulness Facets, Social Anxiety, and Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety: Testing Mediators of Drinking Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Sarfan, Laurel D; Parsons, E Marie; Magee, Joshua C

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants ( N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire , which assesses mindfulness facets of accepting without judgment, acting with awareness, not reacting to one's internal experiences, observing and attending to experiences, and labeling and describing. As predicted, the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and drinking problems was mediated by social anxiety coping motives across each of the models. Further, the relationship between specific mindfulness facets (acting with awareness, accepting without judgment, and describe) and drinking problems was serially mediated by social anxiety symptoms and drinking to cope with social anxiety. This research builds upon existing studies that have largely been conducted with college students to evaluate potential mediators driving drinking problems. Specifically, individuals who are less able to act with awareness, accept without judgment, and describe their internal experiences may experience heightened social anxiety and drinking to cope with that anxiety, which could ultimately result in greater alcohol-related problems.

  7. Social control in online communities of consumption: a framework for community management

    OpenAIRE

    Sibai, Olivier; de Valck, K.; Farrell, A.M.; Rudd, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Online communities of consumption (OCCs) represent highly diverse groups of consumers whose interests are not always aligned. Social control in OCCs aims to effectively manage problems arising from this heterogeneity. Extant literature on social control in OCCs is fragmented as some studies focus on the principles of social control, while others focus on the implementation. Moreover, the domain is undertheorized. This article integrates the disparate literature on social control in OCCs provi...

  8. [Health and social problems in the aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujić, V; Martinov-Cvejin, M; Ac-Nikolić, E

    1997-01-01

    This study reviews data from a poll conducted in three municipalities of Vojvodina on health and social problems of 60-year old and older people (n = 104). Poverty and illness are the main two problems aged people have to deal with, whereas exhaustion, pains, moving around with difficulty, poor vision, heart and breathing problems, as well as cardiovascular diseases and diseases of the musculoskeletal system are the most frequent health problems. Socializing is poor in the old age. Every third aged person visits nobody, while every fifth aged person is visited by nobody. About 3% of examinees describe their relationships with children as negative. That is why it is necessary to organize a health care of the aged which should maintain health and functional abilities into the old age with adequate social care of both closed and open type as long as possible.

  9. Building Library Community Through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Woodward Hazard Young

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article academic librarians present and analyze a model for community building through social media. Findings demonstrate the importance of strategy and interactivity via social media for generating new connections with library users. Details of this research include successful guidelines for building community and developing engagement online with social media. By applying intentional social media practices, the researchers’ Twitter user community grew 100 percent in one year, with a corresponding 275 percent increase in user interactions. Using a community analysis approach, this research demonstrates that the principles of personality and interactivity can lead to community formation for targeted user groups. Discussion includes the strategies and research approaches that were employed to build, study, and understand user community, including user type analysis and action-object mapping. From this research a picture of the library as a member of an active academic community comes into focus.

  10. Contributions to Sustainability by Communities and Individuals: Problems and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, D.; Tonn, B.E.

    1998-11-01

    This report examines relationships between a comprehensive set of definitions of and viewpoints on the concept of Sustainability and the abilities of communities and individuals in the United States to meet the behavioral prescriptions inherent in these definitions and viewpoints. This research is timely because sustainability is becoming a cornerstone of national and international environmental strategies designed to simultaneously achieve environmental, economic, and social goals. In the United States, many communities have adopted sustainability principles as the foundation for both their environmental protection efforts and their socioeconomic development initiatives. This research is important because it highlights serious problems communities and inviduals may have in achieving sustainability expectations, and illustrates how much work is needed to help communities and individuals overcome numerous considerable and complex constraints to sustainability.

  11. Community mobilization and the framing of alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Denise

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists' models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists' models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  12. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Herd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  13. Social problems as sources of opportunity – antecedents of social entrepreneurship opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Żur

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Based on extensive literature review, this paper aims to establish if, why and how, in given environmental and market contexts, social entrepreneurship (SE opportunities are discovered and exploited. It positions social problems as sources of entrepreneurial opportunity. The article presents an integrated process-based view of SE opportunity antecedents and concludes with a dynamic model of SE opportunity. Research Design & Methods: To fulfil its goal, the paper establishes opportunity as unit of research and explores the dynamics of opportunity recognition. To identify the components of SE opportunity through a process-based view, the study follows the steps of critical literature review method. The literature review follows with logical reasoning and inference, which results in the formulation of a model proposition of social entrepreneurship opportunity. Findings: The paper presents a holistic perspective on opportunity antecedents in SE context and introduces social problems, information, social awareness and entrepreneurial mindset  as fundamental components of social entrepreneurship opportunity equation. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to remember for policy makers, investors and partners involved within the social sector, that social problems can be the source of entrepreneurial opportunity. Training, assisting and engaging socially aware entrepreneurs is a promising line of development for all communities. Contribution & Value Added: The major contribution of this study lies in extending the existing body of social entrepreneurship research by providing a new perspective, placing social problem as opportunity in the centre of the discussion.

  14. Access to health care and community social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael S; Ahern, Melissa M; Lovrich, Nicholas P; McCurdy, Arthur H

    2002-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that variation in reported access to health care is positively related to the level of social capital present in a community. The 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 22 metropolitan statistical areas across the United States (n = 19,672). Additional data for the 22 communities are from a 1996 multicity broadcast media marketing database, including key social capital indicators, the 1997 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey, and Interstudy, American Hospital Association, and American Medical Association sources. The design is cross-sectional. Self-reported access to care problems is the dependent variable. Independent variables include individual sociodemographic variables, community-level health sector variables, and social capital variables. Data are merged from the various sources and weighted to be population representative and are analyzed using hierarchical categorical modeling. Persons who live in metropolitan statistical areas featuring higher levels of social capital report fewer problems accessing health care. A higher HMO penetration rate in a metropolitan statistical area was also associated with fewer access problems. Other health sector variables were not related to health care access. The results observed for 22 major U.S. cities are consistent with the hypothesis that community social capital enables better access to care, perhaps through improving community accountability mechanisms.

  15. Brand communities embedded in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglia, Melanie E

    2013-02-01

    Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social networks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of social networks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers' interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes.

  16. Brand communities embedded in social networks☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglia, Melanie E.

    2013-01-01

    Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social networks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of social networks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers’ interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes. PMID:23564989

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility Agreements Model for Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate Social Responsibility Agreements Model for Community ... their host communities with concomitant adverse effect on mining operations. ... sustainable community development an integral part of the mining business. This paper presents the evolutionary strategic models, with differing principles and action plans, ...

  18. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved

  19. Social behavior and aggressive problems of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell-Davis, S L; Barry, K; Wolfe, R

    1997-05-01

    Cats form social groups in which individuals recognize each other, and the cohesiveness of the group is maintained by a variety of amicable behaviors. Agonistic behavior may occur between group members and between group members and nongroup members. Within the domestic environment, agonistic behavior may become a problem when it is directed at housemates or humans. Differential diagnosis and treatment of various problems of aggressive behavior are discussed.

  20. Community engagement and social licence to operate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Achieving ‘a social licence to operate’ is important for organisations with long time horizons, high exposure to global markets and with a wide range of interested stakeholders. Community engagement is critical to achieve a social licence to operate, but its capacity to influence social licence is

  1. Community gardening and social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.J.; Bock, B.B.; Berg, Van den W.; Visser, A.J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Community gardens vary in several ways: they are cultivated by different kinds of communities in various locations, entail individual or communal plots and the extent of active participation (e.g. gardening) differs. In this paper, we study seven community gardens with varying organisational

  2. SOCIAL DIALECTOLOGY: MODERN STATE AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solnyshkina Marina Ivanovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article exemplifies the authors' views on the state of affairs in modern Russian social dialectology as a new branch of sociolinguistics, and demonstrates application of expansionism, anthropocentrism, functionalism and explanatoriness as the main principles of the new linguistic paradigm in sociolinguistic research. The paper offers analysis of the advantages of the integrated approach applied in the studies of social dialects of both – high and low – registers of communication. The authors prove that social dialectology possesses its own theoretical foundation and methodological framework, its research methods are described and time-tested, the existing reviews of social dialectological lexicography are full and complete. The intensive growth of social dialectology is viewed by the authors as catalyzed by the change of the linguistic paradigm and caused by utilizing argot, jargons and non-codified forms of professional sublanguages as sociolinguistic research database. The focus of modern Russian social dialectological schools pioneering the research in the area is on the following: institutional communicative practices based on extra-linguistic contexts, institutional discourse analysis, professional societies as discourse-forming community, interpretation of internal determinants of professional communication. Modern functional (anthropocentric paradigm views professional/social communication not only as the process of sending and receiving information conducted by communication partners but a complicated web of discursive practices of professionals (and at discourses junctures those of professionals with laymen, generating common senses and meanings. The suggested taxonomy of social dialects, based on the parameters of openness/closeness of the community and codified/non-codified type of the language used by it, include the following forms of the language: professional sublanguages, codes (ciphers of security services, jargons and

  3. Sharing cost in social community networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pal, Ranjan; Elango, Divya; Wardana, Satya Ardhy

    2012-01-01

    their deployment in a residential locality. Our proposed mechanism accounts for heterogeneous user preferences towards different router features and comes up with the optimal (feature-set, user costs) router blueprint that satisfies each user in a locality, in turn motivating them to buy routers and thereby improve......Wireless social community networks (WSCNs) is an emerging technology that operate in the unlicensed spectrum and have been created as an alternative to cellular wireless networks for providing low-cost, high speed wireless data access in urban areas. WSCNs is an upcoming idea that is starting...... reflect their slow progress in capturing the WiFi router market. In this paper, we look at a router design and cost sharing problem in WSCNs to improve deployment. We devise a simple to implement, successful, budget-balanced, ex-post efficient, and individually rational auction-based mechanism...

  4. Computer Hacking as a Social Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, Brian

    2018-01-01

    This chapter introduces the ideas and practices of digital technology enthusiasts who fall under the umbrella of “hackers. “We will discuss how their defining activity has been constructed as a social problem and how that construction has been challenged in different ways. The chapter concludes with several policy suggestions aimed at addressing the more problematic aspects of computer hacking.

  5. SOCIAL ANALYSES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT POTENTIAL OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Анатольевич Ткачев

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks over the system of territorial public self-government as one of the most effective figures of existing local communities in the Russian municipalities. Problems of territorial self-government are analyzed from theoretical point of view and on this basis there are four groups of problems distinguished. The authors primarily focus their attention on the social group problems. Verification conducted sociological problems of the social unit, which currently prevent the formation of an effective system of territorial self-government at the municipal level. A sociologic analysis selector management social issue allows us to make conclusion about the current lack of efficient data support system for local public selector. Diagnostics confirmed existence of barriers of a social field of the organization of territorial public self-government.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-66

  6. Dynamic social community detection and its applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam P Nguyen

    Full Text Available Community structure is one of the most commonly observed features of Online Social Networks (OSNs in reality. The knowledge of this feature is of great advantage: it not only provides helpful insights into developing more efficient social-aware solutions but also promises a wide range of applications enabled by social and mobile networking, such as routing strategies in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs and worm containment in OSNs. Unfortunately, understanding this structure is very challenging, especially in dynamic social networks where social interactions are evolving rapidly. Our work focuses on the following questions: How can we efficiently identify communities in dynamic social networks? How can we adaptively update the network community structure based on its history instead of recomputing from scratch? To this end, we present Quick Community Adaptation (QCA, an adaptive modularity-based framework for not only discovering but also tracing the evolution of network communities in dynamic OSNs. QCA is very fast and efficient in the sense that it adaptively updates and discovers the new community structure based on its history together with the network changes only. This flexible approach makes QCA an ideal framework applicable for analyzing large-scale dynamic social networks due to its lightweight computing-resource requirement. To illustrate the effectiveness of our framework, we extensively test QCA on both synthesized and real-world social networks including Enron, arXiv e-print citation, and Facebook networks. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of QCA in real applications: (1 A social-aware message forwarding strategy in MANETs, and (2 worm propagation containment in OSNs. Competitive results in comparison with other methods reveal that social-based techniques employing QCA as a community detection core outperform current available methods.

  7. Dynamic social community detection and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam P; Dinh, Thang N; Shen, Yilin; Thai, My T

    2014-01-01

    Community structure is one of the most commonly observed features of Online Social Networks (OSNs) in reality. The knowledge of this feature is of great advantage: it not only provides helpful insights into developing more efficient social-aware solutions but also promises a wide range of applications enabled by social and mobile networking, such as routing strategies in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) and worm containment in OSNs. Unfortunately, understanding this structure is very challenging, especially in dynamic social networks where social interactions are evolving rapidly. Our work focuses on the following questions: How can we efficiently identify communities in dynamic social networks? How can we adaptively update the network community structure based on its history instead of recomputing from scratch? To this end, we present Quick Community Adaptation (QCA), an adaptive modularity-based framework for not only discovering but also tracing the evolution of network communities in dynamic OSNs. QCA is very fast and efficient in the sense that it adaptively updates and discovers the new community structure based on its history together with the network changes only. This flexible approach makes QCA an ideal framework applicable for analyzing large-scale dynamic social networks due to its lightweight computing-resource requirement. To illustrate the effectiveness of our framework, we extensively test QCA on both synthesized and real-world social networks including Enron, arXiv e-print citation, and Facebook networks. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of QCA in real applications: (1) A social-aware message forwarding strategy in MANETs, and (2) worm propagation containment in OSNs. Competitive results in comparison with other methods reveal that social-based techniques employing QCA as a community detection core outperform current available methods.

  8. Optimal Pricing Strategy for Wireless Social Community Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mazloumian, Amin; Manshaei, Mohammad Hossein; Felegyhazi, Mark; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The increasing number of mobile applications fuels the demand for affordable and ubiquitous wireless access. The traditional wireless network technologies such as EV-DO or WiMAX provide this service but require a huge upfront investment in infrastructure and spectrum. On the contrary, as they do not have to face such an investment, social community operators rely on subscribers who constitute a community of users. The pricing strategy of the provided wireless access is an open problem for thi...

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility Agreements Model for Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), to the extent that often .... intentions and implemented some community development projects, the .... Environmental Protection Agency, Police and civil society to solicit their ...

  10. Working With Plantation Communities: A Reflection of Social Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman Saili; Jamayah Saili

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The plantation industry in Malaysia is aggressively expanding over the past decade driven by global demands for palm oil as a food staple and more recently bio fuels. The rapid growth in the industry is heavily dependent upon high labour and workforce. Such intensity has carried out social impact on the communities including plantation workers, small holders and their dependents. Therefore, this paper will outline what appear to be never ending issues impetus social problems. ...

  11. "Socialized Music": Historical Formations of Community Music through Social Rationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerichuk, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the formation of community music through professional and scholarly articles over the last century in North America, and argues that community music has been discursively formed through social rationales, although the specific rationales have shifted. The author employs an archaeological framework inspired by Michel Foucault to…

  12. Social problems on Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Zhdanov, N.A.; Tumenova, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the report main stages of National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan activity in the field of scientific information obtain about consequences of conducted nuclear tests, radioecological and medical and biological researches, restoration of natural environment and people's health in Republic of Kazakhstan are reflected. Chronicle and results of joint works within frameworks of international programs in these field are given as well. Analysis of up-to-date social problems of population of the region is carried out

  13. Using and improving social capital to increase community preparedness for wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruti Agrawal; Martha C. Monroe

    2006-01-01

    Communities with more social capital are better able to work together to cope with problems such as a wildfire threat. This study found a positive relationship between perceiving greater social capital and participating in wildfire preparedness educational programs. Results suggest that managers can take advantage of existing social capital in communities to improve...

  14. Social Problems as a Mediator of the Link between Reactive Aggression and Withdrawn/Depressed Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether social problems accounted for the relation between reactive aggression and withdrawn/depressed symptoms in a sample of 147 children (54.4% male) ranging from 5 to 13 years of age (M = 8.22 years) who attended a community based after-school program. Findings suggested that indeed social problems mediated the link…

  15. Social Representations of Accounting in Facebook Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Canan; Isabela Augusta Andrade Souza; Kelly Cristina Pereira de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the social representations of accounting that emerge from the contents shared by users of the social network Facebook. The sample studied includes the ten most popular communities organized around accounting, and their last fifty posts. The messages were coded and categorized using the content analysis methodology as well as platform social interaction data such as likes, comments and shares were used to assess the popularity of content / contexts and message formats. Th...

  16. Social Entrepreneurship Andragogy-Based for Community Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Dayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of social entrepreneurship is the ability to initiate, lead and implement problem-solving strategies, through cooperation with others in all types of social networks. The purpose of this study analyzes: 1 entrepreneurship training, 2 adult education assumptions, and 3 community empowerment. This study is discussed by using a comparative theory analysis method that related to entrepreneurship training, andragogy, and community empowerment from various literary sources. Analysis is conducted to find conclusions that can be justified scientifically. The results of the study conclude that: 1 social entrepreneurship training is an organized learning process from planning, implementation, and evaluation on non-formal education path aimed at enhancing community knowledge, attitude and skills for learning and endeavor, 2 entrepreneurship training based on andragogy conducted through a learning process that implements adults’ assumptions of self-conceptual, learning experiences, learning readiness, and learning orientation. 3 Community empowerment is a process of empowerment or strength to community to have the ability of individuals who completely agreed with the community in building social and economic empowerment of the community.

  17. Safety: Science and technique in social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The author describes in a simple and clearly written Dutch text the relationship between scientific and technical knowledge and the social problems concerning the safety of nuclear energy. He begins with the cooling system of reactors and the safety aspects of the associated pumps. He uses this example to illustrate that the quantative determination of failure risks need not necessarily be relevant for judging the acceptance of the risk but is always relevant as a method of judging the effect of technical improvements on safety values. The author then considers the radiological effects of the operation of a nuclear plant by presenting the doses of radioactivity released if a reactor is operating normally, if there are technical problems and in the case of accidents. The corresponding biological effects on man are also presented and in an appendix the radiological consequences of reactor accidents are considered in some detail. He describes a number of models used in such calculations - for metereological distribution, dosimetry for internal radiation, cancer induction - to illustrate the margins of uncertainty in the predictions. According to the author safety aspects should not just be seen as a purely technical problem, starting with the fact that nuclear energy is desirable and then ensuring that all required safety regulations are met. Safety aspects are a social problem and should be considered by first discussing whether nuclear energy is acceptable, taking into consideration such consequences as the effects of possible accidents and the long term effects of reactor operation. (C.F.)

  18. COPD360social Online Community: A Social Media Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Paige, Samantha R; Alber, Julia M; Stewart, Margaret

    2018-06-01

    People living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) commonly report feelings of loneliness and social isolation due to lack of support from family, friends, and health care providers. COPD360social is an interactive and disease-specific online community and social network dedicated to connecting people living with COPD to evidence-based resources. Through free access to collaborative forums, members can explore, engage, and discuss an array of disease-related topics, such as symptom management. This social media review provides an overview of COPD360social, specifically its features that practitioners can leverage to facilitate patient-provider communication, knowledge translation, and community building. The potential of COPD360social for chronic disease self-management is maximized through community recognition programming and interactive friend-finding tools that encourage members to share their own stories through blogs and multimedia (e.g., images, videos). The platform also fosters collaborative knowledge dissemination and helping relationships among patients, family members, friends, and health care providers. Successful implementation of COPD360social has dramatically expanded patient education and self-management support resources for people affected by COPD. Practitioners should refer patients and their families to online social networks such as COPD360social to increase knowledge and awareness of evidence-based chronic disease management practices.

  19. Social Representations of Accounting in Facebook Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Canan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the social representations of accounting that emerge from the contents shared by users of the social network Facebook. The sample studied includes the ten most popular communities organized around accounting, and their last fifty posts. The messages were coded and categorized using the content analysis methodology as well as platform social interaction data such as likes, comments and shares were used to assess the popularity of content / contexts and message formats. The analysis of the data indicates that the people that congregate around accounting in Facebook communities tend to deal primarily with tributary and bureaucratic issues, suggesting that in these communities accounting is the expression of a praxis whose function is to attend totax issues. Deductions converge to other studies on social representations of accounting in Brazil, reinforcing the idea that accounting is viewed differently by academia, professionals and stakeholders.

  20. Exploratory community sensing in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrabrov, Alexy; Stocco, Gabriel; Cybenko, George

    2010-04-01

    Social networks generally provide an implementation of some kind of groups or communities which users can voluntarily join. Twitter does not have this functionality, and there is no notion of a formal group or community. We propose a method for identification of communities and assignment of semantic meaning to the discussion topics of the resulting communities. Using this analysis method and a sample of roughly a month's worth of Tweets from Twitter's "gardenhose" feed, we demonstrate the discovery of meaningful user communities on Twitter. We examine Twitter data streaming in real time and treat it as a sensor. Twitter is a social network which pioneered microblogging with the messages fitting an SMS, and a variety of clients, browsers, smart phones and PDAs are used for status updates by individuals, businesses, media outlets and even devices all over the world. Often an aggregate trend of such statuses may represent an important development in the world, which has been demonstrated with the Iran and Moldova elections and the anniversary of the Tiananmen in China. We propose using Twitter as a sensor, tracking individuals and communities of interest, and characterizing individual roles and dynamics of their communications. We developed a novel algorithm of community identification in social networks based on direct communication, as opposed to linking. We show ways to find communities of interest and then browse their neighborhoods by either similarity or diversity of individuals and groups adjacent to the one of interest. We use frequent collocations and statistically improbable phrases to summarize the focus of the community, giving a quick overview of its main topics. Our methods provide insight into the largest social sensor network in the world and constitute a platform for social sensing.

  1. Community work – the missing link of municipal social policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moors M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal social policy has an important role in dealing with social problems of citizens. On micro level, municipalities spend a substantial amount of their budget solving such problems. However, increasing the amount of money spent on solving problems of each individual at micro level does not provide efficient fulfilment of the tasks defined for municipal social policy making. Thus new, complementary solutions should be looked into, as new ways of development of social work in municipalities should be designed with the aim to increase the level of citizen participation and joint responsibility, especially of socially vulnerable groups. Research results let the author conclude that social activity of socially vulnerable groups should be promoted by creating a series of prerequisites, among which citizen participation, need for organisational support, activities that would foster politician and municipality officials’ attitude towards citizen participation and their social capital increase, two-way relationship between citizens and officials, and the worker that would promote citizen participation, among which is social policy making, are considered to be very important. All of this can be successfully reached by developing community work in local municipalities. This is the missing link to combine macro and micro levels, or political determination and practical implementation of citizen participation.

  2. Community Empowerment Strategy Based on Social and Cultural Capital of Coastal Communities at Makassar Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzil, Tanzil

    2018-05-01

    The study aims to (1) analyze the form and the function of social capital in fisher communities of Makasar Island (2) formulate a strategy of empowerment through reinforcement of social capital in fisher communities in Makasar Island. The methodological design used is a case study. The data is then analysed through descriptive-qualitative, an analysis carried out continuously from the collection of data until the investigation is completed. The study findings showed that the fisher communities in Makasar Island have social and cultural capital that can be identified on the forms of trust, values/norms, and networks in which each social and cultural capital has become a power for fishermen to survive and adapt to its environment. The results of this study also identify various problems related to the process of empowering fishing communities on the island of Makassar. The problems also become a constraint for fishermen to improve their business so that they obtain relatively low incomes. The problems are: firstly, the weakness on the use of technology so that the productivity of fishermen is relatively low and the small business scale, the second, the difficulty in business development because of the limited access to capital and the third, the poor of business management as the result of limited ability in business management. These factors then lead the fishing communities on the island of Makasar powerless to exploit the rich potential of marine resources.

  3. Neighbourhood and own social housing and early problem behaviour trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Tzatzaki, Konstantina

    2015-02-01

    To explore the roles of proportion of social rented housing in the neighbourhood ('neighbourhood social housing'), own housing being socially rented, and their interaction in early trajectories of emotional, conduct and hyperactivity symptoms. We tested three pathways of effects: family stress and maternal psychological distress, low quality parenting practices, and peer problems. We used data from 9,850 Millennium Cohort Study families who lived in England when the cohort children were aged 3. Children's emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems were measured at ages 3, 5 and 7. Even after accounting for own social housing, neighbourhood social housing was related to all problems and their trajectories. Its association with conduct problems and hyperactivity was explained by selection. Selection also explained the effect of the interaction between neighbourhood and own social housing on hyperactivity, but not why children of social renter families living in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of social housing followed a rising trajectory of emotional problems. The effects of own social housing, neighbourhood social housing and their interaction on emotional problems were robust. Peer problems explained the association of own social housing with hyperactivity. Neither selection nor the pathways we tested explained the association of own social housing with conduct problems, the association of neighbourhood social housing with their growth, or the association of neighbourhood social housing, own social housing and their interaction with emotional problems. Children of social renter families in neighbourhoods with a low concentration of social renters are particularly vulnerable to emotional problems.

  4. Optimal community structure for social contagions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Li, Lixiang; Stanley, H. Eugene; Braunstein, Lidia A.

    2018-05-01

    Community structure is an important factor in the behavior of real-world networks because it strongly affects the stability and thus the phase transition order of the spreading dynamics. We here propose a reversible social contagion model of community networks that includes the factor of social reinforcement. In our model an individual adopts a social contagion when the number of received units of information exceeds its adoption threshold. We use mean-field approximation to describe our proposed model, and the results agree with numerical simulations. The numerical simulations and theoretical analyses both indicate that there is a first-order phase transition in the spreading dynamics, and that a hysteresis loop emerges in the system when there is a variety of initially adopted seeds. We find an optimal community structure that maximizes spreading dynamics. We also find a rich phase diagram with a triple point that separates the no-diffusion phase from the two diffusion phases.

  5. Social franchising for community owned renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, K. [Community Renewable Energy, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    In some European Union (EU) States community owned renewable projects have made a major contribution to the development of renewables as a whole, and this project wishes to build on their success. Other states have yet to establish relatively significant community renewable sectors. Community Renewable Energy (CoRE) has developed a new social enterprise franchise model to accelerate the take-up of renewable energy technologies across the EU. The model focuses on the three difficulties faced by communities wishing to develop renewable energy in a globalized and deregulated energy market. CoRE provides support in the forms of time, money and expertise, as a central function, to a federated or cooperative membership. In return CoRE takes a share of profits from each community project that it works with to cover its running costs, work with more communities and develop financial mechanisms to fund futher projects. The plan is to set up CoRE Europe to enable communities to become part of a decentralized energy network and share resources and knowledge. It will add to community sustainability and resilience, develop and support a range of other community benefits, for example: job creation, tackling fuel poverty and empowering communities in meeting the climate change challenge.

  6. Energy sustainable communities - social and psychological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer-Ries, P.; Baasch, St.; Jagszent, J.

    2004-01-01

    Besides technical, political and economic aspects of energy sustainability there are several social, behavioural and psychological dimensions of vital importance for a successful implementation of Renewable Energy Systems (RES) and Rational Use of Energy (RUE) within communities. The European Project ''Sustainable Communities-on the energy dimension'' pursues an interdisciplinary approach to detect essential success and facilitating factors. In the last years social and psychological aspects in the process of sustainability came to the fore more and more. Not only as a complementary science to facilitate the technical aims in the change process but also as an essential part for success. (authors)

  7. Analysis and visualization of social user communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel LÓPEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel framework for social user clustering is proposed. Given a current controversial political topic, the Louvain Modularity algorithm is used to detect communities of users sharing the same political preferences. The political alignment of a set of users is labeled manually by a human expert and then the quality of the community detection is evaluated against this gold standard. In the last section, we propose a novel force-directed graph algorithm to generate a visual representation of the detected communities.   

  8. Nuclear safety targets and problems of social acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The following are among the factors which make the problem of setting acceptable safety targets for societal protection from possible nuclear accidents one of such formidable proportion: The varied and often conflicting positions among and between the many constituencies with a claim to interest in the problem: local, national and international populations; lay, workplace and professional communities; private and public interests; active environmental lobbies and intentionally passive publics; powerful influences and politically unprivileged classes; press and mass media. To seek 'acceptability' of safety targets through common consensus is problematised by the difficulty in overcoming the immense social and historical forces that give rise to the prevailing contrariety among different people's positions. To seek resolution of differences by some appropriate weighting of the different views of different constituencies is problematised by the lack of unique identification of what the constituencies are, by the difficulty in faithfully representing their views, and by the absence of 'laws of social entitlement' vis-a-vis the weight that should be given to each. In sum, the problem of setting socially acceptable safety targets is itself bound up with inherently open ended questions of democracy and representation. (author)

  9. Social network analysis community detection and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Missaoui, Rokia

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in social network analysis with a high focus on community detection and evolution. The eleven chapters cover the identification of cohesive groups, core components and key players either in static or dynamic networks of different kinds and levels of heterogeneity. Other important topics in social network analysis such as influential detection and maximization, information propagation, user behavior analysis, as well as network modeling and visualization are also presented. Many studies are validated through real social networks such as Twitter. This edit

  10. Local community and ethical citizenship: Neoliberal configurations of social protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković Čarna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the consequences of redefining citizenship as an ethical category during social protection reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. Ethical citizenship refers to a particular way of defining the relationship between the state and a person; a special politics of behavior that seeks to redefine citizens as moral subjects of responsible communities. The article ethnographically demonstrates that a local community, imagined as a collective of ethical actors, was expected to take over a major portion of financing and organizing social protection. Translating neoliberal policies to BiH, under supervision of the international community, created an ambiguous environment without a «clear system or model» in which personal relationships gained a special relevance. The article argues that favors and informal practices, such as veze and stela, were not strategies people used to overcome problems of postsocialist markets and democracies. Veze and stela have become particularly important for the organization social protection because neoliberal reforms left undefined roles, responsibilities, and procedures of protection. The very need to personalize social protection was a constitutive element of contemporary, global, neoliberal ideas about the relationship between the state and society, while veza and stela enabled people to actively negotiate roles, responsibilities, and procedures of social protection within their local communities.

  11. Identifying influential user communities on the social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weishu; Gong, Zhiguo; Hou U, Leong; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays social network services have been popularly used in electronic commerce systems. Users on the social network can develop different relationships based on their common interests and activities. In order to promote the business, it is interesting to explore hidden relationships among users developed on the social network. Such knowledge can be used to locate target users for different advertisements and to provide effective product recommendations. In this paper, we define and study a novel community detection problem that is to discover the hidden community structure in large social networks based on their common interests. We observe that the users typically pay more attention to those users who share similar interests, which enable a way to partition the users into different communities according to their common interests. We propose two algorithms to detect influential communities using common interests in large social networks efficiently and effectively. We conduct our experimental evaluation using a data set from Epinions, which demonstrates that our method achieves 4-11.8% accuracy improvement over the state-of-the-art method.

  12. Community Gardening, Neighborhood Meetings, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Katherine; Reischl, Thomas M.; Allen, Julie Ober

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between participation in community gardening/beautification projects and neighborhood meetings with perceptions of social capital at both the individual and neighborhood levels. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional stratified random telephone survey conducted in Flint, Michigan (N=1916). Hierarchical linear…

  13. Preliminary Context Analysis of Community Informatics Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary context analysis is always part of the feasibility study phase in the development of information system for Community Development (CD) purposes. In this paper, a context model and a preliminary context analysis are presented for Social Network Web Application (SNWA) for CD in the Niger Delta region of ...

  14. Networked Community Change: Understanding Community Systems Change through the Lens of Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Jennifer A; Neal, Zachary P

    2016-06-01

    Addressing complex problems in communities has become a key area of focus in recent years (Kania & Kramer, 2013, Stanford Social Innovation Review). Building on existing approaches to understanding and addressing problems, such as action research, several new approaches have emerged that shift the way communities solve problems (e.g., Burns, 2007, Systemic Action Research; Foth, 2006, Action Research, 4, 205; Kania & Kramer, 2011, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 1, 36). Seeking to bring clarity to the emerging literature on community change strategies, this article identifies the common features of the most widespread community change strategies and explores the conditions under which such strategies have the potential to be effective. We identify and describe five common features among the approaches to change. Then, using an agent-based model, we simulate network-building behavior among stakeholders participating in community change efforts using these approaches. We find that the emergent stakeholder networks are efficient when the processes are implemented under ideal conditions. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  15. Social dominance orientation and opinions about what is America's most serious social problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Wendy J

    2005-08-01

    This study tested whether a measure of Social Dominance Orientation was associated with opinions about America's most serious social problem. 150 undergraduates enrolled in social problems classes responded to the 14-item scale and to an open-ended question, "In your opinion, what is the most serious social problem in our country today?". Analysis shows that mean scale scores differed significantly across social problem responses. Correspondence analysis, plotting association between scale scores and social problem responses, was interpreted as support for social dominance theory. Higher scale scores were associated with problems of crime and negative values and lower scores with problems of education and racism.

  16. Mass Media Influences on Public Conceptions of Social Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Explores possible relationships between the mass media of communication and social problems by three-way comparisons between the incidence of social problems suggested in media portrayals, conceptions of the incidence of these problems held by the public, and the relative frequency of such problems reflected in statistics accumulated by official…

  17. Cerebral Palsy: Still A Social Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angom Bisharda

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What arc the social aspects of cerebral palsy?Objective: To determine the extent and severity of neuromuscular involvement in cases of cerebral palsy and to find out the associated defects among these children.Study Design: Cross sectional study.Setting: Tertiary care hospital, outdoor patients.Participants: Children in the age group of 0 - 12 years.Sample Size: 120 children suffering from cerebral palsy.Study Variables: Social factors, neuromuscular involvement.Statistical Analysis: By proportionsResult: Out of 120 cases, maximum number of cases (66.6% were in the age group of 1- 4 years. 83 cases ( 69.16% were males. Among the various types, spastic type was the commonest (87.5%. Of these spastic cases, 52 (49.52% had quadriplegia. No case of tremor and rigidity was seen. Delayed milestones was the commonest associated disorder, seen in 107 (89.16% cases, followed by speech defect in 58(48.3% cases, visual defect in 34(28.3% cases and convulsions in 24 (20.0% cases. Hearing defect was seen in 5 cases (4.16% only.Conclusion: More concerted efforts arc required to identify children with cerebral palsy and rehabilitate them for the betterment of society.

  18. Cerebral Palsy: Still A Social Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angom Bisharda

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What arc the social aspects of cerebral palsy? Objective: To determine the extent and severity of neuromuscular involvement in cases of cerebral palsy and to find out the associated defects among these children. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital, outdoor patients. Participants: Children in the age group of 0 - 12 years. Sample Size: 120 children suffering from cerebral palsy. Study Variables: Social factors, neuromuscular involvement. Statistical Analysis: By proportions Result: Out of 120 cases, maximum number of cases (66.6% were in the age group of 1- 4 years. 83 cases ( 69.16% were males. Among the various types, spastic type was the commonest (87.5%. Of these spastic cases, 52 (49.52% had quadriplegia. No case of tremor and rigidity was seen. Delayed milestones was the commonest associated disorder, seen in 107 (89.16% cases, followed by speech defect in 58(48.3% cases, visual defect in 34(28.3% cases and convulsions in 24 (20.0% cases. Hearing defect was seen in 5 cases (4.16% only. Conclusion: More concerted efforts arc required to identify children with cerebral palsy and rehabilitate them for the betterment of society.

  19. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391

  20. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  1. Mob justice in Tanzania: a medico-social problem | Ng'walali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the magnitude of mob justice and associated factors. Background: Mob justice is a social and public health problem that has grown in Tanzania in recent decades that has negative effects on social and health of the country, communities, and families. Materials and Methods: A four-year autopsy ...

  2. Some feminist contributions to community social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mayorga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the contributions of feminist debate about intersectionality of social categories for Community Social Psychology in Brazil. This was set up as dedicated to theoretical analyze the social inequalities that characterize contemporary societies and propose methodological processes of intervention for questioning and processing of these realities. We discuss how the emergence of new actors and demands on public space, as distinct from the 60/70, is required to understand the oppression from various power systems such as gender, race and sexuality. We conclude that intersectional analysis should consider different levels of relationships between categories, the history of the same differential and common aspects of different systems of power as naturalization of inequality, the relationship between public and private relationship between equality and difference. Analyses based on intersectionality can contribute to processes of social intervention that considers the complexity of contemporary societies.

  3. The Youth as the Innovative Social Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zhuravleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the contemporary youth environment from the standpoint of juvenology. The youth is regarded as a distinct social community prone to violating the norms and rules due to the specific mentality and functional characteristics. The authors denote the youth age range, social status and roles, behavior patterns, life style and subculture preferences. The youth community is most open to innovation, being its generator and consumer, conductor of information flows, initiator of new behavior patterns and stereotypes including the negative ones. The main disadvantages of the given age group are the lack of social experience, rejection of traditional cultural behavior patterns on the one hand, and high susceptibility and imitation propensity on the other hand. The research demonstrates that social deviation often results from the young people’s dissatisfaction and lack of social prospects. Therefore, the factors determining the above trends are related to insufficient attention to the youth’s requirements and interests on the part of the government and society. 

  4. The Youth as the Innovative Social Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zhuravleva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the contemporary youth environment from the standpoint of juvenology. The youth is regarded as a distinct social community prone to violating the norms and rules due to the specific mentality and functional characteristics. The authors denote the youth age range, social status and roles, behavior patterns, life style and subculture preferences. The youth community is most open to innovation, being its generator and consumer, conductor of information flows, initiator of new behavior patterns and stereotypes including the negative ones. The main disadvantages of the given age group are the lack of social experience, rejection of traditional cultural behavior patterns on the one hand, and high susceptibility and imitation propensity on the other hand. The research demonstrates that social deviation often results from the young people’s dissatisfaction and lack of social prospects. Therefore, the factors determining the above trends are related to insufficient attention to the youth’s requirements and interests on the part of the government and society. 

  5. Social Innovation Systems for Building Resilient Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donagh Horgan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social innovation—while not a new practice in itself—has re-emerged since the global financial crisis in 2008 as an approach to solving our collective intractable global challenges. Despite its renewed popularity, there is no common definition for the phenomenon, not least in the context of its application when planning the built environment or civic infrastructures. This paper seeks to position the practice of social innovation as a means for holistic collaboration between disciplines to develop sustainable social ecologies and systems that provide for resilient communities. It tests a hypothesis that social innovation develops over phases (feedback loops—that of the network, framework and architecture phase—to design for social, environmental and economic resilience. It looks to theories emerging in other subject areas like sociology and technology, that can inform its application in a planning context, such as Actor-Network and Adaptive Complexity theories. It explores the mechanisms that provide for resilience through action research and engagement with a number of international case studies and scenarios. Lastly, the paper identifies further avenues of research pertaining to networks, frameworks and architectures to develop models of best practice for inclusive, sustainable and iterative community development.

  6. Contemporary Limitations to Religious Solution to Social Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, cultural differences, political pressures, and plurality of values weaken the therapeutic strength of religion as it attends to social problems. Finally, this paper argues that religion as a social capital can reduce the menace of social problems if its institutions can be trusted by the people in the society. Key Words: ...

  7. Alcohol use and policy formation: an evolving social problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Amir

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the evolutionary course that the social problem of alcohol use has taken in the United States since the Colonial Era. This article utilizes a range of theoretical models to analyze the evolving nature of alcohol use from an unrecognized to a perceived social problem. The models used include critical constructionism (Heiner, 2002), top-down policy model (Dye, 2001) and Mauss'(1975) understanding of social problems and movements. These theoretical constructs exhibit the relative nature of alcohol use as a social problem in regards to a specific time, place, and social context as well as the powerful and influential role that social elites have in defining alcohol asa social problem. Studies regarding the development of alcohol policy formation are discussed to illuminate the different powers, constituents, and factors that play a role in alcohol policy formation.Finally, implications for future study are discussed [corrected].

  8. Social information processing skills in adolescents with traumatic brain injury: Relationship with social competence and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L; Mark, Erin

    2009-01-01

    To examine social information processing (SIP) skills, behavior problems, and social competence following adolescent TBI and to determine whether SIP skills were predictive of behavior problems and social competence. Cross-sectional analyses of adolescents with TBI recruited and enrolled in a behavioral treatment study currently in progress. Two tertiary care children's hospitals with Level 1 trauma centers. Adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with severe TBI (n=19) and moderate TBI (n=24) who were injured up to 24 months prior to recruitment. TBI severity, race, maternal education, and age at testing. a measure of SIP skills, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Youth Self Report (YSR), and Home and Community Social Behavior Scale (HCSBS). The severe TBI group did not obtain significantly lower scores on the SIP measures than the moderate TBI group. In comparison to adolescents with moderate TBI, those with severe TBI had significantly more parent-reported externalizing behaviors and self-reported weaknesses in social competence. SIP skills were strong predictors of problems and social competence in adolescents with TBI. More specifically, an aggressive SIP style predicted externalizing problems and a passive SIP style predicted internalizing problems. Both passive and aggressive SIP skills were related to social competence and social problems. Adolescents with TBI are at risk for deficits in social and behavioral outcomes. SIP skills are strongly related to behavior problems and social competence in adolescents with TBI. SIP skills, social competence, and behavior problems are important targets for intervention that may be amenable to change and lead to improved functional outcomes following TBI.

  9. Community Collaborative Problem Solving--Cross-Cultural Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Georgia L.; Marin-Hernandez, Agueda

    1999-01-01

    Examples of Midwestern and Honduran community-based collaborative problem solving provide cross-culturally-adaptable suggestions for community coalitions: adapt the process to the culture, recognize structural constraints, understand reciprocity norms, appreciate the validity of avoidance, and remember that communication roadblocks are always…

  10. Community Structure in Online Collegiate Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traud, Amanda; Kelsic, Eric; Mucha, Peter; Porter, Mason

    2009-03-01

    Online social networking sites have become increasingly popular with college students. The networks we studied are defined through ``friendships'' indicated by Facebook users from UNC, Oklahoma, Caltech, Georgetown, and Princeton. We apply the tools of network science to study the Facebook networks from these five different universities at a single point in time. We investigate each single-institution network's community structure, which we obtain through partitioning the graph using an eigenvector method. We use both graphical and quantitative tools, including pair-counting methods, which we interpret through statistical analysis and permutation tests to measure the correlations between the network communities and a set of characteristics given by each user (residence, class year, major, and high school). We also analyze the single gender subsets of these networks, and the impact of missing demographical data. Our study allows us to compare the online social networks for the five schools as well as infer differences in offline social interactions. At the schools studied, we were able to define which characteristics of the Facebook users correlate best with friendships.

  11. PRIVACY PROTECTION PROBLEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    OKUR, M. Cudi

    2011-01-01

    Protecting privacy has become a major concern for most social network users because of increased difficulties of controlling the online data. This article presents an assessment of the common privacy related risks of social networking sites. Open and hidden privacy risks of active and passive online profiles are examined and increasing share of social networking in these phenomena is discussed. Inadequacy of available legal and institutional protection is demonstrated and the effectiveness of...

  12. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.

  13. Alaska communities and forest environments: a problem analysis and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda E. Kruger; Rhonda L. Mazza

    2006-01-01

    This problem analysis describes a variety of human-resource interaction issues and identifies related social science research and development needs that serve as the foundation for the Alaska Communities and Forest Environments Team within the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The document lays out a research agenda that focuses on understanding relations between...

  14. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social communities as drivers in youth civic engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria

    of leisure and interest-based communities and digital arenas are mainly used to maintain existing communities. However, social communities are not perceived as manifest and natural to the young people. They are objects of endless maintenance and investments of time and attention. And, thus, community...... qualitative interviews with Danish ‘average’ youth (aged 15-30) focusing on their social communities and friendships; What kind of communities are of importance? What are their practices and what do they prioritize? Despite contemporary sociological characterizations of social communities as detraditionalized...

  16. The Investigation of Social Problem Solving Abilities of University Students in Terms of Perceived Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tras, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996) translated and…

  17. Social Entrepreneurship in Ukraine: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodchenko Volodymyr B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify the current trends in the development of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine as a new form of doing business in the context of socio-economic transformations. By analyzing and generalizing scientific works of many scientists, the evolution of the development of social enterprises is considered, the views of researchers on the definition of the concept of “social entrepreneurship” and its key factors are systematized. The modern tendencies, main barriers and opportunities for the development of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine are revealed. As a result of the research, differentiation of social enterprises according to the level of social and business activity is proposed. The experience of formation and development of social entrepreneurship in European countries is studied. It is substantiated that under the current conditions of transition from the resource-oriented paradigm of economic development to the value-oriented one, the motivational component of human labor changes: money loses the role of a key motivational factor; possibility of creating economic values for others by implementing own plans and initiatives comes to the fore. A prospect for further research in this area is studying regulatory and legal aspects of the emergence of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine as a driver of sustainable economic development of the country.

  18. How children arrange social communities across contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte

    and contributing to different activities of their life. Following children in their everyday life across contexts has highlighted a theme about how children ‘arrange’ their social communities and their personal participation in varying and shifting activities. In this way the paper will emphasize the active......The purpose of the CHACDOC section is among other things to create a forum for uniting developmental psychology and childhood research. This raises the question: How can studies of children anchored in historical time and settings contribute to discussions of what development is about...... different life contexts, contradictory demands and social conflicts. One point in the paper will be to illustrate that they are doing this together. Children’s developmental contexts are societal and historical structured and in the same time the children themselves are involved in organising, negotiating...

  19. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    OpenAIRE

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely bee...

  20. Cognitive functioning and social problem-solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.

  1. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  2. Social inhibition sense of belonging and vulnerability to internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, E.L.; Denollet, J.; Laceulle, O.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a conceptual test of how social inhibition, sense of belonging and internalizing problems are related, and whether sense of belonging moderates or mediates the relation between social inhibition and internalizing problems. Methods Data were used from

  3. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  4. Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…

  5. Television and Social Problems: A Case History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, John

    1978-01-01

    Discusses two documentary television movies, "Johnny Go Home" and "Goodbye Longfellow Road," in terms of their resultant social change. Includes consideration of audience, time shown, and previous attitudes to provide evidence for his argument. (JEG)

  6. Age Moderates the Relationship between Social Support and Psychosocial Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…

  7. Social Problems in Canadian Ice Hockey: An Exploration Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogel Curtis A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While celebrated as a highly popular sport in Canada, there are many social problems existing within and around Canadian ice hockey. These problems are often overlooked and rarely depicted in academic and journalistic research on sport. These social problems include, but are not limited to: extreme violence resulting in injuries and death, hazing rituals, multiple types of sexual violence, drug abuse, financial corruption, as well as various forms of prejudice and discrimination. Prompted by pop-cultural depictions in films, this paper further identifies and explores social problems in Canadian ice hockey revealing the realism embedded within various seemingly fictional films.

  8. Social Capital and Casino Gambling in U.S. Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor Griswold, Mary; Nichols, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the impact that the spread of casino gambling has on social capital in communities throughout the United States. Social capital is a networking process that translates into an individual's effectiveness in the community and workplace, and binds communities together. Several recent studies have also demonstrated a…

  9. Community Building in Social Justice Work: A Critical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina; Hytten, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    In this article we argue for the importance of building critical communities as an integral, yet neglected, aspect of education for social justice. We begin by defining critical communities and by describing goals and vision for social justice education. We then explore how community is discussed in the education literature, limitations and…

  10. Loneliness, Social Relations and Health and Wellbeing in Deprived Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Ade; Whitley, Elise; Tannahill, Carol; Ellaway, Anne

    2015-01-01

    There is growing policy concern about the extent of loneliness in advanced societies, and its prevalence among various social groups. This study looks at loneliness among people living in deprived communities, where there may be additional barriers to social engagement including low incomes, fear of crime, poor services and transient populations. The aim was to examine the prevalence of loneliness, and also its associations with different types of social contacts and forms of social support, and its links to self-reported health and wellbeing in the population group. The method involved a cross-sectional survey of 4,302 adults across 15 communities, with the data analysed using multinomial logistic regression controlling for sociodemographics, then for all other predictors within each domain of interest. Frequent feelings of loneliness were more common among those who: had contact with family monthly or less; had contact with neighbours weekly or less; rarely talked to people in the neighbourhood; and who had no available sources of practical or emotional support. Feelings of loneliness were most strongly associated with poor mental health, but were also associated with long-term problems of stress, anxiety and depression, and with low mental wellbeing, though to a lesser degree. The findings are consistent with a view that situational loneliness may be the product of residential structures and resources in deprived areas. The findings also show that neighbourly behaviours of different kinds are important for protecting against loneliness in deprived communities. Familiarity within the neighbourhood, as active acquaintance rather than merely recognition, is also important. The findings are indicative of several mechanisms that may link loneliness to health and wellbeing in our study group: loneliness itself as a stressor; lonely people not responding well to the many other stressors in deprived areas; and loneliness as the product of weak social buffering to

  11. The social media participation framework: studying the effects of social media on nonprofit communities

    OpenAIRE

    Effing, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline community effects of social media use. Therefore, the main question of this study is: “How does the use of social media by members of nonprofit communities affect their offline participation?” The Social...

  12. Contributions of womens social clubs to community development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to identify the number of registered women social clubs in the areas, their community development activities and projects and the perception of the residents of the communities. Based on the programmes of the women social clubs, data were collected from 67 registered women social clubs, 670 club ...

  13. Predicting Community Evolution in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Saganowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sustained development of different social media can be observed worldwide. One of the relevant research domains intensively explored recently is analysis of social communities existing in social media as well as prediction of their future evolution taking into account collected historical evolution chains. These evolution chains proposed in the paper contain group states in the previous time frames and its historical transitions that were identified using one out of two methods: Stable Group Changes Identification (SGCI and Group Evolution Discovery (GED. Based on the observed evolution chains of various length, structural network features are extracted, validated and selected as well as used to learn classification models. The experimental studies were performed on three real datasets with different profile: DBLP, Facebook and Polish blogosphere. The process of group prediction was analysed with respect to different classifiers as well as various descriptive feature sets extracted from evolution chains of different length. The results revealed that, in general, the longer evolution chains the better predictive abilities of the classification models. However, chains of length 3 to 7 enabled the GED-based method to almost reach its maximum possible prediction quality. For SGCI, this value was at the level of 3–5 last periods.

  14. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  15. Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G; Jacobs, Rachel H; Reinecke, Mark A; Silva, Susan G; March, John S

    2010-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire--Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social Studies and the Problem of Evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Explores the issue of whether evil exists in the world and the best ways to confront it. Claims that the ubiquitousness of evil places a responsibility on social studies educators to address it in the classroom. Offers six suggestions for teaching students about the existence and implications of evil. (CMK)

  17. The location problem in social ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    Mental, mathematical, and moral facts are difficult to accommodate within an overall worldview due to the peculiar kinds of properties inherent to them. In this paper I argue that a significant class of social entities also presents us with an ontological puzzle that has thus far not been addressed

  18. SOCIAL CHANGE AND THE NEGRO PROBLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSE, ARNOLD

    A FEW OF THE DYNAMIC FORCES OF CHANGE THAT HAVE BROUGHT ABOUT A NEW SITUATION FOR THE AMERICAN NEGRO ARE PRESENTED. THESE FORCES HAVE OCCURRED WITHOUT A VIOLENT REVOLUTION AND WITHIN MANY INSTITUTIONS, THE FORCES WERE MOST COMPLETE IN THE ECONOMIC SPHERES, LESS SO IN THE LEGAL AND POLITICAL SPHERES, AND LEAST IN THE SPHERE OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP.…

  19. Study of Problems of Individual's Social Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duisenbayev, Abay K.; Baltymova, Mira R.; Akzholova, Aktoty T.; Bazargaliyev, Gabit B.; Zhumagaziyev, Arman Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the study of social education of the individual as an integral process covering all stages of human development, supported by factors of modern development of children, adolescents, youth in the conditions of reforming education. Currently, the scientific literature has accumulated a sufficient fund of theoretical knowledge,…

  20. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.

  1. On the Historical and Conceptual Foundations of a Community Psychology of Social Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokani, Ravi; Walsh, Richard T G

    2017-06-01

    We examine historical and conceptual literature in community psychology in order to understand the field's potential to be the socially transformative subdiscipline of psychology to which it aspires. By reviewing papers from two prominent journals and other literature, we conclude that the claim that community psychology is well-suited to social transformation, because it is a product of Sixties' radicalism and is theoretically equipped, is untenable. Systematic accounts of the subdiscipline's origins suggest that the transformative aspirations of current community psychologists do not correspond to the subdiscipline's reformist past. Furthermore, in analyzing three related concepts currently employed in the field-social justice, power, and praxis-we show that each suffers from conceptual ambiguity and a restricted political scope. These conceptual flaws, coupled with community psychology's historical inclination toward social reform, inhibit the possibility of contributing to radical social transformation. We conclude that neither questionable historical claims nor ambiguous and politically dubious concepts support a community psychology of social transformation. We offer solutions for the historical and conceptual problems we identify and, as a broader solution to the problem of engaging in socially transformative work, propose that community psychologists should seek direct political engagement in solidarity with other citizens as fellow citizens not as psychologists. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  2. Problem-formulation and problem-solving in self-organized communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Frederiksen, Lars; Rullani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Building on the problem-solving perspective, we study behaviors related to projects and the communication-based antecedents of such behaviors in the free open-source software (FOSS) community. We examine two kinds of problem/project-behaviors: Individuals can set up projects around the formulation...

  3. Social networks, social support and psychiatric symptoms: social determinants and associations within a multicultural community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Natasha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about how social networks and social support are distributed within diverse communities and how different types of each are associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to address such shortcomings by: (1) describing the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of social networks and social support in a multicultural population and (2) examining how each is associated with multiple mental health outcomes. Data is drawn from the South East London Community Health Study; a cross-sectional study of 1,698 adults conducted between 2008 and 2010. The findings demonstrate variation in social networks and social support by socio-demographic factors. Ethnic minority groups reported larger family networks but less perceived instrumental support. Older individuals and migrant groups reported lower levels of particular network and support types. Individuals from lower socioeconomic groups tended to report less social networks and support across the indicators measured. Perceived emotional and instrumental support, family and friend network size emerged as protective factors for common mental disorder, personality dysfunction and psychotic experiences. In contrast, both social networks and social support appear less relevant for hazardous alcohol use. The findings both confirm established knowledge that social networks and social support exert differential effects on mental health and furthermore suggest that the particular type of social support may be important. In contrast, different types of social network appear to impact upon poor mental health in a more uniform way. Future psychosocial strategies promoting mental health should consider which social groups are vulnerable to reduced social networks and poor social support and which diagnostic groups may benefit most.

  4. Multi-Relational Characterization of Dynamic Social Network Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Sundaram, Hari; Kelliher, Aisling

    The emergence of the mediated social web - a distributed network of participants creating rich media content and engaging in interactive conversations through Internet-based communication technologies - has contributed to the evolution of powerful social, economic and cultural change. Online social network sites and blogs, such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and LiveJournal, thrive due to their fundamental sense of "community". The growth of online communities offers both opportunities and challenges for researchers and practitioners. Participation in online communities has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways ranging from financial decision-making to political choices, suggesting the rich potential for diverse applications. However, although studies on the social web have been extensive, discovering communities from online social media remains challenging, due to the interdisciplinary nature of this subject. In this article, we present our recent work on characterization of communities in online social media using computational approaches grounded on the observations from social science.

  5. The feasibility Problem in Theorizing Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Huzum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available G. A. Cohen and Andrew Mason have recently argued, against many contemporary philosophers, that feasibility is not a legitimate constraint in theorizing about social justice. Their main argument is that principles of justice are logically independent of issues of feasibility and, consequently, feasibility has no bearing on the correctness of these principles. This article is a critical examination of three attempts to show that Cohen and Mason’s argument is unsound. The examined attempts are those of Harry Brighouse, Collin Farrelly, and David Miller. I argue that all these arguments are based on false, unjustified or implausible, premises and/or assumptions. Consequently, they cannot discredit the soundness of Cohen and Mason’s argument and of the thesis that feasibility is not, in fact, a legitimate constraint in theorizing about social justice.

  6. The Significance of Community to Business Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 1008 business owners and managers in 30 small Iowa communities found that the majority were committed to their community and provided support to youth programs, local schools, or community development activities. Business social responsibility was related to operator age, education, success, and perceptions of community collective…

  7. Tribal Community-Based Social Marketing Training Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) Training Guide and recycling toolkit provides an overview of how to increase the adoption of sustainable behaviors and recycling practices with a community.

  8. Nuclear power as a social problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munch, E.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the origin of social opposition to construction and expansion of operating NPP in capitalist countries of Europe and USA is considered. The most important manifestations against NPP construction are indicated. On the basis of the analysis of results of public opinion inquest carried out in different countries it is concluded that the number of opponents to the development of nuclear power engineering in developed western countries does not constitute the majority of the population [ru

  9. Emotional Behavior Problems, Parent Emotion Socialization, and Gender as Determinants of Teacher-Child Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardack, Sarah; Obradovic´, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a diverse community sample of 89 children, ages 4-6, their primary caregivers and teachers, this study examined the interplay of child emotional behavior problems, parent emotion socialization practices, and gender in predicting teacher-child closeness. Teachers reported on perceptions of closeness with children.…

  10. Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation in young refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders

    2008-01-01

    a mean of 1.8 experiences of discrimination, and the prevalence of five indicators of positive social adaptation was 47–92%. Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation were strongly mutually associated, without gender difference. Discrimination predicted internalizing behaviour. Improved...... but not externalizing behaviour. The direction of other pathways is ambiguous, suggesting a certain amount of recursive interaction between mental health, discrimination and social adaptation.......Background: Mental problems have been hypothesized to impede social adaptation and vice versa, and discrimination is assumed to interact with both. The available empirical documentation is, however, limited. The objective of this study is to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding...

  11. Working With Plantation Communities: A Reflection of Social Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Saili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The plantation industry in Malaysia is aggressively expanding over the past decade driven by global demands for palm oil as a food staple and more recently bio fuels. The rapid growth in the industry is heavily dependent upon high labour and workforce. Such intensity has carried out social impact on the communities including plantation workers, small holders and their dependents. Therefore, this paper will outline what appear to be never ending issues impetus social problems. Ethnic conflict, fighting, gambling, alcohol abuses are only a few issues that call for immediate multi-action plan from all involved stakeholders. Those issues can be the causes as well as the effects. The contributing factors form a chain reaction to the whole social dynamics in the plantation’s climate.The main aim is hence to breach the gap between industries, practitioners, and academicians in order to develop the competencies of the next generation social workers. They can play their roles in tackling the social issues, taking into account the different contexts and environment.

  12. Social Media Use and Conduct Problems in Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galica, Victoria L; Vannucci, Anna; Flannery, Kaitlin M; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2017-07-01

    Social media use has become pervasive in the lives of emerging adults. Although social media may provide individuals with positive opportunities for communication and learning, social media sites also may provide an outlet for youth conduct problems, such as bullying, harassment, and intentional hostility and aggression toward others. Yet, the relationship between social media use and conduct problems remains unclear. This study investigated the association between conduct disorder (CD) symptoms before age 15 and social media use during emerging adulthood in a large, nationally representative sample. Concurrent associations between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) symptoms and social media use in emerging adults also were examined. Data for this study were based on 567 emerging adults (50.2 percent female; M age  = 20.0 years). Self-report questionnaires were completed online. Results suggested that more childhood CD symptoms were significantly associated with greater daily social media use during emerging adulthood, and that more daily social media use was significantly associated with current ASPD symptoms. Possible directional and cyclical explanations for these findings are explored. Given the pervasiveness of social media in the lives of emerging adults, these results underscore the importance of considering nuanced methods for using social media sites to encourage positive social interactions and to displace the promotion of conduct problems.

  13. Social Audits for Community Action: A tool to Initiate Community Action for Reducing Child Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandan D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : (i What is the community′s perception (assessment & analysis of causes underlying neonatal, infant and under five deaths? (ii What action does the community take thereafter? Objectives : To stimulate the community to assess and analyze the causes and underlying social delays responsible for neonatal, infant and under five deaths in their villages and subsequently take collective action to prevent these deaths in future using Social Audits for Community Action (SACA. Design : Retrospective Participatory study. Setting : Rural community development blocks, district Agra, Uttar Pradesh. Material and Methods : SACA were conducted in a total of 152 villages of Fathehpur Sikri and Bichpuri blocks of district Agra, U.P. One SACA was conducted in each of the 211 anganwadi catchment areas, wherein 10-15 women from different socio-clusters of the community participated in a participatory discussion on issues pertaining to number of births and deaths of children less than five years of age in the last one-year. Results : 7656 live births and 749 under-five deaths were reported during the year 2002. The neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rate was 39.4, 73.5 and 85 per 1,000 live births respectively. Hypothermia, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, prematurity and low birth weight emerged as major causes of neonatal deaths. Majority of deaths of infants and children 1-5 years of age were found to have occurred due to severe malnutrition and diarrhoea. The community realized that majority of deaths occurred because of the delay in recognition of the seriousness of problem, delay in taking decision to seek appropriate care and delay in arranging transport/money. Subsequently, behaviour change communication strategies were re-defined to help community assess signs of illness and take preparedness measures to prevent child deaths in future. Conclusion : Strategies like dialoguing with the community using social audits for community action is

  14. Social strain, couple dynamics and gender differences in gambling problems: evidence from Chinese married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Capital as the Missing Link in Community Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found that social capital could facilitate the community development planning .... view of social capital as networks, relationships and norms that help citizens to ..... noted: I helped in weeding around the site for the school, market and chief ...

  16. CSC Tip Sheets: Community-Based Social Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use community-based social marketing (CBSM) to facilitate direct neighbor-to-neighbor communication and influence to promote behavior change. In-person communications are often complemented by electronic social media tools.

  17. Drug-related problems and pharmacy interventions in community practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Tommy; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document the inte......Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document...... the interventions made by pharmacy personnel with patients and prescribers. Method. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn nationwide in Sweden; 144 (63 per cent) of the employees fulfilling the inclusion criteria agreed to take part. The participants documented drug......-related problems, interventions and patient variables on a data collection form, and tallied the number of patients they served on another form. Setting. One hundred and sixteen community pharmacies and 12 outpatient hospital pharmacies. Key findings. One problem or more was identified among 2.5 per cent...

  18. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  19. SOCIAL NETWORK OPTIMIZATION A NEW METHAHEURISTIC FOR GENERAL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sherafat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years metaheuristics were studied and developed as powerful technics for hard optimization problems. Some of well-known technics in this field are: Genetic Algorithms, Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing, Ant Colony Optimization, and Swarm Intelligence, which are applied successfully to many complex optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce a new metaheuristic for solving such problems based on social networks concept, named as Social Network Optimization – SNO. We show that a wide range of np-hard optimization problems may be solved by SNO.

  20. Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers,  which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.

  1. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Psychosocial Problems in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Michels, Nathalie; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of socioeconomic inequalities on children’s mental health remains unclear. This study aims to explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between social vulnerabilities and psychosocial problems, and the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities and psychosocial...

  2. The problem of social opposition to industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malocchi, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    The problem of social opposition to the localization, construction and operation of industrial plants is a major social issue in many industrialized countries where environmental consciousness has rooted deeply in society. This paper proposes a general model for the analysis of the social conflict against the localization and operation of industrial plants. The paper investigates the difference between the 'risk analysis' approach and the 'social acceptability' approach in order to demonstrate the major influence of information and communication between industry and society on social consensus (rather than ordinary technological and environmental factors). In a second part the paper analyses a limit of social acceptability approach highlighting the role of environmental NGO's in the promotion and diffusion of the social protest. As a result of the analysis, a general model for the management of social consensus by companies and public authorities is provided

  3. Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...

  4. Penerapan Corporate Social Responsibility dengan Konsep Community Based Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Suriany

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Business is not only economic institution, but social institution too. As social institution, business has responsibility to help society in solving social problem. This responsibility called Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). CSR pays attention about social problem and environment, so CSR support continuous development to help government role. Nowadays, our government has national development’s agenda. One of them is tourism sector (Visit Indonesia Year 2008 programmed). But ...

  5. Transformations of the Social Policy in Ukraine and its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokarskyi Taras B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the background of the transformative processes of the Ukrainian society on the basis of the pro-European strategy for economic and social development of Ukraine in 2002-2011 and further in the subsequent crisis years. The focus is made on the plans regarding the approximation of the state to the norms and standards of developed democracy, as well as on the observed in the civil society failures related to the high level of corruption, violation of social security standards, human and civil rights and freedoms, etc. A special attention is paid to economic approaches and the concepts of the problems of social policy as well as the formation of mechanisms for social protection of the population. There highlighted the most critical problems of the transformation of the social policy, in particular, changes in the pension plan and social benefit program.

  6. Political-social reactor problems at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    For better than ten years there was little public notice of the TRIGA reactor at UC-Berkeley. Then: a) A non-student persuaded the Student and Senate to pass a resolution to request Campus Administration to stop operation of the reactor and remove it from campus. b) Presence of the reactor became a campaign-issue in a City Mayoral election. c) Two local residents reported adverse physical reactions before, during, and after a routine tour of the reactor facility. d) The Berkeley City Council began a study of problems associated with radioactive material within the city. e) Friends Of The Earth formally petitioned the NRC to terminate the reactor's license. Campus personnel have expended many man-hours and many pounds of paper in responding to these happenings. Some of the details are of interest, and may be of use to other reactor facilities. (author)

  7. Potentials of Social Media as Media Facility of Tourism Promotion Based on Community Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Romadhan, Mohammad Insan; Rusmana, Dewi Sri Andika

    2018-01-01

    The potential of social media as a media of tourism promotion is vastly massive. Nevertheless, the problem is on how to get social media can be widely known and has abundant followers for the publicized content could be accepted by the crowd. Normally, social media of a tourism promotion is integrated with conventional media like television, radio and newspapers. What if a region does not have large funds to interact with the conventional media, such issue be overcome with community participa...

  8. Social Sustainability through Social Interaction—A National Survey on Community Gardens in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Rogge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Community gardening has become a growing movement in cities all over the world, where these diverse collectively managed spaces provide various economic, ecological, and social benefits for urban residents. Particularly in developed countries such as Germany, social benefits are the motivation to participate in community gardens more so than the harvests. Although research on community gardens has grown, including the question of their benefits to a sustainable development, there is little literature studying the social importance and social sustainability of community gardens. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine social interaction, participation, and perceived success as a concept to assess social sustainability. The paper further aims to examine the conditions influencing social sustainability within community gardens. With the help of an online survey, we collect data from 123 community gardens throughout Germany, with which we assess diverse degrees of social sustainability. Causalities of gardens’ social sustainability are analyzed with a multiple linear regression model. Results indicate that there is no significant relationship between size of community and social sustainability, rather aspects of trust and management have a strong effect on social sustainability. Findings like these lead to a better understanding of social interaction in urban communities that contribute to more social sustainability.

  9. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely been overlooked. Objective: The purpose of this article was to investigate content marketing’s role in social media content communities to engage with the target audience in an innate manner. Method: This study made use of a directed, inductive content analysis of 51 practitioner documents relating to business-to-consumer content marketing practices to add another perspective to existing research on communities in social media. The content analysis was facilitated by using QDA Miner, a widely adopted and reliable qualitative data analysis software programme. Results: Three categories emerged from the data namely building content communities, platform-specific content and understanding channels. These categories provide sufficient evidence of how brands make use of social media content communities to connect with the target audience in an unobtrusive manner, in addition to being present in virtual brand communities. Conclusion: The findings make several contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, it provides a clearer distinction between brand and social media content communities. Secondly, it extends conceptions about social media communities to include content communities and, thirdly, it provides sufficient evidence of how content marketing could benefit a brand by naturally becoming part of social media conversations.

  10. Social Problems in the Russian Army within the Framework of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Surkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at describing social problems we find in the Russian Army. The research has allowed us to get a ranging of servicemen`s social problems: housing, material maintenance and hard-earned money, realization of social guarantees, life conditions and problem of relationships within families, time-limit, the regulation of life, restricting the freedom, humiliating treatment of juniors and bullying. Unsolved social problems of servicemen may also cause that people who are going to protect the country from danger, may become threats themselves. The Russian army consumes a great amount of resources. Recently mass media has put these issues on the public agenda. Focus in article is also to give a picture of how social workers work to solve social problems in the Russian Army.

  11. Toward a Social Approach to Learning in Community Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Leda; Scharrer, Erica; Paredes, Mari Castaneda

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a social approach to learning in community service learning that extends the contributions of three theoretical bodies of scholarship on learning: social constructionism, critical pedagogy, and community service learning. Building on the assumptions about learning described in each of these areas, engagement, identity, and…

  12. Children as Agents of Social and Community Change: Enhancing Youth Empowerment through Participation in a School-Based Social Activism Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan; Baber, Ashley; Hilvers, Julie; Hobbs, Nakisha; Maly, Michael

    2018-01-01

    School-based social activism projects have much potential to foster civic engagement, self-efficacy, and positive youth development. Social activism projects may also be a means by which children, a group that is disempowered due to their age and dependence on adults, might seek to positively impact social and community problems. The current study…

  13. Community stress and social and technological change: a framework for interpreting the behavior of social movements and community action groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.

  14. Studying empowerment in a socially and ethnically diverse social work community in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2011-01-01

    of the social street workers, their dilemmas, everyday learning and possibilities for expansive learning. A boundary community, such as the "wild" social work community, is constituted by an overlap of communities of social street workers, established professionals with formal educations, and local street...... communities of young men. The social street work is analyzed at the time of the street riots and fires that took place in Copenhagen, in February 2008. It is analyzed how social street workers, facilitated meetings of the opposing factions, parties who usually do not enter into dialogue. It is discussed how...

  15. Social networking sites: an adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Indu S; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S; Thennarasu, K

    2014-07-01

    Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.

  16. Community Social Organization: A Conceptual Linchpin in Examining Families in the Context of Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Jay A.; Bowen, Gary L.; Martin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of social organization provides an important framework for understanding families in the context of communities and focuses our attention on norms, networks, and associated processes that typify community life. We discuss the significance of community for understanding family outcomes, discuss challenges in defining community context,…

  17. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. An exploration of fetish social networks and communities

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Damien; Haddadi, Hamed; Seto, Michael C.; Wang, Han; Kling, Christoph Carl

    2015-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) provide a venue for virtual interactions and relationships between individuals. In some communities, OSNs also facilitate arranging online meetings and relationships. FetLife, the worlds largest anonymous social network for the BDSM, fetish and kink communities, provides a unique example of an OSN that serves as an interaction space, community organizing tool, and sexual market. In this paper, we present a first look at the characteristics of European members of ...

  19. Social capital, community-based governance and resilience in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the Mozambique government policy promotes community-based fisheries management in artisanal fisheries, we argue that under current conditions of ineffective community-based governance, a strong focus on reconstruction of social capital will be required before a community-based resource management process ...

  20. Community-Based Social Networks: Generation of Power Law Degree Distribution and IP Solutions to the KPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wentao

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is two-fold: (1) to investigate the degree distribution property of community-based social networks (CSNs) and (2) to provide solutions to a pertinent problem, the Key Player Problem. In the first part of this thesis, we consider a growing community-based network in which the ability of nodes competing for links to new…

  1. Social networks and performance in distributed learning communities

    OpenAIRE

    Cadima, Rita; Ojeda Rodríguez, Jordi; Monguet Fierro, José María

    2012-01-01

    Social networks play an essential role in learning environments as a key channel for knowledge sharing and students' support. In distributed learning communities, knowledge sharing does not occur as spontaneously as when a working group shares the same physical space; knowledge sharing depends even more on student informal connections. In this study we analyse two distributed learning communities' social networks in order to understand how characteristics of the social structure can enhance s...

  2. Social Media Use as Urban Acupuncture for Empowering Socially Challenged Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    counteract negative influences in the community, e.g., drug abuse and gangsterism. Interviews with staff and participants reveal that use of social media in the context of a socially challenged community results in social media use, and connections between online and offline activities, that stands...... in contrast to earlier social media research. These differences may inform design and social innovation for disruptive interaction to address negative influences, such as drugs and gangsterism, in socially challenged communities.......This article explores potential roles of social media in community empowerment, based on a study of a non-profit NGO in a socially challenged suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. In particular, it focuses on the relation between on-line and off-line behavior, and how the use of social media can...

  3. Social capital and social inequality in adolescents' health in 601 Flemish communities: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, B; Vyncke, V; Hublet, A; Elgar, F J; Ravens-Sieberer, U; Currie, C; Hooghe, M; Ieven, A; Maes, L

    2012-01-01

    Although it is widely acknowledged that community social capital plays an important role in young people's health, there is limited evidence on the effect of community social capital on the social gradient in child and adolescent health. Using data from the 2005-2006 Flemish (Belgium) Health Behavior among School-aged Children survey (601 communities, n = 10,915), this study investigated whether community social capital is an independent determinant of adolescents' perceived health and well-being after taking account of individual compositional characteristics (e.g. the gender composition within a certain community). Multilevel statistical procedures were used to estimate neighborhood effects while controlling for individual level effects. Results show that individual level factors (such as family affluence and individual social capital) are positively related to perceived health and well-being and that community level social capital predicted health better than individual social capital. A significant complex interaction effect was found, such that the social gradient in perceived health and well-being (i.e. the slope of family affluence on health) was flattened in communities with a high level of community social capital. Furthermore it seems that socioeconomic status differences in perceived health and well-being substantially narrow in communities where a certain (average) level of community social capital is present. This should mean that individuals living in communities with a low level of community social capital especially benefit from an increase in community social capital. The paper substantiates the need to connect individual health to their meso socioeconomic context and this being intrinsically within a multilevel framework. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Common skin problems in the community and primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirsty

    2014-10-01

    Skin problems can be hard to diagnose, leaving clinicians frustrated and patients incorrectly treated, but rashes and lesions can be markers of systemic disease and infections. However, by using simple history-taking and mnemonics, safety and correct diagnoses can be achieved. This article will consider some common problems encountered in primary and community care, issues that need to be excluded, resources that will help with diagnosis and some management guidelines. This is not an exhaustive guide, and advice should be sought from learned colleagues in specific cases. Pressure area care and the use of compression bandaging will not be discussed unless it is of relevance to the subject of rashes and lesions.

  5. Needs and Problems of Posbindu Program: Community Health Volunteers Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, S. T.; Andriyani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Posbindu is a form of public participation to conduct early detection and monitoring of risk factors for non-communicable diseases(NCD), and where it was carried out in as an integrated manner, routine and periodic event. This paper aims to investigates the needs and problems on Posbindu Program based on community health volunteers(CHVs) perspective. This study used descriptive qualitative method by open ended questions. Content analysis using to explicating the result. There are 3 theme finding about elderly needs in Posbindu; medical care, support group community, and health education. We found four theme problems which in Posbindu program: low motivation from elderly, Inadequate of facilities, physical disability, failed communication. To be effective in Posbindu program, all the stakeholders have reached consensus on the Posbindu program as elderly need. CHVs need given wide knowledge about early detection, daily care, control disease continuously so that the elderly keep feeling the advantages of coming to the Posbindu.

  6. The Dynamics of Social Relationships in Student Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKandari, Nabila; AlShallal, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    This study discusses the nature of social relationships in student communities at Kuwait University. Three hundred seventy-two students participated. A survey of 22 items was designed to describe students' social relationships. The study revealed that students have affirmative social relationships. The students do not feel desolation on campus;…

  7. Parents' and Teachers' Opinions of Preschool Children's Social Problem-Solving and Behavioural Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasik, László; Gál, Zita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to shed light on (1) what Hungarian mothers, fathers and teachers of 4-6-year-olds think of these children's social problem-solving (SPS) and their difficulties in terms of problem-solving, adaptability and prosocial behaviour; (2) studying any correlation between the examined aspects and (3) the connection between one's…

  8. Social Problems Of Aged In A Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Charan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the social problems of aged persons in a rural population? Objectives: i To study social problems of aged. ii To identify measures to eliminate them. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of Machhra Rural Health & Training Centre attached with Deptt. of SPM, Medical College, Meerut. Participants: Population above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 1000 households from 5 villages, which had 464 participants. Study Variables: Chi- square test. Results: In all, 259 (55.8% aged persons were engaged in productive work while 205 (44.2% were not doing any productive work. Of 376 aged persons living in joint families, 207 (55% were being respected, 71(18.9% were indifferently treated and 98 (26.1% were being neglected by family members. Recommendations: It is a strong case for proper planning to improve the lot of old age population especially for their social problems at the earliest.

  9. Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: the role of marijuana behaviors in social situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose

    2012-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Gender influences on preschool children's social problem-solving strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sue; Irving, Kym; Berthelsen, Donna

    2002-06-01

    The authors investigated gender influences on the nature and competency of preschool children's social problem-solving strategies. Preschool-age children (N = 179; 91 boys, 88 girls) responded to hypothetical social situations designed to assess their social problem-solving skills in the areas of provocation, peer group entry, and sharing or taking turns. Results indicated that, overall, girls' responses were more competent (i.e., reflective of successful functioning with peers) than those of boys, and girls' strategies were less likely to involve retaliation or verbal or physical aggression. The competency of the children's responses also varied with the gender of the target child. Findings are discussed in terms of the influence of gender-related social experiences on the types of strategies and behaviors that may be viewed as competent for boys and girls of preschool age.

  11. Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-08-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications.

  12. Determine small and medium enterprise social media activities: A community engagement project in the Tshwane community

    OpenAIRE

    Louise van Scheers; Jacques van Scheers

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine small and medium enterprise (SME) social media activities and promote CE scholarship engagement. It is a community engagement project conducted in the Tshwane community. Community engagement (CE) as a planned process with the specific purpose of working with identified groups of people in the community to address issues affecting their well-being. The CE project SME skills transfer workshops are aimed at expanding involvement with the community. The benef...

  13. The language of mental health problems in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Hubbard, Tim; Dobson, Richard JB; Liakata, Maria; Velupillai, Sumithra; Dutta, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Online social media, such as Reddit, has become an important resource to share personal experiences and communicate with others. Among other personal information, some social media users communicate about mental health problems they are experiencing, with the intention of getting advice, support or empathy from other users. Here, we investigate the language of Reddit posts specific to mental health, to define linguistic characteristics that could be helpful for further applications. The latte...

  14. Knowledge Contribution in Virtual Communities: Accounting for Multiple Dimensions of Social Presence through Social Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kathy Ning; Yu, Angela Yan; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Integrating social presence theory and social identity theory, this study brings system design and social influence aspects together to explain their joint effects on knowledge contribution in virtual communities (VCs). Different from most prior information systems (IS) research that adopts a uni-dimensional approach and restricts social presence…

  15. Facebook faith - social networking in a faith based community

    OpenAIRE

    Lundqvist, K O; Lundqvist, Karsten Oster

    2009-01-01

    This paper views the increasing social networking as an efficient emerging ministry to the moveable generation. Through social network such as Facebook, ministry from a pastoral perspective can \\ud become more authentic and meaningful. Ministry is relational. Social Networking sites provide a strong platform to being part in other people’s life. Social networking and living online builds \\ud community beyond geographical boarders. Young adults and youths digital identity often reflects their ...

  16. The clinical profile of employees with mental health problems working in social firms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Alyssa; Parsons, Nicholas; Morant, Nicola; Gilbert, Eleanor; Johnson, Sonia; Fisher, Adrian; Singh, Swaran; Cunliffe, Di; Marwaha, Steven

    2015-08-01

    UK social firms are under-researched but are a potentially important vocational option for people with mental health problems. To describe the clinical profile, satisfaction levels and experiences of social firms employees with mental health problems. Clinical, work and service use characteristics were collected from social firms' employees with mental health problems in England and Wales. Workplace experience and satisfaction were explored qualitatively. Predominantly, social firms' employees (N = 80) report that they have a diagnosis of depression (56%) and anxiety (41%). People with schizophrenia (20%) or bipolar disorder (5%) were a minority. Respondents had low symptom and disability levels, high quality of life and job satisfaction and experienced reductions in secondary mental health service use over time. High-workplace satisfaction was related to flexibility, manager and colleague support and workplace accommodations. The clinical profile, quality of life and job satisfaction level of employees with mental health problems suggest social firms could be a useful addition to UK vocational services for some people. Current employees mainly have common mental disorders, and social firms will need to shift their focus if they are to form a substantial pathway for the vocational recovery of people currently using community mental health teams.

  17. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Paola P; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Mauricio S; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Rohde, Luis A; Miguel, Euripedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Manfro, Gisele G; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)/item response theory (IRT) and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears. Most specific fears were normative when mild; all specific fears indicate problems when pervasive. In addition, the situational fear of toilets and people who look unusual were highly indicative of specific phobia. Among social fears, those not restricted to performance and fear of writing in front of others indicate problems when mild. All social fears indicate problems and are highly indicative of social phobia when pervasive. These preliminary findings provide guidance for clinicians and researchers to determine the boundaries that separate normative fears from problem indicators in children and adolescents, and indicate a differential severity threshold for specific and social fears.

  18. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola P. Laporte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. Methods: We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA/item response theory (IRT and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results: According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears. Most specific fears were normative when mild; all specific fears indicate problems when pervasive. In addition, the situational fear of toilets and people who look unusual were highly indicative of specific phobia. Among social fears, those not restricted to performance and fear of writing in front of others indicate problems when mild. All social fears indicate problems and are highly indicative of social phobia when pervasive. Conclusion: These preliminary findings provide guidance for clinicians and researchers to determine the boundaries that separate normative fears from problem indicators in children and adolescents, and indicate a differential severity threshold for specific and social fears.

  19. Community matrons as problem-solvers for people living with multi-co-morbid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sue; Thunhurst, Colin; Furze, Gill

    2016-12-02

    Working with patients in their own homes gives community matrons an advantage of seeing patients in the context of their everyday lives. This allows comprehensive assessment of need with an aim of promoting health or promoting stability for people living with chronic disease. Complex issues are resolved through problem-solving and this can result in patients being maintained in their own homes and thus in reduced unplanned hospitalisation. Data were collected from participants using semi-structured interviews and audio diaries. The sample comprised professionals: CMs (n=21), managers (n=4), former commissioners (n=2) and GPs (n=3); and patients (n=10) and their family carers (n=5). In this article, data from community matrons is discussed. Community matrons often drew on the social determinants model of health to problem solve and to create meaningful strategies that work for patients in their care. Raising awareness of the high-level skills of community matrons and promoting appreciation of the importance of a social determinants model of health is important in explaining why nurses are such a crucial element of the primary health care workforce.

  20. Social phobia and sexual problems: A comparison of social phobic, sexually dysfunctional and normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Valentina; Stravynski, Ariel

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to test the putative link between social phobia and sexual functioning. Three groups consisting of 106 social phobic, 164 sexually dysfunctional and 111 normal participants were assessed in terms of sexual functioning, social anxiety, social functioning and general psychopathology. Although social phobic men were less sexually active than normal men, they were as sexually satisfied. Social phobic women were alike their normal counterparts in all respects. Overall, social phobic individuals were not more prone to report sexual problems than normal individuals despite reporting the severest levels of social anxiety. Theoretically, our results are best understood as supporting an interpersonal conception of social phobia and a related socio-cultural perspective regarding sexual roles.

  1. Factors in social interaction in cohousing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Jantine; Voorbij, Liek

    2008-01-01

    Cohousing communities can be considered alternatives for living independently in old age. However, currently the factors that influence the success of these communities are unclear. Based on literature and case studies gathered by students a new interactionmodel was created that shows the relevant

  2. Are Entrepreneurship, Communities, and Social Transformation Related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daskalaki, Maria; Hjorth, Daniel; Mair, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This article explores new forms of organizing (and organization creation) in relation to entrepreneurship and social transformation. In particular, in the dialogue that follows in this issue, we initiate a discussion regarding the ways through which social transformation is or can be related...... to be actualized. We conclude the article with a number of theoretical propositions, which as we suggest, instigate the study of embedded and socially transformative organizing....

  3. Social Media and Online Brand Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ansarin, Madina; Ozuem, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognised that a better understanding of social media and its implications is essential for\\ud formulating effective branding strategies in evolving Computer-Mediated Marketing Environments\\ud (CMMES). However, few studies have examined how social media influences brand image in the luxury\\ud sector. The current study intends to examine whether increased exposure through social media influences\\ud brand image in technologically infused marketing environments. Drawing on extant l...

  4. Implications of ecological and social characteristics to community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of ecological and social characteristics to community livelihoods in the coastal ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... This will further address conflicts over resource uses that may arise due to livelihood ...

  5. Language community as an agent of individual’s socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Liakhovich

    2017-03-01

    In the article the analysis of the works of national and foreign researchers in sociolinguistics, sociology of language based on a common interpretation of the language community. Characterized the role of linguistic community in in the construction of social space in the context of the theory P.Berger and T. Lukman. Also the paper presents the analysis of the works of domestic and foreign social scientists who have studied the mechanisms and factors of a young person, her social conditioning. Sociological approach to the explanation of linguistic community as an agent of socialization of the individual is characterized. The authors considers that the notion is interlinked with the categories of linguistic situation, linguistic identity, linguistic picture of the world and linguistic processes. The paper interprets the state of linguistic community depending on the state of languages in society.

  6. Applying OR to problem situations within community organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the use of Community OR (COR), specifically Systems Thinking (ST) and the Viable System Model (VSM) can help in addressing complex and uncertain problem situations within community organisations, in particular Alternative Food Networks (AFNs). Literature has highlighted...... within a member-driven food cooperative in Copenhagen, Denmark, and the changes in decision making and the organisational structure of the cooperative. We illustrate the application of the VSM and in particular the methodology for organisational self-transformation within ‘localist green communitarianism......’ and ‘nonprofit management’ to tackle issues, enhance democratic and participative decision making, and changes in the organisational structure that foster coordination and cohesion. The implications for COR and Soft OR, limitations and future research directions are also provided....

  7. Promoting Social Entrepreneurship among Entrepreneur with Disabilities in Contribution for Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozali Norhasyikin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Looking forward of the uniqueness social entrepreneurship (SE new phenomena born from entrepreneurships felid. Because of that it is a new step point for the entrepreneur with disabilities (EWD to be part of social entrepreneurship environments. Where SE, link the positive impact for society creating by entrepreneur that understand that social problem give a big opportunities for profit or nonprofit activity that can be solve creatively. This give a lot of advantage of EWD to contributes to community in the term of “social impact”. This conceptual paper maps SE and EWD in contribution to community with the important role play by stakeholder in promoting SE. This conceptualization enhances understanding of EWD in SE and clear picture of role play by stakeholder give chances for EWD contributes to community.

  8. Situated, Embodied and Social Problem-Solving in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…

  9. Problem-Based Learning in Social Work Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Merete; Mølholt, Anne-Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    ’ experiences of PBL. In this article we address this gap by exploring experiences of learning and learning preferences among master’s-level students in a Danish social work education setting where extensive problem-based project work is used. We find a discrepancy between students’ preferred learning and when...

  10. Social Cognition and Conduct Problems: A Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…

  11. Fatherless America: Confronting Our Most Urgent Social Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenhorn, David

    The United States is rapidly becoming a fatherless society. Fatherlessness is the leading cause of declining child well-being, providing the impetus behind social problems such as crime, domestic violence, and adolescent pregnancy. Challenging the basic assumptions of opinion leaders in academia and in the media, this book debunks the prevailing…

  12. The Social Psychology of Potential Problems in Family Vacation Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.; Russell, Martha G.

    1975-01-01

    Social psychological thinking and the data of an exploratory study are used to illuminate potential problems in family vacation travel. Vacation travel is seen as providing both the opportunity for revitalization and creative change and the opportunity for serious interpersonal difficulties. (Author)

  13. Fostering Authentic Problem Seeking: A Step toward Social Justice Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Davis, Micah N.; Gilson, Cindy M.; Matthews, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Because of these learners' potential as future leaders, it is imperative that educators develop gifted students' ability to identify and solve complex social justice problems. Nourishing students' affective traits, including empathy for others, understanding of themselves, and the ability to connect to others in local and global society, will help…

  14. Similarity between community structures of different online social networks and its impact on underlying community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.

    2015-03-01

    As social networking services are popular, many people may register in more than one online social network. In this paper we study a set of users who have accounts of three online social networks: namely Foursquare, Facebook and Twitter. Community structure of this set of users may be reflected in these three online social networks. Therefore, high correlation between these reflections and the underlying community structure may be observed. In this work, community structures are detected in all three online social networks. Also, we investigate the similarity level of community structures across different networks. It is found that they show strong correlation with each other. The similarity between different networks may be helpful to find a community structure close to the underlying one. To verify this, we propose a method to increase the weights of some connections in networks. With this method, new networks are generated to assist community detection. By doing this, value of modularity can be improved and the new community structure match network's natural structure better. In this paper we also show that the detected community structures of online social networks are correlated with users' locations which are identified on Foursquare. This information may also be useful for underlying community detection.

  15. Narratives of Community Garden Education: Bridging Social Capital, Ecoliteracy, and Civic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Carly K. V.

    2013-01-01

    Ample evidence suggests that environmental problems, and their impacts to present and future generations, require our utmost attention. Education within schools "and" communities play critical roles in shaping the perceptions and relationships people have to their natural and social environments. However, few studies have examined the…

  16. Community in a Hurry: Social Contracts and Social Covenants in Short-Term ESL Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob A.

    2009-01-01

    Like many adult ESL instructors, the author has felt firsthand the challenges of creating community in short-term courses. Through his experience, he has noticed that in order to successfully build community in short-term ESL courses, teachers need to lay a foundation for social contracts and social covenants from the first day of the course and…

  17. Bridging Social Capital in Online Communities: Heterogeneity and Social Tolerance of Online Game Players in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the democratic potential of online communities by investigating the influence of network heterogeneity on social tolerance in an online gaming environment. Online game communities are potential sources of bridging social capital because they tend to be relatively heterogeneous. Causal analyses are conducted using structural…

  18. Training community health students to develop community-requested social marketing campaigns: an innovative partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Billie J; Hawk, Carol Wetherill

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a sustained partnership between a university community health program and local and regional community health agencies. As a key component of the Health Communication and Social Marketing course, the partnership involves undergraduate community health students working for and with community agencies and community members to design social marketing campaigns based on community-identified health needs. The goals of the course are to (1) provide students with the opportunity to work within the community to apply their skills in program planning, evaluation, and communication and (2) provide community agencies with a tailored campaign that can be implemented in their communities. Throughout the 10-week quarter, teams of students follow the principles of community participation in planning a social marketing campaign. These include (1) audience segmentation and formative assessment with the intended audience to determine campaign content and strategies and (2) pretesting and revisions of campaign messages and materials based on community feedback. This partnership contributes to the promotion of health in the local community and it builds the skills and competencies of future health educators. It demonstrates a successful and sustainable combination of community-based participatory research and experiential learning. From 2005 to 2011, 35 campaigns have been developed, many which have been implemented.

  19. Community of inquiry: Social presence revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreijns, Karel; Van Acker, Frederik; Vermeulen, Marjan; Van Buuren, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Social presence is a construct that has attracted the attention of many educational scholars involved in online collaborative learning settings wherein all the dialogue is happening through text-based asynchronous and synchronous communication channels. The social presence of the learning group

  20. Identification of influence in social media communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollenbroek, Wouter Bernardus; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Individual usage of social media is expected to have a growing impact on the corporate reputation of organisations. Influential users of social media can disseminate positive or negative information and opinions about products, services, brands or businesses among members of their online networks in

  1. Social Networks: Gated Communities or Free Cantons?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks and other cloud-based services have concentrated the control of the web in the hands of a few corporations. Our personal data has been commodified, often without our knowledge or consent. Is there a way to retain all the benefits of social networking without giving up control of our data?

  2. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.

  3. Incorporating profile information in community detection for online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.

    2014-07-01

    Community structure is an important feature in the study of complex networks. It is because nodes of the same community may have similar properties. In this paper we extend two popular community detection methods to partition online social networks. In our extended methods, the profile information of users is used for partitioning. We apply the extended methods in several sample networks of Facebook. Compared with the original methods, the community structures we obtain have higher modularity. Our results indicate that users' profile information is consistent with the community structure of their friendship network to some extent. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to discuss how profile information can be used to improve community detection in online social networks.

  4. Reading the problem family: post-structuralism and the analysis of social problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reekie, G

    1994-01-01

    Post-structuralist theory questions the rational pursuit of an underlying 'truth' that often characterizes social scientific inquiry, proposing instead the simultaneous existence of multiple and often contradictory truths. The problem family can, from this perspective, only be known through the different discourses that produce it. This paper suggests some of the political advantages of developing methods of reading 'problems' related to drugs and alcohol. Without this critical attention to language, we risk perpetuating the ways in which problems are talked about and thought about. Drawing on examples from debates surrounding teenage pregnancy and youth drinking, the paper argues that post-structuralism allows us to analyse the specific ways in which professional discourses write social problems, and hence to own them and to re-write them.

  5. The community nurse and the use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peate, Ian

    2013-04-01

    The role and function of the community nurse has changed in a number of ways over the years; however, central to that role is the direct hands-on care that expert nurses provide to a variety of client groups. Social media can never replace that unique role yet it can help the community nurse provide safer and more effective care. The use of social media is growing and is having a significant influence on society. Social media can dictate tomorrow's news today, provide individuals with a public voice and help to form new social connections regardless of geography. Social media has become embedded within our daily lives. For community nurses social media networks offer alternative ways in which they can share knowledge and expertise and keep up to date. This article intends to stimulate thoughts about how social media could be used positively by the community nurse and his or her organisation to help meet the future demands on the NHS and community nursing services.

  6. Community and School Gardens as Spaces for Learning Social Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Kimberley; Ferreira, Jo-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Can community and school gardens help people learn to build social resilience to potential food shortages? We seek to address this question through an examination of the ways in which gardens can teach individual and community resiliency in times of emergency, pockets of food insecurity, and the challenges presented by climate change. We focus on…

  7. University-Community Engagement: Case Study of University Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chile, Love M.; Black, Xavier M.

    2015-01-01

    Corporatisation of universities has drawn parallels between contemporary universities and business corporations, and extended analysis of corporate social responsibility to universities. This article reports on a case study of university-community engagement with schools and school communities through youth engagement programmes to enhance…

  8. Community Mental Health: Issues for Social Work Practice and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Arthur J., Ed.

    Articles by social work educators on some of the critical issues in community mental health are presented. Examined are some conceptual and program developments related to coordination, continuity of care, and the use of teams in planning and service delivery for community mental health (Lawrence K. Berg). The issue of civil commitment to and…

  9. The management of social problems talk in a support group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Gomes Peretti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of the health-disease process from a multifactorial perspective has allowed important transformations in the healthcare practices. In this article, we discuss the use of the support group as a resource for mental health care, analyzing how conversations about social issues are managed in this context. Based on contributions from the social constructionist movement, we analyzed the transcripts of the conversations developed in meetings of a support group offered to patients of a mental health outpatient clinic. The analysis of the process of meaning making indicates that the discourse of the social influence on mental health is not legitimized, due to a predominant individualistic discourse, which psychologizes care and is centered on the emotional analysis of the problems of the quotidian. We argue that this mode of management brings limits to the construction of the group as a device for promoting autonomy and encouraging the social transformation processes.

  10. Violence in Mexico: A social or public health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra; Salazar Morales, Mario Rodolfo

    2016-03-08

    This article seeks to explain the importance of violence as a social phenomenon and public health, trying to envision this issue not only from a curative approach to health, but from the social determinants of health, such as economics, politics and the administration of justice. Here, the younger population lacks real opportunities with an “absent State” that fails to provide structure. These frameworks play a fundamental role in the manifestation of violence. Thus, the debate for addressing and resolving violence opens the way to new perspectives regarding social factors as part of a public health, which cannot be oblivious to the state of the collective. Thus, the analysis of this situation shows that we cannot keep overlooking the whole picture of the real problem in the social health of our world instead of focusing on its discordant parts.

  11. The Social Workers Challenges on Community Welfare in Ungogo Community, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adekunle Aliyu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of social workers in a community cannot be overemphasised by any mean, for the life span of any community depends on the quality of the social workers. The aim of this work is to affirm the roles of social workers in helping the community welfare.  Qualitative research design was adopted for the work. Data collected with the Interview Schedule for Officials of the Federal Road Safety Corps and Interview Guide for selected group of people. This was administered to 30 respondents, which comprises both male and female in the Ungogo community. The purpose of the study was to examine the roles of social workers, in line with improved standards of living, sustained economic development and expansion of trade and economic relations in the community; enhanced levels of international competitiveness in the areas of community welfare, organization for increased productivity of people in the community. It common knowledge every individual strife to be the best when receive the necessary or adequate encouragement. To these extents, such a person bears some responsibilities even if passively so as a member. The implication of this work is to contribute to social change by informing social worker on their challenges and responsibilities ahead of them in the community.

  12. Medical social consequences of the safety problems of oncological radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, M.Yi.; Stadnik, L.L.; Shal'opa, O.Yu.; Rigan, M.M.; Skalets'kij, Yu.M.

    2015-01-01

    Actuality of the problem of patient safety in oncoradiology in Ukraine is grounded. The results of international audit TLD (IAEA/WHO) quality during dosimetry procedures cobalt-telegamma vehicles in Ukraine are investigated, as well as legal and regulatory framework providing for the safety of radiotherapy care, scientific publications on patient safety. Methods: statistical, analytical, bibliographical, systematic approach. On the example of radiation therapy using the results of the international program of the IAEA/WHO TLD audit quality dosimetry calibration devices for remote gamma therapy in Ukraine from 1998 to 2014 the attempt to assess the extent of medical and social consequences of underestimating of medical errors in oncoradiology is made. The problems of regulatory nature of medical errors in oncoradiology are preliminary identified. The problem of medical errors in the treatment of cancer radiation methods in Ukraine is extremely important. Usually the problems of errors in oncoradiology are considered in organizational, technical, personnel and technical aspects, while medical and social consequences of problem are not covered. About 10 thousand of cancer patients in year may suffer from errors related only to dose calculation according to the optimistic variant, while the number of patients for the same period on the pessimistic case can reach 15 thousand. There are a number of legal character problems in oncoradiology related to patient safety that require clarification. The first priority for improving the safety of patients in oncoradiology is the recording and analysis of radiation therapy defects and their consequences

  13. "Socializing Democracy": The Community Literacy Pedagogy of Jane Addams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    This article reclaims Jane Addams as a community literacy pedagogue and explicates her pedagogical theory through an analysis of her social thought. Addams' goal of "socializing democracy" through education led her to both encourage immigrant students to associate across difference and to assimilate into dominant literacies--tensions…

  14. Employment, social capital, and community participation among Israelis with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araten-Bergman, Tal; Stein, Michael Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Employment, social capital, and community participation have emerged in recent years as significant concepts for realizing the human rights of individuals with disabilities. Yet the theoretical interrelationship of these concepts remains largely overlooked, as does the empirical basis for understanding the underlying connections. This study explores the relationship between employment status, social capital, community participation, and well-being among Israelis with disabilities. It also explores the unique contribution of social capital to the well-being and integration of individuals with disabilities. 274 participants with self-reported disabilities completed a questionnaire containing measures of individual social capital, community participation, well-being, and background data. Correlation and Univariate analysis were used to compare scores between employed (n=131) and non-employed (n=143) participants, and logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the unique contribution of employment to social inclusion and well-being. Employed participants reported significantly higher levels of social capital and were more integrated in leisure and civic activities than their non-employed counterparts. Moreover, employment status was found to have a significant contribution to the variance in the subjective well-being of participants. By more fully understanding the importance of social capital for community inclusion, practitioners can better address the importance of network-building during the rehabilitation process as a means of promoting social and vocational integration.

  15. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Social Problems Disguised as Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the diseases seen in the clinic are actually symptoms of social problems. It is often easier for the physician to treat the symptoms than to be a coach and help the patient to assume responsibility in order to improve quality of life, social situation, and relations. If the physician ignores the signs of the disease as a symptom of social problems, and treats the patient with pharmaceuticals, he can give the patient the best justification in the world not to do anything about the situation. It is very important that the physician is not tricked by the games the socially troubled patient, more or less unconsciously, is playing. A firm and wise attitude that confronts the patient with his or her lack of responsibility for solving social problems seems to be a constructive way out. The physician can give holding and support, but the responsibility must remain with the patient. Often it is better for the patient that the physician abstains from giving drugs that can remedy the symptoms and takes the role of a coach instead. Suffering is not necessarily bad, suffering is actually highly motivating and often the most efficient source of learning. Coaching can help the patient canalize his motivation into highly constructive considerations and behavior. A holistic approach thus gives the patient learning and helps him rehabilitate his social reality. Concerning children with recurrent or chronic pain, we have observed an overuse of painkillers, where we believe part is of a psychosomatic nature due to poor thriving in the family. Here the physician has an important job helping the parents to develop as persons, teaching them the basic holding of awareness, respect, care, acknowledgment and acceptance of their child. Most of the chronic pain and discomfort with children can be improved if the physician understands how to use the holistic medical toolbox.

  16. Social impressions while drinking account for the relationship between alcohol-related problems and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Matthews, Russell A

    2012-04-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to experiencing alcohol-related problems; yet we know little about factors that may account for this relationship. One possibility is that socially anxious individuals hold beliefs about the impressions they make on others while drinking and these beliefs play an important role in their drinking behaviors. The present study used exploratory factor analysis among participants with clinically elevated social anxiety (n=166) to develop a measure, the Social Impressions while Drinking Scale (SIDS), to assess beliefs regarding others' impressions of drinking behaviors that may be particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals. A valuations scale was also developed to assess the importance of each belief. Empirically-derived subscales were identified with adequate reliability. Among socially anxious participants, the Gregarious and Sexual Facilitation subscales were uniquely related to drinking problems and frequency respectively. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety achieved higher scores on all SIDS subscales compared to those with lower social anxiety (n=166). Several SIDS scales mediated the relations between social anxiety group status and drinking problems (Interaction Fears, Observation Fears, Aggression, Gregariousness). Results highlight the importance of examining beliefs specific to high-risk populations in assessing their alcohol-related behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social balance as a satisfiability problem of computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Vilone, Daniele; Yoon, Sooeyon; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2007-02-01

    Reduction of frustration was the driving force in an approach to social balance as it was recently considered by Antal [T. Antal, P. L. Krapivsky, and S. Redner, Phys. Rev. E 72, 036121 (2005)]. We generalize their triad dynamics to k-cycle dynamics for arbitrary integer k. We derive the phase structure, determine the stationary solutions, and calculate the time it takes to reach a frozen state. The main difference in the phase structure as a function of k is related to k being even or odd. As a second generalization we dilute the all-to-all coupling as considered by Antal to a random network with connection probability wcomputer science. The phase of social balance in our original interpretation then becomes the phase of satisfaction of all logical clauses in the satisfiability problem. In common to the cases we study, the ideal solution without any frustration always exists, but the question actually is as to whether this solution can be found by means of a local stochastic algorithm within a finite time. The answer depends on the choice of parameters. After establishing the mapping between the two classes of models, we generalize the social-balance problem to a diluted network topology for which the satisfiability problem is usually studied. On the other hand, in connection with the satisfiability problem we generalize the random local algorithm to a p-random local algorithm, including a parameter p that corresponds to the propensity parameter in the social balance problem. The qualitative effect of the inclusion of this parameter is a bias towards the optimal solution and a reduction of the needed simulation time.

  18. Social Orientation: Problem Behavior and Motivations Toward Interpersonal Problem Solving Among High Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social adaptation in order to focus on the population of youth most likely to be targeted by prevention efforts. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-sectional data using multiple informants (adolescents, peers, and parents) and multiple methods (performance test and self-report). Adolescent social orientation, as reflected in perceived problem solving effectiveness, identification with adult prosocial values, and self-efficacy expectations, exhibited a direct association to delinquent behavior and an indirect association to drug involvement mediated by demonstrated success in using problem solving skills. Results suggest that the utility of social skill theories of adolescent problem behaviors for informing preventive and remedial interventions can be enhanced by expanding them to consider adolescents’ orientation toward using the skills they may already possess. PMID:16929380

  19. Social Realism and the Problem of the Problem of Knowledge in the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines from a Social Realist perspective a set of issues in the sociology of education regarding the problem of knowledge. It focuses upon the issue of relativism associated with the constructionist approach that since the time of the New Sociology of Education in the 1970s has constituted in different forms the dominant perspective…

  20. Changes in social interaction over 20 years and the effects of community resources use among community-dwelling elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kumi; Tanaka, Emiko; Wu, Bailiang; Kobayashi, Zyunko; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Kim, Yeon; Watanabe, Taeko; Okumura, Rika; Ito, Sumio; Anme, Tokie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Recently, social isolation has been reported to be a critical problem among Japanese elderly persons. However, few studies have compared social interaction in the past and the present or investigated its predictive factors. This study aimed to clarify the transitional changes in social interaction over 20 years and explore the factors related to social interaction focusing on the use of community resources.Methods The participants were community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over. A survey was conducted 8 times from 1994 to 2014 in the suburban area of Tobishima, Japan. The Index of Social Interaction Scale was used and each subscale and the total score were calculated. Subsequently, the 2014 scores were compared with the 1994 scores using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to clarify the factors related to social interaction, focusing on the association between the use of community resources (local elderly management center, health care center, health promotion facility, library) in 2011 and social interaction 3 years later. Age, gender, disease, and mobility were also entered into the model as control variables.Results Comparing social interaction in 1994 and 2014, total scores were found to have significantly increased in all age groups. Independence scores significantly increased in the overall group and in females aged 75-84. Curiosity scores also increased in both males and females. These results show that social interaction has increased over 2 decades. In addition, the use of local elderly management and health care centers, and health promotion facilities was associated with total social interaction scores 3 years later.Conclusion The current study clarified changes in social interaction, both comprehensively and for each of its aspects, among community-dwelling elderly adults. Increasing social isolation has been reported in recent years; however, the current study showed that social

  1. Social Information Links Individual Behavior to Population and Community Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Michael A; Hein, Andrew M; Spiegel, Orr; Baskett, Marissa L; Sih, Andrew

    2018-05-07

    When individual animals make decisions, they routinely use information produced intentionally or unintentionally by other individuals. Despite its prevalence and established fitness consequences, the effects of such social information on ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesize results from ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behavior to show how the use of social information can profoundly influence the dynamics of populations and communities. We combine recent theoretical and empirical results and introduce simple population models to illustrate how social information use can drive positive density-dependent growth of populations and communities (Allee effects). Furthermore, social information can shift the nature and strength of species interactions, change the outcome of competition, and potentially increase extinction risk in harvested populations and communities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The social responsibility commitment to the community and care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena López Regalado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of csr has evolved in recent years, currently the main objective of the Company cannot lie only meet the monetary needs of the shareholders, but to seek the participation of all stakeholders in the company, with the different stakeholders that interact with the environment either customers, suppliers, employees and society at large, impacting the community with socially responsible actions. Because the concept has acquired new shades as social, economic and environmental responsibility among others, being on the great responsibility of the actions of companies to make social or common good acts to achieve their objectives without harming their economies community, the next job is presented focusing especially on two major indicators of social responsibility such as environmental care, and welfare of the community.

  3. Understanding social capital and HIV risk in rural African American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cené, Crystal W; Akers, Aletha Y; Lloyd, Stacey W; Albritton, Tashuna; Powell Hammond, Wizdom; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2011-07-01

    African Americans (AA) and rural communities often suffer disproportionately from poorer health. Theory-guided research examining how individual- and community-level factors influence health behaviors and contribute to disparities is needed. To understand how a social network model that captures the interplay between individual and community factors might inform community-based interventions to reduce HIV risk in rural AA communities. Qualitative study. Eleven focus groups with 38 AA 16-24 year olds, 42 adults over age 25, and 13 formerly incarcerated individuals held in community settings in two rural, predominantly AA counties in North Carolina. Thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with multiethnic key informants. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with open-ended questions assessed a) perceptions of multi-level HIV risk determinants from a social network model (individual, interpersonal, social, economic, political and structural) identified through literature review and b) community needs and assets affecting local HIV rates. Qualitative data was analyzed using directive content analysis guided by a social network model. We identified four themes regarding the interaction between individuals and their communities that mediate HIV risk: interpersonal processes, community structural environment, social disorder, and civic engagement. Communities were characterized as having a high degree of cohesiveness, tension, and HIV-related stigma. The community structural environment-characterized by neighborhood poverty, lack of skilled jobs, segregation, political disenfranchisement and institutional racism-was felt to reduce the availability and accessibility of resources to combat HIV. Adults noted an inability to combat social problems due to social disorder, which fuels HIV risk behaviors. Civic engagement as a means of identifying community concerns and developing solutions is limited by churches' reluctance to address HIV-related issues. To combat HIV

  4. LEARNING BASED ON SOCIAL PROBLEMS FROM AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVE: ETHICAL DILEMMAS OF SOCIAL INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Rondón-García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is inspired by an innovative educational project developed at the University of Malaga (Spain during 2013-2015. Complies with the requirements of the European Higher Education Area, concerning the acquisition of systemic, instrumental and interpersonal skills, an innovative learning experience, inspired by the need for feedback from the social sciences and socialization of knowledge, is proposed from the perspective of the common curriculum. Its main purpose is aimed at ensuring optimum results about learning in Social Work degree in related social disciplines, from a common and creative epistemology. The results have enabled the production of a didactic approach consisting of problem situations, the partner from practice materials. This information has been provided by the professionals involved empirically in practice, in order to generate educational resources, educational and social to scientific knowledge production tools. Welfare cases have been analyzed from all disciplinary perspectives or social sciences related to social work and disseminated for faculty, professional and academic use.

  5. Seymour Sarason in Memorial: Prospects for Community and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I.

    2012-01-01

    Seymour Sarason passed away on January 10, 2010 at the age of 91. He was the author of more than 40 books, including The Culture of the School and the Problem of Change (1971), The Creation of Settings and the Future Societies (1972), and The Psychological Sense of Community: Prospects for a Community Psychology (1974). His groundbreaking ideas…

  6. Community Reaction to Corporate Social Responsibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    ... priorities is one of the fundamental problems confronting corporate management (Kakava et al, 2013; .... bursary scheme, wellness programme, safety, health and environment, arts and ... is making a lot of money out of selling beer. Once we ...

  7. Social behavioural epistemology and the scientific community

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MILIND WATVE

    2017-07-20

    Jul 20, 2017 ... Keywords. epistemology; paradigm shift; peer review bias; evolutionary psychology. Introduction ... process and the other is the community's reactions to a published finding that ..... abandoned the hypothesis and stopped all actions founded ... before a person becomes consciously aware of the urge to act.

  8. Social context, social abstention, and problem recognition correlated with adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Gitte Wrist; Foldspang, Anders; Elving, Lisbeth Bach

    1992-01-01

    indicated the workplace and 66% the home as principal sites of UI occurrence. Thirty-one percent had experienced UI in specific situations such as during anxiety, sexual intercourse, or sleep. Nineteen percent had abstained from social activities, 17% from non-intimate social activity and 6% from sexual...... with episodes of UI occurring at home and in specific situations such as during anxiety and sleep. The experience of UI during sexual intercourse was related to all types of abstention. The perception of UI as a social or hygienic problem depended on the duration since first UI episode as well as social context...... and abstention. The everyday life consequences of UI are widespread and may cause serious relational problems for the individual. Stress UI manifests itself as a somatic condition leading to abstention from sport and other non-intimate social activities. Urge UI and the role of the experience of UI during sexual...

  9. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Gracia; Mª Castillo Fuentes; Fernando García

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful), and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use). The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent...

  10. Social inequality and the principal-agent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Barkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality has a lot of reasons. One of them is managerial. Managerial duties are paid so high that it set the stage for discontent not only within individual organizations, but also entire countries. The principles (the people in the state and shareholders in the corporation because the specific structure of their competencies can’t totally control agents (officials and managers. As to agents, the moral imperative to act for the good of the social system and reputation considerations (to be remembered as a good ruler or a genius manager can easily rejected when there is an opportunity to make millions dollars without special efforts. As a result hundreds thousands of people across the globe in the corporate and government structures are enriched through specific solutions to the principal-agent problem, and social inequality becomes an integral inevitable part of the modern economy.

  11. Social networking for web-based communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, T.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the 21st century, a new technology was introduced to facilitate communication, collaboration, and interaction between individuals and businesses. This technology is called social networking; this technology is now part of Internet commodities like email, browsing and blogging. From the 20th

  12. The Social Roots of a Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soholt, Polli

    2015-01-01

    Polli Soholt points to normalization in the first plane as leading to the successful realization of the human personality, which is the basis of social development. Children who have cultivated concentration and purposeful work at an early age develop the virtues to become world citizens. Normalization can be assisted by certain practices: 1)…

  13. Modern social life and never-married women's health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrapan Tamdee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the health problems of never-married women as they relate to modern social life. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 45 never-married women aged 30–50 working or living in Bangkok and having health problems. It was found that never-married women in this modern era have experienced a variety of illnesses, such as “office syndrome” symptoms, chronic illnesses, and psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Their social life resulted from the response to the context of modernity and was made through careful thought and deliberation. Whichever choice of social life they make, the consequences may lead them to a state of illness, distress, anxiety, and paranoia. These choices involve work, living conditions/environments, and intimacy aspects of their modern social life. This is the result of procuring by “husky modernity” which seems to be merely a “husk” or superficial modernization and changes so rapidly, but there is no core and it is full of double standards of traditional and new norms that have mixed together and fight against each other. Supporting health-related knowledge and information exchange within the network coupled with experience sharing essential for living in the modern society will enable them to sensibly decide on a path to good health.

  14. Individual- and community-level social gradients of edentulousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kanade; Aida, Jun; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Ohtsuka, Rika; Nakade, Miyo; Suzuki, Kayo; Kondo, Katsunori; Osaka, Ken

    2015-03-11

    Community-level factors as well as individual-level factors affect individual health. To date, no studies have examined the association between community-level social gradient and edentulousness. The aim of this study was to investigate individual- and community-level social inequalities in edentulousness and to determine any explanatory factors in this association. We analyzed the data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). In 2010-2012, 112,123 subjects aged 65 or older responded to the questionnaire survey (response rate = 66.3%). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the association between community-level income and edentulousness after accounting for individual-level income and demographic covariates. Then, we estimated the probability of edentulousness by individual- and community-level incomes after adjusted for covariates. Of 79,563 valid participants, the prevalence of edentulousness among 39,550 men (49.7%) and 40,013 women (50.3%) were both 13.8%. Living in communities with higher mean incomes and having higher individual-level incomes were significantly associated with a lower risk of edentulousness (odds ratios [ORs] by 10,000 USD increments were 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.22-0.63]) for community-level and 0.85 (95% CI [0.84-0.86]) for individual-level income). Individual- and community-level social factors, including density of dental clinics, partially explained the social gradients. However, in the fully adjusted model, both community- and individual-level social gradients of edentulousness remained significant (ORs = 0.43 (95% CI [0.27-0.67]) and 0.90 (95% CI [0.88-0.91]), respectively). One standard deviation changes in community- and individual-level incomes were associated with 0.78 and 0.84 times lower odds of edentulousness, respectively. In addition, compared to men, women living in communities with higher average incomes had a significantly lower risk of edentulousness (p-value for

  15. Social and place-focused communities in location-based online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chloë; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Scellato, Salvatore; Noulas, Anastasios; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2013-06-01

    Thanks to widely available, cheap Internet access and the ubiquity of smartphones, millions of people around the world now use online location-based social networking services. Understanding the structural properties of these systems and their dependence upon users' habits and mobility has many potential applications, including resource recommendation and link prediction. Here, we construct and characterise social and place-focused graphs by using longitudinal information about declared social relationships and about users' visits to physical places collected from a popular online location-based social service. We show that although the social and place-focused graphs are constructed from the same data set, they have quite different structural properties. We find that the social and location-focused graphs have different global and meso-scale structure, and in particular that social and place-focused communities have negligible overlap. Consequently, group inference based on community detection performed on the social graph alone fails to isolate place-focused groups, even though these do exist in the network. By studying the evolution of tie structure within communities, we show that the time period over which location data are aggregated has a substantial impact on the stability of place-focused communities, and that information about place-based groups may be more useful for user-centric applications than that obtained from the analysis of social communities alone.

  16. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Jacopo A; BurnSilver, Shauna B; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S; Kofinas, Gary P; De Domenico, Manlio

    2016-11-29

    Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.

  17. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Legal problems of energy supply within the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The report contains two articles; the first one is titled: The Directives on Transit of Gas and Electricity - Considerations regarding the juridical limits of the realisation of the Internal Market in the Energy Sector. It has basic considerations regarding the competences of the EC-legal nature of primary and secondary Community law; it analyzes the network of competences, the legality of the Commission's Proposals concerning the Internal Energy Market and further on the possibilities of legal recourse for enterprises in the Federal Republic of Germany in case the proposal directives are adopted. The second article deals with legal problems of energy supply within the EC-especially under the aspect of British coal mining. It incluses considerations regarding a proposed European Energy Charter, recent developments in EC-law regarding electricity and natural gas, third country imports: dumping, and privatisation. (HSCH)

  19. Social Media Utilization in the Cochlear Implant Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rajeev C.; Lehmann, Ashton E.; Hight, A. Ed; Darrow, Keith; Remenschneider, Aaron; Kozin, Elliott D.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than 200,000 individuals worldwide have received a cochlear implant (CI). Social media Websites may provide a paramedical community for those who possess or are interested in a CI. The utilization patterns of social media by the CI community, however, have not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate participation of the CI community in social media Websites. Research Design We conducted a systematic survey of online CI-related social media sources. Using standard search engines, the search terms cochlear implant, auditory implant, forum, and blog identified relevant social media platforms and Websites. Social media participation was quantified by indices of membership and posts. Study Sample Social media sources included Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, blogs, and online forums. Each source was assigned one of six functional categories based on its description. Intervention No intervention was performed. Data Collection and Analysis We conducted all online searches in February 2014. Total counts of each CI-related social media source were summed, and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results More than 350 sources were identified, including 60 Facebook groups, 36 Facebook pages, 48 Twitter accounts, 121 YouTube videos, 13 forums, and 95 blogs. The most active online communities were Twitter accounts, which totaled 35,577 members, and Facebook groups, which totaled 17,971 members. CI users participated in Facebook groups primarily for general information/support (68%). Online forums were the next most active online communities by membership. The largest forum contained approximately 9,500 topics with roughly 127,000 posts. CI users primarily shared personal stories through blogs (92%), Twitter (71%), and YouTube (62%). Conclusions The CI community engages in the use of a wide range of online social media sources. The CI community uses social media for support, advocacy, rehabilitation information, research

  20. The new community rules marketing on the social web

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    Blogs, networking sites, and other examples of the social web provide businesses with a largely untapped marketing channel for products and services. But how do you take advantage of them? With The New Community Rules, you''ll understand how social web technologies work, and learn the most practical and effective ways to reach people who frequent these sites. Written by an expert in social media and viral marketing, this book cuts through the hype and jargon to give you intelligent advice and strategies for positioning your business on the social web, with case studies that show how other c

  1. ISABEL Triggering Sustainable Biogas Energy Communities through Social Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Piedra Garcia, Diego

    2017-04-01

    The Horizon 2020 funding project ISABEL (Triggering Sustainable Biogas Energy Communities through Social Innovation) is all about promoting, supporting and developing community biogas in Europe. The project is set on providing all the framework conditions for biogas communities to shape, develop and thrive. It works on all angles to pave the way for the transition from traditional supply chains to community ownership and take full advantage of the ample societal benefits of regional community-driven biogas systems, fuelled and inspired by Social Innovation principles. The biogas communities emerge in three targeted ISABEL regions, Baden-Württemberg in Germany, Central and Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Greece and Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and the Humber in UK. To realize this vision ISABEL is employing its "5E strategy" with the following objectives: Educate: Re-position biogas energy by re-branding it as a "public good". Engage: Enable the development of regional Biogas Communities. Empower: Utilize the created momentum through Social Innovation and Public Participation Evaluate: Assess the local interventions and drafting lessons and guidelines Expand: Maximise impact through transfer and replication

  2. Community Collectivism: A social dynamic approach to conceptualizing culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmes, Tom; Stroebe, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Culture shapes individuals, but the measurement of cultural differences has proven a challenge. Traditional measures of cultural values focus on individual perceptions. We suggest that values are established and maintained within social communities of proximate others, such as the family and its social environment. Within such communities, values serve to maintain collective harmony whilst preserving individual agency. From a social-dynamic analysis of communities, we infer that community values of loyalty regulate individual commitment, values of honor regulate norm compliance, and values of group hierarchy maintain a division of labor. In addition, communities may regulate the ways in which individuals have independent agency. A new scale to measure these values was validated in four studies (N = 398, 112, 465 and 111) among Dutch (religious and non-religious), Turkish-Dutch, Surinamese and Turkish groups. Values and practices were measured at the level of the individual (‘What do you value?’) and at the level of the perceived community (‘What does your community value?’). Results show that, unlike individual-level measures of individualism/collectivism, this scale has excellent reliability, differentiates between cultural groups, and has predictive validity for future (voting) behavior. This approach provides a new way of conceptualizing culture, a new measure of collectivism and new insights into the role of proximate others in shaping culture. PMID:28957447

  3. Community Collectivism: A social dynamic approach to conceptualizing culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Akkuş

    Full Text Available Culture shapes individuals, but the measurement of cultural differences has proven a challenge. Traditional measures of cultural values focus on individual perceptions. We suggest that values are established and maintained within social communities of proximate others, such as the family and its social environment. Within such communities, values serve to maintain collective harmony whilst preserving individual agency. From a social-dynamic analysis of communities, we infer that community values of loyalty regulate individual commitment, values of honor regulate norm compliance, and values of group hierarchy maintain a division of labor. In addition, communities may regulate the ways in which individuals have independent agency. A new scale to measure these values was validated in four studies (N = 398, 112, 465 and 111 among Dutch (religious and non-religious, Turkish-Dutch, Surinamese and Turkish groups. Values and practices were measured at the level of the individual ('What do you value?' and at the level of the perceived community ('What does your community value?'. Results show that, unlike individual-level measures of individualism/collectivism, this scale has excellent reliability, differentiates between cultural groups, and has predictive validity for future (voting behavior. This approach provides a new way of conceptualizing culture, a new measure of collectivism and new insights into the role of proximate others in shaping culture.

  4. Community Collectivism: A social dynamic approach to conceptualizing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuş, Birol; Postmes, Tom; Stroebe, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Culture shapes individuals, but the measurement of cultural differences has proven a challenge. Traditional measures of cultural values focus on individual perceptions. We suggest that values are established and maintained within social communities of proximate others, such as the family and its social environment. Within such communities, values serve to maintain collective harmony whilst preserving individual agency. From a social-dynamic analysis of communities, we infer that community values of loyalty regulate individual commitment, values of honor regulate norm compliance, and values of group hierarchy maintain a division of labor. In addition, communities may regulate the ways in which individuals have independent agency. A new scale to measure these values was validated in four studies (N = 398, 112, 465 and 111) among Dutch (religious and non-religious), Turkish-Dutch, Surinamese and Turkish groups. Values and practices were measured at the level of the individual ('What do you value?') and at the level of the perceived community ('What does your community value?'). Results show that, unlike individual-level measures of individualism/collectivism, this scale has excellent reliability, differentiates between cultural groups, and has predictive validity for future (voting) behavior. This approach provides a new way of conceptualizing culture, a new measure of collectivism and new insights into the role of proximate others in shaping culture.

  5. Social phenotype extended to communities: expanded multilevel social selection analysis reveals fitness consequences of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobello, Daniela; Hare, James F; Sarà, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes. Here, we propose a novel social selection based approach integrating the role of all social interactions at the community level. We extended multilevel selection analysis by including a term accounting for the group phenotype of heterospecifics. We analyzed nest activity as a model social trait common to two species, the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and jackdaw (Corvus monedula), nesting in either single- or mixed-species colonies. By recording reproductive outcome as a measure of relative fitness, our results reveal an asymmetric system wherein only jackdaw breeding performance was affected by the activity phenotypes of both conspecific and heterospecific neighbors. Our model incorporating heterospecific social phenotypes is applicable to animal communities where interacting species share a common social trait, thus allowing an assessment of the selection pressure imposed by interspecific interactions in nature. Finally, we discuss the potential role of ecological limitations accounting for random or preferential assortments among interspecific social phenotypes, and the implications of such processes to community evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Empowering community settings: agents of individual development, community betterment, and positive social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I

    2008-03-01

    The pathways and processes through which empowering community settings influence their members, the surrounding community and the larger society are examined. To generate the proposed pathways and processes, a broad range of studies of community settings were reviewed, in the domains of adult well-being, positive youth development, locality development, and social change. A set of organizational characteristics and associated processes leading to member empowerment across domains were identified, as well as three pathways through which empowering settings in each domain contribute to community betterment and positive social change. The paper concludes with an examination of the ways that community psychology and allied disciplines can help increase the number and range of empowering settings, and enhance the community and societal impact of existing ones.

  7. Prospects of development of modern scientific communities as social institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Radevskaya N. S.

    2017-01-01

    the article examines the science and society in their relations and interrelations, problems of self-organization of science. The author talks about the ways and forms of science as a social institution at the service of the public interest. One of the conclusions is that the level of development of science as an institution corresponds to the level of development of social relations.

  8. University engagement with socially excluded communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Benneworth, P.

    2012-01-01

    There appears to be an almost overwhelming consensus that an increasingly important element of the role of universities in contemporary society is to provide useful knowledge and contribute to emerging societal problems. However, the scale of the academic analysis to date has been surprising in its

  9. Social phobia and other psychiatric problems in children with strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumurcu, Tongabay; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Ozcan, Ozlem; Demirel, Soner; Duz, Cem; Porgalı, Esra; Doganay, Selim

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the rate of social phobia, anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric problems in children with strabismus. Prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. Forty-two children with strabismus and 47 control subjects 8-13 years of age were enrolled in this study. After the ophthalmologist's examination, all cases were assessed by a psychiatrist based on the structured interview technique of Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) was administered to each subject to evaluate social phobia. All participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Age as well as sex and income were comparable between the strabismus patients and control groups. Social phobia was diagnosed in 8 (19.04%) of the 42 strabismic children and in 1 (2.12%) of the control subjects. The CDI and SCARED (total score, social phobia, separation anxiety) scores of strabismus patients were significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.0001, p = 0.05, respectively). A relationship between strabismus in children and social phobia, depression, and anxiety on a symptom basis was underlined by our data. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Reimagining Communities and Implementing Social Learning: Contemporary Community Theatre Development in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan have encountered political, social, economic and cultural challenges. During this period, their community theatres have played distinctive roles in activating their public space to reimagine their communities, form dialogues with their governments and construct learning experiences amongst various…

  11. Millennials, Technology and Perceived Relevance of Community Service Organizations: Is Social Media Replacing Community Service Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, August John

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods qualitative study examined the relationship between perceptions of the importance of social media (i.e., Facebook, Twitter) with community service projects and volunteerism. Participants (n = 80) were interviewed and surveyed regarding their experiences in participating in a variety of community service work (CSW) projects…

  12. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  13. Social network fragmentation and community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Goylette F; Ahnert, Sebastian E; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Tukahebwa, Edridah M

    2017-09-05

    Community health interventions often seek to intentionally destroy paths between individuals to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Immunizing individuals through direct vaccination or the provision of health education prevents pathogen transmission and the propagation of misinformation concerning medical treatments. However, it remains an open question whether network-based strategies should be used in place of conventional field approaches to target individuals for medical treatment in low-income countries. We collected complete friendship and health advice networks in 17 rural villages of Mayuge District, Uganda. Here we show that acquaintance algorithms, i.e., selecting neighbors of randomly selected nodes, were systematically more efficient in fragmenting all networks than targeting well-established community roles, i.e., health workers, village government members, and schoolteachers. Additionally, community roles were not good proxy indicators of physical proximity to other households or connections to many sick people. We also show that acquaintance algorithms were effective in offsetting potential noncompliance with deworming treatments for 16,357 individuals during mass drug administration (MDA). Health advice networks were destroyed more easily than friendship networks. Only an average of 32% of nodes were removed from health advice networks to reduce the percentage of nodes at risk for refusing treatment in MDA to below 25%. Treatment compliance of at least 75% is needed in MDA to control human morbidity attributable to parasitic worms and progress toward elimination. Our findings point toward the potential use of network-based approaches as an alternative to role-based strategies for targeting individuals in rural health interventions.

  14. Reconceptualizing the social contributions of community forestry as citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh

    2015-01-01

    understanding of community forestry's social contributions and role in local development. Looking at citizenship relations available with community forest user groups (CFUG) and local government in Nepal, this research shows that CFUGs offer a democracy refuge to citizens and valued services, yet that local......This study proposes a more complete conceptualization of the social contributions of community forestry by employing the concept of citizenship. This conceptualization situates community forestry processes within the broader local development and institutional landscape, which promises a better...... government is perceived as more important. The comparison responds to debates on institutional pluralism, namely that the presence of multiple institutions appear not to 'fragment' local representation or service provision. The study also discusses how socio-economic characteristics influence citizenship...

  15. Technological Solutions to Social and Citizen Problems. The Case of Civic and Public Challenges in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Adalberto TENA-ESPINOZA-DE-LOS-MONTEROS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process of civic innovation that, based on technological solutions and open initiatives, the civic society’s organization Codeando México suggests for the attention and solution of social and civic problems in Mexico. The Retos Cívicos (Civic Challenges and Retos Públicos (Public Challenges initiatives are addressed and described as experiences of innovation in the implementation of technological strategies for the solution of social and civic problems. A reflection is made on the civic appropriation of the ICTs and its irruption in the processes of innovation, as well as on the impact that the ICTs have in the conformation of a new civic ecosystem. Last, the strategies of Hacking cívico (Civic Hacking and Comunidades Cívicas (Civic Communities that the Codeando México organization promotes as a model for the linkage and civic participation within the frame of civic innovation, are mentioned.

  16. Stylized facts in social networks: Community-based static modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo

    2018-06-01

    The past analyses of datasets of social networks have enabled us to make empirical findings of a number of aspects of human society, which are commonly featured as stylized facts of social networks, such as broad distributions of network quantities, existence of communities, assortative mixing, and intensity-topology correlations. Since the understanding of the structure of these complex social networks is far from complete, for deeper insight into human society more comprehensive datasets and modeling of the stylized facts are needed. Although the existing dynamical and static models can generate some stylized facts, here we take an alternative approach by devising a community-based static model with heterogeneous community sizes and larger communities having smaller link density and weight. With these few assumptions we are able to generate realistic social networks that show most stylized facts for a wide range of parameters, as demonstrated numerically and analytically. Since our community-based static model is simple to implement and easily scalable, it can be used as a reference system, benchmark, or testbed for further applications.

  17. Problems of social and economic growth in the Kyrgyz Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article author explores the indirect influence of non-economic factors on the growth dynamics of the volume of GDP, including shows the effect of social problems on economic growth. It is proved that the existence of social problems have a negative impact on the pace of the economic dynamics of the country, due to the mutual dependence of key economic and non-economic factors of growth. On the one hand, the level of income of the population affects the purchasing power, which leads to the increase of the acceleration in economic growth. On the other hand, high levels of poverty and a deepening income inequality dictate political and social instability in society, which negatively affects the dynamics of economic growth. It was revealed that the feature of economic growth in the transitional economy is the negative impact of inflation and unemployment rates of economic dynamics, despite the fact that in most Western models, they are not considered as limiting growth factors.

  18. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Linda; Vriends, Noortje; Steppan, Martin; Raschle, Nora M; Praetzlich, Martin; Oldenhof, Helena; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres; Ackermann, Katharina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Puzzo, Ignazio; Wells, Amy; Rogers, Jack C; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind H; Grisley, Liam; Baumann, Sarah; Gundlach, Malou; Kohls, Gregor; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel A; Sesma-Pardo, Eva; Dochnal, Roberta; Lazaratou, Helen; Kalogerakis, Zacharias; Bigorra Gualba, Aitana; Smaragdi, Areti; Siklósi, Réka; Dikeos, Dimitris; Hervás, Amaia; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu; De Brito, Stephane A; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fairchild, Graeme; Freitag, Christine M; Popma, Arne; Kieser, Meinhard; Stadler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1) to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2) to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression), age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES); and (3) to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD) aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), respectively). The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls). The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing violence

  19. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kersten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD. Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1 to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2 to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression, age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES; and (3 to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ, respectively. The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls. The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing

  20. A Critical Study of Media Profiling on Society-s Social Problems from a British Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cj Gletus Matthews Cn Jacobs; Kogilah Narayanasamy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the sociological perspectives on social problems and the role of the media which has a delicate role to tread in balancing its duty to the public and the victim Whilst social problems have objective conditions, it is the subjective definition of such problems that ensure which social problem comes to the fore and which doesn-t. Further it explores the roles and functions of policymakers when addressing social problems and the impact of the inception ...

  1. SOCIAL INCLUSION OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AND THE PROBLEM OF HUMAN DIGNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Aleksandrovna Afonkina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in the article is the analysis of the concepts of disability in the context of inclusive processes in the Russian society and identification of scientific and theoretical approaches to the development of the concept of human dignity as correlating with the principles of social inclusion.The case study of disability problem realizes integrative and inclusive approach, which assumes that the value of human society does not depend on its characteristics and limitations, but it is determined by its inclusion in social practices.The novelty of the work is determined by the fact that it justifies the necessity to develop the concept of disability in Sociology in relation to the principles of inclusion, provides the interpretation of existing concepts of disability in inclusive context substantiates the concept of «human dignity» as basic for the development of inclusive practices of persons with disabilities.The author believes that successful social inclusion of persons with disabilities is determined social conditions to meet their basic human needs, uniting the human community.The results can be used to construct social models and programs of social inclusion of persons with disabilities, as well within the framework of the courses in «Social Rehabilitation», «Sociology of Disability».

  2. Association Between Community Social Capital and Hospital Readmission Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Amanda L; Lee, Suhna; Curry, Leslie A; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2018-05-31

    Hospital readmissions remain frequent, and are partly attributable to patients' social needs. The authors sought to examine whether local community levels of social capital are associated with hospital readmission rates. Social capital refers to the connections among members of a society that foster norms of reciprocity and trust, which may influence the availability of support for postdischarge recovery after hospitalization. Associations between hospital-wide, risk-stratified readmission rates for hospitals in the United States (n = 4298) and levels of social capital in the hospitals' service areas were examined. Social capital was measured by an index of participation in associational activities and civic affairs. A multivariate linear regression model was used to adjust for hospital and community factors such as hospital financial performance, race, income, and availability of heath care services. Results showed that higher social capital was significantly associated with lower readmission rates (P social capital in its region, but in areas of low social capital, it may be possible for public or philanthropic sectors to buttress the types of institutions that address nonmedical causes of readmission.

  3. Social Media Engagement and the Critical Care Medicine Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sean S; Kaul, Viren; Kudchadkar, Sapna R

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, social media has transformed how we communicate in the medical community. Microblogging through platforms such as Twitter has made social media a vehicle for succinct, targeted, and innovative dissemination of content in critical care medicine. Common uses of social media in medicine include dissemination of information, knowledge acquisition, professional networking, and patient advocacy. Social media engagement at conferences represents all of these categories and is often the first time health-care providers are introduced to Twitter. Most of the major critical care medicine conferences, journals, and societies leverage social media for education, research, and advocacy, and social media users can tailor the inflow of content based on their own interests. From these interactions, networks and communities are built within critical care medicine and beyond, overcoming the barriers of physical proximity. In this review, we summarize the history and current status of health-care social media as it relates to critical care medicine and provide a primer for those new to health-care social media with a focus on Twitter, one of the most popular microblogging platforms.

  4. Determine small and medium enterprise social media activities: A community engagement project in the Tshwane community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise van Scheers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine small and medium enterprise (SME social media activities and promote CE scholarship engagement. It is a community engagement project conducted in the Tshwane community. Community engagement (CE as a planned process with the specific purpose of working with identified groups of people in the community to address issues affecting their well-being. The CE project SME skills transfer workshops are aimed at expanding involvement with the community. The benefits of social media seem to be ignored by most SMEs however; challenges prevent SME owners from using the tool effectively. A survey study method of research design has been selected for the research. The sample for the study comprised 200 SME owners who currently manage small businesses in the Tshwane area. The conducted research recommends that social media can be cost effective if the SMEs make use of their social networks and use best practises that enable them to get their adverts or posts shared across social networks. The conducted research also recommends that SMEs with limited resources start with social media and YouTube as a marketing tool, as the learning curve is low and cost involved is almost nil.

  5. Social problems and territorial experiences from closing down Tihange NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizin, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The town of Huy, better known by the name of the NPP Tihange, which is the nearby village, accounts to 50,000 inhabitants including the surrounding region. An Advisory Committee at a community level was set up concerned with the emergency services and the NPP related problems. One of the outstanding problems is the planned interim storage for radioactive waste. The unsolved question of long term storage in Belgium resulted in the fact that general situation is not promising for launching the debate on the future of nuclear energy. The mission of the delegation from Huy visited Tokaimura with the aim to measure the scale of real responsibilities and the concern against nuclear power that the accident created in the population

  6. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem...... from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis...... Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999....

  7. The social media participation framework: studying the effects of social media on nonprofit communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline

  8. Health and social problems of the elderly: A cross-sectional study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Change in socio-economic status and various health problems adversely affect an individual′s way of life during old age. Objectives: To study the health and social problems of the elderly and their attitude towards life. Materials and Methods : Descriptive study carried out in the Field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine in South India. A total of 213 elderly patients (60 years old and above who attended the outreach clinics were interviewed using a pre-tested schedule. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages to study the socio-economic status of the samples and its correlation to social problems. Results: Around 73% of the patients belonged to the age group of 60-69 years old. Nearly half of the respondents were illiterate. Around 48% felt they were not happy in life. A majority of them had health problems such as hypertension followed by arthritis, diabetes, asthma, cataract, and anemia. About 68% of the patients said that the attitude of people towards the elderly was that of neglect. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that there is a need for geriatric counseling centers that can take care of their physical and psychological needs. The stringent rules for eligibility to social security schemes should be made more flexible to cover a larger population.

  9. Pharmacists' social authority to transform community pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers' view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.   Type: Idea Paper

  10. Pharmacists’ social authority to transform community pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McPherson, PhD, RPh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers’ view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.

  11. Not your problem? Exploring the relationship between problem formulation and social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveinung Jørgensen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between organizationalproblem formulation and social responsibility. Thepurpose of the article is to illuminate how organizationalproblem formulations (1 determine the manner in whichthe organization attempts to solve the problem and (2involve the ascription of significance to a group of stakeholdersseen as relevant for the organization. This has implicationsfor the degree to which they assume responsibilityfor those stakeholders. We discuss three dimensions ofresponsible decision making – rationality in goal attainment,reverence for ethical norms, and respect for stakeholders.Thereby, we arrive at an understanding of how differentorganizations in the same sector conceive of, andattempt to solve fundamental problems in the sector, aswell as how their assumed responsibility is reflected therein.We present and discuss a case that discusses keysimilarities and differences between two organizations inthe drug sector – a pharmaceutical company that producesmedicine for the treatment of drug addiction and a foundationworking with drug rehabilitation. We illuminatehow the two organizations base their activities on divergentformulations of the drug problem and how this ismanifested in their approach to the problem. We argue that this ultimately translates into differences in the inclusion of various stakeholdersin their problem space, and thereby the degree to which they assumeresponsibility for key stakeholders. This contributes to the corporate socialresponsibility literature by providing an in depth account of how problem formulationsshape organizational activities and determine the practical inclusionof stakeholders’ interests in the decisions and activities of organizations.

  12. STUDY OF SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Vorobyova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive urban and economic development leads to changes in functional planning of the territory. Comprehensive study of the existing use and ecology of the urban environment is necessary for making decisions on urban space optimization. This study can detect the negative effects of human impact and solve social and economic problems within the city. The socio-ecological assessment of the urban area within the developing zone carried out on the ground of the GIS, developed and compiled by the authors. The database of GIS consists of six blocks, including cartographic and attribute information with characteristics of the environment, functional planning and socio-demographic features of the territory.

  13. Studying empowerment in a socially and ethnically diverse social work community in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2011-01-01

    communities of young men. The social street work is analyzed at the time of the street riots and fires that took place in Copenhagen, in February 2008. It is analyzed how social street workers, facilitated meetings of the opposing factions, parties who usually do not enter into dialogue. It is discussed how...

  14. GERIATRIC HEALTH PROBLEMS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Ahmed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in some rural communities of Sreepur Thana during the month of April 2007. The study population included those aged 50 years or more and residing in the study areas. A total of 226 respondents were selected purposively and were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. The objective of this study was to assess their socio economic condition and identify their health problems. The mean age of the respondents was found to be 62 years. Mean family size and monthly family income was estimated to be 5.31 and Taka 5857.52 respectively. More than half (64.2% of the respondents were illiterate. Fifty eight percent of them were unemployed and 67.3% were found to be dependent on their family members. Most of them (65.5% were found to be suffering from joint pains. Some cardio-respiratory problems like palpitation, dyspnea and chest pain was found to be significantly higher among the female respondents (p<0.03. ECG was done on 22 of them. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 22.7% and ischemic heart disease in 27.27% of them. Systolic hypertension was significantly higher in the females (p<0.01. Majority of the respondents (64.5% were found to have a normal fasting blood sugar level. Symptoms of prostatic enlargement like frequency, urgency, hesitation and post void dribbling of urine was respectively found to be present among 15.9, 62.8, 10.7 and 24.8% of the male respondents. In 11.4% of the female respondents, urinary dribbling was found. The mean age of menopause was estimated to be 48.46 years. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2007; 1(2: 17-20

  15. Corporate social responsibility along pipelines: communities and corporations working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Edison D.R.; Lopes, Luciano E.; Danciguer, Lucilene; Macarini, Samuel; Souza, Maira de [Grupo de Aplicacao Interdisciplinar a Aprendizagem (GAIA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present GAIA's findings in three corporate social responsibility projects along pipelines owned by three Brazilian companies in gas, oil and mining sectors. The projects had as the main goal to improve the relationship with communities in the companies' direct influence areas. Clearly, the relationship with communities along pipelines is essential to prevent and reduce industrial hazards. The damage in pipelines due to agriculture, buildings, intentional perforations and traffic of heavy vehicles may cause fatal accidents, environmental and material losses. Such accidents have negative consequences with regard to economy, image and relationship with communities and environmental agencies. From communities' perspective, pipelines deteriorate their life quality due to risk of industrial hazards nearby their houses. The lack of proper information about the pipelines remarkably increases insecurity feelings and discourses against the companies among community leaders. The methodology developed by GAIA comprises companies' and communities' interests and encompasses nine stages. 1. Socio-environmental appraisal or inventory, mapping main risks, communities' needs and their leaders. 2. Communication plan, defining strategies, languages and communication vehicles for each stakeholder group. 3. Inter-institutional meetings to include other institutions in the program. 4. Launching seminar in partnership with local authorities, divulging companies' actions in the cities with pipelines. 5. Multiplier agents formation, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to disseminate correct information about the pipelines such as their functioning, hazard prevention, maintenance actions, and restrictions of activities over the pipelines. 6. Formation on project management, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to elaborate, fund raise and manage socio environmental projects aimed at

  16. Can social marketing approaches change community attitudes towards leprosy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wendy

    2006-06-01

    This essay explores how the concept of social marketing can be employed to change attitudes towards leprosy. Firstly, the concept of social marketing is discussed, then the attitudes that people have about leprosy, the stigma that people with leprosy and their families may face, and the detrimental effects that this can have on their lives. The effect of knowledge and education on attitudes towards leprosy is discussed, as this can be a key component of social marketing campaigns. Various methods of social marketing used to change attitudes and reduce stigma are examined, such as mass media campaigns, school based education, methods which involve community leaders, and the integration and improvement of leprosy services. Principles of social marketing which can lead to the success of campaigns such as incorporating local beliefs are emphasized. The success of the social marketing campaign in Sri Lanka is described, which aimed to remove the fear of leprosy, and to encourage patients to seek and comply with treatment. Finally, it is argued that social marketing, used correctly, can be highly effective at changing community attitudes towards leprosy, reducing stigma and improving the lives of patients, who become able to seek treatment sooner as they lose their fear of stigmatization.

  17. Community Project Funding in Malawi under the Malawi Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper gives an overview of the kind of community development projects that the Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) has supported since its inception in July 1996. The MASAF has tended to subscribe to a demand-driven approach in its evaluation of projects, thereby introducing an element of competition in commu ...

  18. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  19. Local embeddedness in community energy projects. A social entrepreneurship perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Vancea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of community energy projects have emerged recently, reflecting diverse sociotechnical configurations in the energy sector. This article is based on an empirical study examining different types of community energy projects such as energy cooperatives, public service utilities and other entrepreneurially oriented initiatives across the European Union. Based on an in-depth analysis of three case studies, the article aims to introduce a social entrepreneurship perspective when discussing the relationship between local embeddedness and different forms of organisation and ownership in community energy. The results indicate that community energy projects can expand beyond the local scale without losing their collective and democratic form of functioning and ownership. Moreover, social movements can act as catalysts for this expansion beyond the local, in a quest for wider social transformation. Social entrepreneurship may provide a suitable analytical lens to avoid the ‘local trap’ when examining different forms of organisation and ownership in renewable energy, and further explore the question of scaling.

  20. Community Collectivism : A social dynamic approach to conceptualizing culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkus, Birol; Postmes, Tom; Stroebe, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Culture shapes individuals, but the measurement of cultural differences has proven a challenge. Traditional measures of cultural values focus on individual perceptions. We suggest that values are established and maintained within social communities of proximate others, such as the family and its

  1. Building Community: The Neighborhood Context of Social Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Sapna; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how neighborhood context influences participation in local social organization through a multilevel-spatial analysis of residents in Chicago neighborhoods. We construct a typology of community participation based on two dimensions: instrumental vs. expressive motivations for participation and formal vs. informal modes of…

  2. Generating Social Change through Community-Campus Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Naomi; Gaetz, Stephen; Phipps, David

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a qualitative case study approach was used to explore the changes that community-campus collaborations stimulate. The authors document the "processes of interaction" (Spaapen & van Drooge, 2011) through which collaborations seek to contribute to positive social change, highlighting the outputs, outcomes, and…

  3. Measurement of social support, community and trust in dentistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Hanne; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Söderfeldt, Björn

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Relationships among people at work have previously been found to contribute to the perception of having a good work. The aim of the present paper was to develop scales measuring aspects of social support, trust, and community among dentists, and to evaluate psychometric proper...

  4. Teaching Independent Community Social Skills to the Multihandicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulac, Pauline F.

    Ten multihandicapped high-school students in the Dayton (Ohio) Public Schools were trained using a curriculum of independent community social skills, focusing specifically on restaurant skills, travel skills, shopping skills, self-care skills, and skills for visiting a business or government agency. The students made weekly trips into the…

  5. Communication and Social Exchange Processes in Community Theater Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the communication experiences of two volunteer groups involved in the production of community theater musicals. Based on social exchange theory, it examined what group members perceived to be the positive benefits (primarily meeting people and having an opportunity to perform) and the negative costs (primarily disorganization,…

  6. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  7. Delivery of community information service as corporate social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This necessitated the study, with a view to ascertaining if librarians in academic institutions, considering their location in rural areas, are involved in corporate social responsibility (CSR) by way of providing library and information services in communities? Using four federal tertiary institutions in Imo and Ebonyi states, South ...

  8. Closer to Learning: Social Networks, Trust, and Professional Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yi-Hwa; Daly, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers, educators, and policymakers suggest the use of professional learning communities as one important approach to the improvement of teaching and learning. However, relatively little research examines the interplay of professional interactions (structural social capital) around instructional practices and key elements of professional…

  9. Facilitating Student Engagement: Social Responsibility and Freshmen Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Lindsey N.; MacCartney, Danielle; Miller, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is advanced as a method for promoting social responsibility, with an emphasis on promoting ideals of "global citizenship" among undergraduate students. At the same time, the practice of learning communities is widespread on college campuses for retaining freshmen and promoting student success. However, there is…

  10. Social Networks and Performance in Distributed Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ojeda, Jordi; Monguet, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks play an essential role in learning environments as a key channel for knowledge sharing and students' support. In distributed learning communities, knowledge sharing does not occur as spontaneously as when a working group shares the same physical space; knowledge sharing depends even more on student informal connections. In this…

  11. Design implications for a community-based social recipe system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, V.; Yalvac, F.; Funk, M.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Marcenaro, L.

    2014-01-01

    We introduced the concept of a community-based social recipe system which suggests recipes to groups of users based on available ingredients from these users (i.e. who can be from the same household or different households). In this paper we discuss the relevance and desirability of such a system

  12. Why do urban communities with similar conditions of social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban marginal territories with similar levels of social exclusion might present di erent degrees of violence because of di erences in the capacity of the community to act to confront the phenomenon of violence. Research questions. Hypothesis. The research was carried out in. Outputs. Methodology. Household survey.

  13. Social Relation Networks in UT-Online Community Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2012-01-01

    So far, the existence of a virtual community forum has become a reality and social necessity in an era cybertech. It was also viewed as the electronic frontier of 21st century society that was undoubtedly for reorganizing and redefining to awareness of human being, that ways of their perceptions and explorations no longer limited by time, space,…

  14. Tacit Knowledge in Online Learning: Community, Identity, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztok, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities that tacit knowledge could provide for social constructivist pedagogies; in particular, pedagogies for online learning. Arguing that the tacit dimension of knowledge is critical for meaning making in situated learning practices and for a community of practice to function, the article considers whether…

  15. Community Heterogeneity : A Burden for the Creation of Social Capital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde; Geys, Benny

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examines the relationship between community heterogeneity and social capital on the local government level. Method. We apply both OLS and interval regression techniques to objective macro data of 307 Flemish municipalities for the year 2000. Results. Our results show that,

  16. Communities of clinical practice: the social organization of clinical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Tony; Jaye, Chrystal

    2009-01-01

    The social organization of clinical learning is under-theorized in the sociological literature on the social organization of health care. Professional scopes of practice and jurisdictions are formally defined by professional principles and standards and reflected in legislation; however, these are mediated through the day-to-day clinical activities of social groupings of clinical teams. The activities of health service providers typically occur within communities of clinical practice. These are also major sites for clinical curriculum delivery, where clinical students learn not only clinical skills but also how to be health professionals. In this article, we apply Wenger's model of social learning within organizations to curriculum delivery within a health service setting. Here, social participation is the basis of learning. We suggest that it offers a powerful framework for recognizing and explaining paradox and incongruence in clinical teaching and learning, and also for recognizing opportunities, and devising means, to add value to students' learning experiences.

  17. Social Identity and Community Resilience towards Tourism Development in Mabul Island, Semporna Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhaya Hanum Mohamad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mabul Island is a small isolated island located in the east of Semporna, Sabah. The island is inhabited by refugees from southern Philippines, which consist of few ethnics such as Suluk, Bajau, Bisayak, and so on. The communities in small islands are usually late in the development process. They often face problems of adapting to the development and they are commonly left behind in many things. With low population density, many of these communities receive little attention from the government. This resulted in insufficient support and poor basic infrastructure and services. However, Mabul Island is a very popular tourist destination for diving activities after Sipadan Island in Sabah. Tourism development and the impacts on local community have been widely discussed in the literature. However, the role of local communities in the tourism from the perspective of identity is rarely emphasized. Tajfel (1972 defined social identity as “that part of an individual’s self-concept which derives from his knowledge of his membership of a social group together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership”. Based on the conceptual framework introduced by Palme, Koenig-Lewis, and Jones, this study applied the theory of social identity in examining the differences between two major communities in Mabul Island; Suluk and Bajau communities. The objectives of this study were to study the relationships that existed within the groups and to investigate the impacts of tourism development on social identity of local communities. This study also examined to what extent the social identities can adapt to the tourism booming in Mabul Island.

  18. The Relationship of Social Engagement and Social Support With Sense of Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Chi, Iris; Dong, Xinqi

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship of engagement in social and cognitive activities and social support with the sense of community (SOC) and its components among older Chinese Americans. The Sense of Community Index (SCI) was used to measure SOC and its four component factors: membership, influence, needs fulfillment, and emotional connection. Social engagement was assessed with 16 questions. Social support included positive support and negative strain. Principal component analysis was used to identify the SCI components. Linear regression analysis was used to detect the contribution of social engagement and social support to SOC and its components. After controlling for sociodemographics and self-rated health, social activity engagement and positive social support were positively related to SOC and its components. This study points to the importance of social activity engagement and positive support from family and friends in increasing the sense of community. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Does Social Capital Explain Community-Level Differences in Organ Donor Designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Wang, Rui; Fleishman, Aaron; Boger, Matthew; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-09-01

    The growing shortage of life-saving organs has reached unprecedented levels, with more than 120,000 Americans waiting for them. Despite national attempts to increase organ donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, geographic disparities remain. A better understanding of the contextual determinants of organ donor designation, including social capital, may enhance efforts to increase organ donation by raising the probability of collective action and fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. Because community-level factors, including social capital, predict more than half the variation in donor designation, future interventions should tailor strategies to specific communities as the unit of intervention. The growing shortage of organs has reached unprecedented levels. Despite national attempts to increase donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, their availability and waiting times vary significantly nationwide. Organ donor designation is a collective action problem in public health, in which the regional organ supply and average waiting times are determined by the willingness of individuals to be listed as organ donors. Social capital increases the probability of collective action by fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. We examine whether social capital and other community-level factors explain geographic variation in organ donor designation rates in Massachusetts. We obtained a sample of 3,281,532 registered drivers in 2010 from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation Registry of Motor Vehicles (MassDOT RMV). We then geocoded the registry data, matched them to 4,466 census blocks, and linked them to the 2010 US Census, the American Community Survey (ACS), and other sources to obtain community-level sociodemographic, social capital (residential segregation, voter registration and participation, residential

  20. The voices of older women in a disadvantaged community: issues of health and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneham, Margaret Anne; Sixsmith, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    The voices of older women are rarely heard in debates about the health of disadvantaged groups. Despite growing interest in health in old age, the health experiences of older women as gendered social beings have yet to be fully explored. Their potential to contribute positively to family and community health is seldom acknowledged. The aim of this article is to present findings from a qualitative British Health Development Agency funded project on the relationship between social capital, health and gender, focusing on the health and social networks of older women in a socially disadvantaged community in the north of England. Seventy-seven community members were interviewed, of these 19 were older women aged 55-78 years. Their accounts of ill health in the context of ageing were analysed to explore the intricate ways in which social capital was created, maintained and linked to health. Findings suggest that social constructions of motherhood and caring underpinned responsibility for their own and others' health. Their experiences of dealing with health matters, together with frequent health talk, gave the women confidence as lay health experts, enabling them to contest medical advice. Drawing on personal experiences of trust and reciprocity, they recognised the importance of social networking in alleviating the problems of loneliness and isolation. At stressful times in their lives they were able to draw on existing support networks and, in spite of occasional personal conflicts, some benefited from the empowering and health-enhancing role of formal and informal participation in community life. These findings indicate that older women can operate autonomously in health matters and can substantially influence the development of healthy communities, although this can sometimes be at a personal cost.

  1. Social Community: A Mechanism to Explain the Success of STEM Minority Mentoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondisa, Joi-Lynn; McComb, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Social community may be a mechanism that explains the success of minority mentoring programs. We define a social community as an environment where like-minded individuals engage in dynamic, multidirectional interactions that facilitate social support. In this conceptual article, we propose a social community model for science, technology,…

  2. SPIRITUALITY AS PHILOSOPHICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DE-VELOPMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Gromov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to regard the essence and phenomenon of spirituality in connection with ontological foundation of human being existence. The author suggests the concept of new cosmo-theocentric paradigm of human world outlook, as a ground of perspective transformation of social life activity on the contrary to anthropocentric view, which dominates in present society consciousness. The author gives the characteristics of the ideal sage and underlines the importance of spiritual teachers in cultural development of society. Methodology. The method of philosophizing is connected with the unity of mind, sensuality, belief, will in integral body and mental organization of a man. Such point of view takes into consideration not only aspects of objective determination, but includes senses of existence and world outlook ideas in culture on particular and universal levels of social experience. The author considers a special ontological disposition of the human being in the world as a “transcendent project” with “metaphysic responsibility”. Scientific novelty. In the history of social culture the problem of its spiritual attitude towards reality is a basic problem, but now it becomes especially up-to-date and important. Now the survival of the civilization depends on the development of spirituality. From metaphysical point of view it means how spiritual the human being may be. The author connects the consideration of spirituality with particular human being ontological status in the world and provides his reflection with speculative character. Conclusions. The transition of modern civilized society to the cosmo-theocentric paradigm is prepared by contradictions of its technological and cultural development. In historical circumstances when the conscious influence of society on itself is growing, the realization of this process depends on spiritual trend of human beings cultural activity and mental quality of social leaders

  3. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education Programme…

  4. Community pharmacists, Internet and social media: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Natalia; Shepherd, Marv

    2014-01-01

    Use of social media and Internet for health information sharing is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. Research on professional use of social media by community pharmacists is limited. 1) To determine the extent to which Texas (U.S. state) independent community pharmacists use text messaging, email, Facebook, Twitter, and/or other information technology for professional communication with patients and health care professionals and identify the perceptions of Texas independent community pharmacists toward such usage; 2) to determine the extent to which Texas independent community pharmacists develop and employ their pharmacy websites to provide drug information and patient care services. A 25-item survey with questions addressing the objectives of the study as well as basic demographic questions (gender, age, and type of pharmacy degree) was mailed to a random sample of 1196 independent community pharmacists in Texas in January 2012. The study response rate was 23.7%, with 284 usable questionnaires returned. The majority of respondents reported that Internet access is available at their pharmacies (98% (278)), and 91% (258) are familiar with the term 'social media'. To communicate with health care professionals, 56% (n = 160) of respondents use email, 34% (n = 97) use text messages and 5% (n = 14) use Facebook. To communicate with patients, 36% (n = 102) of respondents use email, 30% (n = 86) use text messages and 7% (n = 19) use Facebook. The perceptions of pharmacists who communicate with patients using electronic tools about information related to drug therapy once a month or more frequently were more positive than those of pharmacists who never or hardly ever communicate with patients via electronic tools about drug therapy (P social media for professional pharmacist's communications and perceptions toward the use of social media in patient-pharmacist communications among independent community pharmacists in

  5. An Investigation of Maternal Emotion Socialization Behaviors, Children's Self-Perceptions, and Social Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hurside Kubra; Aksoy, Ayse Belgin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate maternal emotion socialization, children's self-perception, and social problem-solving skills. In addition, this study describes the association between the levels of children's self-perception and social problem-solving skills. Research Methods: This is a quantitative study adopting a relational…

  6. Social marketing and community mobilisation to reduce underage alcohol consumption in Australia: A cluster randomised community trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco Charles; Williams, Joanne; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Osborn, Amber; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Leslie, Eva; Patton, George; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Toumbourou, John W

    2018-08-01

    In many countries adolescent alcohol use is a major health problem. To supplement national policies, it is important to trial community interventions as a potential strategy to prevent adolescent alcohol use. This study evaluated a multicomponent community intervention that included community mobilisation, social marketing, and the monitoring of alcohol sales to minors. Evaluation was a clustered randomised trial design with 14 intervention and 14 control communities. Prior to randomisation, communities were matched on socioeconomic status and location. Intervention communities were not blinded. 3545 Year 8 students (M = 12 years) were surveyed at baseline from 75 schools; 3377 students were surveyed post intervention in 2013 from 54 schools. It was hypothesised that the primary outcome, individual alcohol consumption in last 30 days, after the intervention would be 15% lower in intervention communities. Secondary outcomes were consumption in the past year and intention not to drink before age 18. The intervention communities showed larger relative reductions compared to the controls in last 30-day consumption and past year (10%), but not significantly different. A significantly lower proportion of participants in the intervention community (63%), compared to the controls (71%), reported intending to drink before 18 years old. Subgroup analysis identified regional and state differences for some secondary measures. Intervention assignment was associated with lower adolescent intention to drink before the age of 18. However, more intensive and longer-term intervention may be required to measure significant differences in behaviour change. ACTRN12612000384853. Rowland B, Toumbourou JW, Osborn A, et al. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002423. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002423. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Social Acceptance of Community Solar: A Portland Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Anne

    Community solar is a renewable energy practice that's been adopted by multiple U.S. states and is being considered by many more, including the state of Oregon. A recent senate bill in Oregon, called the "Clean Electricity and Coal Transition Plan", includes a provision that directs the Oregon Public Utility Commission to establish a community solar program for investor-owned utilities by late 2017. Thus, energy consumers in Portland will be offered participation in community solar projects in the near future. Community solar is a mechanism that allows ratepayers to experience both the costs and benefits of solar energy while also helping to offset the proportion of fossil-fuel generated electricity in utility grids, thus aiding climate change mitigation. For community solar to achieve market success in the residential sector of Portland, ratepayers of investor-owned utilities must socially accept this energy practice. The aim of this study was to forecast the potential social acceptance of community solar among Portland residents by measuring willingness to participate in these projects. Additionally, consumer characteristics, attitudes, awareness, and knowledge were captured to assess the influence of these factors on intent to enroll in community solar. The theory of planned behavior, as well as the social acceptance, diffusion of innovation, and dual-interest theories were frameworks used to inform the analysis of community solar adoption. These research objectives were addressed through a mixed-mode survey of Portland residents, using a stratified random sample of Portland neighborhoods to acquire a gradient of demographics. 330 questionnaires were completed, yielding a 34.2% response rate. Descriptive statistics, binomial logistic regression models, and mean willingness to pay were the analyses conducted to measure the influence of project factors and demographic characteristics on likelihood of community solar participation. Roughly 60% of respondents

  8. Social problem-solving and social adjustment in paediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa M; Bigler, Erin; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn A; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the predictors of social deficits that occur following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study sought to investigate social problem solving (SPS) and its relationship to social adjustment after TBI. Participants included 8-13 year old children, 25 with severe TBI, 57 with complicated mild-to-moderate TBI and 61 with orthopaedic injuries (OI). Children responded to scenarios involving negative social situations by selecting from a fixed set of choices their causal attribution for the event, their emotional reaction to the event and how they would behave in response. Parent ratings of social behaviours and classmate friendship nominations and sociometric ratings were obtained for a sub-set of all participants. Children with severe TBI were less likely than children with OI to indicate they would attribute external blame or respond by avoiding the antagonist; they were more likely to indicate they would feel sad and request adult intervention. Although several SPS variables had indirect effects on the relationship between TBI and social adjustment, clinical significance was limited. The findings suggest that, while children with TBI display atypical SPS skills, SPS cannot be used in isolation to accurately predict social adjustment.

  9. On a new concept of community: social networks, personal communities and collective intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério da Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This text essentially deals with the transmutation of the concept of "community" into "social networks". This change is due largely to the boom of virtual communities in cyberspace, a fact that has generated a number of studies not only on this new way of weaving a society, but also on the dynamic structure of communication networks. At the core of this transformation, concepts such as social capital, trust and partial sympathy are called upon, to enable us to think about the new forms of association that regulate human activity in our time.

  10. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  11. Knowledge sharing in virtual communities: A social exchange theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The author tried to identify the knowledge sharing behaviors on the internet, using structural equation modeling methods, proposing a model based on social exchange theory in which share willingness, trust, reciprocity, altruism tended to have impact on people’s knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: We presented an empirical research which integrated social exchange theory and structural equation modeling methods to analyze several important factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Findings: We analyzed the knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. We found that members’ altruism can not predict knowledge sharing behaviors. We also found that members’ sharing willingness is the most important factor on virtual community knowledge sharing behaviors compared with trust, reciprocity and altruism. Originality/value: From the perspective of social exchange theory, we did empirical test and verified the proposed research model by using structural equation modeling methods. Our finding can help recognize people’s incentive about knowledge sharing.

  12. Toward smart governance and social sustainability for Chinese migrant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yanliu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Geertman, Stan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072392924

    2015-01-01

    In the regeneration of Chinese migrant communities, which are usually referred to as "villages in the city," various modes of governance have been formed based on the relationships between the three key actors (state, market, and society). These modes of governance are characterized by problems

  13. The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Schopflocher, Don P; el-Guebaly, Nady; Casey, David M; Smith, Garry J; Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems was examined in a community sample of men and women (N = 1,372). As hypothesized, individuals with gambling problems reported greater childhood maltreatment than individuals without gambling problems. Childhood maltreatment predicted severity of gambling problems and frequency of gambling even when other individual and social factors were controlled including symptoms of alcohol and other drug use disorders, family environment, psychological distress, and symptoms of antisocial disorder. In contrast to findings in treatment-seeking samples, women with gambling problems did not report greater maltreatment than men with gambling problems. These results underscore the need for both increased prevention of childhood maltreatment and increased sensitivity towards trauma issues in gambling treatment programs for men and women.

  14. New approach to training in citizen security from the social link university–community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicta Gregoria González-Leal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article bases the need for a new conception in the training approaches in the training institutions of citizen security professionals, due to the present changes in the 21st century at the state, regional and local level, where the protagonism of the same lies In responding to the new challenges, trends and challenges present in society. It also analyzes the significance of the university's social connection with the communities, so that the praxis of the students goes beyond the understanding of the problems to the search for possible alternatives for their solution, with the consequent social transformations that this bring along.

  15. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  16. Integrating social class and privilege in the community medicine curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymaker, Christopher; Cadick, Amber; Seavey, Allison

    2017-05-01

    Social class and privilege are hidden variables that impact the physician-patient relationship and health outcomes. This article presents a sample of activities from three programs utilized in the community health curriculum to teach resident physicians about patients within context, including how social class and privilege impact physician-patient relationships and patient health. These activities address resident physicians' resistance to discussion of privilege, social class, and race by emphasizing direct experience and active learning rather than traditional didactic sessions. The group format of these activities fosters flexible discussion and personal engagement that provide opportunities for reflection. Each activity affords opportunities to develop a vocabulary for discussing social class and privilege with compassion and to adopt therapeutic approaches that are more likely to meet patients where they are.

  17. Social education, human rights and sustainability in community development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio CARIDE GÓMEZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article places its contributions in a reflection of a pedagogical and social nature about the links that are established between social education, human rights and sustainability in community development. In this regard, in a historical and prospective key, it places emphasis on the need to promote educational actions that, being consistent with the principles of equity and justice, make it possible to build a more democratic, inclusive and cohesive local-global society.A future expectation that must be confined to educational theories and practices where local communities assume the role they play in their own development processes, with an alternative vision to the ways of educating people and themselves on a daily basis, respectful of human and ecological rights. A line of action that coincides with the commitments made at the Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development, adopted by UNESCO, and Resolution A/70/1 adopted by the General Assembly in 2015, Transform our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, guaranteeing lifelong learning for all.In this objective beats a decisive, although not explicit, of a pedagogical-social vocation: to train citizens that, individually and collectively being aware of their role in socio-environmental changes, assume the responsibilities inherent to the values that sustain life in all its diversity. Social education and community development that, by projecting initiatives in different times and social spaces, allows formative opportunities to be expanded beyond the school system and its curricular practices. The Environmental Education and the Local Agenda 21 continue being two references main for the reflection-action educational and community.

  18. Examining Neighborhood Social Cohesion in the Context of Community-based Participatory Research: Descriptive Findings from an Academic-Community Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Lori Brand; Fouad, Mona N; Hawk, Bianca; Osborne, Tiffany; Bae, Sejong; Eady, Sequoya; Thompson, Joanice; Brantley, Wendy; Crawford, Lovie; Heider, Laura; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process of conducting an assessment of neighborhood perceptions and cohesion by a community coalition-academic team created in the context of community-based participatory research (CBPR), to guide the design of locally relevant health initiatives. Guided by CBPR principles, a collaborative partnership was established between an academic center and a local, urban, underserved neighborhood in Birmingham, Alabama to identify and address community concerns and priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2016 among community residents (N=90) to examine perceptions of neighborhood characteristics, including social cohesion and neighborhood problems. The major concerns voiced by the coalition were violence and lack of neighborhood cohesion and safety. The community survey verified the concerns of the coalition, with the majority of participants mentioning increasing safety and stopping the violence as the things to change about the community and the greatest hope for the community. Furthermore, results indicated residents had a moderate level of perceived social cohesion (mean = 2.87 [.67]). The Mid-South TCC Academic and Community Engagement (ACE) Core successfully partnered with community members and stakeholders to establish a coalition whose concerns and vision for the community matched the concerns of residents of the community. Collecting data from different groups strengthened the interpretation of the findings and allowed for a rich understanding of neighborhood concerns.

  19. Bacterial social interactions and the emergence of community-intrinsic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial communities are dominated and shaped by social interactions, which facilitate the emergence of properties observed only in the community setting. Such community-intrinsic properties impact not only the phenotypes of cells in a community, but also community composition and function...... on community composition and interactions in multispecies biofilms. We hereby wish to emphasize the importance of studying social interactions in settings where community-intrinsic properties are likely to emerge....

  20. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Kersten; Noortje Vriends; Martin Steppan; Nora M. Raschle; Martin Praetzlich; Helena Oldenhof; Robert Vermeiren; Lucres Jansen; Katharina Ackermann; Anka Bernhard; Anne Martinelli; Karen Gonzalez-Madruga; Ignazio Puzzo; Amy Wells; Jack C. Rogers

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also te...

  1. Community social vulnerability indicies - Community Social Vulnerability Indicators for the California Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We employ a methodology that incorporates a diverse range of secondary data and proxy measures of human community attributes with the aim of considering multiple...

  2. The problem of creative activity in of social work research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilka L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Current Latvian research in the area of social work is not characteristic of a creative and innovative methodological approach. The methodological conservatism derived from general sociology is particularly affecting students in doctoral studies. This proposes a question: should, in the name of scientific novelty, we support research in which the PhD student aims to get rid of his personality behind the shield of authority, sometimes even general sociology textbook truths? Or should we encourage bold challenges to methodological schematism, in which the researcher takes a pose of truly creative research and avoids becoming a representative of scientific marginality lacking one’s personality? The subject of creative activity – the researcher in social work – can best express oneself in the level of philosophic wisdom, identifying only the main guidelines of his creative processes and allowing a large headspace for one’s creative quests. A scientist, also one interested in the problems of social work, can ascertain his/her uniqueness by relying on the concept that any researcher has embarked on an individual journey, circulating on different orbits around one central idea. If the distance between such central idea and the researcher’s activities is increasing, this signifies of either a creatively productive reevaluation of the researcher’s position, or the death of the research process in having lost the original idea. On the other hand, continuous approach towards the central idea either means that the researcher is consistent and determined in his creative research, or there is complete lack of scientific novelty in cases when borrowed foreign ideas are worshipped.

  3. Role of autobiographical memory in social problem solving and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, L; Dritschel, B; Burton, A

    1996-11-01

    Depressed patients frequently exhibit deficiencies in social problem solving (SPS). A possible cause of this deficit is an impairment in patients' ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories. A clinically depressed group and a hospital control group performed the Means-End Problem-Solving (MEPS; J. J. Platt & G. Spivack, 1975a) task, during which they were required to attend to the memories retrieved during solution generation. Memories were categorized according to whether they were specific, categoric, or extended and whether the valence of the memories was positive or negative. Results support the general hypothesis that SPS skill is a function of autobiographical memory retrieval as measured by a cuing task and by the types of memories retrieved during the MEPS. However, the dysfunctional nature of categoric memories in SPS, rather than the importance of specific memories, was highlighted in the depressed group. Valence proved to be an unimportant variable in SPS ability. The cyclical links among autobiographical memory retrieval, SPS skills, and depression are discussed.

  4. Community and Social Network Sites as Technology Enhanced Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Christiansen, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the affordance of the Danish social networking site Mingler.dk for peer-to-peer learning and development. With inspiration from different theoretical frameworks, the authors argue how learning and development in such social online systems can be conceptualised and analysed....... Theoretically the paper defines development in accordance with Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development, and learning in accordance with Wenger's concept of communities of practice. The authors suggest analysing the learning and development taking place on Mingler.dk by using these concepts...... supplemented by the notion of horizontal learning adopted from Engestrm and Wenger. Their analysis shows how horizontal learning happens by crossing boundaries between several sites of engagement, and how the actors' multiple membership enables the community members to draw on a vast amount of resources from...

  5. Problematising internal security: Crime, community and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Bruun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematisation of crime, crime prevention and security in contemporary security policy programmes using three Finnish internal security programmes and theory-based content analysis. The study is based on the theory (the perspective of an analytics of government. The findings highlight the central meaning of social exclusion and community as security practices wherein social exclusion is seen as a threat to security and a risk for crime. Indeed, community-based crime prevention plays a central role in the programmes along with the worry about serious crimes and the high level of homicides. A fluid governing policy without crime and accidents is the implicit goal of these programmes.

  6. Community Size Effects on Epidemic Spreading in Multiplex Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available The dynamical process of epidemic spreading has drawn much attention of the complex network community. In the network paradigm, diseases spread from one person to another through the social ties amongst the population. There are a variety of factors that govern the processes of disease spreading on the networks. A common but not negligible factor is people's reaction to the outbreak of epidemics. Such reaction can be related information dissemination or self-protection. In this work, we explore the interactions between disease spreading and population response in terms of information diffusion and individuals' alertness. We model the system by mapping multiplex networks into two-layer networks and incorporating individuals' risk awareness, on the assumption that their response to the disease spreading depends on the size of the community they belong to. By comparing the final incidence of diseases in multiplex networks, we find that there is considerable mitigation of diseases spreading for full phase of spreading speed when individuals' protection responses are introduced. Interestingly, the degree of community overlap between the two layers is found to be critical factor that affects the final incidence. We also analyze the consequences of the epidemic incidence in communities with different sizes and the impacts of community overlap between two layers. Specifically, as the diseases information makes individuals alert and take measures to prevent the diseases, the effective protection is more striking in small community. These phenomena can be explained by the multiplexity of the networked system and the competition between two spreading processes.

  7. Community Size Effects on Epidemic Spreading in Multiplex Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Li, Ping; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical process of epidemic spreading has drawn much attention of the complex network community. In the network paradigm, diseases spread from one person to another through the social ties amongst the population. There are a variety of factors that govern the processes of disease spreading on the networks. A common but not negligible factor is people's reaction to the outbreak of epidemics. Such reaction can be related information dissemination or self-protection. In this work, we explore the interactions between disease spreading and population response in terms of information diffusion and individuals' alertness. We model the system by mapping multiplex networks into two-layer networks and incorporating individuals' risk awareness, on the assumption that their response to the disease spreading depends on the size of the community they belong to. By comparing the final incidence of diseases in multiplex networks, we find that there is considerable mitigation of diseases spreading for full phase of spreading speed when individuals' protection responses are introduced. Interestingly, the degree of community overlap between the two layers is found to be critical factor that affects the final incidence. We also analyze the consequences of the epidemic incidence in communities with different sizes and the impacts of community overlap between two layers. Specifically, as the diseases information makes individuals alert and take measures to prevent the diseases, the effective protection is more striking in small community. These phenomena can be explained by the multiplexity of the networked system and the competition between two spreading processes.

  8. Community Size Effects on Epidemic Spreading in Multiplex Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ting; Li, Ping; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical process of epidemic spreading has drawn much attention of the complex network community. In the network paradigm, diseases spread from one person to another through the social ties amongst the population. There are a variety of factors that govern the processes of disease spreading on the networks. A common but not negligible factor is people's reaction to the outbreak of epidemics. Such reaction can be related information dissemination or self-protection. In this work, we explo...

  9. Classroom as a social community and its management

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this master′s thesis is to present classroom as a social community, focusing on teacher’s work. In the theoretical part, the thesis describes the history of schooling in Slovenian geographical area and defines concepts such as group, teacher, student and classroom. The most typical and commonly used classroom management styles are also presented. Data for the qualitative research are obtained from three class teachers who voluntarily participate in the research. Each teacher...

  10. Social comparison and prosocial behavior: an applied study of social identity theory in community food drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Social Identity Theory and the concept of social comparison have inspired research on individuals, addressing effects of personal and environmental factors in directing social attention. The theory's conceptual origins, however, suggest that social comparison may have behavioral implications as well. Such behaviors may include attempts by an individual to enhance the relative status of his ingroup on a salient dimension of comparison. Such behavior is referred to as "social competition." In two studies, the effects of social comparison and social competition were measured in the real-world environment of community food drives. Participants were aggregated by household; 600 households in upper middle-class neighborhoods in Eugene and Salem, Oregon, were contacted. In Study 1 of 300 households, it was hypothesized that inclusion of a social competition cue in requests for donation would significantly increase the likelihood of donation. This hypothesis was supported. Study 2 was done to clarify the possible role in a social comparison of perceived ingroup inferiority in the prior observed increase in donations. The inclusion of a social comparison cue in the donation request significantly increased donations in households of the second study. The findings suggest that researchers should expand study of the theory's behavioral implications, including the role of social comparison in prosocial behavior.

  11. Social Maladjustment and Emotional Disturbance: Problems and Positions I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1992-01-01

    Several controversies surround differentiation between socially maladjusted and seriously emotionally disturbed. Central to controversy is interpretation of social maladjustment as restricted to include socialized aggressive and adjudicated delinquents or broadened to include Conduct Disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and antisocial…

  12. Classroom Quality at Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten and Children’s Social Skills and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Mokrova, Irina L.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the continuity in the quality of classroom environments as children transition from preschool into elementary school, this study examined the associations between classroom quality in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children’s social skills and behavior problems in kindergarten and first grade. Participants included 1175 ethnically-diverse children (43% African American) living in low-wealth rural communities of the US. Results indicated that children who experienced higher levels of emotional and organizational classroom quality in both pre-kindergarten and kindergarten demonstrated better social skills and fewer behavior problems in both kindergarten and first grade comparing to children who did not experience higher classroom quality. The examination of the first grade results indicated that the emotional and organizational quality of pre-kindergarten classrooms was the strongest predictor of children’s first grade social skills and behavior problems. The study results are discussed from theoretical, practical, and policy perspectives. PMID:26949286

  13. Real-time community detection in full social networks on a laptop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Benjamin Paul; Levy-Kramer, Josh; Humby, Clive

    2018-01-01

    For a broad range of research and practical applications it is important to understand the allegiances, communities and structure of key players in society. One promising direction towards extracting this information is to exploit the rich relational data in digital social networks (the social graph). As global social networks (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) are very large, most approaches make use of distributed computing systems for this purpose. Distributing graph processing requires solving many difficult engineering problems, which has lead some researchers to look at single-machine solutions that are faster and easier to maintain. In this article, we present an approach for analyzing full social networks on a standard laptop, allowing for interactive exploration of the communities in the locality of a set of user specified query vertices. The key idea is that the aggregate actions of large numbers of users can be compressed into a data structure that encapsulates the edge weights between vertices in a derived graph. Local communities can be constructed by selecting vertices that are connected to the query vertices with high edge weights in the derived graph. This compression is robust to noise and allows for interactive queries of local communities in real-time, which we define to be less than the average human reaction time of 0.25s. We achieve single-machine real-time performance by compressing the neighborhood of each vertex using minhash signatures and facilitate rapid queries through Locality Sensitive Hashing. These techniques reduce query times from hours using industrial desktop machines operating on the full graph to milliseconds on standard laptops. Our method allows exploration of strongly associated regions (i.e., communities) of large graphs in real-time on a laptop. It has been deployed in software that is actively used by social network analysts and offers another channel for media owners to monetize their data, helping them to continue to provide

  14. Real-time community detection in full social networks on a laptop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Paul Chamberlain

    Full Text Available For a broad range of research and practical applications it is important to understand the allegiances, communities and structure of key players in society. One promising direction towards extracting this information is to exploit the rich relational data in digital social networks (the social graph. As global social networks (e.g., Facebook and Twitter are very large, most approaches make use of distributed computing systems for this purpose. Distributing graph processing requires solving many difficult engineering problems, which has lead some researchers to look at single-machine solutions that are faster and easier to maintain. In this article, we present an approach for analyzing full social networks on a standard laptop, allowing for interactive exploration of the communities in the locality of a set of user specified query vertices. The key idea is that the aggregate actions of large numbers of users can be compressed into a data structure that encapsulates the edge weights between vertices in a derived graph. Local communities can be constructed by selecting vertices that are connected to the query vertices with high edge weights in the derived graph. This compression is robust to noise and allows for interactive queries of local communities in real-time, which we define to be less than the average human reaction time of 0.25s. We achieve single-machine real-time performance by compressing the neighborhood of each vertex using minhash signatures and facilitate rapid queries through Locality Sensitive Hashing. These techniques reduce query times from hours using industrial desktop machines operating on the full graph to milliseconds on standard laptops. Our method allows exploration of strongly associated regions (i.e., communities of large graphs in real-time on a laptop. It has been deployed in software that is actively used by social network analysts and offers another channel for media owners to monetize their data, helping them to

  15. Real-time community detection in full social networks on a laptop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Benjamin Paul; Levy-Kramer, Josh; Humby, Clive; Deisenroth, Marc Peter

    2018-01-01

    For a broad range of research and practical applications it is important to understand the allegiances, communities and structure of key players in society. One promising direction towards extracting this information is to exploit the rich relational data in digital social networks (the social graph). As global social networks (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) are very large, most approaches make use of distributed computing systems for this purpose. Distributing graph processing requires solving many difficult engineering problems, which has lead some researchers to look at single-machine solutions that are faster and easier to maintain. In this article, we present an approach for analyzing full social networks on a standard laptop, allowing for interactive exploration of the communities in the locality of a set of user specified query vertices. The key idea is that the aggregate actions of large numbers of users can be compressed into a data structure that encapsulates the edge weights between vertices in a derived graph. Local communities can be constructed by selecting vertices that are connected to the query vertices with high edge weights in the derived graph. This compression is robust to noise and allows for interactive queries of local communities in real-time, which we define to be less than the average human reaction time of 0.25s. We achieve single-machine real-time performance by compressing the neighborhood of each vertex using minhash signatures and facilitate rapid queries through Locality Sensitive Hashing. These techniques reduce query times from hours using industrial desktop machines operating on the full graph to milliseconds on standard laptops. Our method allows exploration of strongly associated regions (i.e., communities) of large graphs in real-time on a laptop. It has been deployed in software that is actively used by social network analysts and offers another channel for media owners to monetize their data, helping them to continue to provide

  16. The relation between social network site usage and loneliness and mental health in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, S; Peek, S T M; Wouters, E J M

    2015-09-01

    Loneliness is expected to become an even bigger social problem in the upcoming decades, because of the growing number of older adults. It has been argued that the use of social network sites can aid in decreasing loneliness and improving mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether and how social network sites usage is related to loneliness and mental health in community-dwelling older adults. The study population included community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over residing in the Netherlands (n = 626) collected through the LISS panel (www.lissdata.nl). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially important confounders, were conducted in order to investigate the relation between social network sites usage and (emotional and social) loneliness and mental health. More than half of the individuals (56.2%) reported to use social network sites at least several times per week. Social network sites usage appeared unrelated to loneliness in general, and to emotional and social loneliness in particular. Social network sites usage also appeared unrelated to mental health. Several significant associations between related factors and the outcomes at hand were detected. In this sample, which was representative for the Dutch population, social network sites usage was unrelated to loneliness and/or mental health. The results indicate that a simple association between social network site usage and loneliness and mental health as such, cannot automatically be assumed in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Place of Community in Social Work Practice Research: Conceptual and Methodological Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Community is widely acknowledged as a fundamental aspect of social work practice, and this formulation distinguishes social work from other professions. Because of this long-standing tradition, social work needs to make a greater investment in producing scientific knowledge to enable community change and to incorporate community context into…

  18. Identifying and Assessing Community-Based Social Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults with EBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A battery of three measures for assessing the community-based social behavior of adolescents and young adults with emotional and behavioral disorders is described. The measures, in male and female forms, are "Test of Community-Based Social Skill Knowledge,""Scale of Community-Based Social Skill Performance," and "Behaviors That Are Undesirable for…

  19. A descriptive social and health profile of a community sample of adults and adolescents with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantam Digby

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health and social profile of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS living in the community. We conducted a study to describe the living, employment and psycho-social situation of a community sample of forty two adults and adolescents with AS, and to describe these indivdiuals' experiences of accessing health services and taking medication. Findings Most respondents (including those over eighteen years of age lived at home with their parents. Most had trouble reading and responding to other people's feelings, and coping with unexpected changes. Difficulties with life skills, such as cleaning, washing and hygiene were prevalent. The majority of respondents were socially isolated and a large minority had been sexually or financially exploited. Almost all respondents had been bullied. Mental health problems such as anxiety or depression were common. 30% of respondents said that they regularly became violent and hit other people and 15% had attempted suicide. More positively, the majority of respondents felt that they could access health services if they had a health problem. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a relatively poor social and health profile for many people with Asperger syndrome living in the community, with high levels of social problems and social exclusion, and difficulties managing day to day tasks such as washing and cleaning; these findings support the results of other studies that have examined psycho-social functioning in this group.

  20. Reaching out: Social Support and Mental Health Problems of Bosnian Immigrants in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvira Draganović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A state of well being in which one realizes own potentials, can cope with every day stressors, can work productively and is able to constructively contribute to community is called mental health. Many stressful and negative events can interfere with these abilities and thus endanger someone’s mental health. Migration is one of them. With its’ pre and post phases/stages, migration represents great sources of stress and stressors. Immigrants need good personal and social resource in order to lessen down negative effects of migration on their mental health. The aim of this study is to explore presence of mental health problems in non clinical population of Bosnian immigrants (N=101, F=48, M=53 in Switzerland. It was assumed that migration stress acts negatively on immigrant’s mental health. General health questionnaire was used to test this hypothesis. Participants mean score results on total GHQ28 questionnaire were M=51.06, S.D. =14.30, its subscales on depression M=10.12 S.D.=3.75, somatic complaints M=13.04 S.D.=4.5, anxiety/insomnia M=13.34 S.D. 4.8, and social dysfunction M=14.37 S.D.=3.5. This indicates presence of mental health problems among Bosnian immigrants. At the same time, the study shows presence of social support seeking (N=83 subjects listed family and friends as primary coping strategy used by Bosnian immigrants while dealing with difficulties and problems rather than seeking professional help (N=3 subjects listed professional help seeking. Thus, social support seeking acts positively on mental health of Bosnian immigrants.

  1. On the construction of reality and truth. Towards an epistemology of community social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Maritza

    2002-08-01

    An expression of community socialpsychology based on the need to transform social reality, and to considerpeople as the constructors ofthat reality, is examined from an epistemologicalpoint of view. Dualism, the position considering that object and subject are separate entities, and monism, the perspective stating that there is only one substance, are discussed The consequences of both conceptions for community social psychology, and their incompatibility, as well as the notions of reality and truth are analyzed. That analysis deals with the problems of defining reality, of separating subject and object of knowledge, of language's role, and of relativism and truth. Finally, a constructionist view of monism based on relatedness, and action, is proposed, stating the mutually influencing union of subject and object in the construction of reality.

  2. Enterprising social wellbeing: social entrepreneurial and strengths based approaches to mental health and wellbeing in "remote" Indigenous community contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmanson, Deirdre; Guerin, Pauline

    2011-07-01

    Social enterprises are market-based activities that provide social benefits through the direct engagement of people in productive activities. Participation in social enterprise development brings psychosocial wellbeing benefits, by strengthening family networks, enhancing trust, increasing self-reliance and social esteem and promoting cultural safety. Our objective is to explore how social enterprise activities can meet community needs and foster self-sustainability while generating profits for redistribution as social investment into other ventures that aid social functioning and emotional well-being. Social entrepreneurship enhances both interdependence and independence. Concomitant mental health and social wellbeing dividends accrue overtime to communities engaged in self-determined enterprise activities. Social entrepreneurship builds social capital that supports social wellbeing. Strengths-based approaches to social entrepreneurship can assuage disempowering effects of the "welfare economy" through shifting the focus onto productive activities generated on people's own terms.

  3. Social Distance and Community Attitudes Towards People with Psycho-Social Disabilities in Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, K; Kermode, M; Goicolea, I; Seefeldt, L; Shidhaye, R; San Sebastian, M

    2018-04-01

    Stigma is an important contributor to the large treatment gap for people with mental and psycho-social disabilities (PPSD) in India. Social distance as assessed by willingness to engage in relationships with PPSD is a proxy measure of stigma and potential discrimination. In North India, investigations of community attitudes towards PPSD have been limited. To describe attitudes towards people with depression and psychosis, a community sample of 960 adults in Dehradun district, India from 30 randomised clusters, was surveyed using a validated tool to assess social distance, beliefs and attitudes related to mental illness. Participants preferred greater social distance from a person with psychosis than a person with depression. Beliefs and attitudes around mental illness were diverse reflecting a wide spread of belief frameworks. After controlling for confounding, there was increased social distance among people who believed PPSD were dangerous. Factors that reduced social distance included familiarity with PPSD, and belief that PPSD can recover. Attitudes to PPSD, stigma and social distance are complex and likely to require complex responses that include promoting awareness of mental health and illness, direct contact with PPSD and increasing access to care for PPSD.

  4. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  5. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  6. [Child labour: a social problem that we are committed to].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Adrián; Hammermüller, Erica; Zubieta, Ana; Müller Opet, Beatriz; Miguelez, Lilia

    2012-08-01

    Child labor is a complex problem that violates the fundamental rights of children and affects their psychophysical development. Child labor affects 215 million children in the world and 115 million perform activities defined as the "worst forms of child labor". Most child labor is in agriculture (60%), where the majority are unpaid family workers, compared to 26% in services and 7% in industry. Argentina has adopted the abolitionist position, promoting prevention and eradication within an inclusive public policy aimed to all children can exercise their rights. The Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría endorses this approach and proposes a course of action: the health team training, and dissemination of the risks of child labor and occupational teenager safety standards. As pediatricians we must be involved in defending children rights, and be able to detect any situation of child labor, and protect the health of children and adolescents. The joint interaction with family, community and other sectors of society will strengthen the network needed to implement child labor eradication policies.

  7. Measuring the effects of social media participation on political party communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, T.; Reddick, C.; Aikins, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Political parties can potentially benefit from Social Media to shape interactions between their members. This chapter presents the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM), which measures the effects of Social Media Participation on political party communities. As people and politicians increasingly

  8. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.

  9. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…

  10. Community College Management by Objectives: Process, Progress, Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    The objectives of this book are: (1) to present a theoretical framework for management by objectives in community colleges, (2) to present information about alternative methods for conducting needs assessment and implementing management by objectives, (3) to present a framework for integrating academic and fiscal planning through management by…

  11. Perspectives on social vulnerability and ways to improve community resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chicoș Alina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific recognition of the resilience concept is becoming compelling in extending the way contemporary spatial systems are analysed as well as in defining a new approach in establishing spatial planning principles and policies. In this view, our study emphasises the issue of spatial development in areas prone to earthquakes, floods and landslides. Therefore, resilience requires the assessment of vulnerable spatial components. Local governance interventions are more or less focused on risk management measures. Moreover, building safer communities through risk governance relies on different variables. Making a distinction between risk components and the predictors of increased resilience could shed light on the local decision-making process. In this paper, vulnerability addresses the lack of safety in terms of individual, household and community wellbeing when the issue of environmental restrictions emerge. In order to reduce the vulnerability of communities living in natural risk prone areas, spatial planning often turns to interdisciplinary analysis methods that allow an in-depth perspective on the interplay between social and natural elements. As such, spatial planning stands as the first step in reducing social vulnerability and should approach the less explored advantages of participatory mapping and local knowledge systems.

  12. TO THE PROBLEM OF CORRELATION OF SOCIAL AND OTHER KINDS OF INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Grib

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the relationship of three types of intelligence: social, emotional and logical. Interest in social intelligence (SI) is determined by the need of society to reveal the "social capacity" of a person and develop them. Social intelligence is seen as a necessary condition for successful mastering of professional skills and adapt in a professional environment. Development of social intelligence becomes an important part of the educational process. Social intell...

  13. Social and psychological risks expertise in crisis communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvalb, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Emerging and development of crises in the communities leads to considerable increase of individual's risks' quality and quantity. Irrespectively of risk scale - partial or total influence on a community - a number of tendencies of risks increase could be identified. On social level risks result from the tendency of social protection decrease and restriction in free choice of activities' forms and kinds. On group level confrontation and clashes emerge, increase intolerance and decrease tolerance are identified. On interpersonal (micro group) level aggression and abuse intensify. On individual level a complex of negative psychological statuses develops, which is diverse both as for its content and forms. Reasons of crisis development and its dynamics determine the content and concrete forms of risks on all levels. Systematic description of risks and development of psychological support programmes for population in risk presupposes organization and delivering of comprehensive social and psychological expertise of situation. Such an expertise makes it possible to unite in a comprehensive model of the multi-professional descriptions of crisis situations on the above mentioned levels, the subjective concepts of the population (or its separate groups) together with evaluation of various projects and programmes on crisis coping and risks decrease options. (author)

  14. Creating Community Resilience Through Elder-Led Physical and Social Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Daniel P; Kyota, Emi

    2017-02-01

    Natural disasters and rapidly aging populations are chronic problems for societies worldwide. We investigated the effects of an intervention in Japan known as Ibasho, which embeds elderly residents in vulnerable areas within larger social networks and encourages them to participate in leadership activities. This project sought to deepen the connections of these elderly residents to society and to build elderly leadership and community capacity for future crises. We carried out surveys of participants and nonparticipant residents across the city of Ofunato in Tohoku, Japan, 1 year after the intervention began. Our surveys included questions assessing participation levels in Ibasho, demographic characteristics, efficacy, social networks, and a sense of belonging. Regression analysis and propensity score matching of more than 1100 respondents showed that regular participation in the Ibasho project had a statistically significant and positive connection with various measures of social capital. Given its relatively low cost and focus on deepening cohesion, we suggest that this community-based project could be replicated and scaled up in other countries to deepen resilience, elder health, and social capital. Moving away from an emphasis on investing in physical infrastructure, we believe that disaster risk reduction strategies should center on social infrastructure. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:120-126).

  15. Putting Corporate Social Responsibility to Work in Mining Communities: Exploring Community Needs for Central Appalachian Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Cook

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the finite nature of non-renewable mineral and energy resources such as coal, resource extraction is inherently unsustainable; however, mining and related activities can contribute to sustainable development. Indeed, the principles of corporate social responsibility (CSR require that mine operators design and conduct their activities in ways that provide for net positive impacts on surrounding communities and environments. In Central Appalachia, there appears to be a particularly ripe opportunity for the coal industry to put CSR to work: participation in sustainable solutions to the long-standing problem of inadequately treated wastewater discharges—which not only represent a potential human health hazard, but also contribute to the relatively high incidence of bacterial impairments in surface waters in the region. In this paper, we outline the underlying factors of this problem and the advantages of industry-aided solutions in a region where limited economic and technical resources are not always aligned with social and environmental needs. We also suggest a framework for problem-solving, which necessarily involves all interested stakeholders, and identify the primary challenges that must be overcome in pursuit of sustainable solutions.

  16. The urban and community health pathway: preparing socially responsive physicians through community-engaged learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Linda N; Young, Staci A; Meurer, John R; Johnson, Sheri L; Gilbert, Ileen A; Diehr, Sabina

    2011-10-01

    One of five options for the new required Medical College of Wisconsin Pathways program, the Urban and Community Health Pathway (UCHP), links training with community needs and assets to prepare students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to provide effective care in urban, underserved settings; promote community health; and reduce health disparities. Students spend at least 10 hours per month on pathway activities: 4 hours of core material delivered through readings, didactics, case discussions, and site visits; and at least 6 hours of experiential noncore activities applying core competencies, guided by an Individualized Learning Plan and faculty advisor. Noncore activities include community-engaged research, service-learning activities or other relevant experiences, and submission of a synthesis paper addressing pathway competencies. The first cohort of students began their pathways in January 2010. Of 560 participating students, 95 (of which 48 were first-year, 21 second-year, and 26 third-year students) selected UCHP. Core sessions focused on public health, social determinants, cultural humility, poverty, the local healthcare system, and safety net. During noncore time, students engaged in projects addressing homelessness, obesity, advocacy, Hmong and Latino health, HIV, asthma, and violence prevention. Students enjoyed working with peers across classes and favored interactive, community-based sessions over didactics in the classroom. Students' papers reflected a range of service and scholarly activities and a deepened appreciation of social and economic influences on health. The UCHP enriches the traditional curriculum with individualized, community-based experiences to build knowledge about health determinants and skills in partnering with communities to improve health. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Video diaries on social media: Creating online communities for geoscience research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, V.

    2013-12-01

    Making video clips is an engaging way to learn and teach geoscience. As smartphones become increasingly common, it is relatively straightforward for students to produce ';video diaries' by recording their research and learning experience over the course of a science module. Instead of keeping the video diaries for themselves, students may use the social media such as Facebook for sharing their experience and thoughts. There are some potential benefits to link video diaries and social media in pedagogical contexts. For example, online comments on video clips offer useful feedback and learning materials to the students. Students also have the opportunity to engage in geoscience outreach by producing authentic scientific contents at the same time. A video diary project was conducted to test the pedagogical potential of using video diaries on social media in the context of geoscience outreach, undergraduate research and teaching. This project formed part of a problem-based learning module in field geophysics at an archaeological site in the UK. The project involved i) the students posting video clips about their research and problem-based learning in the field on a daily basis; and ii) the lecturer building an online outreach community with partner institutions. In this contribution, I will discuss the implementation of the project and critically evaluate the pedagogical potential of video diaries on social media. My discussion will focus on the following: 1) Effectiveness of video diaries on social media; 2) Student-centered approach of producing geoscience video diaries as part of their research and problem-based learning; 3) Learning, teaching and assessment based on video clips and related commentaries posted on Facebook; and 4) Challenges in creating and promoting online communities for geoscience outreach through the use of video diaries. I will compare the outcomes from this study with those from other pedagogical projects with video clips on geoscience, and

  18. Signs and Problems of Togetherness in a Community of Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannikainen, Maritta; van Oers, Bert

    The social and collective aspect in human activities has become one of the main issues in Vygotskian analyses of learning and development. The study assumed that this aspect presupposes some feeling of belonging together and having a shared commitment on the part of the participants. Asserting that relatively little attention has been given to…

  19. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhoda, E.; Kolbysheva, Yu; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  20. Social Problems in Athletics; Essays in the Sociology of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Daniel M., Ed.

    This book is an outgrowth of a conference on "Sport and Social Deviance," attended by people interested in the newly emerging interdisciplinary area concerned with the social scientific analysis of sport, play, and games. This anthology, which has contributions from many different authors, is intended to provide social scientists, physical…

  1. Regional action plan handling of social welfare problem in nganjuk regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, IM; Utami, WS; Setyawan, KG

    2018-01-01

    Local action plans are expected to ensure a social protection for vulnerable and disadvantaged groups or PMKS. The method used in this research is by primary survey and secondary survey. The condition of the people who still belong to PMKS requires the state to come to the community to solve the problems faced. Stakeholders should be involved to handle PMKS. The activities presented should also receive periodic monitoring and evaluation so that there is progress reporting at any time. Implementable poverty reduction strategies and policies are social protection strategies, opportunity expansion strategies, resource capacity building strategies, community empowerment strategies and partnership strategies. The flow of PMKS is the validation and updating of data, the fulfillment of the basic needs of the PMKS family, the development of PMKS human resources, the improvement of the quality of life for poor families, the institutions of poverty alleviation stakeholders and the unemployed at the base level. The Regional Action Plan (RAP) is prepared as a reference in the context of carrying out PMKS mitigation which is expected to serve as a guide for managers and program implementers with relevant agencies that are conducted jointly and continuously for the period of time specified.

  2. THE CONTEMPORARY MIGRATION PHENOMENON – THE (UN SOLVED PROBLEM OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian MANOLACHE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that the migration wave from the Orient is a challenge for Europe and especially for the Catholic and Protestant countries. Its geopolitical, economic, social, cultural, theological and spiritual significance have hardly any competition in the old evolution of the world, the secularisation from the 17th century or the globalisation from the 21st century. From this perspective, it is necessary to study carefully the migration phenomenon in its assembly, trying to present an integrated and multi-criteria diagnosis, especially due to the fact that the migration phenomenon brings closer to each of us the huge and extremely difficult problem of Muslim radicalisation, together with its cohort of terrorist manifestations endangering the most important human right: the right to life. Our study is intentionally intended to evaluate and commensurate, using Orthodox theological criteria, the impact of the actual migration phenomenon, the life of the Muslim community – umma, related to the Christian community from the multicultural European society. We start from the opposed manner the two sides relate to society, understand freedom and the dialogue between religions.

  3. Violência urbana: um problema social Urban violence: a social problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro de Aquino e Silva Gullo

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo reúne um conjunto de reflexões sobre diversos aspectos em que se manifesta a violência social. Essas reflexões, apresentadas em momentos diferentes, como aulas, debates e num congresso, foram agrupadas sob o título de Violência Urbana porque concorrem para a compreensão da violência cotidiana enquanto problema da sociedade urbana. Dos cursos regulares, registro a concepção inicial, tomada da antropologia social, que leva à caracterização da violência na sociedade rural para fundamentar a gênese do problema na sociedade contemporânea de classes sociais, focalizado na perspectiva da marginalidade estrutural. Dos debates sucitados por acontecimentos traumáticos envolvendo o aparato policial, resultou uma discussão sobre as causas da violência inerente ao desempenho da função institucional atribuída às polícias militar e civil. Da participação em congresso sobre o novo Código de Trânsito Brasileiro, resultou a parte final deste artigo que discute o papel e, particularmente, o significado dos símbolos sociais divulgados pelos meios de comunicação de massa, como fatores responsáveis pela crescente violência no trânsito.This article contains some reflections on how social violence expresses itself. These reflections, presented in former moments as lectures, public debates and at a congress, have been gathered under the title of Urban Violence because they all try to comprehend everyday violence as a problem of urban society. Based on the lectures I have formulated the first part of this article, which deals with a conception taken from social anthropology: the characterization of violence in rural society under the perspective of structural marginality, in order to explain the genesis of this problem in the actual social class society. The debates, that took place because of traumatic happenings related to the police apparatus, have brought about a discussion of the causes of violence inherent to the

  4. News and social media: windows into community perspectives on disinvestment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jackie M; Hennessy, Sophie E; Watt, Amber M; Hiller, Janet E; Elshaug, Adam G

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study, in the context of disinvestment related health technology assessment, is to examine whether analysis of Web 2.0--commercial media output, blogs, and discussion forums--can provide an understanding of media framing, community perspectives, and the sociopolitical aspects of an entrenched technology. Thematic analysis of relevant data from fifty-nine media articles, thirty-nine discussion forums, thirteen blogs, and three Facebook pages relating to our case study: public funding for assisted reproductive technology services. Mainstream media and community-based social media responses were compared. Media responses were narrow, primarily describing emotive individual narratives or the political nexus of interests. Community (including patient) responses were broader including discussion of opportunity cost and vested interests but mostly reflected the polar ends of the debate, diverging strongly for or against disinvestment from public funding. Web2.0 and media analysis offers an inexpensive method to capture media portrayal, divergent community responses both to that portrayal and independent of it, and insight into the sociopolitical aspects of an entrenched technology undergoing disinvestment debate.

  5. Identifying community risk factors for HIV among South African adolescents with mental health problems: a qualitative study of parental perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Donenberg, Geri; Davids, Alicia; Vermaak, Redwaan; Simbayi, Leickness; Ward, Catherine; Naidoo, Pamela; Mthembu, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children. Participants indicated that HIV remained a serious threat to their adolescent children's well-being, in addition to substance abuse, early sexual debut, and teenage pregnancy. These social problems were mentioned as external to their household dynamics, and thus seemingly beyond the purview of the parent-adolescent relationship. These data have implications for the design of family-based interventions to ameliorate the factors associated with HIV-risk among youth receiving mental health services.

  6. Spatial and Social Comparison of the Traditional Neighbourhood and the Modern Gated Community: Eskisehir Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Güler; Kayılıoğlu, Begüm

    2017-10-01

    People’s expectations from the city have changed with the transformation of urban life. Urban space is not the only place where structures are formed. Urban space also consists of a combination of public spaces, semi-public spaces, and private spaces. As social and cultural phenomena, social events occur and people communicate with each other in these spaces. Therefore, streets and neighbourhoods composed of houses are not only physical spaces, but they also have important social and cultural dimensions. Modern life has brought a plethora of changes that affected the cities. Due to rapid changes today, the urban space forms in the conversion process are also designed differently. Historically, the space organization based on the streets of the semi-public life in Turkish cities has been transformed into mass housing and housing estate-style life in recent years. This transformation has been expressed differently in urban life not only physically, but also socially and culturally. The street which is regarded as a public space was a place where people communicated and social events happened in the past; but today, the streets are rife with security problems and they have become a concept evoking an image of street that is bordered with buildings. Spatial separation has emerged with middle and upper classes isolating themselves from the streets and heading towards gated communities, especially for security reasons. This social and spatial separation has begun to lead to various problems in cities. Eskisehir is an important Anatolian city located between Ankara, the capital of Turkey, and Istanbul. This research was conducted in two research sites in Eskisehir: one is a gated community where middle and upper-income groups reside, and the other is a residential neighbourhood where middle-income groups live. These groups were studied through a survey. The spatial preferences of the residents in these two areas and their relation with the neighbourhood are examined

  7. THE SOCIAL PHENOMENON IN PARTICIPATORY PROCESSES OF COMMUNITY COUNCILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to interpret the social phenomenon in participatory processes of Community Councils of Carabobo State, centering participation within these organizations is an indispensable condition to conceive citizens as active subjects in management public affairs. It is inserted into a document type from the qualitative approach. Eventually you will reach a reflection that the success of citizen participation in these organizations rely on training, degree of commitment, teamwork, sense of belonging, responsibility and communication from their cultural worldview.

  8. Health inequality and social capital: From state to community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Yadavendu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a world of neoliberal imperialist globalisation, there has been a profound growth of social inequalities, between and within nations. This has had a most negative impact on the health and quality of life of large sections of the populations in the developed and underdeveloped worlds. The contention of this paper is that the social production of health inequality, as shaped by neoliberalism, has to be understood in this historical context of the emergence of a new capitalist order which is primarily based on unfettered market with the motives of greed and acquitiveness. This divides societies into very rich and very poor. What a truism of coexistence of great wealth and great poverty/inequality. This offends the notion of a just and equal society. Even Richard Wilkinson’s theory of social cohesion, modelled in the Emile Durkheimian tradition of moral individualism (a system in which the individual willingly performs in accordance with laws and customs of the society, distances itself from a true population perspective. In fact, it creates a smokescreen through its claim as an alternative paradigm, and thereby pushes the task of public health further back. In the Wilkinson model, the real shift has been only that of ‘community blaming’ in place of individual ‘victim blaming’. The attainment of better health status becomes the responsibility of the community as a whole through such measures as better social cohesion and solidarity, and better health is the responsibility of the individual through measures such as behaviour modification, self-help and self-control. In both the cases, the Wilkinson model implicitly suggests that the state has no role to play and there is no space for macro structural change.

  9. Problem trap final repository. Social challenges concerning nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim

    2016-01-01

    How is it possible that there is still no final storage facility in the entire world for highly radioactive waste from nuclear power stations? How is it possible that electricity has been generated by industrial-scale nuclear installations for decades without the issue of the disposal of nuclear waste having been resolved? The events in Chernobyl in 1986 and Fukushima in 2011 have made it blatantly obvious how risky this technology is and how important it is to keep humans and the environment at a safe distance from radioactivity. This anthology examines the technological, political, social and economic dimensions of the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. It provides an insight into the emergence of the problem and the people involved and their interests. It describes and analyses the changes that are taking place in Germany (for instance, in relation to the government's commission on nuclear repositories) and other countries with regard to how they handle nuclear waste. The book deals with both questions related to socio-technical aspects of the permanent disposal of nuclear waste and calls for the democratic need for participation and new ways of doing so, without which the search for a permanent disposal site will not bear fruit. This anthology presents a comprehensive discussion of the disposal of nuclear waste and the search for a permanent repository for it. Not only will students and teachers find it extremely useful, but so will any readers who are interested in its subject matter and wish to gain a more in-depth insight into it.

  10. Socializing the policy on public transportation to the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmawi, A.; Mariana, D.; Sjoraida, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    This article discusses how public policies on transportation can be communicated to the society in Sukabumi City, West Java, Indonesia. It is important for the community because the development of transportation services has a very close relationship with social welfare and economic growth of the region. This can be demonstrated with an indication that the region whose better transportation system tends to have better levels of social welfare and economic growth. The study here used a multiple case method. The cases consist of activities which were the implementation of the government’s program of socialization to the people of Sukabumi City on transportation. This regency is a door to an expansion of West Java development to the Southwest area that there are things new in government services, including in the field of transportation. Interviews, observation and document analyses were used to collect the data. Face to face interviews using a list of questions were also developed for this study. The findings of the study indicate that in addition to its own designing and implementing transportation development plan in Sukabumi City itself, there is also a transportation development involving West Java provincial government, even the national government of Indonesia in the region. All of the transportation plans could be properly communicated to the public because it used a variety of media, including the traditional, the modern, and the social.

  11. Social Change and Cultural Values in a Small Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmartín Arce, Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how social change has affected the cultural values in a small community of fishermen in the Albufera Lake of Valencia. Industrial development, tourism, new employment and jobs changed the ecology of the lake, the mutual dependency among neighbours and the efficiency of old cultural values to orient social interaction. Both the new role played by of women and the Spanish Constitution of 1978 lie at the basis of new conflicts which are at once a challenge and an opportunity for the emergence of new horizons.

    El artículo describe cómo ha afectado el cambio social a los valores culturales en una pequeña comunidad de pescadores en el lago de la Albufera de Valencia. El desarrollo industrial, el turismo y el nuevo empleo y trabajos cambiaron la ecología del lago, la mutua dependencia entre los vecinos y la eficiencia de los viejos valores culturales para orientar la interacción social. El nuevo rol de la mujer y la Constitución están en la base de nuevos conflictos como reto y como apertura de nuevos horizontes a la vez.

  12. Cannabis-Related Problems and Social Anxiety: The Mediational Role of Post-Event Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2018-01-02

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the US, and is associated with a range of psychological, social, and physical health-related problems. Individuals who endorse elevated levels of social anxiety are especially at risk for experiencing cannabis-related problems, including cannabis use disorder, despite not using cannabis more often than those with more normative social anxiety. Identification of mechanisms that underlie the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems may inform treatment and prevention efforts. Post-event processing (PEP, i.e., cognitively reviewing past social interactions/performances) is a social anxiety-related phenomenon that may be one such mechanism. The current study sought to test PEP as a mediator of the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems, adjusting for cannabis use frequency. Cannabis-using (past 3-month) undergraduate students recruited in 2015 (N = 244; 76.2% female; 74.2% Non-Hispanic Caucasian) completed an online survey of cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, social anxiety, and PEP. Bootstrap estimate of the indirect effect of social anxiety through PEP was significant, suggesting PEP is a mediator of the social anxiety-cannabis-related problems relationship. Conclusions/Importance: Treatment and prevention efforts may benefit from targeting PEP among individuals with elevated social anxiety and cannabis-related problems.

  13. Combatting the Drunk Driving Problem Through Community Action: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merki, Don; Lingg, Mary Ann

    1987-01-01

    Reviews efforts and accomplishments of Mothers Against Drunk Drivers movement. Identifies eight measures of state legislation and state policy concerning drunk driving and ranks each state on the measures. Offers proposal for adoption of a state agency designed to meet problem of drunk driving through administration at the local level. (Author/NB)

  14. Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan C. Durrance

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

  15. Drugs and violence: social perception in a community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Margarete dos Reis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional, descriptive study aimed at investigating social perception on street drugs and violence in a community in northwestern Paraná. A structured questionnaire was applied to 358 inhabitants, of whom 98.6% reported to perceive the presence of drugs in high intensity (82.4%, a situation considered as “alarming” for 56.1% and a cause of suffering for 61.5%. Seventy-eight interviewees (22.1% reported that the presence of drugs caused changes in family life (22.1%, social life (29.5%, and in family behavior (24.9%. A total of 72.6% reported restrictions in their activities due to fear of violence. The main reason for drug use and distribution was related to the absence of policing (31.4%. Most people (90.2% perceived the presence of violence; 93.8% related this presence to drug abuse. The presence of violence was mostly related to drug abuse, as a result of the absence of policing and drug traffic fighting in the community.

  16. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  17. Are there cross-cultural differences in emotional processing and social problem-solving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśniewska Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing and social problem-solving are important for mental well-being. For example, impaired emotional processing is linked with depression and psychosomatic problems. However, little is known about crosscultural differences in emotional processing and social problem-solving and whether these constructs are linked. This study examines whether emotional processing and social problem-solving differs between Western (British and Eastern European (Polish cultures. Participants (N = 172 completed questionnaires assessing both constructs. Emotional processing did not differ according to culture, but Polish participants reported more effective social problem-solving abilities than British participants. Poorer emotional processing was also found to relate to poorer social problem-solving. Possible societal reasons for the findings and the implications of the findings for culture and clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Incorporating Social Anxiety Into a Model of College Problem Drinking: Replication and Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Lindsay S.; Hope, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    Although research has found an association between social anxiety and alcohol use in noncollege samples, results have been mixed for college samples. College students face many novel social situations in which they may drink to reduce social anxiety. In the current study, the authors tested a model of college problem drinking, incorporating social anxiety and related psychosocial variables among 228 undergraduate volunteers. According to structural equation modeling (SEM) results, social anxi...

  19. What is the Problem? Where is the Work? Getting to the Bottom of Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    social constructionism ) – and what they do (their actions’) reflects those meanings. ‘ Social problems’ have to do with ‘ social action’ and how...MSA MORS SSUCO 10-10 “What is the problem? Where is the work? Getting to the bottom of social action” Mark Addleson School of Public Policy, George...Mason University Military Operations Research Society Symposium Social Sciences Underpinnings of Complex Operations October 20, 2010 Report

  20. Research Paper: Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Behavioral Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Nesayan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This research showed that social skills training were not significantly effective on behavioral problems in adolescents with intellectual disability. Although our results were not effective, research evidence shows that people with cognitive delays (such as intellectual disability require social skill training programs that include all of their academic, career, daily life, and social skills. As social skills learning plays a role in personal and social adjustment, it is necessary to pay more attention to these skills.

  1. Assets and Affect in the Study of Social Capital in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Shucksmith (2012) has recently suggested that rural research might be refreshed by incorporating theoretical insights that have emerged through a renewal of class analysis. This article seeks to advance this proposed research agenda by exploring the concept of asset‐based class analysis and its association with the concept of social capital. The article explores connections between social capital, class analysis and understandings of community, noting how all have been associated with long running and unresolved debates. Attention is drawn to the problems of modernist legislative approaches to these debates and the value of adopting more interpretive perspectives. A distinction between ‘infrastructural’ and ‘culturalist’ interpretations of social capital is explored in relation to ‘asset‐based’ theorisations of class and culture. It is argued that an infrastructural conception of social capital might usefully be employed in association with a disaggregated conception of cultural capital that includes consideration of emotion and affect, as well as institutional, objectified and technical assets. These arguments are explored using studies of rural communities, largely within Britain. PMID:27563158

  2. Does social capital help solving real world collective action problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannestad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of empirical macro-level studies show that social capital has various beneficial economic and political consequences. At the micro-level these beneficial effects are normally ascribed to the positive effects of social capital on transaction costs and/or the ability to solve colle...

  3. A Cross-Curricular, Problem-Based Project to Promote Understanding of Poverty in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Daniel S.; Tuchman, Ellen; Hawkins, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach students about the scope and consequences of urban poverty through an innovative cross-curricular project. We illustrate the process, goals, and tasks of the Community Assessment Project, which incorporates community-level assessment, collection and analysis of public data, and…

  4. Loneliness, social relations and health and well-being in deprived communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Ade; Whitley, Elise; Tannahill, Carol; Ellaway, Anne

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing policy concern about the extent of loneliness in advanced societies, and its prevalence among various social groups. This study looks at loneliness among people living in deprived communities, where there may be additional barriers to social engagement including low incomes, fear of crime, poor services and transient populations. The aim was to examine the prevalence of loneliness, and also its associations with different types of social contacts and forms of social support, and its links to self-reported health and well-being in the population group. The method involved a cross-sectional survey of 4302 adults across 15 communities, with the data analysed using multinomial logistic regression controlling for sociodemographics, then for all other predictors within each domain of interest. Frequent feelings of loneliness were more common among those who: had contact with family monthly or less; had contact with neighbours weekly or less; rarely talked to people in the neighbourhood; and who had no available sources of practical or emotional support. Feelings of loneliness were most strongly associated with poor mental health, but were also associated with long-term problems of stress, anxiety and depression, and with low mental well-being, though to a lesser degree. The findings are consistent with a view that situational loneliness may be the product of residential structures and resources in deprived areas. The findings also show that neighbourly behaviours of different kinds are important for protecting against loneliness in deprived communities. Familiarity within the neighbourhood, as active acquaintance rather than merely recognition, is also important. The findings are indicative of several mechanisms that may link loneliness to health and well-being in our study group: loneliness itself as a stressor; lonely people not responding well to the many other stressors in deprived areas; and loneliness as the product of weak social buffering to

  5. Exploring the social reality of waqf community using social media: the Netnography approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Ahmad Shazrin Mohamed; Rosly Hanif, Noor; Mashitoh Mahamood, Siti

    2018-02-01

    The emergence of waqf institutions in Malaysia has attracted the attention of many. Considerable attention has been paid by various parties including the Federal government. In tandem with the revival of waqf, it has driven the emergence of a group of people who are passionate in matters pertaining to the development of Waqf (herein referred to as the waqf community). According to the Theory of Structuration, interaction between the agency and structure would induce changes. Therefore, this waqf community, being a part of the agency, is capable to influence the structure and bring about changes. Triggered by the existence of this waqf community, this study is interested in exploring their social reality. Having observed that a majority of people from this Waqf community had formed a specialized Whatsapp group dedicated to discussing matters pertaining to waqf, this study has considered the usage of netnography as an instrument to observe their social reality. Despite having limitations in narrowing down the research, this study was able to extract nine findings on their behaviour namely; their sensitivities, unity, spirit, willingness, commitment, the disclosure of information, influence, focus, gaps and frictions. Overall, the approach can be improved further by strategizing a refinement on the scope and technique in making observations.

  6. Community water fluoridation on the Internet and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Aaron; Allukian, Myron

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, 95 percent of teens and 85 percent of adults use the Internet. Two social media outlets, Facebook and Twitter, reach more than 150 billion users. This study describes anti-fluoridation activity and dominance on the Internet and social media, both of which are community water fluoridation (CWF) information sources. Monthly website traffic to major fluoridation websites was determined from June 2011 to May 2012. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube fluoridation activity was categorized as "proCWF" or "anti-CWF." Twitter's anti-CWF tweets were further subcategorized by the argument used against CWF. Anti-CWF website traffic was found to exceed proCWF activity five- to sixty-fold. Searching "fluoride" and "fluoridation" on Facebook resulted in 88 to 100 percent anti-CWF groups and pages; "fluoridation" on Twitter and YouTube resulted in 64 percent anti-CWF tweets and 99 percent anti-CWF videos, respectively. "Cancer, " "useless, " and "poisonous" were the three major arguments used against fluoridation. Anti-fluoridation information significantly dominates the Internet and social media. Thousands of people are being misinformed daily about the safety, health, and economic benefits of fluoridation.

  7. Model of community emergence in weighted social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpula, J. M.; Onnela, J.-P.; Saramäki, J.; Kertész, J.; Kaski, K.

    2009-04-01

    Over the years network theory has proven to be rapidly expanding methodology to investigate various complex systems and it has turned out to give quite unparalleled insight to their structure, function, and response through data analysis, modeling, and simulation. For social systems in particular the network approach has empirically revealed a modular structure due to interplay between the network topology and link weights between network nodes or individuals. This inspired us to develop a simple network model that could catch some salient features of mesoscopic community and macroscopic topology formation during network evolution. Our model is based on two fundamental mechanisms of network sociology for individuals to find new friends, namely cyclic closure and focal closure, which are mimicked by local search-link-reinforcement and random global attachment mechanisms, respectively. In addition we included to the model a node deletion mechanism by removing all its links simultaneously, which corresponds for an individual to depart from the network. Here we describe in detail the implementation of our model algorithm, which was found to be computationally efficient and produce many empirically observed features of large-scale social networks. Thus this model opens a new perspective for studying such collective social phenomena as spreading, structure formation, and evolutionary processes.

  8. Neighbouring chimpanzee communities show different preferences in social grooming behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M; Mundry, Roger; Bodamer, Mark D

    2012-11-07

    Grooming handclasp (GHC) behaviour was originally advocated as the first evidence of social culture in chimpanzees owing to the finding that some populations engaged in the behaviour and others do not. To date, however, the validity of this claim and the extent to which this social behaviour varies between groups is unclear. Here, we measured (i) variation, (ii) durability and (iii) expansion of the GHC behaviour in four chimpanzee communities that do not systematically differ in their genetic backgrounds and live in similar ecological environments. Ninety chimpanzees were studied for a total of 1029 h; 1394 GHC bouts were observed between 2010 and 2012. Critically, GHC style (defined by points of bodily contact) could be systematically linked to the chimpanzee's group identity, showed temporal consistency both within and between groups, and could not be accounted for by the arm-length differential between partners. GHC has been part of the behavioural repertoire of the chimpanzees under study for more than 9 years (surpassing durability criterion) and spread across generations (surpassing expansion criterion). These results strongly indicate that chimpanzees' social behaviour is not only motivated by innate predispositions and individual inclinations, but may also be partly cultural in nature.

  9. Social problem-solving in high-functioning schizophrenia: specific deficits in sending skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Hultman, Christina M; Friis, Svein; Andreassen, Ole A

    2009-02-28

    This study examined social problem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Social problem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal relationship between different aspects of social problem-solving showed that identification of an interpersonal problem (a receiving skill) was not correlated with formulating solutions to the problem (processing skills) or successfully role-playing solutions (interpersonal sending skills). Non-verbal performance in the role-play (an interpersonal sending skill) was not significantly correlated with identification of an interpersonal problem or the generation of solutions. This suggests a dissociation of social problem-solving processes. Social problem-solving was significantly associated with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, semantic fluency and cognitive flexibility. Clinical implications are that remediation of social problem-solving skills should focus on role-playing (nonverbal) interpersonal behaviors, rather than on verbally analyzing an interpersonal problem and clarifying alternative solutions.

  10. The Search for the Great Community: The Multicultural Community and Its Problems. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    This paper addresses issues surrounding the ideal of community in American undergraduate education and the challenge of multiculturalism in the context of a feminist interpretation of the pragmatism of John Dewey. A contradictory relationship is seen to exist between higher education's definition of community and multiculturalism; and this paper's…

  11. Social justice and intercountry adoptions: the role of the U.S. social work community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Jini L; Rotabi, Karen; Bunkers, Kelley M

    2013-10-01

    Using social justice as the conceptual foundation, the authors present the structural barriers to socially just intercountry adoptions (ICAs) that can exploit and oppress vulnerable children and families participating in ICAs. They argue that such practices threaten the integrity of social work practice in that arena and the survival of ICA as a placement option. Government structures, disparity of power between countries and families on both sides, perceptions regarding poverty, cultural incompetence, misconceptions about orphans and orphanages, lack of knowledge about the impact of institution-based care, and the profit motive are driving forces behind the growing shadow of unethical ICAs. The U.S. social work community has a large role and responsibility in addressing these concerns as the United States receives the most children adopted through ICAs of all receiving countries. In addition to the centrality of social justice as a core value of the profession, the responsibility to carry out ethical and socially just ICA has recently increased as a matter of law, under the implementation legislation to the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. While acknowledging that these issues are complex, authors provide suggestions for corrective policy and practice measures.

  12. Like on Different Planets? Lebanese Social Scientists in Their Scientific Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kriener

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Social sciences and humanities at Arab universities are often described as suffering from a lack of academic freedom. However, institutional autonomy and the individual academic’s opportunities and constraints seem to differ considerably among Arab institutions and individuals conducting social sciences and humanities under different configurations of local, regional and international influences from the state, the market and the civil society. One problem evident from existing research literature about Arab social sciences is the comparably weak networking capacity of its academic publishing and library systems. It suggests over-dependence upon international systems, a lack of direct communication amongst local and regional scientific communities, and intellectual bigotry. This article sheds light on the question how Arab institutions and individuals cope with this particular trait of their academic system. It focuses on correlations between institutional and individual autonomy as measured by the modes of decision making and funding, and between an institution’s autonomy and its interconnectedness as measured by its library services and by references in the dissertations of its faculty. Data stem from interviews with faculty, surveys among students, and visits to libraries of two different universities in Lebanon, which are analyzed in comparison. Moreover, several networking initiatives are characterized by which social scientists in the region tackle this problem. With private initiative, they seem to recover regional coherence based on Arab language and experience and international quality standards to an extent that governmental and inter-governmental institutions never remotely succeeded to establish by ways of their cultural policies.

  13. Solutions to the Problem of Diminished Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster; A. Elizabeth Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Social animals, like humans, need to interact with others, but this is not always possible. When genuine social interaction is lacking, individuals may seek out or use sources of interaction that co-opt agency detection mechanisms vis-à-vis the human voice and images of people, called social snacking. Study 1 (N = 240) found that ratings of how alone participants felt were correlated with frequency of talking to themselves and using the TV for company. Study 2 (N = 66) was a daily diary study...

  14. Personality and Social Problem-Solving: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruklu, Nermin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relationships among personality, selfesteem and social problem-solving, as well as the mediating role of self-esteem in the link between personality and social problem-solving among Turkish youth. The study utilized a cross-sectional design comprising several self-reports. Data…

  15. Longitudinal associations between depressive problems, academic performance, and social functioning in adolescent boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, C.E.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between

  16. Longitudinal Associations Between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between

  17. The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…

  18. Identification of the main problems in social work with low-income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánovčinová A.

    2016-01-01

    Poverty is a social problem that negatively affects all dimensions of family system functioning. In order to provide effective help and intervention to the family, it is essential that the social worker is able to correctly identify problem areas and appropriately choose methods and procedures aimed at restoration of family functioning.

  19. Friendship Moderates Prospective Associations between Social Isolation and Adjustment Problems in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…

  20. How Activists and Media Frame Social Problems: Critical Events versus Performance Trends for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time…

  1. Social Problem-Solving Skills of Children in Terms of Maternal Acceptance-Rejection Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeli, Kezban; Yilmaz, Elif

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find an answer to the question of "Do social problem-solving skills of 5-6 years old children differentiate depending on the levels of maternal acceptance rejection?" The participants of the study included 359 5-6 years old children and their mothers. Wally Social Problem-Solving Test and PARQ (Parental…

  2. Social participation of people with cognitive problems and their caregivers: a feasibility evaluation of the Social Fitness Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, H.W.; Veen, D.J. van der; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Sanden, M.W. van der; Graff, M.J.L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We developed a tailor-made intervention aimed at improving social participation of people with cognitive problems and their caregivers. This programme consists of an integration of healthcare and welfare interventions: occupational therapy, physiotherapy and guidance by a welfare

  3. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  4. Solidarity and solidarism as a social and research problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara V. Popkova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Article analyzes the treatment of the notions of "solidarity” and "solidarism” at various stages of social thought development. It provides arguments for the importance of the solidarist strategy for the modern society.

  5. Evaluation design of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE): Preventive integrated health and social care for community-dwelling older persons in five European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franse, C.B. (Carmen B.); A.J. Voorham; Van Staveren, R. (Rob); E. Koppelaar (Elin); Martijn, R. (Rens); Valía-Cotanda, E. (Elisa); Alhambra-Borrás, T. (Tamara); Rentoumis, T. (Tasos); Bilajac, L. (Lovorka); Marchesi, V.V. (Vanja Vasiljev); Rukavina, T. (Tomislav); Verma, A. (Arpana); Williams, G. (Greg); Clough, G. (Gary); Garcés-Ferrer, J. (Jorge); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living

  6. Evaluation design of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE): preventive integrated health and social care for community-dwelling older persons in five European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.J. Voorham; R. van Staveren; E. Koppelaar; L.F.J. Martijn; E. Valía-Cotanda; T. Alhambra-Borrás; T. Rentoumis; L. Bilajac; V. Vasiljev Marchesi; T. Rukavina; A. Verma; G. Williams; G. Clough; J. Garcés-Ferrer; F. Mattace Raso; H. Raat; C.B. Franse

    2017-01-01

    Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living and quality of life. In

  7. Defining social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities: an ecological model of social networks and community participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simplican, Stacy Clifford; Leader, Geraldine; Kosciulek, John; Leahy, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Social inclusion is an important goal for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, families, service providers, and policymakers; however, the concept of social inclusion remains unclear, largely due to multiple and conflicting definitions in research and policy. We define social inclusion as the interaction between two major life domains: interpersonal relationships and community participation. We then propose an ecological model of social inclusion that includes individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and socio-political factors. We identify four areas of research that our ecological model of social inclusion can move forward: (1) organizational implementation of social inclusion; (2) social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities living with their families, (3) social inclusion of people along a broader spectrum of disability, and (4) the potential role of self-advocacy organizations in promoting social inclusion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Rumination, Social Problem Solving and Suicide Intent Among Egyptians With a Recent Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Amira Y; Lachine, Ola A; Thompson, Elaine A

    2018-02-01

    The more complex influences of social problem-solving abilities and rumination-specifically brooding and reflection-on suicide intent is not well understood. We hypothesized that social problem solving would moderate the association between reflection and suicide intent, and mediate the influence of brooding on suicide intent. A convenience sample (N=186) of individuals hospitalized for recent suicide attempt was interviewed, assessing suicide intent, social problem solving, brooding, reflection and depression. Brooding and reflection were positively associated with suicide intent. The mediating, but not the moderating, hypothesis was supported. Brooding was not significant (β=0.15, t=1.92, p=0.06) with social problem solving controlled. Interventions to disengage rumination and improve social problem-solving skills are underscored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing Leadership and Problem-Solving Skills and Their Impacts in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohs, F. Richard; Langone, Christine A.

    1993-01-01

    A pretest-posttest control group design was used to assess the leadership and problem-solving skills of 281 participants and 110 controls in a statewide community leadership development program. Quantitative and qualitative data demonstrate that the program has been a catalyst to influence leadership and problem-solving skills for community…

  10. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  11. Students Advise Fortune 500 Company: Designing a Problem-Based Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzovic, Kathy; Matz, S. Irene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of planning and implementing a problem-based learning community. Business and communication students from a large university in the Western United States competed in teams to solve an authentic business problem posed by a Fortune 500 company. The company's willingness to adopt some of their recommendations…

  12. Light phase testing of social behaviors: not a problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich repertoire of mouse social behaviors makes it possible to use mouse models to study neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits. The fact that mice are naturally nocturnal animals raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments should be strictly conducted in the dark phase and whether light phase testing is a major methodologically mistake. Although mouse social tasks have been performed in both phases in different laboratories, there seems to be no general consensus on whether testing phase is a critical factor or not. A recent study from our group showed remarkably similar social scores obtained from inbred mice tested in the light and the dark phase, providing evidence that light phase testing could yield reliable results as robust as dark phase testing for the sociability test. Here we offer a comprehensive review on mouse social behaviors measured in light and dark phases and explain why it is reasonable to test laboratory mice in experimental social tasks in the light phase.

  13. Mental, physical and social health problems of call centre workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhuyar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.

  14. The social and community opportunities profile social inclusion measure: Structural equivalence and differential item functioning in community mental health residents in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Peter John; Chan, Kara; Chiu, Marcus; Ma, Yanni; Gaze, Sarah; Evans, Sherrill

    2016-03-01

    China's future major health problem will be the management of chronic diseases - of which mental health is a major one. An instrument is needed to measure mental health inclusion outcomes for mental health services in Hong Kong and mainland China as they strive to promote a more inclusive society for their citizens and particular disadvantaged groups. To report on the analysis of structural equivalence and item differentiation in two mentally unhealthy and one healthy sample in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong. The mental health sample in Hong Kong was made up of non-governmental organisation (NGO) referrals meeting the selection/exclusion criteria (being well enough to be interviewed, having a formal psychiatric diagnosis and living in the community). A similar sample in the United Kingdom meeting the same selection criteria was obtained from a community mental health organisation, equivalent to the NGOs in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis and logistic regression were conducted. The single-variable, self-rated 'overall social inclusion' differs significantly between all of the samples, in the way we would expect from previous research, with the healthy population feeling more included than the serious mental illness (SMI) groups. In the exploratory factor analysis, the first two factors explain between a third and half of the variance, and the single variable which enters into all the analyses in the first factor is having friends to visit the home. All the regression models were significant; however, in Hong Kong sample, only one-fifth of the total variance is explained. The structural findings imply that the social and community opportunities profile-Chinese version (SCOPE-C) gives similar results when applied to another culture. As only one-fifth of the variance of 'overall inclusion' was explained in the Hong Kong sample, it may be that the instrument needs to be refined using different or additional items within the structural domains of inclusion.

  15. Social fear and social phobia types among community youth: differential clinical features and vulnerability factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Fehm, Lydia; Stein, Murray B; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    To compare different social fears and social phobia subtypes with regard to clinical (age of onset, avoidance, impairment, comorbidities) and vulnerability factors (behavioural inhibition (BI), parental psychopathology and parental rearing) among community youth. Fears of 6 social situations and Social Phobia (SP), along with their clinical features, were assessed using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DIA-X/M-CIDI) in a population-based sample of N = 3021 14-24 year olds that were followed up for 10 years. BI and parental rearing were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Parental psychopathology was assessed directly in parents via DIA-X/M-CIDI, supplemented by offsprings' family history reports. In the total sample, 20.0%, 11.6%, 11.7% reported fear of 1, 2, 3 or more social situations, respectively; rates were 24.2%, 18.7%, and 57.1% in SP-cases (6.6% of the total sample). Exploring the factorial structure indicated rather unidimensionality of social fears than mutual distinction of social fears by interaction vs. performance situations. Except for fear of taking tests and public speaking, social fears rarely occurred in isolation. Social fears of both interaction and performance situations were associated with severe avoidance (vs. fear of either situation; Odds Ratios, OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.9) and impairment (OR = 3.6, 95%CI: 2.6-4.9), and more comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders (OR range 3.2-5.8, p > .001). Fear of interaction situations was associated with higher BI (vs. performance-related fears, OR range 1.2-2.1, p social fears differ in their clinical and vulnerability factors from performance-related social fears. The current DSM-IV specifier of "generalized" SP may fall short of adequately denoting these differences. Fear of taking tests appears to be conceptually and, possibly, etiologically distinct from other social fears, and may be better placed in another category (e.g., as a type of specific phobia

  16. Relations of social problem solving with interpersonal competence in Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Katsunori

    2011-12-01

    To clarify the relations of the dimensions of social problem solving with those of interpersonal competence in a sample of 234 Japanese college students, Japanese versions of the Social Problem-solving Inventory-Revised and the Social Skill Scale were administered. Pearson correlations between the two sets of variables were low, but higher within each set of subscales. Cronbach's alpha was low for four subscales assessing interpersonal competence.

  17. Establishing a Framework for Successful Social Network Site Use in the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentry, Rhonda Spells; Boykin, Tiffany F.; Vickery, Kristen B.

    2017-01-01

    Many colleges and universities have created college-sponsored communities on Facebook and Twitter as a means to interact, connect, and build community online (Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2009; Wankel & Wankel, 2011). However, the literature provides no clear picture of how community college students use social network…

  18. Reducing child conduct problems and promoting social skills in a middle-income country: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan

    2012-08-01

    There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Three children from each class with the highest levels of teacher-reported conduct problems were selected for evaluation, giving 225 children aged 3-6 years. The primary outcome was observed child behaviour at school. Secondary outcomes were child behaviour by parent and teacher report, child attendance and parents' attitude to school. The study is registered as ISRCTN35476268. Children in intervention schools showed significantly reduced conduct problems (effect size (ES) = 0.42) and increased friendship skills (ES = 0.74) through observation, significant reductions to teacher-reported (ES = 0.47) and parent-reported (ES = 0.22) behaviour difficulties and increases in teacher-reported social skills (ES = 0.59) and child attendance (ES = 0.30). Benefits to parents' attitude to school were not significant. A low-cost, school-based intervention in a middle-income country substantially reduces child conduct problems and increases child social skills at home and at school.

  19. Reducing child conduct problems and promoting social skills in a middle-income country: cluster randomised controlled trial†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. Method In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Three children from each class with the highest levels of teacher-reported conduct problems were selected for evaluation, giving 225 children aged 3–6 years. The primary outcome was observed child behaviour at school. Secondary outcomes were child behaviour by parent and teacher report, child attendance and parents’ attitude to school. The study is registered as ISRCTN35476268. Results Children in intervention schools showed significantly reduced conduct problems (effect size (ES) = 0.42) and increased friendship skills (ES = 0.74) through observation, significant reductions to teacher-reported (ES = 0.47) and parent-reported (ES = 0.22) behaviour difficulties and increases in teacher-reported social skills (ES = 0.59) and child attendance (ES = 0.30). Benefits to parents’ attitude to school were not significant. Conclusions A low-cost, school-based intervention in a middle-income country substantially reduces child conduct problems and increases child social skills at home and at school. PMID:22500015

  20. Community engagement and the social context of targeted malaria treatment: a qualitative study in Kayin (Karen) State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahan, Kate; Pell, Christopher; Smithuis, Frank; Phyo, Aung Kyaw; Maung, Sai Maung; Indrasuta, Chanida; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Cheah, Phaik Yeong

    2017-02-14

    The spread of artemisinin-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is a threat to current global malaria control initiatives. Targeted malaria treatment (TMT), which combines mass anti-malarial administration with conventional malaria prevention and control measures, has been proposed as a strategy to tackle this problem. The effectiveness of TMT depends on high levels of population coverage and is influenced by accompanying community engagement activities and the local social context. The article explores how these factors influenced attitudes and behaviours towards TMT in Kayin (Karen) State, Myanmar. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with villagers from study villages (N = 31) and TMT project staff (N = 14) between March and July 2015. Community engagement consisted of a range of activities to communicate the local malaria situation (including anti-malarial drug resistance and asymptomatic malaria), the aims of the TMT project, and its potential benefits. Community engagement was seen by staff as integral to the TMT project as a whole and not a sub-set of activities. Attitudes towards TMT (including towards community engagement) showed that developing trusting relationships helped foster participation. After initial wariness, staff received hospitality and acceptance among villagers. Offering healthcare alongside TMT proved mutually beneficial for the study and villagers. A handful of more socially-mobile and wealthy community members were reluctant to participate. The challenges of community engagement included time constraints and the isolation of the community with its limited infrastructure and a history of conflict. Community engagement had to be responsive to the local community even though staff faced time constraints. Understanding the social context of engagement helped TMT to foster respectful and trusting relationships. The complex relationship between the local context and community engagement complicated evaluation of the community strategy

  1. The Effects of Social Constructivist Approach on the Learnersâ Problem Solving and Metacognitive Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal Bay; Birsen Bagceci; Bayram Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Socio-cultural constructivism; stressing the social context, culture and collaborative side of learning, is another kind of constructivism. The social constructivist approach has positive effects on learners. It can be said that in improving problem solving and met cognitive awareness skills, which are amongst basic skills every individual should possess today. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a significant difference in the learnersâ problem sol...

  2. The construction of the Baby Boomer generation as a social problem in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis investigates how the ‘Baby Boomer generation’ has become constructed as a social problem in Britain. I begin by outlining the theoretical orientation of the research, which is grounded in Mannheim’s understanding that the problem of generations is to do with the interaction between generational location and wider social forces. The subsequent chapters present the\\ud results of a qualitative media analysis of the Baby Boomer problem, using a sample of Brit...

  3. Wounded Healers: A Multistate Study of Licensed Social Workers' Behavioral Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg; Senreich, Evan; Steen, Jeffrey T

    2018-04-01

    Studies indicate that helping professionals are disproportionately affected by behavioral health problems. Among social workers, the nature and scope of these problems are understudied. This article reports the findings of a 2015 survey of 6,112 licensed social workers in 13 states regarding their problems with mental health; alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; and gambling. To ascertain whether these problems preceded or developed during their social work careers, the periods of time when these issues were experienced were identified. Results indicate that 40.2 percent of respondents reported mental health problems before becoming social workers, increasing to 51.8 percent during their social work career, with 28 percent currently experiencing such problems. Nearly 10 percent of the sample experienced substance use problems before becoming social workers, decreasing to 7.7 percent during their career. Analyses by race or ethnicity, sex, and age identified between-group differences in the prevalence of these problems. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for the social work profession.

  4. Ageing in Communal Place:Ethnographic studies of social interaction in senior housing communities

    OpenAIRE

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we adopt the position that design of social media for the elderly and virtual senior communities may be informed by studying ‘real’ senior communities. Since current research efforts target the role of social media and virtual communities for supporting seniors ageing in place, i.e. in their homes, housing communities seem a natural place to begin this enquiry. We conducted observations and informal interviews in six different senior dwellings. In this paper we present the key f...

  5. Social Resources and Community Resilience in the Wake of Superstorm Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Cagney

    Full Text Available Recovery efforts after natural disasters typically focus on physical infrastructure. In general less attention is paid to the social infrastructure that might impact the capacity of the community to rebuild. We examine perceptions of preparedness and recovery (markers of resilience at the community level in the wake of Superstorm Sandy with a novel data set that includes a multi-mode survey of twelve neighborhoods severely affected by the storm. With these data, we suggest that social resources are associated with beliefs about neighborhood resilience. People who live in communities with higher social cohesion (coefficient = .73, p <.001, informal social control (coefficient = .53, p <.001, and social exchange (coefficient = .69, p <.001 are more likely to believe their neighborhoods are well prepared for a disaster. Likewise, people living in communities with higher social cohesion (coefficient = .35, p <.01, informal social control (coefficient = .27, p <.05, and social exchange (coefficient = .42, p <.001 are more likely to be confident their neighborhoods will recover quickly from a disaster. However, the effects of social resources on beliefs about resilience vary based on neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and the impact of the storm. Informal social control and social exchange lead to a greater increase in confidence in recovery in low, as compared to high, SES neighborhoods. Social resources tend to have more impact on perceptions of recovery in communities less affected by the storm. In sum, these findings suggest the potential value of various forms of social intervention to better equip communities to respond when disaster strikes.

  6. Social Resources and Community Resilience in the Wake of Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagney, Kathleen A; Sterrett, David; Benz, Jennifer; Tompson, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Recovery efforts after natural disasters typically focus on physical infrastructure. In general less attention is paid to the social infrastructure that might impact the capacity of the community to rebuild. We examine perceptions of preparedness and recovery (markers of resilience at the community level) in the wake of Superstorm Sandy with a novel data set that includes a multi-mode survey of twelve neighborhoods severely affected by the storm. With these data, we suggest that social resources are associated with beliefs about neighborhood resilience. People who live in communities with higher social cohesion (coefficient = .73, p <.001), informal social control (coefficient = .53, p <.001), and social exchange (coefficient = .69, p <.001) are more likely to believe their neighborhoods are well prepared for a disaster. Likewise, people living in communities with higher social cohesion (coefficient = .35, p <.01), informal social control (coefficient = .27, p <.05), and social exchange (coefficient = .42, p <.001) are more likely to be confident their neighborhoods will recover quickly from a disaster. However, the effects of social resources on beliefs about resilience vary based on neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and the impact of the storm. Informal social control and social exchange lead to a greater increase in confidence in recovery in low, as compared to high, SES neighborhoods. Social resources tend to have more impact on perceptions of recovery in communities less affected by the storm. In sum, these findings suggest the potential value of various forms of social intervention to better equip communities to respond when disaster strikes.

  7. Perceived Stress in Online Prostate Cancer Community Participants: Examining Relationships with Stigmatization, Social Support Network Preference, and Social Support Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine; Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Rains, Stephen; Wright, Kevin B

    2017-06-01

    Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate cancer-related stigma, weak-tie support preference, and online community use for social support in a survey of online prostate cancer community participants (n = 149). Findings revealed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress. This relationship, however, was moderated by weak-tie support preference and online community use for social support. Specifically, stigma was positively related to perceived stress when weak-tie support was preferred. Analyses also showed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress in those who used their online community for advice or emotional support. Health communication scholars should work collaboratively with diagnosed men, clinicians, and online community administrators to develop online interventions that optimally match social support needs.

  8. How Social Communications Influence Advertising Perception and Response in Online Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fue; Tao, Ran; Yang, Yanwu; Xie, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to explore how social communications of online communities affect users' perception and responses toward social media advertising. We developed a conceptual model based on the SBT, encapsulating 9 constructs and 10 hypothesis extracted from the extant social media advertising literature. Our research outcome proves that social communications can effectively boost users' behaviors to be in accordance with an online social community, thus facilitate their acceptance and responses toward social media advertising, with users' group intention as an intervening factor. From an operational standpoint, it's an effective way to build and maintain social bonds between users and the community by boosting social communications, supporting fluent interpersonal communications. In addition, managers of an online community should elaborate on users' group intentions to increase users' advertising acceptance and response.

  9. How Social Communications Influence Advertising Perception and Response in Online Communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fue Zeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explore how social communications of online communities affect users’ perception and responses toward social media advertising. We developed a conceptual model based on the SBT, encapsulating 9 constructs and 10 hypothesis extracted from the extant social media advertising literature. Our research outcome proves that social communications can effectively boost users’ behaviors to be in accordance with an online social community, thus facilitate their acceptance and responses toward social media advertising, with users’ group intention as an intervening factor. From an operational standpoint, it’s an effective way to build and maintain social bonds between users and the community by boosting social communications, supporting fluent interpersonal communications. In addition, managers of an online community should elaborate on users’ group intentions to increase users’ advertising acceptance and response.

  10. How Social Communications Influence Advertising Perception and Response in Online Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fue; Tao, Ran; Yang, Yanwu; Xie, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to explore how social communications of online communities affect users’ perception and responses toward social media advertising. We developed a conceptual model based on the SBT, encapsulating 9 constructs and 10 hypothesis extracted from the extant social media advertising literature. Our research outcome proves that social communications can effectively boost users’ behaviors to be in accordance with an online social community, thus facilitate their acceptance and responses toward social media advertising, with users’ group intention as an intervening factor. From an operational standpoint, it’s an effective way to build and maintain social bonds between users and the community by boosting social communications, supporting fluent interpersonal communications. In addition, managers of an online community should elaborate on users’ group intentions to increase users’ advertising acceptance and response. PMID:28855879

  11. Problems with Reporting and Evaluating Mining Industry Community Development Projects: A Case Study from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Wangari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on contributions to community development is one way gold mining companies communicate the expanse and depth of their commitment to social responsibility. These projects are intended to provide the mine-proximate communities with some of the wealth and other benefits generated by mine development in their locales. We raise questions about reporting and evaluation of community development projects undertaken by AngloGold Ashanti in the two communities of Nyakabale and Nyamalembo, near its Geita mining projects in the Lake Victoria goldfields of Tanzania. We use archival data and data obtained from field research conducted during different periods throughout 2005, 2007 and 2010 to compare what the company reports to have done with what is found on the ground. Our findings revealed that the corporate reporting is misleading, ambiguous, and omissive. Much of the effort labeled “community development” benefited the companies directly via infrastructure development, food supplies to the mine cafeteria, and worker health. We argue that, if Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR projects are to be the primary way local people directly benefit from mine development, the relationship between the value of those projects and the wealth taken from the location should be considered, community projects should be well defined and differentiated from company-oriented projects, and community representatives should participate in monitoring the success and impact of community development projects.

  12. 161 ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF RAPE AS A SOCIAL CANKERWORM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence that involves intercourse without consent or against someone being willing ... Rape is a global problem with women and children being mostly vulnerable .... allows their wards to spend too much time watching television where sex is ...

  13. Social Change: Toward an Informed and Critical Understanding of Social Justice and the Capabilities Approach in Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Felix; MacLeod, Tim; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-03-01

    Community psychology has long been concerned with social justice. However, deployments of this term are often vague and undertheorized. To address this weakness in the field's knowledge body we explored John Rawls's theory of social justice and Amartya Sen's economic theory of the capabilities approach and evaluated each for its applicability to community psychology theory, research, and action. Our unpacking of the philosophical and political underpinnings of Rawlsian theory of social justice resulted in identifying characteristics that limit the theory's utility in community psychology, particularly in its implications for action. Our analysis of the capability approach proposed by Amartya Sen revealed a framework that operationalizes social justice in both research and action, and we elaborate on this point. Going beyond benefits to community psychology in adopting the capabilities approach, we posit a bi-directional relationship and discuss how community psychology might also contribute to the capabilities approach. We conclude by suggesting that community psychology could benefit from a manifesto or proclamation that provides a historical background of social justice and critiques the focus on the economic, sociological, and philosophical theories that inform present-day conceptualizations (and lack thereof) of social justice for community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  14. IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL CHARACTERISTICS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACH TO LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grazhevska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of social capital characteristics of local communities on the effectiveness of the community-based approach to economic development. The conclusion that such social capital characteristics as (antipaternalism, solidarity and cooperation have the greatest importance for the economic development is made based on the analysis of UNDP and the European Union project “Community-based approach to local development”. It was hypothesized that the creation of community organizations could be an effective mechanism to actualize the existing social capital of rural communities in Ukraine.

  15. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns. PMID:26557846

  16. Behavior problems and social competence in Brazilian children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leite Puglisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate the behavior and social profile of Brazilian children with specific language impairment (SLI and explore whether the severity of language deficits was associated with behavioral problems and low social competence. Twenty-four children with SLI aged from 6 to 11 years who showed substantial expressive language problems and were receiving speech-language therapy were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. Children with SLI showed high rates of behavioral problems and low levels of social competence. With the exception of two subscales (“somatic” and “rule breaker”, the percentage of children with SLI at risk of behavioral problems was significantly higher than the same proportion in the general population; and almost all children with SLI (95.2 % demonstrated problems with social competence. The severity of language deficits was associated with the risk of behavioral problems according to only one criterion. No associations were found between the severity of language problems and social competence. The study provides cross-cultural evidence to support the existence of behavior problems and reduced social competence in children with SLI. Our findings point to the need of using a combination of measures to classify the severity of language problems rather than a single dimension.

  17. Psychological and social problems in primary care patients - general practitioners' assessment and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Vedsted, Peter; Christensen, Kaj Sparle; Moth, Grete

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the frequency of psychological and social classification codes employed by general practitioners (GPs) and to explore the extent to which GPs ascribed health problems to biomedical, psychological, or social factors. A cross-sectional survey based on questionnaire data from GPs. Setting. Danish primary care. 387 GPs and their face-to-face contacts with 5543 patients. GPs registered consecutive patients on registration forms including reason for encounter, diagnostic classification of main problem, and a GP assessment of biomedical, psychological, and social factors' influence on the contact. The GP-stated reasons for encounter largely overlapped with their classification of the managed problem. Using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2-R), GPs classified 600 (11%) patients with psychological problems and 30 (0.5%) with social problems. Both codes for problems/complaints and specific disorders were used as the GP's diagnostic classification of the main problem. Two problems (depression and acute stress reaction/adjustment disorder) accounted for 51% of all psychological classifications made. GPs generally emphasized biomedical aspects of the contacts. Psychological aspects were given greater importance in follow-up consultations than in first-episode consultations, whereas social factors were rarely seen as essential to the consultation. Psychological problems are frequently seen and managed in primary care and most are classified within a few diagnostic categories. Social matters are rarely considered or classified.

  18. Research Advances of Social Security Problems in China —Visualization Research based on Bibliometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳

    2016-01-01

    This article summarized the research progress and characteristics of Chinese social security issues from 2000 papers, which record in CNKI. We find that, the topic in the field of social security is board and dispersion. Due to the huge system and complex problem of social security, there is no central theme. Through cluster analysis, multi dimensional scaling analysis and social network analysis, we got the high frequency keywords atlas. Then, we summarized the research topic to six parts. They are rural social security, urban and rural social security co-ordination, vulnerable group social security, social security fund management, the social insurance system, and social security system and government responsibility. It summed up the theme of the module, meanwhile, combined the practice analysis.

  19. Marijuana Effect Expectancies: Relations to Social Anxiety and Marijuana Use Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2008-01-01

    High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to negative expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces cognitive/behavioral impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Nega...

  20. Community characteristics, social service allocation, and child maltreatment reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2015-03-01

    This study expands research on the relationship between community (defined here as a locality) characteristics and child maltreatment. Research in this field is not new, but it is scarce. Our study is unique by examining changes between two periods rather than focusing on one point in time. Furthermore, our study examines structural conditions in small and medium size localities in Israel, a non-Western and non-Christian society. We compare our results with those from studies on inner-city and suburban neighborhoods in Western countries and earlier studies in Israel. We collected data on 169 Israeli localities, ranging from small ones (with as few as 1,500 residents) to medium size localities (i.e., towns) (with as many as 50,000 residents) in which approximately 34% of the Israeli child population resides. Our study tested four hypotheses: (1) Socioeconomic characteristics of the locality will be negatively correlated with the availability of social services; (2) Reported child maltreatment rates will be negatively correlated with the socioeconomic characteristics of the locality; (3) The availability of social services will be positively correlated with reported child maltreatment rates; and (4) Overall reported child maltreatment rates will be negatively correlated with the overall status of the localities. We have supported our second and third hypothesis in full, and partially supported our first and fourth hypothesis. In particular we have demonstrated that while demographics play a different role in Israel than in other countries in regard to child maltreatment, social, economic and cultural context are crucial for understating reported rates of child maltreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Academics and Social Networking Sites: Benefits, Problems and Tensions in Professional Engagement with Online Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Katy; Weller, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The web has had a profound effect on the ways people interact, with online social networks arguably playing an important role in changing or augmenting how we connect with others. However, uptake of online social networking by the academic community varies, and needs to be understood. This paper presents an independent, novel analysis of a…

  2. Social Networking Sites, Literacy, and the Authentic Identity Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmons, Royce

    2014-01-01

    Current interest in social media for educational purposes has led many to consider the importance of literacy development in online spaces (e.g., new media literacies, digital literacies, etc.). Relying heavily upon New Literacy Studies (NLS) as a base, these approaches treat literacy expansively to include socio-cultural factors beyond mere skill…

  3. Social security, dynamic efficiency and self-control problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2008-01-01

    We develop an OLG model with uncertainty on labor income and death age to study the welfare implications of unfunded Social Security programs in an economy where agents are affected by temptation à la Gul and Pesendorfer (2001, Econometrica 69, 1403). Tempted agents give additional value to the

  4. Violence in Mexico: A social or public health problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Casas Patiño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende explicar la importancia de la violencia como fenómeno social y de salud pública, al tratar de vislumbrar este problema no sólo desde el enfoque curativo de la salud, sino desde los determinantes sociales en salud como lo económico, político, jurídico y demográfico, donde jóvenes carecen de oportunidades reales con un Estado en fuga. Todos estos son entramados que juegan un papel fundamental en la manifestación del hecho implícito de la violencia. Es así que el debatir respecto al abordaje y resolución de la violencia abre el camino a nuevas miradas respecto a lo social, como parte de una salud pública que no se puede alejar por completo de la situación real de los colectivos. Así, la entrada a esta situación demuestra que no podemos seguir mirando en forma discordante los problemas reales en salud social de nuestra sociedad.

  5. The Portrayal of Indonesian Image in 2007 Kompas Selected Short Stories: Social Problems, Criticisms and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akun Akun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Article aimed at exploring social problems reflected in 15 selected short stories printed in Kompas during 2007 both explicitly and implicitly. Specifically, this research is focused on the mapping of dominant social problems raised by the short stories, the social criticisms strongly voiced by the authors and the hopes of a better situation implicitly reflected in these interesting short stories. This study applies the Defamiliarization Effect promoted by Bertolt Brecht and Negative Dialectics or Negative Knowledge by Theodor Adorno, specifically in analyzing the literary works as a criticism tool. The result of the research shows that phenomena of social problems current lately in Indonesian context like identity, poverty, corruption, religious tensions, moral degradation, politics dirtiness, minority group problems, social security, natural disasters and the like are clearly seen and teased in these writings.

  6. A participatory approach to social impact assessment: the interactive community forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Dennis R.; Harris, Charles C.; McLaughlin, William J.; Nielsen, Erik A.

    2003-01-01

    The Interactive Community Forum is a method of social impact assessment that seeks community members' judgments of social impacts resulting from project alternatives in an environmental impact assessment. The method employs a participant-driven description of the social system along with a set of community constructs to guide in the identification of anticipated social impacts. A diversity of participants with different areas of community involvement are exposed to a structured small group process where information is shared and community-level impacts are deliberated. Based on group discussion, participants project social impacts and identify measures necessary for their mitigation. The Interactive Community Forum thereby provides a means to integrate local knowledge into an Environmental Impact Statement and inform environmental decision-making through a modified public involvement process

  7. Social problem solving strategies and posttraumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Catherine M; Blackwell, Náthali; Simmons, Catherine A; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-05-01

    Social factors are often associated with the development or maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of interpersonal traumas. However, social problem solving strategies have received little attention. The current study explored the role of social problem solving styles (i.e., rational approaches, impulsive/careless strategies, or avoidance strategies) as intermediary variables between abuse exposure and PTSD severity among intimate partner violence survivors. Avoidance problem solving served as an intermediating variable for the relationship between three types of abuse and PTSD severity. Rational and impulsive/careless strategies were not associated with abuse exposure. These findings extend the current understanding of social problem solving among interpersonal trauma survivors and are consistent with more general avoidance coping research. Future research might examine whether avoidance problem solving tends to evolve in the aftermath of trauma or whether it represents a longstanding risk factor for PTSD development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Academics and Social Networking Sites: Benefits, Problems and Tensions in Professional Engagement with Online Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Katy; Weller, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The web has had a profound effect on the ways people interact, with online social networks arguably playing an important role in changing or augmenting how we connect with others. However, uptake of online social networking by the academic community varies, and needs to be understood. This paper presents an independent, novel analysis of a large-scale dataset published by Nature Publishing Group detailing the results of a survey about academics use of online social networking services. An ope...

  9. University student social media use and its influence on offline engagement in higher educational communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sutherland

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has emphasised social media adoption by students and the implementation of social media by educators, yet few studies have explored whether students are using it to facilitate engagement in offline environments with peers within university communities. Studies suggest engagement in educational communities and extra-curricular activities can reduce student attrition. This study surveyed 106 undergraduate students to investigate whether students using social media to interact online with their university felt: (i connected to the broader university community, and (ii social media helped them engage offline by meeting up with peers and attending university events. The results indicated that the majority (82% never or rarely used the technology to facilitate offline engagement within their academic communities. Fourth year students were most likely to use social media to engage offline (66.7%. However, more than half of students (52.8% felt that university social media profiles helped them to feel part of their academic community.

  10. Improving social connection through a communities-of-practice-inspired cognitive work analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euerby, Adam; Burns, Catherine M

    2014-03-01

    Increasingly, people work in socially networked environments. With growing adoption of enterprise social network technologies, supporting effective social community is becoming an important factor in organizational success. Relatively few human factors methods have been applied to social connection in communities. Although team methods provide a contribution, they do not suit design for communities. Wenger's community of practice concept, combined with cognitive work analysis, provided one way of designing for community. We used a cognitive work analysis approach modified with principles for supporting communities of practice to generate a new website design. Over several months, the community using the site was studied to examine their degree of social connectedness and communication levels. Social network analysis and communications analysis, conducted at three different intervals, showed increases in connections between people and between people and organizations, as well as increased communication following the launch of the new design. In this work, we suggest that human factors approaches can be effective in social environments, when applied considering social community principles. This work has implications for the development of new human factors methods as well as the design of interfaces for sociotechnical systems that have community building requirements.

  11. Darwinian algorithms and the Wason selection task: a factorial analysis of social contract selection task problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, R D; Griggs, R A

    1993-08-01

    In four experiments with 760 subjects, the present study examined Cosmides' Darwinian algorithm theory of reasoning: specifically, its explanation of facilitation on the Wason selection task. The first experiment replicated Cosmides' finding of facilitation for social contract versions of the selection task, using both her multiple-problem format and a single-problem format. Experiment 2 examined performance on Cosmides' three main social contract problems while manipulating the perspective of the subject and the presence and absence of cost-benefit information. The presence of cost-benefit information improved performance in two of the three problems while the perspective manipulation had no effect. In Experiment 3, the cost-benefit effect was replicated; and performance on one of the three problems was enhanced by the presence of explicit negatives on the NOT-P and NOT-Q cards. Experiment 4 examined the role of the deontic term "must" in the facilitation observed for two of the social contract problems. The presence of "must" led to a significant improvement in performance. The results of these experiments are strongly supportive of social contract theory in that cost-benefit information is necessary for substantial facilitation to be observed in Cosmides' problems. These findings also suggest the presence of other cues that can help guide subjects to a deontic social contract interpretation when the social contract nature of the problem is not clear.

  12. Psicologia social comunitária profissional Community social psychology and professional preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Beatriz Kochenborger Scarparo; Neuza Maria de Fátima Guareschi

    2007-01-01

    O presente texto aborda questões relativas à construção da psicologia social comunitária no Brasil e as interfaces deste processo histórico com a formação profissional. Para tanto, apóia-se em dados sobre o contexto histórico e social brasileiro no decorrer da efetivação das práticas psicológicas em comunidades. Finalmente, o estudo propõe reflexões quanto ao descompasso entre a formação e os fenômenos sociais contemporâneos.The following paper approaches issues related to the Community Socia...

  13. Participation in activities outside of school hours in relation to problem behavior and social skills in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Lajeana D; Lukacs, Susan L; Pastor, Patricia N; Reuben, Cynthia A; Mendola, Pauline

    2010-03-01

    Research has shown that participating in activities outside of school hours is associated with lower dropout rates, enhanced school performance, improved social skills, and reduced problem behaviors. However, most prior studies have been limited to small populations of older children (>12 years). This analysis focuses on children aged 6 to 11 to assess the potential association between participation in activities outside of school hours and behavior in middle childhood in a nationally representative survey. Estimates were based on 25,797 children from the 2003-2004 National Survey of Children's Health. Outside of school activity was defined as participating in sports teams/lessons, clubs/organizations, or both at least once in the past year. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the differences in behavior problems and social skills adjusting for sociodemographic factors, among children classified by participation in outside of school activities. Seventy-five percent of children participated in outside of school activities: 23% in sports, 16% in clubs, and 36% in both clubs and sports. Activity participation differed by gender, race/ethnicity, type of school, poverty status, family structure, household education, and school and community safety. Children participating in both sports and clubs had higher social skills index scores, but no significant difference in problem behavior scores compared with children who did not participate in any outside of school activity. Children participating in both sports and clubs had greater social competence during middle childhood compared with children who did not participate in any outside of school activities.

  14. EMPLOYMENT OF YOUTH: PROBLEMS, PLACE IN SYSTEM OF SOCIAL VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nikolaevich Gostev

    2016-01-01

    The study found that good employment – the main purpose of life of the general population. For the mechanism of the strategic management of the employment of human productive capacity is essential willingness to work professional graduate school, which has a complex structure, including cognitive, motivational, volitional, and other elements, each of which is able to destroy the whole system. Employed – the foundation of all social and moral values of young people, the condition is stable order, civic responsibility and political activity, patriotism, national unity, national security. This social phenomenon in terms of increase of the number of threats to national security is becoming a priority in government policy. Employed young people and their moral values are in direct relation.

  15. PROBLEMS OF MODERN DOCUMENTAL COMMUNICATION (cultural-and-social aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Kushneruk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the official-and-business texts’ qualities revealed on communication level are presented in this article. The system of axes used for national-and-social evaluations of the business communicative instruments is under analysis. The influences of unstable social-and-cultural conditions on technological and organizational circumstances of document-oriented communication are analyzed. Some results of the out-of-officinal factors origin’ and level’s evaluation in their influence on unified forms and textual peculiarities of communicative acts in the forms of “business papers” are presented.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-44

  16. Social psychological approach to the problem of threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayachi, Kazuya

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the threshold of carcinogen risk from the viewpoint of social psychology. First, the results of a survey suggesting that renunciation of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis would have no influence on the public acceptance (PA) of nuclear power plants are reported. Second, the relationship between the adoption of the LNT hypothesis and the standardization of management for various risks are discussed. (author)

  17. Homelessness as social and individual problem – possibilities and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Piechowicz

    2012-01-01

    This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in t...

  18. HUMANIST VALUES OF SPORT AND THE PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubov SHEREMET

    2015-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the consideration of sport activity under the perspective of social philosophy, with special attention given to core values of the contemporary sport manifested particularly by the Olympic movement. It is argued that the main intellectual source of the Olympism is the translation of liberal ideology into the sphere of sport, with the idea of dialogue as a norm of interpersonal relation serving as a pivotal in socio-cultural foundations of the contemporary Olympic m...

  19. About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshyn, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

  20. Gambling behavior and problem gambling reflecting social transition and traumatic childhood events among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    Aims: An increase in social pathologies is a key feature in indigenous populations undergoing transition. The Greenland Inuit are a large indigenous population constituting a majority in their own country, which makes it possible to investigate differences within the population. This led us to st...... of social pathologies in Greenland. A significant association between lifetime problem gambling, social transition and traumatic childhood events suggests people caught between tradition and modern ways of life are more vulnerable to gambling problems....... was measured as place of residence and a combination of residence, education and occupation. Findings: The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16% among men and 10% among women (p

  1. The Problem is People, Social Studies: 6425.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchford, Frank

    Population education is the focus of this quinmester curriculum guide for secondary students. By examining and comparing past population theories of Malthus and Marx with present theories students will better understand the present situation, cultural attitudes toward the problems, and the ecological consequences of overpopulation. Objectives are…

  2. Coleman's problem with institutional design : neglect of social rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, S

    2003-01-01

    This paper tries to answer the question how it is possible that such a giant of sociology as James Coleman produced so little of what he considered the most important work for sociologists : good institutional design. I argue that the answer lies in the fact that the most serious problem for which

  3. Choosing your network: social preferences in an online health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centola, Damon; van de Rijt, Arnout

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of online health communities offer individuals the opportunity to receive information, advice, and support from peers. Recent studies have demonstrated that these new online contacts can be important informational resources, and can even exert significant influence on individuals' behavior in various contexts. However little is known about how people select their health contacts in these virtual domains. This is because selection preferences in peer networks are notoriously difficult to detect. In existing networks, unobserved pressures on tie formation--such as common organizational memberships, introductions to friends of friends, or limitations on accessibility--may mistakenly be interpreted as individual preferences for interacting/not interacting with others. We address these issues by adopting a social media approach to studying network formation. We study social selection using an in vivo study within an online exercise program, in which anonymous participants have equal opportunities for initiating relationships with other program members. This design allows us to identify individuals' preferences for health contacts, and to evaluate what these preferences imply for members' access to new kinds of health information, and for the kinds of social influences to which they are exposed. The study was conducted within a goal-oriented fitness competition, in which participation was greatest among a small core of active individuals. Our results show that the active participants displayed indifference to the fitness and exercise profiles of others, disregarding information about others' fitness levels, exercise preferences, and workout experiences, instead selecting partners almost entirely on the basis of similarities on gender, age, and BMI. Interestingly, the findings suggest that rather than expanding and diversifying their sources of health information, participants' choices limited the value of their online resources by selecting contacts

  4. Social Capital and Bystander Behavior in Bullying: Internalizing Problems as a Barrier to Prosocial Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N; Fredrick, Stephanie Secord

    2017-04-01

    Theory and research suggests that individuals with greater social capital (i.e., resources and benefits gained from relationships, experiences, and social interactions) may be more likely to be active, prosocial bystanders in bullying situations. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine the association of social capital (social support and social skills) with prosocial bystander behavior, and the role of internalizing problems as a potential barrier to this relation among 299 students (45.8% girls, 95% White) in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Results indicate a positive relation between social capital and prosocial bystander behavior. In addition, internalizing problems were a significant risk factor that may hinder youth-particularly girls-from engaging in defending behavior. Prosocial bystanders are an essential component to prevent and reduce bullying and further research is needed to better understand how to foster prosocial behavior in bullying situations, perhaps by utilizing social capital, related to school bullying.

  5. Recht und Sozialtheorie: Drei Probleme / Law and Social Theory: Three Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Teubner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drei Theoriekatastrophen sind dafür verantwortlich, dass nach anfänglich hoher Theorieaffinität die deutsche Rechtsdogmatik sich heute gegenüber Sozialtheorien weitgehend immunisiert hat. Der Beitrag diskutiert die Alternative eines distanzierten Umgangs mit Sozialtheorien. Dieser kann in der Begegnung von Sozialtheorie und Recht einen rechtsdogmatischen Mehrwert dann erzeugen, wenn es der Rechtsdogmatik gelingt, dem prekären Verhältnis von Autonomie und Interdependenz in drei unterschiedlichen Dimensionen gerecht zu werden: (1 Theoriekonkurrenz: Wie soll das Recht eine Auswahl treffen, wenn konkurrierende Sozialtheorien miteinander nicht kompatible Analysen von Sozialphänomenen liefern? (2 Wissenstransfer: Wie lassen sich Konstrukte der Sozialtheorien in das Recht übertragen? (3 Und schliesslich die heikelste Frage nach der Normativität von Sozialtheorien: Lassen sich aus wissenschaftlichen Theorien normative Kriterien für die Rechtspraxis gewinnen? Antworten zu diesen Fragen werden am Beispiel der horizontalen Grundrechtswirkung in halb-privaten Netzwerken der Medizinforschung formuliert. Three theory disasters are responsible for the fact that, after an initial close affinity to theory, German legal doctrine has now become largely immunised against social theories. This paper discusses the alternative of a distanced approach to social theories. At the point where social theory comes into contact with law, this approach is able to generate added value for legal doctrine, if legal doctrine is able to take into account the precarious relationship between autonomy and interdependence in three different dimensions: (1 competition between theories: how is the law to make a selection, when competing social theories provide mutually incompatible analyses of social phenomena? (2 knowledge transfer: how can constructs of social theories be transferred to the law? (3 and, finally, the highly complex issue of the normativity of social theories

  6. Communicative social capital and collective efficacy as determinants of access to health-enhancing resources in residential communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsaganis, Matthew D; Wilkin, Holley A

    2015-04-01

    This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on the social determinants of health disparities. The authors investigate how communication resources and collective efficacy, independently and in combination, shape residents' access to health enhancing resources (including healthcare services, sources of healthier food options, and public recreation spaces) in their communities. Using random digit dial telephone survey data from 833 residents of South Los Angeles communities the authors show that communicative social capital-that is, an information and problem-solving resource that accrues to residents as they become more integrated into their local communication network of neighbors, community organizations, and local media-plays a significant role in access to health resources. This relationship is complicated by individuals' health insurance and health status, as communicative social capital magnifies the sense of absence of resources for those who are in worse health and lack insurance. Communicative social capital builds collective efficacy, which is positively related to access to health-enhancing resources, but it also mediates the negative relationship between communicative social capital and access to health resources. Residents with richer stores of communicative social capital and collective efficacy report better access to health resources. The authors conclude with a discussion of implications of these findings and suggestions for future research.

  7. Adolescent Personality in Social Contexts: Pals, Partners, and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current dissertation was to show how adolescent personality was linked to youths’ developmental outcomes. Our findings suggest that adolescent personality has concurrent and predictive relations to a variety of important developmental outcomes. Specifically, adolescent personality was associated with internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors at an individual level. Also, adolescent personality was related to conflict frequency and conflict resolution strategies as well ...

  8. THE SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF CONSUMPTION: PROBLEMS AND EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor K. Beliaevskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of study and estimation ofsocial efficiency of consumption, namely, the results of satisfaction of needs throughboth the mediation of market and non-market channels is considered in this article. The concept and content of these phenomena and processes are unveiled,the specific features of formation of their results and effectiveness are revealed. The materials of state statistics treated by the author were used for the purposesof this study.

  9. Homelessness as social and individual problem – possibilities and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Piechowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in the scope of the discussed phenomenon.

  10. Social Disorganization Theory and Crime Rates on California Community College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravalin, Tamara; Tevis, Tenisha

    2017-01-01

    Recent media attention concerning the escalation of crime on college campuses has created a sense of urgency to address how crime will impact the largest community college system in the United States, California Community Colleges. Crime can deter academic success and social engagement. This study utilizes social disorganization theory to examine…

  11. Community psychology contributions to the study of social inequalities,well-being and social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Journal of Psychosocial Intervention aims to contribute to the understanding ofhuman well-being as a matter of social justice. Inequities in health and well-being are closely linked tosocial inequalities and addressing them involves the improvement of the quality of life and living conditionsof communities. Although reaching a more just society requires systemic changes, actions aimed at groupsthat are at greater risk of multiple vulnerabilities must be intensified in order to reduce the slope of thesocial gradient of health and well-being. Community psychology embraces as one of its key principles toadvocate for social change through the empowerment of disadvantaged groups, such as children and youthliving in poverty, women suffering violence, people with disabilities and elderly immigrants. Thecontributions of this monograph offer courses of action for a scientific agenda whose goal is to provideopportunities for all individuals to achieve meaning and greater control over the resources they need fortheir well-being and prosperity.

  12. Teaching nutrition to medical students: a community-based problem-solving approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharji, S; Joseph, A; Abraham, S; Muliyil, J; John, K R; Ethirajan, N

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a community-based problem-solving educational programme which aims at teaching medical and other health science students the importance of nutrition and its application. Through community surveys students assess the nutritional status of children under five using different anthropometric methods. They understand the cultural beliefs and customs related to food fads and the reasons for them. They also acquire the skill to educate the community using the information gathered. They use epidemiological methods such as case control study to find associations between malnutrition and other causative factors. Feedback from students has been positive and evaluation of students' knowledge before and after the programme has shown significant improvement.

  13. Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence-parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression-with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on youth's well-being, these findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence youth are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence.

  14. Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence—parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression—with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on youth’s well-being, these findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence youth are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence. PMID:27761057

  15. Stunden abstract. Der Einsatz von Nachrichten im Leistungskurs "Social Problems" (Class-Hour Plan. The Introduction of News in the Honors Course "Social Problems")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegler, Klaus

    1977-01-01

    Gives a detailed ESL (English as a second language) class-hour plan for using a BBC radio news program on vandalism as a social problem. Teaching goals, teaching materials and methodology are discussed. The working texts are appended; the news tests are available free from the author. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Social innovation through disruptive interactions based on new media as a design strategy for empowering socially challenged communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn

    media can counteract negative influences in the community, e.g. drug abuse and gangsterism. Interviews with staff and participants reveal that social media use differ from what is reported in earlier research, in particular regarding how people connect, and relations between online and offline......This article explores potential roles of social media in community upliftment and empowement, based on a study of a non-profit NGO in a socially challenged suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. In particular, it focuses on the relation between online and offline behaviour, and how the use of social...... activities. These differences may arguably inform design for disruptive interaction to address negative influences, such as drugs and gangsterism, in socially challenged communities....

  17. Ayn Rand phenomenon in contemporary social and ethical problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Korobko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to give a general outline of the phenomenon of well­known American writer and philosopher Ayn Rand in contemporary social and ethical space. Application to the research of life, literary and philosophical heritage of the writer makes it possible to assess its impact on the current situation in politics and philosophy. Review of Ayn Rand’s artistic positions confirms her role as a landmark figure, who represented at that time the actual socio­cultural request of active man in contemporary philosophy and politics, “putting down” in literary form complex of philosophical questions to the level of the ordinary man. Ayn Rand is the focus of the social practices in which she was formed, lived and worked. The ideas of almost all philosophical subjects are presented in her works in a simple way, but they are fundamentally different from conventional notions of ethics, politics and philosophy in general, even the ideas of philosophers, whom she honored, such as Aristotle. That’s why modern philosophers are interested in studying her works now. After all, still there has no comprehensive academic analysis of her philosophical and scientific works of art.

  18. Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, pproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Traveling salesman problems with PageRank Distance on complex networks reveal community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for community detection problems (CDPs) based on traveling salesman problems (TSPs), labeled as TSP-CDA. Since TSPs need to find a tour with minimum cost, cities close to each other are usually clustered in the tour. This inspired us to model CDPs as TSPs by taking each vertex as a city. Then, in the final tour, the vertices in the same community tend to cluster together, and the community structure can be obtained by cutting the tour into a couple of paths. There are two challenges. The first is to define a suitable distance between each pair of vertices which can reflect the probability that they belong to the same community. The second is to design a suitable strategy to cut the final tour into paths which can form communities. In TSP-CDA, we deal with these two challenges by defining a PageRank Distance and an automatic threshold-based cutting strategy. The PageRank Distance is designed with the intrinsic properties of CDPs in mind, and can be calculated efficiently. In the experiments, benchmark networks with 1000-10,000 nodes and varying structures are used to test the performance of TSP-CDA. A comparison is also made between TSP-CDA and two well-established community detection algorithms. The results show that TSP-CDA can find accurate community structure efficiently and outperforms the two existing algorithms.

  20. Broadening participation in community problem solving: a multidisciplinary model to support collaborative practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Roz D; Weiss, Elisa S

    2003-03-01

    Over the last 40 years, thousands of communities-in the United States and internationally-have been working to broaden the involvement of people and organizations in addressing community-level problems related to health and other areas. Yet, in spite of this experience, many communities are having substantial difficulty achieving their collaborative objective, and many funders of community partnerships and participation initiatives are looking for ways to get more out of their investment. One of the reasons we are in this predicament is that the practitioners and researchers who are interested in community collaboration come from a variety of contexts, initiatives, and academic disciplines, and few of them have integrated their work with experiences or literatures beyond their own domain. In this article, we seek to overcome some of this fragmentation of effort by presenting a multidisciplinary model that lays out the pathways by which broadly participatory processes lead to more effective community problem solving and to improvements in community health. The model, which builds on a broad array of practical experience as well as conceptual and empirical work in multiple fields, is an outgrowth of a joint-learning work group that was organized to support nine communities in the Turning Point initiative. Following a detailed explication of the model, the article focuses on the implications of the model for research, practice, and policy. It describes how the model can help researchers answer the fundamental effectiveness and "how-to" questions related to community collaboration. In addition, the article explores differences between the model and current practice, suggesting strategies that can help the participants in, and funders of, community collaborations strengthen their efforts.