Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R.
The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment.…
Fulk, Janet; And Others
Presents a model to examine how social influence processes affect individuals' attitudes toward communication media and media use behavior, integrating two research areas: media use patterns as the outcome of objectively rational choices and social information processing theory. Asserts (in a synthesis) that media characteristics and attitudes are…
The links among social information processing, social competence, and school readiness were examined in this short-term longitudinal study with a sample of 198 preschool children. Data on social information processing were obtained via child interview, data on child social competence were obtained via teacher report, and data on school readiness…
Dykas, Matthew J; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Cassidy, Jude
This chapter describes theory and research on intergenerational connections between parents' attachment and children's social information processing, as well as between parents' social information processing and children's attachment. The chapter begins with a discussion of attachment theorists' early insights into the role that social information processing plays in attachment processes. Next, current theory about the mechanisms through which cross-generational links between attachment and social information processing might emerge is presented. The central proposition is that the quality of attachment and/or the social information processing of the parent contributes to the quality of attachment and/or social information processing in the child, and these links emerge through mediating processes related to social learning, open communication, gate-keeping, emotion regulation, and joint attention. A comprehensive review of the literature is then presented. The chapter ends with the presentation of a current theoretical perspective and suggestions for future empirical and clinical endeavors.
Keil, Vivien; Price, Joseph M.
This study examined relations among social information-processing (SIP) variables in the domains of peer provocation and peer group entry. Using Crick and Dodge's [Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). "A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment." "Psychological Bulletin," 115, 74-101]…
Possel, Patrick; Seemann, Simone; Ahrens, Stefanie; Hautzinger, Martin
In Dodge's model of "social information processing" depression is the result of a linear sequence of five stages of information processing ("Annu Rev Psychol" 44: 559-584, 1993). These stages follow a person's reaction to situational stimuli, such that each stage of information processing mediates the relationship between earlier and later stages.…
Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this paper is to point out which role the individual plays in the generation of information in social systems. First, it is argued that the individual is a social, self-conscious, creative, reflective, cultural, symbol- and language-using, active natural, producing, labouring, objective, corporeal, living, real, sensuous, visionary, imaginative, designing, co-operative being that makes its own history and can strive towards freedom and autonomy. Based on these assumptions the re-creation/self-organisation of social systems is described as a dialectic of actions and social structures and as a dialectic of individual information and social information. The individual enters economic, political and cultural relationships that result in the emergence and differentiation of social (i.e. economic, political and cultural information which enables and constrains individual actions and thinking. Individuals as actors in social systems are indispensable for social self-organisation.
The aim of this paper is to point out which role the individual plays in the generation of information in social systems. First, it is argued that the individual is a social, self-conscious, creative, reflective, cultural, symbol- and language-using, active natural, producing, labouring, objective, corporeal, living, real, sensuous, visionary, imaginative, designing, co-operative being that makes its own history and can strive towards freedom and autonomy. Based on these assumptions the re-creation/self-organisation of social systems is described as a dialectic of actions and social structures and as a dialectic of individual information and social information. The individual enters economic, political and cultural relationships that result in the emergence and differentiation of social (i.e. economic, political and cultural) information which enables and constrains individual actions and thinking. Individuals as actors in social systems are indispensable for social self-organisation.
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline
van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C
The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.
Miettinen, Aki; Mykkänen, Juha; Laaksonen, Maarit
Finnish social services include 21 service commissions of social welfare including Adoption counselling, Income support, Child welfare, Services for immigrants and Substance abuse care. This paper describes the method used for process modeling in the National project for IT in Social Services in Finland (Tikesos). The process modeling in the project aimed to support common national target state processes from the perspective of national electronic archive, increased interoperability between systems and electronic client documents. The process steps and other aspects of the method are presented. The method was developed, used and refined during the three years of process modeling in the national project.
Lösel, Friedrich; Bliesener, Thomas; Bender, Doris
This study examines social information processing and experiences of aggression in social contexts as predictors of different forms of aggressive behavior. A sample of 102 boys (aggressive, average, competent, and victimized students) was investigated with a prospective design in Grade 7/8 and again in Grade 9/10. Results show an aggressive-impulsive response repertoire strongly predicted self-reported and teacher-reported physical aggression, verbal aggression, violent offenses, general aggr...
Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in RD through 5th grades. This study included a racially and…
Camila Leoni Nascimento
Full Text Available The social networks have caused changes in the consumption habits and in the ways of relationship among companies and consumers, emerging a more demanding and informed consumer. In this paper it is aimed to assess the social networks as a source of information for the purchase of goods or services. In the study it was applied a research of exploratory nature through the survey method, conducted through personal interviews using a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. The sample of non-probabilistic type was comprised of 200 individuals from a higher education institution of São Paulo State hinterland. The survey data were analyzed descriptively. Overall, the results showed the use of social networks as a source of information search, in which the main motive is the practicality. The results corroborate the studies of Kotler and Keller (2006 when they state that the consumer seeks information on social networks to help him in the purchase, as Edelman and Hirshberg (2006 when approaching the user confidence in their friends’ opinion. For future works it is recommended to check what strategies and in what ways the companies could work in order to provide more detailed data to Internet users, aiming to support them in the decision
Nigam, Aastha; Dambanemuya, Henry K; Joshi, Madhav; Chawla, Nitesh V
Peace processes are complex, protracted, and contentious involving significant bargaining and compromising among various societal and political stakeholders. In civil war terminations, it is pertinent to measure the pulse of the nation to ensure that the peace process is responsive to citizens' concerns. Social media yields tremendous power as a tool for dialogue, debate, organization, and mobilization, thereby adding more complexity to the peace process. Using Colombia's final peace agreement and national referendum as a case study, we investigate the influence of two important indicators: intergroup polarization and public sentiment toward the peace process. We present a detailed linguistic analysis to detect intergroup polarization and a predictive model that leverages Tweet structure, content, and user-based features to predict public sentiment toward the Colombian peace process. We demonstrate that had proaccord stakeholders leveraged public opinion from social media, the outcome of the Colombian referendum could have been different.
N. V. Katargin
Possible to describe complicate as natural as social systems as objects consisted of nonlinearly dependent elements at the multi-dimension (phase) space contained as real as information components. The system movement is defined by natural growth of entropy and its decrease as a result of using of external energy sources and other resources. Examined the аssociation of entropy with the value of objects, as well as with humanitarian concepts: God's Providence, morality, and happiness.
N. V. Katargin
Full Text Available Possible to describe complicate as natural as social systems as objects consisted of nonlinearly dependent elements at the multi-dimension (phase space contained as real as information components. The system movement is defined by natural growth of entropy and its decrease as a result of using of external energy sources and other resources. Examined the аssociation of entropy with the value of objects, as well as with humanitarian concepts: God's Providence, morality, and happiness.
Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto
Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…
Armaou, M; Schumacher, L; Grunfeld, E A
Purpose Returning to work is a process that is intertwined with the social aspects of one's life, which can influence the way in which that person manages their return to work and also determines the support available to them. This study aimed to explore cancer patients' perceptions of the role of their social context in relation to returning to work following treatment. Methods Twenty-three patients who had received a diagnosis of either urological, breast, gynaecological, or bowel cancer participated in semi-structured interviews examining general perceptions of cancer, work values and perceptions of the potential impact of their cancer diagnosis and treatment on work. Interviews were analysed using the iterative process of Framework Analysis. Results Two superordinate themes emerged as influential in the return to work process: Social support as a facilitator of return to work (e.g. co-workers' support and support outside of the workplace) and Social comparison as an appraisal of readiness to return to work (e.g. comparisons with other cancer patients, colleagues, and employees in other organisations or professions). Conclusions Two functions of the social context of returning to work after cancer were apparent in the participants' narrative: the importance of social support as a facilitator of returning to work and the utilisation of social comparison information in order to appraise one's readiness to return to work. The role of social context in returning to work has largely been absent from the research literature to date. The findings of this study suggest that social support and social comparison mechanisms may have a significant impact on an individual's successful return to the workplace.
Luiz Fernando de Barros Campos
Full Text Available Based on Erving Goffman's work, the article aims to discuss a definition of information centered on the type conveyed by individuals in a multimodal way, encompassing language and body in situations of co-presence, where face-to-face interaction occurs, and influencing inter-subjective formation of the self. Six types of information are highlighted: material information, expressive information, ritualized information, meta-information, strategic information, and information displays. It is argued that the construction of this empirical object tends to dissolve the tension among material, cognitive and pragmatic aspects, constituting an example of the necessary integration among them. Some vulnerable characteristics of the theory are critically mentioned and it is suggested that the concept of information displays could provide a platform to approach the question of the interaction order in its relations with the institutional and social orders, and consequently, to reassess the scope of the notion of social information analyzed.
Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Seven, Serdal
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect social information processing levels has on the social competence (entering a peer group, response towards provocation, response to failure, response to success, social expectations, teacher expectations, reactive aggression, proactive aggression) and peer relationship (prosocial behaviour,…
McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.
Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…
Ziv, Yair; Hadad, Bat Sheva; Khateeb, Yasmine
The social cognitive deficiencies of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying these deficiencies are unclear. Therefore, we examined the social information processing (SIP) patterns and social behaviors of 25 preschool children with ASDs in comparison to a matched group of 25…
Arsenio, William F.; Lemerise, Elizabeth A.
Social information processing and moral domain theories have developed in relative isolation from each other despite their common focus on intentional harm and victimization, and mutual emphasis on social cognitive processes in explaining aggressive, morally relevant behaviors. This article presents a selective summary of these literatures with…
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E
Maladaptive social information processing, such as hostile attributional bias and aggressive response generation, is associated with childhood maladjustment. Although social information processing problems are correlated with heightened physiological responses to social threat, few studies have examined their associations with neural threat circuitry, specifically amygdala activation to social threat. A cohort of 310 boys participated in an ongoing longitudinal study and completed questionnaires and laboratory tasks assessing their social and cognitive characteristics the boys were between 10 and 12 years of age. At age 20, 178 of these young men underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and a social threat task. At age 22, adult criminal arrest records and self-reports of impulsiveness were obtained. Path models indicated that maladaptive social information-processing at ages 10 and 11 predicted increased left amygdala reactivity to fear faces, an ambiguous threat, at age 20 while accounting for childhood antisocial behavior, empathy, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Exploratory analyses indicated that aggressive response generation - the tendency to respond to threat with reactive aggression - predicted left amygdala reactivity to fear faces and was concurrently associated with empathy, antisocial behavior, and hostile attributional bias, whereas hostile attributional bias correlated with IQ. Although unrelated to social information-processing problems, bilateral amygdala reactivity to anger faces at age 20 was unexpectedly predicted by low IQ at age 11. Amygdala activation did not mediate associations between social information processing and number of criminal arrests, but both impulsiveness at age 22 and arrests were correlated with right amygdala reactivity to anger facial expressions at age 20. Childhood social information processing and IQ predicted young men's amygdala response to threat a decade later, which suggests that childhood social
Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Ellington, Lee
This paper is a report of a study to assess the applicability of a theoretical model of social information processing in expanding a nursing theory addressing how nurses respond to patients. Nursing communication affects patient outcomes such as anxiety, adherence to treatments and satisfaction with care. Orlando's theory of nursing process describes nurses' reactions to patients' behaviour as generating a perception, thought and feeling in the nurse and then action by the nurse. A model of social information processing describes the sequential steps in the cognitive processes used to respond to social cues and may be useful in describing the nursing process. Cognitive interviews were conducted in 2006 with a convenience sample of 5 nurses in the United States of America. The data were interpreted using the Crick and Dodge model of social information processing. Themes arising from cognitive interviews validated concepts of the nursing theory and the constructs of the model of social information processing. The interviews revealed that the support of peers was an additional construct involved in the development of communication skills, creation of a database and enhancement of self-efficacy. Models of social information processing enhance understanding of the process of how nurses respond to patients and further develop nursing theories further. In combination, the theories are useful in developing research into nurse-patient communication. Future research based on the expansion of nursing theory may identify effective and culturally appropriate nurse response patterns to specific patient interactions with implications for nursing care and patient outcomes.
Harrewijn, Anita; Schmidt, Louis A; Westenberg, P Michiel; Tang, Alva; van der Molen, Melle J W
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by information processing biases, however, their underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this review was to give a comprehensive overview of the most frequently studied EEG spectral and event-related potential (ERP) measures in social anxiety during rest, anticipation, stimulus processing, and recovery. A Web of Science search yielded 35 studies reporting on electrocortical measures in individuals with social anxiety or related constructs. Social anxiety was related to increased delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during anticipation and recovery, and information processing biases during early processing of faces (P1) and errors (error-related negativity). These electrocortical measures are discussed in relation to the persistent cycle of information processing biases maintaining SAD. Future research should further investigate the mechanisms of this persistent cycle and study the utility of electrocortical measures in early detection, prevention, treatment and endophenotype research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu, Lili; Gu, Ruolei; Zhang, Jianxin
Attachment is critical to each individual. It affects the cognitive-affective processing of social information. The present study examines how attachment affects the processing of social information, specifically maternal information. We assessed the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to maternal information (compared to non-specific others) in a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT) with 22 participants. The results illustrated that attachment affected maternal information processing during three sequential stages of information processing. First, attachment affected visual perception, reflected by enhanced P100 and N170 elicited by maternal information as compared to others information. Second, compared to others, mother obtained more attentional resources, reflected by faster behavioral response to maternal information and larger P200 and P300. Finally, mother was evaluated positively, reflected by shorter P300 latency in a mother + good condition as compared to a mother + bad condition. These findings indicated that the processing of attachment-relevant information is neurologically differentiated from other types of social information from an early stage of perceptual processing to late high-level processing.
Full Text Available Humans not only have impressive executive abilities, but we are also fundamentally social creatures. In the cognitive neuroscience literature, it has long been assumed that executive control mechanisms, which play a critical role in guiding goal-directed behavior, operate on consciously processed information. Although more recent evidence suggests that unconsciously processed information can also influence executive control, most of this literature has focused on visual masked priming paradigms. However, the social psychological literature has demonstrated that unconscious influences are pervasive, and social information can unintentionally influence a wide variety of behaviors, including some that are likely to require executive abilities. For example, social information can unconsciously influence attention processes, such that simply instructing participants to describe a previous situation in which they had power over someone or someone else had power over them has been shown to unconsciously influence their attentional focus abilities, a key aspect of executive control. In the current review, we consider behavioral and neural findings from a variety of paradigms, including priming of goals and social hierarchical roles, as well as interpersonal interactions, in order to highlight the pervasive nature of social influences on executive control. These findings suggest that social information can play a critical role in executive control, and that this influence often occurs in an unconscious fashion. We conclude by suggesting further avenues of research for investigation of the interplay between social factors and executive control.
Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.
Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun
This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…
Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit
This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…
Kavaliers, Martin; Matta, Richard; Choleris, Elena
Social and sexual behaviors, including that of mate choice, are dependent on social information. Mate choice can be modified by prior and ongoing social factors and experience. The mate choice decisions of one individual can be influenced by either the actual or potential mate choice of another female or male. Such non-independent mate choice, where individuals gain social information and socially learn about and recognizes potential mates by observing the choices of another female or male, has been termed "mate-choice copying". Here we first briefly review how, why, and under what circumstances individuals engage in mate-choice copying. Secondly, we review the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying. In particular, we consider the roles of the nonapeptide, oxytocin, in the processing of social information and the expression of mate-choice copying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vagos, Paula; Rijo, Daniel; Santos, Isabel M
Relatively little is known about measures used to investigate the validity and applications of social information processing theory. The Scenes for Social Information Processing in Adolescence includes items built using a participatory approach to evaluate the attribution of intent, emotion intensity, response evaluation, and response decision steps of social information processing. We evaluated a sample of 802 Portuguese adolescents (61.5% female; mean age = 16.44 years old) using this instrument. Item analysis and exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic procedures were used for psychometric examination. Two measures for attribution of intent were produced, including hostile and neutral; along with 3 emotion measures, focused on negative emotional states; 8 response evaluation measures; and 4 response decision measures, including prosocial and impaired social behavior. All of these measures achieved good internal consistency values and fit indicators. Boys seemed to favor and choose overt and relational aggression behaviors more often; girls conveyed higher levels of neutral attribution, sadness, and assertiveness and passiveness. The Scenes for Social Information Processing in Adolescence achieved adequate psychometric results and seems a valuable alternative for evaluating social information processing, even if it is essential to continue investigation into its internal and external validity. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.
Wang, Pei; Tan, Chen-Hao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yi-Bo; Luo, Jun-Long
As N270 has been widely shown to be sensitive to nonsocial information conflict, the present study investigated whether social information conflict can elicit increased N270 in either explicit or implicit processing conditions. Gender stereotype-related picture-word pairs and picture-word pairs in specific colors were used as social and nonsocial information, respectively. Participants performed an explicit task based on the S1-S2 paradigm in Study 1, and both social and nonsocial information conditions elicited larger N270 than the no-conflict condition. In Study 2, participants performed a word judgment task that was modified from the S1-S2 paradigm of Study 1. However, neither social information nor nonsocial information elicited larger N270 within the conflict condition. Social trials generally elicited a more negative ERP waveform than nonsocial trials overall. These findings suggest that N270 may reflect the processing of social information conflict only in explicit conditions and also that the cognitive basis of N270 is thus a general but explicit processing of working memory representation conflict. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kupersmidt, Janis B; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in 3rd through 5th grades. This study included a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 244 boys ages 8 through 12 (M = 9.4) from public elementary schools in 3 states. The SIP-AP includes 8 videotaped vignettes, filmed from the first-person perspective, that depict common misunderstandings among boys. Each vignette shows a negative outcome for the victim and ambiguous intent on the part of the perpetrator. Boys responded to 16 Web-based questions representing the 5 social information processing mechanisms, after viewing each vignette. Parents and teachers completed measures assessing boys' antisocial behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a model positing the original 5 cognitive mechanisms fit the data well when the items representing prosocial cognitions were included on their own factor, creating a 6th factor. The internal consistencies for each of the 16 individual cognitions as well as for the 6 cognitive mechanism scales were excellent. Boys with elevated scores on 5 of the 6 cognitive mechanisms exhibited more antisocial behavior than boys whose scores were not elevated. These findings highlight the need for further research on the measurement of prosocial cognitions or cognitive strengths in boys in addition to assessing cognitive deficits. Findings suggest that the SIP-AP is a reliable and valid tool for use in future research of social information processing skills in boys.
Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude
Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the patterns of results that have emerged from these studies. The central proposition is that individuals who possess secure experience-based internal working models of attachment will process--in a relatively open manner--a broad range of positive and negative attachment-relevant social information. Moreover, secure individuals will draw on their positive attachment-related knowledge to process this information in a positively biased schematic way. In contrast, individuals who possess insecure internal working models of attachment will process attachment-relevant social information in one of two ways, depending on whether the information could cause the individual psychological pain. If processing the information is likely to lead to psychological pain, insecure individuals will defensively exclude this information from further processing. If, however, the information is unlikely to lead to psychological pain, then insecure individuals will process this information in a negatively biased schematic fashion that is congruent with their negative attachment-related experiences. In a comprehensive literature review, we describe studies that illustrate these patterns of attachment-related information processing from childhood to adulthood. This review focuses on studies that have examined specific components (e.g., attention and memory) and broader aspects (e.g., attributions) of social information processing. We also provide general conclusions and suggestions for future research.
Lee, Young-A; Lionnet, Sarah; Kato, Akemi; Goto, Yukiori
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter whose roles have been suggested in various aspects of brain functions. Recent studies in rodents have reported its roles in social function. However, how DA is involved in social information processing in primates has largely remained unclear. We investigated prefrontal cortical (PFC) activities associated with social vs. nonsocial visual stimulus processing. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to Japanese macaques, along with pharmacological manipulations of DA transmission, while they were gazing at social and nonsocial visual stimuli. Oxygenated (oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated (deoxy-Hb) hemoglobin changes as well as functional connectivity based on such Hb changes within the PFC network which were distinct between social and nonsocial stimuli were observed. Administration of both D1 and D2 receptor antagonists affected the Hb changes associated with social stimuli, whereas D1, but not D2, receptor antagonist affected the Hb changes associated with nonsocial stimuli. These results suggest that mesocortical DA transmission in the PFC plays significant roles in social information processing, which involves both D1 and D2 receptor activation, in nonhuman primates. However, D1 and D2 receptor signaling in the PFC mediates different aspects of social vs. nonsocial information processing.
Klomfar, Sophie; d’Haene, Ine; Brass, Marcel
It is widely known that individuals frequently imitate each other in social situations and that such mimicry fulfills an important social role in the sense that it functions as a social glue. With reference to the anticipated action effect, it has recently been demonstrated that individuals do not only imitate others, but also engage in anticipated action before the observed person starts engaging in that action. Interestingly, both phenomena (i.e., mimicry and anticipated action) rely on tracking others’ social behavior. Therefore, in the present research we investigated whether mimicry and anticipated action are related to social abilities as indicated by measures of social intelligence. The results demonstrate for the first time that mimicry as well as anticipated action is correlated with an important aspect of social intelligence—namely the ability to process social information. Theoretical implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:29590127
Ohmann, Katharina; Stahl, Jutta; Mussweiler, Thomas; Kedia, Gayannée
A wide array of social decisions relies on social comparisons. As such, these decisions require fast access to relative information. Therefore, we expect that signatures of the comparative process should be observable in electrophysiological components at an early stage of information processing. However, to date, little is known about the neural time course of social target comparisons. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in 2 electroencephalography (EEG) studies using a social distance effect paradigm. The distance effect capitalizes on the fact that stimuli close on a certain dimension take longer to compare than stimuli clearly differing on this dimension. Here, we manipulated the distance of face characteristics regarding their levels of attractiveness (Study 1) and trustworthiness (Study 2), 2 essential social dimensions. In both studies, size comparisons served as a nonsocial control condition. In Study 1, distance related effects were apparent 170 ms (vertex positive potential, VPP) and 200 ms (N2) after stimulus onset for attractiveness comparisons. In Study 2, trustworthiness comparisons took effect already after 100 ms (N1) and likewise carried over to an event-related N2. Remarkably, we observed a similar temporal pattern for social (attractiveness, trustworthiness) and nonsocial (size) dimensions. These results speak in favor of an early encoding of comparative information and emphasize the primary role of comparison in social information processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole M; McKown, Clark; Johnson, Jason K; Allen, Adelaide W; Evans-Smith, Bernadette; Fogg, Louis
Difficulty processing social information is a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet the failure of children with ASD to process social information effectively is poorly understood. Using Crick and Dodge's model of social information processing (SIP), this study examined the relationship between social-emotional (SE) skills of pragmatic language, theory of mind, and emotion recognition on the one hand, and early stage SIP skills of problem identification and goal generation on the other. The study included a sample of school-aged children with and without ASD. SIP was assessed using hypothetical social situations in the context of a semistructured scenario-based interview. Pragmatic language, theory of mind, and emotion recognition were measured using direct assessments. Social thinking differences between children with and without ASD are largely differences of quantity (overall lower performance in ASD), not discrepancies in cognitive processing patterns. These data support theoretical models of the relationship between SE skills and SIP. Findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms giving rise to SIP deficits in ASD and may ultimately inform treatment development for children with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Salancik, Gerald R.; Pfeffer, Jeffrey
In comparison with need-satisfaction and expectancy models of job attitudes and motivation, the social information processing perspective emphasizes the effects of context and the consequences of past choices, rather than individual predispositions and rational decision-making processes. (Author)
Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.
Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…
Fontaine, Reid Griffith
The Special Section on developmental research on social information processing (SIP) and antisocial behavior is here introduced. Following a brief history of SIP theory, comments on several themes--measurement and assessment, attributional and interpretational style, response evaluation and decision, and the relation between emotion and SIP--that…
Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz
This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…
Camodeca, M.; Goossens, F.A.; Schuengel, C.; Meerum Terwogt, M.
The aim of this study was to investigate the way in which bullies, victims, bully/victims, and those not involved process social information. A peer nomination measure of bullying and victimization was administered twice over an interval of one year. The sample consisted of 236 (126 girls and 110
Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne
The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86)…
Arsenio, William F.; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason
Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated.…
The Arsenio and Lemerise (this issue) proposal integrating social information processing (SIP) and domain theory to study children's aggression is evaluated from a domain theory perspective. Basic tenets of domain theory rendering it compatible with SIP are discussed as well as points of divergence. Focus is directed to the proposition that…
Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.
Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…
Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude
Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the…
Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L; Mark, Erin
To examine social information processing (SIP) skills, behavior problems, and social competence following adolescent TBI and to determine whether SIP skills were predictive of behavior problems and social competence. Cross-sectional analyses of adolescents with TBI recruited and enrolled in a behavioral treatment study currently in progress. Two tertiary care children's hospitals with Level 1 trauma centers. Adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with severe TBI (n=19) and moderate TBI (n=24) who were injured up to 24 months prior to recruitment. TBI severity, race, maternal education, and age at testing. a measure of SIP skills, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Youth Self Report (YSR), and Home and Community Social Behavior Scale (HCSBS). The severe TBI group did not obtain significantly lower scores on the SIP measures than the moderate TBI group. In comparison to adolescents with moderate TBI, those with severe TBI had significantly more parent-reported externalizing behaviors and self-reported weaknesses in social competence. SIP skills were strong predictors of problems and social competence in adolescents with TBI. More specifically, an aggressive SIP style predicted externalizing problems and a passive SIP style predicted internalizing problems. Both passive and aggressive SIP skills were related to social competence and social problems. Adolescents with TBI are at risk for deficits in social and behavioral outcomes. SIP skills are strongly related to behavior problems and social competence in adolescents with TBI. SIP skills, social competence, and behavior problems are important targets for intervention that may be amenable to change and lead to improved functional outcomes following TBI.
Farrer, James; Gavin, Jeff
This study examines the experiences of past and present members of a popular Japanese online dating site in order to explore the extent to which Western-based theories of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and the development of online relationships are relevant to the Japanese online dating experience. Specifically, it examines whether social information processing theory (SIPT) is applicable to Japanese online dating interactions, and how and to what extent Japanese daters overcome the limitations of CMC through the use of contextual and other cues. Thirty-six current members and 27 former members of Match.com Japan completed an online survey. Using issue-based procedures for grounded theory analysis, we found strong support for SIPT. Japanese online daters adapt their efforts to present and acquire social information using the cues that the online dating platform provides, although many of these cues are specific to Japanese social context.
Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M
The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural processing of social information about kin and friends at different levels of closeness and social network level. Twenty-five female participants engaged in a cognitive social task involving different individuals in their social network while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to detect BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) signals changes. Greater levels of activation occurred in several regions of the brain previously associated with social cognition when thinking about friends than when thinking about kin, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC). Linear parametric analyses across network layers further showed that, when it came to thinking about friends, activation increased in the vMPFC, lingual gyrus, and sensorimotor cortex as individuals thought about friends at closer layers of the network. These findings suggest that maintaining friendships may be more cognitively exacting than maintaining kin relationships. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mazza, Monica; Mariano, Melania; Peretti, Sara; Masedu, Francesco; Pino, Maria Chiara; Valenti, Marco
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show significant impairments in social skills and theory of mind (ToM). The aim of this study was to evaluate ToM and social information processing abilities in 52 children with ASD compared to 55 typically developing (TD) children. A mediation analysis evaluated whether social information…
Dina Sekar Vusparatih
Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find the linkages between mindfulness and social information processing theory on the use of WhatsApp group of Elementary school Principals in District Cilandak Region III for the distribution of various information and instructions. Through the concept of mindfulness and Social Information Processing theory approach (SIP, this research would explore the causes of the frequent emergence of noise, misunderstanding, and even tangency to the WA group that was carried on the meeting of headmaster meetings and relationships between members. The research problem was why WA group still causing issues among the Principals. By using the qualitative approach, data collection techniques used in this research were the interview, observation, and literature study. It is found that technological sophistication does not go parallel with maturity in communicating using media technologies. Lack of mindfulness in the WA group is a form of organizational communication that is simply transferred into the form of text communication on mobile phones that is being the main cause. Also, the organizational structure is still inherent in it and only serves as a bridge/form of interim communication because the main form of communication is still in the form of correspondence and face-to-face meetings.
Kendra N. Bowen
Full Text Available Objective to study the decisionmaking process in highriskforviolence situations. Methods formallegal sociological method of hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Results criminological research has favored the rational choice perspective in studying offender decision making. However this theoretical approach does not take into account the complex interplay of situational cognitive emotional and person factors that likely influence criminal decision making. To that end the current study examines decision making in highriskforviolence situations focusing on social information processing and emotional state variables. The current study utilizes a sample of 236 newly incarcerated jailed inmates who provide personal level data and situational reports of violent and avoided violence situations n 466. Scientific novelty the findings for the first time show that several situational social information processing and emotion variables such as intent interpretation goal and response generation are significant predictors of the escalation of violence hence increasing the probability of committing a crime. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and lawenforcement activities when considering the issues of identifying and eliminating the reasons and conditions of crime committing as well as with influencing the individuals in order to prevent crimes or antisocial behavior.
Tafarodi, R W
Paradoxical self-esteem is defined as contrasting levels of self-liking and self-competence. Consideration of the social and motivational implications of this uncommon form of self-esteem suggests that heightened selectivity in the processing of social information may be behind its persistence. Two experiments were conducted to confirm the prediction of heightened selectivity in paradoxicals. As expected, those paradoxically low in self-liking were more negatively biased in their memory for personality feedback (Study 1) and interpretation of valuatively ambiguous phrases (Study 2) than were their counterparts who shared the same low self-liking but were also low in self-competence. Symmetrical with this result, those paradoxically high in self-liking exhibited a heightened positive bias relative to those who were high in both self-liking and self-competence. The findings are discussed in relation to attitudes and motivation.
Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole; McKown, Clark; Johnson, Jason; Russo, Jaclyn; Crossman, Jacob; Reife, Ilana
Social information processing (SIP) skills are critical for developing and maintaining peer relationships. Building on existing assessment techniques, Virtual Environment for SIP (VESIP TM ), a simulation-based assessment that immerses children in social decision-making scenarios, was developed. This study presents preliminary evidence of VESIP's usefulness for measuring SIP skills in children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-one children with ASD and 29 control children participated. It was hypothesized that (a) children (8-12 years old), with and without ASD, would understand and interact effectively with VESIP; (b) VESIP scores would be reliable in both populations; and (c) children with ASD would score lower on SIP domains than typically developing peers. Results supported these hypotheses. Finally, response bias was also evaluated, showing that children with ASD have different problem-solving strategies than their peers. VESIP has great potential as a scalable assessment of SIP strengths and challenges in children with and without ASD. Autism Res 2018, 11: 305-317. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often struggle interpreting and responding to social situations. The present study suggests that an animated, simulation-based assessment approach is an effective way to measure how children with or without ASDs problem-solve challenging social situations. VESIP is an easy-to-use assessment tool that can help practitioners understand a child's particular strengths and weaknesses. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cress, Ulrike; Held, Christoph; Kimmerle, Joachim
Tag clouds generated in social tagging systems can capture the collective knowledge of communities. Using as a basis spreading activation theories, information foraging theory, and the co-evolution model of cognitive and social systems, we present here a model for an "extended information scent," which proposes that both collective and individual…
Full Text Available According to interaction theories, the detection of situated agents and the understanding of their intentions and mental states are mediated by smart perceptual and embodied mechanisms. While the network supporting agency-attribution, action understanding, and grasping of others’ mental state is quite known, the actual mental chronometry of such social perception processes is still not clear. We then designed an exploratory study to investigate electrophysiological correlates (ERPs and source localization of information-processing for the detection of potential agents in realistic interaction scenes. Morphological and statistical analyses of electrophysiological data highlighted that the manipulation the nature of a potential agent, the gesture it executed and the relative position of an interagent was differently associated to the modulation of specific relevant middle-latency ERP components, labelled as P200 and N250, and of their relative intra-cortical current density distribution within the first 300 ms from the appearance of the stimulus.
Van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Van Rest, M M; Embregts, P J C M; Vriens, A; Oostermeijer, S; Van Bokhoven, I; Matthys, W
One tradition in research for explaining aggression and antisocial behavior has focused on social information processing (SIP). Aggression and antisocial behavior have also been studied from the perspective of executive functions (EFs), the higher-order cognitive abilities that affect other cognitive processes, such as social cognitive processes. The main goal of the present study is to provide insight into the relation between EFs and SIP in adolescents with severe behavior problems. Because of the hierarchical relation between EFs and SIP, we examined EFs as predictors of SIP. We hypothesized that, first, focused attention predicts encoding and interpretation, second, inhibition predicts interpretation, response generation, evaluation, and selection, and third, working memory predicts response generation and selection. The participants consisted of 94 respondents living in residential facilities aged 12-20 years, all showing behavior problems in the clinical range according to care staff. EFs were assessed using subtests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Test battery. Focused attention was measured by the Flanker task, inhibition by the GoNoGo task, and working memory by the Visual Spatial Sequencing task. SIP was measured by video vignettes and a structured interview. The results indicate that positive evaluation of aggressive responses is predicted by impaired inhibition and selection of aggressive responses by a combination of impaired focused attention and inhibition. It is concluded that different components of EFs as higher-order cognitive abilities affect SIP.
Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.
Hansen, Kjeld S.
In this PhD project, I'm investigating how health organizations are sharing health information on social media. My PhD project is divided into two parts, but in this paper, I will only focus on the first part: To understand current practices of how health organizations engage with health...... information and users on social media (empirical studies 1,2,3) and to develop a theoretical model for how it is done efficiently and effectively. I have currently conducted and published on two empirical studies (1,2). I am in the process of collecting data for a revised version of empirical study (2...
Мария Васильевна Комова
Full Text Available The social transformation is considered as a process of qualitative changes of the society, creating a new level of organization in all areas of life, in different social formations, societies of different types of development. The purpose of the study is to create a universal model for studying social transformations based on their understanding as the consequence of the information exchange processes in the society. After defining the conceptual model of the study, the author uses the following methods: the descriptive method, analysis, synthesis, comparison.Information, objectively existing in all elements and systems of the material world, is an integral attribute of the society transformation as well. The information model of social transformations is based on the definition of the society transformation as the change in the information that functions in the society’s information space. The study of social transformations is the study of information flows circulating in the society and being characterized by different spatial, temporal, and structural states. Social transformations are a highly integrated system of social processes and phenomena, the nature, course and consequences of which are affected by the factors representing the whole complex of material objects. The integrated information model of social transformations foresees the interaction of the following components: social memory, information space, and the social ideal. To determine the dynamics and intensity of social transformations the author uses the notions of "information threshold of social transformations" and "information pressure".Thus, the universal nature of information leads to considering social transformations as a system of information exchange processes. Social transformations can be extended to any episteme actualized by social needs. The establishment of an information threshold allows to simulate the course of social development, to predict the
Mazza, Monica; Mariano, Melania; Peretti, Sara; Masedu, Francesco; Pino, Maria Chiara; Valenti, Marco
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show significant impairments in social skills and theory of mind (ToM). The aim of this study was to evaluate ToM and social information processing abilities in 52 children with ASD compared to 55 typically developing (TD) children. A mediation analysis evaluated whether social information processing abilities can be mediated by ToM competences. In our results, children with autism showed a deficit in social skills and ToM components. The innovative results of our study applying mediation analysis demonstrate that ToM plays a key role in the development of social abilities, and the lack of ToM competences in children with autism impairs their competent social behavior.
Bourne, Victoria J; Watling, Dawn
Previous research examining the possible association between emotion lateralisation and social anxiety has found conflicting results. In this paper two studies are presented to assess two aspects related to different features of social anxiety: fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and emotion regulation. Lateralisation for the processing of facial emotion was measured using the chimeric faces test. Individuals with greater FNE were more strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere for the processing of anger, happiness and sadness; and, for the processing of fearful faces the relationship was found for females only. Emotion regulation strategies were reduced to two factors: positive strategies and negative strategies. For males, but not females, greater reported use of negative emotion strategies is associated with stronger right hemisphere lateralisation for processing negative emotions. The implications for further understanding the neuropsychological processing of emotion in individuals with social anxiety are discussed.
Abraham, Anna; Kaufmann, Carolin; Redlich, Ronny; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Stevens, Stephan; Hermann, Christiane
The fear of negative evaluation is one of the hallmark features of social anxiety. Behavioral evidence thus far largely supports cognitive models which postulate that information processing biases in the face of socially relevant information are a key factor underlying this widespread phobia. So far only one neuroimaging study has explicitly focused on the fear of negative evaluation in social anxiety where the brain responses of social phobics were compared to healthy participants during the processing of self-referential relative to other-referential criticism, praise or neutral information. Only self-referential criticism led to stronger activations in emotion-relevant regions of the brain, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), in the social phobics. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these findings could be extended to subclinical social anxiety. In doing so, the specificity of this self-referential bias was also examined by including both social and non-social (physical illness-related) threat information as well as a highly health anxious control group in the experimental paradigm. The fMRI findings indicated that the processing of emotional stimuli was accompanied by activations in the amygdala and the ventral mPFC, while self-referential processing was associated with activity in regions such as the mPFC, posterior cingulate and temporal poles. Despite the validation of the paradigm, the results revealed that the previously reported behavioral and brain biases associated with social phobia could not be unequivocally extended to subclinical social anxiety. The divergence between the findings is explored in detail with reference to paradigm differences and conceptual issues.
Raikes, H Abigail; Virmani, Elita A; Thompson, Ross A; Hatton, Holly
The transition from preschool to early school years is critical for the growth of social skills. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (for this study N = 942), the purpose of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of attachment security and social information processing skills (social problem-solving and hostile attribution biases) on normative changes in peer conflict over the transition from preschool to first grade. Using latent growth curve modeling (LGM), this study found that children exhibited progressive declines in peer conflict over this period. Security of attachment (assessed via the Attachment Q-Set at 24 months) was related to lower rates of peer conflict in first grade, and steeper declines in peer conflict from 54 to 84 months. Differences in children's social information processing (assessed at 54 months) were marginally related to steeper declines in peer conflict. These findings suggest that the social skills and social expectations associated with early attachment security, together with subsequent advances in social information processing, are related to changes in peer conflict during the transition to school.
Schultz, David; Ambike, Archana; Logie, Sean Kevin; Bohner, Katherine E.; Stapleton, Laura M.; VanderWalde, Holly; Min, Christopher B.; Betkowski, Jennifer A.
Crick and Dodge's (Psychological Bulletin 115:74-101, 1994) social information processing model has proven very useful in guiding research focused on aggressive and peer-rejected children's social-cognitive functioning. Its application to early childhood, however, has been much more limited. The present study responds to this gap by developing and…
Davis, Thomas D
Practice evaluation strategies range in style from the formal-analytic tools of single-subject designs, rapid assessment instruments, algorithmic steps in evidence-informed practice, and computer software applications, to the informal-interactive tools of clinical supervision, consultation with colleagues, use of client feedback, and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to provide practice researchers in social work with an evidence-informed theory that is capable of explaining both how and why social workers use practice evaluation strategies to self-monitor the effectiveness of their interventions in terms of client change. The author delineates the theoretical contours and consequences of what is called dual-process theory. Drawing on evidence-informed advances in the cognitive and social neurosciences, the author identifies among everyday social workers a theoretically stable, informal-interactive tool preference that is a cognitively necessary, sufficient, and stand-alone preference that requires neither the supplementation nor balance of formal-analytic tools. The author's delineation of dual-process theory represents a theoretical contribution in the century-old attempt to understand how and why social workers evaluate their practice the way they do.
Setchell, Sarah; Fritz, Patti Timmons; Glasgow, Jillian
We used couple-level data to predict physical acts of intimate partner violence (IPV) from self-reported negative emotions and social information-processing (SIP) abilities among 100 dating couples (n = 200; mean age = 21.45 years). Participants read a series of hypothetical conflict situation vignettes and responded to questionnaires to assess negative emotions and various facets of SIP including attributions for partner behavior, generation of response alternatives, and response selection. We conducted a series of negative binomial mixed-model regressions based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM; Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006, Dyadic data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press). There were significant results for the response generation and negative emotion models. Participants who generated fewer coping response alternatives were at greater risk of victimization (actor effect). Women were at greater risk of victimization if they had partners who generated fewer coping response alternatives (sex by partner interaction effect). Generation of less competent coping response alternatives predicted greater risk of perpetration among men, whereas generation of more competent coping response alternatives predicted greater risk of victimization among women (sex by actor interaction effects). Two significant actor by partner interaction effects were found for the negative emotion models. Participants who reported discrepant levels of negative emotions from their partners were at greatest risk of perpetration. Participants who reported high levels of negative emotions were at greatest risk of victimization if they had partners who reported low levels of negative emotions. This research has implications for researchers and clinicians interested in addressing the problem of IPV. Aggr. Behav. 43:329-341, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chen, P.; Coccaro, E. F.; Lee, R.; Jacobson, K. C.
Background Associations between early life maltreatment, social information processing (SIP) and aggression in childhood and adolescence have been widely documented. Few studies have examined the importance of childhood maltreatment independent of SIP in the etiology of adult aggression. Furthermore, moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on the SIP–aggression links have not been explored. Method Hierarchical, multi-level models were fitted to data from n=2752 twins aged 20–55 years from the PennTwins Cohort. Adult aggression was assessed with the Life History of Aggression questionnaire. Childhood maltreatment was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Two aspects of SIP were examined : hostile attribution biases (HAB) ; negative emotional responses (NER). Results Childhood maltreatment was positively correlated with adult aggression, independently of HAB and NER. In addition, childhood maltreatment moderated the relationships between both aspects of SIP and adult aggression. Specifically, the relationship between NER and aggression was stronger among individuals with higher levels of childhood maltreatment and NER was not associated with aggression for adults who experienced low levels of childhood maltreatment. Moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on the NER–aggression link were supported for total childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect and emotional abuse. In contrast, HAB was more strongly associated with adult aggression at lower levels of emotional abuse and physical neglect. Conclusions The current study provides insight into the mechanisms by which early life experiences influence adult aggression. Our findings suggest that childhood maltreatment may not only lead to increased levels of aggression in adulthood but may also modify the associations between SIP and adult aggression. PMID:22008562
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.
Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun
The primary aim of this study was to assess the moderating role of emotion regulation in the relationship between some components of social information processing (hostile interpretation and anger) and aggressive behavior. The secondary aim was to assess whether emotion regulation, hostile interpretation, and anger account for gender differences…
Wu, Fan; Fraser, Mark W.; Guo, Shenyang; Day, Steven H.; Galinsky, Maeda J.
Objective: The study had two objectives (a) to adapt for Chinese children an intervention designed to strengthen the social information--processing (SIP) skills of children in the United States, and (b) to pilot test the adapted intervention in China. Methods: Adaptation of the "Making Choices" program involved reviewing Chinese…
Horsley, Tako A.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Van der Schoot, Menno
According to social information processing theories, aggressive children are hypersensitive to cues of hostility and threat in other people's behavior. However, even though there is ample evidence that aggressive children over-interpret others' behaviors as hostile, it is unclear whether this hostile attribution tendency does actually result from…
Andrade, Brendan F.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Doucet, Amelie; King, Sara; MacKinnon, Maura; McGrath, Patrick J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Corkum, Penny
Objective: This study examined social information processing (SIP) of events with varied outcomes in children with ADHD and conduct problems (CPs; defined as oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD]) and controls. Method: Participants were 64 children (46 boys, 18 girls) aged 6 to 12, including 39 with ADHD and 25 controls.…
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.
Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…
Individual differences in cognitive processing of interdependency information. The influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information in interdependency situations and the reflection on the temporal aspects of decision-making.
Dehue, Francine Marie Jean
The present thesis describes research on the influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information underlying decisions in interdependency situations. The research is based on the assumption that the cognitive processes are reflected in decision times. ... Zie: Summary
Coccaro, Emil F; Fanning, Jennifer R; Fisher, Eliana; Couture, Laurel; Lee, Royce J
A computerized version of an assessment of Social-Emotional Information Processing (SEIP) using audio-video film stimuli instead of written narrative vignettes was developed for use in adult participants. This task allows for an assessment of encoding or relevant/irrelevant social-emotional information, attribution bias, and endorsement of appropriate, physically aggressive, and relationally aggressive responses to aversive social-emotional stimuli. The psychometric properties of this Video-SEIP (V-SEIP) assessment were examined in 75 healthy controls (HC) and in 75 individuals with DSM-5 Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) and were also compared with the original questionnaire (SEIP-Q) version of the task (HC=26; IED=26). Internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest properties of the V-SEIP were good to excellent. In addition, IED participants displayed reduced encoding of relevant information from the film clips, elevated hostile attribution bias, elevated negative emotional response, and elevated endorsement of physically aggressive and relationally aggressive responses to the ambiguous social-emotional stimuli presented in the V-SEIP. These data indicate that the V-SEIP represents a valid and comprehensive alternative to the paper-and-pencil assessment of social-emotional information processing biases in adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kataev, M. Yu; Bulysheva, L. A.; Xu, Li D.; Loseva, N. V.
Introduction - Business processes are gradually becoming a tool that allows you at a new level to put employees or to make more efficient document management system. In these directions the main work, and presents the largest possible number of publications. However, business processes are still poorly implemented in public institutions, where it is very difficult to formalize the main existing processes. Us attempts to build a system of business processes for such state agencies as the Russian social insurance Fund (SIF), where virtually all of the processes, when different inputs have the same output: public service. The parameters of the state services (as a rule, time limits) are set by state laws and regulations. The article provides a brief overview of the FSS, the formulation of requirements to business processes, the justification of the choice of software for modeling business processes and create models of work in the system Runa WFE and optimization models one of the main business processes of the FSS. The result of the work of Runa WFE is an optimized model of the business process of FSS.
Raquel Redondo Palomo
Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring how social and environmental (SE labels influence purchasing. By drawing on the information processing and the systematic-heuristic models, this study tests the process followed by consumers when purchasing SE labeled-products. Information was gathered through a structured questionnaire in personal interviews with 400 consumers responsible for household shopping of Fast-moving Consumer Goods (FMCG, who were randomly approached at shopping malls in four areas of Madrid, Spain. They were asked about recognition, knowledge, credibility, perceived utility and purchases on 12 different labels; the influence of these variables on purchase is modeled and tested by path analysis. This study suggests that a systematic-heuristic information processing occurs when consumers buy SE-labeled FMCG products, as the purchase of this type of goods depends on the recognition of a label, knowledge of the issue/issuer, as well as the credibility and the perceived utility of SE labels. Motivation for being informed influences the process, being an antecedent of awareness, comprehension and perceived utility. This model shows a dual processing mode: systematic and heuristic, where the lack of cognitive capacity could explain why these two processing modes co-occur. This paper adds value to existing literature on SE labels and consumption by applying the information processing model, which has not been used before in the field of responsible consumption, in addition to open a promising avenue for research, by offering complementary theories to the existing ones, based on attitudes.
N. Y. Hirlina
Full Text Available Integrated within the social and philosophical discourse interdisciplinary methodology, based on the classic philosophical methodology for the analysis of socio-cultural phenomena enables a holistic understanding of the studied phenomenon. From a methodological point of view it is important to determine the social and philosophical understanding of the impact medіa cultural space of personality in conditions of dynamically changing socio-cultural environment. important social and philosophical methodological guideline should be considered on a thesis constant presence in the media culture of human space as being due to the fact that man is a social being, and the information society without media culture as its attribute exists. Philosophical «core» study of the spiritual culture of youth is humanism in its broadest sense, that is, understanding of the studied phenomenon primarily as a multi-dimensional culturing of human values. Submission materialistic determinant factors medіa cultural spiritual space is only possible under the dominance of humanistic values. With all the variety to understanding the spiritual dimension of the relationship of the individual with the socio-cultural environment common dominant philosophical idea of guidelines is the recognition of the spiritual and cultural autonomy rights. Globalization and its associated civilization and processes are seen as foreign in relation to social rights, while the internal spiritual content is cultural processes. Anthropological oriented cultural space of socialization based on interpersonal cultural interaction that produces unique and distinctive personality.
McFillin, Roger K; Cahn, Stacey C; Burks, Virginia Salzer; Levine, Martha Peaslee; Loney, Susan Lane; Levine, Richard L
The objective of this study was to examine differences in social information-processing and coping strategies between adolescent females in treatment for an eating disorder and asymptomatic peers. Adolescent females in treatment for an eating disorder (n = 50) were compared to asymptomatic control participants (n = 59) on a measure of social information-processing. Participants were presented with 4 hypothetical, ambiguous social dilemmas in which the intent of a peer provocateur was unclear. Questions followed each dilemma assessing intent attributions, the participant's emotional reaction, the intensity of the emotion, and coping strategies. The participants in treatment for an eating disorder were significantly more likely to perceive hostile intent from a peer provocateur, reported a greater intensity of negative emotions, and identified a significantly greater number of avoidant coping strategies. Specifically, the eating disorder group identified significantly more intrapunitive avoidant coping strategies that reflect maladaptive and self-destructive means of coping with distressing events. Results indicate social cognitive processing biases and maladaptive coping strategies may be instrumental in perceived loss of control and influence the development/maintenance of eating disorders.
Niedtfeld, Inga; Defiebre, Nadine; Regenbogen, Christina; Mier, Daniela; Fenske, Sabrina; Kirsch, Peter; Lis, Stefanie; Schmahl, Christian
Previous research has revealed alterations and deficits in facial emotion recognition in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). During interpersonal communication in daily life, social signals such as speech content, variation in prosody, and facial expression need to be considered simultaneously. We hypothesized that deficits in higher level integration of social stimuli contribute to difficulties in emotion recognition in BPD, and heightened arousal might explain this effect. Thirty-one patients with BPD and thirty-one healthy controls were asked to identify emotions in short video clips, which were designed to represent different combinations of the three communication channels: facial expression, speech content, and prosody. Skin conductance was recorded as a measure of sympathetic arousal, while controlling for state dissociation. Patients with BPD showed lower mean accuracy scores than healthy control subjects in all conditions comprising emotional facial expressions. This was true for the condition with facial expression only, and for the combination of all three communication channels. Electrodermal responses were enhanced in BPD only in response to auditory stimuli. In line with the major body of facial emotion recognition studies, we conclude that deficits in the interpretation of facial expressions lead to the difficulties observed in multimodal emotion processing in BPD.
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; López de Arroyabe, Elena
The aim of this study was to assess the reciprocal associations among social information processing (SIP) in dating conflicts and the perpetration of dating aggression. A first step involved the development of a measure (The Social Information Processing Questionnaire in Dating Conflicts, SIPQ-DC) to assess social information in scenarios of conflict with dating partners. A sample of 1,272 adolescents (653 girls, 619 boys; Mage = 14.74 years, SD = 1.21) completed measures of SIP and dating aggression perpetration in two different times, which were spaced 1 year apart. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with five correlated factors for the SIPQ-DC, namely, hostile attribution, anger, aggressive response access, anticipation of positive consequences for oneself, and anticipation of negative consequences for partners. Although the perpetration of dating aggression at T1 was cross-sectionally associated with all the SIP components, anger was the only component that predicted the residual increase in dating aggression behavior over time. The perpetration of dating aggression predicted a worsening of cognitive-emotional processes involved in dating conflicts. Some longitudinal paths were significant only in male adolescents. In conclusion, relationships among SIP and aggression are reciprocal. Gender differences in longitudinal paths can contribute to explaining men's higher perpetration of violence in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.
Flood, Andrea Mary; Hare, Dougal Julian; Wallis, Paul
Deficits in social functioning are a core feature of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), being linked to various cognitive and developmental factors, but there has been little attempt to draw on normative models of social cognition to understand social behaviour in ASD. The current study explored the utility of Crick and Dodge's (1994) information…
Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole M.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; McKown, Clark A.; Lipton, Meryl
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a well-described inherited cause of intellectual disability and the most common known genetic cause of autism. Social deficits in girls with FXS are not well understood. To better understand barriers to social functioning that may contribute to mental health outcomes, we administered a theoretically based social…
Donahue, Mavis L.; Szymanski, Carol M.; Flores, Christine Wujek
Uses current research and theory to frame the peer interactions of "Emily Dickinson," a 16-year-old with oral-language problems and social isolation. Classroom-based assessment revealed an interaction pattern in which Emily used her strong literacy interests and skills to initiate and mediate social interaction with peers, including another gifted…
Brown, Jennifer L.
Information in context has meaning for the student, easily understood, easily retrieved, and successfully moves to long term memory. If information is not in context, rote memorization occurs with the less meaningful information, and information is not easily retrieved or successfully stored in long term memory. The purpose of this study was to…
Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Mosbacher, Jochen A; Reiser, Eva M; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas
Behavioral studies suggested heightened impact of emotionally laden perceptual input in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in particular in patients with prominent positive symptoms. De-coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortices during stimulus processing, which is related to loosening of control of the prefrontal cortex over incoming affectively laden information, may underlie this abnormality. Pre-selected groups of individuals with low versus high positive schizotypy (lower and upper quartile of a large screening sample) were tested. During exposure to auditory displays of strong emotions (anger, sadness, cheerfulness), individuals with elevated levels of positive schizotypal symptoms showed lesser prefrontal-posterior coupling (EEG coherence) than their symptom-free counterparts (right hemisphere). This applied to negative emotions in particular and was most pronounced during confrontation with anger. The findings indicate a link between positive symptoms and a heightened impact particularly of threatening emotionally laden stimuli which might lead to exacerbation of positive symptoms and inappropriate behavior in interpersonal situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schultz, David; Ambike, Archana; Logie, Sean Kevin; Bohner, Katherine E; Stapleton, Laura M; Vanderwalde, Holly; Min, Christopher B; Betkowski, Jennifer A
Crick and Dodge's (Psychological Bulletin 115:74-101, 1994) social information processing model has proven very useful in guiding research focused on aggressive and peer-rejected children's social-cognitive functioning. Its application to early childhood, however, has been much more limited. The present study responds to this gap by developing and validating a video-based assessment tool appropriate for early childhood, the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing-Preliminary Version (STEP-P). One hundred twenty-five Head Start preschool children participated in the study. More socially competent children more frequently attributed sadness to the victims of provocation and labeled aggressive behaviors as both morally unacceptable and less likely to lead to positive outcomes. More socially competent girls labeled others' emotions more accurately. More disruptive children more frequently produced physically aggressive solutions to social provocations, and more disruptive boys less frequently interpreted social provocations as accidental. The STEP-P holds promise as an assessment tool that assesses knowledge structures related to the SIP model in early childhood.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of culture and language on Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The Japanese sample consisted of 162 members of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences (JSASS). U.S. aerospace engineers served as a reference point, consisting of 213 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey method was utilized in gathering data using self-administered mail questionnaires in order to explore the following eight areas: (1) the content and use of information resources; (2) production and use of information products; (3) methods of accessing information service providers; (4) foreign language skills; (5) studying/researching/collaborating abroad as a tool in expanding information resources; (6) scientific and technical societies as networking tools; (7) alumni associations (school/class reunions) as networking tools; and (8) social, corporate, civic and health/fitness clubs as networking tools. Nine Japanese cultural factors expressed as statements about Japanese society are as follows: (1) information is neither autonomous, objective, nor independent of the subject of cognition; (2) information and knowledge are not readily accessible to the public; (3) emphasis on groups is reinforced in a hierarchical society; (4) social networks thrive as information-sharing vehicles; (5) high context is a predominant form of communication in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, transmitted part of the message; (6) obligations based on mutual trust dictate social behaviors instead of contractual agreements; (7) a surface message is what is presented while a bottom-line message is true feeling privately held; (8) various religious beliefs uphold a work ethic based on harmony; (9) ideas from outside are readily assimilated into its own society. The result of the
Novikov, D. A.; Tsarkova, E. G.; Dubrovin, A. S.; Soloviev, A. S.
In work the mathematical model of information protection of society against distribution of extremist moods by means of impact on mass consciousness of information placed in media is investigated. Internal and external channels on which there is a dissemination of information are designated. The problem of optimization consisting in search of the optimum strategy allowing to use most effectively media for dissemination of antiterrorist information with the minimum financial expenses is solved. The algorithm of a numerical method of the solution of a problem of optimization is constructed and also the analysis of results of a computing experiment is carried out.
collaborative decision - making (CDM) to solve problems is an aspect of human behavior least yielding to rational predictions. To reduce the complexity of CDM...increases. Implications for C2 decision - making are discussed. Overview of research Game theory was one of the first rational approaches to the study of...Psychologist, 36, 343-356. Lawless, W.F. (2001), The quantum of social action and the function of emotion in decision - making , Proceedings, Emotional and
Shaw, Bret R; Dubenske, Lori L; Han, Jeong Yeob; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Bush, Nigel; Gustafson, David H; McTavish, Fiona
Little research has examined the antecedent characteristics of patients most likely to seek online cancer information. This study employs the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing (C-SHIP) model as a framework to understand what psychosocial characteristics precede online cancer-related information seeking among rural breast cancer patients who often have fewer health care providers and limited local support services. Examining 144 patients who were provided free computer hardware, Internet access, and training for how to use an interactive cancer communication system, pretest survey scores indicating patients' psychosocial status were correlated with specific online cancer information seeking behaviors. Each of the factors specified by the C-SHIP model had significant relationships with online cancer information seeking behaviors, with the strongest findings emerging for cancer-relevant encodings and self-construals, cancer-relevant beliefs and expectancies, and cancer-relevant self-regulatory competencies and skills. Specifically, patients with more negative appraisals in these domains were more likely to seek out online cancer information. Additionally, antecedent variables associated with the C-SHIP model had more frequent relationships with experiential information as compared with to didactic information. This study supports the applicability of the model to discern why people afflicted with cancer may seek online information to cope with their disease.
Shaw, Bret R.; DuBenske, Lori L.; Han, Jeong Yeob; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Bush, Nigel; Gustafson, David H.; McTavish, Fiona
Little research has examined the antecedent characteristics of patients most likely to seek online cancer information. This study employs the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing (C-SHIP) model as a framework to understand what psychosocial characteristics precede online cancer-related information seeking among rural breast cancer patients who often have fewer healthcare providers and limited local support services. Examining 144 patients who were provided free computer hardware, Internet access and training for how to use an Interactive Cancer Communication System, pre-test survey scores indicating patients’ psychosocial status were correlated with specific online cancer information seeking behaviors. Each of the factors specified by the C-SHIP model had significant relationships with online cancer information seeking behaviors with the strongest findings emerging for cancer-relevant encodings and self-construals, cancer-relevant beliefs and expectancies and cancer-relevant self-regulatory competencies and skills. Specifically, patients with more negative appraisals in these domains were more likely to seek out online cancer information. Additionally, antecedent variables associated with the C-SHIP model had more frequent relationships with experiential information as compared to didactic information. This study supports the applicability of the model to discern why people afflicted with cancer may seek online information to cope with their disease. PMID:18569368
Hipp, John R; Wickes, Rebecca
Using two waves of survey data for residents in neighborhoods in Brisbane, this study explores the interdependent relationship between residents' perceptions of neighboring, cohesion, collective efficacy, neighborhood disorder, and the actions they take to address these problems. Our longitudinal results show that residents' perceived severity of a problem helps explain engaging in activity to address the problem. People loitering appeared to be the most galvanizing problem for residents, but had particularly deleterious effects on perceptions of cohesion and collective efficacy. We also find that residents who perceive more neighboring in their local area engage in more public and parochial social control activity and residents who live in collectively efficacious neighborhoods are more likely to engage in parochial social control action. Furthermore, residents who themselves perceive more collective efficacy in the neighborhood engage in more parochial or public social control during the subsequent time period. Importantly, we find strong evidence that residents update their sense of collective efficacy. Perceiving more problems in the neighborhood, and perceiving that these problems are increasing, reduced perceptions of neighboring and collective efficacy over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Social media such as Facebook, Youtube, Twitter, and online communities plays an important role for knowledge production and diffusion as well as discussions among people. Among social media, online brand communities (OBCs) have recently received attention from both academics and practitioners due to the practical benefits of OBCs for consumers and companies. For consumers, knowledge sharing ...
Helseth, Sarah A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; King, Sara; Willoughby, Michael T
Callous/unemotional traits (CU) moderate children's conduct problems (CP) in numerous domains, including social functioning. The present study examined whether CU traits also moderate the aggressiveness of children's social information processing (SIP) and responses to varying intensities of peer provocation. Sixty elementary school-age children (46 males) were grouped into those without CP or CU (controls, n = 32), those with CP but not CU (CP-only; n = 14), and those with both CP and CU (CPCU, n = 14). Participants completed a task that measured two aspects of SIP (response generation and hostile attribution bias) and a computerized reaction time task (CRTT) that measured behavior, affect, and communication before and after provocation under instrumental and hostile aggressive conditions. Children with CPCU generated more aggressive responses than controls on measures of SIP. On the CRTT, all children exhibited reactive aggression following high provocation, but only children with CPCU exhibited proactive aggression, and reactive aggression following low provocation; no differences in affect were found. In a series of exploratory analyses, CPCU children communicated antisocially, while CP-only communicated prosocially. Finally, children with CPCU did not seem to hold a grudge following the final instance of provocation, instead gradually returning to baseline like their non-CU peers. These distinct social cognitive and behavioral profiles hint at different etiologies of CP and CPCU, underscoring the variability of aggression in these populations.
Patricia L Lockwood
Full Text Available Individuals with psychopathy or autism spectrum disorder (ASD can behave in ways that suggest lack of empathy towards others. However, many different cognitive and affective processes may lead to unempathic behavior and the social processing profiles of individuals with high psychopathic vs. ASD traits are likely different. Whilst psychopathy appears characterized by problems with resonating with others’ emotions, ASD appears characterized by problems with cognitive perspective-taking. In addition, alexithymia has previously been associated with both disorders, but the contribution of alexithymia needs further exploration. In a community sample (N=110 we show for the first time that although affective resonance and cognitive perspective-taking are related, high psychopathic traits relate to problems with resonating with others’ emotions, but not cognitive perspective taking. Conversely, high ASD traits relate to problems with cognitive perspective-taking but not resonating with others’ emotions. Alexithymia was associated with problems with affective resonance independently of psychopathic traits, suggesting that different component processes (reduced tendency to feel what others feel and reduced ability to identify and describe feelings comprise affective resonance. Alexithymia was not associated with the reduced cognitive perspective-taking in high ASD traits. Our data suggest that (1 elevated psychopathic and ASD traits are characterized by difficulties in different social information processing domains and (2 reduced affective resonance in individuals with elevated psychopathic traits and the reduced cognitive perspective taking in individuals with elevated ASD traits are not explained by co-occurring alexithymia. (3 Alexithymia is independently associated with reduced affective resonance. Consequently, our data point to different component processes within the construct of empathy that are suggestive of partially separable cognitive
Eissa, Mourad Ali
This study explores whether or not Emotional Information Processing (EIP) model Intervention has positive effects on the Social Competency in first grade children with ADHD. 10 first graders primary who had been identified as having ADHD using Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test (ADHDT) (Jeong, 2005) and were experiencing social problems…
Hessels, Christel; van den Hanenberg, Danique; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G
This study seeks to integrate two research traditions that lie at the base of the understanding of personality pathology in adolescents. The first research tradition refers to normal personality according to the Five Factor Model (FFM). The second tradition specifies the key feature of personality disorder as the capacity to mentalize, which can be reflected in Social Information Processing (SIP). In a clinical sample of 96 adolescents, the authors investigated response generation, coping strategy, and memories of past frustrating experiences as part of SIP, as mediator in the relationship between personality and personality pathology, and a possible moderating role of personality on the relationship between SIP and personality pathology. The hypothesized mediation, by which the effects of personality dimensions on personality pathology was expected to be mediated by SIP variables, was found only for the effect of Neuroticism, most specifically on BPD, which appeared to be mediated by memories the patients had about past frustrating conflict situations with peers. Some moderating effects of personality on the relationship between SIP variables and personality pathology were found, suggesting that high Agreeableness and sometimes low Neuroticism can buffer this relationship. These results suggest that personality dimensions and social cognitions both independently and together play a role in adolescents' personality pathology.
Full Text Available Although research demonstrates that emotional experiences can influence cognitive processing, little is known about individual differences in this association, particularly in youth. The present study examined how the emotional backdrop of the caregiving environment, as reflected in exposure to maternal depression and anxiety, was linked to biases in youths’ cognitive processing of mother-referent information. Further, we investigated whether this association differed according to variation in youths’ emotional reactivity to stress. Youth (50 boys, 46 girls; M age = 12.36, SD = 1.05 completed a behavioral task assessing cognitive bias. Semi-structured interviews were administered to assess (a youths’ emotional reactivity to naturally occurring stressors, and (b maternal depression and anxiety. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that emotional reactivity to interpersonal stressors moderated the linkage between maternal depression and cognitive bias such that maternal depression predicted a greater negative bias in youth exhibiting high and average, but not low, levels of emotional reactivity. At low levels of maternal depression, youth with heightened interpersonal emotional reactivity showed a greater positive cognitive bias. This pattern of effects was specific to interpersonal (but not noninterpersonal emotional reactivity and to maternal depression (but not anxiety. These findings illuminate one personal characteristic of youth that moderates emotion-cognition linkages, and reveal that emotional reactivity both enhances and impairs youths’ cognitive processing as a function of socialization context.
Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc
This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation. Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, 1, 155-186.]. Each identity style was hypothesized to relate to a specific pattern of perceived parenting dimensions. Hypotheses were examined in a sample of middle and late adolescents (n=674). An information-oriented style was positively predicted by parental support. Contrary to expectations, however, an information-oriented style was also positively predicted by psychological control. A normative identity style was positively predicted by support and behavioral control. In line with expectations, a diffuse-avoidant identity style was positively predicted by psychological control and negatively by maternal (but not paternal) behavioral control. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on the socialization of identity formation and directions for future research are outlined.
Quintero Johnson, Jessie M; Yilmaz, Gamze; Najarian, Kristy
Using social media for the purpose of disseminating mental health information is a critical area of scientific inquiry for health communication professionals. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a first-person testimonial in educational mental health information placed in Facebook and Twitter messages influenced college students' (N = 257) source perceptions, information processing, cognitive elaboration, health information recall, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. Results show that exposure to social media messages that featured mental health information embedded with a testimonial predicted less source homophily and more critical thoughts about the social media source, less systematic message processing, and less cognitive elaboration. Health information recall was significantly impacted by both the social media platform and message content such that participants in the testimonial condition on Facebook were more likely to recall the health facts in those messages whereas participants who viewed the testimonial in Twitter were less likely to recall the facts in those tweets. Compared to those who read Facebook messages, participants who read Twitter messages reported higher levels of systematic message processing. These findings suggest that the integration of health testimonials into social media messages might inadvertently provoke psychological resistance to mental health information, thereby reducing the persuasive impact of those messages.
Kosarev, Yu G; Gusev, V D
Works are presented on automation systems for editing and publishing operations by methods of processing symbol information and information contained in training selection (ranking of objectives by promise, classification algorithm of tones and noise). The book will be of interest to specialists in the automation of processing textural information, programming, and pattern recognition.
Rodriguez, Christina M; Smith, Tamika L; Silvia, Paul J
The Social Information Processing (SIP) model postulates that parents undergo a series of stages in implementing physical discipline that can escalate into physical child abuse. The current study utilized a multimethod approach to investigate whether SIP factors can predict risk of parent-child aggression (PCA) in a diverse sample of expectant mothers and fathers. SIP factors of PCA attitudes, negative child attributions, reactivity, and empathy were considered as potential predictors of PCA risk; additionally, analyses considered whether personal history of PCA predicted participants' own PCA risk through its influence on their attitudes and attributions. Findings indicate that, for both mothers and fathers, history influenced attitudes but not attributions in predicting PCA risk, and attitudes and attributions predicted PCA risk; empathy and reactivity predicted negative child attributions for expectant mothers, but only reactivity significantly predicted attributions for expectant fathers. Path models for expectant mothers and fathers were remarkably similar. Overall, the findings provide support for major aspects of the SIP model. Continued work is needed in studying the progression of these factors across time for both mothers and fathers as well as the inclusion of other relevant ecological factors to the SIP model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
John Sweller; Susan Sweller
Natural information processing systems such as biological evolution and human cognition organize information used to govern the activities of natural entities. When dealing with biologically secondary information, these systems can be specified by five common principles that we propose underlie natural information processing systems. The principles equate: (1) human long-term memory with a genome; (2) learning from other humans with biological reproduction; (3) problem solving through random ...
Leuchs, Gerd; Beth, Thomas
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 SimulationofHamiltonians... References... 1 1 1 3 5 8 10 2 Quantum Information Processing and Error Correction with Jump Codes (G. Alber, M. Mussinger...
Lee, Victoria K.; Harris, Lasana T.
Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928
Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T
Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures-while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context-and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory.
Azar, Sandra T; Miller, Elizabeth A; Stevenson, Michael T; Johnson, David R
Inadequate supervision has been linked to children's injuries. Parental injury prevention beliefs may play a role in supervision, yet little theory has examined the origins of such beliefs. This study examined whether mothers who perpetrated child neglect, who as a group provide inadequate supervision, have more maladaptive beliefs. Then, it tested a social information processing (SIP) model for explaining these beliefs. SIP and injury prevention beliefs were assessed in disadvantaged mothers of preschoolers (N = 145), half with child neglect histories. The neglect group exhibited significantly more maladaptive injury prevention beliefs than comparisons. As predicted, SIP was linked to beliefs that may increase injury risk, even after accounting for relevant sociodemographic variables. Findings support the link of beliefs to injury risk and suggest that specific cognitive problems may underlie these beliefs. Future work should further validate this model, which may inform enhancements to prevention efforts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van
The rapid growth in IT in the last two decades has led to a growth in the amount of information available online. A new style for sharing information is social media. Social media is a continuously instantly updated source of information. In this position paper, we propose a framework for
Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)
I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.
Full Text Available The paper systematizes several theoretical view-points on scientific information processing skill. It decomposes the processing skills into sub-skills. Several methods such analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, document analysis were used to build up a theoretical framework. Interviews and survey to professional being trained and a case study was carried out to evaluate the results. All professional in the sample improved their performance in scientific information processing.
Full Text Available Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others’ mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision- making involving social and nonsocial stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social versus nonsocial contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g. mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory.
Terzian, Mary A.; Li, Jilan; Fraser, Mark W.; Day, Steven H.; Rose, Roderick A.
This article describes the findings from an efficacy trial of a school-based, universal prevention program designed to reduce aggressive behavior of by strengthening emotion regulation and social information-processing (SIP) skills. Three cohorts of third graders (N = 479) participated in this study. The first cohort participated in the Making…
Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions
Klein, Fabian; Iffland, Benjamin; Schindler, Sebastian; Wabnitz, Pascal; Neuner, Frank
Recent studies have shown that the perceptual processing of human faces is affected by context information, such as previous experiences and information about the person represented by the face. The present study investigated the impact of verbally presented information about the person that varied with respect to affect (neutral, physically threatening, socially threatening) and reference (self-referred, other-referred) on the processing of faces with an inherently neutral expression. Stimuli were presented in a randomized presentation paradigm. Event-related potential (ERP) analysis demonstrated a modulation of the evoked potentials by reference at the EPN (early posterior negativity) and LPP (late positive potential) stage and an enhancing effect of affective valence on the LPP (700-1000 ms) with socially threatening context information leading to the most pronounced LPP amplitudes. We also found an interaction between reference and valence with self-related neutral context information leading to more pronounced LPP than other related neutral context information. Our results indicate an impact of self-reference on early, presumably automatic processing stages and also a strong impact of valence on later stages. Using a randomized presentation paradigm, this study confirms that context information affects the visual processing of faces, ruling out possible confounding factors such as facial configuration or conditional learning effects.
Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob
Large shares of the entrepreneurship research are informed by two central lines of thought. One focuses on the role of formal and informal social networks for mobilising resources and obtaining information about new markets and opportunities. The other conceives of individual personality traits o....... The article thus proposes an approach integrating the social and subjective levels of analysis as part of the same socially-dynamic entrepreneurial process....... or cognitive schemes as the independent variable behind entrepreneurial activity. Elaborating on the socially-dynamic perspectives of anthropological theories, this article presents a coherent theoretical framework for entrepreneurship research embracing the social dimensions as well as individual factors...
Briggs, Andrew; Ferry, David; Stoneham, Marshall
Microelectronics and the classical information technologies transformed the physics of semiconductors. Photonics has given optical materials a new direction. Quantum information technologies, we believe, will have immense impact on condensed matter physics. The novel systems of quantum information processing need to be designed and made. Their behaviours must be manipulated in ways that are intrinsically quantal and generally nanoscale. Both in this special issue and in previous issues (see e.g., Spiller T P and Munro W J 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 V1-10) we see the emergence of new ideas that link the fundamentals of science to the pragmatism of market-led industry. We hope these papers will be followed by many others on quantum information processing in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics - including space-time and relativity - is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler.The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of (ℎ/2π), and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.
With today’s means of communication and the billions of people across the globe using social media, it is no surprise that law enforcement intelligence operations have turned to using social media as an information collection medium. Using social media to collect information on individuals offers many benefits to law enforcement agencies but also includes certain manageable risks. There are several oversight regulations that department administrators and officers alike should be aware of. While the regulations certainly do not prevent information collection, law enforcement officers may find the constraints somewhat burdensome. This paper seeks to help identify the more prevalent issues with using social media as a virtual informant and guide agencies in a way to avoid the more common mistakes. These mistakes can lead to civil rights infringements and government oversteps by state, local and tribal officials.
Hartman, Carol R.; Burgess, Ann W.
This paper presents a neuropsychosocial model of information processing to explain a victimization experience, specifically child sexual abuse. It surveys the relation of sensation, perception, and cognition as a systematic way to provide a framework for studying human behavior and describing human response to traumatic events. (Author/JDD)
Attempts made to design and extend space system capabilities are reported. Special attention was given to establishing user needs for information or services which might be provided by space systems. Data given do not attempt to detail scientific, technical, or economic bases for the needs expressed by the users.
Winter, Kitt; Hastings, Bob
The Social Security Administration has plenty of reasons to streamline its records request process-more than 15 million reasons each year, in fact. That's why it has been pioneering information exchange projects with the private sector, including use of the Nationwide Health Information Network.
Dietel, Harvey M
An Introduction to Information Processing provides an informal introduction to the computer field. This book introduces computer hardware, which is the actual computing equipment.Organized into three parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of personal computing and includes detailed case studies on two of the most essential personal computers for the 1980s, namely, the IBM Personal Computer and Apple's Macintosh. This text then traces the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapte
Bazarov, Takhir; Kuzmina, Maria
Expanding and complex social realities cause new types of identity. Variety in organizations and workgroups (where people are involved), implies a special kind of social identity which can be defined as professional, organizational or managerial. The study of the social identity processes in organizations is a new interdisciplinary sphere that is presented especially commonly in European Social Psychology. The result of its theoretical comprehension is Social Identity Theory. In the article l...
Full Text Available Socialization is a process that a part of a specific culture and a specific member of society. The aim of this study is to discuss how sport effects to socialization of children and young, and re - socialization of adults.The study is a descriptive, theoretical and conceptive study. Acc ording to some studies that sport is an obtained gain in socialization process. Sport, especially team sports learned to children and young that how to behave in social group and how to control their behaviors. According a study, young people who after the start of sportive activities, its seen that “they evaluate their leisure time more beneficially” (98.6%, “they understand the importance of team working” (95.8%, “they are aware of their responsibility” (97.2% and “they gain planning study habit” (94,4 %. In addition to sport effected socialization that “understanding the importance of division of labor and solidarity” (93%, “be aware and be more careful of social rules” (92.3%, and “be tolerant of others idea and beliefs” (88.7% (Bulgu&Akcan, 2003;1 57 - 159. If the sportive activities be on children and young life, it’s an important and effective communication tools. Sport, improves social relationship and decrease social distance. Sport requires feel empathy with someone and improves the empathy hab it. Sport contributes the children and young for self - expression to be truer and better. Sport is an effective tool for to be important and meaningful part of group. Sport contributes the children and young for become integrated with a group. Also sport pl aying important role for reinforcement to solidarity and to gain the habit of obey the rules. Sport makes a major contribute socialization and re - socialization of children and young. Accordingly these results, sport has to play active role in social life a nd instructional program.
Tahir Shah, K.
There are an estimated 100,000 genes in the human genome of which 97% is non-coding. On the other hand, bacteria have little or no non-coding DNA. Non-coding region includes introns, ALU sequences, satellite DNA, and other segments not expressed as proteins. Why it exists? Why nature has kept non-coding during the long evolutionary period if it has no role in the development of complex life forms? Does complexity of a species somehow correlated to the existence of apparently useless sequences? What kind of capability is encoded within such nucleotide sequences that is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for the evolution of complex life forms, keeping in mind the C-value paradox and the omnipresence of non-coding segments in higher eurkaryotes and also in many archea and prokaryotes. The physico-chemical description of biological processes is hardware oriented and does not highlight algorithmic or information processing aspect. However, an algorithm without its hardware implementation is useless as much as hardware without its capability to run an algorithm. The nature and type of computation an information-processing hardware can perform depends only on its algorithm and the architecture that reflects the algorithm. Given that enormously difficult tasks such as high fidelity replication, transcription, editing and regulation are all achieved within a long linear sequence, it is natural to think that some parts of a genome are involved is these tasks. If some complex algorithms are encoded with these parts, then it is natural to think that non-coding regions contain processing-information algorithms. A comparison between well-known automatic sequences and sequences constructed out of motifs is found in all species proves the point: noncoding regions are a sort of ''hardwired'' programs, i.e., they are linear representations of information-processing machines. Thus in our model, a noncoding region, e.g., an intron contains a program (or equivalently, it is
The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)
Lala, J. H.
Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.
Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin
The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.
Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.
McDaniels, T.; Steyn, D. G.; Johnson, M. S.; Small, M.; Leclerc, G.; Vignola, R.; Chan, K.; Grossmann, I.; Wong-Parodi, G.
Improving resilience to drought in complex social-environmental systems (SES) is extraordinarily important, particularly for rural tropical locations where small changes in climate regimes can have dramatic SES impacts. Efforts to build drought resilience must necessarily be planned and implemented within SES governance systems that involve linkages in water and land use administration from local to national levels. These efforts require knowledge and understanding that links climate and weather forecasts to regional and local hydrology, to social-economic and environmental systems, and to governance processes. In order to provide structure for such complex choices and investments, we argue that a focus on structured decision processes that involve linkages among science, technological perspectives, and public values conducted with agencies and stakeholders will provide a crucial framework for comparing and building insight for pursuing alternative courses of action to build drought resilience. This paper focuses on a regional case study in the seasonally-dry northwest region of Costa Rica, in watersheds rated as most threatened in the country in terms of drought. We present the overall framework guiding the transdisciplinary efforts to link scientific and technical understanding to public values, in order to foster civil society actions that lead to improved drought resilience. Initial efforts to characterize hydrological and climate regimes will be reported along with our approach to linking natural science findings, social inventories in terms of perspectives on SES, and the psychology and patterns of reliance on forecast information that provide the basis for characterizing public understanding. The overall linkage of technical and value information is focused on creating and comparing alternative actions that can potentially build resilience in short and long time frames by building decision making processes involving stakeholders, agencies and interested
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability and interpersonal problems. In the context of social interaction, impairments in empathy are proposed to result in inadequate social behavior. In contrast to findings of reduced cognitive empathy, some authors suggested enhanced emotional empathy in BPD. It was investigated whether ambiguity leads to decreased cognitive or emotional empathy in BPD. Thirty-four patients with BPD and thirty-two healthy controls were presented with video clips, which were presented through prosody, facial expression, and speech content. Experimental conditions were designed to induce ambiguity by presenting neutral valence in one of these communication channels. Subjects were asked to indicate the actors' emotional valence, their decision confidence, and their own emotional state. BPD patients showed increased emotional empathy when neutral stories comprised nonverbally expressed emotions. In contrast, when all channels were emotional, patients showed lower emotional empathy than healthy controls. Regarding cognitive empathy, there were no significant differences between BPD patients and healthy control subjects in recognition accuracy, but reduced decision confidence in BPD. These results suggest that patients with BPD show altered emotional empathy, experiencing higher rates of emotional contagion when emotions are expressed nonverbally. The latter may contribute to misunderstandings and inadequate social behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baron, Reuben M.; And Others
Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…
Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Harry O.; Glass, Joseph E.; Margerum-Leys, Jon
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are electronic tools used to convey, manipulate and store information. The exponential growth of Internet access and ICTs greatly influenced social, political, and economic processes in the United States, and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsive to the technological changes in the health care system, including the health care infrastructure and use of technology among clients. Social workers also need ICT competencies in order to effectively lead different types of social change initiatives or collaborate with professionals of other disciplines who are using ICTs as part of existing strategies. This paper also identifies potential pitfalls and challenges with respect to the adoption of ICTs, with recommendations for advancing their use in practice, education, and research. PMID:21691444
Brian E. Perron
Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs are electronic tools used to convey, manipulate and store information. The exponential growth of Internet access and ICTs greatly influenced social, political, and economic processes in the United States, and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsive to the technological changes in the health care system, including the health care infrastructure and use of technology among clients. Social workers also need ICT competencies in order to effectively lead different types of social change initiatives or collaborate with professionals of other disciplines who are using ICTs as part of existing strategies. This paper also identifies potential pitfalls and challenges with respect to the adoption of ICTs, with recommendations for advancing their use in practice, education, and research.
Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A
Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc
This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). "Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation." "Advances in Personal Construct…
Stewart, L. J.
The conceptual information processing issues are examined. Human information processing is defined as an active cognitive process that is analogous to a system. It is the flow and transformation of information within a human. The human is viewed as an active information seeker who is constantly receiving, processing, and acting upon the surrounding environmental stimuli. Human information processing models are conceptual representations of cognitive behaviors. Models of information processing are useful in representing the different theoretical positions and in attempting to define the limits and capabilities of human memory. It is concluded that an understanding of conceptual human information processing models and their applications to systems design leads to a better human factors approach.
Zhu, Hui; Wu, Heng; Cao, Jin; Fu, Gang; Li, Hui
With the development of social media tools and the pervasiveness of smart terminals, social media has become a significant source of information for many individuals. However, false information can spread rapidly, which may result in negative social impacts and serious economic losses. Thus, reducing the unfavorable effects of false information has become an urgent challenge. In this paper, a new competitive model called DMCU is proposed to describe the dissemination of information with constant updates in social media. In the model, we focus on the competitive relationship between the original false information and updated information, and then propose the priority of related information. To more effectively evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model, data sets containing actual social media activity are utilized in experiments. Simulation results demonstrate that the DMCU model can precisely describe the process of information dissemination with constant updates, and that it can be used to forecast information dissemination trends on social media.
business form in which information is entered by filling in blanks, or circling alternatives. The fields of the form cor- respond to the various pieces...power. Parallelism, rather than raw speed of the computing elements, seems to be the way that the 4-15 MACHINE INTELIGENCE brain gets such jobs done...MACHINE INTELIGENCE all intelligent systems. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the weak methods and to explain how and why they arise in
This paper demonstrates, how cross-functional business processes may be aligned with product specification systems in an intra-organizational environment by integrating planning systems and expert systems, thereby providing an end-to-end integrated and an automated solution to the “build-to-order...
This article uses feminist theory to investigate how the socialization processes used to maintain the clergy community in the Roman Catholic Church contributes to a vulnerability in some clergy for sexually abusing children. This vulnerability is identified first in an examination of the literature on the impact of socialization processes on clergy offenders between the 1960s and 1980s. A comparison is then made with the implications of the apostolic exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, which provides a theological basis to clergy formation. The article argues that the document works to ensure a continuity of socialization processes that not only have been shown to create a vulnerability for committing child sexual abuse but compound existing vulnerabilities. The article concludes that constraints produced by the preservation of a hegemonic masculinity and patriarchy retain a threat of violence against children and require recommended reforms.
applications in optical disk memory systems [91. This device is constructed in a glass /SiO2/Si waveguide. The choice of a Si substrate allows for the...contact mask) were formed in the photoresist deposited on all of the samples, we covered the unwanted gratings on each sample with cover glass slides...processing, let us consider TeO2 (v, = 620 m/s) as a potential substrate for applications requiring large time delays. This con- sideration is despite
The effect of institutional structures on economic and political processes and on the results of such processes is a central economics and political-science problem. This study adopts the recent fundamental information economics thesis which maintains that unevenly distributed information has a negative effect on politico-economic systems and that the corresponding individual and collective countermeasures are keys to the structures and characteristics of economic and political institutions. The theoretical part presents some relatively simple game theory models to elucidate the basic problems caused by unevenly distributed information in politico-economic systems. The empirical part is dedicated to an international comparative analysis of nuclear energy policies in the United States, in Great Britain, France, and in Germany. The results obtained reveal that the information economics approach explains the way in which the different institutional arrangements have influenced the policies and their results in the respective countries. The last chapter classifies the theoretical and empirical results by some further theoretical political-science, sociological and economic approaches. Points of contact with and differences between combined federalistic, neo-corporate, bureaucratic-politics and technocratic approaches are discussed. (orig./UA) [de
The reasons for the current widespread arguments between designers of advanced technological systems like, for instance, nuclear power plants and opponents from the general public concerning levels of acceptable risk may be found in incompatible definitions of risk, in differences in risk perception and criteria for acceptance, etc. Of importance may, however, also be the difficulties met in presenting the basis for risk analysis, such as the conceptual system models applied, in an explicit and credible form. Application of modern information technology for the design of control systems and human-machine interfaces together with the trends towards large centralised industrial installations have made it increasingly difficult to establish an acceptable model framework, in particular considering the role of human errors in major system failures and accidents. Different aspects of this problem are discussed in the paper, and areas are identified where research is needed in order to improve not only the safety of advanced systems, but also the basis for their acceptance by the general public. (author)
Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people
Schmidt, Erik Meineche
BRICS is a research centre and international PhD school in theoretical computer science, based at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The centre has recently become engaged in quantum information processing in cooperation with the Department of Physics, also University of Aarhus. This extended...... abstract surveys activities at BRICS with special emphasis on the activities in quantum information processing....
Bartosz Mackowiak; Mirko Wiederholt
Decision-makers often face limited liability and thus know that their loss will be bounded. We study how limited liability affects the behavior of an agent who chooses how much information to acquire and process in order to take a good decision. We find that an agent facing limited liability processes less information than an agent with unlimited liability. The informational gap between the two agents is larger in bad times than in good times and when information is more costly to process.
Nijstad, Bernard A.; Oltmanns, Jan
Group decision making has attracted much scientific interest, but few studies have investigated group decisions that do not get made. Based on the Motivated Information Processing in Groups model, this study analysed the effect of epistemic motivation (low vs. high) and social motivation (proself
Mahoney, John R; Ellison, Christopher J; Crutchfield, James P [Complexity Sciences Center and Physics Department, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com
We give a systematic expansion of the crypticity-a recently introduced measure of the inaccessibility of a stationary process's internal state information. This leads to a hierarchy of k-cryptic processes and allows us to identify finite-state processes that have infinite cryptic order-the internal state information is present across arbitrarily long, observed sequences. The crypticity expansion is exact in both the finite- and infinite-order cases. It turns out that k-crypticity is complementary to the Markovian finite-order property that describes state information in processes. One application of these results is an efficient expansion of the excess entropy-the mutual information between a process's infinite past and infinite future-that is finite and exact for finite-order cryptic processes. (fast track communication)
Lutters, Diederick; Wijnker, T.C.; Kals, H.J.J.
A recently proposed reference model indicates the use of structured information as the basis for the control of design and manufacturing processes. The model is used as a basis to describe the integration of design and process planning. A differentiation is made between macro- and micro process
Piccinini, Gualtiero; Scarantino, Andrea
Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both - although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use 'computation' and 'information processing' to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In this paper, we address this unsatisfactory state of affairs by presenting a general and theory-neutral account of computation and information processing. We also apply our framework by analyzing the relations between computation and information processing on one hand and classicism, connectionism, and computational neuroscience on the other. We defend the relevance to cognitive science of both computation, at least in a generic sense, and information processing, in three important senses of the term. Our account advances several foundational debates in cognitive science by untangling some of their conceptual knots in a theory-neutral way. By leveling the playing field, we pave the way for the future resolution of the debates' empirical aspects.
networks can be applied to better understand informal trade in developing countries, with a particular focus on Africa. The paper starts by discussing some of the fundamental concepts developed by social network analysis. Through a number of case studies, we show how social network analysis can...... illuminate the relevant causes of social patterns, the impact of social ties on economic performance, the diffusion of resources and information, and the exercise of power. The paper then examines some of the methodological challenges of social network analysis and how it can be combined with other...... approaches. The paper finally highlights some of the applications of social network analysis and their implications for trade policies....
Maekawa, Toshihiko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Inada, Naoko; Oribe, Naoya; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Kanba, Shigenobu; Kamio, Yoko
Individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) often show superior performance in simple visual tasks, despite difficulties in the perception of socially important information such as facial expression. The neural basis of visual perception abnormalities associated with HF-ASD is currently unclear. We sought to elucidate the…
Scholten, Lotte; van Knippenberg, Daan; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.
Integrating dual-process models [Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (Eds.). (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. NewYork: Guilford Press] with work on information sharing and group decision-making [Stasser, G., & Titus, W. (1985). Pooling of unshared information in group decision making: biased
This report shows the expansion of accounting information attempted in the course of remarkable development of social information. And, this maintains how the " popularization of social information and accounting information " is necessary for the present day society. Individuals - Such as consumers, employees, local residents, etc. - as well as corporations should be able to blend into this new citizen's society. It should be understood that the "market economy" itself becomes unstable witho...
Greimel, Ellen; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Fink, Gereon R.; Kukolja, Juraj; Kohls, Gregor; Muller, Kristin; Piefke, Martina; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Schulte-Ruther, Martin
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often fail to attach context to their memories and are specifically impaired in processing social aspects of contextual information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulatory influence of social vs. non-social context on neural mechanisms during encoding in ASD. Using…
Li, Pei; Xing, Kai; Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Hui
Research on social networks has received remarkable attention, since many people use social networks to broadcast information and stay connected with their friends. However, due to the information overload in social networks, it becomes increasingly difficult for users to find useful information. This paper takes Facebook-like social networks into account, and models the process of information diffusion under information overload. The term view scope is introduced to model the user information-processing capability under information overload, and the average number of times a message appears in view scopes after it is generated is proposed to characterize the information diffusion efficiency. Through theoretical analysis, we find that factors such as network structure and view scope number have no impact on the information diffusion efficiency, which is a surprising result. To verify the results, we conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly.
Ekaterina Gennadievna Kondratova
Full Text Available It is defined in the article social networks as a tool in the hands of cyber-criminals to compromise the organization’s data. The author focuses on a list of threats to information security caused by social networks usage, which should be considered in the set up of information security management system of the company.
Koschmider, A.; Song, M.S.; Reijers, H.A.; Abramowicz, W.
Social software is known to stimulate the exchange and sharing of information among peers. This paper describes how an existing system that supports process builders in completing a business process can be enhanced with various social features. In that way, it is easier for process modeler to become
Robinson, James D; Tian, Yan
Research into the impact of social support on health-care patients has focused on the benefits of receiving social support. Although recipients benefit from social support, there are also potential benefits to the providers of social support that have gone relatively unexplored. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between the reception and provision of informational social support by cancer patients. Based on the work of Gouldner (1960), this investigation attempts to examine the role reciprocity plays within the social support process. The norm of reciprocity is conceptualized as a generalized moral belief rather than as a simple pattern of exchange between caregivers and care receivers. Use of reciprocity as a generalized moral belief instead of a pattern of behavioral exchange between providers and recipients of social support allows a more thorough integration theoretically and more methodical examination of the role the relationship between providers and recipients plays in this process. Specifically, this investigation employs the notion of optimal matching as part of the mechanism underlying the satisfactions derived from informational social support. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggest that reciprocity is a viable explanation of the mechanism underlying the desire to provide social support to others among cancer patients and among adults who have never been diagnosed with cancer. This relationship between the reception and the provision of informational social support remains even after controlling for age, education, gender, race, social integration, and cancer diagnosis. Implications for the social support literature are discussed.
Arnfred, Sidse M H
of the left somatosensory cortex and it was suggested to be in accordance with two theories of schizophrenic information processing: the theory of deficiency of corollary discharge and the theory of weakening of the influence of past regularities. No gating deficiency was observed and the imprecision...... Rado (1890-1972) suggested that one of two un-reducible deficits in schizophrenia was a disorder of proprioception. Exploration of proprioceptive information processing is possible through the measurement of evoked and event related potentials. Event related EEG can be analyzed as conventional time...... and amplitude attenuation was not a general phenomenon across the entire brain response. Summing up, in support of Rado's hypothesis, schizophrenia spectrum patients demonstrated abnormalities in proprioceptive information processing. Future work needs to extend the findings in larger un-medicated, non...
Craik , F. I* No, & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. ffnxna±I U1...34 , . .. • _. .. . .. . . . . , ,,,. . . . . .. • .’ .’..’. -.. Social Cognition 18 1981). This sort of analysis is at the heart of *depth of processing * notions ( Craik & Lockhart , 19721 Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker...psychologists have developed an interest in examining the structures people use in processing social information. Many of the conceptual models used in
Zhao, Yuehua; Zhang, Jin
The objective of this literature review was to summarise current research regarding how consumers seek health-related information from social media. Primarily, we hope to reveal characteristics of existing studies investigating the health topics that consumers have discussed in social media, ascertaining the roles social media have played in consumers' information-seeking processes and discussing the potential benefits and concerns of accessing consumer health information in social media. The Web of Science Core Collection database was searched for existing literature on consumer health information seeking in social media. The search returned 214 articles, of which 21 met the eligibility criteria following review of full-text documents. Between 2011 and 2016, twenty-one studies published explored various topics related to consumer information seeking in social media. These ranged from online discussions on specific diseases (e.g. diabetes) to public health concerns (e.g. pesticide residues). Consumers' information needs vary depending on the health issues of interest. Benefits of health seeking on social media, in addition to filling a need for health information, include the social and emotional support health consumers gain from peer-to-peer interactions. These benefits, however, are tempered by concerns of information quality and authority and lead to decreased consumer engagement. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.
The ultimate goal of the classicality program is to quantify the amount of quantumness of certain processes. Here, classicality is studied for a restricted type of process: quantum information processing (QIP). Under special conditions, one can force some qubits of a quantum computer into a classical state without affecting the outcome of the computation. The minimal set of conditions is described and its structure is studied. Some implications of this formalism are the increase of noise robustness, a proof of the quantumness of mixed state quantum computing, and a step forward in understanding the very foundation of QIP
David Axlyn McLeod
Full Text Available Modern advances in neuroscience suggest learning occurs through three basic cognition patterns. Higher-level multimodal learning occurs when learning activities contain multiple cognition patterns. This case study details an application of these concepts where fine art, journaling, practicum experiences, and in-class processing were fused to create an active and participatory method of engaging social work students in critical thinking as related to differential impacts of clinical decision-making. The learning activities are described and multimodal learning is explained, along with the findings of a focus group used to assess student feedback. Student experiences and the potential adaptations of this approach are also addressed. The tentative findings of this case study indicate positive learning experiences and suggest a need for further research to explore the opportunities associated with the use of multimodal and art-infused learning techniques in social work courses.
predecessor, Gale and Kariv (2003) who generalize the payoff equalization result of Bala and Goyal (1998) in connected social networks (discussed below...requires more notation. Using Bayes’ Rule and the assumption of equal priors on the state θ, we have that the social belief given by observing... Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation by Ilan Lobel B.Sc., Pontif́ıcia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (2004
Fore, Stephanie; Palumbo, Fabrizio; Pelgrims, Robbrecht; Yaksi, Emre
The habenula is a brain region that has gained increasing popularity over the recent years due to its role in processing value-related and experience-dependent information with a strong link to depression, addiction, sleep and social interactions. This small diencephalic nucleus is proposed to act as a multimodal hub or a switchboard, where inputs from different brain regions converge. These diverse inputs to the habenula carry information about the sensory world and the animal's internal state, such as reward expectation or mood. However, it is not clear how these diverse habenular inputs interact with each other and how such interactions contribute to the function of habenular circuits in regulating behavioral responses in various tasks and contexts. In this review, we aim to discuss how information processing in habenular circuits, can contribute to specific behavioral programs that are attributed to the habenula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barato, Andre C; Hartich, David; Seifert, Udo
We show that a rate of conditional Shannon entropy reduction, characterizing the learning of an internal process about an external process, is bounded by the thermodynamic entropy production. This approach allows for the definition of an informational efficiency that can be used to study cellular information processing. We analyze three models of increasing complexity inspired by the Escherichia coli sensory network, where the external process is an external ligand concentration jumping between two values. We start with a simple model for which ATP must be consumed so that a protein inside the cell can learn about the external concentration. With a second model for a single receptor we show that the rate at which the receptor learns about the external environment can be nonzero even without any dissipation inside the cell since chemical work done by the external process compensates for this learning rate. The third model is more complete, also containing adaptation. For this model we show inter alia that a bacterium in an environment that changes at a very slow time-scale is quite inefficient, dissipating much more than it learns. Using the concept of a coarse-grained learning rate, we show for the model with adaptation that while the activity learns about the external signal the option of changing the methylation level increases the concentration range for which the learning rate is substantial. (paper)
Wickens, Christopher D.; Flach, John M.
Theoretical models of sensory-information processing by the human brain are reviewed from a human-factors perspective, with a focus on their implications for aircraft and avionics design. The topics addressed include perception (signal detection and selection), linguistic factors in perception (context provision, logical reversals, absence of cues, and order reversals), mental models, and working and long-term memory. Particular attention is given to decision-making problems such as situation assessment, decision formulation, decision quality, selection of action, the speed-accuracy tradeoff, stimulus-response compatibility, stimulus sequencing, dual-task performance, task difficulty and structure, and factors affecting multiple task performance (processing modalities, codes, and stages).
Seelen, Werner v
In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...
Full Text Available Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.
Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen
Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.
Chen, Wei; Lakshmanan, Laks V S
Research on social networks has exploded over the last decade. To a large extent, this has been fueled by the spectacular growth of social media and online social networking sites, which continue growing at a very fast pace, as well as by the increasing availability of very large social network datasets for purposes of research. A rich body of this research has been devoted to the analysis of the propagation of information, influence, innovations, infections, practices and customs through networks. Can we build models to explain the way these propagations occur? How can we validate our models
Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.
Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...
O controle social e a democratização da informação: um processo em construção El control social y la democratización de la información: un proceso en construcción Social control and information democratization: a process under construction
Marluce Maria Araújo Assis
Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo refletir criticamente sobre o controle social como uma conquista jurídico-institucional e as suas condições de legitimidade, apontando estratégias para a democratização da informação no sistema local de saúde. O texto foi desenvolvido em três eixos temáticos: o 1º discute a participação social como conquista jurídico-institucional; o 2º analisa as condições essenciais para a legitimidade e o 3º aponta a informação como elemento fundamental para a gestão e o controle social, como um processo inacabado, em construção.El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo reflexionar críticamente sobre el control social como una conquista jurídico-institucional y sus condiciones de legitimidad, describiendo estrategias para la democratización de la información en el sistema local de salud. El texto fue desarrollado en tres ejes temáticos: el primero discute la participación social como conquista jurídico-institucional, el segundo analiza las condiciones esenciales para la legitimidad y el tercero apunta la información como elemento fundamental para la gestión y el control social, como un proceso en construcción.This work aims at a critical reflection on social control as a legal-institutional achievement and its legitimacy conditions, pointing out strategies for information democratization in the local health system. The text was developed according to three thematic units: the first discusses social participation as a legal-institutional achievement; the second analyzes the essential conditions for legitimacy and the third presents information as a fundamental element for management and social control as an unfinished process that is still under construction.
Full Text Available Successful navigation of our complex social world requires the capability to recognize and judge the relative status of others. Hence, social comparison processes are of great importance in our interactions, informing us of our relative standing and in turn potentially motivating our behavior. However, so far few studies have examined in detail how social comparison can influence interpersonal decision-making. One aspect of social decision-making that is of particular importance is cooperative behavior, and identifying means of maintaining and promoting cooperation in the provision of public goods is of vital interest to society. Here, we manipulated social comparison by grading performance rankings on a reaction time task, and then measured cooperative decisions via a modified Public Goods Game (PGG. Findings revealed that individuals ranked highest tended to be more cooperative as compared to those who placed in the bottom rank. Interestingly, this effect was regardless of whether the comparison group members were the subsequent players in the PGG or not, and this effect was stronger in those with higher social orientation. In summary, the present research shows how different social comparison processes (assessed via social rankings can operate in our daily interaction with others, demonstrating an important effect on cooperative behavior.
Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui
In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks.
Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO
Full Text Available The editorial of this second issue of volume 17,corresponding to 2016, is devoted to socialization process in the knowledge management in order to complement the special section about Social Networks and Education.
Gallant, David T.
Almost everyone uses social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn. Since Facebook is the most popular site in the history of the Internet, this article will focus on how one can protect his/her personal information and how that extends to protecting the private information of others.
Pellegrini, Anthony D; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Roseth, Cary; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine; Dupuis, Danielle; Hickey, Meghan; Peshkam, Annie
This longitudinal, naturalistic study addressed behavioral and social cognitive processes implicated in preschool children's social dominance. In the first objective, we examined the degree to which peer aggression, affiliation, and postaggression reconciliation predicted social dominance across a school year. Consistent with predictions, all three predicted dominance early in the year while only affiliation predicted dominance later in the year, suggesting that aggression, affiliation, and reconciliation were used to establish social dominance where affiliation was used to maintain it. In the second, exploratory, objective we tested the relative importance of social dominance and reconciliation (the Machiavellian and Vygotskian intelligence hypotheses, respectively) in predicting theory of mind/false belief. Results indicated that social dominance accounted for significant variance, beyond that related to reconciliation and affiliation, in predicting theory of mind/false belief status. Results are discussed in terms of specific behavioral and social cognitive processes employed in establishing and maintaining social dominance. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Yang, Dingda; Liao, Xiangwen; Shen, Huawei; Cheng, Xueqi; Chen, Guolong
Information diffusion in networks is an important research topic in various fields. Existing studies either focus on modeling the process of information diffusion, e.g., independent cascade model and linear threshold model, or investigate information diffusion in networks with certain structural characteristics such as scale-free networks and small world networks. However, there are still several phenomena that have not been captured by existing information diffusion models. One of the prominent phenomena is the reemergence of information diffusion, i.e., a piece of information reemerges after the completion of its initial diffusion process. In this paper, we propose an optimized information diffusion model by introducing a new informed state into traditional susceptible-infected-removed model. We verify the proposed model via simulations in real-world social networks, and the results indicate that the model can reproduce the reemergence of information during the diffusion process.
Cao, Liangliang; Qi, Guojun; Tsai, Shen-Fu; Tsai, Min-Hsuan; Pozo, Andrey Del; Huang, Thomas S.; Zhang, Xuemei; Lim, Suk Hwan
The popularity of personal digital cameras and online photo/video sharing community has lead to an explosion of multimedia information. Unlike traditional multimedia data, many new multimedia datasets are organized in a structural way, incorporating rich information such as semantic ontology, social interaction, community media, geographical maps, in addition to the multimedia contents by themselves. Studies of such structured multimedia data have resulted in a new research area, which is referred to as Multimedia Information Networks. Multimedia information networks are closely related to social networks, but especially focus on understanding the topics and semantics of the multimedia files in the context of network structure. This chapter reviews different categories of recent systems related to multimedia information networks, summarizes the popular inference methods used in recent works, and discusses the applications related to multimedia information networks. We also discuss a wide range of topics including public datasets, related industrial systems, and potential future research directions in this field.
Pitts, Felix L.
Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.
Miguel, Helga O.; Sampaio, Adriana; Martínez-Regueiro, Rocío; Gómez-Guerrero, Lorena; López-Dóriga, Cristina Gutiérrez; Gómez, Sonia; Carracedo, Ángel; Fernández-Prieto, Montse
Abnormal patterns of touch processing have been linked to core symptoms in ASD. This study examined the relation between tactile processing patterns and social problems in 44 children and adolescents with ASD, aged 6-14 (M = 8.39 ± 2.35). Multiple linear regression indicated significant associations between touch processing and social problems. No…
Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó
In order to reveal impacts of natural and social sciences on each other, the authors examined connections between fields of medical and social sciences using a search for references and citations of scientific publication. 1. The largest affinity between the medical and social sciences was found between neurosciences and psychology, but there was a significant affinity between clinical sciences and general social sciences, as well. 2. The example of General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes" suggests that in the period 2001-2010 the share of references to social sciences was significantly increased. In the meantime, social science papers in the same topics contained references to Clinical Medicine papers in a constantly high percentage. 3. In the sample under study, the age distribution of social science papers in the references did not differ significantly from that of the other sources. 4. Share of references to social science papers was found to be extremely high among Hungarian General & Internal Medicine papers in the topics of "diabetes". This finding still requires clarification, nevertheless, since e.g. it was not supported by an institutional comparison including the largest Hungarian medical research university. 5. The intensity of the reference/citation mediated information flows between the Hungarian Medical Journal, Orvosi Hetilap and social sciences appears to be in accordance with the current international trends.
Dai, Weihui; Hu, Hongzhi; Wu, Tunan; Dai, Yonghui
Emergency has attracted global attentions of government and the public, and it will easily trigger a series of serious social problems if it is not supervised effectively in the dissemination process. In the Internet world, people communicate with each other and form various virtual communities based on social networks, which lead to a complex and fast information spread pattern of emergency events. This paper collects Internet data based on data acquisition and topic detection technology, analyzes the process of information spread on social networks, describes the diffusions and impacts of that information from the perspective of random graph, and finally seeks the key paths through an improved IBF algorithm. Application cases have shown that this algorithm can search the shortest spread paths efficiently, which may help us to guide and control the information dissemination of emergency events on early warning.
Full Text Available Emergency has attracted global attentions of government and the public, and it will easily trigger a series of serious social problems if it is not supervised effectively in the dissemination process. In the Internet world, people communicate with each other and form various virtual communities based on social networks, which lead to a complex and fast information spread pattern of emergency events. This paper collects Internet data based on data acquisition and topic detection technology, analyzes the process of information spread on social networks, describes the diffusions and impacts of that information from the perspective of random graph, and finally seeks the key paths through an improved IBF algorithm. Application cases have shown that this algorithm can search the shortest spread paths efficiently, which may help us to guide and control the information dissemination of emergency events on early warning.
Reina Estupinan, John-Henry
Since information has been regarded os a physical entity, the field of quantum information theory has blossomed. This brings novel applications, such as quantum computation. This field has attracted the attention of numerous researchers with backgrounds ranging from computer science, mathematics and engineering, to the physical sciences. Thus, we now have an interdisciplinary field where great efforts are being made in order to build devices that should allow for the processing of information at a quantum level, and also in the understanding of the complex structure of some physical processes at a more basic level. This thesis is devoted to the theoretical study of structures at the nanometer-scale, 'nanostructures', through physical processes that mainly involve the solid-state and quantum optics, in order to propose reliable schemes for the processing of quantum information. Initially, the main results of quantum information theory and quantum computation are briefly reviewed. Next, the state-of-the-art of quantum dots technology is described. In so doing, the theoretical background and the practicalities required for this thesis are introduced. A discussion of the current quantum hardware used for quantum information processing is given. In particular, the solid-state proposals to date are emphasised. A detailed prescription is given, using an optically-driven coupled quantum dot system, to reliably prepare and manipulate exciton maximally entangled Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Manipulation of the strength and duration of selective light-pulses needed for producing these highly entangled states provides us with crucial elements for the processing of solid-state based quantum information. The all-optical generation of states of the so-called Bell basis for a system of two quantum dots (QDs) is exploited for performing the quantum teleportation of the excitonic state of a dot in an array of three coupled QDs. Theoretical predictions suggest
Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica
There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.
Full Text Available There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.
There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473
Dannahy, Laura; Stopa, Lusia
Clark and Wells' [1995. A cognitive model of social phobia. In: R. Heimberg, M. Liebowitz, D.A. Hope, & F.R. Schneier (Eds.) Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment and treatment (pp. 69-93). New York: Guildford Press.] cognitive model of social phobia proposes that following a social event, individuals with social phobia will engage in post-event processing, during which they conduct a detailed review of the event. This study investigated the relationship between self-appraisals of performance and post-event processing in individuals high and low in social anxiety. Participants appraised their performance immediately after a conversation with an unknown individual and prior to an anticipated second conversation task 1 week later. The frequency and valence of post-event processing during the week following the conversation was also assessed. The study also explored differences in the metacognitive processes of high and low socially anxious participants. The high socially anxious group experienced more anxiety, predicted worse performance, underestimated their actual performance, and engaged in more post-event processing than low socially anxious participants. The degree of negative post-event processing was linked to the extent of social anxiety and negative appraisals of performance, both immediately after the conversation task and 1 week later. Differences were also observed in some metacognitive processes. The results are discussed in relation to current theory and previous research.
Keenan, Heather T; Cook, Lawrence J; Olson, Lenora M; Bardsley, Tyler; Campbell, Kristine A
Poor and minority children with injuries concerning for abuse are evaluated and diagnosed for abuse differentially. We hypothesized that 2 steps in the decision-making process would influence evaluation and diagnosis: social intuition from meeting the family and objective social information associated with child abuse risk. Between 2009 and 2013, 32 child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) submitted 730 child abuse consultations including original medical evaluations and diagnoses. CAPs evaluated and diagnosed each other's cases. Comparisons of evaluations and diagnoses were made by levels of social understanding available to the CAP: meeting the family (social intuition and information), reading the case (social information), and reading the case without social information. Evaluations were compared with a consensus gold standard by using logistic regression modeling adjusting for child and CAP characteristics. Diagnostic categories were compared by level of social understanding and diagnostic certainty by using contingency tables. CAPs without access to social intuition were approximately twice as likely to perform gold standard evaluations for neurotrauma and long bone fracture compared with CAPs who met families. Diagnostic agreement fell from 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.1%-76.5%) when social information was present to 66.5% (95% CI: 63.1%-70.0%) when social information was restricted. In cases with less certainty, agreement dropped to 51.3% (95% CI: 46.0%-56.7%). Social intuition and information play a role in the physical child abuse decision-making process, which may contribute to differential diagnosis. Simple interventions including decision tools, check lists, and peer review may structure evaluations to ensure children's equal treatment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta
In this review we consider research on social cognition in which implicit processes can be compared and contrasted with explicit, conscious processes. In each case, their function is distinct, sometimes complementary and sometimes oppositional. We argue that implicit processes in social interaction...... are automatic and are often opposed to conscious strategies. While we are aware of explicit processes in social interaction, we cannot always use them to override implicit processes. Many studies show that implicit processes facilitate the sharing of knowledge, feelings, and actions, and hence, perhaps...
Information professionals are increasingly responsible not only for running traditional information and library services but also for providing an online presence for their organisation. This book shows how best practice in delivering online information services should be based on actual user needs and behaviour. A series of case studies provide real life examples of how social science information is being used in the community. The book then draws on these case studies to outline the main issues facing service providers: such as usability, metadata and management. The book concludes with a lo
Maria Cristina Tissi
Full Text Available Este estudo abordou a condição de trabalho com deficiência no comércio ambulante de São Paulo, enquanto vivência de processos de exclusão e, paradoxalmente, de inclusão social. O trabalho é concebido pelos ambulantes como elemento que proporciona relacionamentos sociais e confere dignidade e respeito na rede de relações das próprias vidas, mas o plano da sociabilidade, porém, mostra-se contraditório. No ponto de vista do processo de trabalho, a atuação no comércio ambulante revela traços de degradação moral e política; a permanência de um esquema de corrupção, a imposição da subordinação, etc., expressam uma exclusão social, mas os vendedores ambulantes com deficiência não podem ser considerados excluídos. É mais apropriado considerar que aproximam-se da zona de vulnerabilidade, caracterizada por Castel pela instabilidade ocupacional e relacionai.This study addressed work conditions and disability in street vendor activity in São Paulo as experience of exclusion processes and, paradoxically, of social inclusion. Work is considered by street vendors the element providing social relationships and dignity and respect in the social network, within strict limits, it also means opportunity for autonomy, decision, management of their own lives. However, as to sociability it is controversial. In respect to work process, street vendor activity shows signs of moral and political degradation. Maintenance of a corruption scheme, imposition of subordination, etc., express social exclusion, but the disabled street vendors could not be considered as excluded. It is more appropriate to consider them as closer to the vulnerability zone, characterized by occupational and relational unstability, according to Castel.
Hameed, Tahir; Swar, Bobby
This paper extends and validates a model of value-driven online healthcare information search in online shared contexts. Perceived value is an important factor behind users' decisions concerning search, consumption and reuse of products and services. The role of utilitarian, hedonic and epistemic value of information in user satisfaction and intention to repeat online search is well recognized, but little support has been found for social value affecting user satisfaction critical for such de...
Full Text Available Article is dedicated to examination and analysis of the construction of the information model «social explosion», which corresponds to the newest «colored» revolutions. The analysis of model makes it possible to see effective approaches to the initiation of this explosion and by the use of contemporary information communications as honeycomb connection and the mobile Internet
Urquhart, Christine; Tbaishat, Dina; Yeoman, Alison
This book adopts a holistic interpretation of information architecture, to offer a variety of methods, tools, and techniques that may be used when designing websites and information systems that support workflows and what people require when 'managing information'.
Full Text Available Online users nowadays are facing serious information overload problem. In recent years, recommender systems have been widely studied to help people find relevant information. Adaptive social recommendation is one of these systems in which the connections in the online social networks are optimized for the information propagation so that users can receive interesting news or stories from their leaders. Validation of such adaptive social recommendation methods in the literature assumes uniform distribution of users' activity frequency. In this paper, our empirical analysis shows that the distribution of online users' activity is actually heterogenous. Accordingly, we propose a more realistic multi-agent model in which users' activity frequency are drawn from a power-law distribution. We find that previous social recommendation methods lead to serious delay of information propagation since many users are connected to inactive leaders. To solve this problem, we design a new similarity measure which takes into account users' activity frequencies. With this similarity measure, the average delay is significantly shortened and the recommendation accuracy is largely improved.
Chen, Duan-Bing; Wang, Guan-Nan; Zeng, An; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
Online users nowadays are facing serious information overload problem. In recent years, recommender systems have been widely studied to help people find relevant information. Adaptive social recommendation is one of these systems in which the connections in the online social networks are optimized for the information propagation so that users can receive interesting news or stories from their leaders. Validation of such adaptive social recommendation methods in the literature assumes uniform distribution of users' activity frequency. In this paper, our empirical analysis shows that the distribution of online users' activity is actually heterogenous. Accordingly, we propose a more realistic multi-agent model in which users' activity frequency are drawn from a power-law distribution. We find that previous social recommendation methods lead to serious delay of information propagation since many users are connected to inactive leaders. To solve this problem, we design a new similarity measure which takes into account users' activity frequencies. With this similarity measure, the average delay is significantly shortened and the recommendation accuracy is largely improved.
Carrizo, Gabriela Cristina
Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo se refiere a las características de los informes contables microsociales externos e internos y sus beneficios. Su función es de suma importancia ya que permite mostrar a los distintos interesados, la gestión social del ente y a partir de allí tomar sus decisiones.
Full Text Available Social media are playing an increasingly important role as information resource in tourism both for customers (i.e. the tourists, who gather trustworthy information supporting the choice of destinations and services from peers, and for businesses, which can use the same information for improving their marketing strategies. The use of social media data can also offer new opportunities for decision-support in tourism planning. With improved understanding of the motivations of tourists and tailoring tourism service supply, decision making can be facilitated by emphasizing the strengths of tourist destinations for past and potential visitors. However, this kind of information about tourists perceptions and opinions is not always properly analysed by planners. Understanding the user satisfaction, which depends on factors related to both the location and the services that the local industry proposes, may offer valuable information in tourism planning at regional and local level. In the light of the above premises, the goal of the study presented in this paper is to propose an integrated approach to investigate the relationships between tourists satisfaction, destination resources and tourism industry for supporting design and decision-making in regional tourism planning. The methodology developed in the study includes data collection from popular tourism social media platforms (i.e. Booking.com and TripAdvisor.com.com, and their integration with territorial and tourism data. Spatial and statistical analysis techniques are then applied to elicit insights from tourists perceptions on success factors which may be used in decision-making and planning support. The case study demonstrates the value of social media data and computational social science techniques in tourism planning. The paper concludes with a critical discussion on the potential of using such an approach in more general urban and regional planning setting.
Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui
Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.
Gantz, Walter; Gartenberg, Howard M.
A study to assess the information function of pop music in the adolescent socialization process involved approximately 500 students in junior and senior high schools and colleges in a large metropolitan area in the northeast and approximately 400 university undergraduates in an introductory sociology class. In-class, self-administered…
Zhu, Hui; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Rongxing; Li, Hui
Social media has recently become an important platform for users to share news, express views, and post messages. However, due to user privacy preservation in social media, many privacy setting tools are employed, which inevitably change the patterns and dynamics of information dissemination. In this study, a general stochastic model using dynamic evolution equations was introduced to illustrate how privacy concerns impact the process of information dissemination. Extensive simulations and analyzes involving the privacy settings of general users, privileged users, and pure observers were conducted on real-world networks, and the results demonstrated that user privacy settings affect information differently. Finally, we also studied the process of information diffusion analytically and numerically with different privacy settings using two classic networks.
Quantum Information Processing (QIP) is expected to bring revolutionary enhancement to various technological areas. However, today's QIP applications are far from being practical. The problem involves both hardware issues, i.e., quantum devices are imperfect, and software issues, i.e., the functionality of some QIP applications is not fully understood. Aiming to improve the practicality of QIP, in my PhD research I have studied various topics in quantum cryptography and ion trap quantum computation. In quantum cryptography, I first studied the security of position-based quantum cryptography (PBQC). I discovered a wrong assumption in the previous literature that the cheaters are not allowed to share entangled resources. I proposed entanglement attacks that could cheat all known PBQC protocols. I also studied the practicality of continuous-variable (CV) quantum secret sharing (QSS). While the security of CV QSS was considered by the literature only in the limit of infinite squeezing, I found that finitely squeezed CV resources could also provide finite secret sharing rate. Our work relaxes the stringent resources requirement of implementing QSS. In ion trap quantum computation, I studied the phase error of quantum information induced by dc Stark effect during ion transportation. I found an optimized ion trajectory for which the phase error is the minimum. I also defined a threshold speed, above which ion transportation would induce significant error. In addition, I proposed a new application for ion trap systems as universal bosonic simulators (UBS). I introduced two architectures, and discussed their respective strength and weakness. I illustrated the implementations of bosonic state initialization, transformation, and measurement by applying radiation fields or by varying the trap potential. When comparing with conducting optical experiments, the ion trap UBS is advantageous in higher state initialization efficiency and higher measurement accuracy. Finally, I
Little, Graham R.
Discusses the nature and implications of two different models for societal planning: (1) the problem-solving process approach based on Karl Popper; and (2) the goal-setting "blueprint" approach based on Karl Marx. (DC)
Maggini, Marco; Jain, Lakhmi
This handbook presents some of the most recent topics in neural information processing, covering both theoretical concepts and practical applications. The contributions include: Deep architectures Recurrent, recursive, and graph neural networks Cellular neural networks Bayesian networks Approximation capabilities of neural networks Semi-supervised learning Statistical relational learning Kernel methods for structured data Multiple classifier systems Self organisation and modal learning Applications to ...
Timucin, Dogan Aslan
Low computational accuracy is an important obstacle for optical processors which blocks their way to becoming a practical reality and a serious challenger for classical computing paradigms. This research presents a comprehensive solution approach to the problem of accuracy enhancement in discrete analog optical information processing systems. Statistical analysis of a generic three-plane optical processor is carried out first, taking into account the effects of diffraction, interchannel crosstalk, and background radiation. Noise sources included in the analysis are photon, excitation, and emission fluctuations in the source array, transmission and polarization fluctuations in the modulator, and photoelectron, gain, dark, shot, and thermal noise in the detector array. Means and mutual coherence and probability density functions are derived for both optical and electrical output signals. Next, statistical models for a number of popular optoelectronic devices are studied. Specific devices considered here are light-emitting and laser diode sources, an ideal noiseless modulator and a Gaussian random-amplitude-transmittance modulator, p-i-n and avalanche photodiode detectors followed by electronic postprocessing, and ideal free-space geometrical -optics propagation and single-lens imaging systems. Output signal statistics are determined for various interesting device combinations by inserting these models into the general formalism. Finally, based on these special-case output statistics, results on accuracy limitations and enhancement in optical processors are presented. Here, starting with the formulation of the accuracy enhancement problem as (1) an optimal detection problem and (2) as a parameter estimation problem, the potential accuracy improvements achievable via the classical multiple-hypothesis -testing and maximum likelihood and Bayesian parameter estimation methods are demonstrated. Merits of using proper normalizing transforms which can potentially stabilize
Gal, Uri; Berente, Nicholas
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to advocate a "social representations" approach to the study of socio-cognitive processes during information systems (IS) implementation as an alternative to the technological frames framework. Design/methodology/approach - The paper demonstrates how......, it may lead to symptomatic explanations of IS implementation. Alternatively, using the theory of social representations can offer more fundamental causal explanations of IS implementation processes. Research limitations/implications - IS researchers are encouraged to use a social representations approach...... social representations theory can improve research outcomes by applying it to three recent studies that employed the technological frames framework. Findings - It is found that because the technological frames framework is overly technologically centered, temporally bounded, and individually focused...
Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia
Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schrager, Donald M.
This quinmester course of study for grades seven through nine provides a framework for analyzing election processes in a democracy by investigating democratic societies of the past, and contrasting democracies with totalitarian types of government. Major emphasis is upon analyzing the system of institutionalized political parties, the…
Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.; Silberhorn, C.
the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous-variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments...... in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum information system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single-photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection...... stage where CV information is measured using homodyne detection or photon counting....
Mankowski, Eric S.; Wyer, Robert S.
Though research is exploratory, it suggests ways in which individuals' a priori beliefs in available social support might affect their reactions to new information and the mechanisms that could underlie the maintenance of these beliefs in light of that information. Evaluates implications for the stability of perceived support availability. (LSR)
Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, defines a new field of science, and describes the processes, systems and devices at the interface between chemistry and information sciences. The book is devoted to the application of molecular species and nanostructures to advanced information processing. It includes the design and synthesis of suitable materials and nanostructures, their characterization, and finally applications of molecular species and nanostructures for information storage and processing purposes. Divided into twelve chapters; the first three chapters serve as an int
Griffiths, Alexander Ivor
The utility of selective retrieval processes in our everyday lives is evident across the varied contexts we are subjected to as human beings. Memory is characterised by an unlimited storage capacity, but limited retrieval capacity. Subsequently, we are selective in what we remember in a given context in order to use memory in an adaptive manner. Previous theory places memory at the centre of deriving and maintaining a sense of self and personal identity. In contrast however, the extent to whi...
Gutz, Lea; Renneberg, Babette; Roepke, Stefan; Niedeggen, Michael
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are known to be highly sensitive to social rejection. Social information processing is assumed to play a key role for this shared psychopathological phenomenon. The first steps in social information processing are to encode social cues and to create a mental representation of the social situation. The aim of the current study was to test whether the perception of social participation in patients with BPD and patients with SAD is biased in this initial stage of social processing. Focus was on the P3b, a brain potential related to stimulus evaluation that has been shown to be a sensitive indicator for the processes of interest. Twenty five unmedicated patients with BPD, 25 unmedicated patients with SAD and 25 healthy controls (HC) played an EEG-compatible version of Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing paradigm that experimentally induces social inclusion and exclusion. All participants showed a pronounced P3b when excluded. Only patients with BPD showed an enhanced P3b also during the inclusion condition, indicating altered processing of social inclusion. The EEG results for the BPD group were consistent with their self-report data. Patients with BPD felt more excluded during the inclusion condition of Cyberball than both HC and patients with SAD. Furthermore, heightened rejection expectancy (subscale of the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire) was associated with a smaller difference in the P3b amplitude between inclusion and exclusion. Results indicate a negatively biased perception of social inclusion in BPD already during the initial stage of social processing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Larkin, Peter; Jahoda, Andrew; MacMahon, Ken
Background: There is an established evidence base concerning the use of anger management interventions with violent offenders who have intellectual disabilities. However, there has been limited research investigating the role of social cognitive factors underpinning problems of aggression. Psychosocial sources of aggression in the non-disabled…
Jansen, R.J.G.; Curseu, P.L.; Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Geurts, J.L.A.; Gibcus, P.
The decision-making literature emphasizes that in high-stake decisions the characteristics of individual decision-makers, their interpretation of decision situations, and their social ties play an important role in decision outcomes. Despite these results, research on small- and medium-sized
Derex, Maxime; Feron, Romain; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel
Human cultural traits typically result from a gradual process that has been described as analogous to biological evolution. This observation has led pioneering scholars to draw inspiration from population genetics to develop a rigorous and successful theoretical framework of cultural evolution. Social learning, the mechanism allowing information to be transmitted between individuals, has thus been described as a simple replication mechanism. Although useful, the extent to which this idealization appropriately describes the actual social learning events has not been carefully assessed. Here, we used a specifically developed computer task to evaluate (i) the extent to which social learning leads to the replication of an observed behaviour and (ii) the consequences it has for fitness landscape exploration. Our results show that social learning does not lead to a dichotomous choice between disregarding and replicating social information. Rather, it appeared that individuals combine and transform information coming from multiple sources to produce new solutions. As a consequence, landscape exploration was promoted by the use of social information. These results invite us to rethink the way social learning is commonly modelled and could question the validity of predictions coming from models considering this process as replicative. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Hölscher, Christian; Munk, Matthias
... simultaneously recorded spike trains 120 Mark Laubach, Nandakumar S. Narayanan, and Eyal Y. Kimchi Part III Neuronal population information coding and plasticity in specific brain areas 149 7 F...
Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Nielsen, Peter Axel
Software process improvement in small, agile organizations is often problematic. Model-based approaches seem to overlook problems. We have been seeking an alternative approach to overcome this through action research. Here we report on a piece of action research from which we developed an approach...... to map social networks and suggest how it can be used in software process improvement. We applied the mapping approach in a small software company to support the realization of new ways of improving software processes. The mapping approach was found useful in improving social networks, and thus furthers...... software process improvement....
Full Text Available Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems, based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety.
Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris
Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety. PMID:24427129
Full Text Available In the last few years, a new type of synchronous social networking services (SNSs has emerged—social live streaming services (SLSSs. Studying SLSSs is a new and exciting research field in information science. What information behaviors do users of live streaming platforms exhibit? In our empirical study we analyzed information production behavior (i.e., broadcasting as well as information reception behavior (watching streams and commenting on them. We conducted two quantitative investigations, namely an online survey with YouNow users (N = 123 and observations of live streams on YouNow (N = 434. YouNow is a service with video streams mostly made by adolescents for adolescents. YouNow users like to watch streams, to chat while watching, and to reward performers by using emoticons. While broadcasting, there is no anonymity (as in nearly all other WWW services. Synchronous SNSs remind us of the film The Truman Show, as anyone has the chance to consciously broadcast his or her own life real-time.
Kirby, John R.; Das, J. P.
The simultaneous and successive processing model of cognitive abilities was compared to a traditional primary mental abilities model. Simultaneous processing was found to be primarily related to spatial ability; and to a lesser extent, to memory and inductive reasoning. Subjects were 104 fourth-grade urban males. (Author/GD C)
Farine, Damien R; Aplin, Lucy M; Sheldon, Ben C; Hoppitt, William
Understanding the functional links between social structure and population processes is a central aim of evolutionary ecology. Multiple types of interactions can be represented by networks drawn for the same population, such as kinship, dominance or affiliative networks, but the relative importance of alternative networks in modulating population processes may not be clear. We illustrate this problem, and a solution, by developing a framework for testing the importance of different types of association in facilitating the transmission of information. We apply this framework to experimental data from wild songbirds that form mixed-species flocks, recording the arrival (patch discovery) of individuals to novel foraging sites. We tested whether intraspecific and interspecific social networks predicted the spread of information about novel food sites, and found that both contributed to transmission. The likelihood of acquiring information per unit of connection to knowledgeable individuals increased 22-fold for conspecifics, and 12-fold for heterospecifics. We also found that species varied in how much information they produced, suggesting that some species play a keystone role in winter foraging flocks. More generally, these analyses demonstrate that this method provides a powerful approach, using social networks to quantify the relative transmission rates across different social relationships.
Harris, R. L., Sr.
The scanning behavior of pilots must be understood so that cockpit displays can be assembled which will provide the most information accurately and quickly to the pilot. The results of seven years of collecting and analyzing pilot scanning data are summarized. The data indicate that pilot scanning behavior is: (1) subsconscious; (2) situation dependent; and (3) can be disrupted if pilots are forced to make conscious decisions. Testing techniques and scanning analysis techniques have been developed that are sensitive to pilot workload.
Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia
Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples' behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of "leaders" on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of "followers", people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.
Calfee, Robert C.
"This paper consists of three sections--(a) the relation of theoretical analyses of learning to curriculum design, (b) the role of information-processing models in analyses of learning processes, and (c) selected examples of the application of information-processing models to curriculum design problems." (Author)
Haase, Richard F.; Jome, LaRae M.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Connacher, Christopher C.; Sendrowitz, Kerrin
The purpose of this study was to provide additional validity evidence for a model of person-environment fit based on polychronicity, stimulus load, and information processing capacities. In this line of research the confluence of polychronicity and information processing (e.g., the ability of individuals to process stimuli from the environment…
Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization and the world economic communications, the role of information support of business processes increases in various branches and fields of activity. There is not an exception for the warehouse activity. Such information support is realized in warehouse logistic systems. In relation to territorial administratively education, the warehouse logistic system gets a format of difficult social and economic structure which controls the economic streams covering the intermediary, trade and transport organizations and the enterprises of other branches and spheres. Spatial movement of inventory items makes new demands to participants of merchandising. Warehousing (in the meaning – storage – is one of the operations entering into logistic activity, on the organization of a material stream, as a requirement. Therefore, warehousing as "management of spatial movement of stocks" – is justified. Warehousing, in such understanding, tries to get rid of the perception as to containing stocks – a business expensive. This aspiration finds reflection in the logistic systems working by the principle: "just in time", "economical production" and others. Therefore, the role of warehouses as places of storage is transformed to understanding of warehousing as an innovative logistic system.
Hart, Eric W.
The mathematics of information processing and the Internet can be organized around four fundamental themes: (1) access (finding information easily); (2) security (keeping information confidential); (3) accuracy (ensuring accurate information); and (4) efficiency (data compression). In this article, the author discusses each theme with reference to…
Booker, Queen Esther
An approach used to tackle the problem of helping online students find the classes they want and need is a filtering technique called "social information filtering," a general approach to personalized information filtering. Social information filtering essentially automates the process of "word-of-mouth" recommendations: items are recommended to a…
Kuziemsky, Craig E.
Objectives This paper reviews organizational and social issues (OSIs) in health information technology (HIT). Methods A review and synthesis of the literature on OSIs in HIT was conducted. Results Five overarching themes with respect to OSIs in HIT were identified and discussed: scope and frameworks for defining OSIs in HIT, context matters, process immaturity and complexity, trade-offs will happen and need to be discussed openly, and means of studying OSIs in HIT. Conclusions There is a wide...
Horton, Rebecca; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Tarman, Thomas David
Qubits demonstrated using GaAs double quantum dots (DQD). The qubit basis states are the (1) singlet and (2) triplet stationary states. Long spin decoherence times in silicon spurs translation of GaAs qubit in to silicon. In the near term the goals are: (1) Develop surface gate enhancement mode double quantum dots (MOS & strained-Si/SiGe) to demonstrate few electrons and spin read-out and to examine impurity doped quantum-dots as an alternative architecture; (2) Use mobility, C-V, ESR, quantum dot performance & modeling to feedback and improve upon processing, this includes development of atomic precision fabrication at SNL; (3) Examine integrated electronics approaches to RF-SET; (4) Use combinations of numerical packages for multi-scale simulation of quantum dot systems (NEMO3D, EMT, TCAD, SPICE); and (5) Continue micro-architecture evaluation for different device and transport architectures.
Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg
Full Text Available Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.
Jaeschke, A.; Keller, H.; Orth, H.
On a production management level, a process information system in a nuclear reprocessing plant (NRP) has to fulfill conventional operating functions and functions for nuclear material surveillance (safeguards). Based on today's state of the art of on-line process control technology, the progress in hardware and software technology allows to introduce more process-specific intelligence into process information systems. Exemplified by an expert-system-aided laboratory management system as component of a NRP process information system, the paper demonstrates that these technologies can be applied already. (DG) [de
Puskaric, Marin; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg
When making decisions, people are often exposed to relevant information stemming from qualitatively different sources. For instance, when making a choice between two alternatives people can rely on the advice of other people (i.e., social information) or search for factual information about the alternatives (i.e., non-social information). Prior research in categorization has shown that social information is given special attention when both social and non-social information is available, even when the social information has no additional informational value. The goal of the current work is to investigate whether framing information as social or non-social also influences information search and choice in probabilistic inferences. In a first study, we found that framing cues (i.e., the information used to make a decision) with medium validity as social increased the probability that they were searched for compared to a task where the same cues were framed as non-social information, but did not change the strategy people relied on. A second and a third study showed that framing a cue with high validity as social information facilitated learning to rely on a non-compensatory decision strategy. Overall, the results suggest that social in comparison to non-social information is given more attention and is learned faster than non-social information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Samarth, Chandrika N; Gloor, Peter A
We propose a novel approach to improve throughput of the surgery patient flow process of a Boston area teaching hospital. A social network analysis was conducted in an effort to demonstrate that process efficiency gains could be achieved through redesign of social network patterns at the workplace; in conjunction with redesign of organization structure and the implementation of workflow over an integrated information technology system. Key knowledge experts and coordinators in times of crisis were identified and a new communication structure more conducive to trust and knowledge sharing was suggested. The new communication structure is scalable without compromising on coordination required among key roles in the network for achieving efficiency gains.
Hyldegård, Jette Seiden
information seeking activities, strategies and preferences can be identified when young learners use social media for information seeking in relation to course work and other study-related work tasks? 2) What motivations can be identified among young learners for using social media for information seeking....... The reported factors motivating information seeking were convenience and easy access to information, in addition to the content associated with specific social media types. Students’ use of social media for information seeking was associated primarily with their private information landscape. Contributions......Background. Increased use of social media for information seeking and learning calls for more research and knowledge of how these emerging technologies can support students’ learning. Objectives. The focus is on recent studies of young learners’ use of social media for information seeking...
Coenen, A.M.L.; Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.
Information provided by external stimuli does reach the brain during sleep, although the amount of information is reduced during sleep compared to wakefulness. The process controlling this reduction is called `sensory' gating and evidence exists that the underlying neurophysiological processes take
Satpute, Ajay B; Badre, David; Ochsner, Kevin N
Research in social neuroscience has uncovered a social knowledge network that is particularly attuned to making social judgments. However, the processes that are being performed by both regions within this network and those outside of this network that are nevertheless engaged in the service of making a social judgment remain unclear. To help address this, we drew upon research in semantic memory, which suggests that making a semantic judgment engages 2 distinct control processes: A controlled retrieval process, which aids in bringing goal-relevant information to mind from long-term stores, and a selection process, which aids in selecting the information that is goal-relevant from the information retrieved. In a neuroimaging study, we investigated whether controlled retrieval and selection for social information engage distinct portions of both the social knowledge network and regions outside this network. Controlled retrieval for social information engaged an anterior ventrolateral portion of the prefrontal cortex, whereas selection engaged both the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction within the social knowledge network. These results suggest that the social knowledge network may be more involved with the selection of social information than the controlled retrieval of it and incorporates lateral prefrontal regions in accessing memory for making social judgments.
Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakti, Sakriani; Neubig, Graham; Negoro, Hideki; Iwasaka, Hidemi; Nakamura, Satoshi
People with social communication difficulties tend to have superior skills using computers, and as a result computer-based social skills training systems are flourishing. Social skills training, performed by human trainers, is a well-established method to obtain appropriate skills in social interaction. Previous works have attempted to automate one or several parts of social skills training through human-computer interaction. However, while previous work on simulating social skills training considered only acoustic and linguistic features, human social skills trainers take into account visual features (e.g. facial expression, posture). In this paper, we create and evaluate a social skills training system that closes this gap by considering audiovisual features regarding ratio of smiling, yaw, and pitch. An experimental evaluation measures the difference in effectiveness of social skill training when using audio features and audiovisual features. Results showed that the visual features were effective to improve users' social skills.
This study examined the strategies commonly adopted by Osun state secondary school students in processing career information. It specifically examined the sources of career information available to the students, the uses to which the students put the information collected and how their career decision making skills can be ...
Aberer, Karl; Wombacher, Andreas
Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce
Full Text Available Social cognition consists of several skills which allow us to interact with other humans. These skills include social stimuli processing, drawing inferences about others' mental states, and engaging in social interactions. In recent years, there has been growing evidence of social cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Apparently, these impairments are separable from general neurocognitive impairments, such as attention, memory and executive functioning. Moreover, social cognition seems to be a main determinant of functional outcome and could be used as a guide to elaborate new pharmacological and psychological treatments. However, most of these studies focus on individual mechanisms and observational perspectives; only few of them study schizophrenic patients during interactive situations. We first review evidences of social cognitive impairments both in social stimuli processing and in mental state attribution. We focus on the relationship between these functions and both general cognitive impairments and functional outcome. We next review recent game theory approaches to the study of how social engagement occurs in schizophrenic patients. The advantage of using game theory is that game-oriented tasks can assess social decision-making in an interactive everyday situation model. Finally, we review proposed theoretical models used to explain social alterations and their underlying biological mechanisms. Based on interactive studies, we propose a framework which takes into account the dynamic nature of social processes. Thus, understanding social skills as a result of dynamical systems could facilitate the development of both basic research and clinical applications oriented to psychiatric populations.
Toelch, Ulf; Bruce, Matthew J; Newson, Lesley; Richerson, Peter J; Reader, Simon M
Copying others appears to be a cost-effective way of obtaining adaptive information, particularly when flexibly employed. However, adult humans differ considerably in their propensity to use information from others, even when this 'social information' is beneficial, raising the possibility that stable individual differences constrain flexibility in social information use. We used two dissimilar decision-making computer games to investigate whether individuals flexibly adjusted their use of social information to current conditions or whether they valued social information similarly in both games. Participants also completed established personality questionnaires. We found that participants demonstrated considerable flexibility, adjusting social information use to current conditions. In particular, individuals employed a 'copy-when-uncertain' social learning strategy, supporting a core, but untested, assumption of influential theoretical models of cultural transmission. Moreover, participants adjusted the amount invested in their decision based on the perceived reliability of personally gathered information combined with the available social information. However, despite this strategic flexibility, participants also exhibited consistent individual differences in their propensities to use and value social information. Moreover, individuals who favoured social information self-reported as more collectivist than others. We discuss the implications of our results for social information use and cultural transmission.
Cronin, Adam L
Social animals can use both social and private information to guide decision making. While social information can be relatively economical to acquire, it can lead to maladaptive information cascades if attention to environmental cues is supplanted by unconditional copying. Ants frequently employ pheromone trails, a form of social information, to guide collective processes, and this can include consensus decisions made when choosing a place to live. In this study, I examine how house-hunting ants balance social and private information when these information sources conflict to different degrees. Social information, in the form of pre-established pheromone trails, strongly influenced the decision process in choices between equivalent nests, and lead to a reduced relocation time. When trails lead to non-preferred types of nest, however, social information had less influence when this preference was weak and no influence when the preference was strong. These results suggest that social information is vetted against private information during the house-hunting process in this species. Private information is favoured in cases of conflict and this may help insure colonies against costly wrong decisions.
Adam L Cronin
Full Text Available Social animals can use both social and private information to guide decision making. While social information can be relatively economical to acquire, it can lead to maladaptive information cascades if attention to environmental cues is supplanted by unconditional copying. Ants frequently employ pheromone trails, a form of social information, to guide collective processes, and this can include consensus decisions made when choosing a place to live. In this study, I examine how house-hunting ants balance social and private information when these information sources conflict to different degrees. Social information, in the form of pre-established pheromone trails, strongly influenced the decision process in choices between equivalent nests, and lead to a reduced relocation time. When trails lead to non-preferred types of nest, however, social information had less influence when this preference was weak and no influence when the preference was strong. These results suggest that social information is vetted against private information during the house-hunting process in this species. Private information is favoured in cases of conflict and this may help insure colonies against costly wrong decisions.
Early studies attempting to disentangle the network complexity of the brain exploited the accessibility of sensory receptive fields to reveal circuits made up of synapses connected both in series and in parallel. More recently, extension of this organisational principle beyond the sensory systems has been made possible by the advent of modern molecular, viral and optogenetic approaches. Here, evidence supporting parallel processing of social behaviours mediated by oxytocin is reviewed. Understanding oxytocinergic signalling from this perspective has significant implications for the design of oxytocin-based therapeutic interventions aimed at disorders such as autism, where disrupted social function is a core clinical feature. Moreover, identification of opportunities for novel technology development will require a better appreciation of the complexity of the circuit-level organisation of the social brain. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Neuroendocrinology.
Feng, Ling; Hu, Yanqing; Li, Baowen; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo; Braunstein, Lidia A
Modern social media are becoming overloaded with information because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the user-generated content in Sina Weibo, and find evidence that the spread of popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from the spread of disease, in contrast to common belief. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recovered (FSIR) model, where the infection probability of a node is proportional to its fraction of infected neighbors. Our findings have dramatic implications for information contagion. For example, using the FSIR model we find that real-world social networks have a finite epidemic threshold in contrast to the zero threshold in disease epidemic models. This means that when individuals are overloaded with excess information feeds, the information either reaches out the population if it is above the critical epidemic threshold, or it would never be well received.
Full Text Available Modern social media are becoming overloaded with information because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the user-generated content in Sina Weibo, and find evidence that the spread of popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from the spread of disease, in contrast to common belief. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recovered (FSIR model, where the infection probability of a node is proportional to its fraction of infected neighbors. Our findings have dramatic implications for information contagion. For example, using the FSIR model we find that real-world social networks have a finite epidemic threshold in contrast to the zero threshold in disease epidemic models. This means that when individuals are overloaded with excess information feeds, the information either reaches out the population if it is above the critical epidemic threshold, or it would never be well received.
Leemans, S.J.J.; Fahland, D.; Van Der Aalst, W.M.P.; Reichert, M.; Reijers, H.A.
Understanding the performance of business processes is an important part of any business process intelligence project. From historical information recorded in event logs, performance can be measured and visualized on a discovered process model. Thereby the accuracy of the measured performance, e.g.,
Nielsen, Peter Axel; Tjørnehøj, Gitte
Software process improvement in small organisation is often problematic and communication and knowledge sharing is more informal. To improve software processes we need to understand how they communicate and share knowledge. In this article have studied the company SmallSoft through action research...
Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Zhenjiang
Information diffusion and opinion evolution are often treated as two independent processes. Opinion models assume the topic reaches each agent and agents initially have their own ideas. In fact, the processes of information diffusion and opinion evolution often intertwine with each other. Whether the influence between these two processes plays a role in the system state is unclear. In this paper, we collected more than one million real data from a well-known social platform, and analysed large-scale user diffusion behaviour and opinion formation. We found that user inter-event time follows a two-scaling power-law distribution with two different power exponents. Public opinion stabilizes quickly and evolves toward the direction of convergence, but the consensus state is prevented by a few opponents. We propose a three-state opinion model accompanied by information diffusion. Agents form and exchange their opinions during information diffusion. Conversely, agents' opinions also influence their diffusion actions. Simulations show that the model with a correlation of the two processes produces similar statistical characteristics as empirical results. A fast epidemic process drives individual opinions to converge more obviously. Unlike previous epidemic models, the number of infected agents does not always increase with the update rate, but has a peak with an intermediate value of the rate.
Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Zhenjiang
Information diffusion and opinion evolution are often treated as two independent processes. Opinion models assume the topic reaches each agent and agents initially have their own ideas. In fact, the processes of information diffusion and opinion evolution often intertwine with each other. Whether the influence between these two processes plays a role in the system state is unclear. In this paper, we collected more than one million real data from a well-known social platform, and analysed large-scale user diffusion behaviour and opinion formation. We found that user inter-event time follows a two-scaling power-law distribution with two different power exponents. Public opinion stabilizes quickly and evolves toward the direction of convergence, but the consensus state is prevented by a few opponents. We propose a three-state opinion model accompanied by information diffusion. Agents form and exchange their opinions during information diffusion. Conversely, agents' opinions also influence their diffusion actions. Simulations show that the model with a correlation of the two processes produces similar statistical characteristics as empirical results. A fast epidemic process drives individual opinions to converge more obviously. Unlike previous epidemic models, the number of infected agents does not always increase with the update rate, but has a peak with an intermediate value of the rate. (paper)
Reppert, Jeffrey R.
The focus of this qualitative research study using the Delphi method is to provide a framework for leaders to develop their own social networks. By exploring concerns in four areas, leaders may be able to better plan, implement, and manage social networking systems in organizations. The areas addressed are: (a) social networking using…
DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (``Reportable Occurrences``); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department`s performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations.
DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (''Reportable Occurrences''); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department's performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations
Rieffel, Eleanor G.
This survey, aimed at information processing researchers, highlights intriguing but lesser known results, corrects misconceptions, and suggests research areas. Themes include: certainty in quantum algorithms; the "fewer worlds" theory of quantum mechanics; quantum learning; probability theory versus quantum mechanics.
qubits, the 2n energy levels of the spin-system can be treated as an n-qubit system. ... Quantum information processing; qubit; nuclear magnetic resonance quantum comput- ing. ..... The equilibrium spectrum has theoretical intensities in the ra-.
Crowe, Sarah; Tully, Mary P; Cantrill, Judith A
The need for effective communication and handling of secondary care information in general practices is paramount. To explore practice processes on receiving secondary care correspondence in a way that integrates the information needs and perceptions of practice staff both clinical and administrative. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with a wide range of practice staff (n = 36) in nine practices in the Northwest of England. Analysis was based on the framework approach using N-Vivo software and involved transcription, familiarization, coding, charting, mapping and interpretation. The 'information processing model' was developed to describe the six stages involved in practice processing of secondary care information. These included the amendment or updating of practice records whilst simultaneously or separately actioning secondary care recommendations, using either a 'one-step' or 'two-step' approach, respectively. Many factors were found to influence each stage and impact on the continuum of patient care. The primary purpose of processing secondary care information is to support patient care; this study raises the profile of information flow and usage within practices as an issue requiring further consideration.
Paula Regina Dal' Evedove
Full Text Available Introduction: Studies about human cognition represent a relevant perspective in information science, considering the subjective actions of information professionals and dialogic process that should permeate the activity of subjects dealing with the organization and representation of information.Objective: Explore the approach of the cognitive perspective in information science and their new settings by contemporary needs of information to reflect on the process of meeting the professional information through the social reality that permeates the contexts of information.Methodology: Reflection on theoretical aspects that deal with the cognitive development to discuss the implications of the cognitive approach in information science and its evolution in the scope of the representation and processing of information.Results: Research in Information Science must consider issues of cognitive and social order that underlie information processing and the process of knowing the information professional as knowledge structures must be explained from the social context of knowing subjects.Conclusions: There is a need to investigate the process of knowing the information professional in the bias of socio-cognitive approach, targeting new elements for the understanding of the relationship information (cognitive manifestations and its implications on the social dimension.
Full Text Available Securing sensitive organizational data has become increasingly vital to organizations. An Information Security Management System (ISMS is a systematic approach for establishing, implementing, operating, monitoring, reviewing, maintaining and improving an organization's information security. Key elements of the operation of an ISMS are ISMS processes. However, and in spite of its importance, an ISMS process framework with a description of ISMS processes and their interaction as well as the interaction with other management processes is not available in the literature. Cost benefit analysis of information security investments regarding single measures protecting information and ISMS processes are not in the focus of current research, mostly focused on economics. This article aims to fill this research gap by proposing such an ISMS process framework as the main contribution. Based on a set of agreed upon ISMS processes in existing standards like ISO 27000 series, COBIT and ITIL. Within the framework, identified processes are described and their interaction and interfaces are specified. This framework helps to focus on the operation of the ISMS, instead of focusing on measures and controls. By this, as a main finding, the systemic character of the ISMS consisting of processes and the perception of relevant roles of the ISMS is strengthened.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the information processing of 43 business managers with a professional superior performance. The theoretical framework considers three models: the Theory of Managerial Roles of Henry Mintzberg, the Theory of Information Processing, and Process Model Response to Rorschach by John Exner. The participants have been evaluated by Rorschach method. The results show that these managers are able to collect data, evaluate them and establish rankings properly. At same time, they are capable of being objective and accurate in the problems assessment. This information processing style permits an interpretation of the world around on basis of a very personal and characteristic processing way or cognitive style.
TKACH L. M.
Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. If public relations as a phenomenon of information management are examined, we deal with the question of knowledge content and nature of relationship of PR with environment, ability to manage the perception and attitude of people to events in the environment; ensure priority of information over other resources. Goal. To investigate the concept of "public relations" of foreign and domestic experts; consider the typology of the public and the "laws" of public opinion; define the basic principles according to which relations with public should be built, and to identify PR activities as a kind of social communication. Conclusions. Public relations on the basis of advanced information and communication technologies create fundamentally new opportunities for information control and influence on public consciousness.
Ariana Anamaria CORDOȘ; Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ; Tudor C. DRUGAN
Introduction: The scope of the research was a more detailed understanding of the influence of social media and the importance of student’s usage of social media context in relation to medical information. The research aimed to increase the understanding of social media and the impact on medical information use, informing policy and practice while highlighting gaps in the literature and areas for further research. Methods: The search of PubMed database was performed in October 2015, using term...
This article will address the issue of using understandings of psychodynamic interrelations as a means to grasp how social and cultural dynamics are processed individually and collectively in narratives. I apply the two theoretically distinct concepts of inter- and intrasubjectivity to gain insight...... are valuable sources of information in understanding the process of becoming a social educator....
Tan, Wee-Kek; Tan, Chuan-Hoo
Acquiring the knowledge to assemble an integrated Information System (IS) development process that is tailored to the specific needs of a project has become increasingly important. It is therefore necessary for educators to impart to students this crucial skill. However, Situational Method Engineering (SME) is an inherently complex process that…
Song, X.M.; Zang, F.; Bij, van der J.D.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.
Despite the obvious linkage between information technologies (IT) and knowledge processes and the apparent strategic importance of both, little research has done to explicitly examine how, if at all, IT and knowledge processes affect firm outcomes. The purpose of this study is to bridge this
Full Text Available Main laws of technical thermodynamics are universal and could be applied to processes other than thermodynamic ones. The results of the comparison of peculiarities of irreversible informational and thermodynamic processes are presented in the article and a new term “Infopy” is used. A more precise definition of “infopy” as an energetic charge is given in the article.
Hovy, Dirk; Spruit, Shannon
Research in natural language processing (NLP) used to be mostly performed on anonymous corpora, with the goal of enriching linguistic analysis. Authors were either largely unknown or public figures. As we increasingly use more data from social media, this situation has changed: users are now...... individually identifiable, and the outcome of NLP experiments and applications can have a direct effect on their lives. This change should spawn a debate about the ethical implications of NLP, but until now, the internal discourse in the field has not followed the technological development. This position paper...... identifies a number of social implications that NLP research may have, and discusses their ethical significance, as well as ways to address them....
Stamper, R.K.; Liu, Kecheng; Liu, Kecheng; Nunamaker, Jay F.; Sprague, Ralph H.
An organisation is defined as a system of social norms. The concept of a norm is the social analogue of the concept of an affordance which Gibson (1968) introduced to account for perception of the physical world. Their conjunction is a logic of Norms and Affordances, Norma, which serves as a
Jorczak, Robert L.
This paper presents a model of collaborative learning that takes an information processing perspective of learning by social interaction. The collaborative information processing model provides a theoretical basis for understanding learning principles associated with social interaction and explains why peer-to-peer discussion is potentially more…
Quantum information processors exploit the quantum features of superposition and entanglement for applications not possible in classical devices, offering the potential for significant improvements in the communication and processing of information. Experimental realization of large-scale quantum information processors remains a long term vision, as the required nearly pure quantum behaviour is observed only in exotic hardware such as individual laser-cooled atoms and isolated photons. But recent theoretical and experimental advances suggest that cold atoms and individual photons may lead the way towards bigger and better quantum information processors, effectively building mesoscopic versions of Schroedinger's cat' from the bottom up. (author)
Selivanova Natalia L.
Full Text Available The paper discusses various ways and specifics of applying information technologies in the process of school students’ social education and reveals the role of IT in the development of the student’s personality. Special attention is paid to the social education potential of network communities, the internet, virtual museums and mobile technologies. The paper also explains the risks of information technologies in social education.
Frey, Seth; Albino, Dominic K; Williams, Paul L
There is a tendency in decision-making research to treat uncertainty only as a problem to be overcome. But it is also a feature that can be leveraged, particularly in social interaction. Comparing the behavior of profitable and unprofitable poker players, we reveal a strategic use of information processing that keeps decision makers unpredictable. To win at poker, a player must exploit public signals from others. But using public inputs makes it easier for an observer to reconstruct that player's strategy and predict his or her behavior. How should players trade off between exploiting profitable opportunities and remaining unexploitable themselves? Using a recent multivariate approach to information theoretic data analysis and 1.75 million hands of online two-player No-Limit Texas Hold'em, we find that the important difference between winning and losing players is not in the amount of information they process, but how they process it. In particular, winning players are better at integrative information processing-creating new information from the interaction between their cards and their opponents' signals. We argue that integrative information processing does not just produce better decisions, it makes decision-making harder for others to reverse engineer, as an expert poker player's cards act like the private key in public-key cryptography. Poker players encrypt their reasoning with the way they process information. The encryption function of integrative information processing makes it possible for players to exploit others while remaining unexploitable. By recognizing the act of information processing as a strategic behavior in its own right, we offer a detailed account of how experts use endemic uncertainty to conceal their intentions in high-stakes competitive environments, and we highlight new opportunities between cognitive science, information theory, and game theory. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Hatemi, Peter K.
Extant research shows that social pressures influence acts of political participation, such as turning out to vote. However, we know less about how conformity pressures affect one’s deeply held political values and opinions. Using a discussion-based experiment, we untangle the unique and combined effects of information and social pressure on a political opinion that is highly salient, politically charged, and part of one’s identity. We find that while information plays a role in changing a person’s opinion, the social delivery of that information has the greatest effect. Thirty three percent of individuals in our treatment condition change their opinion due to the social delivery of information, while ten percent respond only to social pressure and ten percent respond only to information. Participants that change their opinion due to social pressure in our experiment are more conservative politically, conscientious, and neurotic than those that did not. PMID:29718958
Mallinson, Daniel J; Hatemi, Peter K
Extant research shows that social pressures influence acts of political participation, such as turning out to vote. However, we know less about how conformity pressures affect one's deeply held political values and opinions. Using a discussion-based experiment, we untangle the unique and combined effects of information and social pressure on a political opinion that is highly salient, politically charged, and part of one's identity. We find that while information plays a role in changing a person's opinion, the social delivery of that information has the greatest effect. Thirty three percent of individuals in our treatment condition change their opinion due to the social delivery of information, while ten percent respond only to social pressure and ten percent respond only to information. Participants that change their opinion due to social pressure in our experiment are more conservative politically, conscientious, and neurotic than those that did not.
Treats the Mathematics of many important areas in digital information processing. This book covers, in a unified presentation, five topics: Data Compression, Cryptography, Sampling (Signal Theory), Error Control Codes, Data Reduction. It is useful for teachers, students and practitioners in Electronic Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics.
Mikhail O. Kolbanev
Full Text Available Subject of study. The paper describes basic information technologies for automating of information processes of data storage, distribution and processing in terms of required physical resources. It is shown that the study of these processes with such traditional objectives of modern computer science, as the ability to transfer knowledge, degree of automation, information security, coding, reliability, and others, is not enough. The reasons are: on the one hand, the increase in the volume and intensity of information exchange in the subject of human activity and, on the other hand, drawing near to the limit of information systems efficiency based on semiconductor technologies. Creation of such technologies, which not only provide support for information interaction, but also consume a rational amount of physical resources, has become an actual problem of modern engineering development. Thus, basic information technologies for storage, distribution and processing of information to support the interaction between people are the object of study, and physical temporal, spatial and energy resources required for implementation of these technologies are the subject of study. Approaches. An attempt is made to enlarge the possibilities of traditional cybernetics methodology, which replaces the consideration of material information component by states search for information objects. It is done by taking explicitly into account the amount of physical resources required for changes in the states of information media. Purpose of study. The paper deals with working out of a common approach to the comparison and subsequent selection of basic information technologies for storage, distribution and processing of data, taking into account not only the requirements for the quality of information exchange in particular subject area and the degree of technology application, but also the amounts of consumed physical resources. Main findings. Classification of resources
Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention An exploratory social marketing ... The existence of a variety of media and interpersonal information sources on the ... shops should be further investigated as avenues for AIDS prevention efforts.
Hovy, Dirk; Spruit, Shannon
Research in natural language processing (NLP) used to be mostly performed on anonymous corpora, with the goal of enriching linguistic analysis. Authors were either largely unknown or public figures. As we increasingly use more data from social media, this situation has changed: users are now...... individually identifiable, and the outcome of NLP experiments and applications can have a direct effect on their lives. This change should spawn a debate about the ethical implications of NLP, but until now, the internal discourse in the field has not followed the technological development. This position paper...
Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein
This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…
Libraries have a long, though not uncomplicated, history with social justice and social advocacy. The new ACRL "Framework for Information Literacy," which is more conceptual and flexible than the original Standards, offers an opportunity for librarians to approach teaching and learning from a social justice perspective. Indeed, the…
Alakpodia, Onome Norah
The purpose of this study was to examine social networking use among Library and Information Science students of the Delta State University, Abraka. In this study, students completed a questionnaire which assessed their familiarity with social networking sites, the purpose for which they use social networking site and their most preferred sites to…
Alvarez, Ana Graziela; Dal Sasso, Grace T Marcon
The purpose of study was to evaluate the opinion of users about the experience of sharing information about pain in a social network. An electronic survey study was conducted from September to November/2009. Nine participants assessed the social network through of an electronic questionnaire. positive aspects (easy access, organized information, interactivity, encourages the sharing of information, learning opportunity). The sharing of information contributes to the development of a collective intelligence based on exchanging experiences and knowledge sharing.
Mandic, D.; Barbic, B.; Linke, B.; Colak, I.
Original NEK design was using several Process Computer Systems (PCS) for both process control and process supervision. PCS were built by different manufacturers around different hardware and software platforms. Operational experience and new regulatory requirements imposed new technical and functional requirements on the PCS. Requirements such as: - Acquisition of new signals from the technological processes and environment - Implementation of new application programs - Significant improvement of MMI (Man Machine Interface) - Process data transfer to other than Main Control Room (MCR) locations - Process data archiving and capability to retrieve same data for future analysis were impossible to be implemented within old systems. In order to satisfy new requirements, NEK has decided to build new Process Information System (PIS). During the design and construction of the PIS Project Phase I, in addition to the main foreign contractor, there was significant participation of local architect engineering and construction companies. This paper presents experience of NEK and local partners. (author)
Faist, Philippe; Dupuis, Frédéric; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renner, Renato
Irreversible information processing cannot be carried out without some inevitable thermodynamical work cost. This fundamental restriction, known as Landauer's principle, is increasingly relevant today, as the energy dissipation of computing devices impedes the development of their performance. Here we determine the minimal work required to carry out any logical process, for instance a computation. It is given by the entropy of the discarded information conditional to the output of the computation. Our formula takes precisely into account the statistically fluctuating work requirement of the logical process. It enables the explicit calculation of practical scenarios, such as computational circuits or quantum measurements. On the conceptual level, our result gives a precise and operational connection between thermodynamic and information entropy, and explains the emergence of the entropy state function in macroscopic thermodynamics.
My dissertation research investigates interactions of agents' behaviors through social networks when some information is not shared publicly, focusing on solutions to a series of challenging problems in empirical research, including heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria. The first chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Heterogeneous Expectations", extends the current literature in social interactions by devising econometric models and estimation tools with private information in not only the idiosyncratic shocks but also some exogenous covariates. For example, when analyzing peer effects in class performances, it was previously assumed that all control variables, including individual IQ and SAT scores, are known to the whole class, which is unrealistic. This chapter allows such exogenous variables to be private information and models agents' behaviors as outcomes of a Bayesian Nash Equilibrium in an incomplete information game. The distribution of equilibrium outcomes can be described by the equilibrium conditional expectations, which is unique when the parameters are within a reasonable range according to the contraction mapping theorem in function spaces. The equilibrium conditional expectations are heterogeneous in both exogenous characteristics and the private information, which makes estimation in this model more demanding than in previous ones. This problem is solved in a computationally efficient way by combining the quadrature method and the nested fixed point maximum likelihood estimation. In Monte Carlo experiments, if some exogenous characteristics are private information and the model is estimated under the mis-specified hypothesis that they are known to the public, estimates will be biased. Applying this model to municipal public spending in North Carolina, significant negative correlations between contiguous municipalities are found, showing free-riding effects. The Second chapter "A Tobit Model with Social
In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.
Since the terms Data Warehouse and On-Line Analytical Processing were proposed by Inmon and Codd, Codd, Sally respectively the traditional ideas of creating information systems in support of management¿s decision became interesting again in theory and practice. Today information warehousing is a strategic market for any data base systems vendor. Nevertheless the theoretical discussions of this topic go back to the early years of the 20th century as far as management science and accounting the...
This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active ...
In the public debate, social implications of information technology are mainly seen through the privacy lens. Impact assessments of information technology are also often limited to privacy impact assessments, which are focused on individual rights and well-being, as opposed to the social
Russo, Angelina; Watkins, Jerry; Groundwater-Smith, Susan
This paper posits that social networking can take a central role in learning in informal environments such as museums, libraries and galleries. It argues that social media offers young people agency previously unavailable in informal learning environments in order to explore complex responses to and participation with cultural content. The paper…
Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; White, Edward V.; Baumann, Erwin W.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology provides a means to significantly reduce life cycle of aerospace vehicles by eliminating unnecessary inspections, minimizing inspection complexity, and providing accurate diagnostics and prognostics to support vehicle life extension. In order to accomplish this, a comprehensive SHM system will need to acquire data from a wide variety of diverse sensors including strain gages, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, crack growth gages, corrosion sensors, and piezoelectric transducers. Significant amounts of computer processing will then be required to convert this raw sensor data into meaningful information which indicates both the diagnostics of the current structural integrity as well as the prognostics necessary for planning and managing the future health of the structure in a cost effective manner. This paper provides a description of the key types of information processing technologies required in an effective SHM system. These include artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks, expert systems, and fuzzy logic for nonlinear modeling, pattern recognition, and complex decision making; signal processing techniques such as Fourier and wavelet transforms for spectral analysis and feature extraction; statistical algorithms for optimal detection, estimation, prediction, and fusion; and a wide variety of other algorithms for data analysis and visualization. The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of information processing for SHM, discuss various technologies which can contribute to accomplishing this role, and present some example applications of information processing for SHM implemented at the Boeing Company.
Social Security Administration — The data store houses detail information pertaining to visitors' wait times, visits, calls, and other customer relationship information relating to VIPR and CHIP....
Quantification of information leakage is a successful approach for evaluating the security of a system. It models the system to be analyzed as a channel with the secret as the input and an output as observable by the attacker as the output, and applies information theory to quantify the amount...... and randomized processes with Markovian models and to compute their information leakage for a very general model of attacker. We present the QUAIL tool that automates such analysis and is able to compute the information leakage of an imperative WHILE language. Finally, we show how to use QUAIL to analyze some...... of information transmitted through such channel, thus effectively quantifying how many bits of the secret can be inferred by the attacker by analyzing the system’s output. Channels are usually encoded as matrices of conditional probabilities, known as channel matrices. Such matrices grow exponentially...
A variety of experimental results over the past decades provide examples of near-optimal information processing in biological networks, including in biochemical and transcriptional regulatory networks. Computing information-theoretic quantities requires first choosing or computing the joint probability distribution describing multiple nodes in such a network --- for example, representing the probability distribution of finding an integer copy number of each of two interacting reactants or gene products while respecting the `intrinsic' small copy number noise constraining information transmission at the scale of the cell. I'll given an overview of some recent analytic and numerical work facilitating calculation of such joint distributions and the associated information, which in turn makes possible numerical optimization of information flow in models of noisy regulatory and biochemical networks. Illustrating cases include quantification of form-function relations, ideal design of regulatory cascades, and response to oscillatory driving.
V. A. Zova
Full Text Available In this article the analysis of intercommunication of social and ethical aspects of the use of information networks is conducted and their influence on social development of the state is determined.
Fagg, G.E.; Moore, K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Dongarra, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Geist, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.
SNIPE is a metacomputing system that aims to provide a reliable, secure, fault tolerant environment for long term distributed computing applications and data stores across the global Internet. This system combines global naming and replication of both processing and data to support large scale information processing applications leading to better availability and reliability than currently available with typical cluster computing and/or distributed computer environments.
Anders, Silke; Heussen, Yana; Sprenger, Andreas; Haynes, John-Dylan; Ethofer, Thomas
Social context plays an important role in human communication. Depending on the nature of the source, the same communication signal might be processed in fundamentally different ways. However, the selective modulation (or "gating") of the flow of neural information during communication is not fully understood. Here, we use multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) and multivoxel connectivity analysis (MVCA), a novel technique that allows to analyse context-dependent changes of the strength interregional coupling between ensembles of voxels, to examine how the human brain differentially gates content-specific sensory information during ongoing perception of communication signals. In a simulated electronic communication experiment, participants received two alternative text messages during fMRI ("happy" or "sad") which they believed had been sent either by their real-life friend outside the scanner or by a computer. A region in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) selectively increased its functional coupling with sensory-content encoding regions in the visual cortex when a text message was perceived as being sent by the participant's friend, and decreased its functional coupling with these regions when a text message was perceived as being sent by the computer. Furthermore, the strength of neural encoding of content-specific information of text messages in the dmPFC was modulated by the social tie between the participant and her friend: the more of her spare time a participant reported to spend with her friend the stronger was the neural encoding. This suggests that the human brain selectively gates sensory information into the relevant network for processing the mental states of others, depending on the source of the communication signal. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bastian, Brock; Pe, Madeline Lee; Kuppens, Peter
Social norms and values may be important predictors of how people engage with and regulate their negative emotional experiences. Previous research has shown that social expectancies (the perceived social pressure not to feel negative emotion (NE)) exacerbate feelings of sadness. In the current research, we examined whether social expectancies may be linked to how people process emotional information. Using a modified classical flanker task involving emotional rather than non-emotional stimuli, we found that, for those who experienced low levels of NE, social expectancies were linked to the selective avoidance of negative emotional information. Those who experienced high levels of NE did not show a selective avoidance of negative emotional information. The findings suggest that, for people who experience many NEs, social expectancies may lead to discrepancies between how they think they ought to feel and the kind of emotional information they pay attention to.
Maksl, Adam; Young, Rachel
The potential harm and benefit associated with sharing personal information online is a topic of debate and discussion. Using survey methods (n=872), we explore whether attainment of social capital online relates to greater comfort with sharing personal information. We found that perceptions of bridging and bonding social capital earned from using Facebook are significant predictors of overall comfort levels with sharing personal information. This research raises timely questions about how the perceived benefits of social networking sites influence how personal information is shared online.
Magnani, Matteo; Montesi, Danilo; Rossi, Luca
A relevant feature of Social Network Sites is their ability to propagate units of information and create large distributed conversations. This phenomenon is particularly relevant because of the speed of information propagation, which is known to be much faster than within traditional media......, and because of the very large amount of people that can potentially be exposed to information items. While many general formal models of network propagation have been developed in different research fields, in this chapter we present the result of an empirical study on a Large Social Database (LSD) aimed...... at measuring specific socio-technical factors enabling information spreading in Social Network Sites....
Full Text Available Abstract: We present a model of information processing which is based on two concurrent ways of describing the world, where a description in one of the languages limits the possibilities for realisations in the other language. The two describing dimensions appear in our common sense as dichotomies of perspectives: subjective - objective; diversity - similarity; individual - collective. We abstract from the subjective connotations and treat the test theoretical case of an interval on which several concurrent categories can be introduced. We investigate multidimensional partitions as potential carriers of information and compare their efficiency to that of sequenced carriers. We regard the same assembly once as a contemporary collection, once as a longitudinal sequence and find promising inroads towards understanding information processing by auto-regulated systems. Information is understood to point out that what is the case from among alternatives, which could be the case. We have translated these ideas into logical operations on the set of natural numbers and have found two equivalence points on N where matches between sequential and commutative ways of presenting a state of the world can agree in a stable fashion: a flip-flop mechanism is envisioned. By following this new approach, a mathematical treatment of some poignant biomathematical problems is allowed. Also, the concepts presented in this treatise may well have relevance and applications within the information processing and the theory of language fields.
Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.
The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.
Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.
Yates, Bernice C; Dodendorf, Diane; Lane, Judy; LaFramboise, Louise; Pozehl, Bunny; Duncan, Kathleen; Knodel, Kendra
One of the main problems in conducting clinical trials is low participation rate due to potential participants' misunderstanding of the rationale for the clinical trial or perceptions of loss of control over treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to test an alternate informed consent process in cardiac rehabilitation participants that involved the use of a multimedia flip chart to describe a future randomized clinical trial and then asked, hypothetically, if they would participate in the future trial. An attractive and inviting visual presentation of the study was created in the form of a 23-page flip chart that included 24 color photographs displaying information about the purpose of the study, similarities and differences between the two treatment groups, and the data collection process. We tested the flip chart in 35 cardiac rehabilitation participants. Participants were asked if they would participate in this future study on two occasions: immediately after the description of the flip chart and 24 hours later, after reading through the informed consent document. Participants were also asked their perceptions of the flip chart and consent process. Of the 35 participants surveyed, 19 (54%) indicated that they would participate in the future study. No participant changed his or her decision 24 hours later after reading the full consent form. The participation rate improved 145% over that of an earlier feasibility study where the recruitment rate was 22%. Most participants stated that the flip chart was helpful and informative and that the photographs were effective in communicating the purpose of the study. Participation rates could be enhanced in future clinical trials by using a visual presentation to explain and describe the study as part of the informed consent process. More research is needed to test alternate methods of obtaining informed consent.
Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Massar, Serge
Many dynamical systems, both natural and artificial, are stimulated by time dependent external signals, somehow processing the information contained therein. We demonstrate how to quantify the different modes in which information can be processed by such systems and combine them to define the computational capacity of a dynamical system. This is bounded by the number of linearly independent state variables of the dynamical system, equaling it if the system obeys the fading memory condition. It can be interpreted as the total number of linearly independent functions of its stimuli the system can compute. Our theory combines concepts from machine learning (reservoir computing), system modeling, stochastic processes, and functional analysis. We illustrate our theory by numerical simulations for the logistic map, a recurrent neural network, and a two-dimensional reaction diffusion system, uncovering universal trade-offs between the non-linearity of the computation and the system's short-term memory.
Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Massar, Serge
Many dynamical systems, both natural and artificial, are stimulated by time dependent external signals, somehow processing the information contained therein. We demonstrate how to quantify the different modes in which information can be processed by such systems and combine them to define the computational capacity of a dynamical system. This is bounded by the number of linearly independent state variables of the dynamical system, equaling it if the system obeys the fading memory condition. It can be interpreted as the total number of linearly independent functions of its stimuli the system can compute. Our theory combines concepts from machine learning (reservoir computing), system modeling, stochastic processes, and functional analysis. We illustrate our theory by numerical simulations for the logistic map, a recurrent neural network, and a two-dimensional reaction diffusion system, uncovering universal trade-offs between the non-linearity of the computation and the system's short-term memory. PMID:22816038
While there are many possible approaches and areas of research for the study of social media, a review shows that only a few of these are used in extant information systems literature. The paper therefore suggests that increased awareness of the possibilities can strengthen research in social media....... It is also suggested that information systems scholars can strengthen their interdisciplinary position by making the information systems discipline itself the home ground for research about social media. To address the issue of possible approaches and areas of research, the paper develops a framework...... that includes conceptual framing and methodology as well as research areas in the information systems discipline. First, the framework guides a review of extant literature about external social media. Going forward, the framework facilitates the development of a future research agenda about social media...
While the philosophical foundations of information security have been unexamined, there is an implicit philosophy of what protection of information is. This philosophy is based on the notion of containment, taken from analogies with things that offer physical security (e.g., buildings, safes,
The purpose of this research seeks to understand the functions and the benefits of social : networked transportation (SNT), the processes that make SNT possible, and the institutional : innovations needed to facilitate those processes. First, this re...
A. V. Vilovatykh
Full Text Available Th e role of information in shaping geopolitical situation needs a greater academic attention, because the infl uence of external actors in favour of theor political preferences forms the vectors of state development. Modern world’s turbulence is based on technologies of managing social reality. It requires a principally new methodology in evaluating and forecasting geopolitical processes. Nowadays it makes sense to speak of information factor of geopolitical dynamics, which shapes a new quality of geopolitical space.
An information system for government offices is developed, a system that integrally supports operations inside government offices and the staff service operations by combining Intra Net as the basis of an information system with Internet. The objective of the system is as follows: (1) Information sharing in the place of work and utilization of information resources. (2) Improvement in administrative services and vitalization of an interchange of residents through the preparation of Internet environment. (3) Rationalization of staff operations through groupeware. In addition, by building a network system for the entire region, information communication service is to be provided as a solution between the residents and the administration in the occurrence of a disaster as well as for home care, medical and nursing assistance in the health, medical and welfare fields. (translated by NEDO)
Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth
In research on psychological time, it is important to examine the subjective duration of entire stimulus sequences, such as those produced by music (Teki, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 2016). Yet research on the temporal oddball illusion (according to which oddball stimuli seem longer than standard stimuli of the same duration) has examined only the subjective duration of single events contained within sequences, not the subjective duration of sequences themselves. Does the finding that oddballs seem longer than standards translate to entire sequences, such that entire sequences that contain oddballs seem longer than those that do not? Is this potential translation influenced by the mode of information processing-whether people are engaged in direct or indirect temporal processing? Two experiments aimed to answer both questions using different manipulations of information processing. In both experiments, musical sequences either did or did not contain oddballs (auditory sliding tones). To manipulate information processing, we varied the task (Experiment 1), the sequence event structure (Experiments 1 and 2), and the sequence familiarity (Experiment 2) independently within subjects. Overall, in both experiments, the sequences that contained oddballs seemed shorter than those that did not when people were engaged in direct temporal processing, but longer when people were engaged in indirect temporal processing. These findings support the dual-process contingency model of time estimation (Zakay, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 54, 656-664, 1993). Theoretical implications for attention-based and memory-based models of time estimation, the pacemaker accumulator and coding efficiency hypotheses of time perception, and dynamic attending theory are discussed.
Mikhail Yu. POPOV
This article is devoted to the analysis of an essence of the concept "contractors of socialization" and attempt of definition of its place in structure of sociological knowledge. During the solution of this task the author seeks to define destructive nature of influence of contractors of socialization on formation of the personality both at a stage of primary socialization, and in the course of the entire period of its activity. Inclusion of this term in structure of sociological knowledge, a...
Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
The security validation of practical computer systems calls for the ability to specify and verify information flow policies that are dependent on data content. Such policies play an important role in concurrent, communicating systems: consider a scenario where messages are sent to different...... processes according to their tagging. We devise a security type system that enforces content-dependent information flow policies in the presence of communication and concurrency. The type system soundly guarantees a compositional noninterference property. All theoretical results have been formally proved...
Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.
Current trends in the use of remotely sensed data include integration of multiple data sources of various formats and use of complex models. These trends have placed a strain on information processing systems because an enormous number of capabilities are needed to perform a single application. A solution to this problem is to create a general set of capabilities which can perform a wide variety of applications. General capabilities for the Image-Based Information System (IBIS) are outlined in this report. They are then cross-referenced for a set of applications performed at JPL.
Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Finkel, Daniel N.; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B.; Sosis, Richard
Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about…
Gil, Michael A; Hein, Andrew M; Spiegel, Orr; Baskett, Marissa L; Sih, Andrew
When individual animals make decisions, they routinely use information produced intentionally or unintentionally by other individuals. Despite its prevalence and established fitness consequences, the effects of such social information on ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesize results from ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behavior to show how the use of social information can profoundly influence the dynamics of populations and communities. We combine recent theoretical and empirical results and introduce simple population models to illustrate how social information use can drive positive density-dependent growth of populations and communities (Allee effects). Furthermore, social information can shift the nature and strength of species interactions, change the outcome of competition, and potentially increase extinction risk in harvested populations and communities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corbett, Blythe A; Newsom, Cassandra; Key, Alexandra P; Qualls, Lydia R; Edmiston, E Kale
Background Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impairment in reciprocal social communication, which includes deficits in social cognition and behavior. Since social cognition and social behavior are considered to be interdependent, it is valuable to examine social processes on multiple levels of analysis. Neuropsychological measures of face processing often reveal deficits in social cognition in ASD including the ability to identify and remember facial information. However, the ...
Bhattacherjee, Anol; Sanford, Clive Carlton
This study examines how processes of external influence shape information technology acceptance among potential users, how such influence effects vary across a user population, and whether these effects are persistent over time. Drawing on the elaboration-likelihood model (ELM), we compared two...... alternative influence processes, the central and peripheral routes, in motivating IT acceptance. These processes were respectively operationalized using the argument quality and source credibility constructs, and linked to perceived usefulness and attitude, the core perceptual drivers of IT acceptance. We...... further examined how these influence processes were moderated by users' IT expertise and perceived job relevance and the temporal stability of such influence effects. Nine hypotheses thus developed were empirically validated using a field survey of document management system acceptance at an eastern...
Elveny, M.; Syah, R.; Elfida, M.; Nasution, M. K. M.
Information Retrieval has become one of the areas for studying to get the trusty information, with which the recall and precision become the measurement form that represents it. Nevertheless, development in certain scientific fields make it possible to improve the performance of the Information Retrieval. In this case, through social networks whereby the role of social actor degrees plays a role. This is an implication of the query in which co-occurrence becomes an indication of social networks. An adaptive approach we use by involving this query in sequence to a stand-alone query, it has proven the relationship among them.
Full Text Available Becoming a social being is not just a matter of education; it is a process of socialization, "learning in social conditions", and the process of formation and development of personality in the interdependence of a socially mediated social and physical environment. A theory of socialization at school must explain how social reproduction is associated with the development of one's personality and also must explain how they can work together in the critical development of entity and societal changes. It is an important part of education and is responsible for the identity formation of students. Without creating an identity "of me" it is not possible to speak about self-regulation.
De Dreu, Carsten K W; Beersma, Bianca; Stroebe, Katherine; Euwema, Martin C.
The authors tested a motivated information-processing model of negotiation: To reach high joint outcomes, negotiators need a deep understanding of the task, which requires them to exchange information and to process new information systematically. All this depends on social motivation, epistemic
De Dreu, CKW; Beersma, B; Stroebe, K; Euwema, MC
The authors tested a motivated information-processing model of negotiation: To reach high joint outcomes, negotiators need a deep understanding of the task, which requires them to exchange information and to process new information. systematically. All this depends on social motivation, epistemic
Huck, Friedrich O. (Editor); Park, Stephen K. (Editor)
This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the NASA conference on Visual Information Processing for Television and Telerobotics. The conference was held at the Williamsburg Hilton, Williamsburg, Virginia on May 10 to 12, 1989. The conference was sponsored jointly by NASA Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and Space Science and Applications (OSSA) and the NASA Langley Research Center. The presentations were grouped into three sessions: Image Gathering, Coding, and Advanced Concepts; Systems; and Technologies. The program was organized to provide a forum in which researchers from industry, universities, and government could be brought together to discuss the state of knowledge in image gathering, coding, and processing methods.
Modjaev, A. D.; Leonova, N. M.
Recent years, a new scientific branch connected with the activities in social sphere management developing intensively and it is called "Social Cybernetics". In the framework of this scientific branch, theory and methods of management of social sphere are formed. Considerable attention is paid to the management, directly in real time. However, the decision of such management tasks is largely constrained by the lack of or insufficiently deep study of the relevant sections of the theory and methods of management. The article discusses the use of cybernetic principles in solving problems of control in social systems. Applying to educational activities a model of composite interrelated objects representing the behaviour of students at various stages of educational process is introduced. Statistical processing of experimental data obtained during the actual learning process is being done. If you increase the number of features used, additionally taking into account the degree and nature of variability of levels of current progress of students during various types of studies, new properties of students' grouping are discovered. L-clusters were identified, reflecting the behaviour of learners with similar characteristics during lectures. It was established that the characteristics of the clusters contain information about the dynamics of learners' behaviour, allowing them to be used in additional lessons. The ways of solving the problem of adaptive control based on the identified dynamic characteristics of the learners are planned.
Hwang, In Jeong; Lee, Bong Gyou; Kim, Ki Youn
The purpose of this research is to examine the issues that affect customers' behavioral character and purchasing behavior. The study proposes a research hypothesis with independent variables that include social presence, trust, and information asymmetry, and the dependent variable purchase decision making, to explain differentiated customer decision making processes in social commerce (S-commerce). To prove the hypothesis, positive verification was performed by focusing on mediating effects through a customer uncertainty variable and moderating effects through mobility and social networking site word of mouth (SNS WOM) variables. The number of studies on customer trends has rapidly increased together with the market size of S-commerce. However, few studies have examined the negative variables that make customers hesitant to make decisions in S-commerce. This study investigates the causes of customer uncertainty and focuses on deducing the control variables that offset this negative relationship. The study finds that in customers' S-commerce purchasing actions, the SNS WOM and mobility variables show control effects between information asymmetry and uncertainty and between trust and uncertainty. Additionally, this research defines the variables related to customer uncertainty that are hidden in S-commerce, and statistically verifies their relationship. The research results can be used in Internet marketing practices to establish marketing mix strategies for customer demand or as research data to predict customer behavior. The results are scientifically meaningful as a precedent for research on customers in S-commerce.
Haeffner, H.; Haensel, W.; Rapol, U.; Koerber, T.; Benhelm, J.; Riebe, M.; Chek-al-Kar, D.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Becher, C.; Roos, C.; Blatt, R.
Single Ca + ions and crystals of Ca + ions are confined in a linear Paul trap and are investigated for quantum information processing. Here we report on recent experimental advancements towards a quantum computer with such a system. Laser-cooled trapped ions are ideally suited systems for the investigation and implementation of quantum information processing as one can gain almost complete control over their internal and external degrees of freedom. The combination of a Paul type ion trap with laser cooling leads to unique properties of trapped cold ions, such as control of the motional state down to the zero-point of the trapping potential, a high degree of isolation from the environment and thus a very long time available for manipulations and interactions at the quantum level. The very same properties make single trapped atoms and ions well suited for storing quantum information in long lived internal states, e.g. by encoding a quantum bit (qubit) of information within the coherent superposition of the S 1/2 ground state and the metastable D 5/2 excited state of Ca + . Recently we have achieved the implementation of simple algorithms with up to 3 qubits on an ion-trap quantum computer. We will report on methods to implement single qubit rotations, the realization of a two-qubit universal quantum gate (Cirac-Zoller CNOT-gate), the deterministic generation of multi-particle entangled states (GHZ- and W-states), their full tomographic reconstruction, the realization of deterministic quantum teleportation, its quantum process tomography and the encoding of quantum information in decoherence-free subspaces with coherence times exceeding 20 seconds. (author)
Barrett, M.D.; Schaetz, T.; Chiaverini, J.; Leibfried, D.; Britton, J.; Itano, W.M.; Jost, J.D.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Wineland, D.J.; Knill, E.
We summarize two experiments on the creation and manipulation of multi-particle entangled states of trapped atomic ions - quantum dense coding and quantum teleportation. The techniques used in these experiments constitute an important step toward performing large-scale quantum information processing. The techniques also have application in other areas of physics, providing improvement in quantum-limited measurement and fundamental tests of quantum mechanical principles, for example
errors (that is of the output of the human operator). There is growing evidence (Senders, personal communication; Norman , personal communication...relates to the relative tendency to depend on sensory information or to be more analytic and independent. Norman (personal communication) has referred...decision process model. Ergonomics, 12, 543-557. Senders, J., Elkid, J., Grignetti, M., & Smallwood , R. 1966. An investigation of the visual sampling
The Fifth Generation Computer Project in Japan intends to develop a new generation of computers by extensive research in many areas. This paper discusses many research topics which the Japanese are hoping will lead to a radical new knowledge information processing system. Topics discussed include new computer architecture, programming styles, semantics of programming languages, relational databases, linguistics theory, artificial intelligence, functional images and interference systems.
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
A survey is given summarizing the state of the art of describing information processing in Quantum Decision Theory, which has been recently advanced as a novel variant of decision making, based on the mathematical theory of separable Hilbert spaces. This mathematical structure captures the effect of superposition of composite prospects, including many incorporated intended actions. The theory characterizes entangled decision making, non-commutativity of subsequent decisions, and intention int...
Full text: I will describe how cold atoms can be manipulated to realize arrays of addressable qbits as prototype quantum registers, focussing on how atom chips can be used in combination with cavity qed techniques to form such an array. I will discuss how the array can be generated and steered using optical lattices and the Mott transition, and describe the sources of noise and how these place limits on the use of such chips in quantum information processing. (author)
Quantum computers are information processing devices which operate by and exploit the laws of quantum mechanics, potentially allowing them to solve problems which are intractable using classical computers. This dissertation considers the practical issues involved in one of the more successful implementations to date, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Techniques for dealing with systematic errors are presented, and a quantum protocol is implemented. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to quantum computation. The physical basis of its efficiency and issues involved in its implementation are discussed. NMR quantum information processing is reviewed in more detail in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 considers some of the errors that may be introduced in the process of implementing an algorithm, and high-level ways of reducing the impact of these errors by using composite rotations. Novel general expressions for stabilising composite rotations are presented in Chapter 4 and a new class of composite rotations, tailored composite rotations, presented in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 describes some of the advantages and pitfalls of combining composite rotations. Experimental evaluations of the composite rotations are given in each case. An actual implementation of a quantum information protocol, approximate quantum cloning, is presented in Chapter 7. The dissertation ends with appendices which contain expansions of some equations and detailed calculations of certain composite rotation results, as well as spectrometer pulse sequence programs. (author)
McGuigan, Nicola; Cubillo, Marcus
The authors' aim was to use a highly novel open diffusion paradigm to investigate the transmission of social information (i.e., gossip) and general knowledge within 2 groups of 10- and 11-year-old children. Four children, 2 from each group, acted as a primed information source, selected on the basis of sex and dominance ranking (high or low) within the group. Each source received 1 piece of gossip and 1 piece of general knowledge from the experimenter during natural class interaction, and the information was allowed to diffuse naturally within the group. Results revealed that gossip was transmitted more frequently than knowledge, and that male sources were more likely to transmit gossip than female sources. The relationship between characteristics of the source, and characteristics of the gossip recipient, also appeared influential with the dominant male source transmitting gossip to exclusively to friends, and the nondominant male source transmitting to individuals of higher peer regard than themselves.
way of organizing contacts in personal networks . They are therefore currently implemented in the major social net- working systems, such as Facebook ...0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - UU UU UU UU Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Social Circles Detection from Ego Network ...structural network information but also the contents of social interactions, with the aim to detect copying communities. The views, opinions and/or findings
Consuelo Vélez Álvarez; María del Pilar Escobar Potes; María Eugenia Pico Merchán
Objetivo: Describir elementos teóricos sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud en la población trabajadora informal y condiciones sociales, modos de vida y repercusiones en el proceso salud-enfermedad. Estrategia de búsqueda: Búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos especializadas (Ovid, Proquest, Hinary, Medline, LILACS, Literatura gris). Se utilizaron las siguientes palabras claves: condiciones sociales, factores socioeconómicos, fuerza de trabajo, empleo; de igual forma se retoman texto...
van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Call, Josep; Haun, Daniel B M
Human societies are characterized by more cultural diversity than chimpanzee communities. However, it is currently unclear what mechanism might be driving this difference. Because reliance on social information is a pivotal characteristic of culture, we investigated individual and social information reliance in children and chimpanzees. We repeatedly presented subjects with a reward-retrieval task on which they had collected conflicting individual and social information of equal accuracy in counterbalanced order. While both species relied mostly on their individual information, children but not chimpanzees searched for the reward at the socially demonstrated location more than at a random location. Moreover, only children used social information adaptively when individual knowledge on the location of the reward had not yet been obtained. Social information usage determines information transmission and in conjunction with mechanisms that create cultural variants, such as innovation, it facilitates diversity. Our results may help explain why humans are more culturally diversified than chimpanzees. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Wang, Tao; He, Juanjuan; Wang, Xiaoxia
Online social platforms are very popular in recent years. In addition to spreading information, users could review or collect information on online social platforms. According to the information spreading rules of online social network, a new information spreading model, namely IRCSS model, is proposed in this paper. It includes sharing mechanism, reviewing mechanism, collecting mechanism and stifling mechanism. Mean-field equations are derived to describe the dynamics of the IRCSS model. Moreover, the steady states of reviewers, collectors and stiflers and the effects of parameters on the peak values of reviewers, collectors and sharers are analyzed. Finally, numerical simulations are performed on different networks. Results show that collecting mechanism and reviewing mechanism, as well as the connectivity of the network, make information travel wider and faster, and compared to WS network and ER network, the speed of reviewing, sharing and collecting information is fastest on BA network.
Beisecker, Thomas D., Ed.; Parson, Donn W., Ed.
An attempt to synthesize primarily experimental studies of the process of social influence is presented. The point is made that each of us is involved in the process of social influence, both because we often attempt to influence someone else, and because we are constantly targets for attempts at social influence. This book is divided into four…
Spring, Michael B.; Vathanophas, Vichita
Discusses being aware of other members of a team in a collaborative environment and reports on a study that examined group performance on a task that was computer mediated with and without awareness information. Examines how an awareness tool impacts the quality of a collaborative work effort and the communications between group members.…
Hurlburt, George; Hildreth, Bradley; Acevedo, Teresa
The Test and Evaluation Community Network (TECNET) is building a Multilevel Secure (MLS) system. This system features simultaneous access to classified and unclassified information and easy access through widely available communications channels. It provides the necessary separation of classification levels, assured through the use of trusted system design techniques, security assessments and evaluations. This system enables cleared T&E users to view and manipulate classified and unclassified information resources either using a single terminal interface or multiple windows in a graphical user interface. TECNET is in direct partnership with the National Security Agency (NSA) to develop and field the MLS TECNET capability in the near term. The centerpiece of this partnership is a state-of-the-art Concurrent Systems Security Engineering (CSSE) process. In developing the MLS TECNET capability, TECNET and NSA are providing members, with various expertise and diverse backgrounds, to participate in the CSSE process. The CSSE process is founded on the concepts of both Systems Engineering and Concurrent Engineering. Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach to evolve and verify an integrated and life cycle balanced set of system product and process solutions that satisfy customer needs (ASD/ENS-MIL STD 499B 1992). Concurrent Engineering is design and development using the simultaneous, applied talents of a diverse group of people with the appropriate skills. Harnessing diverse talents to support CSSE requires active participation by team members in an environment that both respects and encourages diversity.
More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…
Reysen, Matthew B; Talbert, Natalie G; Dominko, Mura; Jones, Amie N; Kelley, Matthew R
Three experiments examined the effects of passage type on both individual and collaborative memory performance. In Experiment 1, both individuals and collaborative groups recalled more information from passages containing social information than non-social information. Furthermore, collaborative inhibition (CI) was observed for both types of passages. In Experiment 2, which included a social passage that did not contain gossip, significant main effects of both gossip (gossip > non-gossip) and sociability (explicit > implicit) were observed. As in Experiment 1, CI was observed across all conditions. Experiment 3 separately manipulated gossip and the interest level of the passages and both of these factors enhanced memory performance. Moreover, robust CI was again observed across all conditions. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a mnemonic benefit for social information in individuals and collaborative groups. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
To improve SSAs IT management practices, we recommend that the Acting Commissioner of Social Security direct the Chief Information Officer and the Deputy Commissioner for Systems to complete the following actions...
The investigation in perception of the risk, the studies on perception of the nuclear risk in Spain and Public Information and the social acceptance of nuclear energy in Spain are discussed in this paper
Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa
This paper presents the results of a study concerning the use of profile pages by adolescents to get to know more about offline friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social network sites are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online profiles are meaningful in gathering information on these 'offline' friends and acquai...
Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch
This paper presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about “offline” friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and...
Animals need to make constant decisions throughout their lives and to make optimal decisions individuals rely on information. Information can be obtained in two distinct ways: personal or social information. The current paradigm in the information theory use in animal ecology assumes that the
Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris
Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are ...
Moraru Remus Christian
Full Text Available Studies show that public information can create social value, which reflects on the purpose of this paper in identifying information on the online environment of the hotel industry which can directly or indirectly create social value and ultimately a competitive edge. Privately owned, small and mid-sized hotels in Romania find themselves in competitive online environment and, as such, many of them cannot compete or don’t possess the know-how to compete within the online environment. With identifying the information shared on the hotels online environment and the capability of the information in creating social value, hotels can reevaluate their online strategies. The immediate objective of this paper is to analyze the websites of a sample of 99 small and mid-sized hotels in Romania and to identify critical information that can directly or indirectly create social value. Part of the objective is to draw a conclusion of the main differences on the information shared on the hotels website, which in terms will show where small and mid-sized hotels can improve their online content strategy with socially valuable information. Key findings reflect that Romanian hotels have a clear pattern across the country when it come to their online environment. However, there are serious deficiencies that can influence both economical results and the possibility of creating socially valuable information online. This work increases our understanding of the information shared on the hotels websites in Romania and comes with suggestions that hoteliers can apply in the future to increase the competitiveness and the social value of their online environment.
Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Wah, B.W.
Process-aware information systems support operational business processes by combining advances in information technology with recent insights from management science. Workflow management systems are typical examples of such systems. However, many other types of information systems are also "process
Full Text Available Objective - The main purpose of this study was to understand the information research process of experienced online information researchers in a variety of disciplines, gather their ideas for improvement and as part of this to validate a proposed research framework for use in future development of Ontario’s Scholars Portal.Methods - This was a qualitative research study in which sixty experienced online information researchers participated in face-to-face workshops that included a collaborative design component. The sessions were conducted and recorded by usability specialists who subsequently analyzed the data and identified patterns and themes.Results - Key themes included the similarities of the information research process across all disciplines, the impact of interdisciplinarity, the social aspect of research and opportunities for process improvement. There were many specific observations regarding current and ideal processes. Implications for portal development and further research included: supporting a common process while accommodating user-defined differences; supporting citation chaining practices with new opportunities for data linkage and granularity; enhancing keyword searching with various types of intervention; exploring trusted social networks; exploring new mental models for data manipulation while retaining traditional objects; improving citation and document management. Conclusion – The majority of researchers in the study had almost no routine in their information research processes, had developed few techniques to assist themselves and had very little awareness of the tools available to help them. There are many opportunities to aid researchers in the research process that can be explored when developing scholarly research portals. That development will be well guided by the framework ‘discover, gather, synthesize, create, share.’
Gallistel, C R.
The framework provided by Claude Shannon's [Bell Syst. Technol. J. 27 (1948) 623] theory of information leads to a quantitatively oriented reconceptualization of the processes that mediate conditioning. The focus shifts from processes set in motion by individual events to processes sensitive to the information carried by the flow of events. The conception of what properties of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are important shifts from the tangible properties to the intangible properties of number, duration, frequency and contingency. In this view, a stimulus becomes a CS if its onset substantially reduces the subject's uncertainty about the time of occurrence of the next US. One way to represent the subject's knowledge of that time of occurrence is by the cumulative probability function, which has two limiting forms: (1) The state of maximal uncertainty (minimal knowledge) is represented by the inverse exponential function for the random rate condition, in which the US is equally likely at any moment. (2) The limit to the subject's attainable certainty is represented by the cumulative normal function, whose momentary expectation is the CS-US latency minus the time elapsed since CS onset. Its standard deviation is the Weber fraction times the CS-US latency.
van der Meer, Matthijs; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Redish, A David
Decisions result from an interaction between multiple functional systems acting in parallel to process information in very different ways, each with strengths and weaknesses. In this review, the authors address three action-selection components of decision-making: The Pavlovian system releases an action from a limited repertoire of potential actions, such as approaching learned stimuli. Like the Pavlovian system, the habit system is computationally fast but, unlike the Pavlovian system permits arbitrary stimulus-action pairings. These associations are a "forward'' mechanism; when a situation is recognized, the action is released. In contrast, the deliberative system is flexible but takes time to process. The deliberative system uses knowledge of the causal structure of the world to search into the future, planning actions to maximize expected rewards. Deliberation depends on the ability to imagine future possibilities, including novel situations, and it allows decisions to be taken without having previously experienced the options. Various anatomical structures have been identified that carry out the information processing of each of these systems: hippocampus constitutes a map of the world that can be used for searching/imagining the future; dorsal striatal neurons represent situation-action associations; and ventral striatum maintains value representations for all three systems. Each system presents vulnerabilities to pathologies that can manifest as psychiatric disorders. Understanding these systems and their relation to neuroanatomy opens up a deeper way to treat the structural problems underlying various disorders.
of this information is available through numbers and numbers as self-representative visualisations such as likes, views, shares, endorsements and diggs, which sparked an interest in its role in influencing users. This study thus explores the role of syntactic information on user behaviour in online social platforms......The proliferation of information technologies, applications and online services has changed the way users access information. In particular, an increasing amount of users engage with online social platforms on a daily basis where they are exposed to a continuous stream of information. A great deal...... information. Nevertheless, it became clear that public syntactic information was still unconsciously processed and applied as a measure or benchmark on the online social content....
Full Text Available Nestmate recognition is a hallmark of social insects. It is based on the match/mismatch of an identity signal carried by members of the society with that of the perceiving individual. While the behavioral response, amicable or aggressive, is very clear, the neural systems underlying recognition are not fully understood. Here we contrast two alternative hypotheses for the neural mechanisms that are responsible for the perception and information processing in recognition. We focus on recognition via chemical signals, as the common modality in social insects. The first, classical, hypothesis states that upon perception of recognition cues by the sensory system the information is passed as is to the antennal lobes and to higher brain centers where the information is deciphered and compared to a neural template. Match or mismatch information is then transferred to some behavior-generating centers where the appropriate response is elicited. An alternative hypothesis, that of “pre-filter mechanism”, posits that the decision as to whether to pass on the information to the central nervous system takes place in the peripheral sensory system. We suggest that, through sensory adaptation, only alien signals are passed on to the brain, specifically to an “aggressive-behavior-switching center”, where the response is generated if the signal is above a certain threshold.
Over, Harriet; Eggleston, Adam; Bell, Jenny; Dunham, Yarrow
Understanding the origins of prejudice necessitates exploring the ways in which children participate in the construction of biased representations of social groups. We investigate whether young children actively seek out information that supports and extends their initial intergroup biases. In Studies 1 and 2, we show that children choose to hear a story that contains positive information about their own group and negative information about another group rather than a story that contains negative information about their own group and positive information about the other group. In a third study, we show that children choose to present biased information to others, thus demonstrating that the effects of information selection can start to propagate through social networks. In Studies 4 and 5, we further investigate the nature of children's selective information seeking and show that children prefer ingroup-favouring information to other types of biased information and even to balanced, unbiased information. Together, this work shows that children are not merely passively recipients of social information; they play an active role in the creation and transmission of intergroup attitudes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vance, Karl; Howe, William; Dellavalle, Robert P
Social media websites, such as YouTube, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and Second Life are rapidly emerging as popular sources of health information especially for teens and young adults. Social media marketing carries the advantages of low cost, rapid transmission through a wide community, and user interaction. Disadvantages include blind authorship, lack of source citation, and presentation of opinion as fact. Dermatologists and other health care providers should recognize the importance of social media websites and their potential usefulness for disseminating health information.
Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.
Andersen, Lasse Mejling
This PhD thesis treats applications of nonlinear optical effects for quantum information processing. The two main applications are four-wave mixing in the form of Bragg scattering (BS) for quantum-state-preserving frequency conversion, and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in second-order nonlinear......-chirping the pumps. In the high-conversion regime without the effects of NPM, exact Green functions for BS are derived. In this limit, separability is possible for conversion efficiencies up to 60 %. However, the system still allows for selective frequency conversion as well as re-shaping of the output. One way...
Quantum wells, alternate thin layers of two different semiconductor materials, show an exceptional electric field dependence of the optical absorption, called the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE), for electric fields perpendicular to the layers. This enables electrically controlled optical modulators and optically controlled self-electro-optic-effect devices that can operate at high speed and low energy density. Recent developments in these QCSE devices are summarized, including new device materials and novel device structures. The variety of sophisticated devices now demonstrated is promising for applications to information processing
Burgess, Ann W; Clements, Paul T
Sexual abuse is considered to be a pandemic contemporary public health issue, with significant physical and psychosocial consequences for its victims. However, the incidence of elder sexual assault is difficult to estimate with any degree of confidence. A convenience sample of 284 case records were reviewed for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to present the limited data noted on record review on four PTSD symptoms of startle, physiological upset, anger, and numbness. A treatment model for information processing of intrapsychic trauma is presented to describe domain disruption within a nursing diagnosis of rape trauma syndrome and provide guidance for sensitive assessment and intervention.
Zhang, Xin; Han, Ding-Ding; Yang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Ziqiao
Online Social Networks generate a prodigious wealth of real-time information at an incessant rate. In this paper we study the empirical data that crawled from Twitter to describe the topology and information spreading dynamics of Online Social Networks. We propose a measurement with three measures to state the efforts of users on Twitter to get their information spreading, based on the unique mechanisms for information retransmission on Twitter. It is noticed that small fraction of users with special performance on participation can gain great influence, while most other users play a role as middleware during the information propagation. Thus a community analysis is performed and four categories of users are found with different kinds of participation that cause the information dissemination dynamics. These suggest that exiting topological measures alone may reflect little about the influence of individuals and provide new insights for information spreading.
Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P
Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.
Russell E. Jackson
Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.
Ariana Anamaria CORDOȘ
Full Text Available Introduction: The scope of the research was a more detailed understanding of the influence of social media and the importance of student’s usage of social media context in relation to medical information. The research aimed to increase the understanding of social media and the impact on medical information use, informing policy and practice while highlighting gaps in the literature and areas for further research. Methods: The search of PubMed database was performed in October 2015, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media technologies were an important feature for health occupations, premedical, pharmacy, nursing or medical students. A systematic approach was used to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results: There were initially identified 435 studies involving social media, healthcare information and medical students subject headings (MeSH terminology. After filtering for free full text articles, and exclusion of not students or social media specific ones, 33 articles were reviewed. The majority of the studies were interventional studies that either assessed the outcomes of online discussion groups or teaching methods through social media. The majority of studies focused on the use of social media as a teaching tool, how students use it and the implications upon their education. The largest number of original papers was published in 2013. Facebook, Podcasts, Multiplayer virtual worlds, Blogs, and Twitter were identified as being used by medical students. Conclusion: Social media is used as a tool of information for students mainly as the means for engaging and communicating with students.
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Keller, Heidi
Social media is a group of Internet-based applications that allows individuals to create, collaborate, and share content with one another. Practitioners can realize social media's untapped potential by incorporating it as part of the larger social marketing strategy, beyond promotion. Social media, if used correctly, may help organizations increase their capacity for putting the consumer at the center of the social marketing process. The purpose of this article is to provide a template for strategic thinking to successfully include social media as part of the social marketing strategy by using a four-step process.
Garthe, Rachel C; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Gregory, Joshua; E Schoeny, Michael
The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context. Participants included 605 adult residents in 30 census tracts and 203 adolescents from neighborhoods on the West and South sides of Chicago. Neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage was measured via Census data, adult residents reported on neighborhood social processes, and youth reported on dating violence. Informal social control was negatively associated with dating violence, and social cohesion was positively associated with dating violence. A multilevel mediation model showed that concentrated disadvantage was related to higher levels of dating violence via lower levels of informal social control. These results extend social disorganization theory to dating violence within an urban context, while also highlighting the important role of neighborhood processes on relationship violence. Implications for research and intervention programming are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Shirley Guimarães Pimenta
Full Text Available The interaction amongst the ‘user’, ‘information’, and ‘text’ is of interest to Information Science although it has deserved insufficient attention in the literature. This issue is addressed by this paper whose main purpose is to contribute to the discussion of theoretical affinity between the cognitive viewpoint in Information Science and the information processing approach in Cognitive Psychology. Firstly, the interdisciplinary nature of Information Science is discussed and justified as a means to deepen and strengthen its theoretical framework. Such interdisciplinarity helps to avoid stagnation and keep pace with other disciplines. Secondly, the discussion takes into consideration the cognitive paradigm, which originates the cognitive viewpoint approach in Information Science. It is highlighted that the cognitive paradigm represented a change in the Social Sciences due to the shift of focus from the object and the signal to the individual. Besides that, it sheds light to the notion of models of worlds, i.e., the systems of categories and concepts that guide the interaction between the individual and his/her environment. Thirdly, the theoretical assumptions of the cognitive viewpoint approach are discussed, with emphasis on the concept of ‘information’, as resulting of cognitive processes and as related to the notion of ‘text’. This approach points out the relevance of understanding the interaction amongst users, information, and text. However, it lacks further development. Using notions which are common to both approaches, some of the gaps can be fulfilled. Finally, the concept of ‘text’, its constituents and structures are presented from the perspective of text comprehension models and according to the information processing approach. As a concluding remark, it is suggested that bringing together the cognitive viewpoint and the information processing approach can be enriching and fruitful to the both Information
Full Text Available As we move into the so-called Internet of Things (IoT, the boundary between sensor networks and social networks is likely to disappear. Moreover, previous works argue that mobility in sensor networks may become a consequence of human movement making the understanding of human mobility crucial to the design of sensor networks. When people carry sensors, they become able to use concepts from social networks in the design of sensor network infrastructures. However, to this date, the utilization of social networks in designing protocols for wireless sensor networks has not received much attention. In this paper, we focus on the concept of information dissemination in a framework where sensors are carried by people who, like most of us, are part of a social network. We propose two social-based forwarding approaches for what has been called Social Network of Sensors (SNoS. To this end, we exploit two important characteristics of ties in social networks, namely strong ties and weak ties. The former is used to achieve rapid dissemination to nearby sensors while the latter aims at dissemination to faraway sensors. We compared our results against two well-known approaches in the literature: Epidemic and PRoPHET protocols. We evaluate our approaches according to four criteria: information-dissemination distance, information-dissemination coverage area, the number of messages exchanged, and information delivery time. We believe this is the first work that investigates the issues of information-dissemination distance and information-dissemination coverage area using an approach inspired on social network concepts.
Korte, Russell F.
Traditional views of socialization focus primarily on the passive learning by the newcomer of the expectations of the organization. Theorizing and research on cognitive learning and social exchange indicate that the socialization process is vastly more complex. This paper views socialization through the lenses of cognitive learning and social…
Manoela Martins de Medeiros
Full Text Available The present article intends to contribute for a new perspective of empiric studies in Information Science, in the information denominated researches social information or anthropology slope, through the theory utilization and of the phenomenon of the social representations. The transfer model of the adopted information was the denominated diagramático, propose for Teixeira (1997, that we base in a logic relacional. The research group was formed by family of bearers of mental suffering referenced in the Clínica Psicossocial (CLIPS, located in Ipatinga/MG. For the reception process analysis of the information, they were used the theory objectified and anchorage concepts of the social representations. It empiric research developed that the experience of care and to accompany the treatment of a bearer of mental suffering is the lunatic social representations main element former, of the madness and of the madness treatment. It treatment psicossocial approach proposed in the process of psychiatric reform finds reception in the measure in which it gets if anchor in the experience, in the everyday lived by the family of bearers of mental suffering. In this meaning, the theory job of the social representations enabled a new way of seeing the information and knowledge processes cognitive aspect that can open new perspectives for users' studies in Information Science.
Analyzes information activities in relation to socioeconomic characteristics in low, middle, and highly developed economies for the years 1960 and 1977 through the use of cluster analysis. Results of data from 31 countries suggest that information development is achieved mainly by countries that have also achieved social development. (26…
Introduction: This study investigates the creation of alternative identities or possible selves on social networks by examining self-presentation and self-disclosure as elements of the information disclosure behaviour of Facebook users. Method. An online questionnaire was distributed amongst library and information science students at Bar-Ilan…
Parks, Craig D.; Xu, Xiaojing; Van Lange, Paul A.M.
This project addresses how and why behavior in a resource dilemma differs when one only knows the choices of others versus only knows the state of the resource. Study 1 suggested that resource information is more valuable than social information, in that if the resource can be monitored, whether or
Pinto, María; Fernández-Pascual, Rosaura; Gómez-Hernández, José A.; Cuevas, Aurora; Granell, Ximo; Puertas, Susana; Guerrero, David; Gómez, Carmen; Palomares, Rocío
This paper examines students' self-assessment of their information literacy, presenting a study involving 1,575 social science students at five Spanish universities. Data were collected and analyzed through a validated instrument that measures the variables of (1) the students' belief in the importance of information literacy skills; (2)…
Jayles, Bertrand; Kim, Hye-Rin; Escobedo, Ramón; Cezera, Stéphane; Blanchet, Adrien; Kameda, Tatsuya; Sire, Clément; Theraulaz, Guy
In our digital and connected societies, the development of social networks, online shopping, and reputation systems raises the questions of how individuals use social information and how it affects their decisions. We report experiments performed in France and Japan, in which subjects could update their estimates after having received information from other subjects. We measure and model the impact of this social information at individual and collective scales. We observe and justify that, when individuals have little prior knowledge about a quantity, the distribution of the logarithm of their estimates is close to a Cauchy distribution. We find that social influence helps the group improve its properly defined collective accuracy. We quantify the improvement of the group estimation when additional controlled and reliable information is provided, unbeknownst to the subjects. We show that subjects' sensitivity to social influence permits us to define five robust behavioral traits and increases with the difference between personal and group estimates. We then use our data to build and calibrate a model of collective estimation to analyze the impact on the group performance of the quantity and quality of information received by individuals. The model quantitatively reproduces the distributions of estimates and the improvement of collective performance and accuracy observed in our experiments. Finally, our model predicts that providing a moderate amount of incorrect information to individuals can counterbalance the human cognitive bias to systematically underestimate quantities and thereby improve collective performance. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Nemec Rudež, Helena; Vodeb, Ksenija
Purpose – The purpose of the study is to explore how students as an important travel segment are involved in social media during the travel process and explore the underlying dimensions of social media use by students during the travel process. Design/methodology/approach – The quantitative research focuses on the students’ use of social media in the three phrases of the travel process – before travel, during travel and after travel separately. Survey instrument was a structured questionna...
Full Text Available Nowadays information plays an important role in the development of companies. Information constitutes the main source of building competitive advantage allowing to make a good business decision, which leads to a company’s success on the market. Conducting marketing research makes it possible to obtain valuable information, but unfortunately this method is usually associated with the necessity of bearing high costs and in many cases research itself is conducted in an incorrect way and delivers incorrect information. We live in the age of information society, which is associated with the rapid development of the Internet and tools using the Internet allowing various forms of communication. One of such tools are social media platforms, which are usually regarded as a place for building contact networks and communication with other users. It is worth pointing out here that thanks to their popularity social media have become a place which is more and more often noticed by companies. Almost every well-known brand has its profile in the social media, allowing the users of social media portals direct contact with products, or services offered by a particular brand. Persistent popularity of social media means that they are becoming a rich source of information, both about the users – current and potential clients, but also about rivals – companies with a similar profile of activity, actively operating in social networks. The starting point for further deliberations are issues associated with the functioning of social media as a place allowing to obtain market information, which in light of the concept of market intelligence constitutes an alternative to traditional marketing research.
Proverbio, Alice Mado
Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned. In addition, we investigated how 400 different human faces were evaluated for arousal and valence dimensions by a group of healthy male and female University students. Stimuli were carefully balanced for sensory and perceptual characteristics, age, facial expression, and sex. As a whole, women judged all human faces as more positive and more arousing than men. Furthermore, they showed a preference for the faces of children and the elderly in the arousal evaluation. Regardless of face aesthetics, age, or facial expression, women rated human faces higher than men. The preference for opposite- vs. same-sex faces strongly interacted with facial age. Overall, both women and men exhibited differences in facial processing that could be interpreted in the light of evolutionary psychobiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miguel Angel Niño Zambrano
Full Text Available Online Social Networks (OSNs have been gaining great importance among Internet users in recent years. These are sites where it is possible to meet people, publish, and share content in a way that is both easy and free of charge. As a result, the volume of information contained in these websites has grown exponentially, and web search has consequently become an important tool for users to easily find information relevant to their social networking objectives. Making use of ontologies and user profiles can make these searches more effective. This article presents a model for Information Retrieval in OSNs (MOBIRSE based on user profile and ontologies which aims to improve the relevance of retrieved information on these websites. The social network Facebook was chosen for a case study and as the instance for the proposed model. The model was validated using measures such as At-k Precision and Kappa statistics, to assess its efficiency.
Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki
Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view
Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine
Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission. PMID:27493780
Fernández-Luque, Luis; Bau, Teresa
The use of Internet in the health domain is becoming a major worldwide trend. Millions of citizens are searching online health information and also publishing content about their health. Patients are engaging with other patients in online communities using different types of social media. The boundaries between mobile health, social media, wearable, games, and big data are becoming blurrier due the integration of all those technologies. In this paper we provide an overview of the major research challenges with the area of health social media. We use several study cases to exemplify the current trends and highlight future research challenges. Internet is exploding and is being used for health purposes by a great deal of the population. Social networks have a powerful influence in health decisions. Given the lack of knowledge on the use of health social media, there is a need for complex multidisciplinary research to help us understand how to use social networks in favour of public health. A bigger understanding of social media will give health authorities new tools to help decision-making at global, national, local, and corporate level. There is an unprecedented amount of data that can be used in public health due the potential combination of data acquired from mobile phones, Electronic Health Records, social media, and other sources. To identify meaningful information from those data sources it is not trial. Moreover, new analytics tools will need to be developed to analyse those sources of data in a way that it can benefit healthcare professionals and authorities.
Watson, Stuart K; Vale, Gillian L; Hopper, Lydia M; Dean, Lewis G; Kendal, Rachel L; Price, Elizabeth E; Wood, Lara A; Davis, Sarah J; Schapiro, Steven J; Lambeth, Susan P; Whiten, Andrew
Studies of transmission biases in social learning have greatly informed our understanding of how behaviour patterns may diffuse through animal populations, yet within-species inter-individual variation in social information use has received little attention and remains poorly understood. We have addressed this question by examining individual performances across multiple experiments with the same population of primates. We compiled a dataset spanning 16 social learning studies (26 experimental conditions) carried out at the same study site over a 12-year period, incorporating a total of 167 chimpanzees. We applied a binary scoring system to code each participant's performance in each study according to whether they demonstrated evidence of using social information from conspecifics to solve the experimental task or not (Social Information Score-'SIS'). Bayesian binomial mixed effects models were then used to estimate the extent to which individual differences influenced SIS, together with any effects of sex, rearing history, age, prior involvement in research and task type on SIS. An estimate of repeatability found that approximately half of the variance in SIS was accounted for by individual identity, indicating that individual differences play a critical role in the social learning behaviour of chimpanzees. According to the model that best fit the data, females were, depending on their rearing history, 15-24% more likely to use social information to solve experimental tasks than males. However, there was no strong evidence of an effect of age or research experience, and pedigree records indicated that SIS was not a strongly heritable trait. Our study offers a novel, transferable method for the study of individual differences in social learning.
Li, Liyuan; Xu, Qianli; Gan, Tian; Tan, Cheston; Lim, Joo-Hwee
Social working memory (SWM) plays an important role in navigating social interactions. Inspired by studies in psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, and machine learning, we propose a probabilistic model of SWM to mimic human social intelligence for personal information retrieval (IR) in social interactions. First, we establish a semantic hierarchy as social long-term memory to encode personal information. Next, we propose a semantic Bayesian network as the SWM, which integrates the cognitive functions of accessibility and self-regulation. One subgraphical model implements the accessibility function to learn the social consensus about IR-based on social information concept, clustering, social context, and similarity between persons. Beyond accessibility, one more layer is added to simulate the function of self-regulation to perform the personal adaptation to the consensus based on human personality. Two learning algorithms are proposed to train the probabilistic SWM model on a raw dataset of high uncertainty and incompleteness. One is an efficient learning algorithm of Newton's method, and the other is a genetic algorithm. Systematic evaluations show that the proposed SWM model is able to learn human social intelligence effectively and outperforms the baseline Bayesian cognitive model. Toward real-world applications, we implement our model on Google Glass as a wearable assistant for social interaction.
Houston, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R
Religious congregations have potential to be mediating structures for social justice participation. However, research has yet to examine the specific social processes or leadership characteristics within congregations that may promote social justice participation. In this study, we use data from 176,901 participants nested within 1,938 congregations to test how social processes (i.e., religious attendance at worship services, extra-worship participation, bonding social capital, a congregational norm for justice) and leadership characteristics (i.e., leader modeling of justice, horizontal leadership style) predict personal social justice involvement through the congregation (i.e., participation in social justice activities sponsored by the congregation) as well as personal social justice involvement outside the congregation (i.e., participation in social justice activities not sponsored by the congregation). We use multilevel logistic regression to examine these social processes and leadership characteristics at both individual and congregational levels of analysis. Results showed distinct patterns of associations at individual and congregational levels of analysis and that different social processes and leadership characteristics predicted personal social justice participation through or outside the congregation. These findings reveal the importance of social processes and leadership characteristics in understanding how congregations may mediate social justice participation. Implications for community psychology research and practiced also are discussed.
Innovation power has becomes to the priority concern for many enterprises. Open innovation, which acts as a new innovation method, is now applied in many companies due to its unique advantages. On the other hand, social media platforms have been widely accepted by public and it shares an immeasurable business resources. Based on those facts, there must be space to link social media and open innovation together to achieve win-win. The objective was to research the important factors for op...
Hommes, J; Rienties, B; de Grave, W; Bos, G; Schuwirth, L; Scherpbier, A
World-wide, universities in health sciences have transformed their curriculum to include collaborative learning and facilitate the students' learning process. Interaction has been acknowledged to be the synergistic element in this learning context. However, students spend the majority of their time outside their classroom and interaction does not stop outside the classroom. Therefore we studied how informal social interaction influences student learning. Moreover, to explore what really matters in the students learning process, a model was tested how the generally known important constructs-prior performance, motivation and social integration-relate to informal social interaction and student learning. 301 undergraduate medical students participated in this cross-sectional quantitative study. Informal social interaction was assessed using self-reported surveys following the network approach. Students' individual motivation, social integration and prior performance were assessed by the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Adaption Questionnaire and students' GPA respectively. A factual knowledge test represented student' learning. All social networks were positively associated with student learning significantly: friendships (β = 0.11), providing information to other students (β = 0.16), receiving information from other students (β = 0.25). Structural equation modelling revealed a model in which social networks increased student learning (r = 0.43), followed by prior performance (r = 0.31). In contrast to prior literature, students' academic motivation and social integration were not associated with students' learning. Students' informal social interaction is strongly associated with students' learning. These findings underline the need to change our focus from the formal context (classroom) to the informal context to optimize student learning and deliver modern medics.
Bapat, Shweta S; Patel, Harshali K; Sansgiry, Sujit S
In this study, we evaluate the role of information anxiety and information load on the intention to read information from prescription drug information leaflets (PILs). These PILs were developed based on the principals of information load and consumer information processing. This was an experimental prospective repeated measures study conducted in the United States where 360 (62% response rate) university students (>18 years old) participated. Participants were presented with a scenario followed by exposure to the three drug product information sources used to operationalize information load. The three sources were: (i) current practice; (ii) pre-existing one-page text only; and (iii) interventional one-page prototype PILs designed for the study. Information anxiety was measured as anxiety experienced by the individual when encountering information. The outcome variable of intention to read PILs was defined as the likelihood that the patient will read the information provided in the leaflets. A survey questionnaire was used to capture the data and the objectives were analyzed by performing a repeated measures MANOVA using SAS version 9.3. When compared to current practice and one-page text only leaflets, one-page PILs had significantly lower scores on information anxiety ( p information load ( p Information anxiety and information load significantly impacted intention to read ( p < 0.001). Newly developed PILs increased patient's intention to read and can help in improving the counseling services provided by pharmacists.
Datta, Anwitaman; Sharma, Rajesh
We propose and investigate a gossip based, social principles and behavior inspired decentralized mechanism (GoDisco) to disseminate information in online social community networks, using exclusively social links and exploiting semantic context to keep the dissemination process selective to relevant nodes. Such a designed dissemination scheme using gossiping over a egocentric social network is unique and is arguably a concept whose time has arrived, emulating word of mouth behavior and can have interesting applications like probabilistic publish/subscribe, decentralized recommendation and contextual advertisement systems, to name a few. Simulation based experiments show that despite using only local knowledge and contacts, the system has good global coverage and behavior.
Chen, Zhuohao; Du, Jinchen; Xiang, Min; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shuyue
Social exclusion has many effects on individuals, including the increased need to belong and elevated sensitivity to social information. Using a self-reporting method, and an eye-tracking technique, this study explored people's need to belong and attentional bias towards the socio-emotional information (pictures of positive and negative facial expressions compared to those of emotionally-neutral expressions) after experiencing a brief episode of social exclusion. We found that: (1) socially-excluded individuals reported higher negative emotions, lower positive emotions, and stronger need to belong than those who were not socially excluded; (2) compared to a control condition, social exclusion caused a longer response time to probe dots after viewing positive or negative face images; (3) social exclusion resulted in a higher frequency ratio of first attentional fixation on both positive and negative emotional facial pictures (but not on the neutral pictures) than the control condition; (4) in the social exclusion condition, participants showed shorter first fixation latency and longer first fixation duration to positive pictures than neutral ones but this effect was not observed for negative pictures; (5) participants who experienced social exclusion also showed longer gazing duration on the positive pictures than those who did not; although group differences also existed for the negative pictures, the gaze duration bias from both groups showed no difference from chance. This study demonstrated the emotional response to social exclusion as well as characterising multiple eye-movement indicators of attentional bias after experiencing social exclusion.
, or a sender of the signal, because each receiver can become a sender as well. An observer receives a signal by performing certain measurements synchronized with the measurements of the others. This means that the signal is uniformly and simultaneously distributed over the observers in a decentralized way. The signals transmit no intentional information that would favor one agent over another. All the sequence of signals received by different observers are not only statistically equivalent, but are also point-by-point identical. It is important to assume that each agent knows that the other agent simultaneously receives the identical signals. The sequences of the signals are true random, so that no agent could predict the next step with the probability different from those described by the density. Under these quite general assumptions, the entangled observers-agents can perform non-trivial tasks that include transmission of conditional information from one agent to another, simple paradigm of cooperation, etc. The problem of behavior of intelligent agents correlated by identical random messages in a decentralized way has its own significance: it simulates evolutionary behavior of biological and social systems correlated only via simultaneous sensoring sequences of unexpected events.
Palfreyman Niall M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. Some of these tools offer sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs, which greatly enhance their acceptance by users. Such GUIs are based on symbolic or graphical notations used to describe, interact and communicate the developed models. Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to represent the transport and transformation of chemical species and to define inhibitory and stimulatory dependencies. A critical weakness of existing tools is their lack of supporting an integrative representation of transport, transformation as well as biological information processing. Results Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and simulation of biological systems as Co-dependence models. The Co-dependence Methodology complements the representation of species transport and transformation together with an explicit mechanism to express biological information processing. Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system biologist with a powerful tool to describe and explore the dynamics of life phenomena. Narrator's GUI is based on an expressive graphical notation which forms an integral part of the Co-dependence Methodology. Behind the user-friendly GUI, Narrator hides a flexible feature which makes it relatively easy to map models defined via the graphical notation to mathematical formalisms and languages such as ordinary differential equations, the Systems Biology Markup Language or Gillespie's direct method. This powerful feature facilitates reuse, interoperability and conceptual model development. Conclusion Narrator is a
Mandel, Johannes J; Fuss, Hendrik; Palfreyman, Niall M; Dubitzky, Werner
Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. Some of these tools offer sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs), which greatly enhance their acceptance by users. Such GUIs are based on symbolic or graphical notations used to describe, interact and communicate the developed models. Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to represent the transport and transformation of chemical species and to define inhibitory and stimulatory dependencies. A critical weakness of existing tools is their lack of supporting an integrative representation of transport, transformation as well as biological information processing. Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and simulation of biological systems as Co-dependence models. The Co-dependence Methodology complements the representation of species transport and transformation together with an explicit mechanism to express biological information processing. Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system biologist with a powerful tool to describe and explore the dynamics of life phenomena. Narrator's GUI is based on an expressive graphical notation which forms an integral part of the Co-dependence Methodology. Behind the user-friendly GUI, Narrator hides a flexible feature which makes it relatively easy to map models defined via the graphical notation to mathematical formalisms and languages such as ordinary differential equations, the Systems Biology Markup Language or Gillespie's direct method. This powerful feature facilitates reuse, interoperability and conceptual model development. Narrator is a flexible and intuitive systems biology tool. It is
Introduction: This paper describes a metacognitive strategy related to the social dimension of the information search process of adolescents. Method: A case study that used naturalistic methods to explore the metacognitive thinking nd associated emotions of ten adolescents. The study was framed by Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model and…
McCauley, M. P.; Blake, K. D.; Meissner, H. I.; Viswanath, K.
The news media play a vital role in disseminating health information, yet little is known about the social characteristics of health journalists or the impact they have on the newsmaking process. This study examines how the social group influences of US health journalists impact two important aspects of news production--"media agenda-setting" and…
It is difficult not to be amazed by the ability of the human brain to process, to structure and to memorize information. Even by the toughest standards the behaviour of this network of about 10 11 neurons qualifies as complex, and both the scientific community and the public take great interest in the growing field of neuroscience. The scientific endeavour to learn more about the function of the brain as an information processing system is here a truly interdisciplinary one, with important contributions from biology, computer science, physics, engineering and mathematics as the authors quite rightly point out in the introduction of their book. The role of the theoretical disciplines here is to provide mathematical models of information processing systems and the tools to study them. These models and tools are at the centre of the material covered in the book by Coolen, Kuehn and Sollich. The book is divided into five parts, providing basic introductory material on neural network models as well as the details of advanced techniques to study them. A mathematical appendix complements the main text. The range of topics is extremely broad, still the presentation is concise and the book well arranged. To stress the breadth of the book let me just mention a few keywords here: the material ranges from the basics of perceptrons and recurrent network architectures to more advanced aspects such as Bayesian learning and support vector machines; Shannon's theory of information and the definition of entropy are discussed, and a chapter on Amari's information geometry is not missing either. Finally the statistical mechanics chapters cover Gardner theory and the replica analysis of the Hopfield model, not without being preceded by a brief introduction of the basic concepts of equilibrium statistical physics. The book also contains a part on effective theories of the macroscopic dynamics of neural networks. Many dynamical aspects of neural networks are usually hard to find in the
Shin, Hyun Kook; Park, Jeong Seok; Baek, Seung Min; Kim, Young Jin; Joo, Jae Yoon; Lee, Sang Mok; Jeong, Young Woo; Seo, Ho Jun; Kim, Do Youn; Lee, Tae Hoon
The Operational Information Processing Platform(OIPP) is platform system which was designed to provide the development and operation environments for plant operation and plant monitoring. It is based on the Plant Computer Systems (PCS) of Yonggwang 3 and 4, Ulchin 3 and 4, and Yonggwang 5 and 6 Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The UNIX based workstation, real time kernel and graphics design tool are selected and installed through the reviewing the function of PCS. In order to construct the development environment for open system architecture and distributed computer system, open computer system architecture was adapted both in hardware and software. For verification of system design and evaluation of technical methodologies, the PCS running under the OIPP is being designed and implemented. In this system, the man-machine interface and system functions are being designed and implemented to evaluate the differences between the UCN 3, 4 PCS and OIPP. 15 tabs., 32 figs., 11 refs. (Author)
Bots have been playing a crucial role in online platform ecosystems, as efficient and automatic tools to generate content and diffuse information to the social media human population. In this chapter, we will discuss the role of social bots in content spreading dynamics in social media. In particular, we will first investigate some differences between diffusion dynamics of content generated by bots, as opposed to humans, in the context of political communication, then study the characteristic...
Khoury, Antonio Z. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
Full text: In this work we discuss several proposals for quantum information processing using the transverse structure of paraxial beams. Different techniques for production and manipulation of optical vortices have been employed and combined with polarization transformations in order to investigate fundamental properties of quantum entanglement as well as to propose new tools for quantum information processing. As an example, we have recently proposed and demonstrated a controlled NOT (CNOT) gate based on a Michelson interferometer in which the photon polarization is the control bit and the first order transverse mode is the target. The device is based on a single lens design for an astigmatic mode converter that transforms the transverse mode of paraxial optical beams. In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the non-separability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and non-separable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 2007. As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for non-separable modes. The inequality is discussed both in the classical and quantum domains. We propose a polarization to orbital angular momentum teleportation scheme using entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion. By making a joint detection of the polarization and angular momentum parity of a single photon, we are able to detect all the Bell-states and perform, in principle, perfect teleportation from a discrete to a continuous system using minimal resources. The proposed protocol implementation demands experimental resources that are currently available in quantum optics laboratories. (author)
Hoard, James E.
Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.
Williams, Edith Ellison; Ellison, Florence
Culturally informed social work health and mental health interventions directed toward American Indian clients must be harmonious with their environment and acculturation. Discusses American Indian beliefs about health and illness and degrees of acculturation. Guidelines are offered to help non-Indian social workers design culturally appropriate…
Access to health information appears to be a crucial piece of the racial and ethnic health disparities puzzle among immigrants. There are a growing number of scholars who are investigating the role of social networks that have shown that the number and even types of social networks among minorities and lower income groups differ (Chatman, 1991;…
Examines the social and cultural implications of the converging technologies known as the Information Superhighway. Draws together arguments from key commentators and critics to identify possibilities and potential dangers related to quality of life, social justice, and politics. Aims to help educators move beyond current instrumental perspectives…
This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster
Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin
Social dysfunction is a hallmark characteristic of schizophrenia. Part of it may stem from an inability to efficiently encode social information into memory and retrieve it later. This study focused on whether patients with schizophrenia show a memory boost for socially relevant information and engage the same neural network as controls when processing social stimuli that were previously encoded into memory. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls performed a social and nonsocial picture recognition memory task while being scanned. We calculated memory performance using d'. Our main analysis focused on brain activity associated with recognition memory of social and nonsocial pictures. Our study included 28 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Healthy controls demonstrated a memory boost for socially relevant information. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to show enhanced recognition sensitivity for social pictures. At the neural level, patients did not engage the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) as much as controls while recognizing social pictures. Our study did not include direct measures of self-referential processing. All but 3 patients were taking antipsychotic medications, which may have altered both the behavioural performance during the picture recognition memory task and brain activity. Impaired social memory in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with altered DMPFC activity. A reduction of DMPFC activity may reflect less involvement of self-referential processes during memory retrieval. Our functional MRI results contribute to a better mapping of the neural disturbances associated with social memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia and may facilitate the development of innovative treatments, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Coffeng, J.K.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Boot, C.R.L.
OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of implementation of a social and physical environmental intervention and to explore differences regarding this process between both interventions. METHODS:: Context, recruitment, dose delivered, fidelity, reach, dose received, satisfaction, and implementation
Roy, Suman Deb
This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the state-of-the-art in understanding media popularity and trends in online social networks through social multimedia signals. With insights from the study of popularity and sharing patterns of online media, trend spread in social media, social network analysis for multimedia and visualizing diffusion of media in online social networks. In particular, the book will address the following important issues: Understanding social network phenomena from a signal processing point of view; The existence and popularity of multimedia as shared and social me
Buonfiglio, Marzia; Di Sabato, Francesco; Mandillo, Silvia; Albini, Mariarita; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Annateresa; Avanzini, Giuliano
Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and the Mariani Learning style Questionnaire. Our results demonstrate a significant association between analytic cognitive style and both IGE and TLE and respectively a predominant auditory and visual analytic style (ANOVA: p values <0,0001). These findings should encourage further research to investigate information processing style and its neurophysiological correlates in epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BUUNK, BP; HOORENS, [No Value
This paper first presents four different conceptualizations of social support: social integration, satisfying relationships, perceived helpfulness and enacted support. Then, classic and contemporary social comparison theory and social exchange theory are analysed as they are two theoretical
Dr. B. L. Sairam Subramaniam; B. Naveen Kumar
Many organizations are carrying out recruitment process by using social media networking sites. Social networking sites are used to facilitate and improve process of recruitment method in HR management. Social networking sites address the needs of employers and job-seekers via internetworking on electronic platform likes face book, twitter, LinkedIn, naukri.com, and monster.com which increase the speed of employment, reducing the cost of recruitment, huge availability of jobseekers and improv...
Samuel T. C. Thompson
Full Text Available Social engineering is the use of nontechnical means to gain unauthorized access to information or computer systems. While this method is recognized as a major security threat in the computer industry, little has been done to address it in the library field. This is of particular concern because libraries increasingly have access to databases of both proprietary and personal information. This tutorial is designed to increase the awareness of library staff in regard to the issue of social engineering.
Zhang, Yin; Wang, Peilin
Online health information seeking using social questions and answers (Social Q&A) sites has been increasingly popular in recent years. It calls for better understanding of health information seeking behaviour and interactions between information seekers and information providers. The study investigates how diet information seekers interact with information providers on WebMD Answers, which is a Social Q&A site devoted to health-related topics, and examines the factors that constitute a 'helpful' answer from an information seeker's perspective. Bales' interaction process analysis was applied as the framework to analyse 568 diet-related Q&As from WebMD Answers to identify interaction patterns. Most diet information seekers post questions anonymously and without any detailed description. Individual experts or health organisations provide most answers. Overall, answers are positively received and had a high satisfaction rating. It was also found that information seeker-perceived helpfulness does not depend on who answered the question but to how an information seeker posted the question. This study indicates that answers at WebMD Answers are helpful for diet information seekers. It sheds new light on the interactions during the Q&A process, preferred site functions and important factors that contribute to perceived helpful answers. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.
Full Text Available Due to the extensive social influence, public health emergency has attracted great attention in today’s society. The booming social network is becoming a main information dissemination platform of those events and caused high concerns in emergency management, among which a good prediction of information dissemination in social networks is necessary for estimating the event’s social impacts and making a proper strategy. However, information dissemination is largely affected by complex interactive activities and group behaviors in social network; the existing methods and models are limited to achieve a satisfactory prediction result due to the open changeable social connections and uncertain information processing behaviors. ACP (artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution provides an effective way to simulate the real situation. In order to obtain better information dissemination prediction in social networks, this paper proposes an intelligent computation method under the framework of TDF (Theory-Data-Feedback based on ACP simulation system which was successfully applied to the analysis of A (H1N1 Flu emergency.
Hu, Hongzhi; Mao, Huajuan; Hu, Xiaohua; Hu, Feng; Sun, Xuemin; Jing, Zaiping; Duan, Yunsuo
Due to the extensive social influence, public health emergency has attracted great attention in today's society. The booming social network is becoming a main information dissemination platform of those events and caused high concerns in emergency management, among which a good prediction of information dissemination in social networks is necessary for estimating the event's social impacts and making a proper strategy. However, information dissemination is largely affected by complex interactive activities and group behaviors in social network; the existing methods and models are limited to achieve a satisfactory prediction result due to the open changeable social connections and uncertain information processing behaviors. ACP (artificial societies, computational experiments, and parallel execution) provides an effective way to simulate the real situation. In order to obtain better information dissemination prediction in social networks, this paper proposes an intelligent computation method under the framework of TDF (Theory-Data-Feedback) based on ACP simulation system which was successfully applied to the analysis of A (H1N1) Flu emergency.
Thiault, Lauric; Marshall, Paul; Gelcich, Stefan; Collin, Antoine; Chlous, Frédérique; Claudet, Joachim
An overarching challenge of natural resource management and biodiversity conservation is that relationships between people and nature are difficult to integrate into tools that can effectively guide decision making. Social-ecological vulnerability offers a valuable framework for identifying and understanding important social-ecological linkages, and the implications of dependencies and other feedback loops in the system. Unfortunately, its implementation at local scales has hitherto been limited due at least in part to the lack of operational tools for spatial representation of social-ecological vulnerability. We developed a method to map social-ecological vulnerability based on information on human-nature dependencies and ecosystem services at local scales. We applied our method to the small-scale fishery of Moorea, French Polynesia, by combining spatially explicit indicators of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of both the resource (i.e., vulnerability of reef fish assemblages to fishing) and resource users (i.e., vulnerability of fishing households to the loss of fishing opportunity). Our results revealed that both social and ecological vulnerabilities varied considerably through space and highlighted areas where sources of vulnerability were high for both social and ecological subsystems (i.e., social-ecological vulnerability hotspots) and thus of high priority for management intervention. Our approach can be used to inform decisions about where biodiversity conservation strategies are likely to be more effective and how social impacts from policy decisions can be minimized. It provides a new perspective on human-nature linkages that can help guide sustainability management at local scales; delivers insights distinct from those provided by emphasis on a single vulnerability component (e.g., exposure); and demonstrates the feasibility and value of operationalizing the social-ecological vulnerability framework for policy, planning, and participatory
Koschmider, A.; Song, M.S.; Reijers, H.A.
Formal models of business processes are used for a variety of purposes. But where the elicitation of the characteristics of a business process usually takes place in a collaborative fashion, the building of the final, formal process model is done mostly by a single person. This article presents the
Full Text Available It is widely established in scientific literature that entrepreneurship directly contributes to both employment generation and economic growth. Entrepreneurship is said to be subject to a very specific process which includes opportunity recognition, resource allocation, innovation and networking. Networking specifically, is an essential part of the entrepreneurial process as it is employed to assist entrepreneurs to capitalise on opportunities, allocate resources, find ways to innovate and contest ambiguity. With the advent of Web 2.0 and online social networking platforms the way in which people exchange information and network has changed significantly and has spawned a new social culture on a global level. The purpose of this study is to examine the value that online social networking adds to the entrepreneurial process, specifically focussing on the South African landscape. Keywords and phrases: Entrepreneurship; Networking; Social capital; Social networking; Social media
Mermillod, Martial; Grynberg, Delphine; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Rychlowska, Magdalena; Beffara, Brice; Harquel, Sylvain; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Niedenthal, Paula M; Dutheil, Frédéric; Droit-Volet, Sylvie
Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target) on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal), physiological (facial mimicry) as well as on neural (P100 and N170) responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE) that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1), increased electromyographical responses (Study 2), and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3) when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative) information (vs. no information). These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.
Full Text Available Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal, physiological (facial mimicry as well as on neural (P100 and N170 responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1, increased electromyographical responses (Study 2, and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3 when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative information (vs. no information. These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.
Yin, Xu-Cheng; Zhang, Bo-Wen; Cui, Xiao-Ping; Qu, Jiao; Geng, Bin; Zhou, Fang; Song, Li; Hao, Hong-Wei
Effective book search has been discussed for decades and is still future-proof in areas as diverse as computer science, informatics, e-commerce and even culture and arts. A variety of social information contents (e.g, ratings, tags and reviews) emerge with the huge number of books on the Web, but how they are utilized for searching and finding books is seldom investigated. Here we develop an Integrated Search And Recommendation Technology (IsArt), which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for searching books with rich social information. IsArt comprises a search engine to rank books with book contents and professional metadata, a Generalized Content-based Filtering model to thereafter rerank books with user-generated social contents, and a learning-to-rank technique to finally combine a wide range of diverse reranking results. Experiments show that this technology permits embedding social information to promote book search effectiveness, and IsArt, by making use of it, has the best performance on CLEF/INEX Social Book Search Evaluation datasets of all 4 years (from 2011 to 2014), compared with some other state-of-the-art methods.
This article reflects on contemporary social development, and suggests that we need to initiate a process of thinking about a post neo-liberal development agenda. As a step in this direction, it is suggested we need to re-approach the social as a conceptual category in order to consider social
Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Pantic, Maja; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Pelachaud, Catherine; Poggi, Isabella; D’Ericco, Francesca; Schröder, Marc
Social Signal Processing is the research domain aimed at bridging the social intelligence gap between humans and machines. This paper is the first survey of the domain that jointly considers its three major aspects, namely, modeling, analysis, and synthesis of social behavior. Modeling investigates
Kwak, Doyeon; Kim, Wonjoon
It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.
Full Text Available It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.
Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Márton; Bianconi, Ginestra
Temporal social networks are characterized by heterogeneous duration of contacts, which can either follow a power-law distribution, such as in face-to-face interactions, or a Weibull distribution, such as in mobile-phone communication. Here we model the dynamics of face-to-face interaction and mobile phone communication by a reinforcement dynamics, which explains the data observed in these different types of social interactions. We quantify the information encoded in the dynamics of these networks by the entropy of temporal networks. Finally, we show evidence that human dynamics is able to modulate the information present in social network dynamics when it follows circadian rhythms and when it is interfacing with a new technology such as the mobile-phone communication technology.
Kolmer, Deirdre M. Beneken genaamd; Schalk, René
Objectives: This study assesses social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the EBP Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS), along with 13 background/demographic questions. Results: The overall level of orientation toward the EBP process is relatively low. Although respondents are slightly familiar with it and have slightly positive attitudes about it, their intentions to engage in it and their actual engagement are relatively low. Respondents who followed a course on the EBP process as a student are more oriented toward it than those who did not. Social workers under 29 are more familiar with the EBP process than those over 29. Conclusions: We recommend educators to take a more active role in teaching the EBP process to students and social workers. PMID:27630517
In this article I examine how intersections between information policy and social media affect professional ethics and instructional decision making as considered through the lens of professional development and continuing education. The discussion uses techniques from autoethnography such as personal narrative, figurative language and scenarios.…
Hummels, H.G.J.A.; Timmer, D.
In this contribution we will briefly discuss the shareholders' need for social, ethical and environmental information and the efforts of corporations to address this need. Looking at three cases, we will raise some doubt with regard to the adequacy of corporate SEE reporting to meet the needs of
Chu, Samuel K. W.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Warning, Peter
The functions and possibilities afforded by blogging have been suggested to be relevant to learning and information management. Its increasing use in the business and education sectors is documented, but currently its use in professional education or internship is limited. The social nature of blogging appears to support the applicability of blogs…
Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu
Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…
This necessitated the study, with a view to ascertaining if librarians in academic institutions, considering their location in rural areas, are involved in corporate social responsibility (CSR) by way of providing library and information services in communities? Using four federal tertiary institutions in Imo and Ebonyi states, South ...
Ådland, Marit Kristine; Lykke, Marianne
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how social tagging can be useful in an information website for cancer patients and their relatives. Methodology/approach: Three studies have been carried out in order to investigate the research questions. Firstly, we reviewed and analy......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how social tagging can be useful in an information website for cancer patients and their relatives. Methodology/approach: Three studies have been carried out in order to investigate the research questions. Firstly, we reviewed...... and analyzed literature about cancer patients’ information needs and seeking behavior, and about social tagging and patient terminology. Secondly, we analyzed tags applied to blog postings at Blogomkraeft.dk, a blog site at the Danish information web site Cancer.dk. The tags were compared with the formal...... browsing structure of Cancer.dk. Results from the two studies were used to develop a prototype for social tagging at Cancer.dk. Thus thirdly, we evaluated the prototype in a usability study. Findings: We found that tags have the potential to describe and provide access to web site content from the users...
Jerrim, John; de Vries, Robert
Quantitative social science (QSS) has the potential to make an important contribution to public policy. However it also has a number of limitations. The aim of this paper is to explain these limitations to a non-specialist audience and to identify a number of ways in which QSS research could be improved to better inform public policy.
Hefler, Marita; Kerrigan, Vicki; Henryks, Joanna; Freeman, Becky; Thomas, David P
Despite the enormous potential of social media for health promotion, there is an inadequate evidence base for how they can be used effectively to influence behaviour. In Australia, research suggests social media use is higher among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than the general Australian population; however, health promoters need a better understanding of who uses technologies, how and why. This qualitative study investigates what types of health content are being shared among Aboriginal and Torres Strait people through social media networks, as well as how people engage with, and are influenced by, health-related information in their offline life. We present six social media user typologies together with an overview of health content that generated significant interaction. Content ranged from typical health-related issues such as mental health, diet, alcohol, smoking and exercise, through to a range of broader social determinants of health. Social media-based health promotion approaches that build on the social capital generated by supportive online environments may be more likely to generate greater traction than confronting and emotion-inducing approaches used in mass media campaigns for some health topics.
Business processes and information systems mutually affect each other in non-trivial ways. Frequently, the business process design and the information system design are not well aligned. This means that business processes are designed without taking the information system impact into account, and vice versa. Missing alignment at design time often results in quality problems at runtime, such as large response times of information systems, large process execution times, overloaded information s...
The Secretary of Defense announced the Corporate Information Management initiative on November 16, 1990, to establish a DoD-wide concept for managing computer, communications, and information management functions...
Vasileiadou, E.; Vliegenthart, R.
With the increasing use of information and communication technologies, there is a wealth of longitudinal data available, which open up new research directions. This availability necessitates special analytical tools, namely time series analysis methods. The paper focuses on Auto Regressive
Vasileiadou, E.; Vliegenthart, R.
With the increasing use of information and communication technologies, there is a wealth of longitudinal data available, which open up new research directions. This availability necessitates special analytical tools, namely time series analysis methods. The paper focuses on Auto Regressive
Vasileiadou, E.; Vliegenthart, R.
With the increasing use of information and communication technologies, there is a wealth of longitudinal data available, which open up new research directions. This availability necessitates special analytical tools, namely time series analysis methods. The paper focuses on Auto Regressive
Wittenbrink, Bernd; Henly, Julia R.
Three experiments tested the hypothesis that comparison information about other people's stereotypic beliefs is used to validate personal beliefs about a target group. A simple manipulation of questionnaire items and their response scales, presented as part of a political opinion survey, served as social comparison information regarding beliefs…
Murthy, Dhiraj; Gross, Alexander J
This article seeks to extend social science scholarship on social media technology use during disruptive events. Though social media's role in times of crisis has been previously studied, much of this work tends to focus on first-responders and relief organizations. However, social media use during disasters tends to be decentralized and this organizational structure can promote different types of messages to top-down information systems. Using 142,786 geo-tagged tweets collected before and after Hurricane Sandy's US landfall as a case study, this article seeks to explore shifts in social media behavior during disruptive events and highlights that though Sandy disrupted routine life within Twitter, users responded to the disaster by employing humor, sharing photos, and checking into locations. We conclude that social media use during disruptive events is complex and understanding these nuanced behaviors is important across the social sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A. A. Malyuk
Full Text Available The features of the information protection task solution in its modern statement as a complex problem that encompasses all aspects of information technology development are discussed. Such an interpretation would inevitably lead to an increase of the role of the systemic problems solution of which relies on advanced scientific and methodological basis, so called information protection processes’ intensification.
Strekalova, Yulia A
Emerging pandemics call for unique health communication and education strategies in which public health agencies need to satisfy the public's information needs about possible risks while preventing risk exaggeration and dramatization. As a route to providing a framework for understanding public information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, this study examined the characteristics of communicative behaviors of social media audiences in response to Ebola outbreak news. Grounded in the social amplification of risks framework, this study adds to an understanding of information behaviors of online audiences by showing empirical differences in audience engagement with online health information. The data were collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Facebook channel. The final data set included 809 CDC posts and 35,916 audience comments. The analysis identified the differences in audience information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, Ebola, and health promotion posts. While the CDC had fewer posts on Ebola than health promotion topics, the former received more attention from active page users. Furthermore, audience members who actively engaged with Ebola news had a small overlap with those who engaged with non-Ebola information during the same period. Overall, this study demonstrated that information behavior and audience engagement is topic dependent. Furthermore, audiences who commented on news about an emerging pandemic were homogenous and varied in their degree of information amplification.
Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig
Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig
Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer’s premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers’ compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374
Abu Bakar, Siti Hajar; Weatherley, Richard; Omar, Noralina; Abdullah, Fatimah; Mohamad Aun, Nur Saadah
This article presents the findings of a self-report study of the consequences of being an informal caregiver in Malaysia. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine Malaysian efforts in assisting informal caregivers, based on an analysis of the issues and concerns raised by the caregivers themselves. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of informal caregivers in 2009. This sample comprised parents, spouses and/or adult siblings, and adult children, caring for their children, spouses or siblings and parents who were chronically ill and/or had a disability. Of 300 prospective participants, only 175 could be located (58%), but all those contacted agreed to participate. Respondents were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire to identify the emotional, financial, social and physical issues consequent upon being a caregiver. Most respondents reported that their care-giving responsibilities had impacted their emotional, financial, social and/or physical well-being. Inadequate and/or uncertain income was by far the greatest concern followed in descending order by social, physical and emotional consequences. The one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences among the three categories of caregivers with respect to physical and emotional consequences. The findings show that care-giving has detrimental effects on the lives of informal caregivers, and that they are in significant need of social support to help them deal with care-giving tasks and responsibilities. Based on the findings, an integrated social support programme is proposed, tailored to the needs of informal caregivers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kim, Tae Whan; Choi, Kwang; Oh, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Hyun Sook; Keum, Jong Yong
The goal of this project is to establish integrated environment focused on enhanced information services to researchers through the providing of acquisition information, key phrase retrieval function, journal content information linked with various subsystems already developed. The results of the project are as follows. 1. It is possible to serve information on unreceivable materials among required materials throughout the system. 2. Retrieval efficiency is increased by the adding of key phrase retrieval function. 3. Rapidity of information service is enhanced by the providing of journal contents of each issue received and work performance of contents service is become higher. 4. It is possible to acquire, store, serve technical information needed in R and D synthetically and systematically throughout the development of total system linked with various subsystems required to technical information management and service. 21 refs. (Author)
Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry
While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…
Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Dong, Qiang; Sun, Chongjing; Fu, Yan
The recommender systems have advanced a great deal in the past two decades. However, most researchers focus their attentions on mining the similarities among users or objects in recommender systems and overlook the social influence which plays an important role in users' purchase process. In this paper, we design a biased random walk algorithm on coupled social networks which gives recommendation results based on both social interests and users' preference. Numerical analyses on two real data sets, Epinions and Friendfeed, demonstrate the improvement of recommendation performance by taking social interests into account, and experimental results show that our algorithm can alleviate the user cold-start problem more effectively compared with the mass diffusion and user-based collaborative filtering methods.
reasonably distinct tasks.Practical implications: Our work points out a best practice for technical information management in progressive design that can be applied on different levels.Social implications: Current design processes may be somewhat impaired by legacy practices that do not promote information reuse and collaboration beyond conventional task domains. Our work provides a reference model to analyze and develop design activities as formalized work-flows. This work should lead into improved industry design process models and novel CAD/CAM/PDM applications, thereby strengthening industry design processes.Originality/value: While extensively studied, semantic modeling in technical design has been largely dominated by the idea of capturing design artifacts without a clear rationale why this is done and what level of detail should be favored in models. In the semantic process presented in this article, the utility and the chief quality criteria of semantic models (of technical information and artifacts are explicitly established by the semantic processing pipeline(s. This constructively explains the significance of semantic models as communication and information requirement interfaces, with concrete use cases.
Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.
Community structure is an important feature in the study of complex networks. It is because nodes of the same community may have similar properties. In this paper we extend two popular community detection methods to partition online social networks. In our extended methods, the profile information of users is used for partitioning. We apply the extended methods in several sample networks of Facebook. Compared with the original methods, the community structures we obtain have higher modularity. Our results indicate that users' profile information is consistent with the community structure of their friendship network to some extent. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to discuss how profile information can be used to improve community detection in online social networks.
NEA has for many years now been collating information on, and analysing, laws and regulations on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and this work has resulted in a series of publications. However, as seen by the multiplication of computer-based legal information centres, both at national and international level, conventional information systems are no longer adequate to deal with the increasing volume of information and with users' needs. In view of the particular aspects of nuclear law and of its own availabilities, NEA has endeavoured to make the best possible use of existing structures by opting for participation in the IAEA International Nuclear Information System rather than by creating a specialised centre. Before becoming operational, the arrangements concluded between NEA and IAEA required that the INIS rules be altered somewhat to take account of the specific problems raised by treatment of legal literature and also to improve the quality of information provided to users. (auth.) [fr
Edel, M-A; Rudel, A; Hubert, C; Scheele, D; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Assion, H-J
Abstract Objective Given sparse research on the issue, this study sought to shed light upon the interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing, and social anxiety in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Subjects and methods 73 German adults with ADHD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria participated. We used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to assess alexithymia, the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) to assess different...
Clapp, Justin T; Arriaga, Alexander F; Murthy, Sushila; Raper, Steven E; Schwartz, J Sanford; Barg, Frances K; Fleisher, Lee A
This qualitative study examines surgical consultation as a social process and assesses its alignment with assumptions of the shared decision-making (SDM) model. SDM stresses the importance of patient preferences and rigorous discussion of therapeutic risks/benefits based on these preferences. However, empirical studies have highlighted discrepancies between SDM and realities of surgical decision making. Qualitative research can inform understanding of the decision-making process and allow for granular assessment of the nature and causes of these discrepancies. We observed consultations between 3 general surgeons and 45 patients considering undergoing 1 of 2 preference-sensitive elective operations: (1) hernia repair, or (2) cholecystectomy. These patients and surgeons also participated in semi-structured interviews. By the time of the consultation, patients and surgeons were predisposed toward certain decisions by preceding events occurring elsewhere. During the visit, surgeons had differential ability to arbitrate surgical intervention and construct the severity of patients' conditions. These upstream dynamics frequently displaced the centrality of the risk/benefit-based consent discussion. The influence of events preceding consultation suggests that decision-making models should account for broader spatiotemporal spans. Given surgeons' authority to define patients' conditions and control service provision, SDM may be premised on an overestimation of patients' power to alter the course of decision making once in a specialist's office. Considering the subordinate role of the risk/benefit discussion in many surgical decisions, it will be important to study if and how the social process of decision making is altered by SDM-oriented decision aids that foreground this discussion.
Nilsson, Lina; Eriksén, Sara; Borg, Christel
Implementation of information systems in healthcare has become a lengthy process where healthcare staff (eg, nurses) are expected to put information into systems without getting the overall picture of the potential usefulness for their own work. The aim of this study was to explore social challenges when implementing information systems in everyday work in a nursing context. Moreover, this study aimed at putting perceived social challenges in a theoretical framework to address them more constructively when implementing information systems in healthcare. Influenced by institutional ethnography, the findings are based on interviews, observations, and written reflections. Power (changing the existing hierarchy, alienation), professional identity (calling on hold, expert becomes novice, changed routines), and encounter (ignorant introductions, preconceived notions) were categories (subcategories) presented in the findings. Social Cognitive Theory, Diffusion of Innovations, organizational culture, and dramaturgical analysis are proposed to set up a theoretical framework. If social challenges are not considered and addressed in the implementation process, it will be affected by nurses' solidarity to existing power structures and their own professional identity. Thus, implementation of information systems affects more aspects in the organization than might have been intended. These aspects need to be taken in to account in the implementation process.
Van der Zee, K.I.; Bakker, A.B.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)
The present study focused on social comparison processes among volunteer caregivers of terminally ill patients in relation to burnout. First, caregivers' (N = 80) affective reactions to a bogus interview with fellow volunteer workers who were either coping better or worse were considered. Upward
The process of designing high-quality software systems is one of the major issues in software engineering research. Over the years, this has resulted in numerous design methods, each with specific qualities and drawbacks. For example, the Rational Unified Process is a comprehensive design process,
Schmitz, Julian; Kramer, Martina; Blechert, Jens; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
In the aftermath of a distressing social event, adults with social phobia (SP) engage in a review of this event with a focus on its negative aspects. To date, little is known about this post-event processing (PEP) and its relationship with perceived performance in SP children. We measured PEP in SP children (n = 24) and healthy controls (HC; n =…
De Martino, Benedetto; Bobadilla-Suarez, Sebastian; Nouguchi, Takao; Sharot, Tali; Love, Bradley C
How much we like something, whether it be a bottle of wine or a new film, is affected by the opinions of others. However, the social information that we receive can be contradictory and vary in its reliability. Here, we tested whether the brain incorporates these statistics when judging value and confidence. Participants provided value judgments about consumer goods in the presence of online reviews. We found that participants updated their initial value and confidence judgments in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account both the uncertainty of their initial beliefs and the reliability of the social information. Activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex tracked the degree of belief update. Analogous to how lower-level perceptual information is integrated, we found that the human brain integrates social information according to its reliability when judging value and confidence. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The field of perceptual decision making has shown that the sensory system integrates different sources of information according to their respective reliability, as predicted by a Bayesian inference scheme. In this work, we hypothesized that a similar coding scheme is implemented by the human brain to process social signals and guide complex, value-based decisions. We provide experimental evidence that the human prefrontal cortex's activity is consistent with a Bayesian computation that integrates social information that differs in reliability and that this integration affects the neural representation of value and confidence. Copyright © 2017 De Martino et al.
S.S. Ficco (Stefano)
textabstractEconomic agents generally operate in uncertain environments and, prior to making decisions, invest time and resources to collect useful information. Consumers compare the prices charged by di..erent firms before purchasing a product. Politicians gather information from di..erent
This paper presents how a Geographical Information System (GIS) can be incorporated in an intelligent learning software system for environmental matters. The system is called ALGIS and incorporates the GIS in order to present effectively information about the physical and anthropogenic environment of Greece in a more interactive way. The system…
Halyna I. Sotska
Full Text Available In the recent decade many changes in the process of education took place because of the development of information and communication technologies. Online social groups tend to be used by teachers and students for formal (study and informal (personal communication purposes. An efficient teacher may turn social networks into an effective tool, encouraging students to communicate in the target language. With the help of social networks the teacher can activate students in the process of learning, create situations for better understanding and perceiving the material. The use of such approaches as blended learning, corporative learning and active learning helps make the classes more attractive and effective. Moreover, social networks can help in the development of students’ creativity, provision of feedback and cooperative learning. The article deals with the question of influence of Massive online open courses on effectiveness of the educational process for students who learn English as a second language.
Information is an important resource for new product development (NPD) process in subsidiary. However, we still lack of research to analyze NPD process from information perspective in subsidiary context. This research is an exploratory research and it exploited 8 cases of NPD process in consumer goods subsidiaries operating in Indonesian market. Three types of information have been identified and analyzed NPD process; global, regional and local information. The result of this research ...
Meiryani; Muhammad Syaifullah
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of business process to the quality of the accounting information system. This study aims to examine the influence of business process on the quality of the information system of accounting information system. The study was theoritical research which considered the roles of business process on quality of accounting information system which use secondary data collection. The results showed that the business process have a signifi...
Modern digital automation techniques allow the application of demanding types of process control. These types of process control are characterized by their belonging to higher levels in a multilevel model. Functional and technical aspects of the performance of digital automation plants are presented and explained. A modern automation system is described considering special procedures of process control (e.g. real time diagnosis)
Rafeah Mat Saat
Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is a concept that describes the relationship between company and society. The way a company portrays corporate ethics and social initiatives can evoke strong positive reactions among consumers. The emergence of Internet creates a new communicating culture and gives an idea for a company to deliver their CSR message. Applying Media Richness Theory (MRT in CSR message is believed could facilitate trust among consumer. Thus, this study aims to examine the impact of different level of CSR information richness with consumers trust towards the company. This study divides trust into three components that are competence, benevolence and integrity. An experimental design consisting of different levels of CSR information is selected (rich CSR information, lean CSR information and no CSR information as a control condition. The finding shows that rich CSR information has impacted on competence and integrity but not on benevolence. Result from this study is believed can assist companies in setting up their CSR communicating strategy in engaging consumers’ trust.
Chaffee, Ellen Earle
When a rational decision process is desired, information specialists can contribute information and also contribute to the process in which that information is used, thereby promoting rational decision-making. The contribution of Stanford's information specialists to rational decision-making is described. (MLW)
Nevill, Dorothy D.; And Others
Tested the assumptions that the structural features of vocational schemas affect vocational information processing and career self-efficacy. Results indicated that effective vocational information processing was facilitated by well-integrated systems that processed information along fewer dimensions. The importance of schematic organization on the…
Muralikrishnan, T. R.; Sanjayan, T. S.
This paper proposes to discuss the concept of multimedia using information processing theory in ICT enabled teacher education in the context of a knowledge society. The Information and communication technology (ICT) competencies required of teachers related to content, pedagogy, technical issues, social issues, collaboration and networking remain…
Dr. Filiz Gürder
Full Text Available Nowadays, organizations are required to develop quick and accurate responses to internal and external changes that gain momentum. In this context, knowledge management activities become more important to all organizations. On the other hand, Geographic Information Systems (GIS become common more and more. GIS which address a broad spectrum of users such as public agencies, local communities, civil society organizations, the private sector, academic environment, and personal users have been aiming to solve problems which occurred in location-based areas. GIS are important to get, combine, analyze and transfer the spatial data. Common use of PCs for personal needs, digital geography and improvements of software technologies, also the need to make socially acceptable business decisions facilitated development and widespread use of GIS applications. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss using areas and contribution potentials of GIS in enterprise-wide knowledge management processes.
Bhargava, Preeti; Spasojevic, Nemanja; Hu, Guoning
In this paper, we describe the Lithium Natural Language Processing (NLP) system - a resource-constrained, high- throughput and language-agnostic system for information extraction from noisy user generated text on social media. Lithium NLP extracts a rich set of information including entities, topics, hashtags and sentiment from text. We discuss several real world applications of the system currently incorporated in Lithium products. We also compare our system with existing commercial and acad...
Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch
This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication.
Dong Seon Cheng
Full Text Available Extracting information from social media has become a major focus of companies and researchers in recent years. Aside from the study of the social aspects, it has also been found feasible to exploit the collaborative strength of crowds to help solve classical machine learning problems like object recognition. In this work, we focus on the generally underappreciated problem of building effective datasets for training classifiers by automatically assembling data from social media. We detail some of the challenges of this approach and outline a framework that uses expanded search queries to retrieve more qualified data. In particular, we concentrate on collaboratively tagged media on the social platform Flickr, and on the problem of image classification to evaluate our approach. Finally, we describe a novel entropy-based method to incorporate an information-theoretic principle to guide our framework. Experimental validation against well-known public datasets shows the viability of this approach and marks an improvement over the state of the art in terms of simplicity and performance.
Full Text Available Employing a perspective informed by brand management, this article aims at understanding information warfare operations in social media. The state, seen as brand, must project an image of itself to both internal and foreign audiences to unite the domestic audience and/or attract global support. However, in constructing a brand, states are vulnerable to ‘sofa warriors’ – ordinary individuals who have been unwittingly recruited by hostile actors to disseminate (over social media or other platforms a counter-brand, harmful to the state concerned. These new threats are investigated in light of recent tendencies in online branding, elucidating their status as a national security threat, with the potential to significantly disrupt life in political communities.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the opportunities of Social Media Geographic Information (SMGI as valuable support for analysis, design and decision-making in urban and regional planning. In the light of the recent advances in digital geographic information, such as Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI which are fostering innovation in urban and regional planning, the authors focus on the potentialities of Social Media as source of knowledge for the planning practices. The authors argue SMGI may play an important role to inform 'smart city' strategies extending authoritative and sensor data infrastructure with experiential and pluralist citizens knowledge. To support this thesis, an innovative methodology for the advance of Social Media Geographic Information (SMGI Analytics is proposed. To this end, the authors present an original user-friendly tool able to extract information from popular Social Media such as Twitter.com and Youtube.com and to apply Spatial-Temporal Textual (STTx analysis . Some examples are provided at the regional and at the local scale in order to demonstrate the potential of SMGI analytics in regional and urban planning. The results show how SMGI analytics can support design, analysis and decision making in planning, and add the value of pluralism to inform smart city initiatives. The paper ends with some brief conclusions on the opportunities of SMGI analytics for possibly affecting decision-making dynamics and urban and regional planning processes, through citizens’ dialogue and integration of experiential and professional knowledge.
Wu, Yahui; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin
Similar to epidemics, information can be transmitted directly among users in mobile social networks. Different from epidemics, we can control the spreading process by adjusting the corresponding parameters (e.g., hop count) directly. This paper proposes a theoretical model to evaluate the performance of an epidemic-like spreading algorithm, in which the maximal hop count of the information is limited. In addition, our model can be used to evaluate the impact of users’ selfish behavior. Simulations show the accuracy of our theoretical model. Numerical results show that the information hop count can have an important impact. In addition, the impact of selfish behavior is related to the information hop count.
Wu, Yahui; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin
Similar to epidemics, information can be transmitted directly among users in mobile social networks. Different from epidemics, we can control the spreading process by adjusting the corresponding parameters (e.g., hop count) directly. This paper proposes a theoretical model to evaluate the performance of an epidemic-like spreading algorithm, in which the maximal hop count of the information is limited. In addition, our model can be used to evaluate the impact of users’ selfish behavior. Simulations show the accuracy of our theoretical model. Numerical results show that the information hop count can have an important impact. In addition, the impact of selfish behavior is related to the information hop count. (paper)
Elaine Pérez Sanchidrián
Full Text Available Objective: The study addresses the theoretical and conceptual aspects related to social labeling. Has the advantages of labels on different platforms of Web 2.0. Exposes some of the major sites of social labeling system including Flickr, Delicious, Technorati is destcan, among others. Terminologically analyzed using the tags in the blogosphere as a model for representing information. Methods: The research took as methods of qualitative content analysis to identify the behavior of the international literature on this subject and the metric analysis to characterize the use of social labeling in the blogosphere. Results: The study led to qualitatively describe the use of labels on blogs and their terminological particularities associated with the following aspects: creating labels in these spaces is related to a number of social issues among which we can highlight: Politics, Culture, economy, Gender, History, Sexuality, Discrimination, Health, Environment, Technology. The labels on these platforms are defined from the general to the particular and there is no limit concurrency for its creation, usually the authors cite for each post 4-7 labels in order to spread their content as possible in the community. Conclusions: This study enables reflect the social impact of using labels on platforms like blogs.
Optimizing the technological and informational relationship of the health care process and of the communication between physician and patient. The impact of Preventive Medicine and social marketing applied in Health Care on youth awareness- preliminary study.
Petrescu, C M; Gheorghe, I R; Petrescu, G D
In this case study we wanted to find out the impact of Preventive Medicine and implicitly social marketing upon young students with the average age of 19, belonging to the academic environment in Romania. The study lasted one month and consisted of a questionnaire that was conceived and applied to 304 adolescents. The questionnaire contained demographic and personal information, such as age, origin, gender, marital status and some questions related to the respondents' attitude towards several issues that are inserted in the preventive medicine discipline, such as the date of their last consultation, if the respondents were registered to a family physician, suffered from chronic diseases, what was the rate of doing physical exercises, if they ate salty and fat meals, if they were on a diet, their rate of alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption. The panel was made up of more female respondents than male, with the average age rate of 19, who had medical consultations in the last 3 months, are included in the evidence of a family physician, had no chronic diseases, usually do workout exercises moderately, are not on a diet and have 3 meals per day. The meals are medium salty and rarely rich in fats. They drink 2 cups of tea per day and are non-alcohol drinkers and non-smokers. After applying several statistical tests to find a correlation between our variables, we reached the conclusion that even if the results are encouraging; there is no correlation between the impact of Preventive Medicine and the respondents' health behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Given sparse research on the issue, this study sought to shed light upon the interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing, and social anxiety in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Subjects and methods 73 German adults with ADHD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria participated. We used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to assess alexithymia, the Social Phobia Scale (SPS and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS to assess different features of social anxiety, and we applied the German 'Experience of Emotions Scale' (SEE to measure emotion processing. Results 40% of the sample were found to meet the DSM-IV criteria of social anxiety disorder, and about 22% were highly alexithymic according to a TAS-20 total score ≥ 61; however, the mean TAS-20 total score of 50.94 ± 9.3 was not much higher than in community samples. Alexithymic traits emerged to be closely linked to emotion processing problems, particularly 'difficulty accepting own emotions', and to social anxiety features. Discussion/conclusion Our findings suggest interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing dysfunction, and social anxiety in adults with ADHD, which may entail the therapeutic implication to thoroughly instruct these patients to identify, accept, communicate, and regulate their emotions to aid reducing interaction anxiety.
Edel, M-A; Rudel, A; Hubert, C; Scheele, D; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Assion, Hans-Jörg
given sparse research on the issue, this study sought to shed light upon the interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing, and social anxiety in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 73 German adults with ADHD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria participated. We used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to assess alexithymia, the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) to assess different features of social anxiety, and we applied the German "Experience of Emotions Scalerdquor; (SEE) to measure emotion processing. 40% of the sample were found to meet the DSM-IV criteria of social anxiety disorder, and about 22% were highly alexithymic according to a TAS-20 total score ≥ 61; however, the mean TAS-20 total score of 50.94 ± 9.3 was not much higher than in community samples. Alexithymic traits emerged to be closely linked to emotion processing problems, particularly 'difficulty accepting own emotions', and to social anxiety features. our findings suggest interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing dysfunction, and social anxiety in adults with ADHD, which may entail the therapeutic implication to thoroughly instruct these patients to identify, accept, communicate, and regulate their emotions to aid reducing interaction anxiety.
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis; Schrøder, Kim Christian
The increasingly widespread use of social media like Facebook and Twitter is in the process of changing how news is produced, shared, and discussed. Studies of individual events, processes, and sites have led researchers to suggest that we are moving from a traditional “news cycle” dominated......), we present a comparative analysis of the role of social media in the news information cycle in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States, covering a range of developed democracies with historically different media systems but generally high levels...
Aa, van der J.H.; Leopold, H.; Mannhardt, F.; Reijers, H.A.; Gaaloul, K.; Schmidt, R.; Nurcan, S.; Guerreiro, S.; Ma, Q.
An organization’s knowledge on its business processes represents valuable corporate knowledge because it can be used to enhance the performance of these processes. In many organizations, documentation of process knowledge is scattered around various process information sources. Such information