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Sample records for social imss comparison

  1. Measuring the burden of preventable diabetic hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Palacios, David G; Cairns, John; Masetto, Cynthia

    2016-08-02

    The prevalence of diabetes among adults in Mexico has increased markedly from 6.7 % in 1994 to 14.7 % in 2015. Although the main diabetic complications can be prevented or delayed with timely and effective primary care, a high percentage of diabetic patients have developed them imposing an important preventable burden on Mexican society and on the health system. This paper estimates the financial and health burden caused by potentially preventable hospitalisations due to diabetic complications in hospitals operated by the largest social security institution in Latin America, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), in the period 2007-2014. Hospitalisations in IMSS hospitals whose main cause was a diabetic complication were identified. The financial burden was estimated using IMSS diagnostic-related groups. To estimate the health burden, DALYs were computed under the assumption that patients would not have experienced complications if they had received timely and effective primary care. A total of 322,977 hospitalisations due to five diabetic complications were identified during the period studied, of which hospitalisations due to kidney failure and diabetic foot represent 78 %. The financial burden increased by 8.4 % in real terms between 2007 and 2014. However, when measured as cost per IMSS affiliate, it decreased by 11.3 %. The health burden had an overall decrease of 13.6 % and the associated DALYs in 2014 reached 103,688. Resources used for the hospital treatment of diabetic complications are then not available for other health care interventions. In order to prevent these hospitalisations more resources might need to be invested in primary care; the first step could be to consider the financial burden of these hospitalisations as a potential target for switching resources from hospital care to primary care services. However, more evidence of the effectiveness of different primary care interventions is needed to know how much of the burden could

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS: Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors

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    Mejía-Aranguré Juan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources, considering their adverse events that are known to have a significant increase in medical care costs of patients with OA. Three treatment alternatives were compared: celecoxib (200 mg twice daily, non-selective NSAIDs (naproxen, 500 mg twice daily; diclofenac, 100 mg twice daily; and piroxicam, 20 mg/day and acetaminophen, 1000 mg twice daily. The aim of this study was to identify the most cost-effective first-choice pharmacological treatment for the control of joint pain secondary to OA in patients treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. Methods A cost-effectiveness assessment was carried out. A systematic review of the literature was performed to obtain transition probabilities. In order to evaluate analysis robustness, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Estimations were done for a 6-month period. Results Treatment demonstrating the best cost-effectiveness results [lowest cost-effectiveness ratio $17.5 pesos/patient ($1.75 USD] was celecoxib. According to the one-way sensitivity analysis, celecoxib would need to markedly decrease its effectiveness in order for it to not be the optimal treatment option. In the probabilistic analysis, both in the construction of the acceptability curves and in the estimation of net economic benefits, the most cost-effective option was celecoxib. Conclusion From a Mexican institutional perspective and probably in other Social Security Institutions in similar developing countries, the most cost-effective option for treatment of knee and/or hip OA

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS): Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors.

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    Contreras-Hernández, Iris; Mould-Quevedo, Joaquín F; Torres-González, Rubén; Goycochea-Robles, María Victoria; Pacheco-Domínguez, Reyna Lizette; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Garduño-Espinosa, Juan

    2008-11-12

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources, considering their adverse events that are known to have a significant increase in medical care costs of patients with OA. Three treatment alternatives were compared: celecoxib (200 mg twice daily), non-selective NSAIDs (naproxen, 500 mg twice daily; diclofenac, 100 mg twice daily; and piroxicam, 20 mg/day) and acetaminophen, 1000 mg twice daily. The aim of this study was to identify the most cost-effective first-choice pharmacological treatment for the control of joint pain secondary to OA in patients treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). A cost-effectiveness assessment was carried out. A systematic review of the literature was performed to obtain transition probabilities. In order to evaluate analysis robustness, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Estimations were done for a 6-month period. Treatment demonstrating the best cost-effectiveness results [lowest cost-effectiveness ratio $17.5 pesos/patient ($1.75 USD)] was celecoxib. According to the one-way sensitivity analysis, celecoxib would need to markedly decrease its effectiveness in order for it to not be the optimal treatment option. In the probabilistic analysis, both in the construction of the acceptability curves and in the estimation of net economic benefits, the most cost-effective option was celecoxib. From a Mexican institutional perspective and probably in other Social Security Institutions in similar developing countries, the most cost-effective option for treatment of knee and/or hip OA would be celecoxib.

  4. [Maternal mortality at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Initial results from a reduction intervention strategy].

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    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; Hernández-Alemán, Francisco; Anaya-Coeto, Sergio; Pozos-Cavanzo, José Luis; Chavarría-Olarte, María Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the preliminary results of a medical manager intervention to improve the quality of medical care during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium, on the maternal mortality rates in population covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). We selected the 14 administrative delegations of IMSS that showed the highest rates and absolute numbers of maternal deaths in the years 1999 to 2001. Within this group, the manager medical staff developed activities for medical training of family physicians and gynecologists, to improve medical resources, to achieve a better coordination among medical services, to adequate reference of obstetrical complications to higher-level hospitals, and for monitoring of maternal mortality committees operation. The other 23 IMSS administrative delegations were used as controls. Maternal mortality rates fell down from 40.7 to 28.2 per 100,000 live births among the delegations included in the strategy (mean reduction 30.7%). Among the control delegations maternal mortality rate fell down 1.5% only (32.3 to 31.8 per 100,000 live births). A similar phenomenon was observed for the absolute number of maternal deaths, with a reduction of 36.7% and 8.4%, respectively. The improving intervention was associated with a noticeable reduction in the maternal mortality rate. It is necessary a long-term observation to confirm a cause-effect relationship.

  5. [The Mexican Institute of Social Security Institute (IMSS) in Numbers. Functional inventory of imaging medical equipment, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Medical technology is a fundamental instrument for the provision of health services in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) and as a support for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The inventory of relevant medical equipment describes the needs for upgrading the technological infrastructure, organize its distribution and plan its renovation in order to guarantee the quality of health services. In this report we describe the type of equipment used in radiology and other imaging services, its geographical distribution, median age in operation and its productivity. The inventory reported 2091 pieces of equipment, ultrasonography and radiology were the most common types (31%) followed by fluoroscopic equipment (20%). Follow-up in the inventory should help in planning the acquisition and maintenance of sophisticated technology used for medical purposes.

  6. [The IMSS and the CONRICyT].

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    Ramiro H, Manuel; Cruz, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In this editorial we make a review of the way the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) has established a relation between knowledge and its healthworkers to improve patient care. We also mention the agreement that IMSS and CONRICyT (National Consortium of Scientific and Technological Information Resources, according to its initials in Spanish) signed in 2013 to keep promoting knowledge among its workers.

  7. [Premature death and disability profile in the population affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Abrego, Gabriela; Escobedo de la Peña, Jorge; Zurita, Beatriz; Ramírez, Teresita de Jesús

    2007-01-01

    To carry out estimations of the burden of disease for 129 causes in order to identify health priorities in the different geographic regions of the country and to present comparative data between 1995 and 2000. Indicators such as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and disability adjusted life expectancy (DALE) were analyzed for the population covered by IMSS in 1995 and 2000; for both years, the methodology proposed by the Burden of Disease Worldwide Study was applied. Data corresponding to 1995 were analyzed in 1997, while data corresponding to 2000 were analyzed in 2001. The comparative study was carried out in 2006 by IMSS, Mexico. The higher proportion of DALYs was due to chronic diseases, although the 2000 rate is 1.5 times higher than that of 1995. Priorities that were identified were diabetes mellitus, ischemic cardiopathy, and cerebrovascular disease, with a loss that is mainly accounted for by premature death, as well as by diseases related to disability with an important burden of disease, such as AIDS or depression. Epidemiological backlogs can still be observed. The population covered by IMSS is still in a phase of epidemiologic transition, favoring polarization in health conditions. Health policies need to be directed toward bringing about an improved response and reversing the trend in diseases that represent an institutional risk for the financing of health care.

  8. [Renewal of work philosophy at the IMSS].

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    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) is the main institution of social security in México and has been a pioneer in Latin America in the comprehensive organization of medical attention. This and many other achievements have been possible due to the preparation and performance of its staff, their professionalism, humanitarian sense, commitment to the institution and solidarity with the population. Today, the IMSS is ready to face not only the present but also the future and anticipate what is best for the institution and its insured population.

  9. ["The Use and Control of Stress". A program applied to workers of the IMSS. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

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    Maldonado-Islas, G; Mancera-Pérez, A A

    1997-01-01

    Stress, is considered to be a bodily response to both internal and environmental stimuli, is a live and unavoidable energy. It is important and necessary to learn to use it beneficially. In order to determine the utility of the educational program. "The use use and control of stress", a quasi-experimental study was conducted in 1993, in which 39 voluntary Zone I General Hospital (IMSS Tlaxcala State Delegation) workers were selected, based on stress levels over 3 points as found in an institutional validated to measure the stress level. Five groups were set up, and eight weekly educative interventions, composed of cognitive contents including stress, relaxation techniques, and techniques for living of 90 minutes each were attended by the members of these groups, utilizing groups dynamics. The results were analyzed in simple absolute and relative frequencies, as well as by Student's t tests. They show a reduction stress levels in 94.8% of the participants, which represents a 69.1% general gain, with p = < 0.005. The conclusion is that learning related with the use and control of stress is an alternative to improve the mental health of the individual and as concerns the work environment, to modify attitude of the IMSS worker.

  10. [Costs of medical care attributable to tobacco consumption at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), Morelos].

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    Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Juárez-Márquez, Sergio Arturo; Valdés-Salgado, Raydel

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the cost of medical care for the major diseases attributable to tobacco consumption at the IMSS, Morelos. A cost of illness (COI) analysis was carried out from the perspective of the health provider. An expert panel characterized medical care in primary and secondary care levels according to severity of disease. The smoking attributable fraction (SAF) by disease was used to derive costs attributable to tobacco consumption. The unitary cost was valuated in 2001 Mexican pesos (MP). The estimated annual average cost of medical care (diagnosis and first year of treatment) was 79,530 MP for acute myocardial infarction (AMI); 73,303 MP for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); and 102,215 MP for lung cancer (LC). The annual total cost of medical care for IMSS was 147,390 688 MP. The total annual cost of medical care attributable to tobacco consumption corresponds to dollars 124 million MP, which is equivalent to 7.3% of the annual budget of the Morelos Delegation. These results confirm the high medical costs associated with smoking. A repetition of this study at the national level is recommended in order to support decision-makers in strengthening public policies to control tobacco use in Mexico.

  11. [Cancer incidence in a Cancer Care Unit of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) in Toluca, Mexico].

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    Gómez-Villanueva, Angel; Chacón Sánchez, Jesús; Santillán Arreygue, Leopoldo; Sánchez González, Yolanda; Romero-Figueroa, María del Socorro

    2014-01-01

    In 2000, malignant tumors were responsible for 12% of nearly 56 million deaths that occurred in the world from all causes. To determine the incidence of cancer in a Cancer Care Unit of IMSS in Toluca, Mexico. Prospective cross-sectional study; we identified the primary tumor, age, family history of cancer, comorbidities, risk factors, and ECOG in patients with newly diagnosed cancer. We identified 446 cases, 66.1% were women. The age group of age 50 to 59 had the highest number of cases (98). The most common cancers in women are breast, cervical, and ovarian cancer, and in men, testicular, prostate, and colorectal cancer. The most common cancers in both sexes were breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, and testicular cancer.

  12. [IMSS in numbers. Surgeries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Surgery occupies a priority place within the organization of health services. In the IMSS around 1.4 million surgeries are performed annually and 3934 take place each day. A great part of the resources goes to obstetric interventions, since 222,928 caesarean sections were performed in 2004, and along with curettages, tubal occlusions and hysterectomies, they sum 37.6% of the surgeries performed in 2004. Abdominal deliveries (caesarean sections) were done in 39% of the pregnancies delivered in the IMSS and 8.3% were done in adolescents. Simple surgical interventions were also important. Cholecystectomies were 6 times more frequent in women aged 20 to 59 years old than in men the same age. Among the main interventions we also describe hernioplasty, appendicectomies, amygdalectomies, rhinoplasties, biopsies and circumcisions. Scarce data on complications are registered and no data is available for infections of surgical wounds. Surgical procedures are more frequent in women and in certain specialities.

  13. Obesity and overweight in IMSS female workers in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Martínez, José Luis; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Gómez-García, Felipe; Lara-Rodríguez, María de los Angeles; Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Pérez-Pérez, Gabriela

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) in women working at the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, per its abbreviation in Spanish) in Mexico City, using two different classification criteria. A cross-sectional study was performed from July 1999 to September 2000. It included 588 women 20 to 65 years of age and who were working at the IMSS. The criteria used to estimate the prevalence of OW and OB were the WHO criteria and the Mexican Official Norm (NOM) for the integrated management of obesity in Mexico. The frequency of OB, according to WHO criteria, was 27.6% (26% adjusted) and for OW 43.2% (40.2% adjusted). According to the NOM, the levels of OB in those with short height ( 1.50 m. Comparison of BMI between the two height groups showed no differences. The risk factor associated with OB and OW was age. Education and exercise were protective factors. The high prevalences detected in this particular working group highlight the importance of prevention and control of OB in health personnel because it can result in a high number of disability and premature retirement due to disease. The use of the NOM criteria for the identification of women at risk may be useful for early detection of high-risk groups.

  14. [Perinatal mortality at the Medical Care Units of the IMSS (Mexico Social Security Institute), National Medical Center of Torreón].

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    Rodríguez y Enríquez de Rivera, F C; Velázquez Trejo, M L; Roís Hernández, J

    1998-07-01

    To describe the situation of perinatal mortality during 1994 year in General Hospitals with Family Medicine number 16 and 18 of IMSS (Social Security Mexican Institut) National Medical Center in Torreón Coah. It was realized a retrospective study, were included 199 files of perinatal deaths occurred from January 1st to December 31 of 1994. The variables obtained were number of death for step, period, age, sex, weight and the cause of the cause of the death. Were eliminated the files without data of interest. For the analysis our utilized descriptive statistics. The rate of perinatal mortality was 20.17 per 1000 live birth, fetal death rate 9.58 by 1000 and the rate of neonatal death 12.97 per 1,000 live birth, fetal death rate 8.68 and neonatal death rate 12.30. The majority were in the perinatal period one with a rate of 16.71 by 1,000 live birth. Were most common in a male sex (53%) in pregnancies from 28 to 32 weeks (33.91%) and in babies with less of 1000 gr of weight (33.86%). The causes more frequents of deaths were the respiratory difficult syndrome (41.77%), the anomalies (19.62%) and hypoxia (9.49%). The perinatal mortality in our study was similar that in the rest of the country and is acorde with the literature. The perinatal mortality were in the perinatal period one. Is important to conduce a prospective studies.

  15. Muerte prematura y discapacidad en los derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Premature death and disability profile in the population affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS

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    Gabriela Rodríguez-Abrego

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar estimaciones de la carga de la enfermedad para 129 causas a fin de identificar prioridades de salud en cada una de las delegaciones y presentar datos comparativos entre 1995-2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los indicadores años de vida saludables perdidos (AVISA y esperanza de vida saludable (EVISA de los años 1995 y 2000 en la población derechohabiente del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS; en ambos estudios se utilizó la metodología del Estudio Mundial de Carga de Enfermedad. Los datos de 1995 se analizaron en 1997, y los datos de 2000, en 2001. El estudio comparativo se llevó a cabo en 2006 en el IMSS, México. RESULTADOS: La mayor proporción de AVISA perdidos se debió a enfermedades crónicas, si bien la tasa en 2000 es 1.5 veces mayor respecto de 1995. Las prioridades identificadas fueron diabetes mellitus, cardiopatía isquémica y la enfermedad cerebrovascular con pérdidas principalmente por muerte prematura, así como padecimientos asociados con discapacidad con una importante carga de enfermedad, tales como el SIDA o la depresión. Aún se observan rezagos epidemiológicos. CONCLUSIÓN: La población derechohabiente se encuentra aún en fase de transición epidemiológica, lo que favorece una polarización en las condiciones de salud. Es necesario que las políticas de salud se orienten a dar una mejor respuesta y a revertir las tendencias de padecimientos que representan un riesgo institucional para el financiamiento de la atención de los derechohabientes.OBJECTIVE: To carry out estimations of the burden of disease for 129 causes in order to identify health priorities in the different geographic regions of the country and to present comparative data between 1995 and 2000. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Indicators such as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and disability adjusted life expectancy (DALE were analyzed for the population covered by IMSS in 1995 and 2000; for both years, the

  16. [Organization and functioning of health services of the IMSS-Solidaridad program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Díaz, G

    1992-01-01

    In this report the organization and performance of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program of Mexico is described. This program is managed by the Mexican Institute for Social Security, which services 10.5 million inhabitants of the rural underserved areas, with federal government resources in 18 states. This study compares the structure and functioning of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program with Local Health Systems, as they have been proposed by the Panamerican Health Organization for country members and by the Ministry of Health of Mexico, particularly in relation to the decision-making process at local level. Some assets and limitations of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program are analyzed and, finally, concrete procedures to improve coordination between the IMSS-Solidaridad Program and other health services for similar populations (populations without social security protection) in Mexico are suggested, with the purpose of using resources more adequately and succeed in the national goal to achieve equity in health.

  17. [A brief historical account of IMSS hospital in Orizaba, Veracruz].

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    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    In 1947, Orizaba City was chosen, due its political, economic and labor importance, for the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) to establish its health service in Veracruz State. At the beginning, hospital care was rented out at the Hospital Civil "Ignacio de la Llave." In 1959 a hospital was specifically constructed and had 280 beds. In 1973 a earthquake partially destroyed the hospital building and the medical services were almost discontinued. In 1975 it was rebuilt, and was renamed "Ignacio García Téllez," who had been a founder member of IMSS. At the beginning the main causes of hospital admissions were infectious diseases and gynecologic and obstetric problems; at present the challenges are the chronic diseases and accidents.

  18. La violencia en las mujeres usuarias de los servicios de salud en el IMSS y la SSA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández Cantón, Sonia B; Vázquez-Martínez, José Luis

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo. Comparar la prevalencia y determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a la violencia entre las mujeres derechohabientes del IMSS y sin servicios de seguridad social (SSS). Material y métodos. Se analizó...

  19. La violencia en las mujeres usuarias de los servicios de salud en el IMSS y la SSA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Vázquez-Martínez, José Luis; Fernández-Cantón, Sonia B

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar la prevalencia y determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a la violencia entre las mujeres derechohabientes del IMSS y sin servicios de seguridad social (SSS). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó...

  20. [Diagnosis of the productive capacity of the IMSS regarding health technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; López-Fernández, Fátima Itzel; López-Domínguez, Adriana; Fajardo-Dolci, German

    To quantify the production capacity and performance in research and technological developments of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS). We identified and analyzed information of the legislation, human and financial resources, and infrastructure addressed for research and technological development of IMSS. We analyzed whether the information on the legal framework contained key features to boost research and technological development. Information on the human, financial, and infrastructure resources were obtained from official sources. The research productivity was identified by a bibliometric analysis in 2014; productivity in technological developments was identified by intellectual products. The legal framework of the IMSS has several areas for improvement to boost research and technological development, especially the guidelines for technology transfer. The IMSS has 438 researchers, 39 research units, and a budget of US$ 37.4 million for research and technological development. The rate of articles published per 10 researchers was 4.8; while rate patients was 1.8. The IMSS has a great potential to translate research into technological developments, it is only necessary to make some changes to the legal framework.

  1. Social Comparison Seeking: Providing General Comparison Curtails Local Comparison

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    Buckingham, Justin T.; Zell, Ethan; Schurtz, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Past research shows that people use local social comparison information more than general social comparison information when both are given (Zell & Alicke, 2010). The present studies examined the extent to which people seek local comparisons when they have already received general comparison information. In Study 1, students received their…

  2. [Diabetes mellitus in an adult population of the IMSS (Mexican Institute of Social Security). Results of the National Health Survey 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Martínez, José Luis; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Cantón, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and control of diabetes in the adult population served by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social according to data from the National Health Survey 2000 (ENSA-2000). The data for adults from the National Health Survey 2000 was used to estimate and describe the prevalence of diabetes in the population that belongs to the social security system in Mexico. Criteria used to define diabetes mellitus were the medical diagnosis of the disease (MDDM) and the glucose measurement from capillary blood (>126 mg/dL fasting sample and 200 mg/dL in casual blood sample). If diabetes was confirmed only through blood sample, the diabetes case was define as survey finding (SF). Prevalences were estimated for both groups, while means and medians were estimated for the four possible combination groups (SF+, MDDM+, SF+, MDDM-, SF-, MDDM+, SF-, MDDM-). Sampling results were adjusted for population estimates according to the methods established in the ENSA-2000. Diabetes is described according to age, sex, education level, geographic region, background of diabetes in the family, body mass index (BMI), abdominal perimeter. A logistic regression method was used to estimate potential associations with different risk factors. Overall prevalence was 8.7%; for MDDM, it was 7.1%, and for SF, only 1.5%. Glycemia was highest in SF+ and MDDM-, median 292 mg/dL and in MDDM+ but SF-, median 289 mg/dL. Major risk factors were background of diabetes in both parents, abdominal obesity, low educational level age (coef. = 0.5943 per decade) and BMI (coef. = 0.0133). Diabetes in social security population is higher than in the rest of the population, while genetic background, age, educational level, high BMI and abdominal perimeter have important influences in diabetes prevalence in this population. Glucose control is suboptimal even in patients under medical supervision.

  3. Obesity and overweight in IMSS female workers in Mexico City Obesidad y sobrepeso en mujeres trabajadoras del IMSS, en la Ciudad de México

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    José Luis Vázquez-Martínez

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for overweight (OW and obesity (OB in women working at the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, per its abbreviation in Spanish in Mexico City, using two different classification criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed from July 1999 to September 2000. It included 588 women 20 to 65 years of age and who were working at the IMSS. The criteria used to estimate the prevalence of OW and OB were the WHO criteria and the Mexican Official Norm (NOM for the integrated management of obesity in Mexico. RESULTS: The frequency of OB, according to WHO criteria, was 27.6% (26% adjusted and for OW 43.2% (40.2% adjusted. According to the NOM, the levels of OB in those with short height (1.50 m. Comparison of BMI between the two height groups showed no differences. The risk factor associated with OB and OW was age. Education and exercise were protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalences detected in this particular working group highlight the importance of prevention and control of OB in health personnel because it can result in a high number of disability and premature retirement due to disease. The use of the NOM criteria for the identification of women at risk may be useful for early detection of high-risk groups.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de obesidad (OB y sobrepeso (SP en mujeres trabajadoras del IMSS en la Ciudad de México, aplicando dos criterios de clasificación y su asociación con algunos factores de riesgo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado entre julio de 1999 y septiembre de 2000 que incluyó a 588 mujeres trabajadoras en el IMSS entre 20 y 65 años. Los criterios utilizados para medir la prevalencia de OB y SP fueron los propuestos por la OMS y la Norma Oficial Mexicana para el manejo integral de la obesidad (NOM. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de OB fue 27.6% (26% ajustada y de SP de 43.2% (40.2% ajustada al aplicar los criterios de

  4. Patient protection in radiotherapy (Radio neurosurgery National Service of the Social Security Mexican Institute); Proteccion del paciente en radioterapia (Servicio Nacional de Radioneurocirugia del IMSS)

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    Espiritu R, R. [Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente, IMSS, Servicio Nacional de Radioneurocirugia, Belisario Dominguez 735, Sector Libertad, 44340 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    The perspective of patient protection at the Radio neurosurgery National Service of the Social Security Mexican Institute is divided into three parts: the testing program for equipment acceptance, an assurance quality program based on periodic tests, an also other assurance quality based on tests during the application. Among the technical aspects that influence in the equipment acceptance tests, it is the collimation type, the characteristics of the lineal accelerator, the platform for planning and the network type. In the case of the collimation system and the accelerator characteristics, we consider the manufacturer's specifications and requirements of Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-NUCL-1999, {sup T}echnical Specifications for the Teletherapy Units Operation, Linear Accelerators{sup .} Planning for the platform takes into account the manufacturer's specifications. In the case of computed tomography as well as review the calibration according to manufacturer's specifications should be considered the standard NOM-229-SSA1-2002. In the case of the linear accelerator must be the radiological characterization of radiation beam as part of this, the absolute dose determination. As for the periodic tests is verified the dose constancy, as well as the flattening and symmetry of X-rays beam. There are also tests battery with daily, monthly and yearly frequencies, which make up the assurance quality program. (Author)

  5. Determinantes de violencia de pareja en trabajadoras del IMSS morelos Determinants of partner violence in health workers of IMSS, Morelos

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    Paola Adanari Ortega-Ceballos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar la ocurrencia de violencia de pareja y evaluar los factores asociados a este fenómeno en una muestra de trabajadoras del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS Morelos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Un total de 1 173 mujeres de la cohorte de trabajadores del IMSS proporcionó información sobre frecuencia y percepción de severidad de violencia psicológica, física o sexual durante los últimos 12 meses. El estudio se realizó en el estado de Morelos, entre octubre de 1998 y marzo de 2000. Se emplearon modelos de regresión logística politómica a fin de estimar razones de momios para distintos grados de violencia. RESULTADOS: Se observó una alta prevalencia de violencia. Los principales factores asociados fueron la relación de pareja y el consumo de alcohol; el estado emocional de la pareja en el hogar; la tensión laboral de la mujer y los antecedentes de violencia en la infancia. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores determinantes de violencia de pareja son potencialmente modificables a través de intervenciones que ayuden a manejar el nivel de tensión. Es necesario tomar en cuenta estos hallazgos al planear programas preventivos de violencia de pareja en México.OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of partner violence, and to identify the associated risk factors in a sample of female workers of IMSS (Mexican Social Security Institute, Morelos State. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 1 173 women participating in the cohort study of IMSS workers are utilized to study these associations. The study provides information on frequency of psychological, physical or sexual violence and perception of severity during the 12 months prior to the time of data collection. It was carried out in Morelos between October 1998 and March 2000. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios for different degrees of partner violence. RESULTS: A high prevalence of partner violence is observed in the sample

  6. [Incidence of preterm births in the IMSS (2007-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet-Romero, Ramón; Cruz-Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Ruíz-Rosas, Roberto Aguli; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2014-07-01

    The birth of a premature child implies an expense raised for the families and the systems of health for the possibilities of visual, auditory disability and problems of learning. The rate of premature births, according to the WHO, goes from 5 to 18 %, for what it was found that it will have to diminish. Knows the behavior of the incident of the childbirth pretérmino in the Mexican Institute of the Social Insurance (IMSS) during the period 2007-2012 in the hospitals of the second and third level of attention ginecoobstétrica. Descriptive and retrospective study in which there was analyzed the existing information of the cases brought of birth pretérmino in the IMSS (2007-2012). Proved: the total of births was of born 3,135,755 alive, of this 7.7 % they were pretérmino in all the conditions of the Republic, which on having differed with the second level of attention existed 188,715 (6.8%) born pretérmino and the third level of attention (Medical Units of Alta Especialidad, UMAES) with 51,635 (13.7%) born pretérmino (p prematurez are the prevention of the childbirth and the care perinatal to diminish the mortality of the baby and to increase his quality of life for what it is necessary to reinforce the contraceptive Council in the teenagers, to spread the births, as well as the detection and treatment of the infections genitourinarias.

  7. [Determinants of partner violence in health workers of IMSS, Morelos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ceballos, Paola Adanari; Mudgal, Jyoti; Flores, Yvonne; Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Díaz-Montiel, Juan Carlos; Salmerón, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    To study the prevalence of partner violence, and to identify the associated risk factors in a sample of female workers of IMSS (Mexican Social Security Institute), Morelos State. Cross-sectional data from 1 173 women participating in the cohort study of IMSS workers are utilized to study these associations. The study provides information on frequency of psychological, physical or sexual violence and perception of severity during the 12 months prior to the time of data collection. It was carried out in Morelos between October 1998 and March 2000. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios for different degrees of partner violence. A high prevalence of partner violence is observed in the sample. Main factors associated with higher severity of violence are state of the relationship and alcohol intake, emotional status of the couple at home, work burden of the woman, and a history of violence in childhood. All these factors are potentially modifiable through interventions aimed at stress reduction. These results should be considered when developing preventive programs against partner violence in Mexico.

  8. Social Comparison Processes in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jerald; Ashton-James, Claire E.; Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    2007-01-01

    We systematically analyze the role of social comparison processes in organizations. Specifically, we describe how social comparison processes have been used to explain six key areas of organizational inquiry: (1) organizational justice, (2) performance appraisal, (3) virtual work environments, (4) affective behavior in the workplace, (5) stress,…

  9. Brain networks of social comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Lindner, Michael; Mussweiler, Thomas; Ihssen, Niklas; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-27

    Social comparison, that is, the process of comparing oneself to other people, is a ubiquitous social cognitive mechanism; however, so far its neural correlates have remained unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that social comparisons are supported by partly dissociated networks, depending on whether the dimension under comparison concerns a physical or a psychological attribute. We measured brain activity with functional MRI, whereas participants were comparing their own height or intelligence to that of individuals they personally know. Height comparisons were associated with higher activity in a frontoparietal network involved in spatial and numerical cognition. Conversely, intelligence comparisons recruited a network of midline areas that have been previously implicated in the attribution of mental states to oneself and others (Theory of mind). These findings suggest that social comparisons rely on diverse domain-specific mechanisms rather than on one unitary process.

  10. Social Comparison in the Classroom: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Zee, Yvonne G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research conducted on social comparison processes in the classroom since Festinger proposed his theory of social comparison. It covers the theoretical framework of social comparison theory, and it is organized around the following themes: motives for social comparison, dimensions of social comparison, direction of social…

  11. La violencia en las mujeres usuarias de los servicios de salud en el IMSS y la SSA Violence in Mexican women using public health services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Héctor Gómez-Dantés; José Luis Vázquez-Martínez; Sonia B Fernández-Cantón

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar la prevalencia y determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a la violencia entre las mujeres derechohabientes del IMSS y sin servicios de seguridad social (SSS). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la...

  12. [IMSS in numbers. Consumption of alcohol and psyhoactive substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    One of the main public health problems in the world are alcohol and drug abuse. Health impact of addictions is clearly evidenced by the increasing numbers of suicides, depression, domestic violence, accidents and injuries. The mental and behavioral problems derived by the abuse of alcohol and psychoactive drugs are under reported. From 1991 to 2003 around 13,000 cases for problems due to alcohol abuse were reported annually in Family Medicine services, nearly 4000 cases in specialized services and an average of 20,000 cases were attended in the emergency areas of the social security system in Mexico (IMSS). The data indicates that this health problems are becoming evident in young populations under 25 years old and the trend is increasing. Professional resources that are specialized in the treatment of such behavioral problems are not sufficient and the institution faces an upcoming health threat that demands prevention programs and a more integrated health care programs.

  13. Social Comparison in the Classroom : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Zee, Yvonne G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research conducted on social comparison processes in the classroom since Festinger proposed his theory of social comparison. It covers the theoretical framework of social comparison theory, and it is organized around the following themes: motives for social comparison,

  14. Social comparisons in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social comparison refers to relating one ́s own characteristics to those of other individuals. Due to the enhanced degree of physical distress, depression, and uncertainty, cancer patients tend to compare themselves often with other patients, especially when they are high in social comparison orientation, i.e. in the dispositional tendency to compare themselves with others. Downward comparison, i.e. with others who are worse- off, may contribute to the well-being of cancer patients when it is interpreted as a contrast, i.e. when it is emphased how much better-off one is oneself. Nevertheless, cancer patients tend to prefer information about other patients who are better-off, and such upward comparison may improve coping and contribute to well-being. 

  15. Social comparison and risky choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, J.; Sonnemans, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to combine two traditional fields in microeconomics: individual decision making under risk and decision making in an interpersonal context. The influence of social comparison on risky choices is explored in an experiment in which participants make a series of choices between

  16. The Timing of Social Comparison in Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-18

    and second, it is inspired by social psychology theory. In particular, the model is based on Social Comparison Theory (SCT) ( Festinger , 1954), a...evaluate its own progress ( Festinger , 1954). This approach, in which the social comparison process is triggered only when the agent is uncertain as to how to...developing a model of social behavior inspired by Festinger’s social comparison theory ( Festinger , 1954). To the best of our knowl- edge, social

  17. [IMSS in Numbers: the Census of Diabetic Patients, 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The census of diabetic patients at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social describes the state and level of control of biologic markers, such as glucose, BMI and blood pressure of all diabetic patients attending the family medicine units during 2004. The main results show that 2,334,340 diabetic patients visited the health units of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social with an average of 3.7 visits per year. Around 75% of the patients had their weight and height registered; 73%, their blood pressure, and only 28.8%, their glycemia level. One third of the patients (35.7%) had an unspecified diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and 91.3% had no complications reported. Of those with glycemia reported, 56.9% had a poor blood glucose control. Half of the diabetic patients were also diagnosed as hypertensive though 74% had good blood pressure control. The BMI reported that 40.4% were obese and 39.6% were overweight. All these data are important to measure the impact of different health interventions that point to a better control of diabetes at the IMSS.

  18. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, T; Wada, K; Yagishita, A; Kosuge, T; Saito, Y; Kurihara, T; Kikuchi, T; Shirakawa, A; Sanami, T; Ikeda, M; Ohsawa, S; Kakihara, K; Shidara, T, E-mail: toshio.hyodo@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps{sup -}). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a {sup 22}Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  19. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, T.; Wada, K.; Yagishita, A.; Kosuge, T.; Saito, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Shirakawa, A.; Sanami, T.; Ikeda, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Kakihara, K.; Shidara, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps-). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a 22Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  20. [Fractures in postmenopausal women in the IMSS: frequency and costs of hospital care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; Pozos-Cavanzo, José Luis; Ojeda-Mijares, Rosalba Isabel; Camacho-Rodríguez, María de los Angeles

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the frequency and costs of hospitalary care due to fractures in postmenopausal period occurred in Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Study about hospitalary discharges in IMSS, among 2000-2001, with diagnosis of hip, distal forearm and vertebral fractures, with an analysis by sex and age groups. To estimate hospitalary costs, we utilized the data of Grupos Relacionados de Diagnóstico (GRD) used in IMSS. The cost for each case was $46,965.30 mexican pesos ($5,101.63 U.S.D.). It were registered 22,157 (8.2%) were fractures of the selected types. Of this number, 15,925 ocurred in persons of 50 years and more y 11,084 (69.6%) in postmenopausal women. The mentioned fractures were more frequent in men before 50 years with a proportion of 1.9 to 1. This proportion changed from 2 to 1 in women after 50 years. These differences were statistically significant. The cost of hospitalary care of hip fracture in postmenopausal women was $336,658.097 mexican pesos ($36' 593,271 U.S.D.) in the two years of the study. It is convenient to make costs-benefits evaluation about preventive resources, as widespread use of HRT, to reduce the frequency of fractures in postmenopausal women, due its high actual costs of hospitalary care.

  1. [Life style and metabolic control in DiabetIMSS program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Suárez, María Eugenia; Cruz-Toledo, Jairo Enoc; Ortiz-Aguirre, Alma Rosa; Lagunes-Espinosa, Alma Luisa; Jiménez-Luna, Jorge; Rodríguez-Moctezuma, José Raymundo

    2014-01-01

    To compare the lifestyle and metabolic control of diabetes patients included and not included in the DiabetIMSS program. Subjects with diabetes in the DiabetIMSS program and the general clinic were divided into three groups: group 1 first attended the program, group 2 were enrolled during the study, and group 3 had not been included the program. Demographic and clinical aspects were measured and the IMEVID instrument was applied. We included 539 type-2 diabetes patients, predominantly females (73.3%), mainly of primary school level, and more frequently on double-drug therapy. There were clinical differences between the three groups for program leavers in terms of weight, waist, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, and IMEVID qualification, all p DiabetIMSS program.

  2. La violencia en las mujeres usuarias de los servicios de salud en el IMSS y la SSA Violence in Mexican women using public health services

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Gómez-Dantés; José Luis Vázquez-Martínez; Sonia B Fernández-Cantón

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar la prevalencia y determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a la violencia entre las mujeres derechohabientes del IMSS y sin servicios de seguridad social (SSS). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información sobre violencia doméstica de la ENVIM notificada por las mujeres usuarias de los servicios de salud del IMSS y de la población femenina sin servicios de seguridad social SSA y seguro popular. El análisis bivariado y multivariado se realizó en STATA V.7. RESULTADOS: La ...

  3. Human resources requirements for diabetic patients healthcare in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Doubova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the requirements of human resources (HR of two models of care for diabetes patients: conventional and specific, also called DiabetIMSS, which are provided in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. An evaluative research was conducted. An expert group identified the HR activities and time required to provide healthcare consistent with the best clinical practices for diabetic patients. HR were estimated by using the evidence-based adjusted service target approach for health workforce planning; then, comparisons between existing and estimated HRs were made. Results. To provide healthcare in accordance with the patients’ metabolic control, the conventional model required increasing the number of family doctors (1.2 times nutritionists (4.2 times and social workers (4.1 times. The DiabetIMSS model requires greater increase than the conventional model. Conclusions. Increasing HR is required to provide evidence-based healthcare to diabetes patients.

  4. [Human resources requirements for diabetic patients healthcare in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Ramírez-Sánchez, Claudine; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    To estimate the requirements of human resources (HR) of two models of care for diabetes patients: conventional and specific, also called DiabetIMSS, which are provided in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). An evaluative research was conducted. An expert group identified the HR activities and time required to provide healthcare consistent with the best clinical practices for diabetic patients. HR were estimated by using the evidence-based adjusted service target approach for health workforce planning; then, comparisons between existing and estimated HRs were made. To provide healthcare in accordance with the patients' metabolic control, the conventional model required increasing the number of family doctors (1.2 times) nutritionists (4.2 times) and social workers (4.1 times). The DiabetIMSS model requires greater increase than the conventional model. Increasing HR is required to provide evidence-based healthcare to diabetes patients.

  5. How social neuroscience can inform theories of social comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swencionis, Jillian K; Fiske, Susan T

    2014-04-01

    Social comparison pervades our interactions with others, informing us of our standing and motivating improvement, but producing negative emotional and behavioral consequences that can harm relationships and lead to poor health outcomes. Social neuroscience research has begun to illuminate some mechanisms by which status divides lead to interpersonal consequences. This review integrates core findings on the neuroscience of social comparison processes, showing the effects of comparing the self to relevant others on dimensions of competence and warmth. The literature converges to suggest that relative status divides initiate social comparison processes, that upward and downward comparisons initiate pain- and pleasure-related neural responses, and that these responses can predict people׳s kindly or aggressive intentions toward one another. Across different types of comparisons, brain regions involved in mentalizing are also sometimes involved. Along with future work, the research reviewed here may inform efforts to mitigate negative outcomes of constant social comparisons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Growth in weight and height in children less than two years old in the IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Unzaga, Marco; Martínez-Andrade, Gloria; Maya, Juan Luis; Ramos-Hernández, Rosa Isela; Turnbull, Bernardo; Flores, Sergio; Duque, Ximena; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Martínez-Salgado, Homero

    2007-01-01

    To describe the physical growth in weight and height of children less than two years of age cared for the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A population-based National Survey, which was also regional representative, was carried out in Ordinary Regime (RO) and the IMSS-Oportunidades Program (IO). In two years (2000-2002) the study gathered data on 17,502 children from the RO and 9872 from IO. The measures of weight and length were made by nurses, according to WHO criteria. Growth is reported as weight and length for each month of age and gender, in tables and percentile curves derived from quintile regressions, using a third degree polynomial to smooth out the lines. The trends of the means of weight and height in the first two years of life in children cared by Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social show a pattern similar to those described in healthy children in other populations. However, the values are lower than those obtained in developed countries. Children's growth at two years of age at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social shows a curve that is lower than that of the reference population recommended by the World Health Organization as an international standard.

  7. SOCIAL SUPPORT AND STRESS - THE ROLE OF SOCIAL-COMPARISON AND SOCIAL-EXCHANGE PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUUNK, BP; HOORENS, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    This paper first presents four different conceptualizations of social support: social integration, satisfying relationships, perceived helpfulness and enacted support. Then, classic and contemporary social comparison theory and social exchange theory are analysed as they are two theoretical

  8. [Prevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in blood bank donors from the IMSS General Hospital in Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Ramírez-Sánchez, Michaía Elián; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; López-Monteon, Aracely

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in blood donors from Hospital General Regional (HGRO) of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in Spanish). Between October 2001 and January 2002, blood samples were collected from voluntary donors at the blood bank of the Hospital General Regional of IMSS in Orizaba; Veracruz, Mexico. The samples were assayed for anti-T. cruzi by ELISA, Western blot and IFI, using a recombinant protein (MBP::Hsp70), and crude extract from epimastigotes. A total of 420 blood donors were studied; two of them were seropositive for ELISA,Western blot and IFI, with a seroprevalence of 0.48%. Some blood donors at the HGRO hospital were seropositive for T. cruzi, showing the risk of contamination by blood transfusion. Routine serologic screening with highly sensitive and specific immunological techniques are needed.

  9. Inferior or superior : socials comparison in Dutch and Spanish organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Rodriguez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Social comparison is an automatic and daily process through which individuals acquire information about themselves. Since Festinger (1954) postulated his assumptions on social comparison, extensive research has focused on understanding and explaining the social comparison process. In

  10. Structure of the power consumption in hospitals: case of the IMSS development in Aguascalientes; Estructura del consumo energetico en hospitales: caso del conjunto del IMSS en Aguascalientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Garcia, Antonio [HGZ No. 1 del IMSS en Aguascalientes (Mexico); Morillon Galvez, David [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The hospitals, since they operate 24 hours a day during 365 days per year, are great consumers of energy. They consume up to 75% of fuels for their transformation in thermal energy. Consequently it is important to study and determine the structure of the power consumption in hospitals. In the present work with the study case of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) development in Aguascalientes, Mexico a pattern of power consumption and the distribution of annual consumption of electricity and diesel oil from 1993 to 2001 is obtained. It is observed in the study case, that with the work of the engineering equipment of conservation they managed themselves to reduce to the annual consumption of diesel oil and electricity with economic savings greater than 1'200,000 of 1999 pesos. [Spanish] Los hospitales, como trabajan 24 al dia los 365 dias del ano, son grandes consumidores de energia. Ellos consumen hasta el 75% de combustibles para su transformacion en energia termica. En consecuencia es importante estudiar y determinar la estructura del consumo energetico en hospitales. En el presente trabajo con el estudio de caso del conjunto del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en Aguascalientes, Mexico se obtiene el patron de consumo energetico y la distribucion de consumo anual de electricidad y diesel de l993 a 2001. Se observa en el caso de estudio, que con el trabajo del equipo de ingenieros de conservacion se lograron reducir los consumos anuales de diesel y electricidad con ahorros economicos mayores a 1,200,000 pesos de 1999.

  11. Neuroticism and social comparison orientation as moderators of affective responses to social comparison at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism, (N) and to social comparison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and

  12. The affective consequences of social comparison as related to professional burnout and social comparison orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Ybema, J.F.; Gibbons, FX; Ipenburg, M

    2001-01-01

    In a study among sociotherapists, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to professional burnout and to individual differences in social comparison orientation. Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target.

  13. The affective consequenses of social comparison as related to professional burnout and social comparison orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, B.P.; Ybema, J.F.; Gibbons, F.X.; Ipenburg, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    In a study among sociotherapists, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to professional burnout and to individual differences in social comparison orientation. Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target.

  14. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed.

  15. [Maternal mortality in the IMSS: an analysis from the perspective of mortality and lethality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    To assess the incidence of hospital maternal mortality in the population covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) from 2000 to 2003, utilizing the rates of the main causes of morbidity and lethality, in order to gain a better understanding of this epidemiological picture. We collected information from 3,357,346 hospital deliveries and 832 maternal deaths that occurred in the medical units of the IMSS during the above-mentioned years. For the specific analysis of mortality, morbidity and lethality, deliveries and deaths with diagnoses of mild preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, placenta previa, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis and puerperal sepsis were selected, based on the criteria of International Diseases Classification, Tenth Revision. For statistical differences we used the chi(2). Maternal mortality registered a reduction of 25.1% (39 x 100,000 live births in 2000 and 29.2% in 2003). Morbidity increased by 6.6%. Morbidity and lethality caused by preeclampsia, obstetrical hemorrhages and puerperal sepsis (56.7% of the total deaths) showed a significant decrease in most cases. Specific morbidity showed no changes. We observed a decrease in the rate of hospital maternal mortality during the years of the study, linked to a reduction in lethality of these three main causes. This epidemiological picture may demonstrate the optimal quality in obstetrical care, because no reported changes in morbidity levels were registered.

  16. [Ethics committees in the experience of the IMSS: a Latin American instance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Martínez, Edith; Mata-Valderrama, Guadalupe; Bedolla, Miguel; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify the current state of hospital bioethics committees and local research ethics committees of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed that included all hospitals of the IMSS (N = 262). Two self-administered questionnaires were e-mailed between october and november 2014 to the hospital directors: one for hospital bioethics committees and another for local research ethics committees. Both questionnaires had five sections: committee location, date of committee set up, activity situation, composition, functions, and experience. The response rate was 85 %. It was reported 150 active hospital bioethics committees and 67 active local research ethics committees. In both groups physicians and executive directors dominated committees' membership, and lay people were reported only in seven hospital bioethics committees. The primary function of hospital bioethics committees was case consultation, and their primary goal "to improve the quality of medical care". Local Research Ethics Committees reported as primary function "to evaluate health research protocols and rule of them", and as their primary goal "to protect the rights and wellbeing of the research subjects". Both groups of committees ought to be assessed regularly through audit cycles in order to identify the educative actions that enhance their efficiency.

  17. New directions in social comparison research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Mussweiler, T

    2001-01-01

    This article notices that social comparison theory has developed from being a focused theoretical statement on the use of others for self-evaluation into a lively and varied area of research encompassing many different paradigms, approaches and applications. A recent 'renaissance' in social

  18. [Arbovirus causing hemorrhagic fever at IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor

    2006-01-01

    To know the arbovirus causing hemorrhagic fever in patients at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. A follow-up study was made in patients with probable diagnosis of hemorrhagic dengue. Blood samples were taken to look for dengue fever, yellow fever and San Luis, Tonate and Mayaro encephalitis viruses. Frequencies and proportions of the interest variables were analyzed. 35 patients were studied. Isolation and PCR results of the 13 samples were negative in 12 of them and positive to denguevirus-3 in one of them. The determination of IgM was positive for dengue fever in 25 cases; 2 were positive to Mayaro virus and 8 were negative to what was looked for. Hemorrhages and thrombocytopenia were more frequent in patients infected with dengue and Mayaro viruses; jaundice and encephalopathy were more frequent in the latter, and renal dysfunction, in patients with a negative result. Evolution was satisfactory in all cases, except for one (Mayaro), which presented hemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, jaundice and encephalopathy that lead to death. The results show the risk of appearance and dissemination of several vector-born diseases in Mexico. Thus, they require intensive epidemiological surveillance to identify them and to know their real occurrence and specific clinical profile.

  19. [Depressive disorder and issues related to DiabetIMSS beneficiaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-Espinosa, Mario; Trujillo-Olivera, Laura Elena

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is the leading cause of death in people from 15 to 64 years in Mexico, and other regions in the world. For the chronic nature of diabetes and complications caused by inadequate metabolic control, patients may have mood disorders such as depression. Several studies have demonstrated higher prevalence of depression in diabetic patients than in general population. Our objective: is to determine prevalence and factors associated with depressive disorder in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in DiabetIMSS during 2010. Analytical study with random probability sampling. The analysis included prevalence, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The Center Epidemiological Studies Depression Instrument was used. Prevalence of depression was 32.7% at 95% CI = 26.4-38.9%), 67.3% for women, 32.7 % for men; good metabolic control was 51.9%, CI = 95% (45.13-58.66%). We found a higher prevalence of depressive disorders than in the general population, no statistical association with glycemic control, keeping a greater proportion of women as well as the main aspect of depression associated with the perception of emotional support. We discuss DiabetIMSS program effectiveness.

  20. [Digestive tract malignant neoplasms in patients of No. 11 area IMSS in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri-Jiménez, U

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, mortality due to malignant neoplasms has shown a reduction in its growing tendencies in developed countries. However,the profile of cancer mortality in developing countries still presents a clear upward pattern, and Mexico is not the exception, for the mortality rate due to malignant tumors has shown an increase recently, which constitutes a great challenge for health institutions. To determine the frequency of malignant neoplasms in the digestive tract in patients treated in the General Hospital Area No. 11 of Mexican Institute of Social Security in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas,Mexico. From 11,386 histopathologic reports carried out in the Department of Pathology of the General Hospital Area No. 11 IMSS in the year 2000-2006, 165 patients were reported,diagnosed with malignant neoplasms of the digestive tract (NMTD); patients age and gender were analyzed as well as affected areas and histological stock. Benign neoplasms and metastasis were excluded. From the study of 165 cases of patients with malignant neoplasms of digestive tract (NMTD),the most affected age was patients between 60-75 years old, predilection for male (63.78%) and female(36.21%) subjects. According to the Pathology report, 24.4% were diagnosed with hepatic cancer,23.03% were colon and rectum cancer, 20.00%were stomach cancer, 13.33% with pancreatic cancer,and 7.27% were cancer of esophagus. The rest was located in other levels. Malignant neoplasms of digestive tract in patients of General Hospital Area No. 11IMSS in Nuevo Laredo are relevant in relation with other Medial Centers may be regional factors contribute to this behavior.

  1. Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi en donadores de sangre del IMSS, Orizaba, Veracruz, México Prevalence of antibodies against Trypanossoma cruzi in blood bank donors from the IMSS General Hospital in Onizaba, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ramos-Ligonio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi en donadores del Hospital General Regional del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en la ciudad de Orizaba, Veracruz. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se examinaron muestras de donadores del banco de sangre del Hospital General Regional (HGRO del IMSS para la búsqueda de antiT. cruzi por ELISA, Western blot e IFI, utilizando una proteína recombinante (MBP::Hsp70 y un extracto crudo de epimastigotes. Las muestras fueron obtenidas entre los meses de octubre de 2001 a enero de 2002. RESULTADOS: Los 420 donadores de sangre analizados fueron seronegativos para HBV, HCV, BrA, VDRL y HIV. Después del tamizaje de los 420 donadores, se identificaron dos individuos seropositivos por las pruebas de ELISA, Western blot e IFI, con una seroprevalencia de 0.48%. CONCLUSIONES: En este estudio se muestran evidencias de seropositividad para T. cruzi en donadores de sangre del HGRO, lo que sugiere la existencia de riesgo de contaminación por transfusión sanguínea. Por tal motivo, es necesario aplicar programas para el tamizaje serológico a través de técnicas inmunológicas con alta sensibilidad y especificidad.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in blood donors from Hospital General Regional (HGRO of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in Spanish. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between October 2001 and January 2002, blood samples were collected from voluntary donors at the blood bank of the Hospital General Regional of IMSS in Orizaba; Veracruz, Mexico. The samples were assayed for anti-T. cruzi by ELISA, Western blot and IFI, using a recombinant protein (MBP::Hsp70, and crude extract from epimastigotes. RESULTS: A total of 420 blood donors were studied; two of them were seropositive for ELISA, Western blot and IFI, with a seroprevalence of 0.48%. CONCLUSIONS: Some blood donors at the HGRO hospital were seropositive for T

  2. [Health actions to become integrated into IMSS-oportunidades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vinales, Carolina; Herrera-Segura, Julio; Solano-Mejía, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The Program IMSS-Oportunidades has a 28 year history in the public health arena in Mexico, serving the indigenous and most marginalized population living in 17 204 localities in the country. With 3548 health units and 69 hospitals the program delivers health and community interventions providing better health services to this historically underserved population. The program rests in the work developed by 269,000 volunteers including traditional healers. In general terms there were 20 million medical visits to the health units, 215,000 hospital discharges and nearly 85,000 surgeries. Preventive programs are important and evaluated through the immunization coverages, early detection of several diseases and the descending numbers of communicable diseases. The main causes of death show a mixture of infectious and chronic diseases where cardiovascular disease and diabetes are highlighted. This panorama gives a brief summary of the efforts displayed by the program and an institution that distinguishes for its level of organization and efficiency.

  3. [IMSS in numbers. Cancers in insured population, 1990-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The epidemiological transition has highlighted the incidence of cancer in the agendas of every health institution. The high demand of health services that require specialized and high cost diagnostic and treatment technologies, obliges the institution to reinforce their resources towards the detection and effective treatment programs. Although the institution has implemented effective prevention and control programs towards cancers that mainly affect women, it still needs to direct resources to control cancers that affect men and other age groups. Statistics shown in this paper demonstrate the increase in the demand of health services in the family physician setting as well as in the specialized medical services and hospitals. Along with the aging of the insured population the incidence of cancer will increase, therefore, the IMSS will have to intensify the prevention and control programs.

  4. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  5. Mid-Pacific Ground-Truth Data For Validation of the CrIMSS Sensor Suite Aboard Suomi-NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollner, A. K.; Wessel, J.; Gaab, K. M.; Cardoza, D. M.; LaLumondiere, S. D.; Karuza, P.; Caponi, D.; Lotshaw, W. T.; Nalli, N. R.; Reale, T.; Divakarla, M.; Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.; Maddy, E. S.; Tan, C.; Xiong, X.; Porter, O.

    2013-12-01

    as comparisons with CrIMSS EDRs will be presented.

  6. Social comparison, personal relative deprivation, and materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Callan, Mitchell J; Gheorghiu, Ana I; Matthews, William J

    2017-06-01

    Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism. In Study 4, participants who learned that they had less (vs. similar) discretionary income than people like them reported a stronger desire for more money relative to donating more to charity. In Study 5, during a windfall-spending task, participants higher in PRD spent more on things they wanted relative to other spending categories (e.g., paying off debts). © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  7. Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi en donadores de sangre del IMSS, Orizaba, Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Ligonio Angel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi en donadores del Hospital General Regional del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en la ciudad de Orizaba, Veracruz. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se examinaron muestras de donadores del banco de sangre del Hospital General Regional (HGRO del IMSS para la búsqueda de antiT. cruzi por ELISA, Western blot e IFI, utilizando una proteína recombinante (MBP::Hsp70 y un extracto crudo de epimastigotes. Las muestras fueron obtenidas entre los meses de octubre de 2001 a enero de 2002. RESULTADOS: Los 420 donadores de sangre analizados fueron seronegativos para HBV, HCV, BrA, VDRL y HIV. Después del tamizaje de los 420 donadores, se identificaron dos individuos seropositivos por las pruebas de ELISA, Western blot e IFI, con una seroprevalencia de 0.48%. CONCLUSIONES: En este estudio se muestran evidencias de seropositividad para T. cruzi en donadores de sangre del HGRO, lo que sugiere la existencia de riesgo de contaminación por transfusión sanguínea. Por tal motivo, es necesario aplicar programas para el tamizaje serológico a través de técnicas inmunológicas con alta sensibilidad y especificidad.

  8. Individual differences on social comparison : properties of the orientation Spanish scale towards social comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, AP; Belmonte, J; Peiro, JM; Zurriaga, R; Gibbons, FX

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the properties of the INCOM-E, the Spanish language version of the INCOM, a measure to assess individual differences in social comparison orientation that was originally developed simultaneously in English and in Dutch. In both Study 1 (including 212

  9. La violencia en las mujeres usuarias de los servicios de salud en el IMSS y la SSA Violence in Mexican women using public health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gómez-Dantés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la prevalencia y determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a la violencia entre las mujeres derechohabientes del IMSS y sin servicios de seguridad social (SSS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información sobre violencia doméstica de la ENVIM notificada por las mujeres usuarias de los servicios de salud del IMSS y de la población femenina sin servicios de seguridad social SSA y seguro popular. El análisis bivariado y multivariado se realizó en STATA V.7. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia en mujeres derechohabientes del IMSS de violencia psicológica fue 18%; seguida por la física (9.1%; la sexual (6.7% y la económica (5%. En mujeres sin seguridad social fue: psicológica (21.4%; física (10.5%; sexual (7.5% y económica (5.2%. Las mujeres entre 25 y 44 años, con nivel secundaria o menor instrucción educativa, casadas, sufren de mayor violencia doméstica en ambas poblaciones. Los factores de riesgo identificados para los cuatro tipos de violencia fueron el consumo de alcohol en la pareja, las edades jóvenes, el estar casadas o en unión libre y el antecedente de violencia ejercida por los padres u otros miembros de la familia. CONCLUSIONES: La violencia es ligeramente mayor en mujeres sin seguridad social. El consumo diario de alcohol por su pareja es un factor de riesgo muy importante para cualquier tipo de violencia, en particular cuando el consumo es diario o casi habitual. La detección de la violencia doméstica en los servicios de salud es indispensable para conocer su magnitud como problema social.OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of violence and determine its risk factors among women who use Mexican Social Services (IMSS clinics and do not have access to social security services. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sociodemographic data linked to domestic violence reported by women attending the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS health services was analyzed. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed using

  10. [The challenge of education at the IMSS: how to become the advanced guard of institutional progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra Velázquez, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    A panorama of the educative actions at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social is presented, and it is discussed why they have not had a significant impact in health care services. In order to explore how the explanation is in the working environment where the graduates of educative programs are inserted, it is analyzed the nature of the state, the organizational complexity of its institutions and how it is legitimated. It is recognized that the organizational complexity is constituted by the institution itself, its environments, groups, individuals, activities, and the way in which a certain type of interaction is carried out in the institutional management focused in control, as well as in the management centered in participation, which may influence the working environments in such a way that it works as a powerful antidote against degradation. The course of participative education at the IMSS is described, and how the consolidation of participative education and the operation of the institutional teaching career are about to constitute the most powerful lever for the advancement of the institutional performance when contributing to the emergency of stimulating working environments, where the activities acquire growing effectivity and progressive reach.

  11. [Cost-effectiveness of the treatment of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis at the IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carlin, María de Lourdes; Nevárez-Sida, Armando; García-Contreras, Fernando; Mendieta-Sevilla, Sergio Raymundo; Constantino-Casas, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis is one of the more common diseases encountered in outpatient visits to health care. The objective of this study was to determine the most cost-effective antibiotic treatment for patients with acute (RSA) and chronic rhinosinusitis (RSC) that is available at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Cost-effectiveness analysis of RSA and RSC treatment from an institutional perspective. Effectiveness outcome was defined as the percentage of cure. A decision tree with a Bayesian approach included the following therapeutic alternatives: ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol (TMP/SMX), amoxicilin/clavulanic acid (AAC) and clindamicin. Treatment for RSA with AAC showed a mean cost per cured patient of $ 878 pesos. The remaining antibiotics had a higher cost per unit of success, and therefore the results showed that AAC was the best alternative considering this criterion. The therapy that showed a larger percentage of cured patients in RSC was clindamicin; however, the therapeutic alternative with the lowest cost per successful unit was the one based on ciprofloxacin, which dominates gatifloxacin and AAC. The most cost-effective alternative in the antibiotic treatment of patients with RSA was ACC while for RSC it was ciprofloxacin; sensitivity analysis showed the strength of the base study results.

  12. [Knowledge, experience and behavior at climacteric and menopause stages among family medicine female users at IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Fernández-Gárate, Irma H; Ojeda-Mijares, Rosalba I; Padilla-Vallejo, Isabel; de la Cruz-Mejía, Leticia

    2007-01-01

    To identify knowledge, experiences and behaviors of climacteric and menopause women users of family medicine services of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). A descriptive study that included a 37 questions survey about climacteric and menopause was conducted in a national representative sample of 4162 women aged 45 to 59 years between September 2004 and January 2005. The analysis was made by using descriptive statistics and chi2. 82.9 % Of women knew about menopause or its significance; 82.1 % identified hot flushes as a climacteric symptom; 46.1 % knew about pharmacologic treatment and 25.6 % knew about postmenopausal complications such as osteoporosis. Only 26.6 % mentioned preventive measures as physical exercise or consumption of food with high calcium content. Their main information sources were media communication. Mean age at menopause was 46.8 years old; 57.7 % had symptoms at interview and 18.4 % were taking pharmacologic treatment, mainly (53.3 %) hormones. 11.1 % of treated women had had side effects. 10.7 % had received pharmacologic treatment and 39.4 % had withdrawn from medication either for medical indications or for side effects (23 %). Knowledge about climacteric was scarce and obtained from non-medical sources; use of pharmacological treatment and preventive behavior was low. We recommended reinforcing the information and education about treatment and favorable life styles by health personal.

  13. [Training experience in climacteric and menopause among physicians of the IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Ojeda-Mijares, Rosalba Isabel; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; Pozos-Cavanzo, José Luis; Camacho-Rodríquez, María de los Angeles

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the level of knowledge concerning climateric and menopause among family physicians and gynecologists and obstetricians of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), after a training process in institutional technical guidelines and in educational content for population. We also analyze possible changes in frequency of medical attention for climateric and menopause in the first level of medical care. Prospective and descriptive study on 1) results of the knowledge evaluation by means of 23 questions with multiple answers, and 2) analysis of rates of medical care for menopausal and perimenopausal disturbances (N95 code, X Revision, IDC) from 1995 to 2000. The percentage of correct answers prior to training was 62.2 for family physicians and 65.9 for gynecologists and obstetricians; after training, 79.3 and 81.4, respectively. Both groups had on increase in knowledge levels (p < 0.001) but there were no differences among them. An increase was registered in medical care rates for menopausal and perimenopausal disturbances in the group from 45 to 64 years of age in the period from 1995 to 2000. All physicians had on increase in knowledge on climateric and menopause issues but without differences among them, probably because the care of this health problem is referred to specialized services and as well as to more attention on other more frequent problems in women's health. In addition, we did not find changes yet in the rates of medical attentions attributable to training and information to population.

  14. Pinterest or Thinterest?: Social Comparison and Body Image on Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Lewallen; Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz

    2016-01-01

    Social media have become increasingly popular mechanisms for communication. Past research suggests a link between using social media, upward social comparison, and negative affect. This online experiment of US women ( N  = 118) takes a media psychology approach to understanding how fitness images on the social networking website Pinterest contribute to social comparison as well as intentions to engage in extreme weight-loss behaviors. Findings suggest that individuals who follow more fitness ...

  15. Social Comparison Processes in an Organizational Context: New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Paul S.; Haisley, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to frame some new directions to social comparison research in organizational settings. Four themes are developed. First, we examine the role of organizational variables in shaping the basic sub processes in social comparison, such as the selection of referents. The second theme focuses on the meaning of level of…

  16. Social Comparison Orientation in Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguet, Pascal; Carlier, Michèle; Dolan, Conor V; de Geus, Eco J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-01-01

    Twin research has offered evidence that monozygotic (MZ) twins are more socially close than dizygotic (DZ) twins, but has not paid much attention to the way twins compare themselves with their co-twin. The few studies in this area suggest that 'horizontal comparisons' (social comparison motivated by

  17. The Age and Sex in the Social Comparison Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfonso Urzua, M.; Patricia Zuniga, B.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2012-01-01

    The Social Comparison Orientation (SCO) is the personal disposition of individuals prone to social comparison. The aim of this study was to analyze the SCO at different ages in men and women. The main hypothesis is that the average is higher in SCO younger age ranges and decreases as age increases.

  18. Social comparison in the Dutch classroom : discussion and conclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.; Barelds, D. P. H.; Kuyper, H.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the classroom students often make use of social comparisons, particularly with regard to their own school performance. These social comparisons may have both positive and negative effects. In this special issue of Pedagogische Studien, four studies are discussed that focus on the

  19. Optimism, Social Comparisons, and Coping with Vision Loss in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Debi, Zoharit

    2005-01-01

    This study of 90 adults (aged 55?80) who lost their vision assessed their dispositional optimism, social comparisons, coping strategies, and wellbeing. The findings suggest that optimism and positive social comparisons play an important role in stimulating the motivation to cope adaptively with vision loss and that enhancing optimism and social…

  20. Affect and identification in social comparison after loss of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Heesink, J.A.M.

    This study examined the effects of social comparison among 172 individuals who had recently lost their jobs in a collective dismissal of employees. A part of a fictitious interview with another fired person was presented to the participants. This interview contained social comparison information on

  1. Neuroticism and reactions to social comparison information among cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, K; Buunk, B; Sanderman, R

    In an experimental study neuroticism was examined as a moderator of breast cancer patients' affective reactions to social comparison information about a fellow patient. Fifty-seven women with breast cancer completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and received social comparison information about

  2. Neuroticism and Reactions to Social Comparison Information among Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Zee, Karen; Buunk, Bram; Sanderman, Robbert

    In an experimental study neuroticism was examined as a moderator of breast cancer patients' affective reactions to social comparison information about a fellow patient. Fifty-seven women with breast cancer completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and received social comparison information about

  3. Social comparisons and well-being following widowhood and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Michael, Keren

    2009-03-01

    A sample of 196 participants (mean age 45.94 years, 54% women) completed inventories assessing upward and downward positive and negative social comparisons and general well-being. Widows and widowers were higher on upward negative comparisons than divorced or married persons while being lower on well-being measures of life satisfaction and psychosocial adjustment. The divorced were higher than the widowed or married people on upward or downward positive social comparisons. Upward negative social comparisons were associated with lower levels of well-being measures whereas upward positive social comparisons showed an opposite tendency. Upward negative comparisons were found to mediate the effects of widowhood on well-being. It is concluded that cognitive adaptation contributes to the well-being of widowed and divorced persons.

  4. Affective response to social comparison in the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Kuyper, H.; Van der Zee, Y.G.

    In a study among 609 secondary school students, the affective reactions to social comparisons of grades were examined. Overall, the students reported more frequent responses to upward than to downward comparison, more identification than contrast in their comparisons, and more frequent responses

  5. The relationship between social comparison processes and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderZee, K; Buunk, B; Sanderman, R

    The relationship between social comparison processes and personality was examined in a sample of cancer patients (Study 1) and in a random population sample (Study 2). Previous studies showed that the need for comparison, its affective consequences and the tendency to make self-enhancing comparisons

  6. [Health status and wellness among older adult beneficiaries of the ISSSTE and IMSS in Southwest Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Garcia, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Espinel-Bermudez, Claudia; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    To explore the conditions of health and wellness in older adults beneficiaries to ISSSTE and IMSS of the Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study samples of users to health services in primary care ISSSTE (n = 161) and IMSS (n = 176) in Southwest Mexico City. Were determined chronic health conditions, cognitive function, depressive symptoms, use of health services, nutritional status, functioning and disability and quality of life related to health. It is observed that there is a difference between samples ISSSTE vs. IMSS in comorbidity conditions (ISSSTE 53.4% vs. IMSS 57.9%), nutritional status (malnutrition risk ISSSTE 25.8% us. IMSS 36.4%; overweight ISSSTE 23.3% vs. IMSS 11.6%) (p < 0.05). There were no differences between samples IMSS us. ISSSTE in cognitive function, depression, use of health services, abdominal obesity, functioning and disability, and quality of life related to health. The conditions of health and wellness in older adults beneficiaries to ISSSTE and IMSS users are similar, with meaning in comorbidity conditions, nutritional status.

  7. The role of social comparison in social judgments of dental appearance: An experimental study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    AlJabaa, AlJazi H; Al-Kharboush, Ghada H; Newton, J. Tim; Asimakopoulou, Koula

    2017-01-01

    ... (a), AlJazi H. AlJabaa (b), J. Tim Newton (a) Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the influence of social comparison on social judgments of dental malalignment in a sample of females. Author Affiliation...

  8. Social comparison and prosocial behavior: an applied study of social identity theory in community food drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Social Identity Theory and the concept of social comparison have inspired research on individuals, addressing effects of personal and environmental factors in directing social attention. The theory's conceptual origins, however, suggest that social comparison may have behavioral implications as well. Such behaviors may include attempts by an individual to enhance the relative status of his ingroup on a salient dimension of comparison. Such behavior is referred to as "social competition." In two studies, the effects of social comparison and social competition were measured in the real-world environment of community food drives. Participants were aggregated by household; 600 households in upper middle-class neighborhoods in Eugene and Salem, Oregon, were contacted. In Study 1 of 300 households, it was hypothesized that inclusion of a social competition cue in requests for donation would significantly increase the likelihood of donation. This hypothesis was supported. Study 2 was done to clarify the possible role in a social comparison of perceived ingroup inferiority in the prior observed increase in donations. The inclusion of a social comparison cue in the donation request significantly increased donations in households of the second study. The findings suggest that researchers should expand study of the theory's behavioral implications, including the role of social comparison in prosocial behavior.

  9. [Maternal mortality decrease at IMSS, 2000-2005. As a result of specific actions or by chance?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; de la Cruz-Mejía, Leticia

    2008-01-01

    to assessment the epidemiological characteristics and evolution of maternal hospital deaths at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) on the years 2000-2005 and to analyze a possible relation with a specific program to reduce it, starting in 2001. we collected and studied data about 253 and 144 hospital maternal deaths between 2000 and 2005, respectively. We compared rates, causes, type of obstetrical death, age, parity, history of prenatal care and preventability at admission in hospitals were the women died. Data about live births in were obtained from the official Information Medical System of IMSS. The analysis was made with descriptive statistical measures and values of chi(2). the maternal mortality rate fell by 30.8 %, as result of a decline from 39 per 100,000 live births in 2000, to 27 in 2005; the proportion of direct obstetric deaths showed a reduction from 77.1 to 66.7 %; all the specific-age mortality rates felt too, but with some variability. Preeclampsia-eclampsia, hemorrhages and abortion were responsible for more of 50 % of total deaths in both years compared. We did not observe significant changes in other variables. the reduction in general rate of hospital maternal mortality, in percentage of direct obstetric causes of death and specific-age rates were chronologically coincidental with the development of a program to increase opportunity and quality of obstetric care at the whole institution. The results let us think there is a possible cause-effect relation. It is imperative to conduct a more long-term observation to confirm this epidemiological phenomenon.

  10. Pinterest or Thinterest?: Social Comparison and Body Image on Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lewallen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media have become increasingly popular mechanisms for communication. Past research suggests a link between using social media, upward social comparison, and negative affect. This online experiment of US women ( N  = 118 takes a media psychology approach to understanding how fitness images on the social networking website Pinterest contribute to social comparison as well as intentions to engage in extreme weight-loss behaviors. Findings suggest that individuals who follow more fitness boards on Pinterest are more likely to report intentions to engage in extreme weight-loss behaviors. Additionally, endorsement of an ideal female body type was positively related to both social comparison and intentions to engage in extreme weight-loss behaviors. Findings are discussed in light of social comparison theory, and suggestions are made are made for future experimental work.

  11. Pinterest or Thinterest?: Social Comparison and Body Image on Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lewallen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media have become increasingly popular mechanisms for communication. Past research suggests a link between using social media, upward social comparison, and negative affect. This online experiment of US women (N = 118 takes a media psychology approach to understanding how fitness images on the social networking website Pinterest contribute to social comparison as well as intentions to engage in extreme weight-loss behaviors. Findings suggest that individuals who follow more fitness boards on Pinterest are more likely to report intentions to engage in extreme weight-loss behaviors. Additionally, endorsement of an ideal female body type was positively related to both social comparison and intentions to engage in extreme weight-loss behaviors. Findings are discussed in light of social comparison theory, and suggestions are made are made for future experimental work.

  12. Hopelessness and social comparison in Turkish adolescent with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, S; Ergun, A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine visually impaired adolescents' level of hopelessness and how they perceive of themselves socially compared to other individuals. Another purpose of this study was to look for relationships between hopelessness and social comparison in adolescents with visual impairment. The research population was comprised of 130 students at a secondary school for the visually impaired in Istanbul, Turkey. Our study demonstrated a weak relationship between social comparison and hopelessness (r=-0.46, P visual impairment was 4.59 ± 3.12 (girls: 4.23 ± 3.10; boys: 4.83 ± 3.11) and social comparison score was 87.50 ± 11.19 (girls: 88.67 ± 11.62; boys: 86.60 ± 10.85). Hopelessness and social comparison were not affected by being blind from birth compared to later or from being a full-time boarding student compared to being a day student. The hopeless (Beck Hopelessness Scale score ≥ 9) adolescents' social comparison scores were found lower than hopeful ones' scores (P social comparison were feelings about their father, teacher and school. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. Interfacial Matrix Stabilization Spectroscopy (IMSS) studies of CO and O2 interactions with thin films of oxide-supported Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, Nina K.; Moore, David T.

    2013-03-01

    Interfacial Matrix Stabilization Spectroscopy (IMSS) employs energy-dissipating cryogenic matrix isolation techniques combined with FTIR to enable stabilization and detection of pre-reactive complexes of CO and O2 formed on oxide-supported gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Following deposition of CO and O2 in an argon matrix at 10-20K, annealing to warmer temperatures (28-32K) promotes diffusion of isolated dopant molecules through the matrix to binding sites on a thin film of catalyst. Matrix-solvated pre-reactive complexes form at the surface and are characterized spectroscopically. Comparison of observed complexes in IMSS experiments with results from direct adsorption studies, in absence of a matrix, can provide a measure for the stabilizing effects of matrix solvation. Subsequent surface warming following stabilization of the pre-reactive complexes reveals qualitative information about relative binding energies of formed intermediates of CO, O2, and the supported AuNPs. A series of FTIR spectra mapping the evolution of vibrational bands during the annealing process and tracking the various surface-bound species will be presented and comparisons to direct adsorption experiments will be discussed.

  14. Task Characteristics and Target Choice in Social Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenflo, Daniel W.

    Festinger's (1954) theory of social comparison holds that in the absence of objective standards, people use the attitudes or judgments of similar others to determine the correctness of their own positions. More recent studies have suggested, however, that people often prefer dissimilar comparison targets. A study was undertaken to examine the…

  15. Social comparison orientation as related to two types of closeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Bosch, Zwenneke A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    Two studies examined the relationship between social comparison orientation (SCO) and two types of closeness (dimensional closeness and psychological closeness) in the context of appearance-related comparisons among women. A pilot study showed that these two types were relatively independent

  16. Social Comparisons and Well-Being Following Widowhood and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Michael, Keren

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 196 participants (mean age 45.94 years, 54% women) completed inventories assessing upward and downward positive and negative social comparisons and general well-being. Widows and widowers were higher on upward negative comparisons than divorced or married persons while being lower on well-being measures of life satisfaction and…

  17. Rural and Urban Social Work Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John; Smith, Marshall L.; Hull, Grafton H., Jr.; Ray, JoAnn

    1995-01-01

    Survey of 2,006 graduates with at least a bachelor's degree in social work (BSW) (86% female, 88% White, average age 34) found that, compared to urban workers, rural social workers were more likely to be White; had fewer master's degrees and lower incomes; were more satisfied with their BSW preparation; and showed greater community involvement.…

  18. Selective Self-Presentation and Social Comparison Through Photographs on Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Vendemia, Megan A

    2016-10-01

    Through social media and camera phones, users enact selective self-presentation as they choose, edit, and post photographs of themselves (such as selfies) to social networking sites for an imagined audience. Photos typically focus on users' physical appearance, which may compound existing sociocultural pressures about body image. We identified users of social networking sites among a nationally representative U.S. sample (N = 1,686) and examined women's and men's photo-related behavior, including posting photos, editing photos, and feelings after engaging in upward and downward social comparison with others' photos on social networking sites. We identified some sex differences: women edited photos more frequently and felt worse after upward social comparison than men. Body image and body comparison tendency mediated these effects.

  19. The man who wasn't there : Subliminal social comparison standards influence self-evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mussweiler, T; Ruter, K; Epstude, K

    Life provides an endless stream of social comparison information. Because opportunities to compare with others are so abundant, social comparison theory traditionally assumes that people are selective in their comparison activities and primarily compare with deliberately selected standards. Recent

  20. Social comparison processes and catastrophising in fibromyalgia: A path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Perona, V; Buunk, A P; Terol-Cantero, M C; Quiles-Marcos, Y; Martín-Aragón, M

    2017-06-01

    In addition to coping strategies, social comparison may play a role in illness adjustment. However, little is known about the role of contrast and identification in social comparison in adaptation to fibromyalgia. To evaluate through a path analysis in a sample of fibromyalgia patients, the association between identification and contrast in social comparison, catastrophising and specific health outcomes (fibromyalgia illness impact and psychological distress). 131 Spanish fibromyalgia outpatients (mean age: 50.15, SD = 11.1) filled out a questionnaire. We present a model that explained 33% of the variance in catastrophising by direct effects of more use of upward contrast and downward identification. In addition, 35% of fibromyalgia illness impact variance was explained by less upward identification, more upward contrast and more catastrophising and 42% of the variance in psychological distress by a direct effect of more use of upward contrast together with higher fibromyalgia illness impact. We suggest that intervention programmes with chronic pain and fibromyalgia patients should focus on enhancing the use of upward identification in social comparison, and on minimising the use of upward contrast and downward identification in social comparison.

  1. [Bibliometric analysis of Revista Médica del IMSS in the Scopus database for the period between 2005-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Francisco; Ramírez-Méndez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the number of articles of Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc) in the Scopus database and describe principal quantitative bibliometric indicators of scientific publications during the period between 2005 to 2013. Scopus database was used limited to the period between 2005 to 2013. The analysis cover mainly title of articles with the title of Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and its possible modifications. For the analysis, Scopus, Excel and Access were used. 864 articles were published during the period between 2005 to 2013 in the Scopus database. We identified authors with the highest number of contributions including articles with the highest citation rate and forms of documents cited. We also divided articles by subjects, types of documents and other bibliometric indicators which characterize the publications. The use of Scopus brings the possibility of analyze with an external tool the visibility of the scientific production published in the Revista Médica del IMSS. The use of this database also contributes to identify the state of science in México, as well as in the developing countries.

  2. Social Rights and Citizenship: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Michael; Laglagaron, Laureen

    This paper examines policies regarding access to social benefits and the labor market in nine representative liberal industrialized democracies. Five are self-consciously nations of immigration: the United States, Canada, Australia, Israel, and France. Four are de-facto immigration nations within the European Union (EU): Germany, the Netherlands,…

  3. Glancing up or down: Mood management and selective social comparisons on social networking sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, B.K.; Knobloch-Westerwick, S.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) provide opportunities for mood management through selective exposure. This study tested the prediction that negative mood fosters self-enhancing social comparisons to SNS profiles. Participants were induced into positive or negative moods and then browsed manipulated

  4. Social Comparison: The End of a Theory and the Emergence of a Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2007-01-01

    The past and current states of research on social comparison are reviewed with regard to a series of major theoretical developments that have occurred in the past 5 decades. These are, in chronological order: (1) classic social comparison theory, (2) fear-affiliation theory, (3) downward comparison theory, (4) social comparison as social…

  5. Differential Social Comparison Processes in Women with and without Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, Alexandra F.; Krumm, Angela J.; Smitham, Lora A.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of predictions from social comparison theory (L. Festinger, 1954) and informed by findings from the social comparison and eating disorder literatures, hypotheses were tested regarding the social comparison behaviors of women with eating disorder symptoms and their asymptomatic peers. Results indicated differentiating social-cognitive…

  6. [Users satisfaction with dental care services provided at IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Mora, Flora Evelia; Francisco-Méndez, Gustavo; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mario

    2007-01-01

    To determine users' satisfaction with dental care services provided at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Veracruz. An epidemiological survey was conducted in 14 family medicine clinics located in the northern part of the state of Veracruz. The clinics were selected by stratified-random sampling. All users older than 20 years seeking medical or dental care services were interviewed; previously, their informed consent was obtained. We used the 6-items United Kingdom dental care satisfaction questionnaire (Spanish version) where question number four evaluates user satisfaction. From October to December 2005, 3601 users were interviewed. We excluded 279 questionnaires because the age of the interviewees was <20 years. The final analysis included 3322 interviews (92%); 73% were female with an average age of 45 +/- 16 years old. 82% were satisfied with dental care services and 91% never felt like making a complaint. Waiting time of less than 30 minutes and last visit to the dentist in the last year were the only variables related to satisfaction (p = 0.0001). There is a high level of satisfaction regarding dental care services among Mexican Institute of Social Security users. However, it would be possible to increase the level of satisfaction if the waiting time is reduced and the number of dental care users attending twice a year increases.

  7. Teacher Job Satisfaction and Burnout Viewed through Social Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchel, Tracy; Smith, Amy R.; Henry, Anna L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Lawver, Rebecca G.; Park, Travis D.; Schell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Understanding job satisfaction, stress, and burnout within agricultural education has the potential to impact the profession's future. Studying these factors through the theoretical lens of social comparison takes a cultural approach by investigating how agriculture teachers interact with and compare themselves to others. The purpose of this study…

  8. Burnout and reactions to social comparison information among volunteer caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.I.; Bakker, A.B.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2001-01-01

    The present study focused on social comparison processes among volunteer caregivers of terminally ill patients in relation to burnout. First, caregivers' (N = 80) affective reactions to a bogus interview with fellow volunteer workers who were either coping better or worse were considered. Upward

  9. Social comparisons of learning disabled and nonexceptional adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, E P; Tracy, D B

    1994-08-01

    36 learning disabled high school subjects rated themselves lower on academic, psychomotor, and verbal performance on a social comparisons task than a control group of 53 nonexceptional peers. Learning disabled students tended to see themselves as less able in most areas involving school achievement but not in areas involving extracurricular activities.

  10. [Job satisfaction among primary care physicians at the IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama-Martínez, José Arturo; Dávalos-Díaz, Guillermina

    2009-01-01

    To know factors related to job satisfaction among primary care Physicians from the Mexican Social Security Institute. Cross-sectional survey applied to physicians of outpatient visit areas in four Family Medicine Units in Leon, Guanajuato, from February to May 2007. The survey explored six areas. We used 95% confidence intervals and One-Way ANOVA to compare means among clinics and Chi square and OR'95% confidence intervals to compare proportions. One hundred sixty physicians participated (response rate 88.9%), three were excluded. Most physicians were satisfied with their work (86%). Half of the doctors feel satisfied with their economic benefits (48%), non-economic benefits (52%), and those from the collective bargaining agreement (53%), as well as with the labor union (46%) and their actual insurances (45%). Only one third or less of participants refer to receive incentives (31%) or recognitions for their work (33%), were satisfied with the opportunities for training (31%), the economic incentives (29%), or the salary (24%). The satisfaction's means of work, benefits, insurances, labor union and collective bargaining agreement were significantly higher than the means of salary and economic incentives. Satisfaction means were significantly higher in Clinic #53 than in Clinic #51 for job satisfaction and opportunities for training, as well as percentages of response in institutional support, incentives and recognitions for their work, were higher in Clinic 53 compared to all other clinics; however, it's the smallest clinic in this study. Family doctors find satisfaction in their practice, and factors such as institutional support, recognition and incentives may improve their general job satisfaction.

  11. The Relationship Between Goal Orientation, Social Comparison Responses, Self-Efficacy, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Carmen; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Peiro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As

  12. Purification and properties of an acid phosphatase from Entamoeba histolytica HM-1:IMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-García, M M; Cerbón, J; Talamás-Rohana, P

    2000-04-24

    Entamoeba histolytica contains and secretes acid phosphatase, which has been proposed as a virulence factor in some pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, we purified and characterised a membrane-bound acid phosphatase (MAP) from E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and studied the effect of different chemical compounds on the secreted acid phosphatase and MAP activities. MAP purification was accomplished by detergent solubilisation, and affinity and ion exchange chromatographies. The enzyme showed a pI of 5.5-6.2, an optimum pH of 5.5, and a Km value of 1.14 mM with p-nitrophenyl phosphate.

  13. Cancer Survivors' Social Context in the Return to Work Process: Narrative Accounts of Social Support and Social Comparison Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaou, M; Schumacher, L; Grunfeld, E A

    2017-10-04

    Purpose Returning to work is a process that is intertwined with the social aspects of one's life, which can influence the way in which that person manages their return to work and also determines the support available to them. This study aimed to explore cancer patients' perceptions of the role of their social context in relation to returning to work following treatment. Methods Twenty-three patients who had received a diagnosis of either urological, breast, gynaecological, or bowel cancer participated in semi-structured interviews examining general perceptions of cancer, work values and perceptions of the potential impact of their cancer diagnosis and treatment on work. Interviews were analysed using the iterative process of Framework Analysis. Results Two superordinate themes emerged as influential in the return to work process: Social support as a facilitator of return to work (e.g. co-workers' support and support outside of the workplace) and Social comparison as an appraisal of readiness to return to work (e.g. comparisons with other cancer patients, colleagues, and employees in other organisations or professions). Conclusions Two functions of the social context of returning to work after cancer were apparent in the participants' narrative: the importance of social support as a facilitator of returning to work and the utilisation of social comparison information in order to appraise one's readiness to return to work. The role of social context in returning to work has largely been absent from the research literature to date. The findings of this study suggest that social support and social comparison mechanisms may have a significant impact on an individual's successful return to the workplace.

  14. Social Media Social Comparison of Ability (but not Opinion) Predicts Lower Identity Clarity: Identity Processing Style as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Chen; Holden, Sean M; Carter, Mollie D K

    2018-01-11

    Social comparison on social media has received increasing attention, but most research has focused on one type of social comparison and its psycho-emotional implications. Little is known about how different types of social comparison influence youth's identity development. Drawing on the theories of identity processing styles and social comparison, we examined how two different forms of social comparison on social media related to three identity processing styles, which in turn predicted youth's global self-esteem and identity clarity. We surveyed 219 college freshmen (M age  = 18.29; 74% female) once in the Fall and once in the Spring. Social comparison of ability on social media was related to concurrent diffuse-avoidant identity processing style, which predicted lower identity clarity months later. In contrast, social comparison of opinion on social media did not influence college freshmen's global self-esteem and identity clarity through identity processing styles. The findings clarified the implications of online social comparison for youth's identity development.

  15. Antecedents and Consequences of the Frequency of Upward and Downward Social Comparisons at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas J.; Ferris, D. Lance; Heller, Daniel; Keeping, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper examines the dispositional and situational antecedents, as well as the attitudinal and behavioral consequences, of the frequency of upward and downward social comparisons. We predicted social comparison frequency would be influenced by uncertainty-related antecedents, and that social comparisons in organizations would be…

  16. Teachers' legitimacy: Effects of justice perception and social comparison processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Pereira, Maria; Vala, Jorge; Correia, Isabel

    2017-03-01

    Teachers' legitimacy is central to school functioning. Teachers' justice, whether distributive or procedural, predicts teachers' legitimacy. What is still do be found, and constitutes the goal of this paper, is whether unjust treatment by a teacher affects the legitimacy of the teacher differently when the student knows that the teacher was fair to a peer (comparative judgement) or when the student does not have that information (autonomous judgement). A total of 79 high school students participated in Study 1; 75 high school students participated in Study 2. Two experimental studies with a 2 justice valence (just, unjust) × 2 social comparison processes (autonomous judgements, comparative judgements) between-participants design were conducted. Study 1 addressed distributive justice and Study 2 addressed procedural justice. The dependent variable was teachers' legitimacy. In both studies, situations perceived as just led to higher teachers' legitimacy than situations perceived as unjust. For the distributive injustice conditions, teachers' legitimacy was equally lower for autonomous judgement and comparative judgement conditions. For procedural injustice, teachers' legitimacy was lower when the peer was treated justly and the participant was treated unfairly, compared with the condition when the participants did not know how the teacher treated the peer. We conclude that teachers' injustice affects teachers' legitimacy, but it does it differently according to the social comparisons involved and the type of justice involved. Moreover, these results highlight that social comparisons are an important psychological process and, therefore, they should be taken into account in models of justice. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. [IMSS in numbers: demand of services in the emergency room, 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The emergency room is one of the most productive services in any medical institution, where the demand of health services is diverse and complex in nature. Around 15 % of all the medical attentions provided at IMSS were done at the emergency room. There was an important increase in the number of consultations provided from 1995 to 2004; the death rate in the service also increased but the incapacity rate decreased. Adult and elderly women were among the most frequent users of emergency services. The main problems seen were respiratory infections (19.4%), trauma and poisoning (18.8%) and diarrheas (8%). Cholelithiasis, migraine, urinary infections and diabetes were more frequent in women, while trauma, accidents and conjunctivitis were more frequent in men. In relation to mortality, around 21% of all deaths registered at IMSS occurred in the emergency room. Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases appeared among the main death causes, especially in the adult and elderly population. Mortality was higher in men than in women.

  18. Facebook and self-perception: individual susceptibility to negative social comparison on Facebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, D.A.; Kühne, R.

    2015-01-01

    Social network sites such as Facebook give off the impression that others are doing better than we are. As a result, the use of these sites may lead to negative social comparison (i.e., feeling like others are doing better than oneself). According to social comparison theory, such negative social

  19. Positive interaction of social comparison and personal responsibility for outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygolec, Jaroslaw; Coricelli, Giorgio; Rustichini, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We formulate and test a model that allows sharp separation between two different ways in which environment affects evaluation of outcomes, by comparing social vs. private and personal responsibility vs. chance. In the experiment, subjects chose between two lotteries, one low-risk and one high-risk. They could then observe the outcomes. By varying the environment between private (they could observe the outcome of the chosen lottery and the outcome of the lottery they had not chosen) and social (they could observe the outcome of the lottery chosen by another subject) we can differentiate the response and brain activity following the feedback in social and private settings. The evidence suggests that envy and pride are significant motives driving decisions and outcomes evaluation, stronger than private emotions like regret and rejoice, with ventral striatum playing a key role. When we focus on the outcome evaluation stage we demonstrate that BOLD signal in ventral striatum is increasing in the difference between obtained and counterfactual payoffs. For a given difference in payoffs, striatal responses are more pronounced in social than in private environment. Moreover, a positive interaction (complementarity) between social comparison and personal responsibility is reflected in the pattern of activity in the ventral striatum. At decision stage we observe getting ahead of the Joneses effect in ventral striatum with subjective value of risk larger in social than in private environment.

  20. Positive Interaction of Social Comparison and Personal Responsibility for Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw eGrygolec

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and test a model that allows a sharp separation between social versus private and personal responsibility versus chance in the evaluation of outcomes. In the experiment, subjects choose between two lotteries, one low-risk and one high-risk. They could then observe the outcomes. By varying the environment between private (in which they could only observe the outcome of the lottery they had not chosen and social (they could observe the outcome of the lottery chosen by another subject we can differentiate the response and brain activity following the feedback in social and private settings. The evidence suggests that envy and pride are significant motives driving decisions and outcomes evaluation, stronger than private emotions like regret and rejoice, with ventral striatum playing a key role. Focusing on outcomes evaluation stage we demonstrate that BOLD signal in ventral striatum is increasing in the difference between obtained and counterfactual payoffs. For a given difference in payoffs, striatal responses are more pronounced in social than in private environment. Moreover, a positive interaction (complementarity between social comparison and personal responsibility is reflected in the pattern of activity in the ventral striatum. At decision stage we observe getting ahead of the Joneses effect in ventral striatum with subjective value of risk larger in social than in private environment.

  1. The role of social comparison in social judgments of dental appearance: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kharboush, Ghada H; Asimakopoulou, Koula; AlJabaa, AlJazi H; Newton, J Tim

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of social comparison on social judgments of dental malalignment in a sample of females. In a Repeated measures design, N=218 female participants of which N=128 were orthodontic patients (mean age 31.4) and N=90 controls (mean age 26.1) rated their satisfaction with their facial appearance after viewing stereotypically beautiful images of faces (experimental condition) or houses (neutral condition). After 4-6 weeks participants returned to view an image of a female with severe crowding and were asked to make judgments of social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA) and attractiveness (A). The comparison of social judgments between high comparers (High SocComp) and low comparers (Low SocComp) was not statistically significant; (SC (t (204)=0.30, p=0.76), IA (t (204)=0.14, p=0.89) PA (t (204)=0.004, p=0.996), A (t(204)=1.26, (p=0.209). However, dentally induced social judgments (DISJ) was statistically significant in the clinical sample than the non-clinical sample SC (t (204)=0.784, p=0.434), IA (t (204)=0.2.15, p=0.033) PA (t (204)=-0.003, p=0.997) A (t (204)=1.58, p=0.116). Social comparison has little impact on DISJ. However, there are differences in DISJs between individuals who seek treatment for their malocclusion versus the nonclinical population; the reason for this is unclear but does not appear to be the result of adoption of societal standards of beauty and instead suggests individual ranking of important 'beauty areas' may play a role. This paper uses social comparison theory to investigate the basis of judgments in regards to dental appearance. The findings of this research may help to identify individuals who are more susceptible to societal pressures towards non-ideal dentitions. This will help clinicians become more aware of the patient's comparison orientation, which seems to have an impact on satisfaction with treatment outcomes. This study may form the

  2. Thinspiration: Self-Improvement Versus Self-Evaluation Social Comparisons with Thin-Ideal Media Portrayals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Much research has demonstrated negative impacts of idealized-body imagery exposure on body satisfaction. Yet, paradoxically, media with such imagery attract mass audiences. Few studies showed women's body satisfaction increased due to thin-ideal exposure. The kind of social comparison women engage in (self-evaluation vs. self-improvement) may explain these inconsistent findings and the paradoxical attraction to thin-ideal messages. Across 5 days, thin-ideal messages were presented to 51 women; self-evaluation and self-improvement social comparisons as well as body satisfaction were measured each day. A linear positive change in body satisfaction emerged. Greater self-improvement social comparisons increased this change, whereas greater self-evaluation social comparisons reduced it. Extent of both social comparison types changed during the prolonged exposure. A greater tendency to compare one's body with others' improved body satisfaction through self-improvement social comparisons and fostered weight-loss behaviors through self-evaluation social comparisons.

  3. Examining social physique anxiety and disordered eating in college women. The roles of social comparison and body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Harney, Megan B; Brownstone, Lisa M; Higgins, M K; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2012-12-01

    Social physique anxiety has been found to be associated with disordered eating. However, what is not yet known is what behaviors college women may engage in that strengthen this relation. In the current study, we examined two possible moderating factors, social comparison and body surveillance. We examined whether these moderators might also generalize to trait anxiety, as well. Participants were 265 women attending a Southeastern university. Social comparison (both general and appearance-related) and body surveillance were tested as moderators of the relation between social physique anxiety and disordered eating. Results indicated that general social comparison, appearance-related social comparison, and body surveillance significantly moderated this relation. Individuals who were high in social physique anxiety and who reported high levels of general or appearance-related social comparison or body surveillance reported much higher levels of disordered eating than those with high social physique anxiety and low levels of these behaviors. Results indicated that only the trait anxiety×body surveillance interaction was significant in identifying elevated disordered eating. Results provide information regarding who may experience high levels of disordered eating in association with social physique anxiety, which has clinical implications including the conceptualization of social comparison and body surveillance as safety behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Entamoeba histolytica HM1:IMSS: hemoglobin-degrading neutral cysteine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Luna, J J; Negrete, E; Reyes, M; de la Garza, M

    1998-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica HMI:IMSS trophozoites were able to utilize human hemoglobin but not hemin as a sole iron source to grow in vitro. Proteases from crude extracts of E. histolytica degraded human, porcine, and bovine hemoglobins at pH 7.0. These proteolytic activities were found by electrophoresis in SDS-polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with hemoglobin, with apparent molecular weights of 116, 82, and 21 kDa, the 82-kDa protein being the most active protease against this substrate. The proteases were classified in the cysteine group since the activities were inhibited by l-trans-epoxysuccinylleucylamido(4-guanidino)butane, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, iodoacetate, and N-ethylmaleimide and activated with dithiothreitol. Other pathogenic strains of E. histolytica showed the same pattern of hemoglobinases. These hemoglobin-degrading proteases could be playing an important role in iron acquisition by E. histolytica.

  5. Social comparison 2.0: examining the effects of online profiles on social-networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Nina; Krämer, Nicole C

    2011-05-01

    Through their features--such as profile photographs or the personal vita--online profiles on social-networking sites offer a perfect basis for social comparison processes. By looking at the profile photograph, the user gains an impression of a person's physical attractiveness, and the user's vita shows which career path the person is pursuing. Against the background of Festinger's Social Comparison Theory, the focus of this research is on the effects of online profiles on their recipients. Therefore, qualitative interviews (N = 12) and two online experiments were conducted in which virtual online profiles of either physically attractive or unattractive persons (N = 93) and profiles of users with either high or low occupational attainment (N = 103) were presented to the participants. Although qualitative interviews did not initially give reason to expect online profiles to constitute a basis for comparison processes, results of the experiments proved otherwise. The first study indicates that recipients have a more negative body image after looking at beautiful users than persons who were shown the less attractive profile pictures. Male participants of the second study, who were confronted with profiles of successful males, showed a higher perceived discrepancy between their current career status and an ideal vita than male participants who looked at profiles of less successful persons.

  6. Social preferences shaped by conflicting motives: When enhancing social welfare creates unfavorable comparisons for the self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoham Choshen-Hillel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of social preferences often requires one to reconcile various social motives, such as concern with unfavorable inequality and maximization of social welfare. We propose a novel theory whereby people's level of agency influences the relative intensities of their social motives, and thus their social preferences. Agency in this context refers to decision makers' active involvement in the processes that produce social outcomes. Nonagentic decision makers are not involved in creating the outcomes. Therefore, the comparison between self and others is highly informative for them and they shun settings in which their outcome appears to be inferior. Conversely, agentic decision makers, who take action to influence social outcomes, care more about others' outcomes and are more inclined to promote social welfare. We report five studies testing the agency hypothesis. Participants were presented with realistic scenarios involving outcomes for themselves and another person. In each scenario, the outcome for oneself was fixed, while the outcome for the other person varied. The participants' task was to indicate their satisfaction with the other person obtaining either the same outcome as their own or a better one. We found that participants who were involved in creating the outcomes (agentic condition were more satisfied with the other getting the better option than were participants who were not involved (nonagentic condition. Even low levels of influence on the outcomes were sufficient for a strong agency effect to occur. We discuss the agency hypothesis in relation to theories of social preference, the effects of voicing and participation in decision processes, and trade-offs in public policy.

  7. Job satisfaction and social comparison levels of teachers working for state schools

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Kılıç; Taşkın Tanrıkulu; Hasan Uğur

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine primary and secondary level teachers’ job satisfaction and social comparison levels. In line with this general aim, the relationship between the teachers’ personal data and job satisfaction and social comparison levels were researched. The research sampling was 185 teachers composed of 105 female and 81 male participants. Research data were gathered through Minnesota Job Satisfaction and Social Comparison questionnaires, respectively. According t...

  8. Companion Versus Comparison: Examining Seeking Social Companionship or Social Comparison as Characteristics That Differentiate Happy and Unhappy People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyung; Hong, Emily K; Choi, Incheol; Hicks, Joshua A

    2016-03-01

    Which friend do you want to spend time with-a happy friend who performs better than you or an unhappy friend who performs worse than you? The present research demonstrates that in such conflicting situations, when the desires for companionship and comparison are pitted against each other, one's level of happiness plays an important role in one's choice. Using hypothetical scenarios, we found that compared with unhappy people, happy people expected that spending time with a happy, superior friend would be more pleasant than spending time with an unhappy, inferior friend (Studies 1B through 2) and were more willing to socialize with a happy, superior friend than with an unhappy, inferior friend (Studies 1B through 2). Moreover, this pattern was not explained by self-esteem (Study 2) or the similarity-attraction hypothesis (Study 3). The present findings suggest that happy people place more value on companionship than on comparison. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Conflict inside and outside: Social comparisons and attention shifts in multidivisional firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, S.; He, Zilin; Blettner, D.P.; Bettis, R.

    Behavioral Theory highlights the crucial role of social comparisons in attention allocation in adaptive aspirations. Yet, both the specification of social reference points and the dynamics of attention allocation have received little scholarly examination. We address performance feedback from two

  10. Anti-equality: social comparison in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Bloom, Paul; Wynn, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Young children dislike getting less than others, which might suggest a general preference for equal outcomes. However, young children are typically not averse to others receiving less than themselves. These results are consistent with two alternatives: young children might not have any preferences about others receiving less than themselves, or they might have preferences for others receiving less than themselves. We test these alternatives with 5- to 10-year-old children. We replicate previous findings that children will take a cost to avoid being at a relative disadvantage, but also find that 5- and 6-year-olds will spitefully take a cost to ensure that another's welfare falls below their own. This result suggests that the development of fairness includes overcoming an initial social comparison preference for others to get less relative to oneself. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Marketing through Social Media : Case: Comparison of Social Media Marketing Approaches of B2C Companies for Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Rantapelkonen Ahlberg, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Rantapelkonen Ahlberg, Jaana. 2010. Social Media Marketing. Case: Comparison of Social Media Marketing Approaches of B2C Companies for Company X. Master’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 42 (74). The objective of this thesis is to provide insights on how Company X can use Social Media as a marketing and branding tool in consumer marketing in the Swedish market. More specifically, this study attempts to define what kinds of social media are u...

  12. Height, social comparison, and paranoia: an immersive virtual reality experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Dunn, Graham; Slater, Mel

    2014-08-30

    Mistrust of others may build upon perceptions of the self as vulnerable, consistent with an association of paranoia with perceived lower social rank. Height is a marker of social status and authority. Therefore we tested the effect of manipulating height, as a proxy for social rank, on paranoia. Height was manipulated within an immersive virtual reality simulation. Sixty females who reported paranoia experienced a virtual reality train ride twice: at their normal and reduced height. Paranoia and social comparison were assessed. Reducing a person's height resulted in more negative views of the self in comparison with other people and increased levels of paranoia. The increase in paranoia was fully mediated by changes in social comparison. The study provides the first demonstration that reducing height in a social situation increases the occurrence of paranoia. The findings indicate that negative social comparison is a cause of mistrust. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. [Single indicator or index? Comparison of measures of social differentiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, S

    2008-05-01

    We have examined whether the effects of indicators of social differentiation differ from index measures. The comparisons were performed with analyses on health inequalities. Several types of health impairment (subjective health, diabetes, 7-day prevalence of back pain) were considered in order to draw conclusions on the generalisability of the results. The effects of education, occupational position and income were examined alone and in combined analyses. These were compared with effects obtained by Winkler's index of socioeconomic status. In addition, an index of cumulative disadvantage was introduced. This includes the upper and the lower extreme categories of the three main indicators of social differentiation. The analyses were based on data of the Federal Health Survey 1998. Only the age groups between 30 and 65 years were considered. The available case number was n=4 692 men and women. Subjective health, diabetes and the 7-day prevalence of back pain were used as dependent variables. All analyses were performed using logistic regression. Differences between effect sizes were tested using the likelihood difference test. Effects of the three main indicators of social differentiation were obtained in nearly all analyses. This holds both if they had been considered alone or in combination. Use of Winkler's classification produced similar or smaller effect sizes than analyses with single indicators. Marked additive effects of single indicators (cumulative disadvantage) emerged for subjective health and for diabetes, but not for back pain. The application of index measures may conceal effects of single indicators, thus differential relationships may not be discovered. In studies on health inequalities, indices should not be used at all or only be used in combination with single indicators.

  14. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler

    2017-01-01

    The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users' subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users' subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users' social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users' subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users' upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.

  15. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Liang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1 whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2 whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.

  16. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler

    2017-01-01

    The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ. PMID:28553256

  17. Social Network Sites, Friends, and Celebrities: The Roles of Social Comparison and Celebrity Involvement in Adolescents’ Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. Ho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the social comparison theory to examine the effects of adolescents’ engagement in comparison with friends and celebrities on social network sites (SNSs on (a their body image dissatisfaction (BID and (b their drive to be thin (DT or muscular (DM. The study also examines celebrity involvement as an antecedent of the outcome variables. Data were collected through a survey of 1,059 adolescents in Singapore. Regression analyses indicate that SNSs use was related to adolescents’ BID. Specifically, social comparison with friends on SNSs was significantly associated with adolescents’ BID, DT, and DM. Gender differences were also observed—social comparison with celebrities was significantly associated with BID and DT among female adolescents. Celebrity involvement was significantly associated with male BID. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  18. Subjective well-being and social media use: Do personality traits moderate the impact of social comparison on Facebook?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson, J.; Plagnol, A.; Corr, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether personality traits moderate the association between social comparison on Facebook and subjective well-being, measured as both life satisfaction and eudaimonic well-being. Data were collected via an online questionnaire which measured Facebook use, social comparison behavior and personality traits for 337 respondents. The results showed positive associations between Facebook intensity and both measures of subjective well-being, and negative assoc...

  19. Social Network Sites, Friends, and Celebrities: The Roles of Social Comparison and Celebrity Involvement in Adolescents’ Body Image Dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Shirley S.; Edmund W. J. Lee; Youqing Liao

    2016-01-01

    This study applies the social comparison theory to examine the effects of adolescents’ engagement in comparison with friends and celebrities on social network sites (SNSs) on (a) their body image dissatisfaction (BID) and (b) their drive to be thin (DT) or muscular (DM). The study also examines celebrity involvement as an antecedent of the outcome variables. Data were collected through a survey of 1,059 adolescents in Singapore. Regression analyses indicate that SNSs use was related to adoles...

  20. Social comparison as a predictor of changes in burnout among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Peiro, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addressed the question whether the affect evoked by social comparisons and individual differences in social comparison orientation (SCO) may predict the development of burnout over a period of one year. The participants were 93 nurses (25 males and 68 females) who filled out a

  1. The big five and identification-contrast processes in social comparison in adjustment to cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R; Botke, G; van den Bergh, F

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between social comparison processes and the Big Five personality factors. In a sample of 112 patients with various forms of cancer it was found that Neuroticism was associated with a tendency to focus on the negative interpretation of social comparison

  2. The impact of social comparison and personality on school attainment in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekers-Mombarg, L. T. M.; van der Werf, M. P. C.

    2011-01-01

    From previous research it is known that social comparison in the classroom setting can have beneficial impact on the students' grades within one and a half year and standardized cognitive test scores after two years. This study examined the effects of two aspects of social comparison - comparative

  3. Social Comparison and Body Image in Adolescence: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayer, A.; Ingledew, D. K.; Iphofen, R.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the use of social comparison appraisals in adolescents' lives with particular reference to enhancement appraisals which can be used to counter threats to the self. Social comparison theory has been increasingly used in quantitative research to understand the processes through which societal messages about appearance influence…

  4. [Prescription and drug expenditure in gynecology and obstetrics in Northwest medical units from IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Gómez, Luis Guillermo; Canales Muñoz, José Luis

    2006-08-01

    Drug prescription is the most frequent medical intervention in Gynecology and Obstetrics; however, studies of prescription profile are limited. In this study, we analyzed differences of expense by drug prescription for gynecologic and obstetrics health problems. It was performed a cross sectional study for one year analysis in each medical area that shape IMSS western district. We calculated spending and consumption coefficients for each drug and therapeutic groups. User coefficients were ordered to compare consumption differences. Besides the statistical ratio of consumption between drugs groups, we described the differences found and analyzed the prescription profile among medical regions. Data related to the expenses in each one of the regions show important differences in each one of the drugs and therapeutic groups. The most common expense for drugs is related to the treatment of osteoporosis, menopause and fertility problems. We also found differences in prescription drug preferences in each therapeutic subgroup. Drug prescription studies are useful as a basis for further specific studies in each pharmacologic subgroup. There are few studies that analyze the drug prescription profile on Gynecology and Obstetrics. In this study it is possible to suppose that medical prescription was not based on known medical evidences; therefore, we must reconsider the need of a permanent actualization and systematic medical evaluation.

  5. [Estimating the incidence of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) among IMSS affiliates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja Aburto, Víctor Hugo; Grajales Muñiz, Concepción; González León, Margot; Mejia Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the burden of the disease associated to pandemic 2009 influenza virus, from April 2009 to January 2010. To estimate the number of symptomatic cases, the number of hospitalizations and deaths we used the Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommended method that takes into account the underestimation associated with the use of health services, the practices of confirmation and registration of cases.To estimate the incidence of infection, we applied the recently reported London sero-incidence by age group to the IMSS population. Each case of symptomatic confirmed influenza represented 51 cases during the first wave and 18 in the second wave. We estimate 537,167 (range 378,439-813,008) symptomatic cases. Each confirmed hospitalized person represented 2.2 cases. The estimate of hospitalizations was 10,063 (range 7,441-14,610). The ratio of hospitalization to the total number of cases was 1.8%. The estimated incidence of infection was close to 24%. Confirmed cases in the epidemiological surveillance system are only a small proportion of the population infected and symptomatic cases, information relevant in planning new outbreaks.

  6. Phantom Behavioral Assimilation Effects : Systematic Biases in Social Comparison Choice Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Seaton, Marjorie; Kuyper, Hans; Dumas, Florence; Huguet, Pascal; Regner, Isabelle; Buunk, Abraham P.; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    Consistent with social comparison theory (SCT), Blanton, Buunk, Gibbons, and Kuyper (1999) and Huguet, Dumas, Monteil, and Genestoux (2001) found that students tended to choose comparison targets who slightly outperformed them (i.e., upward comparison choices), and this had a beneficial effect on

  7. Student distress in clinical workplace learning: differences in social comparison behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet Raat, A N; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; van Hell, E Ally; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2015-03-01

    In medical education, student distress is known to hamper learning and professional development. To address this problem, recent studies aimed at helping students cope with stressful situations. Undergraduate students in clinical practice frequently use experiences of surrounding peers to estimate their abilities to master such challenging situations. This use of the experiences of others, known as social comparison, may affect student distress both positively and negatively. To find characteristics of a beneficial use of social comparison, we examined differences in comparison behaviours between students expressing low and high levels of distress. The participants in our study, response rate 93% (N = 301/321), were all medical students in their first year in clinical practice. They completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure distress, and three separate questionnaires to measure: (1) orientation to comparison, (2) motive for comparison, and (3) interpretation of comparison. Differences were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Although all students were oriented towards social comparison, the analyses showed that this orientation was less apparent among low-distress students. Besides, the low-distress students were less inclined to use motives indicative for comparisons with peers perceived as performing worse and were less negative in the interpretations of their comparisons. As social comparison is frequently used among all students, we recommend to make them aware of their comparison behaviours and inform them about the pros and cons of the distinguished aspects of the comparison process.

  8. Personal Self and Collective Self: When Academic Choices Depend on the Context of Social Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazal, Sebastien; Guimond, Serge; Darnon, Celine

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the impact of same-sex versus opposite-sex social comparisons on the perception of one's own abilities at school and subsequent reported marks and academic choices. During their final year, male and female high school students were asked to describe themselves either in comparison with boys in their class, in comparison with…

  9. Upward and Downward: Social Comparison Processing of Thin Idealized Media Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Polivy, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of social comparison processing in women's responses to thin idealized images. In particular, it was predicted that comparison with the images on the basis of appearance would lead to more negative outcomes than comparison on the basis of intelligence. A sample of 114 women viewed fashion magazine…

  10. Children's body image and social comparisons with peers and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatangelo, Gemma L; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2017-05-01

    Social comparisons are related to the development of body dissatisfaction among adolescents and adults, yet this relationship remains relatively unexamined among children. This study examines children's peer and media-related social comparisons, and how this impacts on their body image. Children aged 8-10 years completed interviews (17 girls and 19 boys in individual interviews, and 16 girls and 16 boys in focus groups). Analyses revealed that appearance-related comparisons were more common among girls, whereas sports/ability-related comparisons were more common for boys. In addition, boys viewed media comparisons as inspiring, whereas girls reported negative emotions. Implications for future research and prevention programmes are discussed.

  11. Who is most likely to fat talk? A social comparison perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, Alexandra F; Gondoli, Dawn M

    2012-09-01

    Negative talk about food, weight, or the body that occurs commonly among women--fat talk--is gaining increasing attention. Whereas its negative eating pathology and body esteem correlates have received continued empirical validation, what is not yet known is who is most likely to fat talk. We propose that social comparison processes underlie and motivate much of fat talk. In a sample of 143 college women, we found evidence for the role of social comparison. First, having a stronger tendency to socially compare directly predicts fat talk. Second, as a woman's body image concerns increase, her likelihood of engaging in fat talk increases, and this is intensified if she has a greater tendency to socially compare. Finally, social comparison propensity begins to exert its exacerbating effects at surprisingly low levels of body image concern. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of using a social comparison perspective to better understand fat talk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Instagram #instasad?: exploring associations among instagram use, depressive symptoms, negative social comparison, and strangers followed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lup, Katerina; Trub, Leora; Rosenthal, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    As the use and influence of social networking continues to grow, researchers have begun to explore its consequences for psychological well-being. Some research suggests that Facebook use can have negative consequences for well-being. Instagram, a photo-sharing social network created in 2010, has particular characteristics that may make users susceptible to negative consequences. This study tested a theoretically grounded moderated meditation model of the association between Instagram use and depressive symptoms through the mechanism of negative social comparison, and moderation by amount of strangers one follows. One hundred and seventeen 18-29 year olds completed online questionnaires containing demographics, frequency of Instagram use, amount of strangers followed on Instagram, the Center for Epidemiological Resources Scale for Depression, and the Social Comparison Rating Scale. Instagram use was marginally positively associated with depressive symptoms, and positive social comparison was significantly negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Amount of strangers followed moderated the associations of Instagram use with social comparison (significantly) and depressive symptoms (marginally), and further significantly moderated the indirect association of Instagram use with depressive symptoms through social comparison. Findings generally suggest that more frequent Instagram use has negative associations for people who follow more strangers, but positive associations for people who follow fewer strangers, with social comparison and depressive symptoms. Implications of negative associations of social networking for people who follow strangers and the need for more research on Instagram use given its increasing popularity are explored.

  13. Human resources requirements for diabetic patients healthcare in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security

    OpenAIRE

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Claudine Ramírez-Sánchez; Alejandro Figueroa-Lara; Ricardo Pérez-Cuevas

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To estimate the requirements of human resources (HR) of two models of care for diabetes patients: conventional and specific, also called DiabetIMSS, which are provided in primary care clinics of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Materials and methods. An evaluative research was conducted. An expert group identified the HR activities and time required to provide healthcare consistent with the best clinical practices for diabetic patients. HR were estimated by using th...

  14. Social comparison affects brain responses to fairness in asset division : an ERP study with the ultimatum game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; van Dijk, E.; Leliveld, M.C.; Zhou, X.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as

  15. The Influence of Social Comparison and Peer Group Size on Risky Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group.

  16. The influence of social comparison and peer group size on risky decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group.

  17. Teaching Social Welfare Policy: A Comparison of Two Pedagogical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra K.; Harris, Barbara M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of experiential approaches to teach social welfare policy suggests that such methods may increase undergraduate social work students' knowledge of and skill in working on social and economic justice issues. This article compares 2 such methods using qualitative and quantitative approaches. The first teaches social welfare policy as a…

  18. Social comparison and its relation to body dissatisfaction in bulimia nervosa: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Nickert, Till; Caffier, Detlef; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2009-10-01

    To determine the role of social comparison for body dissatisfaction in bulimia nervosa (BN). Previous research suggested that exposure to media content idealizing thin body shape decreases body satisfaction, particularly in women with eating disorder symptoms. This might be due to the negative outcome of social comparisons with media models, and women with eating disorders might be particularly susceptible because they engage in upward social comparison more frequently than women without these symptoms. However, no study has yet explored both upward (i.e., toward more attractive others) and downward (i.e., toward less attractive others) social comparisons and their impact on body dissatisfaction in a clinical eating disorder and healthy controls. We presented patients with BN (n = 20) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 22) with slides comprising a digitized image of their own body alongside comparison bodies with higher and lower body mass indices (BMIs) while measuring their eye movements. As hypothesized, patients with BN fixated longer on comparison bodies with lower BMIs than controls, with the reverse pattern for high BMI bodies. This gaze pattern suggests that upward comparisons were more prevalent in the BN group. Furthermore, upward comparisons were related to a drop in body satisfaction in the BN group. Disadvantageous social comparison strategies might be related to body dissatisfaction and therefore to the maintenance of BN.

  19. Identification and characterization of microRNAs from Entamoeba histolytica HM1-IMSS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Mar-Aguilar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, a disease that is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation in animals. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs is a critical step to facilitating our understanding of genome organization, genome biology, evolution, and post-transcriptional regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced a small RNA library prepared from a culture of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica Strain HM1-IMSS using a deep DNA sequencing approach. Deep sequencing yielded 16 million high-quality short sequence reads containing a total of 5 million non-redundant sequence reads. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we found that only 0.5% of these non-redundant small RNA reads were a perfect match with the drafted E. histolytica genome. We did not find miRNA homologs in plant or animal miRNAs. We discovered 199 new potential Entamoeba histolytica miRNAs. The expression and sequence of these Ehi-miRNAs were further validated through microarray by µParaflo Microfluidic Biochip Technology. Ten potential miRNAs were additionally confirmed by real time RT-PCR analysis. Prediction of target genes matched 32 known genes and 34 hypothetical genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that there is a number of regulatory miRNAs in Entamoeba histolytica. The collection of miRNAs in this parasite could be used as a new platform to study genomic structure, gene regulation and networks, development, and host-parasite interactions.

  20. Identification and characterization of microRNAs from Entamoeba histolytica HM1-IMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar-Aguilar, Fermín; Trevino, Victor; Salinas-Hernández, Jannet E; Taméz-Guerrero, Marcela M; Barrón-González, María P; Morales-Rubio, Eufemia; Treviño-Neávez, Jaime; Verduzco-Martínez, Jorge A; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Reséndez-Pérez, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, a disease that is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large group of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation in animals. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs is a critical step to facilitating our understanding of genome organization, genome biology, evolution, and post-transcriptional regulation. We sequenced a small RNA library prepared from a culture of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica Strain HM1-IMSS using a deep DNA sequencing approach. Deep sequencing yielded 16 million high-quality short sequence reads containing a total of 5 million non-redundant sequence reads. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we found that only 0.5% of these non-redundant small RNA reads were a perfect match with the drafted E. histolytica genome. We did not find miRNA homologs in plant or animal miRNAs. We discovered 199 new potential Entamoeba histolytica miRNAs. The expression and sequence of these Ehi-miRNAs were further validated through microarray by µParaflo Microfluidic Biochip Technology. Ten potential miRNAs were additionally confirmed by real time RT-PCR analysis. Prediction of target genes matched 32 known genes and 34 hypothetical genes. These results show that there is a number of regulatory miRNAs in Entamoeba histolytica. The collection of miRNAs in this parasite could be used as a new platform to study genomic structure, gene regulation and networks, development, and host-parasite interactions.

  1. Immediate relativity: EEG reveals early engagement of comparison in social information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmann, Katharina; Stahl, Jutta; Mussweiler, Thomas; Kedia, Gayannée

    2016-11-01

    A wide array of social decisions relies on social comparisons. As such, these decisions require fast access to relative information. Therefore, we expect that signatures of the comparative process should be observable in electrophysiological components at an early stage of information processing. However, to date, little is known about the neural time course of social target comparisons. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in 2 electroencephalography (EEG) studies using a social distance effect paradigm. The distance effect capitalizes on the fact that stimuli close on a certain dimension take longer to compare than stimuli clearly differing on this dimension. Here, we manipulated the distance of face characteristics regarding their levels of attractiveness (Study 1) and trustworthiness (Study 2), 2 essential social dimensions. In both studies, size comparisons served as a nonsocial control condition. In Study 1, distance related effects were apparent 170 ms (vertex positive potential, VPP) and 200 ms (N2) after stimulus onset for attractiveness comparisons. In Study 2, trustworthiness comparisons took effect already after 100 ms (N1) and likewise carried over to an event-related N2. Remarkably, we observed a similar temporal pattern for social (attractiveness, trustworthiness) and nonsocial (size) dimensions. These results speak in favor of an early encoding of comparative information and emphasize the primary role of comparison in social information processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Categorizing at the group-level in response to intragroup social comparisons : A self-categorization theory integration of self-evaluation and social identity motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, MT; Branscombe, NR; Silvia, PJ; Garcia, DM; Spears, R

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments examined how people respond to upward social comparisons in terms of the extent to which they categorize the self and the source of comparison within the same social group. Self-evaluation maintenance theory (SEM) suggests that upward ingroup comparisons can lead to the rejection of

  3. Correlation of preferences for social comparison goals and certain personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Samoylenko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of differences in preference of certain goals of social comparison in individuals with opposite personality traits evaluated with the Big Five test are presented.

  4. We can do it : The interplay of construal orientation and social comparisons under threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, David M; Stapel, Diederik A; Muller, Dominique

    The authors investigated how a collective self-construal orientation in combination with positive social comparisons "turns off" the negative effects of stereotype threat. Specifically, Experiment 1 demonstrated that stereotype threat led to increased accessibility of participants' collective self

  5. Automatic contrast : Evidence that automatic comparison with the social self affects evaluative responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, Kirsten I.; Spears, Russell; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; de Vries, Nanne K.

    The aim of the present research was to investigate whether unconsciously presented affective information may cause opposite evaluative responses depending on what social category the information originates from. We argue that automatic comparison processes between the self and the unconscious

  6. Effects of muscle dysmorphia, social comparisons and body schema priming on desire for social interaction: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Agthe, Maria; Yanagida, Takuya; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2017-06-15

    Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a relatively young diagnosis referring to the desire for a high degree in lean muscle mass, while simultaneously believing that one is insufficiently muscular, mostly found in men. It goes along with a risk for social withdrawal to maintain rigid exercise and dietary regimen. The aim of the current study was thus, to explore differences in men with and without a risk for muscle dysmorphia regarding their desire for social interaction. Furthermore, we investigated potential effects of individual social comparison tendencies (the tendency to compare oneself with persons who are perceived to be superior or inferior to oneself on a certain dimension) and of one's own body schema on the desire for social interaction. One hundred physically active, college aged Austrian men were recruited via social media and flyers at fitness centers and the sports department of the University of Vienna. Participants were randomly assigned to a priming condition evoking their own body schema or a control condition and had to state their desire for social interaction with male or female stimulus persons of high or average attractiveness. We conducted a 2 (group of participant; men with vs. without a risk for MD) × 2 (priming condition; priming vs. non-priming) × 2 (attractiveness of stimulus person; highly attractive vs. less attractive) experimental design with different social comparison tendencies as covariates. Men with a risk for muscle dysmorphia showed lesser desire for social interaction than men without this risk, which can be seen as a risk factor for psychopathological outcomes. Generally, men with and without a risk for muscle dysmorphia did not differ with regard to their preferences for attractive stimulus persons as subjects for social interaction. We confirmed the notion that a tendency for downward social comparisons goes along with a diminished desire for social interaction. This study showed that men with a risk for muscle dysmorphia

  7. Perceived stigma, self-esteem and social comparison of people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Ivana; Milačić-Vidojević Ivona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-esteem, perceived stigma and social comparison of persons with intellectual disabilities. The sample consisted of 100 persons with mild and moderate intellectual disability, aged 18 years and older, of different sexes, with or without stigmatized characteristics, who lived in an institution or in a family. We used questionnaires of Perceived stigma, Adapted Scale of Social Comparison and Adapted Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. ...

  8. Stigma, Social Comparison and Self-Esteem in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, Lucy; McKenzie, Karen; Lindsay, William

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paper examines the perception of stigma in 43 adults with an intellectual disability, the relationship this has with their psychological well-being and whether the process of social comparison has a moderating effect on this relationship.\\ud \\ud Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, within-participant design was used. Participants completed three self-report measures of perception of stigma, self-esteem and social comparison.\\ud \\ud Results: Perception of stigma was fo...

  9. Social comparison in the brain: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies on the downward and upward comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Eickhoff, Simon B; Hétu, Sébastien; Feng, Chunliang

    2018-01-01

    Social comparison is ubiquitous across human societies with dramatic influence on people's well-being and decision making. Downward comparison (comparing to worse-off others) and upward comparison (comparing to better-off others) constitute two types of social comparisons that produce different neuropsychological consequences. Based on studies exploring neural signatures associated with downward and upward comparisons, the current study utilized a coordinate-based meta-analysis to provide a refinement of understanding about the underlying neural architecture of social comparison. We identified consistent involvement of the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in downward comparison and consistent involvement of the anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in upward comparison. These findings fit well with the "common-currency" hypothesis that neural representations of social gain or loss resemble those for non-social reward or loss processing. Accordingly, we discussed our findings in the framework of general reinforcement learning (RL) hypothesis, arguing how social gain/loss induced by social comparisons could be encoded by the brain as a domain-general signal (i.e., prediction errors) serving to adjust people's decisions in social settings. Although the RL account may serve as a heuristic framework for the future research, other plausible accounts on the neuropsychological mechanism of social comparison were also acknowledged. Hum Brain Mapp 39:440-458, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Medial prefrontal cortex and striatum mediate the influence of social comparison on the decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bault, Nadège; Joffily, Mateus; Rustichini, Aldo; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2011-09-20

    We compared private and social decision making to investigate the neural underpinnings of the effect of social comparison on risky choices. We measured brain activity using functional MRI while participants chose between two lotteries: in the private condition, they observed the outcome of the unchosen lottery, and in the social condition, the outcome of the lottery chosen by another person. The striatum, a reward-related brain structure, showed higher activity when participants won more than their counterpart (social gains) compared with winning in isolation and lower activity when they won less than their counterpart (social loss) compared with private loss. The medial prefrontal cortex, implicated in social reasoning, was more activated by social gains than all other events. Sensitivity to social gains influenced both brain activity and behavior during subsequent choices. Specifically, striatal activity associated with social gains predicted medial prefrontal cortex activity during social choices, and experienced social gains induced more risky and competitive behavior in later trials. These results show that interplay between reward and social reasoning networks mediates the influence of social comparison on the decision process.

  11. Social comparison as a mediator between health problems and subjective health evaluations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.I.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Sanderman, R.

    The role of social comparison in mediating the relation between 'objective' health status and subjective health evaluations was examined. In a random population sample (N = 361) it was shown that health problems were related to psychological distress, which in turn induced a downward comparison

  12. Does life satisfaction change when watching your peers? An experimental exposure to social comparison targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov

    This study examined whether social comparison affected life satisfaction in younger and older adults. In an experimental setting 204 younger and older adults were shown positive and negative documentaries with same-age characters. Life satisfaction increased after downward comparisons in both age...

  13. The Frequency, Nature, and Effects of Naturally Occurring Appearance-Focused Social Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Mickelson, Kristin D.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the effects of naturally occurring appearance-focused social comparisons on women's affect, body satisfaction, and weight-related cognitions. During their daily activities, women reporting body dissatisfaction (n = 53) and women reporting body satisfaction (n = 34) recorded their reactions to comparison information.…

  14. Observation of Transient Surface-Bound Intermediates by Interfacial Matrix Stabilization Spectroscopy (imss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, Nina K.; Moore, David T.

    2014-06-01

    Interfacial matrix stabilization spectroscopy is a new technique based on matrix isolation spectroscopy, but where a cryogenic matrix is deposited over the top of a film sample, in order to characterize interactions between the substrate and molecular dopants. The IMSS technique harnesses the well-established ability of cryogenic matrices to trap and stabilize transient species, although in this case it is applied to intermediates relevant to heterogeneous catalysis. In this proof-of-concept study, we present data for CO and O2 reactants binding to TiO2 and Au/TiO2 nanoparticle films, where in the latter case the Au nanoparticles were created by de-wetting of a 22.5 nm overlayer at 450 K. The films are first pre-saturated with CO at 40 K, then cooled to 20 K, at which point an argon matrix is deposited over the top of them. The spectra are then annealed in stages over a range of temperatures between 20 and 40 K. In all cases, the presence of the Ar matrix alters the appearance of the CO bands, revealing additional structure, such as a broad feature at 2150 wn, which is typically attributed to CO interacting with OH groups on the TiO2 surface, but is not observed at 40 K for these samples in the absence of the matrix. The interpretation is that the matrix induces a caging-effect that prevents molecules from desorbing from weak binding sites from which they would be "pumped away" in the vacuum chamber if the matrix were not present. Perhaps the most interesting feature of these spectra is a small but sharp band at 2112 wn that appears ONLY when O2 is added to the argon matrix as a dopant. This transient band grows in following annealing at 32 K, but then disappears upon annealing above 34 K, suggesting that it may correspond to a reactive intermediate. The band occurs for samples both with and without Au present on the TiO2 surface, but shows a larger intensity in the latter case. Possible assignments for the observed band in light of previous studies from the

  15. The Influence of Social Comparison and Peer Group Size on Risky Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Dawei Wang; Liping Zhu; Phil Maguire; Yixin Liu; Kaiyuan Pang; Zhenying Li; Yixin Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the r...

  16. [Comparison of the effects of exchange forms on social solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Misato; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2012-04-01

    Although social solidarity is an essential component that helps maintaining social order, what produces solidarity and how does it work have not been fully investigated. We conducted an experiment to examine whether experiencing different forms of social exchange produces different levels of solidarity. We compared four forms of social exchange: reciprocal exchange (exchange resources without negotiation), negotiated exchange (with negotiation), pure-generalized exchange (giver can choose who to give) and chain-generalized exchange (giver cannot choose who to give). Two dimensions classify these exchanges: the number of players (two vs. more than two), and involvement of negotiation. Reciprocal and negotiated exchanges occur within dyads, while pure- and chain-generalized exchanges involve three or more players. Only the negotiated exchange involves negotiation process; the other exchanges are purely unilateral giving. Participants played a one-shot social dilemma game (SDG) before and after social exchange session. The more the players cooperated in SDG, the stronger the social solidarity. Results show that the cooperation rate in SDG increased more in the reciprocal, pure- and chain-generalized exchange conditions than that in the negotiated exchange condition, suggesting that social solidarity is facilitated by experiencing social exchange which does not involve negotiation.

  17. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Worldviews of Educators and Students in Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jerry; Simmons, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the worldviews of social work educators and two groups of social work students (European Americans and African Americans) using the Scale to Assess World Views to examine similarities and differences between the three groups. Within-group comparisons revealed African American and European American students showed similar…

  18. Medial prefrontal cortex and striatum mediate the influence of social comparison on the decision process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bault, N.; Joffily, M.; Rustichini, A.; Coricelli, G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared private and social decision making to investigate the neural underpinnings of the effect of social comparison on risky choices. We measured brain activity using functional MRI while participants chose between two lotteries: in the private condition, they observed the outcome of the

  19. When misery avoids company : Selective social comparisons to photographic online profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Benjamin K.; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Social networking site usage may affect subjective well-being. Two experiments examined how selective exposure to profiles of other users facilitated mood management via self-enhancing social comparisons. In Study 1, when given detailed impression management cues, such as photographs and status

  20. Generation Validation: The Role of Social Comparison in Use of Instagram Among Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Peta; Luiz, Gabriella; Chatwin, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide emerging adults with extreme and unprecedented transparency, exposing them to a plethora of opportunities for social comparison. In light of the growing use of the popular SNS, Instagram, among emerging adults, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of exposure to social media-based social comparison information on self-esteem. The study recruited 237 participants through social media. The sample was narrowed to young adults aged 18-29 years. The study used a correlational nonexperimental approach to investigate two mediation models proposed in the literature. First, the study investigated the mediating role of social comparison on Instagram in the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and self-esteem. Second, the study examined the mediating role of social comparison in the relationship between self-worth contingent on approval from others and self-esteem. Although the first model was found to be nonsignificant, results observed a significant indirect pathway that confirmed the second model. Thus, social comparison on Instagram mediated the relationship between contingent self-worth and self-esteem. Furthermore, moderation analyses found that self-worth contingent on approval from others moderated the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and social comparison on Instagram. Thus, although Instagram did not directly affect self-esteem, the significant moderation suggested that intensity of Instagram use is influential when the young person's self-worth is contingent on approval from others. Overall, the findings are consistent with previous research and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms that link SNS use to low self-esteem.

  1. Comparison of Student and Instructor Perceptions of Social Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Mathieson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As enrollment in online courses continues to grow and online education is increasingly recognized as an established instructional mode, the unique challenges posed by this learning environment should be addressed. A primary challenge for virtual educators is developing social presence such that participants feel a sense of human connection with each other. Accomplishing this within learning management systems (LMS that are often restrictive can be difficult. Prior research has established a relationship between student perceptions of social presence and satisfaction, but little research has included perceptions of instructors. This study compares student and instructor perceptions of social presence and the importance placed on social connections. While students and instructors reported high levels of social presence, students reported significantly lower levels than instructors. In particular, students found the LMS more impersonal than instructors and were less comfortable participating in LMS activities than instructors. Students had less desire for social connections with other students and instructors, and reported having less time available for such connections. Strategies to facilitate social presence, including offering social networking opportunities outside the LMS, are discussed in light of these differences in perceptions between students and instructors.

  2. Social and cognitive outcomes : A comparison of contexts of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guldemond, H; Hofman, R.H.; Hofman, W

    This study determines effects of social learning contexts (classroom, school and boards) on social and cognitive outcomes of primary school pupils. Central to this research are the differential effects of attending private and public schools for pupils' math achievement and sense of well-being at

  3. The human and the social: Asystematised comparison of the discourses of human development, human security and social quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper presents a structured comparison of the social quality approach with the UNDP-led ‘human development’ approach and the sister work (especially in the UN system and Japan) on ‘human security’. Through clarification of their respective foci and roles and

  4. Risky social choice with approximate interpersonal comparisons of well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Pivato, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    We develop a model of social choice over lotteries, where people's psychological characteristics are mutable, their preferences may be incomplete, and approximate interpersonal comparisons of well-being are possible. Formally, we suppose individual preferences are described by a von~Neumann-Morgenstern (vNM) preference order on a space of lotteries over psychophysical states; the social planner must construct a vNM preference order on lotteries over social states. First we consider a model w...

  5. A Comparison of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Measures: Unique Associations With Social Interaction Anxiety and Social Observation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Sam L; Rodriguez, Benjamin F

    2016-06-24

    Evidence suggests that the behavior inhibition system (BIS) and fight-flight-freeze system play a role in the individual differences seen in social anxiety disorder; however, findings concerning the role of the behavior approach system (BAS) have been mixed. To date, the role of revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) subsystems underlying social anxiety has been measured with scales designed for the original RST. This study examined how the BIS, BAS, and fight, flight, freeze components of the fight-flight-freeze system uniquely relate to social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety using both a measure specifically designed for the revised RST and a commonly used original RST measure. Comparison of regression analyses with the Jackson-5 and the commonly used BIS/BAS Scales revealed important differences in the relationships between RST subsystems and social anxiety depending on how RST was assessed. Limitations and future directions for revised RST measurement are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Social Rhythm and Mental Health: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Jürgen; Lavallee, Kristen; Zhang, XiaoChi; Schneider, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Background Social rhythm refers to the regularity with which one engages in social activities throughout the week, and has established links with bipolar disorder, as well as some links with depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study is to examine social rhythm and its relationship to various aspects of health, including physical health, negative mental health, and positive mental health. Method Questionnaire data were obtained from a large-scale multi-national sample of 8095 representative participants from the U.S., Russia, and Germany. Results Results indicated that social rhythm irregularity is related to increased reporting of health problems, depression, anxiety, and stress. In contrast, greater regularity is related to better overall health state, life satisfaction, and positive mental health. The effects are generally small in size, but hold even when controlling for gender, marital status, education, income, country, and social support. Further, social rhythm means differ across Russia, the U.S., and Germany. Relationships with mental health are present in all three countries, but differ in magnitude. Conclusions Social rhythm irregularity is related to mental health in Russia, the U.S., and Germany. PMID:26954568

  7. Social Rhythm and Mental Health: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Margraf

    Full Text Available Social rhythm refers to the regularity with which one engages in social activities throughout the week, and has established links with bipolar disorder, as well as some links with depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study is to examine social rhythm and its relationship to various aspects of health, including physical health, negative mental health, and positive mental health.Questionnaire data were obtained from a large-scale multi-national sample of 8095 representative participants from the U.S., Russia, and Germany.Results indicated that social rhythm irregularity is related to increased reporting of health problems, depression, anxiety, and stress. In contrast, greater regularity is related to better overall health state, life satisfaction, and positive mental health. The effects are generally small in size, but hold even when controlling for gender, marital status, education, income, country, and social support. Further, social rhythm means differ across Russia, the U.S., and Germany. Relationships with mental health are present in all three countries, but differ in magnitude.Social rhythm irregularity is related to mental health in Russia, the U.S., and Germany.

  8. Drive for muscularity, body comparison, and social physique anxiety in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Donald R; Saucier, Deborah M

    2009-01-01

    The presented study tested a model of the relationship between the drive for muscularity (DM), three aspects of body comparison (general, weight-, and muscle-related), and social physique anxiety in college men and women. The findings demonstrated that those with higher levels of DM engaged in more frequent body-related comparisons in all three areas. Greater frequency of both Weight- and Muscle-Related Body Comparison was then predictive of higher levels of social physique anxiety. Constraints placed on the path coefficients showed that the association between DM and Muscle-Related Comparisons was significantly stronger than the association between DM and Weight-Related Comparisons. The model was similar for both genders. The results from the structural models were discussed in terms of Cash's (2002) cognitive-behavioral model of body image and the dual pathway model of boys' and men's body image (Jones & Crawford, 2005).

  9. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhen

    Full Text Available Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG and a social comparison game (SCG to examine the relationship between justice sensitivity and social comparison sensitivity in 51 young adults. Study 2 examined self-reported social comparison and justice sensitivity in 142 young adults. Both studies showed a positive correlation between social comparison sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We reason that social comparison and justice sensitivity have an important positive correlation in human decision-making. The rejection of self-disadvantageous inequality offers may be due to the social comparison effect, which suggests that the tendency to compare oneself with others may contribute to having a strong sense of justice. Our findings suggest that the predictions of game theory may vary depending on the social culture context and incorporating notions of fairness and social comparison tendency may be essential to better predict the actual behavior of players in social interactive situations.

  10. The Effects of Social Comparison on Social Emotions and Behavior during Childhood: The Ontogeny of Envy and Schadenfreude Predicts Developmental Changes in Equity-Related Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Singer, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Social comparison can elicit emotions such as envy, which can affect social interactions. The emergence and development of such social emotions through ontogeny, and their influence on social interaction, are unknown. We tested 182 children from 7 to 13 years of age with a novel monetary reward-and-punishment task measuring envy and Schadenfreude…

  11. Social phobia and sexual problems: A comparison of social phobic, sexually dysfunctional and normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Valentina; Stravynski, Ariel

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to test the putative link between social phobia and sexual functioning. Three groups consisting of 106 social phobic, 164 sexually dysfunctional and 111 normal participants were assessed in terms of sexual functioning, social anxiety, social functioning and general psychopathology. Although social phobic men were less sexually active than normal men, they were as sexually satisfied. Social phobic women were alike their normal counterparts in all respects. Overall, social phobic individuals were not more prone to report sexual problems than normal individuals despite reporting the severest levels of social anxiety. Theoretically, our results are best understood as supporting an interpersonal conception of social phobia and a related socio-cultural perspective regarding sexual roles.

  12. The road not taken: social vs. private comparisons in Asperger׳s syndrome and high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvash, Jonathan; Ben-Zèev, Aaron; Noga, Adler; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone

    2014-05-30

    Evaluation of the outcomes of our decisions may instigate comparisons of our actual outcome with those of others (social comparisons) or comparisons with alternative outcomes of choices not made (private comparisons). Previous research has suggested a deficit in attention to social information among individuals with autism spectrum disorders. As social comparison involves the processing of social information, here we investigated the orientation towards and sensitivity to social vs. private comparisons in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. We compared the sensitivity to social vs. private comparisons among individuals diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) or High Functioning Autism, using a task that entailed monetary rewards. Results showed that while individuals with AS generally demonstrate comparable sensitivity to absolute and relative rewards, they show less sensitivity to social comparison as compared to controls. Furthermore, they are characterized by a higher sensitivity to private rather than social comparison. These results suggest that low sensitivity to social comparisons is an important factor to consider in autism spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise self-identity: interactions with social comparison and exercise behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkooijen, Kirsten T; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Possible interactions among exercise self-identity, social comparison and exercise behaviour were explored in a sample of 417 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.5, SD = 3.0; 73% female). Two models were examined using self-report data; (1) a mediation model which proposed an association between social comparison and exercise behaviour mediated by exercise self-identity and (2) a moderation model proposing an association between exercise behaviour and self-identity moderated by social comparison. Results of the mediation analyses revealed partial mediation of the social comparison--exercise behaviour relationship by self-identity in females. Results of the moderation analyses revealed in males a significant interaction of social comparison with exercise behaviour in the prediction of self-identity - the positive association between exercise behaviour and exercise self-identity showed only significant among male students who believed to exercise equally much or less than peers. Possible explanations and implications for exercise promotion are discussed.

  14. Self-efficacy, personal goals, social comparison and scientific productivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.J.; Koenis, M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which perceived self-efficacy, personal goals, and upward comparison predict the scientific productivity of academic staff members. 123 academic staff employed at different Dutch universities answered written questions about their judgment of self-efficacy in the area of

  15. Social Comparison as a Basis for Evaluating Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Glenn S.

    1982-01-01

    Discussed whether similarity affects the relationship between comparison and other-evaluation. Subjects read about an emergency, estimated their reaction, and evaluated a target who failed to help. Results showed increasing discrepancy between self and other's reactions led to more negative evaluations if self and target were the same sex.…

  16. [Psychophysics of social prestige: a comparison between different methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; da Silva, José Aparecido

    2003-01-01

    The social prestige of professions with higher education, exercised by social assistants, biologists, dentists, nurses, engineers, pharmacists, physicists, physiotherapists, phonoaudiologists, physicians, chemists and sociologists, was scaled by using both the indirect ordering method and the direct psychophysical category and magnitude estimation methods. The results showed: (1) high correlation (rho = 0.97) between the prestige levels attributed to the professions, obtained by the three psychophysical methods, (2) the non-metric continuum of professional prestige exhibited prothetic characteristics (rho = 0.96); (3) the relationship between the magnitude estimates and category estimates is a semi-logarithmic function, and (4) the variability of magnitudes estimates, indicated by the standard error of geometric mean, was a linear function of the geometric mean of the magnitude estimates, thus confirming that Ekman's law is also valid for non-metric continua. In short, the data showed that the scale of social prestige possesses quantitative or prothetic characteristics, and not qualitative or metathetic ones.

  17. An Investigation of Referral- and Comparison-based Social Influence on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Kausar, Devi; Soesilo, Primidya K. M.

    This study explored social influence resulting from two distinct social reference processes on social networking sites (SNS). A web-based survey was conducted among consumers in the USA and Indonesia using restaurant consumption as a research context. The study identified the positive relationships...

  18. The Impact of Social Comparisons on Stereotype Threat for Black College Students Attending Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Odessia

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of various social comparisons on stereotype threat for Black college students attending predominantly White colleges and universities (PWCUs). Additionally, explored was whether the student's Black racial identity would moderate the relationship between social comparison and academic achievement. Social comparison theory posits that to gain an accurate self-evaluation, individuals compare themselves to others who are similar; therefore, for Black...

  19. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males;...

  20. Comparison of Student and Instructor Perceptions of Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Kathleen; Leafman, Joan S.

    2014-01-01

    As enrollment in online courses continues to grow and online education is increasingly recognized as an established instructional mode, the unique challenges posed by this learning environment should be addressed. A primary challenge for virtual educators is developing social presence such that participants feel a sense of human connection with…

  1. A genomic comparison of two termites with different social complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korb, Judith; Thomas-Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu

    2015-01-01

    large and complex societies with morphologically distinct castes that are life-time sterile. Here we compare key characteristics of genomic architecture, focusing on genes involved in communication, immune defenses, mating biology and symbiosis that were likely important in termite social evolution. We...

  2. Comparison of some risk factors for diabetes across different social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of the present research was to compare the prevalence of risk factors for diabetes among three distinct social groups‑the urban affluent, the urban poor and the rural poor. Subjects and Methods: A total of 775 adult population over 18 years and belonging to both genders were surveyed for prevalence of some ...

  3. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  4. Comparing to perfection: How cultural norms for appearance affect social comparisons and self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Erin J; Wilson, Anne E; Cressman, Kate E; Buote, Vanessa M

    2006-09-01

    Theory and research suggests that cultural norms for appearance present unrealistic standards of beauty which may contribute to women's body dissatisfaction. In Study 1, women described their appearance more negatively than men and made more upward social comparisons about their bodies, but not about other domains. Women also compared more than men with unrealistic targets (e.g., models). In Study 2, we explored the role of cultural norms for appearance in social comparisons with relevant (peer) or irrelevant (model) superior targets. When cultural norms were not salient, participants judged a peer to be more relevant, compared more with the peer, and were more negatively affected by the peer. However, when cultural norms were salient, participants judged a professional model to be equally relevant, compared more with the model and felt worse after exposure to the model. We discuss the powerful role of cultural norms in determining social comparison processes and self-appraisals.

  5. Culture, gender, and the self: variations and impact of social comparison processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Branscombe, Nyla R; Brunot, Sophie; Buunk, Abraham P; Chatard, Armand; Désert, Michel; Garcia, Donna M; Haque, Shamsul; Martinot, Delphine; Yzerbyt, Vincent

    2007-06-01

    Psychological differences between women and men, far from being invariant as a biological explanation would suggest, fluctuate in magnitude across cultures. Moreover, contrary to the implications of some theoretical perspectives, gender differences in personality, values, and emotions are not smaller, but larger, in American and European cultures, in which greater progress has been made toward gender equality. This research on gender differences in self-construals involving 950 participants from 5 nations/cultures (France, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United States, and Malaysia) illustrates how variations in social comparison processes across cultures can explain why gender differences are stronger in Western cultures. Gender differences in the self are a product of self-stereotyping, which occurs when between-gender social comparisons are made. These social comparisons are more likely, and exert a greater impact, in Western nations. Both correlational and experimental evidence supports this explanation. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Instagram Use, Loneliness, and Social Comparison Orientation: Interact and Browse on Social Media, But Don't Compare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Chen

    2016-12-01

    Ever since the emergence of social networking sites (SNSs), it has remained a question without a conclusive answer whether SNSs make people more or less lonely. To achieve a better understanding, researchers need to move beyond studying overall SNS usage. In addition, it is necessary to attend to personal attributes as potential moderators. Given that SNSs provide rich opportunities for social comparison, one highly relevant personality trait would be social comparison orientation (SCO), and yet this personal attribute has been understudied in social media research. Drawing on literature of psychosocial implications of social media use and SCO, this study explored associations between loneliness and various Instagram activities and the role of SCO in this context. A total of 208 undergraduate students attending a U.S. mid-southern university completed a self-report survey (M age  = 19.43, SD = 1.35; 78 percent female; 57 percent White). Findings showed that Instagram interaction and Instagram browsing were both related to lower loneliness, whereas Instagram broadcasting was associated with higher loneliness. SCO moderated the relationship between Instagram use and loneliness such that Instagram interaction was related to lower loneliness only for low SCO users. The results revealed implications for healthy SNS use and the importance of including personality traits and specific SNS use patterns to disentangle the role of SNS use in psychological well-being.

  7. Effects of weight-focused social comparisons on diet and activity outcomes among overweight and obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Diana; Leahey, Tricia M.; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Crowther, Janis H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate social comparison processes as a potential mechanism by which social networks impact young women's weight control thoughts and behaviors and to examine whether social comparisons with close social ties (i.e. friends) have a greater influence on weight control outcomes relative to more emotionally distant ties. Design and Methods Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) overweight young adult women (N=46; M age = 19; M BMI = 29) reported the nature and effects of weight-focused social comparisons on dieting and exercising intentions and behaviors during their daily routine. Results Relative to social comparisons to targets of the same weight, weight-focused comparisons to both thinner and heavier individuals led to increased thoughts of dieting and exercising. Moreover, comparisons to thinner targets also increased the likelihood of engaging in actual dieting and exercising behavior. Weight comparisons to friends amplified these effects. Conclusions Weight-focused social comparisons may be one mechanism by which social networks impact weight control thoughts and behaviors. Obesity interventions with young adults may achieve better outcomes by harnessing social comparison processes in treatment. PMID:25407550

  8. Effects of weight-focused social comparisons on diet and activity outcomes in overweight and obese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Diana; Leahey, Tricia M; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Crowther, Janis H

    2015-01-01

    To investigate social comparison processes as a potential mechanism by which social networks impact young women's weight control thoughts and behaviors and to examine whether social comparisons with close social ties (i.e., friends) have a greater influence on weight control outcomes relative to more emotionally distant ties. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, overweight young adult women (N = 46; M age = 19; M BMI = 29) reported the nature and effects of weight-focused social comparisons on dieting and exercising intentions and on behaviors during their daily routine. Relative to social comparisons to targets of the same weight, weight-focused comparisons to both thinner and heavier individuals led to increased thoughts of dieting and exercising. Moreover, comparisons to thinner targets also increased the likelihood of engaging in actual dieting and exercising behaviors. Weight comparisons to friends amplified these effects. Weight-focused social comparisons may be one mechanism by which social networks impact weight control thoughts and behaviors. Obesity interventions with young adults may achieve better outcomes by harnessing social comparison processes in treatment. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  9. [Effect of the DiabetIMSS program on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure and HDL cholesterol in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Montes-Acuña, Juan Felipe; Zavala-Cruz, Gad Gamed; Nieva-de Jesús, Rafael Natividad; Ramírez-Arreola, María Cleofas; Andrade-Rodríguez, Héctor Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the DiabetIMSS program on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure and HDL cholesterol in patients with metabolic syndrome. Quasi-experimental intervention study. Non-probabilistic convenience sampling. 35 subjects in the educational strategy one year were included. The following variables were collected: age, gender, smoking, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; cardiovascular risk calculator based on Framingham is calculated. Descriptive and inferential statistical percentages with Student t test was used. There was an increase in the proportion of subjects increased their subsequent figures HDL cholesterol intervention, there by generating an increase of protective factor (p < 0.05). Because of the blood pressure a marked improvement in all ranges of blood pressure (p < 0.05) was presented. The educational strategy for the control of diabetic patients presented a favorable performance in HDL-cholesterol and blood pressure, reducing the risk of cardiovascular patients.

  10. Mindsets and social comparison: Being aware of the competitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA MARIA PUCA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The mindset theory posits that people have less favorable beliefs while deliberating on actions or goals than while planning and implementing them. This is thought to be a self-regulatory mechanism that helps people choose reasonable goals, on one hand, and persist in goal pursuit, on the other. In the present experiment we tested the hypothesis that the beliefs of implemental participants differ from those of deliberative ones only in case that favorable views would not set them up for failure and disappointment. Participants in a deliberative or in an implemental mindset were asked to compare with two other persons with respect to a set of achievement-related activities. They were also told that they would have to compete with one of these persons in a motor-skills task. It could be shown that the participants generally tended to rate the comparison targets as being worse off. As in former experiments, this tendency was, however, reduced in deliberative participants. In addition, it was reduced in implemental participants when they expected to compete with the comparison target later on. Implemental participants did thus have more favorable views than deliberative ones only if they had not to compete with the comparison target. This seems to be a good strategy to enhance the feelings of one's own competence without running the risk of failure and embarrassment.

  11. Effects of weight-focused social comparisons on diet and activity outcomes among overweight and obese young women

    OpenAIRE

    Rancourt, Diana; Leahey, Tricia M.; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Crowther, Janis H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate social comparison processes as a potential mechanism by which social networks impact young women's weight control thoughts and behaviors and to examine whether social comparisons with close social ties (i.e. friends) have a greater influence on weight control outcomes relative to more emotionally distant ties. Design and Methods Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) overweight young adult women (N=46; M age = 19; M BMI = 29) reported the nature and effects of we...

  12. A genomic comparison of two termites with different social complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eKorb

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The termites evolved eusociality and complex societies before the ants, but have been studied much less. The recent publication of the first two termite genomes provides a unique comparative opportunity, particularly because the sequenced termites represent opposite ends of the social complexity spectrum. Zootermopsis nevadensis has simple colonies with totipotent workers that can develop into all castes (dispersing reproductives, nest-inheriting replacement reproductives, and soldiers. In contrast, the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis belongs to the higher termites and has very large and complex societies with morphologically distinct castes that are life-time sterile. Here we compare key characteristics of genomic architecture, focusing on genes involved in communication, immune defenses, mating biology and symbiosis that were likely important in termite social evolution. We discuss these in relation to what is known about these genes in the ants and outline hypotheses for further testing.

  13. The effect of unfavourable and favourable social comparisons on paranoid ideation: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascone, Leonie; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Low social rank is associated with paranoia, but there is a lack of evidence for causality. We tested the effects of social comparisons on negative affect and paranoia with an online social rank paradigm, and whether striving to avoid inferiority or fears of social rejection moderated paranoid reactions. Female students (N = 172) were randomly exposed to one of two validated online profiles depicting a same-aged, high (unfavourable comparison) vs. low rank (favourable comparison) female student. Moderators were assessed at baseline. Social rank, anxiety, sadness and paranoia were assessed pre and post profile-exposure. There was a large effect of the experimental manipulation on social rank (p  0.38). Sadness was significantly altered (p = 0.016, η 2 partial  = 0.033). There were significant moderation effects between the experimental conditions and insecure striving (trend-level) as well as fears of rejection. Our findings may be biased (overestimation of effects) as students are likely to be more competitive compared to the general population. Our rank manipulations did not alter paranoia. This suggests that changes in the cognitive representation of social rank alone - without triggering a strong emotional response - do not suffice to evoke paranoia. Although our results do not support the notion that threats to social rank cause paranoid symptoms, they suggest that threats to social rank are more likely to trigger paranoid states in those who are insecure in regard to their social position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M.; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations w...

  15. Using Social Media for Social Comparison and Feedback-Seeking: Gender and Popularity Moderate Associations with Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-11-01

    This study examined specific technology-based behaviors (social comparison and interpersonal feedback-seeking) that may interact with offline individual characteristics to predict concurrent depressive symptoms among adolescents. A total of 619 students (57 % female; mean age 14.6) completed self-report questionnaires at 2 time points. Adolescents reported on levels of depressive symptoms at baseline, and 1 year later on depressive symptoms, frequency of technology use (cell phones, Facebook, and Instagram), excessive reassurance-seeking, and technology-based social comparison and feedback-seeking. Adolescents also completed sociometric nominations of popularity. Consistent with hypotheses, technology-based social comparison and feedback-seeking were associated with depressive symptoms. Popularity and gender served as moderators of this effect, such that the association was particularly strong among females and adolescents low in popularity. Associations were found above and beyond the effects of overall frequency of technology use, offline excessive reassurance-seeking, and prior depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the utility of examining the psychological implications of adolescents' technology use within the framework of existing interpersonal models of adolescent depression and suggest the importance of more nuanced approaches to the study of adolescents' media use.

  16. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M; Colombo, Gualtiero B; Allen, Stuart M; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-08-12

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions.

  17. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  18. A Generational Comparison of Social Networking Site Use: The Influence of Age and Social Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N = 256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer…

  19. The Wechsler ACS Social Perception Subtest: A Preliminary Comparison with Other Measures of Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Cullum, C. Munro; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Relative to other cognitive areas, there are few clinical measures currently available to assess social perception. A new standardized measure, the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) Social Perception subtest, addresses some limitations of existing measures; however, little is known about this new test. The first goal of this investigation…

  20. Social comparison mediates chimpanzees' responses to loss, not frustration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve

    2014-01-01

    individual contrast, through inequity, or by both. Chimpanzees were tested in four social and two individual conditions in which they received food rewards in return for exchanging tokens with an experimenter. In conditions designed to create individual contrast, after completing an exchange, the chimpanzees......), than when they received a more-preferred reward (advantageous inequity). Specifically, the females' refusals were typified by refusals to exchange tokens rather than refusals to accept food rewards. Males showed no difference in their responses to inequity or individual contrast. These results support...

  1. Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations with different social experiences: family and kennel dogs; dog experts and non-experts. Dogs' gazing behaviour was similar to humans: both species gazed longer at the actors in social interaction than in non-social images. However, humans gazed longer at the actors in dog than human social interaction images, whereas dogs gazed longer at the actors in human than dog social interaction images. Both species also made more saccades between actors in images representing non-conspecifics, which could indicate that processing social interaction of non-conspecifics may be more demanding. Dog experts and non-experts viewed the images very similarly. Kennel dogs viewed images less than family dogs, but otherwise their gazing behaviour did not differ, indicating that the basic processing of social stimuli remains similar regardless of social experiences.

  2. Stigma, Social Comparison and Self-Esteem in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lucy; McKenzie, Karen; Lindsay, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paper examines the perception of stigma in 43 adults with an intellectual disability, the relationship this has with their psychological well-being and whether the process of social comparison has a moderating effect on this relationship. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, within-participant design was used. Participants…

  3. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  4. Social comparison orientation and perspective taking as related to responses to a victim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    The present study examined the effect of social comparison orientation (SCO) on the responses to a victim. Participants (n = 87) were exposed to an interview with the alleged victim of a traffic accident, that was either an unfamiliar or a close other. A close other induced more feelings of oneness

  5. Mathematics Anxiety According to Middle School Students' Achievement Motivation and Social Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesici, Sahin; Erdogan, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify whether middle school students' mathematics anxiety differentiates or not, according to their low and high achievement motivation and their level of self-esteem stemming from social comparison. This study also aims to clarify the effects of these two variables on mathematics anxiety. The study groups were…

  6. BURNOUT, UNCERTAINTY, AND THE DESIRE FOR SOCIAL-COMPARISON AMONG NURSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUUNK, BP; SCHAUFELI, WB; YBEMA, JF

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted among 295 nurses to examine the interest in social comparison information, that is, the desire to learn more about the feelings and responses of others facing a similar situation. Occupational burnout, in particular emotional exhaustion, reduced personal accomplishment and

  7. Affect generated by social comparisons among nurses high and low in burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Ybema, JF; van der Zee, K

    The affective consequences of social comparison were examined in 2 field studies among nurses and related to the 3 dimensions of professional burnout: emotional exhaustion, reduced personal accomplishment, and depersonalization. Study 1 was conducted in a sample of 99 nurses of a psychiatric

  8. AIMING AT THE TOP - UPWARD SOCIAL-COMPARISON OF ABILITIES AFTER FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YBEMA, JF; BUUNK, BP

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effects of feedback on a task on information seeking and partner preferences as forms of social comparison. It was predicted that subjects who experienced failure and perceived control over future performance would, for reasons of self-improvement, choose more strongly upward

  9. Exercise self-identity: interactions with social comparison and exercise behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Possible interactions among exercise self-identity, social comparison and exercise behaviour were explored in a sample of 417 undergraduate students (Mean age = 21.5, SD = 3.0; 73% female). Two models were examined using self-report data; (1) a mediation model which proposed an association between

  10. Exercise self-identity: interactions with social comparison and exercise behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Bruijn, de G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Possible interactions among exercise self-identity, social comparison and exercise behaviour were explored in a sample of 417 undergraduate students (Mean age¿=¿21.5, SD¿=¿3.0; 73% female). Two models were examined using self-report data; (1) a mediation model which proposed an association between

  11. Denying Diversity: Perceptions of Beauty and Social Comparison Processes among Latina, Black, and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, Maya A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated Hispanic, black, and white women's conceptions of beauty and perceptions of cultural standards of beauty, noting whether they were engaged in similar social comparison processes (denial of personal disadvantage). Surveys of female college students highlighted major differences in the women's relationships with their bodies and their…

  12. Where Do I Stand? Examining the Effects of Leader-Member Exchange Social Comparison on Employee Work Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R.; Liden, Robert C.; Anand, Smriti; Erdogan, Berrin; Ghosh, Samiran

    2010-01-01

    Taking an approach integrating principles of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation with social comparison theory, we contend that subjective ratings by individuals of their LMX compared to the LMXs of coworkers (labeled LMX social comparison, or LMXSC) explain unique and meaningful variance in outcomes beyond LMX and the actual standing of…

  13. The impact of appearance comparisons made through social media, traditional media, and in person in women's everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Pinkus, Rebecca T; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2017-03-01

    Appearance comparisons are an important sociocultural factor influencing women's body image. These comparisons can occur in different contexts (e.g., through magazines, social media, in person). However, little is known about the frequency and outcome of appearance comparisons made in different contexts in women's everyday lives. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment methods, female undergraduate students (n=146) completed a brief online survey at random times every day for 5 days. They reported the frequency, direction (upward, lateral, downward), and context of appearance comparisons, and also reported their appearance satisfaction, mood, and diet and exercise thoughts and behaviors. Upward appearance comparisons were the most common across all contexts. Upward comparisons through social media were associated with more negative outcomes on all measures (except diet and exercise behavior) than comparisons made in person, and with more negative mood than comparisons in any other context. These findings highlight the importance of the appearance comparison context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-concept and social comparison and their relation with smoking and alcohol consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Aysel; Koçoğlu, Gülay

    2015-11-13

    Some attitudes that possess certain risks such as smoking and alcohol consumption rate are increasing among the adolescent age group. For this reason it is very important to shape the attitudes of adolescents during their growth period. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of social comparison and self-concept of adolescents' relation with smoking and alcohol consumption. Study was conducted as a prospective study in nine high schools which are located in city of Bursa, Turkey. Nine hundred and fifty-three (n=953) students were included. Data were gathered using a questionnaire form especially developed by researchers for this study according to relevant literature. For social comparison and self-concept evaluation Piers-Harris Self Concept Scale and Social Comparison Scale of Gilbert were used. The mean age was 15.74±1.27 and 411 of cases (43.1%) were male. It was determined that smoking and alcohol consumption increased as the age of adolescents' age increases. Rate of smoking and alcohol consumption was significantly higher in males compared to females. The mean self-concept scale score of the cases who smoke (52.30±11.01) were found to be lower than the non-smokers (56.07±10.13). The mean social comparison scale score of smoking adolescents' (70.25±23.99) was higher than the non-smokers (69.43±25.47). The social comparison scale scores were found to be higher in adolescents who consume alcohol and smoke tobacco. In contrast to this result self-concept scale scores were low. As a conclusion this study reveals that attitudes such as smoking and alcohol consumption are mostly influenced by self-concept of the adolescents and family attitudes towards adolescents.

  15. In vivo social comparison to a thin-ideal peer promotes body dissatisfaction: a randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krones, Pamela G; Stice, Eric; Batres, Carla; Orjada, Kendra

    2005-09-01

    Although social comparison with media-portrayed thin-ideal images has been found to increase body dissatisfaction and negative affect, research has not yet tested whether social comparison with attractive peers in the real world produces similar effects. We randomly assigned 119 young women to interact either with a confederate who conformed to the thin ideal or one who conformed to the average body dimensions of women, within the context of an ostensive dating study. Exposure to the thin-ideal confederate resulted in an increase in body dissatisfaction but not negative affect or heart rate. Initial thin-ideal internalization, perceived sociocultural pressure, self-esteem, and observer-rated attractiveness did not moderate these effects. Results suggest that social comparative pressure to be thin fosters body dissatisfaction but may not promote negative affect. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Class and comparison: subjective social location and lay experiences of constraint and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Lay perceptions and experiences of social location have been commonly framed with reference to social class. However, complex responses to, and ambivalence over, class categories have raised interesting analytic questions relating to how sociological concepts are operationalized in empirical research. For example, prior researchers have argued that processes of class dis-identification signify moral unease with the nature of classed inequalities, yet dis-identification may also in part reflect a poor fit between 'social class' as a category and the ways in which people accord meaning to, and evaluate, their related experiences of socio-economic inequality. Differently framed questions about social comparison, aligned more closely with people's own terms of reference, offer an interesting alternative avenue for exploring subjective experiences of inequality. This paper explores some of these questions through an analysis of new empirical data, generated in the context of recession. In the analysis reported here, class identification was common. Nevertheless, whether or not people self identified in class terms, class relevant issues were perceived and described in highly diverse ways, and lay views on class revealed it to be a very aggregated as well as multifaceted construct. It is argued that it enables a particular, not general, perspective on social comparison. The paper therefore goes on to examine how study participants compared themselves with familiar others, identified by themselves. The evidence illuminates social positioning in terms of constraint, agency and (for some) movement, and offers insight into very diverse experiences of inequality, through the comparisons that people made. Their comparisons are situated, and pragmatic, accounts of the material contexts in which people live their lives. Linked evaluations are circumscribed and strongly tied to these proximate material contexts.The paper draws out implications for theorizing lay perspectives on

  17. A Multi-site Randomized Trial of Normative Feedback for Heavy Drinking: Social Comparison versus Social Comparison plus Correction of Normative Misperceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; LaBrie, Joseph; DiBello, Angelo M.; Young, Chelsie M.; Rinker, Dipali V.; Litt, Dana; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Knee, C. Raymond; Hamor, Ezekiel; Jerabeck, Jessica M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given widespread alcohol misuse among college students, numerous intervention programs have been developed, including personalized normative feedback (PNF). Most research evaluating PNF assumes that presenting one's own perceived norms is necessary to correct normative misperceptions and thereby reduce drinking. Alternatively, simply providing social comparison information showing that one drinks more than others may be sufficient. The present study evaluated the efficacy of full PNF (one's own drinking, campus drinking rates, and perceived norms) and a partial personalized social comparison feedback (PSCF; one's own drinking and campus drinking rates) in a randomized trial among heavy-drinking college students. Method Participants included 623 heavy-drinking students from three universities. Assessments occurred at baseline and three- and six-months post-baseline. Results Primary analyses examined differences across four drinking outcomes (drinks per week, total drinks past month, frequency of past month drinking, and negative alcohol-related consequences) at three- and six-month follow-ups controlling for the baseline variable. Results revealed significant reductions across all alcohol consumption outcomes at three months in both intervention conditions compared to attention-control. Mediation analyses demonstrated significant indirect effects of the intervention on six-month drinking through changes in perceived norms at three months. Moreover, evidence emerged for changes in drinking at three months as a mediator of the association between PSCF and six-month perceived norms. Conclusions The present research suggests PNF may not require explicit consideration of one's perceived norms in order to be effective and that direct social comparison provides an alternative theoretical mechanism for PNF efficacy. PMID:26727407

  18. The effect of digital alteration disclaimer labels on social comparison and body image: Instructions and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2016-06-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of digital alteration disclaimer labels appended to fashion magazine advertisements, as well as instructional condition, on women's social comparison and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 378 female undergraduate students who viewed 11 thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a more detailed specific disclaimer. There were three instructional conditions: neutral, distractor, and social comparison. Disclaimer labels did not affect appearance comparison or body dissatisfaction, but instructional condition did, with the social comparison instructions producing the highest appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction. In addition, there was a three-way interaction with trait appearance comparison, such that women high on trait appearance comparison who saw specifically worded disclaimers in the distractor instructional condition experienced increased body dissatisfaction, whereas women low on this trait experienced decreased body dissatisfaction. It seems that both instructions and individual differences may influence responses to disclaimer labels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactions to group devaluation and social inequality: A comparison of social identity and system justification predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Kevin Owuamalam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System justification theory (SJT proposes that support for social inequality should be stronger among members of devalued groups than among members of higher status groups; that embracing the system in this way soothes anger and leads to a withdrawal of support for social change; and that these effects should occur when group interest is weak. We compared these SJT predictions with identity management and hope for group advancement accounts that we deduced from social identity theory (SIT and that suggest that both system justification and support for social change will be significant when group interest is strong. Consistent with the SIT-based accounts, Study 1 (N = 116, Malaysia, Mage =19.09 years showed that strong identifiers were more concerned about their ingroup’s reputation than weak identifiers, and that this concern increased system justification but only before an outgroup audience to whom a need to present one’s group in good light is normally strong. Study 2 (N = 375, Australia, Mage = 23.59 years conceptually replicated Study 1’s results and further revealed that strong identifiers justified the system due to the hope that their ingroup status would improve in the future. Finally, Study 3 (N = 132, Germany, Mage = 20.34 years revealed that system justification soothed anger and reduced support for social protest but only when group interest was strong (not weak. We did not find evidence in support of SJT predictions.

  20. Social comparison and optimism about one's relational future : order effects in social judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP

    1998-01-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that when individuals first answer a question about relative evaluation, i.e. the degree in which they feel they are better or worse off than comparison others and next a question about general evaluation, i.e. the general judgment of one's situation or one's

  1. A study on the social risk comparison for various power systems: focusing on the social acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Soo [Myongji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Pyung [Korea Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Eun [Chungbuk Nat. Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop measurement indices for social risk acceptance of various power systems(nuclear, coal, oil, LNG, hydro, wind, solar) and compare them empirically. In order to measure social risk acceptance of various power systems, four measurement fields and twelve measurement indices were developed. Measurement areas contains rationality, emotion, trust, communication. Each measurement field has two or three measurement indices. Rationality field has indices of amount of knowledge, recognition of technological utility, risk controllability. Emotion field has indices of experiences, risk recognition. Trust field has indices of openness, sincerity, willingness of sharing knowledge and experiences. Communication field has indices of scientist's roll, media's roll, public relations. Based on these measurement field and indices, this study made questionnaire and surveyed citizens to compare deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems. Questionnaire respondents were sampled from six different groups, including power system specialists, highschool students, university students, general citizen, professors and environmental NGOs. The methodologies used to analyze the deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems were frequency analysis, cross-tab analysis, t-test and ANOVA analysis. AHP method was used to analyze power system specialists' perception on relative severance and priority among measurement fields and indices.

  2. [Prescription of temporal disability certificates in workers attending to IMSS from the perspective of health economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino-Casas, Patricia; del Pilar Torres-Arreola, Laura; Posadas-García, Jorge Luis; Nevárez-Sida, Armando; García-Contreras, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The repercussion of health-disease state on social life or individual includes his/her work performance. In many countries, social security is one of the options for diffusing and buffering the impact of the disease. This paper is focused on the analysis of the unjustified prescription of temporary sick leave certificates (CITT), which combines the social security medical components and economic benefits (subsidies). The objective is to analyze the mechanism of prescription of CITT from the perspective of health economics and health care services. The detailed flow of CITT at the Mexican Institute of Social Security is described, as are some concepts of the health economics perspective that contribute to explain the prescription of CITT. Statistical data of sick leaves due to work-related and non-work-related diseases are presented from the institutional perspective. Finally, it is emphasized that although CITT are a medical prescription, it is advisable to take into account the economic perspective and its concepts in order to achieve an efficient use of resources.

  3. [Recommendations to improve the scientific communication process in the Revista Médica del IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Ivón

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the position of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social among the different journals, in this editorial we enumerate a series of recommendations to ameliorate the practices of the different actors who participate in the scientific communication process of this journal.

  4. Social comparison as a moderator of the association between perceived norms and alcohol use and negative consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Dana M; Lewis, Melissa A; Stahlbrandt, Henriettae; Firth, Perry; Neighbors, Clayton

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to extend previous research examining the relationships among perceived drinking norms, alcohol use, and related negative consequences by examining the moderating influence of social comparison orientation. A sample of 481 college students (44% male) completed a Web-based survey that assessed perceptions of drinking behavior, social comparison orientation, and alcohol use. The results suggested that social comparison orientation moderated the norm-behavior relationship such that the association between perceived drinking norms and alcohol-related negative consequences was stronger for those higher in social comparison. Results also showed that there was no moderation effect for alcohol consumption as the dependent variable. The findings of the present study are potentially important when developing efficacious alcohol prevention and intervention programs at colleges and universities and in considering more complex models of social influences on drinking.

  5. Peer influence on students' estimates of performance: social comparison in clinical rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raat, A N Janet; Kuks, Jan B M; van Hell, E Ally; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-02-01

    During clinical rotations, students move from one clinical situation to another. Questions exist about students' strategies for coping with these transitions. These strategies may include a process of social comparison because in this context it offers the student an opportunity to estimate his or her abilities to master a novel rotation. These estimates are relevant for learning and performance because they are related to self-efficacy. We investigated whether student estimates of their own future performance are influenced by the performance level and gender of the peer with whom the student compares him- or herself. We designed an experimental study in which participating students (n = 321) were divided into groups assigned to 12 different conditions. Each condition entailed a written comparison situation in which a peer student had completed the rotation the participant was required to undertake next. Differences between conditions were determined by the performance level (worse, similar or better) and gender of the comparison peer. The overall grade achieved by the comparison peer remained the same in all conditions. We asked participants to estimate their own future performance in that novel rotation. Differences between their estimates were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Students' estimates of their future performance were highest when the comparison peer was presented as performing less well and lowest when the comparison peer was presented as performing better (p influences students' estimates of their future performance in a novel rotation. The effect depends on the performance level and gender of the comparison peer. This indicates that comparisons against particular peers may strengthen or diminish a student's self-efficacy, which, in turn, may ease or hamper the student's learning during clinical rotations. The study is limited by its experimental design. Future research should focus on students' comparison behaviour in real transitions

  6. [Hospital maternal mortality: causes and consistency between clinical and autopsy diagnosis at the Northeastern Medical Center of the IMSS, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Martínez-Salazar, Griselda; Fernández-Díaz, Héctor; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2002-02-01

    The aim was to study the causes of maternal mortality (MM) and the percent of concordance between the clinical diagnosis and the autopsy findings. The autopsies of maternal death (1980-1999) from the Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico del Noreste, IMSS in Monterrey, México, were analyzed. The cases were classified in directly obstetric maternal mortality (DOM) and indirectly obstetric maternal mortality (IOM), the causes were studied and the percent of concordance between pre- and post-mortem diagnosis was determined. There were 124 deaths. Autopsy was performed in 61 (49.1%) women. In 55 cases the clinical file and the autopsy protocol were available. This was our sample for study. Sixty percent of the cases were DO. Causes of DOM were: specific hypertensive pregnancy disease (SHPD) (51.6%), sepsis (35.5%), hypovolemic shock (9.7%), anesthetic accidents (3%); causes of IOM were: sepsis (41.7%), malignancies (16.7%), hematological diseases (12.5%), cardiopathy and systemic arterial hypertension (12.5%), hepatic disorders (12.5%), and Superior Longitudinal Sinus thrombosis (4%). A 100% clinical-pathological concordance was observed in DOM cases, while only a 41.6% was found in IOM cases. In those cases of sepsis (IOM), the etiologic agents were identified only in 20% before death. The early detection and treatment of SHPD and the prevention of sepsis should decrease the MM. This study showed some weakness in the Health Services that should be improved.

  7. [Consultation profile and critical points in allergic patient attention at IMSS made by a non-allergologist specialist doctor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Orozco, Alain R; Ruiz Reyes, Héctor; Farias Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Cruz Balandran, Jorge; Manzo Rodriguez, Lidia; Ung Medina, Eduardo; Cruz Bermudez, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a serious public health problem all over the world, and they use to be associated with environmental factors as well as with each patient genetic predisposition. To characterize consult profile and critical points of allergic patients attention attended by non-allergologists specialists but referred by allergologists. Descriptive study since October 2004 until February 2005, with a questionnaire to 255 patients attended by non-allergologists specialists in an IMSS hospital. Skin hypersensibility Prick-tests with standardized commercial extracts were practiced (1:20 p/v). Gender distribution was 41.96% male and 58.04% female, most of them (88.6%) from urban places (the reminder from rural ones); 55.37% with family history of allergy. In 49.02% the disease disturbs family behavior. Annual attention cost to allergic patients was 2,896.74 mexican pesos. Only 35.7% of patients get the disease control. Both work and home control of allergy exacerbation risk factors were poor. Critical points affecting allergic patients' treatment are attention to risk factors and to those factors exacerbating the disease (environmental and drug scheme choice). Non-allergologists specialists must consider a better control of allergic patients.

  8. Comparison of attention training and cognitive therapy in the treatment of social phobia: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Juliet; Abbott, Maree J; Smith, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Prominent models of social phobia highlight the role played by attentional factors, such as self-focused attention, in the development and maintenance of social phobia. Elevated self-focused attention is associated with increases in self-rated anxiety. Treatments that aim to modify and change attentional processes, specifically self-focused attention, will have a direct effect on social phobia symptoms. Thus, Attention Training targets attentional focus. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Attention Training in comparison to an established treatment for social phobia, Cognitive Therapy. Participants (Intention-to-treat = 45; completers = 30) were allocated to either 6 weeks of Attention Training or Cognitive Therapy. It was hypothesized that both treatments would be effective in reducing social phobia symptoms, but that Attention Training would work primarily by reducing levels of self-focused attention. The results found an overall effectiveness of both treatment conditions in reducing social phobia symptoms. However, Attention Training significantly improved scores on the Self-Focused Attention questionnaire and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation questionnaire compared to Cognitive Therapy. Attention Training seems to be a promising treatment for social phobia.

  9. [The Revista Médica del IMSS in the 2017 Healthcare Book Fair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-H, Manuel; Acosta-Pérez, L; Cruz-Aranda, J E; García-Damián, J J; Miguel-Reyes, R; González-Martínez, R

    2017-01-01

    On August, the second edition of the Healthcare Book Fair took place, sponsored by the Facultad de Medicina of UNAM. Again, the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social participated with a stand where we promoted it, talked about the different indexes where our journal is included, explained its objective and scope, and finally talked about its nature as an open access journal, which is aimed to the clinical staff of the different health institutions of our country.

  10. Perceived stigma, self-esteem and social comparison of people with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-esteem, perceived stigma and social comparison of persons with intellectual disabilities. The sample consisted of 100 persons with mild and moderate intellectual disability, aged 18 years and older, of different sexes, with or without stigmatized characteristics, who lived in an institution or in a family. We used questionnaires of Perceived stigma, Adapted Scale of Social Comparison and Adapted Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results showed relatively low level of perceived stigma in people with ID (AS=5.15. Respondents showed a moderately positive level of general self-esteem, moderately high positive self- esteem and less pronounced negative self- esteem. When compared with people with ID respondents evaluate themselves more positively then when compared with persons of general population. Marginally significant, low negative correlation between general selfesteem and perceived stigma was established. It was observed that negative self-esteem correlates with perceived stigmatization while between positive self-esteem and perceived stigma correlation was not established. Self- esteem was not linked to any type of social comparisons except the subscale Achivement when compared to persons with ID. The perceived stigma also did not correlate with any type of social comparison. Perception of stigma is predicative of self-esteem and indicates its importance in the lives of people with ID. Although most persons with ID managed to maintain a high level of self-esteem despite the negative experiences of stigmatization, concerns remain regarding the quality of life and mental health problems in people with ID who have low self-esteem.

  11. Upward social comparison and self-concept: inspiration and inferiority among art students in an advanced programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Kathryn; Leach, Colin Wayne; Harrington, David M

    2005-03-01

    We examined the role of social comparison in changes in the artistic self-concept of adolescents attending an advanced arts programme. Unfavourable comparisons that promoted a sense of inferiority and favourable comparisons that promoted inspiration were measured just prior to, in the first week of, and at the end of the 6 week programme. Consistent with the 'big fish little pond effect', inferiority comparisons made during the programme were associated with negative changes in self-concept. Consistent with the social comparison literature, however, inspiration comparisons made during the programme were associated with positive changes in self-concept. Rather than suggesting that exposure to highly talented peers is necessarily unfavourable, results suggest that the interpretation of the comparisons made in situ determines the favourability of such exposure.

  12. Phantom behavioral assimilation effects: systematic biases in social comparison choice studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Seaton, Marjorie; Kuyper, Hans; Dumas, Florence; Huguet, Pascal; Régner, Isabelle; Buunk, Abraham P; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-04-01

    Consistent with social comparison theory (SCT), Blanton, Buunk, Gibbons, and Kuyper (1999) and Huguet, Dumas, Monteil, and Genestoux (2001) found that students tended to choose comparison targets who slightly outperformed them (i.e., upward comparison choices), and this had a beneficial effect on subsequent performance--a behavioral assimilation effect (BAE). We show (Studies 1 and 2) that this apparent BAE is due, in part, to uncontrolled measurement error in pretest achievement. However, using simulated data (Study 3), these phantom BAEs were eliminated with latent-variable models with multiple indicators. In Studies 4 and 5, latent-variable models were applied to the Blanton et al. and Huguet et al. data, resulting in substantially smaller but still significantly positive BAEs. More generally in personality research based on correlational data, failure to control measurement error in pretest/background variables will positively bias the apparent effects of personality variables of interest, but widely applicable approaches demonstrated here can correct for these biases.

  13. A mindset of competition versus cooperation moderates the impact of social comparison on self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpaert, Lucie; Muller, Dominique; Fayant, Marie-Pierre; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Do people feel better or worse about themselves when working with someone who is better than they are? We present the first replication of the work of Stapel and Koomen (2005), who showed that being in a competitive vs. cooperative mindset moderates the effects of social comparison on self-evaluation. In Experiment 1, we present a close replication of Stapel and Koomen (2005, Study 2). Participants in competition/cooperation had to self-evaluate after receiving information about the personal characteristics of an upward/downward comparison target. In Experiment 2, we went further by providing feedback about both the comparison target and the self. Our results and a small-scale meta-analysis combining our experiments and Stapel and Koomen's (2005) confirm that a competitive/cooperative mindset moderates the impact of social comparison on self-evaluation; nevertheless, the effect size we found across the two experiments is clearly more modest than the one found in Stapel and Koomen's (2005) work.

  14. [Maternal mortality. Experience of five years in Northern Veracruz IMSS Delegation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Luis Antonio Caballero; Rodríguez, Mario Ramón Muñoz; Huerta, Elizabeth Soler; Cornejo, Aída Verónica Blanco; Barradas, María del Rocío Aguilar

    2009-11-01

    Determine the variation in type of maternal death and associated pathologies in the 2004-2008 period. Maternal deaths retrospective and descriptive study at Delegación Veracruz Norte of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico. Medical files of obligatory regimen patients were included, between 2004-2008, from general zone hospitals of Xalapa, Veracruz, Cardel, Poza Rica, Martínez de la Torre and Lerdo de Tejada, and two subzone general hospitals: Tuxpan and San Andrés Tuxtla, also of the Delegación Veracruz Norte of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Twenty two maternal deaths were registered, with a maternal mortality rate of 33.7 by 100,000 living newborns. The main type of maternal death was the indirect one, with 15 cases (68%). The main pathology associated to the direct death type was hipovolemic shock, 18.1% (4 cases), preeclampsia-eclampsia 9% (2 cases) and sepsis 4.5% (1 case). It is notorious the descent in direct obstetrics causes, and the increase in the indirect ones in the 2004-2008 period.

  15. Self-concept clarity, thin-ideal internalization, and appearance-related social comparison as predictors of body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Dey, Shanta

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the associations among self-concept clarity, thin-ideal internalization, appearance-related social comparison tendencies, and body dissatisfaction. Female university students (N=278) completed self-report measures of these constructs. Structural equation modeling revealed several key findings: (a) thin-ideal internalization mediated the link between appearance-related social comparison tendencies and body dissatisfaction; (b) self-concept clarity was negatively associated with both thin-ideal internalization and appearance-related social comparison tendencies; and (c) thin-ideal internalization mediated the link between self-concept clarity and body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that low self-concept clarity might contribute to body image problems because it increases women's vulnerability to thin-ideal internalization and appearance-related social comparison tendencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Interpersonal and Metacognitive Therapies for Social Phobia Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A shirazitehrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Multidimensional and complex nature of social phobia disorder requires assessment, efficacy and comparison of treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of interpersonal and metacognitive group therapy. in reducing symptoms of social phobia Method: This study is an experimental research and the design of study is pre-test- post-test in which 45 patients suffering from social phobia disorder were selected and randomly assigned to three groups of interpersonal , metacognitive and control . Therapy sessions in groups of 15 people in 8 meeting held .The tools used in this study included the Social Phobia Inventory(SPIN Social Interaction Anxiety Scale(SIAS and the Brief Fear Negative Evaluation Scale Revised Version(BFNE-II and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV(SCIDis that in the pre-test and post-test were completed by patients.Data was statically analyzed Multivariate Covariance analysis (MANCOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test to compare difference scale scores pre test-post test variables were used in the experimental and control groups. Results:The results showed that there is significant differences between experimental (interpersonal and metacognitive Therapy and control group( waiting list (P<0/001.Also results showed that both interpersonal and metacognitive group therapies were equally effective on the symptom of social phobia disorder, social interaction anxiety and fear of negative evaluation(P<0/001 and its effect size by order of was 0/49, 0/75,0/95. Conclusion: Given the effectiveness of both treatment on social phobia symptoms can be relevant option for clients who go to counseling centers for an effective treatment .

  17. Longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media ideal, peer social comparison, and body dissatisfaction: implications for the tripartite influence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-05-01

    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media-ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction. A sample of 277 Grade 7 school girls (M age = 12.77 years, SD = 0.44) completed measures of internalization of the media ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 8 months, and 14 months. Path analyses indicated that baseline internalization of the media ideal predicted social appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction at 8 months, and social appearance comparison at 8 months predicted body dissatisfaction at 14 months. A reciprocal effect emerged with body dissatisfaction at 8 months predicting internalization of the media ideal at 14 months. The findings inform sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction, suggesting that internalization of the media ideal precedes and predicts appearance comparison and that body image interventions that target internalization of the media ideal, and social appearance comparison as well as body dissatisfaction are likely to be effective. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Real-time mapping of combustion sources using Suomi NPP satellite VIIRS and CrIMSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhizhin, M.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.

    2012-12-01

    Night-time images from the Suomi NPP satellite VIIRS scanning radiometer in visible and infrared spectral bands provide invaluable data for real-time detection of natural and technological combustion sources on the surface of the Earth, such as forest fires, gas flares, steel mills or active volcanoes. Point sources detected at night in 1.6 micron near-infrared M10 channel are most likely to be large fires or gas flares. Their temperature and radiative power can be estimated by simultaneous fitting of two Planck black-body spectral curves to the observed radiances of all VIIRS infrared M-channels, one curve for the temperature and power of the combustion, another for the background. VIIRS instrument is sensitive to the IR sources with temperature range from 800 to 2000 degrees K. This method can discriminate low temperature sources such as volcanoes and forest fires from the high temperature gas flares with 300 m average location error. Global real-time mapping of the IR sources on the Earth requires correction of the M-channels for bow tie effect, atmospheric correction and filtering of the false detections resulting from sensor bombardment by the cosmic rays, especially at the aurora rings and at the South Atlantic anomaly. MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer mode is used with temperature and moisture profiles provided by the CrIMSS onboard sensor suite. False detections can be removed by correlating of the observed bright spots in M10 channel with other infrared and the visible day-night band. After geometry correction and denoising, the IR point sources are mapped on Google Earth and listed in a table. NOAA NGDC provides global daily detection products for thousands of IR sources as KML vector maps and as CSV tables.

  19. The kidney transplant experience at Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, IMSS, Guadalajara México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteón, Francisco J; Gómez, Benjamin; Valdespino, Carlos; Chávez, Salvador; Sandoval, Mario; Flores, Antonio; Herrera, Roberto; Ramos, Francisco; Hernandez, Alfonso; Camarena, José L; Páez, Hugo; Ramírez, José; Nieves, Juan J; Bassols, Angel; Rosales, Guillermo; Romero, Omar; Paredes, Graciela; Andrade, Jorge; Ruelas, Sara; Contreras, Ana M

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1,356 kidney transplants has been performed in the Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, IMSS, in Guadalajara Mexico, including 935 in the past 8 years. This represents an important increase of this activity in our country. Of the total transplants, 1,218 (90%) were from living donors and only 138 (10%) were from cadaveric donors, a number that we hope to increase. Most recipients were young adults, with an average age of 31 years old. The overall one-year graft and patient survival rates for living-donor kidney recipients were 90% and 82%, and for cadaveric kidney recipients they were 80% and 70%, respectively. Acute rejections occurred in 17% and chronic allograft nephropathy was diagnosed in 7% of our kidney transplant recipients. The main cause of patient death was infection, frequently invasive CMV. Cardiovascular complications were a relatively infrequent cause of death as has been seen in other international series. Hepatitis B and C have been widley studied. Hepatitis C is the most prevalent viral infection in our population. Both living and cadaveric donors in our series were young, which may explain the good results. We have had very few complications among living donors and no mortality. Two donors developed chronic renal insufficiency after the kidney donation (0.001%). This excellent safety record reflects the experience of our team. We hope to increase the number of cadaveric transplant donors with the renewed interest in enlarging the transplantation programs in Mexico while maintaining our high percentage of living donors in order to benefit more patients.

  20. [Epidemiology of bilio-pancreatic cancer in Specialty Hospital UMAE N°71 IMSS in Torreón, Coahuil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güitrón-Cantú, A; Adalid-Martínez, R; Segura-López, Fk

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide increase in the incidence of cancer of the biliopancreatic ducts; early diagnosis is difficult and prognosis is poor. To analyze the frequency of malignant biliary strictures diagnosed by Endoscopio Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) at the "Hospital de Especialidades No. 71 UMAE IMSS", Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico. A 5-year retrospective study of consecutive patients referred for ERCP at our institution was performed. Medical records from patients with malignant neoplasms were reviewed. Demographic variables, post-ERCP and final diagnosis, based on cytological and endoscopic or surgical biopsies, imaging studies and clinical outcome were registered. The frequency of biliary-pancreatic neoplasm was 15.6% (301 cases in 1924 ERCP) determined by bile duct cancer (40.7%), pancreas (27.9%) and Vater´s ampulla (12.3%). Brushing was performed for histopathological analysis in 86.7% of cases. The cytology was positive in 91.2%, negative 8.8%, and it was no possible in 13.3% of cases. Therapeutic endoscopy was performed in 273 patients with complications in 1.3% and no procedure-related mortality. Patients with malignant strictures had a higher risk for unsuccessful ERCP (RR 3.01, 95% CI 1.77 - 5.11) and carrying out pre-cut sphincterotomy (RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.38 - 2.35). In our center the incidence of biliary-pancreatic neoplasm was 15.6% among patients sent to ERCP and its presence increases the degree of difficulty in performing diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures.

  1. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  2. [Hearing loss in attended patients in otorhinolaryngology service at IMSS in Guadalajara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Delgado, María Estela; Alvarez-Raygoza, Yolanda; Celis de la-Rosa, Alfredo; Virgen-Enciso, Maricela; Castro-Castañeda, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    to know the etiology, topography, degree of hearing loss and coexisting morbidity in outpatient otorhinolaryngology service at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara, Jalisco. descriptive and transversal study of 393 patients older than 12 years, were studied during 12 months. They were sent to the otorhinolaryngology service from five hospitals in Guadalajara. Three population groups were made (adolescents, adults and elderly); medical history, otoscopy and conventional tone audiometry was carried out. the average age of patients was 51.2 (SD 4.2 years), 57.8 % were women and 58.5 % adults. Of the 786 examined ears, 91.9 % (95% CI = 89.8-93.7) had hearing loss; chronic suppurative otitis media with or without sensorineural factor, was the most common of hearing loss, affecting 25.4 % (95% CI = 22.3-28.7) of the 723 hearing loss ears; after mixed cochleopathies (21.8 %, 95% CI = 18.8-25). Sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 85.6 % (95% CI = 82.8-88) and 31 % (95% CI= 27.4-34.3) had moderate hearing loss. The most common coexisting morbidity were high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus. our data suggest that hearing loss in population study is a treatable pathology, this information will aid in the promotion of preventive measures for opportune detection of otitis and comorbidity and to implement detection campaigns in population of risk, schools and labor centers.

  3. [Evolution of the type 2 diabetes mellitus epidemia in insured population at the IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Contreras, María Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is requiering higher demands in health institutions; It is a global emergency because of overspending that threaten social security, and kidney complications and cardiovascular damage, which affects millions enfermos.1 The aim of this work is to characterize the epidemic of T2DM with metabolic syndrome and define the institutional response containment-control universal educational interventions healthy lifestyles to prevent premature death and disability from ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), end stage renal disease ( IRT), blindness and amputations. A review of the years 1990-2013: Epidemiological Bulletin; consultation services: Family Medicine, Specialties, Emergency, Hospitalization, and prevention studies estimate of expenditure and institutional savings. 48 % increase incidence, prevalence increased from 7 to 10.6 %, and mortality from 35.6 to 77.2 per 100 000 inhabitants. Hypertension, and deaths, and EVC CI, increased 58, 197, 142.5 % respectively. Consultations in 2013 were 9113 082. The estimate of expenditure for prediabetes screening and medical care to prevent complications saves near of 60 % of current expenditure. Control the epidemic by training patients, families and staff health healthy lifestyle is the treatment to revert to normal BMI, glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and addictions to snuff / alcohol, to decelerate complications of the metabolic syndrome.

  4. Audiotaped social comparison information for cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy : Differential effects of procedural, emotional and coping information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennenbroek, FTC; Buunk, BP; Stiegelis, HE; Hagedoorn, M; Sanderman, R; Van den Bergh, ACM; Botke, G; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    The present study focused on the effects of social comparison information on subjective understanding of radiation therapy, validation of emotions, and self-efficacy of cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. The effects of three different audiotapes, containing different kinds of social

  5. A Diary Study of Self-Compassion, Upward Social Comparisons, and Body Image-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Dodos, Louisa; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2017-07-01

    Self-compassion may protect individuals experiencing poor body image and associated maladaptive outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine within-person associations (whilst controlling for between-person differences) between appearance-related self-compassion, appearance-related threats (operationalised as upward appearance comparisons), and body image-related variables, namely, social physique anxiety, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. A diary methodology was used whereby young women (n = 126; Mage = 21.26) responded to brief online surveys three times per day (11am, 3pm, and 7pm) every second day for one week (i.e. a total of 12 measurement points). Results of mixed linear modeling revealed that both state appearance-related upward comparisons and self-compassion independently predicted all three outcomes in a positive and negative fashion, respectively. No significant interaction effects between state appearance-related upward comparisons and self-compassion were found. The results suggested that appearance-based self-compassion was important, not just when there was a potential threat to body image via upward appearance comparisons. The findings highlight the importance of fostering self-compassion on a daily level. © 2017 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  6. [Seventy years of medicine in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these lines is to remember and refer some of the historical landmarks in the evolution of the medical services of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, according to its initials in Spanish) since it was founded, in 1943. We also want to bring to the reader's attention that the dimensions and impacts on health that IMSS has achieved, throughout its history, have strengthened the citizenship, as well as social sustainability. Also, those impacts have determined the creation and the reinforcement of human capital in México. Throughout this concise balance, all the controversy surrounding the foundation of the Institute is being recalled (the protest in the Mexico City Zócalo, or the attack to an hospital in San Ángel -a neighborhood located in the Southwest of Mexico City-), as well as the way the IMSS incorporated several words into the vocabulary of Mexicans. We also remember the previous antecedent of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, as well as the Revista de Enfermería, and the emblematic Archives of Medical Research. The IMSS has 70 years of achievements, seven decades covered.

  7. The impact of forced social comparison on adolescents’ self-esteem and appearance satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purić Danka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of forced social comparison on adolescents’ self-esteem and appearance satisfaction research, conducted on a sample of 133 high school seniors, consisted of two phases. In phase one, participants were given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Appearance Satisfaction Scale and Appearance Relevance Scale, and in phase two, one month later, they were exposed to photographs of attractive and unattractive individuals. Two groups of boys and girls each assessed attractive or unattractive individuals of their own gender, while two control groups (of both genders were not exposed to any photographs. Immediately after assessing the photographs, the participants were again given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and Appearance Satisfaction Scale. We found that forced social comparison had an impact on self-esteem and a marginally significant effect on appearance satisfaction in the group of participants (of both genders assessing the photographs of unattractive individuals, while no effects were found in the either the control group or the group assessing the photographs of attractive individuals. We also examined the impact of self-esteem, appearance satisfaction and appearance relevance as moderating variables on the effect size of social comparison and showed that higher pretest self-esteem and appearance relevance and lower appearance satisfaction predict higher posttest self-esteem scores, regardless of the participants’ group membership. The group of participants exposed to photographs of unattractive people, however, showed the opposite pattern - those participants who had initially lower self-esteem have increased it more as a result of the experimental exposure.

  8. The overpowering effect of social comparison information: on the misalignment between mastery-based goals and self-evaluation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yperen, Nico W; Leander, N Pontus

    2014-05-01

    If people's goals and evaluative standards were aligned, then individuals with mastery-based goals should, theoretically, primarily rely on temporal comparison information (i.e., on how they performed relative to before). In contrast, individuals with performance-based goals should rely on social comparison information (i.e., on how they performed relative to others). However, across three studies, we explored a misalignment phenomenon we call "the overpowering effect of social comparison information" (TOESCI). We found that, irrespective of individuals' specific achievement goal (performance-based vs. mastery-based), there is a consistent, dominant reliance on social comparisons over temporal comparisons in their performance self-evaluations. These findings suggest that one's goals and evaluation criteria do not always align-that explicitly endorsing mastery-based goals does not necessarily lead one to rely on temporal comparison information over social comparison information. Only after receiving an explicit reminder to consider their mastery-based goal did participants align their goal and performance self-evaluation criteria.

  9. Social Comparisons are Associated with Poorer and Riskier Financial Decision Making, no Matter whether Encounters are Sporadic or Repeated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Espín, Antonio M; Perales, José C

    2016-09-20

    Previous research suggests that social comparisons affect decision making under uncertainty. However, the role of the length of the social interaction for this relationship remains unknown. This experiment tests the effect of social comparisons on financial risk taking and how this effect is modulated by whether social encounters are sporadic or repeated. Participants carried out a computer task consisting of a series of binary choices between lotteries of varying profitability and risk, with real monetary stakes. After each decision, participants could compare their own payoff to that of a counterpart who made the same decision at the same time and whose choices/earnings did not affect the participants' earnings. The design comprised three between-subjects treatments which differed in the nature of the social interaction: participants were informed that they would be matched with either (a) a different participant in each trial, (b) the same participant across all trials, or (c) a "virtual participant", i.e., a computer algorithm. Compared to the non-social condition (c), subjects in both social conditions (a and b) chose lotteries with lower expected value (z = -3.10, p < .01) and higher outcome variance (z = 2.13, p = .03). However, no differences were found between the two social conditions (z = 1.15, p = .25 and z = 0.35, p = .73, respectively). These results indicate that social comparison information per se leads to poorer and riskier financial decisions, irrespective of whether or not the referent other is encountered repeatedly.

  10. Social cognition in schizophrenia in comparison to bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Pantelis, Christos

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BP). While these deficits are more severe in schizophrenia, there is a significant overlap between conditions. However, it was hypothesized that social cognitive deficits might be more specific to schizophrenia. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing facial emotion recognition and theory of mind (ToM) abilities in schizophrenia and BP. 26 studies comparing 1301 patients with schizophrenia and 1075 with BP were included. Schizophrenia patients significantly underperformed compared with BP patients in both facial emotion recognition (d=0.39) and ToM (d=0.57). Neurocognitive deficits significantly contributed to schizophrenia-BP group differences for ToM. However, between-group differences for social cognition were not statistically more severe than neurocognition. Social cognitive impairment is more severe in schizophrenia in comparison to BP. However, between-group differences are modest and are comparable to other neurocognitive differences between schizophrenia and BP. There is significant overlap in social cognitive performance deficits observed in both schizophrenia and BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Negative autobiographical memories in social anxiety disorder: A comparison with panic disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Watson, Lynn A; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-03-01

    Empirical interest in mental imagery in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has grown over the past years but still little is known about the specificity to SAD. The present study therefore examines negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder (SAD), compared to patients with panic disorder (PD), and healthy controls (HCs). A total of 107 participants retrieved four memories cued by verbal phrases associated with either social anxiety (SA) or panic anxiety (PA), with two memories for each cue category. PA-cued memories were experienced with stronger imagery and as more traumatic. They were also rated as more central to identity than SA-cued memories, but not among participants with SAD, who perceived SA-cued memories as equally central to their identity. When between-group effects were detected, participants with anxiety disorders differed from HCs, but not from each other. Central limitations include reliance on self-report measures, comorbidity in the anxiety disorder groups, and lack of a neutrally cued memory comparison. The findings align with models of SAD suggesting that past negative social events play a central role in this disorder. Future research is suggested to further explore the function of negative memories, not only in SAD, but also in other anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social comparisons, appearance related comments, contingent self-esteem and their relationships with body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Shannon D; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2010-04-01

    This study examined social comparisons, appearance related comments and contingent self-esteem, and their relationships with body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in young adult women. Importantly, the role of both positive and negative appearance related comments, and upward and downward comparisons, were investigated. A self-report questionnaire assessing each of these variables was completed by one hundred and ninety-six women aged 18-35. A higher frequency of negative comments and contingent self-esteem were associated with higher upward comparisons, and more positive comments were associated with higher downward comparisons. Overall, social comparisons were shown to be more important than verbal commentary and contingent self-esteem. More upward comparisons and less downward comparisons uniquely predicted higher body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance. In addition, negative appearance comments were found to be more salient than positive comments. Negative comments and contingent self-esteem uniquely predicted more eating disturbance but positive comments were not a predictor of body dissatisfaction or eating disturbance. Longitudinal studies are now required to establish the direction of these relationships and to more fully examine the interplay among the factors. In addition, given that our study only assessed self-reported social comparisons, our findings need to be validated against experimental methods. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.

  14. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109

  15. Social Comparison in Physical Education: An Examination of the Relationship between Two Frames of Reference and Engagement, Disaffection, and Physical Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jemima S.; Spray, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from theory and research into social comparison processes, the present study sought to determine children's motives for comparison in addition to the coexistence of class and individual comparisons in school physical education. The main and interactive effects of these types of comparisons were examined in relation to pupils'…

  16. Exploring relative deprivation: is social comparison a mechanism in the relation between income and health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aberg Yngwe, Monica; Fritzell, Johan; Lundberg, Olle

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a growing interest in the relation between income and health. The discussion has mostly focused on the individual's relative standing in the income distribution with the implicit understanding that the absolute level of income is not as relevant when...... the individual's basic needs are fulfilled. This study hypothesises relative deprivation to be a mechanism in the relation between income and health in Sweden: being relatively deprived in comparison to a reference group causes a stressful situation, which might affect self-rated health. Reference groups were...... formed by combining indicators of social class, age and living region, resulting in 40 reference groups. Within each of these groups a mean income level was calculated and individuals with an income below 70% of the mean income level in the reference group were considered as being relatively deprived...

  17. Cluster A personality pathology in social anxiety disorder: a comparison with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Arendt, Mikkel; Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Hougaard, Esben; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2014-10-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with cluster A personality disorder (PD) traits, mainly paranoid and schizoid traits. The aim of the study was to further investigate cluster A personality pathology in patients with SAD. Self-reported PD traits were investigated in a clinical sample of 161 participants with SAD and in a clinical comparison group of 145 participants with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PAD). A diagnosis of SAD was associated with more paranoid and schizotypal PD traits, and an association between depression and personality pathology could indicate a state-effect of depression on PD traits. Patients with SAD had more cluster A personality pathology than patients with PAD, with the most solid indication for paranoid personality pathology.

  18. Social Surveys about Solid Waste Management within Higher Education Institutes: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Ferronato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste mismanagement is a social burden that requires the introduction of reliable public policies, including recycling principles and technological facilities. However, the development of recycling plans is a real issue for municipal governments, since it involves psychological and cultural factors, both in developed and developing countries. Questionnaire survey is an important tool for evaluating which solid waste management policy is suited for each specific study area, involving citizens and stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to evaluate what approach should be applied for social surveys in higher education institutes, comparing developing and developed countries. Italy is the developed country analyzed, where two universities in different cities are compared, while La Paz (Bolivia is the emerging reality considered. The research conducted in La Paz led us to understand that, although recycling rates are low (about 8%, many students (56.96% separate up to half of the waste produced at home. At the same time, about 53% of those interviewed do not know the recycling practices implemented by the informal sector which is the one that constantly act for improving the recycling rates of the city. Low technological acceptance is instead underlined in the high income country, since there is a common negative opinion concerning the introduction of landfills and incinerators near residential areas (49% disagree. A comparison of the methodologies adopted for the two case studies is introduced whereas investigations results are presented.

  19. [The health care costs of breast cancer: the case of the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Velázquez, Enrique; Dorantes, Javier; Méndez, Oscar; Avila-Burgos, Leticia

    2009-01-01

    We studied the cost of health care for women with breast cancer treated at the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, per its abbreviation in Spanish). Using the Medical and Operative Information Systems of the IMSS, we constructed a cohort of patients diagnosed in 2002 and followed these patients to the end of 2006, identifying the use of resources and imputing the IMSS-specific cost structure. Only 14% of women were diagnosed in stage 1 and 48% were diagnosed in stages III-IV. The average cost of their medical care per patient-year was $MX110,459. Costs for stage 1 were $MX74,522 compared to $102,042 for stage II, and were $MX154,018 for stage III and $MX199,274 for stage IV. Breast cancer accounts for a significant part of the IMSS health budget. Later stage at diagnosis is associated with higher economic costs per patient-year of treatment and lower probability of five-year survival.

  20. The Overpowering Effect of Social Comparison Information On the Misalignment Between Mastery-Based Goals and Self-Evaluation Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Leander, N. Pontus

    If people's goals and evaluative standards were aligned, then individuals with mastery-based goals should, theoretically, primarily rely on temporal comparison information (i.e., on how they performed relative to before). In contrast, individuals with performance-based goals should rely on social

  1. In search of the true group animal : The effects of affiliation orientation and social comparison orientation upon group satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Nauta, A; Molleman, E; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    A study among 653 undergraduate students examined the effects upon group satisfaction of social comparison orientation (Gibbons & Buunk, 1999) and affiliation orientation, i.e. the preference for doing things together and in groups versus a preference for doing things alone. Affiliation orientation

  2. People's responses to upward and downward social comparisons: The role of the individual's effort-performance expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Brenninkmeijer, Veerle; Buunk, Abraham P.

    The aim of this research among practicing teachers was to demonstrate that the individual's effort-performance (E-P) expectancy can explain different responses to upward and downward social comparison information in terms of positive affect and the intent to work harder. The results of both

  3. Social Comparison of Abilities at an Elite College: Feeling Outclassed with 1350 SATs. Discussion Paper No. 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Matther B.; Goethals, George R.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies explored the experience and performance of students at Williams College in three-person groups that were homogeneous or heterogeneous in rated academic ability. In accord with hypotheses from Festinger's (1954) social comparison theory, students in academically homogeneous groups had more positive experiences and performed better on…

  4. Social Comparison and Confidence: When Thinking You're Better than Average Predicts Overconfidence (And when It Does Not)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrick, Richard P.; Burson, Katherine A.; Soll, Jack B.

    2007-01-01

    A common social comparison bias--the better-than-average-effect--is frequently described as psychologically equivalent to the individual-level judgment bias known as overconfidence. However, research has found "Hard-easy" effects for each bias that yield a seemingly paradoxical reversal: Hard tasks tend to produce overconfidence but…

  5. The Logical Structures of Comparison: Its Forms, Styles, Problems, and the Role of History in Social and Political Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Nardis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available All political sciences share the same logic and methods as the empirical social sciences and therefore produce perceptive knowledge. Empirical knowledge is based on a specific kind of observation driven by a set of theoretically developed concepts related to clearly observable social phenomena. Not all the concepts, however, are readily amenable to observational terms. We usually need to proceed to their operationalization. The formulation and the operational definition of the empirical concepts does not exhaust the analytic process. It is also necessary to observe how the phenomenon occurs in the reality, proceeding to classification or typological constructions and, sometimes, to the production of multi-dimensional models. Only after this process will the formulation of hypotheses be possible. They will later be verified through the use of methods of empirical control. The most frequently used activity in political sociology is comparison, which is the main method of any social science according to most scholars. Comparison can be carried out both among a certain number of cases or within a single case by comparing it in its historical development. The temporal dimension becomes crucial when one wishes to produce historically rooted generalizations and theories, therefore confined to a spatial and temporal dimension. Before proceeding with the comparison we must make sure that the cases selected are actually comparable and that they possess at least one property in common. The objective of this paper is therefore to describe forms and styles of comparison within the logic of social and political sciences

  6. A Model of Academic Self-Concept: Perceived Difficulty and Social Comparison among Academically Accelerated Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hope E.; Siegle, Del; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Reis, Sally M.

    2014-01-01

    Academic self-concept predicts students' future goals and is affected by a student's relative success compared with his or her peer group. This exploratory study used structural equation modeling to examine the contributions of the perceived level of difficulty of the curriculum, in addition to the contributions of social comparison and…

  7. Peer influence in clinical workplace learning : A study of medical students’ use of social comparison in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate students in clinical workplace frequently compare their own experiences with those of peers. The research reported in this thesis shows that these so called social comparisons are vital to the process of learning in clinical practice. The first study confirms students’ tendency to

  8. Social Comparison Affects Brain Responses to Fairness in Asset Division: An ERP Study with the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; Zhou, Yuqin; van Dijk, Eric; Leliveld, Marijke C; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipients in the ultimatum game, were informed not only of offers to themselves but also of the average amount of offers in other allocator-recipient dyads. Behavioral results showed that the participants were more likely to reject division schemes when they were offered less than the other recipients, especially when the offers were highly unequal. Event-related brain potentials recorded from the participants showed that highly unequal offers elicited more negative-going medial frontal negativity than moderately unequal offers in an early time window (270-360 ms) and this effect was not significantly modulated by social comparison. In a later time window (450-650 ms), however, the late positive potential (LPP) was more positive for moderately unequal offers than for highly unequal offers when the other recipients were offered less than the participants, whereas this distinction disappeared when the other recipients were offered the same as or more than the participants. These findings suggest that the brain activity in evaluating fairness in asset division entails both an earlier (semi-) automatic process in which the brain responds to fairness at an abstract level and a later appraisal process in which factors related to social comparison and fairness norms come into play.

  9. Social comparison affects brain responses to fairness in asset division: An ERP study with the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin eWu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual’s fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipients in the ultimatum game, were informed not only of offers to themselves but also of the average amount of offers in other allocator-recipient dyads. Behavioral results showed that the participants were more likely to reject division schemes when they were offered less than the other recipients, especially when the offers were highly unequal. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs recorded from the participants showed that highly unequal offers elicited more negative going medial frontal negativity (MFN than moderately unequal offers in an early time window (270-360 ms and this effect was not significantly modulated by social comparison. In a later time window (450-650 ms, however, the late positive potentials (LPPs were more positive for moderately unequal offers than for highly unequal offers when the other recipients were offered less than the participants, whereas this distinction disappeared when the other recipients were offered the same as or more than the participants. These findings suggest that the brain activity in evaluating fairness in asset division entails both an earlier (semi- automatic process in which the brain responds to fairness at an abstract level and a later appraisal process in which factors related to social comparison and fairness norms come into play.

  10. An extension of uncertainty management theory to the self : The relationship between justice, social comparison orientation, and antisocial work behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thau, Stefan; Aquino, Karl; Wittek, Rafael; Aquino, 27021

    A multisource field study of 103 employees and their supervisors tested an extension of uncertainty management theory (E. A. Lind & K. Van den Bos, 2002; K. Van den Bos & E. A. Lind, 2002). According to this theory, persons high in social comparison orientation (F. X. Gibbons & B. P. Buunk, 1999)

  11. Are support groups beneficial for fibromyalgia patients? The negative effects of social comparison for those who want it most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Scholtes, Ria

    2008-01-01

    Peer support plays an important role in coping with many chronic health problems. Peer support may, however, contain a risk. Research has indicated that people with high social comparison orientation (SCO) are, on the one hand, more interested in contact with peers, but may, on the other hand, be

  12. Dependency of illness evaluation on the social comparison context: findings with implicit measures of affective evaluation of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sibylle; Ritz, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The affective dimension of illness representation plays an important role in asthma self-management. However, little is known about the stability of this affective representation across contexts. We explored the role of social comparison in this affective evaluation. Participants included 20 individuals reporting an asthma diagnosis and 33 healthy controls. To measure asthma attitudes, we used three different versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a single target IAT (ST-IAT) and two IATs with different social comparison standards for asthma evaluation (1) HIV and (2) diabetes. Reaction times to pair asthma with positive or negative word stimuli in the three IATs were compared in a repeated measure ANOVA. Furthermore, the relationship between affective evaluation, self-reported asthma-specific coping, and negative affect was explored. Individuals reporting an asthma diagnosis showed a stronger negative evaluation of asthma than healthy individuals in the ST-IAT. This negative evaluation was positively related to the self-report of dysfunctional coping strategies. However, in the IAT introducing a downward social comparison with HIV, evaluation of asthma was less negative and no longer positively related to the report of dysfunctional coping. Downward social comparison can buffer against negative affective evaluation of asthma. The context dependency of illness-related attitudes requires attention in future research and asthma management practice.

  13. A Comparison of Online Social Networks and Real-Life Social Networks: A Study of Sina Microblogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks appear to enrich our social life, which raises the question whether they remove cognitive constraints on human communication and improve human social capabilities. In this paper, we analyze the users' following and followed relationships based on the data of Sina Microblogging and reveal several structural properties of Sina Microblogging. Compared with real-life social networks, our results confirm some similar features. However, Sina Microblogging also shows its own specialties, such as hierarchical structure and degree disassortativity, which all mark a deviation from real-life social networks. The low cost of the online network forms a broader perspective, and the one-way link relationships make it easy to spread information, but the online social network does not make too much difference in the creation of strong interpersonal relationships. Finally, we describe the mechanisms for the formation of these characteristics and discuss the implications of these structural properties for the real-life social networks.

  14. Within-culture variations of uniqueness: towards an integrative approach based on social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy.

  15. Estimating the cost of treating patients with liver cirrhosis at the Mexican Social Security Institute Estimación de costos de la atención de pacientes con cirrosis hepática en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Quiroz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. To estimate the annual cost of treating patients with cirrhosis at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in Spanish. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The annual cost of treating three stages of cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A, Child-Pugh B and Child-Pugh C was estimated using micro-costing techniques and medical experts. These results were compared and contrasted with prices reported by IMSS. RESULTS. The annual cost of treatment, in USA dollars, by Child-Pugh stage was: a micro-costing results: $1110.17 stage A, $549.55 stage B and $348.16 stage C; b opinion of medical experts: $1 633.64, $6564.04 and $19660.35, respectively; and c IMSS costs: $4269.00, $16949.63 and $30249.25, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. The cost of treating patients with cirrhosis is considerable, and costs increase as the disease worsens. Cost estimates vary depending on the source of information, and the methodology used. There are discrepancies between the procedures reported in medical records and treatment recommendations by IMSS liver experts.OBJETIVO. Estimar el costo anual de atención de pacientes con cirrosis hepática en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se estimó el costo de atención de la cirrosis en tres estadios de la enfermedad (Child Pugh A, Child Pugh B y Child Pugh C mediante micro-costeo y consulta a expertos. Los resultados se compararon entre sí, y con los costos reportados por el IMSS. RESULTADOS. El costo anual de atención en dólares por estadio fue: a con microcosteo $1110.17 etapa A, $549.55 etapa B y $348.16 etapa C, respectivamente; b mediante consulta a expertos $1633.64, $6564.04 y $19660.35, respectivamente; y c con costos del IMSS $4269.00, $16949.63 y $30249.25, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES. El tratamiento de cirrosis es costoso y generalmente los costos aumentan al avanzar la enfermedad. Además, los costos varían dependiendo de la fuente de información y la metodología utilizada

  16. Psychopathological Processes Involved in Social Comparison, Depression, and Envy on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Aurel

    2018-01-01

    Is Facebook utilization beneficial or detrimental for psychological well-being? I draw on outstanding research (e.g., Chou and Edge, 2012; Lin and Utz, 2015; Appel et al., 2016; Ehrenreich and Underwood, 2016; Vogel and Rose, 2016; Hu et al., 2017) to substantiate that examining other individuals' positively presented material on Facebook may have detrimental consequences. Increasing comparisons on Facebook may generate feelings of envy, the latter being a significant process determining the effect of growing social comparison on psychological well-being. To date, there is an increasing body of literature investigating the psychological consequences of Facebook usage, the function of relationship closeness in producing the feelings of contentment and envy, the impacts of exposure to positive content on Facebook, the link between envy and depression on Facebook, and the function of tie strength in expecting the emotional results of browsing Facebook. I am specifically interested in how previous research explored the consequences of Facebook use on psychological outcomes, the moderating function of envy in the link between Facebook use and reduced affective wellbeing, the psychological results of non-interactive Facebook conduct, and the role of relationship closeness in anticipating user's contentment and envy after inspecting a post. A synthesis of the extant literature suggests that inspecting other individuals' positive news on Facebook brings about contentment through emotional contagion, whereas negative news causes discomfort as a consequence of mood contagion, the transmissible effect being more powerful when the news is associated with a strong tie. The outcomes of this research back the argument that self-confidence and dispositional envy are instrumental in producing Facebook envy. These findings highlight that the emotional results of browsing Facebook are considerably affected by the substance of the comment, the personal attributes of the Facebook user

  17. Psychopathological Processes Involved in Social Comparison, Depression, and Envy on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Pera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Is Facebook utilization beneficial or detrimental for psychological well-being? I draw on outstanding research (e.g., Chou and Edge, 2012; Lin and Utz, 2015; Appel et al., 2016; Ehrenreich and Underwood, 2016; Vogel and Rose, 2016; Hu et al., 2017 to substantiate that examining other individuals’ positively presented material on Facebook may have detrimental consequences. Increasing comparisons on Facebook may generate feelings of envy, the latter being a significant process determining the effect of growing social comparison on psychological well-being. To date, there is an increasing body of literature investigating the psychological consequences of Facebook usage, the function of relationship closeness in producing the feelings of contentment and envy, the impacts of exposure to positive content on Facebook, the link between envy and depression on Facebook, and the function of tie strength in expecting the emotional results of browsing Facebook. I am specifically interested in how previous research explored the consequences of Facebook use on psychological outcomes, the moderating function of envy in the link between Facebook use and reduced affective wellbeing, the psychological results of non-interactive Facebook conduct, and the role of relationship closeness in anticipating user’s contentment and envy after inspecting a post. A synthesis of the extant literature suggests that inspecting other individuals’ positive news on Facebook brings about contentment through emotional contagion, whereas negative news causes discomfort as a consequence of mood contagion, the transmissible effect being more powerful when the news is associated with a strong tie. The outcomes of this research back the argument that self-confidence and dispositional envy are instrumental in producing Facebook envy. These findings highlight that the emotional results of browsing Facebook are considerably affected by the substance of the comment, the personal

  18. Brief Report: A Comparison of the Preference for Viewing Social and Non-Social Movies in Typical and Autistic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Indu; Ropar, Danielle; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2017-01-01

    The recently proposed Social Motivation theory (Chevallier et al., Trends in cognitive sciences 16(4):231-239, 2012) suggests that social difficulties in Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC) might be caused by a difference in the motivation to engage with other people. Here we compared adolescents with (N = 31) and without (N = 37) ASC on the…

  19. Social identification, social representations, and consumer innovativeness in an organic food context: A cross-national comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Reinders, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the role of (1) demographic characteristics, (2) domain-specific innovativeness, (3) social representation of new foods, and (4) social identification on the adoption of new organic food products. Three studies in the United States (N = 1001), the United Kingdom

  20. Teaching Social Communication: A Comparison of Naturalistic Behavioral and Development, Social Pragmatic Approaches for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2010-01-01

    There are a variety of effective treatments designed for increasing social communication in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Two such treatments, naturalistic behavioral and developmental, social-pragmatic/relationship-based interventions, differ in their underlying philosophy yet share many similarities in their…

  1. [Comparison of parameters of stress and trait anxiety scores in teenagers brought up in socially favorable and socially adverse conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapetiants, M G; Shkol'nik, T K; Lushchekina, E A

    2007-01-01

    The influence of social deprivation on the level of trait anxiety and stress was studied in the group of 85 teenagers at the age of 15-17 years. Teenagers brought up in socially adverse conditions reveal higher scores of trait anxiety and greater stress, both at the psychological and physiological levels.

  2. I feel bad and look worse than you: Social comparisons moderate the effect of mood on face health judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2016-07-01

    Mood can bias the judgements people make about themselves and how people compare themselves to others. However, it is not yet clear whether mood also affects appearance-based self-evaluations and social comparisons. Given the importance of perceived health status for well-being, we investigated the effect of mood on self-image and social comparisons of healthiness during two versions of a face health judgement task. Thirty participants judged how they felt compared to healthy and unhealthy looking versions of their own (self version) and a stranger's face (stranger version), after a positive, negative and neutral mood induction. The effect of mood was dependent on self/stranger task order. Although mood did not affect face health judgement for participants who initially judged themselves against their own face, it did affect face health judgement for participants who initially judged themselves in comparison to a stranger's face. After the positive and negative mood inductions, these participants judged themselves as equivalent to healthier/unhealthier looking versions of their own and stranger's faces, respectively. Thus, social comparisons of facial healthiness could provide a perceptual measure of state well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Brief Report: A Comparison of the Preference for Viewing Social and Non-social Movies in Typical and Autistic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Indu; Ropar, Danielle; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2017-02-01

    The recently proposed Social Motivation theory (Chevallier et al., Trends in cognitive sciences 16(4):231-239, 2012) suggests that social difficulties in Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC) might be caused by a difference in the motivation to engage with other people. Here we compared adolescents with (N = 31) and without (N = 37) ASC on the Choose-a-Movie paradigm that measures the social seeking. The results showed a preference for viewing objects over smiling faces in ASC, which is in line with the theory of low social motivation. However, typical adolescents did not show any stimuli preferences, raising questions about developmental changes in social motivation. Age was found to play a significant role in moderating the choice behaviour of the participants. We discuss the implications of these findings in detail.

  4. Eating disorder-related social comparison in college women's everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E

    2017-08-01

    This study examined: frequency of upward and downward body, eating, and exercise comparisons; context in which these comparisons occur; and body, eating, and exercise comparison direction as predictors of concurrent body dissatisfaction and disordered eating thoughts, urges, and behaviors in college women's everyday lives using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Participants were 232 college women who completed a two-week EMA protocol, using their personal electronic devices to answer questions three times per day. First, body, eating, and exercise comparisons were common. Second, when these comparisons were made, they were typically upward. Third, body comparisons were most oftentimes made about weight and shape and eating comparisons about healthiness and amount of food. Exercise comparisons were made on a wider variety of dimensions. Fourth, most body and eating comparisons were made with strangers and close friends, respectively, while exercise comparisons were made with a variety of individuals. Upward comparisons were usually made with acquaintances and strangers. Fifth, results shed light on where college women compare themselves. Sixth, upward comparisons were found to have negative consequences, and downward comparisons were generally not found to have a buffering effect on eating pathology. Results suggest targeting not only body but also eating and exercise comparisons in intervention. Also, prevention/intervention approaches should not promote engagement in downward comparisons, as they were not found to be protective and were even harmful at times. Clinicians should be attuned to the categories on which, with whom, and where college women are most likely to compare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Media exposure, mediated social comparison to idealized images of muscularity, and anabolic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P; Hitti, Eveline A; Oghia, Michael J; Mufarrij, Afif A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and dominant sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure to idealized images of male muscularity, and mediated social comparison trends among a sample of young Arab adults. The study found evidence that participants more exposed to content that promotes muscularity and those who idealize images of muscularity and perceive them as motivators for achieving muscularity are more likely to be AAS users. It also found that a significant percentage of participants used at least one kind of dietary supplement and that the level of AAS use among health club participants indicates it is a significant public health problem in Lebanon. The study suggests that dealing with this problem requires a unique approach, beyond the typical awareness of risks strategy, since some users were well aware of the risks yet continue to use AAS, and their motivations pertain more to body image and sexuality. A stronger approach that utilizes critical media literacy teaching that ingrains these issues into school and university curricula will have a more lasting impact.

  6. Changing social organizations of care: a comparison of European policy reforms encouraging paid domestic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Elin

    2012-06-01

    In many European countries different types of policy reforms intending to encourage growth in the domestic service sector have been introduced. The methods and reforms differ but mainly the reforms intend to stimulate growth of a 'new' legal labour market sector within private households. This potential growth sector in combination with insufficient or declining welfare states, inclining female labour market participation and ageing populations could be viewed as explanatory factors to the increased demand for domestic services. A growing amount of those performing paid domestic work in European homes are migrant women with or without papers. The aim of this article is to create a model that enables comparisons of these reforms, with a special focus on changing social organizations of care for elders, children and other dependent persons. Included in the analysis are European countries that have introduced wide domestic service policy reforms as measurement to encourage growth in the domestic service sector, i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany and Sweden.

  7. On models and vases: body dissatisfaction and proneness to social comparison effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Debra; Stapel, Diederik A; Siero, Frans W

    2007-01-01

    When and why do media-portrayed physically attractive women affect perceivers' self-evaluations? In 6 studies, the authors showed that whether such images affect self-evaluations depends jointly on target features and perceiver features. In Study 1, exposure to a physically attractive target, compared with exposure to an equally attractive model, lowered women's self-evaluations. Study 2 showed that body-dissatisfied women, to a greater extent than body-satisfied women, report that they compare their bodies with other women's bodies. In Study 3, body-dissatisfied women, but not body-satisfied women, were affected by both attractive models and nonmodels. Furthermore, in Study 4, it was body-dissatisfied women, rather than body-satisfied women, who evaluated themselves negatively after exposure to a thin (versus a fat) vase. The authors replicated this result in Study 5 by manipulating, instead of measuring, body dissatisfaction. Finally, Study 6 results suggested that body dissatisfaction increases proneness to social comparison effects because body dissatisfaction increases self-activation. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Structural alterations of the social brain: a comparison between schizophrenia and autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Radeloff

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia share a substantial number of etiologic and phenotypic characteristics. Still, no direct comparison of both disorders has been performed to identify differences and commonalities in brain structure. In this voxel based morphometry study, 34 patients with autism spectrum disorder, 21 patients with schizophrenia and 26 typically developed control subjects were included to identify global and regional brain volume alterations. No global gray matter or white matter differences were found between groups. In regional data, patients with autism spectrum disorder compared to typically developed control subjects showed smaller gray matter volume in the amygdala, insula, and anterior medial prefrontal cortex. Compared to patients with schizophrenia, patients with autism spectrum disorder displayed smaller gray matter volume in the left insula. Disorder specific positive correlations were found between mentalizing ability and left amygdala volume in autism spectrum disorder, and hallucinatory behavior and insula volume in schizophrenia. Results suggest the involvement of social brain areas in both disorders. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to quantify the amount of distinct and overlapping neural correlates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

  9. Body-related envy: a social comparison perspective in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Stamiris, Angela; Castonguay, Andree; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-02-01

    These three studies sought to better understand experiences of body-related envy and to examine the association with motivation and exercise behavior in young adult males and females. In an interview study, participants (N = 11) discussed body-related envy within a framework of social comparison. In Study 2, a thematic content analysis was conducted on self-reported narratives of body-related envy experiences reported by 288 participants. Themes of body-related envy triggers, cognitions, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes were identified. Findings from Studies 1 and 2 highlighted the possible link between body-related envy and exercise motivation and behavior. Study 3 tested these associations with males and females (N = 595) who completed a self-report questionnaire. In the structural equation model, body-related envy was positively associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations, and identified regulation was positively associated with exercise behavior. Taken together, the importance of body-related envy in the experience of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes related to sport and exercise contexts is highlighted.

  10. Predicting anxious response to a social challenge and hyperventilation: comparison of the ASI and ASI-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Ayati, Firouzeh

    2009-09-01

    This study compared the predictive ability of the original ASI to the ASI-3 and measures of trait and social anxiety in two challenge conditions; hyperventilation or a social challenge. During hyperventilation, the ASI-3 social concerns subscale was a better predictor than the subscales of the original ASI and measures of general trait and social anxiety. During the social manipulation, results indicated the ASI-3 social concerns subscale and the social anxiety measure were significant predictors of anxious response. Results provide evidence that the ASI-3 is an improvement over the original ASI and is a sound overall measure of response to challenge procedures.

  11. Does social comparison make a difference? Optimism as a moderator of the relation between comparison level and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbons, FX; Blanton, H; Gerrard, M; Buunk, B; Eggleston, T

    Previous research has demonstrated that poor academic performance is associated with a downward shift in preferred level of academic comparison level (ACL). The current study assessed the long-term impact of this downward shift on the academic performance of college students and also examined the

  12. Social comparisons with media images are cognitively inefficient even for women who say they feel pressure from the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want, Stephen C; Saiphoo, Alyssa

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated whether social comparisons with media images are cognitively efficient (demanding minimal mental effort) or cognitively effortful processes, in a sample of female undergraduate students (N=151) who reported feeling pressure from the media regarding their appearance. Two groups were shown 12 images of thin and attractive female models. One group was asked to memorize a complex 8-digit number during exposure to the images (Cognitively Busy condition), while the other memorized a much simpler number (Free View condition). A third group (Control condition) viewed images without people. Participants in the Free View condition demonstrated significantly increased negative mood and lowered appearance satisfaction from before to after exposure, while participants in the Cognitively Busy and Control conditions did not. We argue that these results suggest social comparisons with media images are at least somewhat cognitively effortful even among women who say they feel pressure from the media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An extension of uncertainty management theory to the self: the relationship between justice, social comparison orientation, and antisocial work behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thau, Stefan; Aquino, Karl; Wittek, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    A multisource field study of 103 employees and their supervisors tested an extension of uncertainty management theory (E. A. Lind & K. Van den Bos, 2002; K. Van den Bos & E. A. Lind, 2002). According to this theory, persons high in social comparison orientation (F. X. Gibbons & B. P. Buunk, 1999) experience chronic uncertainty about the self. It was hypothesized that this should strengthen the effects of interactional and procedural justice perceptions on antisocial work behaviors. As predicted, the negative relationship between employee perceptions of interactional justice and supervisory ratings of antisocial work behaviors was stronger for people who are high as compared with low in social comparison orientation. Results provide evidence for an extension of uncertainty management theory to the self-domain. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  14. The effects of social comparison on social emotions and behavior during childhood: the ontogeny of envy and Schadenfreude predicts developmental changes in equity-related decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Singer, Tania

    2013-05-01

    Social comparison can elicit emotions such as envy, which can affect social interactions. The emergence and development of such social emotions through ontogeny, and their influence on social interaction, are unknown. We tested 182 children from 7 to 13 years of age with a novel monetary reward-and-punishment task measuring envy and Schadenfreude (i.e., gloating or taking delight in someone else's misfortune). Children were either rewarded or punished in a trial-by-trial evaluation of their performance on a speeded reaction time task. In a social condition, feedback of their own and a competitor's performance was given for each trial. Afterward, children rated how they felt about the outcome. The ratings suggest that when children won, they felt better if the competitor lost instead of winning (i.e., Schadenfreude). Conversely, when children lost, they felt worse if the competitor won instead of losing (i.e., envy). Crucially, levels of envy and Schadenfreude decreased with age. We also studied how these emotions relate to social decisions made separately during three resource allocation paradigms. In each, children chose between two options that differed in the distribution of valuable tokens between themselves and an anonymous other. The combination of choices allowed the measurement of inequity aversion (i.e., equality for all) and spite (i.e., self-profit to maximal disadvantage of the other). We found an age-related increase in inequity aversion and decrease in spite. Crucially, age-related changes in both envy and Schadenfreude predicted the developmental change in equity-related decisions. These findings shed light on the development of social emotions and demonstrate their importance in the development of prosocial behavior in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Upward and downward comparison in the intermediate-status group: the role of social stratification stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca

    2012-06-01

    This work analyses intergroup comparison choices made by intermediate-status group members. Seventy-six psychology students were categorized in an intermediate position with respect to other faculties. Stability was manipulated at three levels: stable, upwardly unstable, and downwardly unstable. Data on strength of comparison, comparison for enhancing, comparison for evaluation, and ingroup identification were collected. Results revealed that in the stable condition, participants were equally engaged in both upward and downward comparison. In the upwardly unstable condition, participants were more likely to compare themselves with the high-status group, whereas in the downwardly unstable condition, they were more likely to choose a downward comparison. In this latter condition, both downward comparison for enhancement and in-group identification were lower than in other conditions. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Institutional, social and economic roots of deforestation: a cross-country comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, A.L.; Kooten, van G.C.; Wang, S.

    2003-01-01

    The emphasis on pure economic explanations for economic development has recently shifted to cultural, social and institutional factors. An ordinary least squares (OLS) regression equation is used to examine the relationship between deforestation and economic, institutional and social capital

  17. LIFESTYLE AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING OF FREELANCERS: CROSS-REGIONAL COMPARISONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. R. Akhmetshina; T. V. Klyueva; O. V. Poletaeva

    2016-01-01

    ... — obtained directly from participants involved in the social process. The authors demonstrate that the social community of freelancers differs from other communities in status, value and behavioral characteristics...

  18. A comparison of capacities for social cognition and metacognition in first episode and prolonged depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladegaard, Nicolai; Lysaker, Paul H; Larsen, Erik R; Videbech, Poul

    2014-12-30

    There is a growing awareness that social cognition is a valuable construct for understanding the psycho-social disabilities in depressive illness. Numerous studies have linked affective disorders to impairments in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. Only few studies have investigated the relation between the burden of depressive illness and social cognitive ability. To study these issues, we compared a group of first-episode depressed patients with a group of chronically depressed patients (duration >2 years) on a broad array of higher-order social cognitive measures including the metacognition assessment scale abbreviated. Contrary to prediction, deficits in social cognition were roughly equivalent between the two groups and there was no significant link between symptom severity and social cognitive ability. Having moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) could be sufficient to predict the presence of deficits in social cognitive ability.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Domestic American and International Chinese Students' Social Media Usage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qiong Xu; Richard Mocarski

    2014-01-01

    ...) use and attitudes toward SM. The purpose of this study was to investigate student perception and motivation of social media communication and the relationship between student cultural values and their social media participation...

  20. The role of self-improvement and self-evaluation motives in social comparisons with idealised female bodies in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of social comparisons with media models on women's body image based on either self-evaluation or self-improvement motives. Ninety-eight women, for whom appearance was a relevant comparison dimension, viewed advertisements that did, or did not, feature idealised models, after being prompted to engage in self-evaluation or self-improvement comparisons. The results indicate that, when focusing on self-evaluation, comparisons with thin models are associated with higher body-focused anxiety than viewing no model advertisements. In contrast, when focusing on self-improvement, comparisons with thin models are not associated with higher body-focused anxiety than viewing no models. Furthermore, women's general tendency to engage in social comparisons moderated the effects of self-evaluative comparisons with models, so that women who did not habitually engage in social comparisons were most strongly affected. It is suggested that motive for social comparison may explain previous inconsistencies in the experimental exposure literature and warrants more careful attention in future research.

  1. Evaluation and Comparison of Individual and Group Sports in the Social Adjustment of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hossein Mousavi

    2012-01-01

    Due to the role of sports in youth social adjustment and social skills in their interpersonal relationships and social skills associated with academic achievement and their role in reducing mental and psychological problems ,we conducted this study to examine the role of physical activity in different sport fields. In order to compare the social skills of male students participating in the team and individual sports in Islamic Azad University of Zanjan, we chose 30 randomly as the sample size...

  2. Comparison of Social Studies Education in the United States, China, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Hoge, John D.; Choi, Jungsoon; Lee, Seung-Yun

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a brief picture of social studies education in the United States, China, and South Korea. It begins with a brief account of the K-12 curriculum structure and history of social studies education in each country in the 20th century. It then turns to a contemporary look at the social studies, the national curriculum standards…

  3. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Domestic American and International Chinese Students' Social Media Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiong; Mocarski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This survey of American and Chinese students at a state university in the southern United States measures Social Media (SM) use and attitudes toward SM. The purpose of this study was to investigate student perception and motivation of social media communication and the relationship between student cultural values and their social media…

  4. Social Anxiety and Isolation in College Students: A Comparison of Two Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipes, Randolph B.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive treatment, anxiety management, in reducing social anxiety in friendships, and whether the cognitive component would increase the efficacy for a Response Practice treatment designed to allow participants to practice in social environments. The combination treatment reduced social anxiety in male college…

  5. The Relationship between Social Support and Adolescent Dating Violence: A Comparison across Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N.; Branch, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the function of social support in adult intimate partner violence, little is known about the role of social support in adolescent dating violence. This study is an exploratory analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and family on the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and…

  6. Costos por ausentismo laboral atribuibles al consumo de tabaco en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social y en México, 2006-2009 Absenteeism attributable to smoking in the Mexican Social Security Institute, 2006-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Guerrero-López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Calcular los costos por ausentismo laboral atribuibles al tabaquismo en los asegurados del IMSS y población ocupada en México para el periodo 2006-2009. MATERIAL y MÉTODOS: Los costos se estimaron usando fracciones atribuibles para cáncer pulmonar, enfermedad cerebrovascular, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica e infarto agudo de miocardio, así como registros de salarios y días de incapacidad por esas enfermedades en asegurados del IMSS. Los parámetros encontrados se extrapolaron a la población ocupada. RESULTADOS: El IMSS erogó 143.9 millones de pesos a precios de 2009 atribuibles al tabaquismo como subsidio por incapacidad en el período 2006-2009. La productividad perdida atribuible al tabaquismo en asegurados del IMSS ascendió a 298.2 millones de pesos y a 437.8 millones de pesos en población ocupada del país en el mismo período. CONCLUSIONES: El tabaquismo impone costos importantes a las instituciones de seguridad en el país y causa pérdidas en la productividad. Por tanto, deben fortalecerse las políticas gubernamentales de control del tabaco incluidas en el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco.OBJECTIVE: To calculate the absenteeism costs by lung cancer, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute myocardial infarction attributable to smoking in the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS and the occupied population from 2006 to 2009. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Productivity loss data from selected illnesses were obtained from IMSS records. The smoking attributable fraction was used, and extrapolation to occupied population was conducted. RESULTS: IMSS paid $143.9 million pesos (2009 prices attributable to smoking between 2006 and 2009. The productivity loss was $298.2 million pesos and $437.8 million pesos in the occupied population, attributable to smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking implies costs to the individual, families and society, which urge to strengthen policies

  7. Social comparisons on social media: the impact of Facebook on young women's body image concerns and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Vartanian, Lenny R; Halliwell, Emma

    2015-03-01

    The present study experimentally investigated the effect of Facebook usage on women's mood and body image, whether these effects differ from an online fashion magazine, and whether appearance comparison tendency moderates any of these effects. Female participants (N=112) were randomly assigned to spend 10min browsing their Facebook account, a magazine website, or an appearance-neutral control website before completing state measures of mood, body dissatisfaction, and appearance discrepancies (weight-related, and face, hair, and skin-related). Participants also completed a trait measure of appearance comparison tendency. Participants who spent time on Facebook reported being in a more negative mood than those who spent time on the control website. Furthermore, women high in appearance comparison tendency reported more facial, hair, and skin-related discrepancies after Facebook exposure than exposure to the control website. Given its popularity, more research is needed to better understand the impact that Facebook has on appearance concerns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Young people with intellectual disabilities attending mainstream and segregated schooling: perceived stigma, social comparison and future aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, G; Jahoda, A; Gumley, A; Knott, F

    2006-06-01

    Mainstream schooling is a key policy in the promotion of social inclusion of young people with learning disabilities. Yet there is limited evidence about the school experience of young people about to leave mainstream as compared with segregated education, and how it impacts on their relative view of self and future aspirations. Sixty young people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities in their final year of secondary school participated in this study. Twenty-eight individuals came from mainstream schools and 32 attended segregated school. They completed a series of self-report measures on perceptions of stigma, social comparison to a more disabled and non-disabled peer and the likelihood involved in attaining their future goals. The majority of participants from both groups reported experiencing stigmatized treatment in the local area where they lived. The mainstream group reported significant additional stigma at school. In terms of social comparisons, both groups compared themselves positively with a more disabled peer and with a non-disabled peer. While the mainstream pupils had more ambitious work-related aspirations, both groups felt it equally likely that they would attain their future goals. Although the participants from segregated schools came from significantly more deprived areas and had lower scores on tests of cognitive functioning, neither of these factors appeared to have an impact on their experience of stigma, social comparisons or future aspirations. Irrespective of schooling environment, the young people appeared to be able to cope with the threats to their identities and retained a sense of optimism about their future. Nevertheless, negative treatment reported by the children was a serious source of concern and there is a need for schools to promote the emotional well-being of pupils with intellectual disabilities.

  9. Entamoeba histolytica: expression and localization of Gal/GalNAc lectin in virulent and non-virulent variants from HM1:IMSS strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vancell, R; Arreguín Espinosa, R; González-Canto, A; Néquiz Avendaño, M; García de León, M C; Olivos-García, A; López-Vancell, D; Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2010-07-01

    We have purified Gal/GalNAc lectin from Entamoeba histolytica by electroelution. The purified protein was used to immunize rabbits and obtain polyclonal IgG's anti-lectin. These antibodies were used as tools to analyze the expression and localization of the amoebic lectin in both virulent (vEh) and non-virulent (nvEh) variants of axenically cultured HM1:IMSS strain. vEh is able to induce liver abscesses in hamsters, whereas nvEh has lost this ability. In vitro, amoebic trophozoites from both variants equally express this protein as shown by densitometric analysis of the corresponding band in Western blots from lysates. In both types of trophozoites, the pattern of distribution of the lectin was mainly on the surface. We have also compared by immunohistochemistry the presence and distribution of lectin in the in vivo liver lesions produced in hamsters. In order to prolong the survival of nvEh to analyze both variants in an in vivo model, hamsters inoculated with nvEh were treated with methyl prednisolone. Our results suggest that the Gal/GalNAc lectin is equally expressed in both nvEh and vEh.

  10. Entamoeba histolytica: correlation of assessment methods to measure erythrocyte digestion, and effect of cysteine proteinases inhibitors in HM-1:IMSS and HK-9:NIH strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Galindo, Juan; Anaya-Velázquez, Fernando; Ramírez-Romo, Susana; González-Robles, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites are able to degrade human erythrocytes; the loss of erythrocyte cellular matrix and degradation of plasma membrane were observed, along with the decrease in the average size of digestive vacuoles. Ninety-six percent of hemoglobin ingested was hydrolyzed by trophozoites within 3h, as evidenced by electrophoresis. Accordingly, X-ray spectroscopy revealed the presence of iron inside vacuoles after erythrophagocytosis, the concentration of which decreased to control levels in a similar period. Quantification of erythrocyte digestion at the early and late periods was determined by a spectrophotometric procedure, with t(1/2)=1.67 h and 35-min for HM-1:IMSS and HK-9:NIH trophozoites, respectively. In the latter, activity was due to the combined action of intracellular enzymatic activity and exocytosis. E-64c and leupeptin totally inhibited erythrocyte digestion within a 3-h period, thereafter hydrolysis took place at lower rate. Our results suggest that erythrocyte digestion in E. histolytica proceeds in different ways in these two amebic strains, and can be blocked by proteinase inhibitors.

  11. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrian, Sonya K; Holson, R R

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings' social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently complex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking, and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms, and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  12. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Krishna Sobrian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  13. Targets and dimensions of social comparison among people with spinal cord injury and other health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Gonzalez, Pilar; Terol, Carmen; Lopez Roig, Sofia

    2006-01-01

    The present research examined comparison targets and comparison dimensions among two Spanish samples of individuals facing serious illnesses and diseases. In Study 1, 90 older patients (mean age 66.36) with various age-related diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, indicated

  14. When Peer Performance Matters: Effects of Expertise and Traits on Children's Self-Evaluations After Social Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapan, Candace; Boseovski, Janet J

    2017-11-01

    The present research examined the influence of peer characteristics on children's reactions to upward social comparisons. In Experiment 1, one hundred twenty-six 5-, 8-, and 10-year-olds were told that they were outperformed by an expert or novice peer. Older children reported higher self-evaluations after comparisons with an expert rather than a novice, whereas 5-year-olds reported high self-evaluations broadly. In Experiment 2, ninety-eight 5- to 6-year-olds and 9- to 10-year-olds were told that the peer possessed a positive or negative trait that was task relevant (i.e., intelligence) or task irrelevant (i.e., athleticism). Older children reported higher self-evaluations after hearing about positive rather than negative traits, irrespective of relevance. Younger children reported high self-evaluations indiscriminately. Results inform the understanding of social comparison development in childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Social support, stress, and maternal postpartum depression: A comparison of supportive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Keshia M; Taylor, Miles G

    2015-11-01

    A large body of literature documents the link between social support, stress, and women's mental health during pregnancy and the postpartum period; however, uncertainty remains as to whether a direct effect or stress mediating pathway best describes the relationship between these factors. Moreover, specific dimensions of social support that may be influential (family type, sources of support) have largely been neglected. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=4150), we examine the pathway between social support, stress exposure, and postpartum depression in greater detail. Findings reveal that social support is a significant, protective factor for postpartum depression, and the variety of support providers in a woman's social network is important, especially in the context of family type. Findings also reveal the importance of considering social support and stress exposure as part of a larger causal pathway to postpartum mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Social comparison, competition and teacher-student relationships in junior high school classrooms predicts bullying and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasio, Maria Rosaria; Savage, Robert; Burgos, Giovani

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional research examines how social comparison, competition and teacher-student relationships as classroom characteristics are associated with bullying and victimization among junior high school students in grades 7 and 8 in Canada. The study tests a conceptual model of youth outcomes that highlights the importance of modeling the effects of teaching practices as proximal structural conditions at the classroom level (N = 38) that affect bullying outcomes at the individual level (N = 687). Results of Hierarchal linear modeling (HLM) revealed significant classroom-level effects in that increased social comparison, competition and teacher-student relationships were related to bullying and victimization. An interaction for teacher-student relationships and gender also emerged. These findings may guide future intervention programs for junior high schools that focus on enhancing cooperation and pro-social behavior in classrooms. The findings could also inform programs that focus on building strong relationships between students and teachers to help prevent bullying and victimization, particularly among boys. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  17. The comparison of social skill levels of team sports athletes and individual sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Çepikkurt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study is to compare the level of social skills scores of undergraduate students at Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports according to sport types, gender and class levels. Material and Methods: To test the main hypothesis, a total of 112 student- athletes (47 female and 65 male, performing individual and team sports from the Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports were involved in this study. Data were collected by ‘Social Skills Inventory” developed by Riggio (1986, 1989 and adapted to Turkish by Yüksel (1998. Results: T -test results showed that the mean scores of 6 sub-dimensions of social skills scale does not change with regard to types of sports. But, there were significant differences of mean scores of social control changes with respect to gender and this score was higher for female athletes compared to male counterparts. Moreover, the results of Kruskal Wallis Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in all sub dimensions except emotional awareness subscale compared to class level. First year students had the highest scores in terms of emotional expressivity, emotional control, social expressivity, social awareness, and social control. Conclusion: It could be stated that women are more successful in social skills, although the level of social skills of student-athletes does not differ according to sport.

  18. One Task, Divergent Solutions: High- versus Low-Status Sources and Social Comparison Guide Adaptation in a Computer-Supported Socio-Cognitive Conflict Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Antonia E.; Engelmann, Tanja; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study extends conflict elaboration theory (1) by revealing social influence dynamics for a knowledge-rich computer-supported socio-cognitive conflict task not investigated in the context of this theory before and (2) by showing the impact of individual differences in social comparison orientation. Students in two conditions…

  19. Social comparison, negative body image, and disordered eating behavior: the moderating role of coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkasavage, Emilie; Arigo, Danielle; Schumacher, Leah M

    2015-01-01

    Comparing one's body to those of individuals perceived as more attractive is common among college women, and has been associated with increases in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Not all college women are vulnerable to the negative influence of these upward body comparisons; however, little is known about characteristics that may distinguish more vulnerable women. Coping styles, which represent individuals' responses to negative events, are a key area of opportunity for better understanding the relationship between body comparison and weight-related experiences in this population. College women (n =628) completed an electronic assessment of demographics, upward body comparison, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating behavior, and coping styles. Controlling for reported BMI, positive reframing coping style moderated the relationship between upward body-focused comparison and body dissatisfaction (p =0.02), such that women who engaged in more (vs. less) positive reframing showed a weakened relationship between upward body-focused comparison and body dissatisfaction. Controlling for BMI and body dissatisfaction, both self-blaming (p =0.02) and self-distracting (p =0.009) styles also moderated the relationship between upward body-focused comparison and disordered eating behaviors, such that women who more (vs. less) strongly endorsed self-blaming and self-distracting styles appeared more susceptible to the negative influence of upward body comparison. These findings underscore the importance of upward body comparison for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among college women, and highlight coping style as a key factor in these relationships. Increased attention to upward body comparison and coping style may improve quality of life and contribute to the prevention of disordered eating in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three nonhuman primate species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eBOUCHET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in nonhuman primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza’s monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus, six Campbell’s monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most ‘despotic’ of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species’ social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza’s monkeys (simplest social structure displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell’s monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in

  1. LIFESTYLE AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING OF FREELANCERS: CROSS-REGIONAL COMPARISONS

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    E. R. Akhmetshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the cross-regional social study provide information on the relevant aspects of non-standard form of employment — freelance — obtained directly from participants involved in the social process. The authors demonstrate that the social community of freelancers differs from other communities in status, value and behavioral characteristics. At the same time, analysis of the behavioral models of freelancers shows internal differentiation of this group through different needs in material and social benefits, professional and social attitude and use of recreational, working and other social practices. Both skilled in-demand freelancers and workers with temporary freelance orders in addition to the main job coexist within the freelance community. Particular qualities of freelancers’ lifestyle reduce social wellbeing of the group and do not allow them to enter the segment of the regional middle class, keeping them in “reserve” or even on the periphery of the social structure. ”Growing points” for this group are proactivity, internal locus of control and focus on the use of their own resources for solving problems leading to citizens’ initiative development.

  2. Social Origin and Graduation Age: A Cohort Comparison of Danish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960-1975. These are cohorts for whom university attendance increased steeply. Contrary to recent findings…

  3. Teaching Writing in the Social Sciences: A Comparison and Critique of Three Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristine; Adams, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates three approaches to teaching writing in the social sciences, particularly psychology: an English department-based course for all social science majors; a team-teaching model that embeds writing in core courses in psychology; and a stand-alone course dedicated to teaching writing in psychology, often taken…

  4. Social role participation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. A cross-sectional comparison with population controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genderen, Simon; Plasqui, Guy; Landewé, Robert; Lacaille, Diane; Arends, Suzanne; van Gaalen, Floris; van der Heijde, Désirée; Heuft, Liesbeth; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Gignac, Monique A M; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Social role participation of persons with a chronic disease is important for their lives, but interpretation of data on participation is difficult in the absence of a benchmark. This study aimed to compare social role participation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) to

  5. Science and Social Studies Teachers' Beliefs and Practices about Teaching Controversial Issues: Certain Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Zafer

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate social studies and science teachers' attitudes and classroom practices associated with controversial issues. The study is a qualitative research based on data collected through interviews and observation. Social studies and Science teachers participated in the current study which was conducted in Kirsehir, a…

  6. Social Exclusion and People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Rural-Urban Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, L.; Cooper, S.-A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that social exclusion is a problem both for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and for people living in rural areas. This may give rise to a double disadvantage for people with ID living in rural areas. Conversely, aspects of rural life such as community spirit and social support may protect against social…

  7. Comparison of Elementary Social Studies Curricula of Turkey and the United States on Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merey, Zihni; Kus, Zafer; Karatekin, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the social studies teaching curricula of Turkey and the United States in terms of values education. The study is a model case study that relies upon one of the qualitative research methods. The data come from the elementary social studies curricula of both countries through the documents analysis method. The…

  8. El costo de la atención médica del cáncer mamario: el caso del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social The health care costs of breast cancer: the case of the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Marie Knaul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Calcular el costo de atención de las pacientes con cáncer de mama tratadas en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: A través del Sistema de Información Médico Operativa del IMSS, se conformó una cohorte de pacientes con diagnóstico reciente en 2002 que recibió seguimiento hasta finales de 2006. Se identificó el uso de recursos y se le adjudicó el costo de atención del IMSS. RESULTADOS: Sólo 14% se diagnosticó en fase I y 48% en las fases III-IV. El costo de atención promedio por año-paciente se estimó en 110 459 pesos y para las mujeres diagnosticadas en 2002 la etapa I tuvo un costo de 74 522 pesos, comparado con 102 042 en la etapa II, 154 018 en la etapa III y 199 274 en la IV. CONCLUSIONES: El cáncer mamario representa un presupuesto significativo en el IMSS y entre más tardía es la etapa de detección, más altos resultan los costos económicos por año-paciente y más baja la probabilidad de sobrevida a cinco años.OBJECTIVE: We studied the cost of health care for women with breast cancer treated at the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, per its abbreviation in Spanish. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the Medical and Operative Information Systems of the IMSS, we constructed a cohort of patients diagnosed in 2002 and followed these patients to the end of 2006, identifying the use of resources and imputing the IMSS-specific cost structure. RESULTS: Only 14% of women were diagnosed in stage 1 and 48% were diagnosed in stages III-IV. The average cost of their medical care per patient-year was $MX110,459. Costs for stage 1 were $MX74,522 compared to $102,042 for stage II, and were $MX154,018 for stage III and $MX199,274 for stage IV. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer accounts for a significant part of the IMSS health budget. Later stage at diagnosis is associated with higher economic costs per patient-year of treatment and lower probability of five-year survival.

  9. Comparison of social resistance to Ebola response in Sierra Leone and Guinea suggests explanations lie in political configurations not culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Annie; Fairhead, James

    2017-01-01

    Sierra Leone and Guinea share broadly similar cultural worlds, straddling the societies of the Upper Guinea Coast with Islamic West Africa. There was, however, a notable difference in their reactions to the Ebola epidemic. As the epidemic spread in Guinea, acts of violent or everyday resistance to outbreak control measures repeatedly followed, undermining public health attempts to contain the crisis. In Sierra Leone, defiant resistance was rarer. Instead of looking to 'culture' to explain patterns of social resistance (as was common in the media and in the discourse of responding public health authorities) a comparison between Sierra Leone and Guinea suggests that explanations lie in divergent political practice and lived experiences of the state. In particular the structures of state authority through which the national epidemic response were organised integrated very differently with trusted institutions in each country. Predicting and addressing social responses to epidemic control measures should assess such political-trust configurations when planning interventions.

  10. Materialists on Facebook: the self-regulatory role of social comparisons and the objectification of Facebook friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozimek, Phillip; Baer, Fiona; Förster, Jens

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we examine chronic materialism as a possible motive for Facebook usage. We test an explanatory mediation model predicting that materialists use Facebook more frequently, because they compare themselves to others, they objectify and instrumentalize others, and they accumulate friends. For this, we conducted two online surveys ( N 1 = 242, N 2 = 289) assessing demographic variables, Facebook use, social comparison, materialism, objectification and instrumentalization. Results confirm the predicted mediation model. Our findings suggest that Facebook can be used as a means to an end in a way of self-regulatory processes, like satisfying of materialistic goals. The findings are the first evidence for our Social Online Self-regulation Theory (SOS-T), which contains numerous predictions that can be tested in the future.

  11. Mindset matters : gender differences in the psychological mechanisms shaping social comparison with peers

    OpenAIRE

    Beckerley, Shiloh Elizabeth; Beckerley, Shiloh Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although the presence of thin-ideal females in the media has been shown to decrease women's body satisfaction, preliminary research suggests that men may not be as negatively impacted. Recent research highlights the role of an individual's mindset in moderating comparison outcomes, which raises the possibility that mindset differences between men and women moderate the effects of comparisons with fit others. Mussweiler's (2003) selective accessibility model (SAM) predicts that initial percept...

  12. Social networks of adults with an intellectual disability from South Asian and White communities in the United Kingdom: A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anjali K; Forrester-Jones, Rachel V E; Murphy, Glynis H

    2017-05-15

    Little research exists comparing the social networks of people with intellectual disability (ID) from South Asian and White backgrounds. This UK study reports on the barriers that South Asian people with intellectual disability face in relation to social inclusion compared to their White counterparts. A mixed-methods research design was adopted to explore the social lives of 27 men (15 White; 12 South Asian) and 20 women (10 White; 10 South Asian with intellectual disability). Descriptive and parametric tests were used to analyse the quantitative data. The average network size of the whole group was 32 members. South Asian participants had more family members whilst White participants had more service users and staff in their networks; 96% network members from White intellectual disability group were also of White background, whilst the South Asian group had mixed ethnic network members. Social networks of individuals with intellectual disability in this study were found to be larger overall in comparison with previous studies, whilst network structure differed between the White and South Asian population. These differences have implications relating to future service planning and appropriateness of available facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Social networks and alcohol use among older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungyoun; Spilman, Samantha L; Liao, Diana H; Sacco, Paul; Moore, Alison A

    2018-04-01

    This study compared the association between social networks and alcohol consumption among middle-aged (MA) and older adults (OA) to better understand the nature of the relationship between those two factors among OA and MA. We examined Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Current drinkers aged over 50 were subdivided into two age groups: MA (50-64, n = 5214) and OA (65 and older, n = 3070). Each age group was stratified into drinking levels (low-risk vs. at-risk) based on alcohol consumption. The size and diversity of social networks were measured. Logistic regression models were used to examine age differences in the association between the social networks (size and diversity) and the probability of at-risk drinking among two age groups. A significant association between the social networks diversity and lower odds of at-risk drinking was found among MA and OA. However, the relationship between the diversity of social networks and the likelihood of at-risk drinking was weaker for OA than for MA. The association between social networks size and at-risk drinking was not significant among MA and OA. The current study suggests that the association between social networks diversity and alcohol use among OA differs from the association among MA, and few social networks were associated with alcohol use among OA. In the future, research should consider an in-depth exploration of the nature of social networks and alcohol consumption by using longitudinal designs and advanced methods of exploring drinking networks.

  14. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

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    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  15. [Study of influences of social support and social networks on participation in periodic health examination of the elderly at home comparison of three regions with different social backgrounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Yuu; Kishi, Reiko; Ecuchi, Teruko; Miyake, Hirotsugu; Sasatani, Harumi; Maeda, Nobuo; Horikawa, Naoko

    2006-02-01

    Periodic health examination are presumed to be important with respect to the well-being of aged individuals. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between elderly at home accepting periodic health examination and their social support and social networks. The survey was performed targeting so-called young elderly persons living at home in 3 regions in Hokkaido Prefecture, a large city (Sapporo), an ex-coalmining town (Yuubari) and a small farming town (Takasu). The study populations were asked about social support and social networks, and the Mantel-Haenszel method was applied to analyze the data. 1) Both males and females who received periodic health examination within the last one year (participants) were members of various groups, such as neighborhood societies, clubs for the elderly and so on, and were more interested in public magazines and political issues than those who had never received periodic health examination (non-participants). Elderly males who accepted periodic health examination were those who were interested in elections, who had a hobby, and who thought that life was worthwhile. 2) Both elderly males and females who accepted periodic health examination were those who had friends, and elderly males who accepted periodic health examination were those who had close relatives and who lived in a friendly neighborhood. 3) Elderly males who accepted periodic health examination were more likely to both receive and supply instrumental and emotional support in interaction with others.

  16. Violencia contra mujeres embarazadas entre las usuarias del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social: un estudio sobre determinantes, prevalencia y severidad

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Castro; Gregorio Agustín Ruiz; María de la Luz Arenas Monreal; Sergio Juárez Márquez; Nora Barrios Martínez Rojas

    2002-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de una encuesta entre 446 mujeres usuarias de los servicios de salud del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en Morelos, que se encontraban en su tercer trimestre de embarazo. El objetivo era indagar si la violencia contra mujeres se incrementa durante el embarazo o si, por el contrario, disminuye. Se encontró que la prevalencia no varió en ambos periodos (aproximadamente 15 por ciento, en general). En cambio, la severidad de l...

  17. On the Comparison of Public Health and Social Support in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    touraj hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at comparing the degree of public health and social support in addicted and non-addicted people. Method: This study was causative-comparative and all addicts who had referred to addiction treatment centers in city of Khoy in 2012 constituted its population. From among this population, 60 addicts through convenience sampling method were selected and then peered with 60 normal subjects by age, gender, and education. The measurement tools were Goldberg Public Health (Ghq-28 and Social Support (Fleming questionnaires. Results: The results showed That Addicts enjoy a lower degree of Mental Health and Social Support. Conclusion: Providing social support for the addicts under treatment programs is one of the important factors in withdrawal from drug use.

  18. Social support, socioeconomic and clinical risk: comparison between to neighborhoods in a Brazilian upcountry town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milce Burgos Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the perceptions of two families living in two different neighborhoods (rated according to risk levels regarding social support. A questionnaire was designed to assess social support according to the following dimensions: instrumental, emotional, religious, and support from friends, neighbors and family. The sample was comprised as follows: considering the 114 families living in neighborhood 1, 52 families were interviewed; and among the 162 families living in neighborhood 2, 60 families were interviewed. No significant difference was found related to instrumental, religious and emotional support, including the support from relatives among the families from both neighborhoods. The results disagree with the reviewed literature, which indicated a strong association between social support and families living at socioeconomic risk. In conclusion, social support is important for families, regardless of their risk stratification.

  19. A Comparison of Active and Passive Virtual Reality Exposure Scenarios to Elicit Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoones A. Sekhavat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Social phobia is an anxiety disorder that results in an excessive and unreasonable fear of social situations. As a safe and controlled tool, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET has been used to treat anxiety disorders and phobias. This paper aims to study whether VRET with active scenarios can challenge a person more than passive scenarios. By comparing participants who were exposed to active and passive scenarios in VRET, we show that active scenarios are more effective than passive scenarios to elicit social anxiety in healthy participants. We focus on eliciting social anxiety and creating the sense of presence as two parameters enhancing the efficacy of VRET scenarios.

  20. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2014-07-01

    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory.

  1. Enhanced neural responses to rule violation in children with autism: a comparison to social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; McPartland, James C; Kaiser, Martha D; Wyk, Brent C Vander; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2011-07-01

    The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates of two characteristic deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD); social impairment and restricted, repetitive behavior patterns. To this end, we used comparable experiences of social exclusion and rule violation to probe potentially atypical neural networks in ASD. In children and adolescents with and without ASD, we used the interactive ball-toss game (Cyberball) to elicit social exclusion and a comparable game (Cybershape) to elicit a non-exclusive rule violation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we identified group differences in brain responses to social exclusion and rule violation. Though both groups reported equal distress following exclusion, the right insula and ventral anterior cingulate cortex were hypoactive during exclusion in children with ASD. In rule violation, right insula and dorsal prefrontal cortex were hyperactive in ASD. Right insula showed a dissociation in activation; it was hypoactive to social exclusion and hyperactive to rule violation in the ASD group. Further probed, different regions of right insula were modulated in each game, highlighting differences in regional specificity for which subsequent analyses revealed differences in patterns of functional connectivity. These results demonstrate neurobiological differences in processing social exclusion and rule violation in children with ASD.

  2. [Four stages in the history of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI of the IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This document presents four stages in the history of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI (Centro Médico Nacional XXI Century) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The first stage started at the end of the third decade of the twentieth century and ended in 1961, it corresponded to the conception, planning and construction of what was to be the Centro Médico del Distrito Federal (Centro Médico of the Distrito Federal) belonging to the Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia (Ministry of Health and Assistance). The second stage began when the Center was acquired by the Institute, then was known like Centro Médico Nacional (Centro Médico Nacional ), being put into full operation in 1963, more than twenty-two years later, in 1985, an earthquake virtually ended it, immediately began its reconstruction, finishing the second stage. In 1989 began the third stage, different and new buildings complemented or replaced the structures damaged or destroyed by the earthquake which formed the now Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI (Centro Médico Nacional XXI Century). In 2004 the fourth stage opened when the four hospitals of the Center were categorized like Unidades Médicas de Alta Especialidad (High Specialized Medical Units).

  3. Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Le Grange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  4. Body-related social comparison and disordered eating among adolescent females with an eating disorder, depressive disorder, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Andrea E; Zaitsoff, Shannon L; Taylor, Andrew; Menna, Rosanne; Le Grange, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12-18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others'. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001). Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01), and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  5. [Occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus with a Gianturco-Grifka device. First case at the Instituo Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munayer Calderón, J; Aldana Pérez, T; San Luis Miranda, R; Maza Juárez, G; Lázaro Castillo, J L; Ramírez Reyes, H; Quintero, L R; Arias Monroy, L; Campos Gómez, A

    2000-01-01

    We present the initial experience of closing of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with a new device; Gianturco-Grifka, at the General Hospital of The Medical Center "La Raza". The patient was a 4 year's old girl, in whom we detected continuous murmur in the second intercostal space, echocardiography showed a long conical patent ductus arteriosus 4.9 mm of diameter, systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery was 35 mm Hg with QP/QS 1.6:1. Hemodynamic study revealed a long conical ductus arteriosus 5 mm of diameter, type A1 from Krichenko classification. We proceeded to occlude the PDA with a Gianturco-Grifka device of 7 mm. Immediately after the PDA occlusion the shunt disappeared, there were no complications during the procedure. More cases are needed to determine long term benefits and limitations, of this procedure. However we conclude that technically it is easy to use. There is greater decrease of residual shunt that the one reported with other devices.

  6. Comparison of dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile employed and unemployed women in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Azadeh S; Younesi, Seyed Jalal; Azkhosh, Manouchehr; Askari, Ali

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to compare dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment in infertile employed and unemployed females. Due to the stresses of infertility, infertile females are faced with a variety of sexual and psychological problems, as well as dysfunctional attitudes that can lead to depression. Moreover, infertility problems provoke women into maladjustment and inadvertent corruption of relationships. In this regard, our goal is to consider the effects of employment in conjunction with education on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile women in Iran. In this work, we employed the survey method. We recruited 240 infertile women, utilizing the cluster random sampling method. These women filled out the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and the social adjustment part of the California Test of Personality. Next, multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the relationship of employment status and education with dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. Our results indicated that dysfunctional attitudes were far more prevalent in infertile unemployed women than in infertile employed women. Also, social adjustment was better in infertile employed women than in infertile unemployed women. It was shown that education level alone does not have significant effect on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. However, we demonstrated that the employment status of infertile women in conjunction with their education level significantly affects the two dimensions of dysfunctional attitudes (relationships, entitlements) and has insignificant effects on social adjustment. It was revealed that in employed infertile women in Iran, the higher education level, the less dysfunctional were attitudes in relationships and entitlements, whereas in unemployed infertile women, those with a college degree had the least and those with master's or higher degrees had the most dysfunctional attitudes in terms of relationships and entitlements.

  7. Postinjury anxiety and social support among collegiate athletes: a comparison between orthopaedic injuries and concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Crutcher, Bryan; Bleecker, Alisha; Heiden, Erin O; Dailey, Alexander; Yang, Jingzhen

    2014-01-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses, including anxiety, regarding their injury. To compare the anxiety and social support of athletes with concussions and a matched group of athletes with orthopaedic injuries. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training room. A total of 525 injuries among athletes from 2 Big Ten universities were observed. Of these, 63 concussion injuries were matched with 63 orthopaedic injuries for the athlete's sex, sport, and time loss due to injury. Clinical measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (which measures both state and trait anxiety) and the modified 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. The group with concussions relied on their family for social support 89% of the time, followed by friends (78%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (48%), coaches (47%), and physicians (35%). The group with orthopaedic injuries relied on their family for social support 87% of the time, followed by friends (84%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (57%), coaches (51%), and physicians (36%). We found no differences for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (t = -1.38, P = .193) between the concussed and orthopaedic-injury groups. Social Support Questionnaire scores were significant predictors for postinjury state anxiety. Specifically, increased scores were associated with decreased postinjury state anxiety (β = -4.21, P = .0001). Both the concussed athletes and those with orthopaedic injuries experienced similar state and trait anxiety and relied on similar sources of social support postinjury. However, athletes with orthopaedic injuries reported greater satisfaction with support from all sources compared with concussed athletes. In contrast, concussed athletes showed more significant predictor models of social support on state anxiety at return to play.

  8. Postinjury Anxiety and Social Support Among Collegiate Athletes: A Comparison Between Orthopaedic Injuries and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Crutcher, Bryan; Bleecker, Alisha; Heiden, Erin O.; Dailey, Alexander; Yang, Jingzhen

    2014-01-01

    Context: When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses, including anxiety, regarding their injury. Objective: To compare the anxiety and social support of athletes with concussions and a matched group of athletes with orthopaedic injuries. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training room. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 525 injuries among athletes from 2 Big Ten universities were observed. Of these, 63 concussion injuries were matched with 63 orthopaedic injuries for the athlete's sex, sport, and time loss due to injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (which measures both state and trait anxiety) and the modified 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. Results: The group with concussions relied on their family for social support 89% of the time, followed by friends (78%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (48%), coaches (47%), and physicians (35%). The group with orthopaedic injuries relied on their family for social support 87% of the time, followed by friends (84%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (57%), coaches (51%), and physicians (36%). We found no differences for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (t = −1.38, P = .193) between the concussed and orthopaedic-injury groups. Social Support Questionnaire scores were significant predictors for postinjury state anxiety. Specifically, increased scores were associated with decreased postinjury state anxiety (β = −4.21, P = .0001). Conclusions: Both the concussed athletes and those with orthopaedic injuries experienced similar state and trait anxiety and relied on similar sources of social support postinjury. However, athletes with orthopaedic injuries reported greater satisfaction with support from all sources compared with concussed athletes. In contrast, concussed athletes showed

  9. [Association between socioeconomic status and oral hygiene among preschoolers enrolled in the IMSS preventive dental program in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Segovia-Villanueva, América; Estrella-Rodríguez, Ramón; Maupomé, Gerardo; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Pérez-Nuñez, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Determine the association between socioeconomic status and oral hygiene in the primary dentition of preschool children. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 1,303 children attending 10 schools in Campeche, Mexico. Every child was clinically examined in a portable dental chair by one of four examiners. We used a questionnaire addressed to the mothers to collect data on socioeconomic and socio demographic variables--including attitudinal variables dealing with the perceived importance of oral health. Oral hygiene was assessed appraising the frequency of tooth brushing and the presence of dental plaque. Data analysis included non-parametric tests using STATA 8.2. Mean age was 4.36 +/- 0.79 years and 48.3% of children were girls. Of the study population, 17.8% (n = 232) were classified as having inadequate oral hygiene, 50.9% (n = 663) having moderate oral hygiene, and 31.3% (n = 408) having adequate oral hygiene. Children who were rated more frequently as having inadequate hygiene (p < 0.05) had mothers with a negative attitude toward oral health, were users only of public medical insurance (as opposed to users of private services), and had not used dental services in the year prior to the study. Finally, we observed a decrease in the adequacy of oral hygiene associated with a decrease in socioeconomic status. Our findings showed that oral hygiene was closely associated with socioeconomic status. This implies that if a reduction of oral health inequalities is to be achieved, the strategies and resources targeting these goals must take into account the existing differences between population groups with more or fewer social disadvantages.

  10. THE PROGRESS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA A COMPARISON OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC INDICATORS BETWEEN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Akyuwen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global awareness and concept on the environmental friendly development has been emerged since early 1970s. However, the progress on its implementation was varied across countries. In Indonesia, sustainable development indicators have been studied and published by the Central Statistics Board (BPS since 2002. Based on the recommendation of the United Na-tions Commission on Sustainable Development, those indicators were classified into two groups, i.e. environment indicators and social economic indicators. This paper is aimed to compare the progress of social economic indicators among provinces in Indonesia by using descriptive ap-proach. Observed indicators were including population, per capita gross domestic product (GDP, open unemployment, poverty, energy consumption, transportation, and agriculture. In addition, regional fiscal capacity and human development index among provinces were also analyzed. Although the fund transfer from central to local governments has increased signifi-cantly since the implementation of local autonomy and fiscal decentralization in 2001, however, in general, the improvement of social economic indicators were varied between provinces. Sev-eral provinces with high fiscal capacity were not able to improve its social economic indicators significantly. On the contrary, the other provinces with low fiscal capacity have achieved better social economic indicators. This phenomenon has proved the importance of having appropriate capability in managing local economic development.

  11. Body Space in Social Interactions: A Comparison of Reaching and Comfort Distance in Immersive Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Coello, Yann; Frassinetti, Francesca; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Do peripersonal space for acting on objects and interpersonal space for interacting with con-specifics share common mechanisms and reflect the social valence of stimuli? To answer this question, we investigated whether these spaces refer to a similar or different physical distance. Methodology Participants provided reachability-distance (for potential action) and comfort-distance (for social processing) judgments towards human and non-human virtual stimuli while standing still (passive) or walking toward stimuli (active). Principal Findings Comfort-distance was larger than other conditions when participants were passive, but reachability and comfort distances were similar when participants were active. Both spaces were modulated by the social valence of stimuli (reduction with virtual females vs males, expansion with cylinder vs robot) and the gender of participants. Conclusions These findings reveal that peripersonal reaching and interpersonal comfort spaces share a common motor nature and are sensitive, at different degrees, to social modulation. Therefore, social processing seems embodied and grounded in the body acting in space. PMID:25405344

  12. Comparison of the responses of TLD-100 and radiochromic films exposed to X-rays of low energy in a radiodiagnostic clinical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, M.; Mesa, F.; Sosa, M. [Physics Institute, University of Guanajuato, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: In this work a comparison of the responses of a TLD-100 and a radiochromic film exposed to a low energy X-ray beam is presented. X-rays in the range of 20 to 120 KV from a clinical machine at the radiodiagnostic unit of the IMSS-Tl hospital in Leon were used. The processes of calibration of both the TLD-100 and the radiochromic films are also discussed. (Author)

  13. Spatial and Social Comparison of the Traditional Neighbourhood and the Modern Gated Community: Eskisehir Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Güler; Kayılıoğlu, Begüm

    2017-10-01

    People’s expectations from the city have changed with the transformation of urban life. Urban space is not the only place where structures are formed. Urban space also consists of a combination of public spaces, semi-public spaces, and private spaces. As social and cultural phenomena, social events occur and people communicate with each other in these spaces. Therefore, streets and neighbourhoods composed of houses are not only physical spaces, but they also have important social and cultural dimensions. Modern life has brought a plethora of changes that affected the cities. Due to rapid changes today, the urban space forms in the conversion process are also designed differently. Historically, the space organization based on the streets of the semi-public life in Turkish cities has been transformed into mass housing and housing estate-style life in recent years. This transformation has been expressed differently in urban life not only physically, but also socially and culturally. The street which is regarded as a public space was a place where people communicated and social events happened in the past; but today, the streets are rife with security problems and they have become a concept evoking an image of street that is bordered with buildings. Spatial separation has emerged with middle and upper classes isolating themselves from the streets and heading towards gated communities, especially for security reasons. This social and spatial separation has begun to lead to various problems in cities. Eskisehir is an important Anatolian city located between Ankara, the capital of Turkey, and Istanbul. This research was conducted in two research sites in Eskisehir: one is a gated community where middle and upper-income groups reside, and the other is a residential neighbourhood where middle-income groups live. These groups were studied through a survey. The spatial preferences of the residents in these two areas and their relation with the neighbourhood are examined

  14. Social Work Education in England and Spain: a Comparison of Contemporary Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sims

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the influences of globalisation on social work education reforms in England and Spain. It will argue that global changes exemplified by European convergence in respect of Higher Education have had a more explicit influence on the Spanish proposals for change than on the current English reforms. It will also argue that whilst both sets of reforms appear to be addressing some of the common professional issues brought to the fore by the new global complexity influencing social work, the English reforms have been driven by more ‘domestic’ concerns about competence, professional standards and accountability. Evidence supporting these arguments is explored and analysed.

  15. Social skills and neurocognitive individualized training in schizophrenia: comparison with structured leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Silvana; Piegari, Giuseppe; Mucci, Armida; Acerra, Antonio; Luciano, Lucio; Rabasca, Anna F; Santucci, Francesco; Valente, Angela; Volpe, Maurizio; Mastantuono, Pasquale; Maj, Mario

    2010-06-01

    Cognitive impairment and deficits in social skills have been largely documented in patients with schizophrenia and are increasingly recognized as rate-limiting factors for recovery. Evidence has been provided that cognitive training and social skills training (SST) are effective to treat cognitive and social skills impairment in schizophrenia; however, the translation of improved performance on cognitive or social skills tasks into improved functional outcome is controversial. According to recent reviews, interventions providing cognitive training in conjunction with psychosocial rehabilitation have a greater impact on functional outcome than either intervention alone suggesting that the two treatment approaches may work together in a synergistic fashion. The present pilot study was designed to test the hypothesis that an integrated rehabilitation program, including individualized cognitive and SST, is more effective than the structured leisure activities (SLA) carried out in many Italian Mental Health Departments. The primary outcome measure was subjects' personal and social functioning as assessed by the Interview for the assessment of disability. The study is based on a controlled design including randomization to treatment groups, blind assessments and stable pharmacological treatment. Subjects were recruited among patients attending three psychiatric facilities located in the Italian region Campania. Thirty patients were randomized to the experimental program "social skills and neurocognitive individualized training" (SSANIT), and 30 to SLA. The two programs were matched for the overall duration as well as frequency and duration of the sessions. The two groups of patients did not differ at baseline on psychopathology, neurocognitive and personal/social functioning. After 6 months of treatment, personal and social functioning was significantly better in patients assigned to SSANIT than in those assigned to usual rehabilitation activities practiced in Mental

  16. Compensation and Community Corrosion: Perceived Inequalities, Social Comparisons, and Competition Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brian; Running, Katrina; Bergstrand, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    After disasters, victim compensation programs are typically associated with individual healing and community rebuilding. But post-disaster compensation systems also have the potential to introduce confusion and competition, further fraying the social fabric of communities affected by trauma. To assess the perceived effects of disaster compensation processes on community social relations, as well as the mechanisms that underlie such effects, we turn to the case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, after which BP implemented one of the largest compensation systems in U.S. history. Using data from interviews of residents of four Gulf Coast communities, we examine the extent to which this claims process hindered efforts to recover from this disaster. Our data suggest that while BP money helped some residents in the Gulf during a difficult economic time, many interviewees perceived uncertainty, randomness, and unevenness in the compensation process, which led to negative social comparisons and competition among community members. Because of this animosity, we argue that BP's compensation system was a disruptive mechanism that contributed to community corrosion and introduced another source of psychological stress into already traumatized areas. PMID:26120247

  17. Early Child Care Teachers' Socialization Goals and Preferred Behavioral Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Ariane; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Döge, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated early child care teachers' culturally shaped socialization goals and preferred behavioral strategies. The participants were 183 female teachers and trainees, 93 from Osnabrück, Germany, representing an urban Western context, which can be characterized by a primary cultural orientation toward psychological autonomy and a…

  18. A Comparison of the Social-Adaptive Perspective and Functionalist Perspective on Guilt and Shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Heidi L

    2017-12-11

    Within the field of guilt and shame two competing perspectives have been advanced. The first, the social-adaptive perspective, proposes that guilt is an inherently adaptive emotion and shame is an inherently maladaptive emotion. Thus, those interested in moral character development and psychopathology should work to increase an individual's guilt-proneness and decrease an individual's shame-proneness. The functionalist perspective, in contrast, argues that both guilt and shame can serve a person adaptively or maladaptively-depending on the situational appropriateness, duration, intensity, and so forth. This paper reviews the research conducted supporting both positions; critiques some issues with the most widely used guilt- and shame-proneness measure in the social-adaptive research (the TOSCA) and discusses the differences in results found when assessing guilt and shame at the state versus trait level. The conclusion drawn is that although there is broad support for the functionalist perspective across a wide variety of state and trait guilt/shame studies, the functionalist perspective does not yet have the wealth of data supporting it that has been generated by the social-adaptive perspective using the TOSCA. Thus, before a dominant perspective can be identified, researchers need to (1) do more research assessing how the social-adaptive perspective compares to the functionalist perspective at the state level and (2) do more trait research within the functionalist perspective to compare functionalist guilt- and shame-proneness measures with the TOSCA.

  19. The Context of Social Capital: A Comparison of Rural and Urban Entrepreneurs in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rooks, Gerrit; Klyver, K.; Sserwanga, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Classical network theory states that social networks are a form of capital because they provide access to resources. In this article, we propose that network effects differ between collectivistic and individualistic contexts. In a collectivistic context, resource sharing will be "value based...

  20. Alcohol screening and brief intervention in workplace settings and social services: a comparison of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Bernd; O'Donnell, Amy Jane; Kastner, Sinja; Schmidt, Christiane Sybille; Schäfer, Ingo; Reimer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBIs) in primary health care (PHC) suggests that a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions takes place in this context. Update of two systematic reviews on ASBI effectiveness in workplaces, social service, and criminal justice settings. Review to identify implementation barriers and facilitators and future research needs of ASBI in non-medical settings. We found a limited number of randomized controlled trials in non-medical settings with an equivocal evidence of effectiveness of ASBI. In terms of barriers and facilitators to implementation, the heterogeneity of non-medical settings makes it challenging to draw overarching conclusions. In the workplace, employee concerns with regard to the consequences of self-disclosure appear to be key. For social services, the complexity of certain client needs suggest that a stepped and carefully tailored approach is likely to be required. Compared to PHC, the reviewed settings are far more heterogeneous in terms of client groups, external conditions, and the focus on substance use disorders. Thus, future research should try to systematize these differences, and consider their implications for the deliverability, acceptance, and potential effectiveness of ASBI for different target groups, organizational frameworks, and professionals.

  1. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: A comparison of six species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDadda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki, when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of 6 poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, Gambusia holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii and Xiphophorus mayae that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females’ social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  2. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  3. A Comparison of Foreign Language Learning Social Environments, Motivation, and Beliefs between Chinese and American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinxiao; Chen, Dianbing

    2011-01-01

    For the purposes of revealing and comparing the social, cultural, and motivational differences between American and Chinese undergraduate students learning foreign language, a sample of 100 students at University of Wyoming was asked to fill out a Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs questionnaire and 61 respondents completed the…

  4. Cerebellar areas dedicated to social cognition? A comparison of meta-analytic and connectivity results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overwalle, Frank; Baetens, Kris; Mariën, Peter; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2015-08-01

    A recent meta-analysis explored the role of the cerebellum in social cognition and documented that this part of the brain is critically implicated in social cognition, especially in more abstract and complex forms of mentalizing. The authors found an overlap with clusters involved in sensorimotor (during mirror and self-judgment tasks) as well as in executive processes (across all tasks) documented in earlier nonsocial cerebellar meta-analyses, and hence interpreted their results in terms of a domain-general function of the cerebellum. However, these meta-analytic results might be interpreted in a different, complementary way. Indeed, the results reveal a striking overlap with the parcellation of cerebellar topography offered by a recent functional connectivity analysis. In particular, the majority of social cognitive activity in the cerebellum can also be explained as located within the boundaries of a default/mentalizing network of the cerebellum, with the exception of the involvement of primary and integrative somatomotor networks for self-related and mirror tasks, respectively. Given the substantial overlap, a novel interpretation of the meta-analytic findings is put forward suggesting that cerebellar activity during social judgments might reflect a more domain-specific mentalizing functionality in some areas of the cerebellum than assumed before.

  5. Assessment and Treatment of Socially Phobic Children: A Cross Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Courtney B.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the psychopathology and behavioral treatment of White and African American preadolescent children with social phobia. The comprehensive assessment strategy, including semistructured diagnostic interviews, clinician ratings of impairment, behavioral observations, parental ratings, and self-report inventories, did not…

  6. Comparison of Social Adjustment in Blind Children and Normal in Primary School in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA ModdaresMoghaddam

    2014-05-01

    Methods:This is a descriptive, analytical study in which 270 blind and viewing students of primary schools in Mashhad participated in the academic years 2012-13. The blind students were chosen by census and viewing students through a stratified random sampling from normal schools. For data collection, a standard questionnaire that was social adjustment questionnaire was used. It was made in 1974 in America by Lambert, Wind Miller, Cole & Figueroa, which was translated in 1992 by Dr. Shahny Yeylagh, to be used for children of 7 to 13 years. It was conducted on 1500 boy and girl students of the first to fifth grade in elementary schools of Ahvaz. This test consists of 11 subscales, 38 sub-categories and 260 items. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics such as t-test was used. (P <0.05. Results:The mean scores of social adjustment of students showed no statistically significant difference between the viewing and the blind (p=0.8. Also the mean of social adjustment in blind girls and boys was not statistically significant (p=0.1, but the incompatibility was found in more boys than the girls. Conclusion: Regarding the results, social incompatibility was higher in the blind girl students than the viewing girl students. Also this incompatibility was higher in the boys than the girls thereby requiring scientific and coherent planning for them.

  7. Comparison of Czech, Slovak and Swiss Product Innovation Oriented Firms’ Communication in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Chlebovský

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research described in this article is to analyze and compare the use of social media communication channels in Czech, Slovak and Swiss product innovation oriented companies, where Swiss set of the companies is used as a benchmark. Primary research was made through manual activity scanning of the selected companies within social media. European company database Amadeus provided by Bureau van Dijk was used for the company selection in all three countries under the same search criteria. There were made two research sets of the companies in each country. One set covers top turnover product innovation oriented companies, second set avoided product innovation orientation search criteria and covers top companies by turnover in the respective country. Each particular sample set covered 74 to 100 companies.Activities of the selected companies on Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Google+ and LinkedIn were manually scanned and particular metrics were scaled. Microsoft Excel was used for storing, statistical processing and graphic outputs of the research. Evaluated results show significant gaps in use of social media communication tools in Czech and Slovak companies comparing to Swiss benchmark. It has been also confirmed that social media communication activity in product innovation oriented companies is equal to other companies. The hypotheses were statistically tested and results confirmed.

  8. Evaluation of Children with Selective Mutism and Social Phobia: A Comparison of Psychological and Psychophysiological Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brennan J.; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Although children with social phobia (SP) and selective mutism (SM) present similarly in a clinical setting, it remains unclear whether children with SM are unable to speak due to overwhelming anxiety, or whether withholding speech functions as an avoidance mechanism. A total of 35 children (ages 5-12 years) with either SM (n = 10), SP (n = 11),…

  9. Changes in the social networks of prisoners : A comparison of their networks before and after imprisonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, Beate; De Cuyper, Ruben; Mollenhorst, Gerald; Dirkzwager, Anja; van der Laan, Peter; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the social networks of detainees before and after their incarceration. We use unique panel data on 702 detainees and their core discussion networks. Our results show that while the size of the core discussion network remains stable, detainees have replaced more than 60% of their

  10. Consumers' perceptions of corporate social responsibilities : A cross-cultural comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maignan, [No Value

    Based on a consumer survey conducted in France, Germany, and the U.S., the study investigates consumers' readiness to support socially responsible organizations and examines their evaluations of the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities of the firm. French and German consumers

  11. Social Responsiveness and Competence in Prader-Willi Syndrome: Direct Comparison to Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Ho, Alan; Feldman, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily characterized by hyperphagia and food preoccupations, is caused by the absence of expression of the paternally active genes in the proximal arm of chromosome 15. Although maladaptive behavior and the cognitive profile in PWS have been well characterized, social functioning has…

  12. Alcohol screening and brief intervention in workplace settings and social services: A comparison of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eSchulte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI in primary health care (PHC suggests a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions take place in this context. METHODS: Update of two systematic reviews on ASBI effectiveness in workplaces, social service and criminal justice settings. Review to identify implementation barriers and facilitators and future research needs of ASBI in nonmedical settings.RESULTS: We found a limited number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in non-medical settings with an equivocal evidence of effectiveness of ASBI. In terms of barriers and facilitators to implementation, the heterogeneity of non-medical settings makes it challenging to draw overarching conclusions. In the workplace, employee concerns with regard to the consequences of self-disclosure appear to be key. For social services, the complexity of certain client needs suggest a stepped and carefully tailored approach is likely to be required.DISCUSSION: Compared to PHC, the reviewed settings are far more heterogeneous in terms of client groups, external conditions and the focus on substance use disorders. Thus, future research should try to systematize these differences, and consider their implications for the deliverability, acceptance and potential effectiveness of ASBI for different target groups, organisational frameworks and professionals.

  13. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Belgian and Vietnamese Children's Social Competence and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Hoang, Thi Vân; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Children's social competence and behavioral adjustment are key issues for child development, education, and clinical research. Cross-cultural analyses are necessary to provide relevant methods of assessing them for cross-cultural research. The aim of the current study was to contribute to this important line of research by validating the 3-factor…

  14. Relationships among Academic, Social and Psychological Adjustments to University Life: Comparisons across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Fong Cheng, Alison Lai

    2012-01-01

    University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions, namely: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous researches show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The purpose of this…

  15. A Comparison of Social Bee-Plant Networks between Two Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotarelli, H G S; Evans, D M; Bego, L R; Sofia, S H

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade, several studies demonstrated the effectiveness of ecological network analysis to a better understanding of the structure bee-plant interaction networks; however, such approaches involving urban areas are still scarce. Here, we analyzed two assemblages of corbiculate bees (Apoidea, Apidae) in two geographically distinct urban areas in Brazil. In both study areas, apid bees visiting flowers were captured with an insect net. Surveys were performed biweekly and alternately in each area, over a 1-year period. Both urban areas were very similar for most indices. The two social bee-plant networks were significantly nested, a pattern usually described for bee-plant networks and somehow expected in our study, considering the recognized behavior of social apid bees in exploring a wide range of plant species. The modularity measures were low and very similar for the networks of both urban areas, a finding that could be due at least in part to the low phylogenetic distance between corbiculate bees and the broad dietary habits of the social apid bees. Network-level indices showed that both bee assemblages had a relatively low niche overlap, indicating that the set of social apid species studied exploited differently the arrays of plants available. Species level index (resource range) showed that in both urban areas, Trigona spinipes (Fabr.) and Apis mellifera L. showed the higher number of interactions, a result that demonstrates the importance of these species in social bee-plant interaction networks in urban areas. Similarly to other ecosystems, these two apid species behaved as super-generalists in the two urban areas surveyed herein.

  16. Psychopathological Processes Involved in Social Comparison, Depression, and Envy on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Pera

    2018-01-01

    Is Facebook utilization beneficial or detrimental for psychological well-being? I draw on outstanding research (e.g., Chou and Edge, 2012; Lin and Utz, 2015; Appel et al., 2016; Ehrenreich and Underwood, 2016; Vogel and Rose, 2016; Hu et al., 2017) to substantiate that examining other individuals’ positively presented material on Facebook may have detrimental consequences. Increasing comparisons on Facebook may generate feelings of envy, the latter being a significant process determining the ...

  17. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: effects on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Bury, Belinda; Hawkins, Kimberley; Firth, Bonny

    2013-01-01

    Recent proposals across a number of Western countries have suggested that idealised media images should carry some sort of disclaimer informing readers when these images have been digitally enhanced. The present studies aimed to experimentally investigate the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of the addition of such warning labels to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 120 and 114 female undergraduate students in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 respectively. In both experiments, participants viewed fashion magazine advertisements with either no warning label, a generic warning label, or a specific more detailed warning label. In neither experiment was there a significant effect of type of label. However, state appearance comparison was found to predict change in body dissatisfaction irrespective of condition. Unexpectedly, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of label on body dissatisfaction, such that for women high on trait appearance comparison, exposure to specific warning labels actually resulted in increased body dissatisfaction. In sum, the present results showed no benefit of warning labels in ameliorating the known negative effect of viewing thin-ideal media images, and even suggested that one form of warning (specific) might be harmful for some individuals. Accordingly, it was concluded that more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of disclaimer labels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vulnerability and social resilience: comparison of two neighborhoods in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 29th of 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the gulf coast of the United States leading to one of the most powerful disasters in history. Damage costs reached more than 100 billion dollars, as well as 150,000 flooded houses and 1,330 deaths. 10 years later, the damage remains visible in the city of New Orleans, and the rate of recovery is highly varied throughout different neighborhoods in the city. A popular idea is to associate this to the neighborhood social class, i.e. the poorer an area is, the more difficult the recovery process is. However the reality is more complex. This study looks at two economically similar and highly damaged neighborhoods, with two deeply different recoveries. The Lower 9th Ward, an isolated, and poor neighborhood surrounded by water with the Mississippi River and the industrial canal, has experienced an extremely slow recovery. However, in the isolated and relatively poor neighborhood known as Village de l’Est, located on former marshes at the edge of the city between Lake Pontchartrain and the Bayou Bienvenue, the Vietnamese community ties and cohesion have brought the neighborhood back to fruition faster than anyone would have expected. Despite many common features weakening their technical resilience, such as relatively modern and fast urbanization on former natural and low lands protected mostly by levees, their radically different reaction following Katrina points out the key role of social resilience. This communication will aim to present decisive social aspects of resilience aside from geophysical and physical features such as risk awareness, social link and community culture.

  19. Physical exercise and social inequality in Norway: a comparison of OLS and quantile regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Seippel, Ørnulf

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the Norwegian population exercise less than recommended by public authorities. Traditional studies of exercise and social inequality using OLS-regression give us information on the average person (conditioned mean value of a distribution), but might ignore information useful for understanding the situation for those, as in the Norwegian case, less physically active. In this article quantile regression – addressing units at various quantiles, not only the mea...

  20. Physical exercise and social inequality in Norway: a comparison of OLS and quantile regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Seippel, Ørnulf

    2015-01-01

    © EJSS About two thirds of the Norwegian population exercise less than recommended by public authorities. Traditional studies of exercise and social inequality using OLS-regression give us information on the average person (conditioned mean value of a distribution), but might ignore information useful for understanding the situation for those, as in the Norwegian case, less physically active. In this article quantile regression – addressing units at various quantiles, not on...

  1. Social and clinical comparison between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder type I with psychosis in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Adriana; Barguil, Marcela; Contreras, Javier; Montero, Patricia; Dassori, Albana; Escamilla, Michael A; Raventós, Henriette

    2010-06-01

    Schizophrenia (SC) and bipolar disorder (BP) are two of the most severe and incapacitating mental disorders. It has been questioned whether these two conditions designate distinct illnesses with different etiologies or whether they represent different ends of a clinical spectrum with a common etiology. This study compares social and clinical characteristics of 84 SC and 84 BP subjects from the Costa Rican Central Valley (CRCV) using information from the DIGS, FIGS and psychiatric records. Each of these subjects had a best estimate lifetime consensus diagnosis of either bipolar type I or SC. Subjects with SC differed from subjects with BP in social adjustment measures like marital and employment status, and number of children. Both groups were very similar in years of education, age of onset of their illness, history of other psychiatric co-morbidities, and treatment received. The high percentage of psychosis in the BP group (97.6%) may largely explain the similarities found between groups in their clinical characteristics. The differences in social and functional decline support the original dichotomy described by Kraepelin based on chronicity and periodicity between these two psychotic disorders.

  2. A comparison of neural correlates underlying social cognition in Klinefelter syndrome and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg-Goddard, Marcia N; van Rijn, Sophie; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Veer, Ilya M; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome that appears to increase the risk of psychopathology, such as autism symptoms. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine underlying mechanisms related to this risk, with the aim of gaining insight into neural mechanisms behind social-cognitive dysfunction in KS and autism, and understanding similarities and differences in social information processing deficits. Fourteen boys with KS, seventeen boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and nineteen non-clinical male controls aged 10-18 years were scanned while matching and labeling facial expressions (i.e. face processing and affect labeling, respectively). No group differences in neural activation were found during face processing. However, during affect labeling, the ASD group showed increased activation in the amygdala compared with controls, while the KS group showed increased activation in frontal areas compared with both controls and the ASD group. No group differences in task performance were found. Although behavioral symptoms of social dysfunction appear similar both in boys with KS and ASD, this is the first study to demonstrate different underlying etiologies. These results may aid in identifying different pathways to autism symptoms, which may help understanding variability within the ASD spectrum. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Comparison of social support and psychosocial stress after heart and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbach, M; Schmeisser, N; Albus, C; Decker, O

    2008-05-01

    We studied social support, psychological symptoms, and subjective appraisal of quality of life among 233 patients at 1 to 3 years after heart (HTX) or orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT): 78 HTX in 62.8% men and 155 OLT in 51% men. Patients after OLT versus HTX were more often single or divorced (14.4% and 12.3% vs 3.9% and 7.7%), had better school education (68.4% vs 37.8%), and were more often employed (25.5% vs 11.8%). Among the HTX patients, 40.3% had more than 3 inpatient treatments due to complications after transplantation vs only 9.3% of OLT patients. HTX patients had more rejection reactions (55.4% vs 21%). Asked for their appraisal of quality of life, HTX and OLT patients gave comparably good "school grades" (2.6 vs 2.7), describing similar scores of social support in the F-SozU (4.4 vs 4.2). OLT patients, women in particular, reported a significantly higher grade of global psychological stress than HTX patients (67.4 vs 55.1; P < .001). Our results indicated that social support, employment status, and degree of somatic complications cannot sufficiently explain the degree of emotional distress after transplantation. Subjective factors such as making sense of the transplantation in terms of regarding it as a worthwhile operation within the life course are important mediators of psychological stress and perceived quality of life.

  4. Economic benefits of using a dose dispensing system at hospital units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ofelia-Uc Coyoc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the potential economic benefits at The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS per its abbreviation in spanish according to the drug expenditure of using drug dispensing system, based on literature information. Materials and methods. A systematic review was performed to identify savings from drugs and reduction of medication errors. The total and mean health expenditure by level of medical attention was calculated using the dispensed collective prescriptions at IMSS during 2009. Three savings scenarios were applied. Results. The total drug savings were in a range of 870.49 Mexican million pesos to 4050.05 Mexican million pesos. Reductions of medication errors can contribute with additional savings up to 3455.56 Mexican million pesos. Conclusion. The drug dispensing system unit generates savings opportunities at the second and third level of attention. The maximum economic benefit was observed in the last level.

  5. [Comparison of French and American formularies in 1945: multiple discrepancies that come from technical, political and social differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    At the end of the Second World War, L'Officine from Dorvault, 1945 edition, gives the state of the art situation of drugs in France. At the same date, is published New and Non-Official Remedies in Chicago, IL, USA. Tiffeneau in France publishes an other reference book of Pharmacology in 1947 (6th edition). From the comparison of these books appears a mismatch between the French and US remedies at the end of the war: well developed within USA, antibiotics, anti-allergic drugs and contraceptive products are more or less absent in France. Analysis of the differences appears related to technical and economical reasons but also to politic and social ones.

  6. The investigation of Social CRM in Transforming Young Customers’ Perceptions and attitudes towards consumption at fast food restaurant in China through comparison with Traditional CRM

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yebai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of Social Customer Relationship Management (Social CRM) approaches within fast food industry in transforming young customers’ perceptions and attitudes towards consumption at fast food restaurant through the comparison with Traditional Customer Relationship Management in convergence with Electronic Customer Relationship Management (E-CRM). Specifically, this study is analysed from the perspectives of company side and college student si...

  7. Celebrity endorsement: The effects of social comparisons on women's self-esteem and purchase intensions

    OpenAIRE

    Hellen, K.; Saaksjarvi, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this research we investigated the interplay between celebrities holding positive vs. negative media images and women’s self-esteem and purchase intensions. Study 1 documents that “good” celebrities decrease consumers’ self-esteem while a “bad” celebrity increase self-esteem. Study 2 shows that changes in self-esteem transfer to the product if consumers engage in an assimilating comparison process. Study 3 demonstrates that for consumers low in true self-esteem, a bad celebrity increases an...

  8. Social identity, attribution, and emotion: comparisons of Americans, Korean Americans, and Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Sun; Yun, Doshik; Choi, Hye Jeong; Lee, Hye Eun; Lee, Dong Wook; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2013-01-01

    The social identity of another person, in addition to the social identity of self, can be an important factor affecting the types of attribution judgments and emotions that individuals indicate for the other person. In April 2007, the perpetrator of the shooting incident on the Virginia Tech University campus was identified as a person who emigrated to the USA from Korea at a young age. The current study compared non-Korean Americans, Korean Americans, Koreans in the USA, and Koreans in Korea in terms of their attributions and emotions concerning the perpetrator and the shooting incident. Participants were asked to indicate (1) the extent to which they attributed the cause of the incident to either American society or the perpetrator, (2) their emotions (e.g., upset), and (3) the extent to which they categorized the perpetrator as an American, a Korean American, or a Korean. The results indicated that non-Korean Americans were most likely to attribute the cause of the incident to the perpetrator as opposed to American society. Non-Korean Americans, Korean Americans, and Koreans in the United States had more negative emotions (e.g., unhappy, sad, and upset) about the incident than Koreans in Korea did. The results also indicated that individuals differed in their attributions and emotions depending on how they categorized the perpetrator. For example, categorizing the perpetrator as being a Korean was positively related to Americans' tendency to hold the perpetrator responsible, while categorizing the perpetrator as being an American was negatively related to the tendency to hold the perpetrator responsible among Koreans in Korea. The findings may imply that social identity theory, intergroup emotion theory, and cultural orientations (e.g., individualism and collectivism) can provide insights into people's reactions to a tragic incident.

  9. Group Size and Social Interaction: a Canada-US Comparison of Interracial Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Feng; Myles, John; Schimmele, Christoph; Wu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    While black-white intermarriage is uncommon in the United States, blacks in Canada are just as likely to marry whites as to marry blacks. Asians, in contrast, are more likely to marry whites in the US than in Canada. We test the claim that high rates of interracial marriage are indicative of high levels of social integration against Peter Blau’s ‘macrostructural’ thesis that relative group size is the key to explaining differences in intermarriage rates across marriage markets. Using mi...

  10. Neighborhood informal social control and child maltreatment: A comparison of protective and punitive approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Trung, Hai Nguyen; Wu, Shali

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a new measure of informal social control of child maltreatment (henceforth ISC_CM) by neighbors. Research literature typically uses collective efficacy (Sampson, Raudenbush, & Earls, 1997) to examine neighborhood informal social control. We argue that double standards about the application of informal social control to family versus street crime requires a measure of informal social control specific to child maltreatment. We also argue that how neighbors intervene may matter as much as whether they intervene. Neighbors may engage in ISC_CM aimed at protecting the child and calming the parent, or more punitive ISC_CM aimed at deterring future abuse. We tested the relationship of both with very severe physical abuse and with abuse related child behavior problems. We used a random, 2-stage cluster design of Hanoi to collect the sample. Thirty Hanoi wards were randomly selected using probability proportional to size sampling. A simple random sample of families in each ward was then drawn using local government lists of ward residents. Based on power analysis, the target sample size was 300. Of 315 residents contacted, 293 participated, yielding a response rate of 93%. Random effects regression models (which estimate a random effect for each ward) were run in Stata11. We found that protective ISC_CM is associated with lower odds of very severe physical abuse and lower reported externalizing problems when abuse is present. Perceived collective efficacy and punitive ISC_CM is not associated with lower odds of very severe physical abuse. Implications for research, policy and practice are discussed. We conclude that further investigation of neighbor ISC_CM is needed to replicate the findings in other cultural contexts, ultimately followed by experimental manipulation of ISC_CM in a neighborhood context to examine the effects on child maltreatment. If further research corroborates the current findings, the development of neighborhood intervention

  11. Comparison of Learning Software Architecture by Developing Social Applications versus Games on the Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an empirical study where the focus was on discovering differences and similarities in students working on development of social applications versus students working on development of games using the same Android development platform. In 2010-2011, students attending the software architecture course at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU could choose between four types of projects. Independently of the chosen type of project, all students had to go through the same phases, produce the same documents based on the same templates, and follow exactly the same process. This study focuses on one of projects—Android project, to see how much the application domain affects the course project independently of the chosen technology. Our results revealed some positive effects for the students doing game development compared to social application development to learn software architecture, like motivated to work with games, a better focus on quality attributes such as modifiability and testability during the development, production of software architectures of higher complexity, and more productive coding working for the project. However, we did not find significant differences in awarded grade between students choosing the two different domains.

  12. Comparison of social networks derived from ecological data: implications for inferring infectious disease dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Sarah E; Cagnacci, Francesca; Stradiotto, Anna; Arnoldi, Daniele; Hudson, Peter J

    2009-09-01

    1. Social network analyses tend to focus on human interactions. However, there is a burgeoning interest in applying graph theory to ecological data from animal populations. Here we show how radio-tracking and capture-mark-recapture data collated from wild rodent populations can be used to generate contact networks. 2. Both radio-tracking and capture-mark-recapture were undertaken simultaneously. Contact networks were derived and the following statistics estimated: mean-contact rate, edge distribution, connectance and centrality. 3. Capture-mark-recapture networks produced more informative and complete networks when the rodent density was high and radio-tracking produced more informative networks when the density was low. Different data collection methods provide more data when certain ecological characteristics of the population prevail. 4. Both sets of data produced networks with comparable edge (contact) distributions that were best described by a negative binomial distribution. Connectance and closeness were statistically different between the two data sets. Only betweenness was comparable. The differences between the networks have important consequences for the transmission of infectious diseases. Care should be taken when extrapolating social networks to transmission networks for inferring disease dynamics.

  13. [Comparison of attachment-related social behaviors in autistic disorder and developmental disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Pehlivantürk, Berna; Unal, Fatih; Ozusta, Seniz

    2009-01-01

    This study examined social behaviors related to attachment in children with autistic disorder and the differences in these behaviors from those observed in developmentally disabled children. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the relationship between attachment behaviors and clinical variables, such as age, cognitive development, severity of autism, language development, and mothers' attachment styles. The study group consisted of 19 children with autistic disorder (mean age: 37.9 +/- 6.8 months) and the control group consisted of 18 developmentally disabled children without autistic disorder that were matched with respect to age, gender, and cognitive development. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was administered to all the children by two child psychiatrists. Mothers completed the Relationships Scale Questionnaire (RSQ). Cognitive development of the children was assessed with the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale. Attachment behaviors of the children were evaluated with a modified Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Attachment behaviors in the children with autistic disorder and in the children with developmental disabilities were similar. In contrast to the developmentally disabled group, the children with autistic disorder stayed closer toward their mothers compared with their responses to strangers. In the autistic disorder group, attachment behaviors were not associated with age, intelligence quotient, or mothers' attachment styles; however, a significant relationship between the severity of autism and the presence of speech was observed. Parents' understanding of the attachment needs and the attachment behaviors of their autistic children in the early stages of the disorder may lead to more secure attachment relationships and improved social development.

  14. Coping with stress and social support: A comparison between chess players and non-chess players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Krivec

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress situations continue to represent an important factor of everyday life. The significance and role of stress are even greater in competitive sports. If not dealt with effectively, the pressure and demands of stress can reach proportions that seriously endanger the competitor. In the present study I examined the types of strategies chess players use in coping with stress situations during a single game aswell as through an entire tournament. In order to attain success, they need to overcome all stress factors. I further examined, to what extent and in what way chess players' coping strategies are effected by the support they have at hand in their social environment. Results obtained were compared with a group of non-chess players. The results have shown that chess players use a specific method of coping, which is, unexpectedly, directed more "away from the problem". The main reason for this may be that a loss of a chess game represents a situation, which is stressful and at the same time unalterable. Social support(emotional and practical attainable if need be, is perceived to a far greater extent by chess players than by non-chess players. The results attained from this study can be beneficial in the field of sport psychology, which frequently deals with similar performance patterns.

  15. Comparison of automatical thoughts among generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and generalized social phobia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, A I; Simsek, G; Karaaslan, Ö; Inanir, S

    2015-08-01

    Automatic thoughts are measurable cognitive markers of the psychopathology and coping styles of individuals. This study measured and compared the automatic thoughts of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized social phobia (GSP). Fifty-two patients with GAD, 53 with MDD, and 50 with GSP and 52 healthy controls completed the validated Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) and a structured psychiatric interview. Patients with GAD, MDD, and GSP also completed the validated Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) to determine the severity of their illnesses. All scales were completed before treatment and after diagnosis. The ATQ scores of all pairs of groups were compared. The ATQ scores of the GAD, MDD, and GSP groups were significantly higher than were those of the control group. We also found significant correlations among scores on the GAD-7, BDI, and LSAS. The mean age of patients with GSP was lower than was that of the other groups (30.90 ± 8.35). The significantly higher ATQ scores of the MDD, GAD, and GSP groups, compared with the control group, underscore the common cognitive psychopathology characterizing these three disorders. This finding confirms that similar cognitive therapy approaches should be effective for these patients. This study is the first to compare GAD, MDD, and GSP from a cognitive perspective.

  16. The Social Behavioral Phenotype in Boys and Girls with an Extra X Chromosome (Klinefelter Syndrome and Trisomy X): A Comparison with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Sophie; Stockmann, Lex; Borghgraef, Martine; Bruining, Hilgo; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Govaerts, Lutgarde; Hansson, Kerstin; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to gain more insight in the social behavioral phenotype, and related autistic symptomatology, of children with an extra X chromosome in comparison to children with ASD. Participants included 60 children with an extra X chromosome (34 boys with Klinefelter syndrome and 26 girls with Trisomy X), 58 children with ASD and 106…

  17. The Social Behavioral Phenotype in Boys and Girls with an Extra X Chromosome (Klinefelter Syndrome and Trisomy X) : A Comparison with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sophie; Stockmann, Lex; Borghgraef, Martine; Bruining, Hilgo; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Govaerts, Lutgarde; Hansson, Kerstin; Swaab, Hanna

    The present study aimed to gain more insight in the social behavioral phenotype, and related autistic symptomatology, of children with an extra X chromosome in comparison to children with ASD. Participants included 60 children with an extra X chromosome (34 boys with Klinefelter syndrome and 26

  18. The Impact of Social Comparison Information on Motivation in Patients With Diabetes as a Function of Regulatory Focus and Self-Efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, Marike C.; Keers, Joost C.; Bouma, Jelte; Links, Thera P.; Sanderman, Robbert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Objective: Our aim was to determine whether the impact of upward and downward social comparison information on individuals' motivation to manage their diabetes is dependent on their regulatory focus (promotion or prevention focus) and self-efficacy. Design: The hypotheses were examined in a

  19. The connection of teasing by parents, siblings, and peers with girls' body dissatisfaction and boys' drive for muscularity: the role of social comparison as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Mallary K; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H

    2014-12-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we focused on three research questions pertaining to the connections between appearance-related teasing and body image during adolescence. First, we investigated how parental appearance-related teasing of adolescents was associated with teasing by siblings. Second, we examined how teasing by mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was individually associated with adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction and boys' drive for muscularity. We included BMI as a possible moderator in these analyses. Third, we tested the role of appearance-related social comparison as a mediator of the relations between teasing and body image. Self-report survey data were collected from 80 girls and 78 boys in a Midwestern U.S. middle school. Results from correlational and odds-ratio analyses indicated that teasing by mothers and fathers was strongly associated with teasing by siblings. Additionally, in regression analyses, mothers', fathers', siblings', and peers' teasing were separately associated with girls' body dissatisfaction and boys' drive for muscularity. Social comparison partially mediated the relationship between all sources of teasing and girls' body dissatisfaction as well as the relationship between mothers' and fathers' teasing and boys' drive for muscularity. Social comparison fully mediated the link between peers' teasing and boys' drive for muscularity. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of how family members and peers can influence adolescents' development of body image concerns through teasing behaviors and by social comparison. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How Can Students' Academic Performance in Statistics Be Improved? Testing the Influence of Social and Temporal-Self Comparison Feedback in a Web-Based Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaval, Marine; Michinov, Nicolas; Le Bohec, Olivier; Le Hénaff, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how social or temporal-self comparison feedback, delivered in real-time in a web-based training environment, could influence the academic performance of students in a statistics examination. First-year psychology students were given the opportunity to train for a statistics examination during a semester by…

  1. Social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption. A comparison of three models to explain and predict mobile communication technology behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, O.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption in an attempt to better understand people’s behavior for adopting and using innovative information and communication technologies. In particular, this study emphasizes the comparison of three media use models to explain and predict media technology behavior from different theoretical perspectives.

  2. The Social Construction of the Microfinance Industry: a comparison of donor and recipient perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Bisen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microfinance has been one of the fastest growing “industries” of the new millennium, with the sector now containing over 10,000 microfinance institutions (MFIs worth an estimated USD with over $60 billion in assets (Microfinance Information Exchange 2011. This expansion has stimulated interest from both scholars and the mainstream media. There is a growing volume of academic research which broadly centres on two approaches: an “institutionalist perspective” that highlights microfinance as an innovation in applying market solutions to social problems; and the other approach, often described as welfarist, that questions the capacity of an increasingly commericalised sector to realize a mission of poverty reduction. But do these themes and concerns permeate academic boundaries? Specifically, does media coverage in key donor and recipient countries confirm or challenge or even engage with these debates? To date much of this academic literature has overlooked how “microfinance” has been socially constructed in the public sphere through the mass media. Through its interpretation of events, the media can influence the way an issue is discussed and evaluated and in this way influence individual perceptions (Gamson 1988. In this article we present an analysis of recent media coverage of microfinance in one key donor country, the United States and one major recipient country, India. By conducting a media content analysis of 100 newspaper articles (sorted by level of relevance that appeared in the top 10 highest circulating English language newspapers in India and the US over a 12 month period January-December 2008 we discuss how media coverage in these two countries differed in significant ways. The Indian media sample tended to focus on operational issues and report on specific business activity within the microfinance industry, in general treating it as a ‘regular’ part of the financial and banking system. While the US media sample made

  3. Comparison of academic, application form and social factors in predicting early performance on the medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Andrew B; Vail, Andy

    2004-09-01

    To compare the relative importance of social, academic and application form factors at admission in predicting performance in the first 3 years of a medicine course. Retrospective cohort study. A single UK medical school. A total of 738 students who entered medical school between 1994 and 1997. Performance in Year 3 objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). School-leaving grades were significant predictors of success in the OSCE. Non-academic activities as assessed from the application form were associated with poorer performance. Mature students performed extremely well, and male and ethnic minority students performed less well. Socioeconomic status and type of school attended were not found to affect performance on the course. The relatively poor performance of male and ethnic minority students urgently needs further investigation. Our results carry no suggestion that, other things being equal, widening access to medical school for mature students and those from less affluent backgrounds would result in poorer performance.

  4. Social Reponsibility Attitudes and Practices of Companies: Hungary vs. Romania Crossborder Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HATOS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Within this article our goal is to underlineelements of the organizational/corporate cultureregarding the social responsibility attitudes andpractices of companies from the Romanian –Hungarian trans-border region, with a focus onpolicies regarding the environment and the involvementwithin the community. The researchhas been carried out within a European fundedproject concerning the establishment of a sustainabledevelopment business center (The surveycarried out within the project: ‘BHB – SustanaibleDevelopment Business Center’ contractHURO/1101/175/2.1.1. Data was collected viaface-to-face interviews conducted in 405 Romanianand Hungarian companies from a proportionalquotas sample.While for most items there were no signifi -cant differences recorded between the two countries,Romanian companies display a strongerconcern for waste management and the Hungarianones discuss more often with their neighboringcommunities critical common issues. Statisticalchecks performed largely reject the possibilitythat these differences are due to the dissimilarindustry structure of the two countries.

  5. SMEs Going Global: A Comparison of the Internationalization Strategies of Publishers and Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Lis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, most research has been conducted on the internationalization strategies of large media companies and groups. But tapping new foreign markets is also relevant to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs of all media sectors. This paper therefore focuses on the internationalization strategies of different types of media SMEs. It aims at describing and comparing the motives for becoming an international player as well as the specific market selection, market entry, and market development strategies. Furthermore, it focuses on the main organizational implications. On the basis of a multiple-case design we compare two German regional newspaper publishers with two German special interest publishers and two online social business networks. Results show similarities and differences between these media sectors according to the nature of the media businesses. The cases also highlight the importance of international management skills also in the context of SMEs.

  6. Newly graduated nurses' job satisfaction: comparison with allied hospital professionals, social workers, and elementary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihyun; Lee, Ji Yun; Cho, Sung-Hyun

    2012-09-01

    The purposes of this study are to examine differences in job satisfaction among professional groups including nurses, allied hospital professionals, social workers, and elementary school teachers, and to identify specific characteristics of job satisfaction of nurses. The study design was a cross-sectional exploratory study using secondary data analysis with the 2009 Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey. The sample was female new graduates. The differences in job satisfaction among professional groups were analyzed using logistic regression (satisfied vs. not satisfied). Overall, 41.5% of nurses, 50.1% of allied hospital professionals, 58.2% of social workers, and 89% of elementary school teachers were satisfied with their job. Nurses were significantly less satisfied than the other professionals in 5 of the 11 job characteristics and had the lowest odds ratio (OR) when compared with elementary school teachers: work content (OR = 0.197, 95% CI [0.128, 0.304]), physical work environment (OR = 0.353, 95% CI [0.236, 0.529]), working hours (OR = 0.054, 95% CI [0.033, 0.088]), personal growth (OR = 0.242, 95% CI [0.160, 0.366]), and autonomy (OR = 0.188, 95% CI [0.123, 0.288]). Work content, physical work environment, interpersonal relationship, advancement system, and autonomy were significantly associated with the overall job satisfaction of nurses. Relatively dissatisfying job characteristics in nursing work environment that were significant predictors for nurses' job satisfaction should be improved. Newly graduated nurses are at risk for job dissatisfaction. This can result in high turnover rates and can exacerbate the nursing shortage. Efforts to improve the work environment are needed. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Comparison of personal, social and academic variables related to University Dropout and Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Bernardo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dropping out of university has serious consequences not only for the student who drops out but also for the institution and society as a whole. Although this phenomenon has been widely studied, there is a need for broader knowledge of the context in which it occurs. Yet research on the subject often focuses on variables that, although they affect drop-out rates, lie beyond a university's control. This makes it hard to come up with effective preventive measures. That is why a northern Spanish university has undertaken a ex post facto holistic research study on 1,311 freshmen (2008/9, 2009/10 and 2010/11 cohorts. The study falls within the framework of the ALFA-GUIA European Project and focuses on those drop-out factors where there is scope for taking remedial measures. This research explored the possible relationship of degree dropout and different categories of variables: variables related to the educational stage prior to university entry (path to entry university and main reason for degree choice, variables related to integration and coexistence at university (social integration, academic integration, relationships with teachers/ peers and value of the living environment financial status and performance during university studies (in terms ofcompliance with the program, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and class attendance. Descriptive, correlational and variance analyses were conducted to discover which of these variables really distinguish those students who drop out from their peers who complete their studies. Results highlight the influence of vocation as main reason for degree choice, path to university entry, financial independency, social and academic adaptation, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and program compliance in the studied phenomenon.

  8. Lounging with robots--social spaces of residents in care: A comparison trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Kathryn; Kerse, Ngaire; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Jayawardena, Chandimal; Kuo, Tony; Datta, Chandan; Stafford, Rebecca; MacDonald, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether robots could reduce resident sleeping and stimulate activity in the lounges of an older persons' care facility. Non-randomised controlled trial over a 12-week period. The intervention involved situating robots in low-level and high-dependency ward lounges and a comparison with similar lounges without robots. A time sampling observation method was utilised to observe resident behaviour, including sleep and activities over periods of time, to compare interactions in robot and no robot lounges. The use of robots was modest; overall 13% of residents in robot lounges used the robot. Utilisation was higher in the low-level care lounges; on average, 23% used the robot, whereas in high-level care lounges, the television being on was the strongest predictor of sleep. This study found that having robots in lounges was mostly a positive experience. The amount of time residents slept during the day was significantly less in low-level care lounges that had a robot. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  9. COSTO DE LA ATENCIÓN PRENATAL: INSTITUTO MEXICANO DEL SEGURO SOCIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal Ríos,Enrique; Garza Elizondo, María Eugenia.; Núñez Rocha,Georgina; Rodríguez Casas,Sonia; Rodríguez López,Olga

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Estimar el costo de la atención prenatal. Métodos: Estudio de costo realizado en pacientes de la institución de seguridad social más grande de México, el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Se incluyeron 402 pacientes elegidas aleatoriamente posteriores a la atención del parto. Se identificó el tipo y la intensidad de uso de los servicios en la etapa prenatal, se relacionó con el costo de la atención, el que fue estimado mediante departamentalización ajustada por productivi...

  10. [Human milk substitutes in Mexican social security services during 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, P

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the amount, type, trade mark, cost and distribution procedures of milk formulas in the IMSS (Mexican Social Security Institute) and ISSSTE (Social Security Institute for Government Employees) during 1990 is presented. During this year, IMSS purchased 19 million cans of powdered milk (454 g each) with a total expenditure of 20 million U.S. dollars. Mothers have the right to receive 36 cans during the first six months of their baby's life. The type of milk formula distributed included whole milk (53.3%), modified milk (43.2%), and soy derived milk (3.5%). As the number of births during the same period was 706,077, the average of cans per child was 27.1. ISSSTE purchased 3.7 million cans of milk with an expenditure of 6 million U.S. dollars; 42.4 per cent as whole milk, 55 per cent modified milk, and 2.6 per cent soy derived milk. Although this institution should provide 27 cans per child, the average was 46.5. The early age at which powdered milk is introduced to babies and the high cost (in economic and health terms) of this practice indicate the need to review newborn feeding policies within the two major social security agencies in the country.

  11. The Use of Social Networking Sites in Job Related Activities: A Cross-cultural Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bartosik-Purgat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of the paper is to identify the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs in job related activities and indicate the interdependencies between these activities and age, gender, as well as education in culturally diversified markets (China, Poland, Turkey, the United States. Research Design & Methods: In the exploratory empirical study the authors used two research methods: PAPI (Paper and Pen Personal Interview and CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview. The empirical data were collected in 2016 and the total number of respondents from four culturally diversified countries was 1246. Findings: The analysis with the use of Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests showed that the Turkish respondents most often use SNSs for job related activities, while it is the least often done by the studied Americans. Moreover, from among the studied factors (gender, age and education level that differentiate the SNSs usage for job related activities in a statistically significant way age is of greatest importance. Implications & Recommendations: The results of the research provide implications for the recruitment policy of multinational enterprises (MNEs. Since more and more enterprises use SNSs in order to look for new employees and advertise themselves as employers (employer branding, the identified interdependencies between the SNSs activities and the analysed factors can support firm attempts to develop the proper recruitment policy taking into account the cultural diversity of potential workers. Contribution & Value Added: There are not many studies in the literature which present the usage of SNSs for job related activities from the perspective of individual users in the cross-cultural approach. The majority of studies are related to the usage of SNSs by enterprises in the recruitment process.

  12. Comparison of two rodent models of maternal separation on juvenile social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty eZimmerberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood deprivation is associated with an increased risk of attachment disorders and psychopathology. The neural consequences of exposure to stress early in life have used two major rodent models to provide important tools for translational research. Although both models have been termed Maternal Separation, the paradigms differ in ways that clearly shift the focus of stress between maternal and offspring units. The first model, here called Early Deprivation (ED, isolates pups individually while the dam is left not alone, but with a subset of littermates in the home nest (Stay-at-homes. The other model, here called Maternal Separation (MS, isolates the dam in a novel cage while the pups are separated together. In this study, these two early stress models were directly compared for their effects on social behaviors in male and female juvenile offspring. Although both models altered play behavior compared to controls, patterns of prosocial behaviors versus submissive behaviors differed by model and sex. Additionally, there were main effects of sex, with female ED subjects exhibited masculinizing effects of early stress during play sessions. Maternal behavior upon reunion with the isolated subjects was significantly increased in the MS condition compared to both ED and control conditions, which also differed but by a lesser magnitude. Stay-at-homes were tested since some laboratories use them for controls rather than undisturbed litters; they displayed significantly different sex-dependent play compared to undisturbed subjects. These results indicate that early stress effects vary by paradigm of separation. We suggest that MS produces greater stress on the dam and thus greater maternal mediation, while ED causes greater stress on the neonates, resulting in different behavioral sequela that warrant attention when using these models for translational research.

  13. An analytical comparison of fertility rate among women in Beijing with different social and economic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H; Gaoling; Shen, Q

    1993-01-01

    In Beijing, the total fertility rate (TFR) fluctuated between 1.3 and 1.8 in the 1980s, and in 1989 it was 1.3. A preliminary survey of 10% of the city's population involved 1,086,000 people, including 299,700 women aged 15-50. Samples of these women were used in group-specific comparisons of fertility rates in 1989. Women in agricultural residence made up 43.2% of the total, whose TFR was 1.822, vs. 0.925 for women in nonagricultural residence. The average childbearing age for agricultural women was 16 years, and their fertility was declining gradually after the age of 28 as opposed to the precipitous after 28 among nonagricultural women. 54% of the agricultural group had 1 child, 48% had 2 children, and 6% had 3 or more children. In contrast, 98% of nonagricultural women had 1 child. Among employed women, 30.7% were in production and transport, 2.6% were farmers, forest workers, and fishers and 20.5% were professional and technical personnel, with the rest being employed in services, post and telecommunications, civil service, and business. The TFR of unemployed women (mostly housewives with a TFR of 3.42) was 2.367, vs. 1.224 for agricultural women. More than 90% of these housewives were agricultural women. A multivariate analysis with the dependent variable of live births to individual women found that, except for age and housewife (or not) status, all variables were negative. In contrast to illiterates, farmers, forest workers, and fisher women, women with higher educational levels and in other occupations had few children. The average number of children born to women with elementary school education was 0.5 less than among illiterates, and 1 less among university graduates than among illiterates. Elementary and junior high school education had the highest marginal impact. The family planning program has been successful in Beijing in lowering fertility, with further declines expected. However, rural women still had more than 1 child at an early age; this

  14. Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.

  15. Social perception of the forest landscape in Trentino-Alto Adige (Italy: comparison of case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastorella F

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The landscape is the product of human activities and nature as developed during the centuries. However, the landscape has a symbolic value because it can be considered the identity and culture of a territory that includes the values and beliefs of local population. The Alpine landscape is a unicum in the world due to its geomorphologic, climatic and vegetation characteristics and socio-economic conditions of local population. Over the centuries the social perception of Alps has changed: in a first phase the Alps were considered “horrible and scary mountains”, later Alps were perceived as “beautiful and fascinating places”, and currently the Alpine mountains are considered a place of relaxation and recreation. The analysis of landscape perception aimed to investigate the visitors’ opinions about landscape is an important instrument to support the decision concerning the land planning and management. This study focuses on the analysis of the aesthetic perception of visitors on Alpine landscapes following two perspectives: a first overall perspective considering the landscape as a mosaic of different land uses and a second perspective of detail observing the individual components that characterize the forest landscape. The aim of the study is to identify the most appreciated elements of landscape from the aesthetic point of view and the influence of socio-demographic characteristics of respondents on individual perception. In order to investigate the perception about the Alpine landscapes 358 visitors of two sites of Trentino-Alto Adige (Val di Genova and Santa Maria lake were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results show that the most appreciated elements of the landscape by the visitors are water (lakes and rivers and forests. These preferences are also conditioned by the site where the interviews were made. In addition, the results show that for the respondents of this survey the forest with the highest attractiveness

  16. The Muffling Effect of Social Policy : A Comparison of Social Security Systems and their Conflict Potential in Australia, the United States and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    1986-01-01

    The arena of social policy could be a constant battlefield were it not confined within political institutions. Conflicts are extended into the organisation of social programmes and extert pressure on policy objectives and the contents of the programmes. Social programmes can accomodate these pressures in different ways. During this process programmes become transformed, some to such an extendthat their social policy value diminishes and they serve other neeeds than those which they were desig...

  17. The comparison of attentional control deficits in the three group of normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students of Lorestan University

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadampour E; Rezaei F; Hosseini Ramaghani NA; Moradi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: One of the mechanisms that thought to underlie social anxiety disorder is dysfunction in attentional control. The current study was designed to compare attentional control deficits in the three group: normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students. Methods: The design of present study was causal-comparative. Statistical population of this study contained all normal female students, with social anxiety disorde...

  18. Contributions of Social Comparison and Self-Objectification in Mediating Associations Between Facebook Use and Emergent Adults' Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Emily; Ward, L Monique; Seabrook, Rita C; Jerald, Morgan; Reed, Lauren; Giaccardi, Soraya; Lippman, Julia R

    2017-03-01

    Although Facebook was created to help people feel connected with each other, data indicate that regular usage has both negative and positive connections to well-being. To explore these mixed results, we tested the role of social comparison and self-objectification as possible mediators of the link between Facebook use and three facets of psychological well-being: self-esteem, mental health, and body shame. Participants were 1,104 undergraduate women and men who completed surveys assessing their Facebook usage (minutes, passive use, and active use), social comparison, self-objectification, and well-being. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, testing separate models for women and men. Models for each gender fit the data well. For women and men, Facebook use was associated with greater social comparison and greater self-objectification, which, in turn, was each related to lower self-esteem, poorer mental health, and greater body shame. Mediated models provided better fits to the data than models testing direct pathways to the mediators and well-being variables. Implications are discussed for young people's social media use, and future directions are provided.

  19. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Opinions about Digital Citizenship and Its Place in Social Studies Teacher Training Program: A Comparison between the USA and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Hidir

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine and compare what social studies teacher candidates living in two different countries think about digital citizenship and its place within social studies and social studies teacher training program and to produce suggestions concerning digital citizenship education. Having a descriptive design, this research has…

  20. Relación entre calidad de vida relacionada con la salud oral, pérdida dental y prótesis removible en adultos mayores de 50 años derechohabientes del IMSS

    OpenAIRE

    C.l. Bellamy Ortiz; A. Moreno Altamirano

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar la relación que hay entre la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud oral (CVRSO) en pacientes con pérdida dental y uso de prótesis removible. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal en 533 adultos mayores de 50 años de la Unidad Médica Familiar 20 -IMSS-. Se aplicó un cuestionario que incluyó el OHIP-14 (escala que mide la CVRSO) y medición clínica de la pérdida dental y las prótesis removibles. Resultados: La prevalencia de edentulismo total fue de 9,9% y de uso de pr...

  1. Perceived Social Change, Parental Control, and Family Relations: A Comparison of Chinese Families in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Fung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA, Hong Kong (HK, and Beijing (BJ. HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers’ endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations.

  2. Perceived Social Change, Parental Control, and Family Relations: A Comparison of Chinese Families in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey; Kim, Joanna J; Jin, Joel; Wu, Qiaobing; Fang, Chao; Lau, Anna S

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived social change, parental control and family relations in a sample of 419 4th and 5th grade children and their mothers who are of Chinese descent but reside in three different contexts: Los Angeles (LA), Hong Kong (HK), and Beijing (BJ). HK mothers endorsed the highest levels of psychological control and the lowest levels of autonomy support compared to BJ and LA mothers. Perceived social change as measured by mothers' endorsement of new values and ideologies was associated with increased use of both autonomy support and psychological control. Results of the mediation analyses suggested that perceived social change explained differences between LA and HK mothers in autonomy support, but group differences in psychological control were magnified when perceived social change was accounted for. Finally, whereas autonomy support was associated with higher levels of child perceived acceptance in HK and LA, psychological control was associated with greater family conflict in BJ and LA. Findings suggested that as families undergo urbanization or social change, it may shift the implications of traditional strategies that are intended to socialize the child toward interpersonal attunement. Overall, the study highlights the importance of moving beyond ethnic-group or cross-national comparisons to investigate the role of changing social and economic contexts in understanding differences in the use of parental control and their associations with family relations.

  3. Do Social Networks Differ? Comparison of the Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disabilities, People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other People Living in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.; Wegman, K. M.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences in social network characteristics, satisfaction and wishes with respect to the social network between people with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities (ID), people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a reference group. Data were gathered from 105 young adults…

  4. Personality correlates (BAS-BIS), self-perception of social ranking, and cortical (alpha frequency band) modulation in peer-group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Pagani, Silvia

    2014-06-22

    The perception and interpretation of social hierarchies are a key part of our social life. In the present research we considered the activation of cortical areas, mainly the prefrontal cortex, related to social ranking perception in conjunction with some personality components (BAS - Behavioral Activation System - and BIS - Behavioral Inhibition System). In two experiments we manipulated the perceived superior/inferior status during a competitive cognitive task. Indeed, we created an explicit and strongly reinforced social hierarchy based on incidental rating in an attentional task. Specifically, a peer group comparison was undertaken and improved (Experiment 1) or decreased (Experiment 2) performance was artificially manipulated by the experimenter. For each experiment two groups were compared, based on a BAS and BIS dichotomy. Alpha band modulation in prefrontal cortex, behavioral measures (performance: error rate, ER; response times, RTs), and self-perceived ranking were considered. Repeated measures ANOVAs and regression analyses showed in Experiment 1 a significant improved cognitive performance (decreased ER and RTs) and higher self-perceived ranking in high-BAS participants. Moreover, their prefrontal activity was increased within the left side (alpha band decreasing). Conversely, in Experiment 2 a significant decreased cognitive performance (increased ER and RTs) and lower self-perceived ranking was observed in higher-BIS participants. Their prefrontal right activity was increased in comparison with higher BAS. The regression analyses confirmed the significant predictive role of alpha band modulation with respect of subjects' performance and self-perception of social ranking, differently for BAS/BIS components. The present results suggest that social status perception is directly modulated by cortical activity and personality correlates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The procyonid social club: comparison of brain volumes in the coatimundi (Nasua nasua, N. narica), kinkajou (Potos flavus), and raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether increased relative brain size, including regional brain volumes, is related to differing behavioral specializations exhibited by three member species of the family Procyonidae. Procyonid species exhibit continuums of behaviors related to social and physical environmental complexities: the mostly solitary, semiarboreal and highly dexterous raccoons (Procyon lotor); the exclusively arboreal kinkajous (Potos flavus), which live either alone or in small polyandrous family groups, and the social, terrestrial coatimundi (Nasua nasua, N. narica). Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 adult skulls including 17 coatimundis (9 male, 8 female), 14 raccoons (7 male, 7 female), and 14 kinkajous (7 male, 7 female) were used to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts. Endocranial volume was positively correlated with two separate measures of body size: skull basal length (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and basicranial axis length (r = 0.45, p = 0.002). However, relative brain size (total endocranial volume as a function of body size) varied by species depending on which body size measurement (skull basal length or basicranial axis length) was used. Comparisons of relative regional brain volumes revealed that the anterior cerebrum volume consisting mainly of frontal cortex and surface area was significantly larger in the social coatimundi compared to kinkajous and raccoons. The dexterous raccoon had the largest relative posterior cerebrum volume, which includes the somatosensory cortex, in comparison to the other procyonid species studied. The exclusively arboreal kinkajou had the largest relative cerebellum and brain stem volume in comparison to the semi arboreal raccoon and the terrestrial coatimundi. Finally, intraspecific comparisons failed to reveal any sex differences, except in the social coatimundi. Female coatimundis possessed a larger relative frontal cortical volume than males. Social life histories differ in male and female coatimundis

  6. User-Generated Geographic Information for Visitor Monitoring in a National Park: A Comparison of Social Media Data and Visitor Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuokko Heikinheimo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Protected area management and marketing require real-time information on visitors’ behavior and preferences. Thus far, visitor information has been collected mostly with repeated visitor surveys. A wealth of content-rich geographic data is produced by users of different social media platforms. These data could potentially provide continuous information about people’s activities and interactions with the environment at different spatial and temporal scales. In this paper, we compare social media data with traditional survey data in order to map people’s activities and preferences using the most popular national park in Finland, Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park, as a case study. We compare systematically collected survey data and the content of geotagged social media data and analyze: (i where do people go within the park; (ii what are their activities; (iii when do people visit the park and if there are temporal patterns in their activities; (iv who the visitors are; (v why people visit the national park; and (vi what complementary information from social media can provide in addition to the results from traditional surveys. The comparison of survey and social media data demonstrated that geotagged social media content provides relevant information about visitors’ use of the national park. As social media platforms are a dynamic source of data, they could complement and enrich traditional forms of visitor monitoring by providing more insight on emerging activities, temporal patterns of shared content, and mobility patterns of visitors. Potentially, geotagged social media data could also provide an overview of the spatio-temporal activity patterns in other areas where systematic visitor monitoring is not taking place.

  7. A comparison of developmental social-pragmatic and naturalistic behavioral interventions on language use and social engagement in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Meyer, Katherine; Bonter, Nicole; Jelinek, Sara

    2012-10-01

    Developmental social-pragmatic and naturalistic behavioral interventions share a number of features, but they differ in their use of facilitative strategies and direct elicitation of child language. In this study, the authors investigated whether these approaches produce different language and social outcomes in young children with autism. The authors used an ABACAD design to compare the effects of a developmental social-pragmatic, naturalistic behavioral, and combined intervention on language type and function and social engagement in 5 children with autism. Milieu teaching and the combined intervention produced higher rates of language targets than did responsive interaction. An analysis of the type and function of language targets suggested that differences between conditions were driven primarily by prompted-and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous-requests. Social engagement ratings were higher during each intervention than at baseline, but differences between treatment conditions were not consistent across children. For children with autism, naturalistic interventions that use direct elicitation of child language lead to greater short-term gains in the use of expressive language targets-in particular, prompted requests-than interventions that use facilitative strategies only. All 3 naturalistic language interventions can promote social engagement. For some children, the combined use of direct elicitation and responsiveness-based strategies may enhance treatment response.

  8. Social attribution test--multiple choice (SAT-MC) in schizophrenia: comparison with community sample and relationship to neurocognitive, social cognitive and symptom measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Greig, Tamasine C; Wexler, Bruce E

    2010-09-01

    This is the first report on the use of the Social Attribution Task - Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) to assess social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The SAT-MC was originally developed for autism research, and consists of a 64-second animation showing geometric figures enacting a social drama, with 19 multiple choice questions about the interactions. Responses from 85 community-dwelling participants and 66 participants with SCID confirmed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (Scz) revealed highly significant group differences. When the two samples were combined, SAT-MC scores were significantly correlated with other social cognitive measures, including measures of affect recognition, theory of mind, self-report of egocentricity and the Social Cognition Index from the MATRICS battery. Using a cut-off score, 53% of Scz were significantly impaired on SAT-MC compared with 9% of the community sample. Most Scz participants with impairment on SAT-MC also had impairment on affect recognition. Significant correlations were also found with neurocognitive measures but with less dependence on verbal processes than other social cognitive measures. Logistic regression using SAT-MC scores correctly classified 75% of both samples. Results suggest that this measure may have promise, but alternative versions will be needed before it can be used in pre-post or longitudinal designs. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. How people evaluate others with social anxiety disorder: A comparison to depression and general mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin N; Jeon, Andrew B; Blenner, Jordan A; Wiener, Richard L; Hope, Debra A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective interventions, most individuals with social anxiety disorder do not seek treatment. Given their fear of negative evaluation, socially anxious individuals might be especially susceptible to stigma concerns, a recognized barrier for mental health treatment. However, very little is known about the stigma specific to social anxiety disorder. In a design similar to Feldman and Crandall (2007), university undergraduate students read vignettes about target individuals with a generic mental illness label, major depressive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Subjects rated each of 3 people in the vignettes on social distance and 17 dimensions including dangerousness, heritability and prevalence of the disorder, and gender ratio. Results indicated that being male and not having experience with mental health treatment was associated with somewhat greater preferred social distance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that being embarrassed by the disorder and dangerousness predicted social distance across all 3 vignettes. The vignette for social anxiety disorder had the most complex model and included work impairment, more common among women, and more avoidable. These results have implications for understanding the specific aspects of the stigma associated with social anxiety disorder. Public service messages to reduce stigma should focus on more accurate information about dangerousness and mental illness, given this is an established aspect of mental illness stigma. More nuanced messages about social anxiety might be best incorporated into the treatment referral process and as part of treatment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Mining online social network data for biomedical research: a comparison of clinicians' and patients' perceptions about amyotrophic lateral sclerosis treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Carlos; Bromberg, Mark; Bhargava, Shivani; Wicks, Paul; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2012-06-21

    While only one drug is known to slow the progress of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), numerous drugs can be used to treat its symptoms. However, very few randomized controlled trials have assessed the efficacy, safety, and side effects of these drugs. Due to this lack of randomized controlled trials, consensus among clinicians on how to treat the wide range of ALS symptoms and the efficacy of these treatments is low. Given the lack of clinical trials data, the wide range of reported symptoms, and the low consensus among clinicians on how to treat those symptoms, data on the prevalence and efficacy of treatments from a patient's perspective could help advance the understanding of the symptomatic treatment of ALS. To compare clinicians' and patients' perspectives on the symptomatic treatment of ALS by comparing data from a traditional survey study of clinicians with data from a patient social network. We used a survey of clinicians' perceptions by Forshew and Bromberg as our primary data source and adjusted the data from PatientsLikeMe to allow for comparisons. We first extracted the 14 symptoms and associated top four treatments listed by Forshew and Bromberg. We then searched the PatientsLikeMe database for the same symptom-treatment pairs. The PatientsLikeMe data are structured and thus no preprocessing of the data was required. After we eliminated pairs with a small sample, 15 symptom-treatment pairs remained. All treatments identified as useful were prescription drugs. We found similarities and discrepancies between clinicians' and patients' perceptions of treatment prevalence and efficacy. In 7 of the 15 pairs, the differences between the two groups were above 10%. In 3 pairs the differences were above 20%. Lorazepam to treat anxiety and quinine to treat muscle cramps were among the symptom-treatment pairs with high concordance between clinicians' and patients' perceptions. Conversely, amitriptyline to treat labile emotional effect and oxybutynin to treat

  11. Do social comparison and coping styles play a role in the development of burnout? Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, C.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Peiro, J.M.; Rodriguez, I; Bravo, M.J

    The present longitudinal research among 558 teachers focused on the role of upward comparisons (with others performing better), downward comparisons (with others performing worse), and coping styles in relation to burnout. Assessed were identification (recognizing oneself in the other) and contrast

  12. Show me your friends, and I shall show you who you are: the way attachment and social comparisons influence body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Lilac; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar; Zohar, Ada H

    2014-11-01

    Women with attachment insecurity have greater eating disorder symptoms and poorer prognosis. Socio-cultural agents, such as peers and family, are predictive of the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID). The present study examines the association of insecure attachment styles and direct and indirect social comparisons of body image to women's BID and drive to thinness. Two hundred and eighty three women aged 18-42 years completed online self-reports concerning attachment styles, body mass index (BMI), drive for thinness, body image satisfaction, the Figure Rating Scale (FRS), as well as a modified FRS comparing self to mother, to sister closest in age and to best friend. Hierarchical Linear Models reveal that anxious-ambivalent, but not avoidant attachment style, along with indirect and direct comparisons to best friend and to sister influence drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction, even after controlling for BMI and age. Of all social comparisons, feeling one's best friend is thinner than yourself is the most detrimental to body ideal. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Social participation predicts cognitive functioning in aging adults over time: comparisons with physical health, depression, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Memel, Molly; Woolverton, Cindy; Sbarra, David A

    2017-02-01

    Several risk and protective factors are associated with changes in cognitive functioning in aging adults - including physical health, depression, physical activity, and social activities - though the findings for participation in social activities are mixed. This study investigated the longitudinal association between social participation and two domains of cognitive functioning, memory and executive function. A primary goal of our analyses was to determine whether social participation predicted cognitive functioning over-and-above physical health, depression, and physical activity in a sample with adequate power to detect unique effects. The sample included aging adults (N = 19,832) who participated in a large, multi-national study and provided data across six years; split into two random subsamples. Unique associations between the predictors of interest and cognitive functioning over time and within occasion were assessed in a latent curve growth model. Social participation predicted both domains of cognitive functioning at each occasion, and the relative magnitude of this effect was comparable to physical health, depression, and physical activity level. In addition, social participation at the first time point predicted change in cognitive functioning over time. The substantive results in the initial sample were replicated in the second independent subsample. Overall, the magnitude of the association of social participation is comparable to other well-established predictors of cognitive functioning, providing evidence that social participation plays an important role in cognitive functioning and successful aging.

  14. A Comparison of Momentary Time Sampling and Partial-Interval Recording for Assessment of Effects of Social Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; O'Handley, Roderick D.; Labrot, Zachary C.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment in social skills training often utilizes procedures such as partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) to estimate changes in duration in social engagements due to intervention. Although previous research suggests PIR to be more inaccurate than MTS in estimating levels of behavior, treatment analysis decisions…

  15. Language Impairment and Early Social Competence in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison of DSM-5 Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, T. A.; Szatmari, P.; Georgiades, K.; Hanna, S.; Janus, M.; Georgiades, S.; Duku, E.; Bryson, S.; Fombonne, E.; Smith, I. M.; Mirenda, P.; Volden, J.; Waddell, C.; Roberts, W.; Vaillancourt, T.; Zwaigenbaum, L.; Elsabbagh, M.; Thompson, A.

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and structural language impairment (LI) may be at risk of more adverse social-developmental outcomes. We examined trajectories of early social competence (using the Vineland-II) in 330 children aged 2-4 years recently diagnosed with ASD, and compared 3 subgroups classified by: language impairment…

  16. Perception of Threat in Children with Social Phobia: Comparison to Nonsocially Anxious Children before and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Rio; Ost, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated interpretation bias and reduced evidence for danger (RED) bias in 49 children with social phobia and 49 nonsocially anxious children between the ages of 8 and 14 years, using an ambiguous stories task. A posttreatment and follow-up measure was included for 26 of the socially phobic children to examine whether there…

  17. Democracy Related Units in Social Studies Curriculums Based on Self-Regulation Strategies: A Comparison of Turkey and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Cevat; Incirci, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the units related to democracy concept of Social Studies Curriculums applied in Federal Republic of Germany and Republic of Turkey. The goals of the study indicated in Democracy related unit in Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey is examined comparatively with North Rhine-Westphalia State of Germany based on the…

  18. A Comparison of the Social Networks of Blacks and Whites in a Sample of Elderly in a Southern Border State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, R. Wayne; Kernodle, Ruth L.

    The social network of elderly blacks was compared with whites in a sample of 241 ambulatory persons interviewed in congregate settings in a planning district of a border Southern state. Questions were asked about monthly patterns of social interaction, such as visiting and phone contacts with children, other kin, neighbors, friends, involvement in…

  19. A comparison of social media use and adoption in different countries: The case of the USA and Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwood, Pauline; Marchiori, Elena; Zach, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the adoption and management of cutting edge social media tools in two major travel markets: the United States and Switzerland. While U.S. DMOs in recent years have begun to introduce various social media tools to their websites, Swiss DMOs ...

  20. Comparison of designs for estimating genetic parameters and obtaining response to selection for social interaction traits in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.; Bijma, P.

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals may affect individual productivity and welfare in aquaculture. Since social effects may have a genetic component, known as an indirect genetic effect (IGE), genetic selection may be a promising tool to simultaneously improve welfare and productivity in

  1. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for…

  2. A Point of Departure in the Comparison of Social and Nonsocial Visual Orienting Among Persons With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tara; Brodeur, Darlene A; Burack, Jacob A

    2015-10-01

    Endogenous visual orienting among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and among typically developing (TD) children was examined using a Posner-type task that was modified to include social and nonsocial cues and targets to test hypotheses regarding information (social or nonsocial) and cue processing (long or short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs)). The findings suggest intact endogenous orienting to face and mixed face targets using hand and arrow cues among children with ASDs who were matched to typically developing children (TDC) on the basis of nonverbal mental age (MA) at approximately 8.5 years. The findings from this study challenge the notions of a social orienting impairment and of mechanical social orienting as the children with ASDs in this study demonstrated strong orienting effects in all conditions and social sensitivity in the long stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) condition. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Korean and American Social Network Sites: Exploring Cultural Differences in Social Relationships and Self-Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong Eun

    2010-01-01

    National culture is being challenged as societies evolve from their homogeneous origins. The theoretical base of this study uses two cultural dimensions, individualism-collectivism (Hofstede, 2001) and high-and low-context cultures (Hall, 1976), to unpack the effects of national culture on social network sites (SNSs). This study explores cultural…

  4. Social support and psychological well-being in gender dysphoria: a comparison of patients with matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. The relationship of drive for muscularity to sociocultural factors, self-esteem, physical attributes gender role, and social comparison in middle school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, Linda; Stein, Jonathan A

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the relationship of three sociocultural factors-media influence, peer teasing, and parent teasing/comments and three potential moderator variables-self-esteem, social comparison, and endorsement of male strength and athleticism-to drive for muscularity in middle school boys. There were 287 seventh and eighth grade boys who completed a questionnaire measuring these variables as well as body mass index (BMI) and pubertal status. Results indicated that media influence and male physical attributes endorsement were particularly important correlates of drive for muscularity. These findings have implications for programs designed to prevent body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys.

  6. Explaining Communication Displacement and Large-Scale Social Change in Core Networks: A Cross-National Comparison of Why Bigger is Not Better and Less Can Mean More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampton, Keith; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The size and diversity of Americans’ core social networks has declined. Some suggest that the replacement of face-to-face contact with new media, and combined with more insular core networks is detrimental to both individual and societal well-being. Based on a cross-national comparison...... of the United States, Norway, and Ukraine, we find that, while individual well-being is associated with large and diverse core networks, societal well-being predicts smaller and less diverse networks. Contrary to the replacement hypothesis, we find supplementation: mobile phone and Internet use are associated...

  7. Measuring social desirability across language and sex: A comparison of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale factor structures in English and Mandarin Chinese in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R

    2016-06-01

    Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. The Effects of Thin and Heavy Media Images on Overweight and Underweight Consumers: Social Comparison Processes and Behavioral Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Smeesters, Dirk; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines how advertisements containing thin or heavy models influence the self‐esteem of overweight, normal, and underweight consumers. Previous research has mainly examined the influences of variations of the comparison standard on self‐evaluative outcomes, whereas we examine how the relative position of the self on the comparison dimension may moderate these effects. Three studies manipulated the size (thin vs. heavy) and extremity of the size (moderate vs. extreme) o...

  9. Costos de la atención médica atribuibles al consumo de tabaco en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Health care costs attributable to tobacco consumption on a national level in the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el efecto de las enfermedades atribuibles al consumo de tabaco, en términos epidemiológicos (morbilidad y económicos (costos de atención médica, en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS a escala nacional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los costos de la atención médica se estimaron desde la perspectiva del proveedor y se empleó la metodología del costeo de enfermedad. A partir de una muestra de pacientes (n= 1 596 atendidos en las unidades médicas se estableció la frecuencia de utilización de servicios en los tres niveles de atención. Para cada enfermedad se consideraron costos promedio por paciente y costos totales de enfermedad, los cuales se mensuraron en pesos mexicanos de 2004. Se calculó la fracción atribuible al consumo de tabaco para cada enfermedad, misma que se usó para atribuir los costos al tabaco. RESULTADOS: Los costos totales anuales de atención médica nacional corresponden a 7 114 millones para el infarto agudo del miocardio, 3 424 millones para la enfermedad vascular cerebral, 1 469 millones para la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y 102 millones para el cáncer pulmonar. El costo total anual para el IMSS por estas cuatro enfermedades asciende a 12 100 millones de pesos. Los costos atribuibles al consumo de tabaco corresponden a 7 100 millones de pesos, lo cual equivale a 4.3% del gasto de operación de la institución en el año 2004. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados confirman el elevado costo de la atención médica de las enfermedades atribuibles al consumo de tabaco en el IMSS y generan información de primera mano necesaria para impulsar las medidas de prevención en esa institución y reforzar las políticas de control del tabaquismo ya aplicadas en México.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost of medical care for the major diseases attributable to tobacco consumption at the IMSS. MATERIAL AND METODS: A cost of illness (COI analysis was carried out from the perspective of the health

  10. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies.

  11. Social networks and well-being: a comparison of older people in Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard

    2010-09-01

    This study examined whether the social networks of older persons in Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries were appreciably different and whether they functioned in similar ways in relation to well-being outcomes. The sample included family household respondents aged 60 years and older from the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe in 5 Mediterranean (n = 3,583) and 7 non-Mediterranean (n = 5,471) countries. Region was regressed separately by gender on variables from 4 network domains: structure and interaction, exchange, engagement and relationship quality, and controlling for background and health characteristics. In addition, 2 well-being outcomes-depressive symptoms and perceived income inadequacy-were regressed on the study variables, including regional social network interaction terms. The results revealed differences across the 2 regional settings in each of the realms of social network, above and beyond the differences that exist in background characteristics and health status. The findings also showed that the social network variables had different effects on the well-being outcomes in the respective settings. The findings underscore that the social network phenomenon is contextually bound. The social networks of older people should be seen within their unique regional milieu and in relation to the values and social norms that prevail in different sets of societies.

  12. The Role of Social Work in Palliative Care : A Comparison across Canada’s Three Northern Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuelle Novik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative research study was conducted in northern Canada in 2007 which examined the realities and issues surrounding palliative care with seniors in remote northern settings. As a profession with a recognized role in supporting those who are dying and those who are bereaved, social work has been integral to the development of palliative care support services in northern Canada. However, in regions of the North where the social work profession is less developed and less recognized, the role for social work remains understated.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of the assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi IMSS-1 depends on LeuO, H-NS, and specific growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Hernández, A L; Hernández-Lucas, I; De la Cruz, M A; Olvera, L; Morett, E; Medina-Aparicio, L; Ramírez-Trujillo, J A; Vázquez, A; Fernández-Mora, M; Calva, E

    2012-05-01

    The assT gene encodes an arylsulfate sulfotransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes sulfuryl transfer from phenolic sulfate to a phenolic acceptor. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi IMSS-1, the assT gene is located upstream of the dsbL and dsbI genes, which are involved in a disulfide bond formation required for its activation. The assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster forms an operon transcribed by a LeuO-dependent promoter, in rich medium A (MA). Interestingly, in the absence of cloned leuO and in a ΔleuO background, two transcription start sites were detected for assT and two for dsbL-dsbI in minimal medium. The H-NS nucleoid protein repressed the expression of the assT-dsbL-dsbI LeuO-dependent operon, as well as of the assT transcriptional units. Thus, the expression of the assT-dsbL-dsbI gene cluster depends on the global regulatory proteins LeuO and H-NS, as well as on specific growth conditions.

  14. Overlapping Phenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison of Motor and Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2016-08-01

    Motor and social difficulties are often found in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), to varying degrees. This study investigated the extent of overlap of these problems in children aged 7-10 years who had a diagnosis of either ASD or DCD, compared to typically-developing controls. Children completed motor and face processing assessments. Parents completed questionnaires concerning their child's early motor and current motor and social skills. There was considerable overlap between the ASD and DCD groups on the motor and social assessments, with both groups more impaired than controls. Furthermore, motor skill predicted social functioning for both groups. Future research should consider the relationships between core symptoms and their consequences in other domains.

  15. Language impairment and early social competence in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders: a comparison of DSM-5 profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, T A; Szatmari, P; Georgiades, K; Hanna, S; Janus, M; Georgiades, S; Duku, E; Bryson, S; Fombonne, E; Smith, I M; Mirenda, P; Volden, J; Waddell, C; Roberts, W; Vaillancourt, T; Zwaigenbaum, L; Elsabbagh, M; Thompson, A

    2014-11-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and structural language impairment (LI) may be at risk of more adverse social-developmental outcomes. We examined trajectories of early social competence (using the Vineland-II) in 330 children aged 2-4 years recently diagnosed with ASD, and compared 3 subgroups classified by: language impairment (ASD/LI); intellectual disability (ASD/ID) and ASD without LI or ID (ASD/alone). Children with ASD/LI were significantly more socially impaired at baseline than the ASD/alone subgroup, and less impaired than those with ASD/ID. Growth in social competence was significantly slower for the ASD/ID group. Many preschool-aged children with ASD/LI at time of diagnosis resembled "late talkers" who appeared to catch up linguistically. Children with ASD/ID were more severely impaired and continued to lag further behind.

  16. Change and Stability in the Social Determinants of Divorce : A Comparison of Marriage Cohorts in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Paul M. de; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses historical developments in the effects of five social determinants of divorce in the Netherlands: parental socioeconomic status, educational attainment, religion, parental divorce, and having children. Employing a national survey with information about 1,356 divorces, from

  17. Work Accommodations and Natural Supports for Employees with Severe Mental Illness in Social Businesses: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, Patrizia; Corbière, Marc; Fossey, Ellie; Fraccaroli, Franco; Lecomte, Tania; Harvey, Carol

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the types of work accommodations and natural supports that are useful for people experiencing severe mental illness working in social businesses. We conducted an exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional investigation in Australia, Canada and Italy to study the nature of work accommodations and natural supports available in social businesses. Study findings are drawn from survey responses of a convenience sample of 90 employees with self-reported psychiatric disabilities. Results showed that, regardless of the country, social businesses provide many work accommodations and natural supports, especially those linked to schedule flexibility and support, while work accommodations related to training and schedule flexibility were linked to longer job tenure. Overall, this study advances our knowledge about the spectrum of work accommodations and natural supports that are available in social businesses for people with severe mental illness. Also, it highlights the type of work accommodations that are likely to support this population to sustain employment.

  18. Inferring other people's states of mind: Comparison across social anxiety, body dysmorphic, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhlmann, Ulrike; Wacker, Renata; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are characterized by fears of negative evaluation by others (related to one's own incompetence or flawed appearance, respectively). Previous research has shown that individuals with SAD and BDD exhibit difficulty identifying facial expressions and interpretive biases for threat in social situations. The current study aimed at further investigating social cognition in SAD, BDD, and mentally healthy controls (35 individuals per group, respectively). Further, 35 individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as a clinical control group not characterized by evaluation fears were included. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) was applied. It consists of 45 video sequences depicting interactions among four people at a dinner party. Participants are instructed to evaluate each scenario with respect to the characters' emotions, thoughts, and intentions from a bystander perspective (i.e. other-referent context). Only the socially anxious groups (SAD and BDD) were overall less accurate than the other groups in correctly interpreting the social situations, whereas no difference was obtained between the OCD and the control group. Further analyses indicated that the SAD and BDD groups were less accurate in identifying other people's thoughts and intentions, whereas, again, no difference was observed between the OCD and control groups. In addition, the SAD group was less accurate in inferring thoughts and intentions than the OCD group. Interestingly, the groups did not differ with respect to identifying other people's emotions. These results mostly confirm existing cognitive-behavioral models of SAD and BDD emphasizing that biased interpretation of what others think or intend is one of the key factors maintaining social anxiety and appearance-related concerns. Our study shows that this bias generalizes to social situations in which individuals take a third-person observer perspective

  19. Change and Stability in the Social Determinants of Divorce: A Comparison of Marriage Cohorts in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, Paul M. de; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses historical developments in the effects of five social determinants of divorce in the Netherlands: parental socioeconomic status, educational attainment, religion, parental divorce, and having children. Employing a national survey with information about 1,356 divorces, from 6,164 marriages formed between 1942 and 1999, event-history models show that the effects of most social determinants of divorce are stable. The effects of parental socioeconomic status, religion, pare...

  20. Health, economy and social capital in Nordic children and their families: a comparison between 1984 and 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, L; Köhler, L; Vuille, J-C

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the development in the health of children that occurred in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) between 1984 and 1996 and relate it to the changes in economic growth and social capital in these countries during the same period. Two cross-sectional studies covered a representative sample of children, aged 2-17 years in each country, a total of 10,291 in 1984 and 10,317 in 1996. The data were collected by mailed questionnaires. Statistical associations between a health indicator (the absence of psychosomatic complaints), economic indicators (social class, housing and disposable income) and social capital indicators (parents' and children's organized group activities, parents playing with their children and the absence of bullying) within samples and between corresponding values in different samples across subgroups (defined by country and area of residence) were evaluated using multiple linear regression. In both surveys, there was a statistically highly significant association between the health indicator and the social capital indicators, whereas the economy indicators were not related to either of the other two types of measure. Change in health was associated positively with change in social capital and negatively with change in economy. The study provides strong support for the concept of social capital as an important determinant of children's health.

  1. Stressful life transitions and wellbeing: A comparison of the stress buffering hypothesis and the social identity model of identity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharso, Nurul F; Tear, Morgan J; Cruwys, Tegan

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between stressful life transitions and wellbeing is well established, however, the protective role of social connectedness has received mixed support. We test two theoretical models, the Stress Buffering Hypothesis and the Social Identity Model of Identity Change, to determine which best explains the relationship between social connectedness, stress, and wellbeing. Study 1 (N=165) was an experiment in which participants considered the impact of moving cities versus receiving a serious health diagnosis. Study 2 (N=79) was a longitudinal study that examined the adjustment of international students to university over the course of their first semester. Both studies found limited evidence for the buffering role of social support as predicted by the Stress Buffering Hypothesis; instead people who experienced a loss of social identities as a result of a stressor had a subsequent decline in wellbeing, consistent with the Social Identity Model of Identity Change. We conclude that stressful life events are best conceptualised as identity transitions. Such events are more likely to be perceived as stressful and compromise wellbeing when they entail identity loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Socially-induced placebo analgesia: a comparison of a pre-recorded versus live face-to-face observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T.; Siess, F.; Colloca, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been shown that live, face-to-face social observation induces marked placebo analgesia. Despite the phenomenal growth of video sharing platforms, the potential analgesic effects of video based social observation are largely unknown. This study compared video based and live social observation induced placebo analgesia and whether there was a similar relationship between analgesic responses and empathy traits for both conditions. Methods Here we compared placebo analgesia in four groups: social observation through a video (SOV Group), social observation in person (SOP Group), verbal suggestion alone (VS Group) and a natural history group (NH Group). The SOV and SOP groups underwent a placebo treatment and painful stimuli following respectively a video based and live observation of a demonstrator showing analgesic effects when the painful stimuli were paired to a green light but not a red light. The VS group received painful stimuli after they had been verbally instructed to expect less pain after the green light. The NH group received painful stimuli, but was told nothing about the meaning of the lights. Individual pain reports and empathy traits were measured. Results We found that video based observation induced substantial placebo analgesic responses that were of similar magnitude to live observation. Notably, the analgesic scores were strongly correlated with empathetic concern in the live observation group but not in the video replay group. Conclusions These findings add evidence that placebo analgesia can be induced by social observation and that empathy interacts with these effects in a context-dependent manner. PMID:24347563

  3. Social mechanisms and social causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedel Weinert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the notion of social mechanisms by comparison with the notions of evolutionary and physical mechanisms. It is argued that social mechanisms are based on trends, and not lawlike regularities, so that social mechanisms are different from mechanisms in the natural sciences. Taking as an example of social causation the abolition of the slave trade, this paper argues that social mechanisms should be incorporated in Weber’s wider notion of adequate causation in order to achieve their explanatory purpose

  4. [Rapid Response obstetrics Team at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social,enabling factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José de Jesús; Ruíz-Rosas, Roberto Aguli; Cruz-Cruz, Polita Del Rocío; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    There are barriers and enablers for the implementation of Rapid Response Teams in obstetric hospitals. The enabling factors were determined at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective study was conducted by analysing the emergency obstetric reports sent by mobile technology and e-mail to the Medical Care Unit of the IMSS in 2013. Frequency and mean was obtained using the Excel 2010 program for descriptive statistics. A total of 164,250 emergency obstetric cases were reported, and there was a mean of 425 messages per day, of which 32.2% were true obstetric emergencies and required the Rapid Response team. By e-mail, there were 73,452 life threatening cases (a mean of 6 cases per day). A monthly simulation was performed in hospitals (480 in total). Enabling factors were messagés synchronisation among the participating personnel,the accurate record of the obstetrics, as well as the simulations performed by the operational staff. The most common emergency was pre-eclampsia-eclampsia with 3,351 reports, followed by obstetric haemorrhage with 2,982 cases. The enabling factors for the implementation of a rapid response team at IMSS were properly timed communication between the central delegation teams, as they allowed faster medical and administrative management and participation of hospital medical teams in the process. Mobile technology has increased the speed of medical and administrative management in emergency obstetric care. However, comparative studies are needed to determine the statistical significance. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  5. Comparison of early socialization practices used for litters of small-scale registered dog breeders and nonregistered dog breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, Juraj; Rand, Jacquie S; Morton, John M

    2011-10-15

    OBJECTIVE-To compare early socialization practices between litters of breeders registered with the Canine Control Council (CCC) and litters of nonregistered breeders advertising puppies for sale in a local newspaper. DESIGN-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-80 litters of purebred and mixed-breed dogs from registered (n = 40) and non-registered (40) breeders. PROCEDURES-Registered breeders were randomly selected from the CCC website, and nonregistered breeders were randomly selected from a weekly advertising newspaper. The litter sold most recently by each breeder was then enrolled in the study. Information pertaining to socialization practices for each litter was obtained through a questionnaire administered over the telephone. RESULTS-Registered breeders generally had more breeding bitches and had more litters than did nonregistered breeders. Litters of registered breeders were more likely to have been socialized with adult dogs, people of different appearances, and various environmental stimuli, compared with litters of nonregistered breeders. Litters from registered breeders were also much less likely to have been the result of an unplanned pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Among those breeders represented, litters of registered breeders received more socialization experience, compared with litters of nonregistered breeders. People purchasing puppies from nonregistered breeders should focus on socializing their puppies between the time of purchase and 14 weeks of age. Additional research is required to determine whether puppies from nonregistered breeders are at increased risk of behavioral problems and are therefore more likely to be relinquished to animal shelters or euthanized, relative to puppies from registered breeders.

  6. Influence of social anxiety on recognition memory for happy and angry faces: Comparison between own- and other-race faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikutani, Mariko

    2017-03-15

    The reported experiment investigated memory of unfamiliar faces and how it is influenced by race, facial expression, direction of gaze, and observers' level of social anxiety. Eighty- seven Japanese participants initially memorized images of Oriental and Caucasian faces displaying either happy or angry expressions with direct or averted gaze. They then saw the previously seen faces and additional distractor faces displaying neutral expressions, and judged if they had seen them before. Their level of social anxiety was measured with a questionnaire. Regardless of gaze or race of the faces, recognition for faces studied with happy expressions was more accurate than for those studied with angry expressions (happiness advantage), but this tendency weakened for people with higher levels of social anxiety, possibly due to their increased anxiety for positive feedback regarding social interactions. Interestingly, the reduction of the happiness advantage observed for the highly anxious participants was more prominent for the own-race faces than for the other-race faces. The results suggest that angry expression disrupts processing of identity-relevant features of the faces, but the memory for happy faces is affected by the social anxiety traits, and the magnitude of the impact may depend on the importance of the face.

  7. Postnatal depression, maternal-infant bonding and social support: a cross-cultural comparison of Nigerian and British mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Oladayo; Bunce, Louise; Lusher, Joanne; Banbury, Samantha

    2017-07-04

    The high prevalence of Post-Natal Depression (PND) in low and lower-middle income countries of Africa raises questions about the functionality of the abundant informal support accessed in the enmeshed family structure. This study examined the interaction between social support, parity and culture in the development of PND and maternal-infant bonding (MIB) among Nigerian, British and Nigerian Immigrant mothers in the UK. Participants (N = 124) were recruited from the UK and Nigeria via local support groups for mothers, websites offering motherhood-related content and social media. Questionnaires including the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and Norbeck's Social Support Questionnaire were uploaded onto SurveyMonkey®. Findings revealed significant cultural differences in PND and social support. Multiple regression analyses revealed that PND, social support and culture could predict MIB, with PND being the only significant independent predictor. Our findings highlight the importance that cultural factors play in the development of PND and the establishment of MIB in the context of culturally attuned healthcare services.

  8. Longitudinal Relationships among Internalization of the Media Ideal, Peer Social Comparison, and Body Dissatisfaction: Implications for the Tripartite Influence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; McLean, Siân A.; Paxton, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal…

  9. The Effects of Thin and Heavy Media Images on Overweight and Underweight Consumers: Social Comparison Processes and Behavioral Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.R.V. Smeesters (Dirk); T. Mussweiler (Thomas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines how advertisements containing thin or heavy models influence the self‐esteem of overweight, normal, and underweight consumers. Previous research has mainly examined the influences of variations of the comparison standard on self‐evaluative outcomes, whereas we examine

  10. Self-enhancement among major league soccer players: The role of importance and ambiguity on social comparison behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine psychological mechanisms underlying self-enhancing comparisons among 88 male major league professional soccer players. In line with other research, the results suggest that positive beliefs about oneself are more difficult to maintain with regard to unambiguous

  11. "I'm Really Glad This Is Developmental": Autism and Social Comparisons--An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, Jaci C.; Jones, Robert S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present qualitative study comprised interviews with nine young people with autism (aged 16-21 years) about their perceptions of autism. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, three underlying themes were illuminated, and all these formed the superordinate theme Making Comparisons: (a) Changes over time: "I'm really glad this…

  12. Prevalencia de infección por virus de papiloma humano (VPH de alto riesgo y factores asociados en embarazadas derechohabientes del IMSS en el estado de Morelos The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection in pregnant women from Morelos, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernández-Girón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Algunos estudios sugieren la posibilidad de que el proceso fisiológico del embarazo modifique algunas características del hospedero, lo que incrementa el riesgo de infección por VPH; sin embargo, esta asociación no está bien establecida. Pocos estudios se han realizado para determinar la prevalencia de infección por VPH de alto riesgo en mujeres embarazadas, y sus factores relacionados. El presente estudio busca determinar la prevalencia de infección por VPH de alto riesgo, en una muestra de mujeres embarazadas mexicanas, y sus posibles factores de riesgo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico de tipo transversal en una muestra de 274 mujeres embarazadas que acudieron a los servicios de primer nivel de atención del Hospital General del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en Cuernavaca, Morelos, durante el año 2000. Se obtuvieron muestras de exudado vaginal mediante autotoma, y se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado sobre características sociodemográficas, ginecoobstétricas y de comportamiento sexual. La detección de infección por VPH de alto riesgo, se realizó empleando un método de captura de híbridos (Hybrid Capture II, HCII, Digene Corp.. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de infección por VPH fue de 37.2% (102/274. En promedio acudieron a su primera cita prenatal al sexto mes de embarazo; la media de edad fue 25.7 años. Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a infección por VPH fueron: edad, entre 20 y 29 años (RM = 2.82; IC95% 1.02-7.76, 30 o más años (RM ajustada = 6.85; IC95% 1.22-38.2; compañeros sexuales con otras parejas (RM= 2.05; IC95% 1.2-3.7. Mostraron asociación positiva, aunque marginalmente significativas: escolaridad menor de 6 años (RM = 1.67; IC95% 0.67-4.3; más de dos parejas sexuales en su vida (RM = 1.54; IC95% 0.7-3.4; y tabaquismo actual (RM= 1.6; IC95% 0.6-5.0. CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos indican una mayor prevalencia de infección por VPH de alto riesgo

  13. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing social media: A comparison of phone conference call versus social media platform. Rationale and design for a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Al-Hihi, Eyad M; Lee, Robert; Vansaghi, Lisa; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issues of lifestyle modification in a cost-conscious way. The dramatic increase in technology and online social networks may present healthcare providers with innovative ways to deliver weight management programs that could have an impact on health care at the population level. A randomized study will be conducted on 70 obese adults (BMI 30.0-45.0 kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6 months) is equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies by either a conference call or social media approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and process evaluation will be completed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Experience in training in emergencies, Division of Special Projects in Health, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Loría-Castellanos, Jorge; Hernández-Olivas, Irma Patricia; Franco-Bey, Rubén; Ochoa-Avila, César; Sánchez-Badillo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    There has been interest in the Division of Special Projects in Health to offer the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social personnel resources for training and quality thereby respond to potential contingencies. Presented here is their experience in this field. To describe and analyse the productivity in different training programs in emergencies and disasters developed by the Division of Special Projects in Health, Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS). Observational study in which different training activities conducted by the Division of Special Projects in Health between 1989 and 2014 are described. Descriptive statistics were used. In these 25 years have trained 20,674 participants; 19.451 IMSS and 1,223 other health institutions. The most productive courses were life support (BLS/ACLS) (47.17%), distance courses "Hospital medical evacuation plans and units" (14.17%), the workshop-run "Evacuation of hospital units with an emphasis on critical areas" (5.93%) and course "Programme Evaluators of Hospital Insurance" (8.43%). Although the Special Projects Division Health has primarily operational functions, it nevertheless has neglected its responsibility to maintain constantly trained and updated institute staff that every day is in a position to face any type of emergency and disaster. This increases the chance that the answer to any contingency is more organised and of higher quality, always to the benefit of the population. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. [Direct service costs of diabetes mellitus hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Zapata, Leonardo; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Nieto-López, Emmanuel Salvador

    2016-08-02

    To estimate the direct costs related to hospitalizations for diabetes mellitus and its complications in the Mexican Institute of Social Security METHODS: The hospital care costs of patients with diabetes mellitus using diagnosis-related groups in the IMSS (Mexican Institute of Social Security) and the hospital discharges from the corresponding E10-E14 codes for diabetes mellitus were estimated between 2008-2013. Costs were grouped according to demographic characteristics and main condition, and were estimated in US dollars in 2013. 411,302 diabetes mellitus discharges were recorded, representing a cost of $1,563 million. 52.44% of hospital discharges were men and 77.26% were for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The biggest cost was attributed to peripheral circulatory complications (34.84%) and people from 45-64 years of age (47.1%). Discharges decreased by 3.84% and total costs by 1.75% in the period analysed. The complications that caused the biggest cost variations were ketoacidosis (50.7%), ophthalmic (22.6%) and circulatory (18.81%). Hospital care for diabetes mellitus represents an important financial challenge for the IMSS. The increase in the frequency of hospitalisations in the productive age group, which affects society as a whole, is an even bigger challenge, and suggests the need to strengthen monitoring of diabetics in order to prevent complications that require hospital care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual development, age, and dating: a comparison of biological and social influences upon one set of behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, S M; Carlsmith, J M; Gross, R T; Martin, J A; Jennings, D; Rosenberg, A; Duke, P

    1981-03-01

    Data from the U.S. National Health Examination Survey of 12-17-year-old youths were used to determine whether the development of the social behavior of dating is more closely linked to the level of sexual maturation or to the progression through age grades without reference to sexual maturation. Regression analyses and partial correlations show that individuals levels of sexual maturation add very little to the explained variance in dating after age had been taken into account. It appears that social pressures, based on behavior considered typical and appropriate at various ages, determines the onset of dating in adolescents. Individual rates of sexual maturation that deviate from the norm for that age have little impact on dating. These findings show how social standards can reduce dramatically the impact of individual biological processes on institutionalized forms of behavior.

  17. Socially induced placebo analgesia: a comparison of a pre-recorded versus live face-to-face observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T; Siess, F; Colloca, L

    2014-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that live, face-to-face social observation induces marked placebo analgesia. Despite the phenomenal growth of video sharing platforms, the potential analgesic effects of video-based social observation are largely unknown. This study compared video-based and live social observation induced placebo analgesia and whether there was a similar relationship between analgesic responses and empathy traits for both conditions. Here, we compared placebo analgesia in four groups: social observation through a video (SOV group), social observation in person (SOP group), verbal suggestion alone (VS group) and a natural history group (NH group). The SOV and SOP groups underwent a placebo treatment and painful stimuli following respectively a video-based and live observation of a demonstrator showing analgesic effects when the painful stimuli were paired to a green light but not a red light. The VS group received painful stimuli after they had been verbally instructed to expect less pain after the green light. The NH group received painful stimuli, but was told nothing about the meaning of the lights. Individual pain reports and empathy traits were measured. We found that video-based observation induced substantial placebo analgesic responses that were of similar magnitude to live observation. Notably, the analgesic scores were strongly correlated with empathetic concern in the live observation group but not in the video replay group. These findings add evidence that placebo analgesia can be induced by social observation and that empathy interacts with these effects in a context-dependent manner. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. How risky are social networking sites? A comparison of places online where youth sexual solicitation and harassment occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2008-02-01

    Recently, public attention has focused on the possibility that social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook are being widely used to sexually solicit underage youth, consequently increasing their vulnerability to sexual victimization. Beyond anecdotal accounts, however, whether victimization is more commonly reported in social networking sites is unknown. The Growing up With Media Survey is a national cross-sectional online survey of 1588 youth. Participants were 10- to 15-year-old youth who have used the Internet at least once in the last 6 months. The main outcome measures were unwanted sexual solicitation on the Internet, defined as unwanted requests to talk about sex, provide personal sexual information, and do something sexual, and Internet harassment, defined as rude or mean comments, or spreading of rumors. Fifteen percent of all of the youth reported an unwanted sexual solicitation online in the last year; 4% reported an incident on a social networking site specifically. Thirty-three percent reported an online harassment in the last year; 9% reported an incident on a social networking site specifically. Among targeted youth, solicitations were more commonly reported via instant messaging (43%) and in chat rooms (32%), and harassment was more commonly reported in instant messaging (55%) than through social networking sites (27% and 28%, respectively). Broad claims of victimization risk, at least defined as unwanted sexual solicitation or harassment, associated with social networking sites do not seem justified. Prevention efforts may have a greater impact if they focus on the psychosocial problems of youth instead of a specific Internet application, including funding for online youth outreach programs, school antibullying programs, and online mental health services.

  19. Does Religiosity Promote or Discourage Social Trust? Evidence from Cross-Country and Cross-State Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Berggren, Niclas

    -being. The effect of religiosity is theoretically unclear: while all major religions call for behaving well to others, religious groups may primarily trust people in their own groups and distrust others, as well as cause division in the broader population. We make use of new data from the Gallup World Poll for 105......We look at the effect of religiosity on social trust, defined as the share of a population that thinks that people in general can be trusted. This is important since social trust is related to many desired outcomes, such as growth, education, democratic stability and subjective well...

  20. A Comparison of Waldorf and Non-Waldorf Student-Teachers' Social-Emotional Competencies: Can Arts Engagement Explain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martzog, Philipp; Kuttner, Simon; Pollak, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are confronted with complex and unexpected classroom situations that not only demand knowledge but also social-emotional competencies. Consequently, researchers have tried to identify conditions that support the development of relevant abilities in this domain. This study examined the frequently stated, but not yet empirically…