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Sample records for social factors influencing

  1. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  2. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

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    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  3. Factors influencing intentions to use social recommender systems: a social exchange perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Sheng; Hsiao, Wei-Hung

    2013-05-01

    This study employs the perspective of social exchange theory and seeks to understand users' intentions to use social recommender systems (SRS) through three psychological factors: trust, shared values, and reputation. We use structural equation modeling to analyze 221 valid questionnaires. The results show that trust has a direct positive influence on the intention to use SRS, followed by shared values, whereas reputation has an indirect influence on SRS use. We further discuss specific recommendations concerning these factors for developing SRS.

  4. Factors influencing social distance toward people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Christoph; Nordt, Carlos; Falcato, Luis; Rössler, Wulf

    2004-06-01

    When identifying ways to reduce stigmatization because of mental illness it is crucial to understand contributing factors. Social distance-the willingness to engage in relationships of varying intimacy with a person--is an indicator of public attitudes toward persons with mental illness. Multiple linear regression analysis of the results of a vignette-based opinion survey conducted on a representative population sample in Switzerland (n = 594). The level of social distance increases if situations imply 'social closeness.' The vignette describing a person with schizophrenia, attitudes to general aspects of mental health (lay helping, community psychiatry), emotions toward those affected, and the attitude toward consequences of mental illness (medical treatment, medication side effects, negative sanctions, e.g. withdrawal of the driver license) were found to predict social distance. Demographic factors such as age, gender, and the cultural background influence social distance. The explained variance (R2) is 44.8%. Social distance is a multifaceted concept influenced by, e.g., socio-economic and cultural factors, but also by the respondent's general attitude toward (mental) health issues. These results suggest that more knowledge about mental illnesses, especially schizophrenia, may increase social distance. The findings presented here may help to focus anti-stigma campaigns not only on transmission of knowledge, but on integrating different approaches.

  5. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  6. Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports as Perceived by Female Students of the University of Ilorin. ... sports competition while mass media should organize enlightenment programmes that will mitigate the ...

  7. The Influence of Social Factors on Life Satisfaction in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Miha Kaučič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question (RQ: What is the connection between social factors and life satisfaction in old age? Purpose: The purpose of this research was to establish the influence of social factors on life satisfaction in old age. Method: The quantitative research method was used, a causal non-experimental method. As sampling data technique we used the technique of a survey questionnaire in ten statistical regions. For the analysis of causal effects and conditional associations we used the advanced statistical propensity score methods (Rubin, 2006. From the statistical set a simple random sample was chosen, we decided on proportionate stratification. For measuring life satisfaction we used Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, to which we added questions in order to study social factors. The research included 656 older adults aged 65 years and above, living in the home environment or in social care institutions. Results: Closely connected to life satisfaction in old age is the living conditions index (housing conditions, environment, financial situation, safety, whereas the lifestyle index (physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption is less closely connected. Discussion: Life satisfaction in old age is importantly influenced by social factors – suitable living conditions and less influenced by a healthy lifestyle, both of which allow for a quality life also in old age. Society: The research has an important influence on the society, as too little attention is being devoted to the phenomenon of ageing. By alerting the public we wish to contribute towards the detabuisation of ageing and ageism. For the stable healthcare system it is important that older adults remain healthy, independent and satisfied. Originality: The originality of the research is in the studying of social factor in the holistic model of satisfaction with life in the old age, which also includes physical, psychological and spiritual factors. Limitations

  8. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  9. Social influence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ross A

    2010-10-01

    To review a selection of research published in the last 12 months on the role of social influence in the obesity epidemic. Recent papers add evidence to previous work linking social network structures and obesity. Social norms, both eating norms and body image norms, are identified as one major source of social influence through networks. Social capital and social stress are additional types of social influence. There is increasing evidence that social influence and social network structures are significant factors in obesity. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms of action and dynamics of social influence, and its link with other factors involved in the obesity epidemic, is an important goal for further research.

  10. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF DENTAL HEALTHCARE SERVICES CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Petronela Gârdan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In case of dental care consumption, a very special influence will have the social factors. This influence, from the level of consumers’ behavior can be analyzed on two distinct levels – that of normatives impose by the social organization particular for the community that the individual live and that of the influences of the social groups that individual are interacting with. Dental healthcare services consumption is conditioned at the level of consumption motivations by complex needs which are not confined only to the physiological needs of removing pain caused by a certain dental condition, but are going towards the need of self-image improvement, increasing the appreciation offered by the others group members, the congruence with other consumers decisions within the group (family members, friends, colleagues etc. It is important to note in this context the fact that the influence exerted by consumers exogenous factors (external influences in which we can integrate those from the social groups also will be combined with the one exerted by endogenous factors (personality, learning process, perceptions, attitudes, motivations etc, representing a continuum that shape consumers and allows in the same time the society shaping by them. The present article proposes a research conducted on dental healthcare services consumers. Results revealed the importance that a series of variables like the importance given to image in the workplace, family, friends and colleagues perception towards dental aesthetic, social class has in the context of consumer behavior. It is also noted that the influence of variables is mediated by the importance given to self-image, dental healthcare services consumption being determined by complex needs, consumption motivations being physiological – specific to some medical conditions and psychological – aesthetic or induced by the pressure corresponding to the need to comply with social norms.

  12. Rural settlements: social and ecological factors influencing on internal dose formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visenberg, Yu.V; Vlasova, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the present study is to reveal the reasons of difference in average internal doses in rural population living in the rural settlements situated on territories with equal levels of soil contamination; to show by clear examples that forming of internal dose is not only influenced directly by the contamination of the territory but also by number of factors of non-radiation origin. There were used data on internal doses as a result of WBC-measurements in rural inhabitants. Method of the study: there was applied the statistical analysis of the internal dose in rural population depending on the number of factors: radio-ecological represented by the transfer factor of radionuclides from soil to milk; environmental - closeness to the forest which, in its turn, determines intake of its resources by rural population; social - the number of population. There were selected settlements for the investigation whose residents had been WBC-measured for the period of 1990-2005's and their doses were evaluated. Thus, the conducted analysis shows that each of indirect (non-radiation) factors contributes in different way into formation of internal dose. The most significant of them is the social factor as follows from the results of the conducted analysis, represented by the number of inhabitants in a settlement. The internal dose depends not only on the level of contamination of the territory but also on the number of other factors: environmental, social, and radio-ecological. The influence of these factors on the process of dose formation in settlements should be considered simultaneously since neither of them is the leading one. Probably, there are other factors influencing on dose formation. Their investigation must be continued. (author)

  13. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

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    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games.

  14. Factors influencing social self-disclosure among adolescents living with HIV in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Buyze, Jozefien; Loos, Jasna; Buvé, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face many psychosocial challenges, including HIV disclosure to others. Given the importance of socialization during the adolescent transition process, this study investigated the psychological and social factors influencing self-disclosure of own HIV status to peers. We examined social HIV self-disclosure to peers, and its relationship to perceived HIV-related stigma, self-efficacy to disclose, self-esteem, and social support among a sample of n = 582 ALHIV aged 13-17 years in Kampala, Uganda, and Western Kenya. Data were collected between February and April 2011. Among them, 39% were double orphans. We conducted a secondary data analysis to assess the degree of social disclosure, reactions received, and influencing factors. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed medical, socio-demographic, and psychological variables (Rosenberg self-esteem scale; self-efficacy to disclose to peers), HIV-related stigma (10-item stigma scale), and social support (family-life and friends). Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed with social self-disclosure to peers with gender as covariates. Almost half of ALHIV had told nobody (except health-care providers) about their HIV status, and about 18% had disclosed to either one of their friends, schoolmates, or a boy- or girlfriend. Logistic regression models revealed that having disclosed to peers was significantly related to being older, being a paternal orphan, contributing to family income, regular visits to the HIV clinic, and greater social support through peers. Low self-efficacy to disclose was negatively associated to the outcome variable. While social self-disclosure was linked to individual factors such as self-efficacy, factors relating to the social context and adolescents' access to psychosocial resources play an important role. ALHIV need safe environments to practice disclosure skills. Interventions should enable them to make optimal use of

  15. Factors influencing social self-disclosure among adolescents living with HIV in Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    N?stlinger, Christiana; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Buyze, Jozefien; Loos, Jasna; Buv?, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face many psychosocial challenges, including HIV disclosure to others. Given the importance of socialization during the adolescent transition process, this study investigated the psychological and social factors influencing self-disclosure of own HIV status to peers. We examined social HIV self-disclosure to peers, and its relationship to perceived HIV-related stigma, self-efficacy to disclose, self-esteem, and social support among a sample of n = 582 ALHIV...

  16. Influence of Social Factors on Student Satisfaction Among College Students With Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Oertle, Kathleen Marie; Fleming, Allison R.; Plotner, Anthony J.; Hakun, Jonathan G.

    2017-01-01

    A significant body of research on student retention reflects that social and environmental factors influence continued enrollment in post-secondary education and academic success. Yet, for students with disabilities, more emphasis is placed on accommodations, access, and support services without sufficient attention to the social aspect of the student experience. In this study, we investigated belonging as a primary contributor to student satisfaction and examined the degree to which other so...

  17. Predicting and influencing voice therapy adherence using social-cognitive factors and mobile video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leer, Eva; Connor, Nadine P

    2015-05-01

    Patient adherence to voice therapy is an established challenge. The purpose of this study was (a) to examine whether adherence to treatment could be predicted from three social-cognitive factors measured at treatment onset: self-efficacy, goal commitment, and the therapeutic alliance, and (b) to test whether the provision of clinician, self-, and peer model mobile treatment videos on MP4 players would influence the same triad of social cognitive factors and the adherence behavior of patients. Forty adults with adducted hyperfunction with and without benign lesions were prospectively randomized to either 4 sessions of voice therapy enhanced by MP4 support or without MP4 support. Adherence between sessions was assessed through self-report. Social cognitive factors and voice outcomes were assessed at the beginning and end of therapy. Utility of MP4 support was assessed via interviews. Self-efficacy and the therapeutic alliance predicted a significant amount of adherence variance. MP4 support significantly increased generalization, self-efficacy for generalization, and the therapeutic alliance. An interaction effect demonstrated that MP4 support was particularly effective for patients who started therapy with poor self-efficacy for generalization. Adherence may be predicted and influenced via social-cognitive means. Mobile technology can extend therapy to extraclinical settings.

  18. The Social and Economic Factors Influence upon the Healthcare Services Consumers Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian GÂRDAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research in the field of healthcare services consumer behaviour represents a very complex task with multiple implications. The consumer behaviour is much nuanced depending on the type of services or products that we are referring on. In the case of healthcare services, the behaviour is more complex than other services and is influenced mainly by special motivations like the need for a proper health status or the need to recover from a certain disease. The present article is proposing a qualitative type research as an in-depth interview with dentists regarding their perception about the influence that social and economic factors can have upon the consumers’ behaviour. The results of the research suggest that the influence of social factors is very complex, from the simple more intense concern related with dental hygiene and appearance of teeth up to anxious behaviour and isolation in the case of patients with severe dental diseases that have affected their face bones structure or the capacity to chew and speak. These findings shows that the consumers’ behaviour can be shaped by the complex interaction of different factors, and the response from dentists and those in charge with the provision of dental healthcare services can make the difference between a sustainable consumption and a dramatic route of unsatisfied consumers’ expectations.

  19. Factors modulating social influence on spatial choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, Teagan A; Saxon, Marie; Sayde, Justin M; Brown, Michael F

    2015-07-01

    Three experiments examined the conditions under which the spatial choices of rats searching for food are influenced by the choices made by other rats. Model rats learned a consistent set of baited locations in a 5 × 5 matrix of locations, some of which contained food. In Experiment 1, subject rats could determine the baited locations after choosing 1 location because all of the baited locations were on the same side of the matrix during each trial (the baited side varied over trials). Under these conditions, the social cues provided by the model rats had little or no effect on the choices made by the subject rats. The lack of social influence on choices occurred despite a simultaneous social influence on rats' location in the testing arena (Experiment 2). When the outcome of the subject rats' own choices provided no information about the positions of other baited locations, on the other hand, social cues strongly controlled spatial choices (Experiment 3). These results indicate that social information about the location of food influences spatial choices only when those cues provide valid information that is not redundant with the information provided by other cues. This suggests that social information is learned about, processed, and controls behavior via the same mechanisms as other kinds of stimuli. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Friend me: which factors influence top global brands participation in social network sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, T.; Neijens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This study focuses on how brands participate in social network sites (SNSs) and investigates both the different strategies they adopt and the factors that influence these strategies. Design/methodology/approach - The activities of top brands in SNSs were investigated through a content

  1. Factors that contribute to social media influence within an Internal Medicine Twitter learning community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Patwardhan, Manish; Coore, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Medical societies, faculty, and trainees use Twitter to learn from and educate other social media users. These social media communities bring together individuals with various levels of experience. It is not known if experienced individuals are also the most influential members. We hypothesize that participants with the greatest experience would be the most influential members of a Twitter community. We analyzed the 2013 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Twitter community. We measured the number of tweets authored by each participant and the number of amplified tweets (re-tweets). We developed a multivariate linear regression model to identify any relationship to social media influence, measured by the PageRank. Faculty (from academic institutions) comprised 19% of the 132 participants in the learning community (p influence amongst all participants (mean 1.99, p influence (β = 0.068, p = 0.6). The only factors that predicted influence (higher PageRank) were the number of tweets authored (p influence. Any participant who was able to author the greatest number of tweets or have more of his/her tweets amplified could wield a greater influence on the participants, regardless of his/her authority.

  2. Comparing social factors affecting recommender decisions in online and educational social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    MartÍn, Estefanía; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Haya, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    In the educational context, there is an increasing interest in learning networks. Recommender systems (RSs) can play an important role in achieving educational objectives. Although we can find many papers focused on recommendation techniques and algorithms, in general, less attention has been dedicated to social factors that influence the recommendation process. This process could be improved if we had a deeper understanding of the social factors that influence the quality or validity of a suggestion made by the RS. This work elucidates and analyses the social factors that influence the design and decision-making process of RSs. We conducted a survey in which 126 undergraduate students were asked to extract which are the main factors for improving suggestions when they are interacting with an Online Social Network (OSN) or in an Educational Social Network (ESN). The results show that different factors have to be considered depending on the type of network.

  3. Analysis of Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Occupation Choices: An Investigation of Both Social and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Li; Shunguo, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on 2006 survey data on students from three universities in western China, this study analyzes the effect of the students' family background and academic achievements on their occupation choices. Both social capital and human capital were found to be significant factors influencing their employment decisions. The more abundant the social and…

  4. Factors That Influence Self-Disclosure for Job Seekers Using Social Networking: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated factors that influence the extent and type of information job seekers reveal about themselves when using social networking to search for employment opportunities and advance their careers. It examined how user concerns regarding privacy influence the level of content they provide and their interactions with fellow community…

  5. What Predicts Exercise Maintenance and Well-Being? Examining The Influence of Health-Related Psychographic Factors and Social Media Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Krishnan, Archana

    2018-01-26

    Habitual exercising is an important precursor to both physical and psychological well-being. There is, thus, a strong interest in identifying key factors that can best motivate individuals to sustain regular exercise regimen. In addition to the importance of psychographic factors, social media use may act as external motivator by allowing users to interact and communicate about exercise. In this study, we examined the influence of health consciousness, health-oriented beliefs, intrinsic motivation, as willingness to communicate about health on social media, social media activity on exercise, and online social support on exercise maintenance and well-being on a sample of 532 American adults. Employing structural equation modeling, we found that health-oriented beliefs mediated the effect of health consciousness on intrinsic motivation which in turn was a significant predictor of exercise maintenance. Exercise maintenance significantly predicted both physical and psychological well-being. Extrinsic motivators, as measured by willingness to communicate about health on social media, social media activity on exercise, and online social support did not however significantly influence exercise maintenance. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of exercise-promoting interventions by identifying underlying factors that influence exercise maintenance.

  6. A study on the critical factors which influence habitual entrepreneurs' success in networking from the perspective of social captial theory

    OpenAIRE

    Li, SiQi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research is to provide an insight on the critical factors which influence habitual entrepreneurs’ success in networking through which effective networking strategies may lead to increased business performance. The perspective of explaining the factors adopts social capital theory and social dimensions of entrepreneurs’ network. The key findings suggest that social capital is in a form of non-linear pattern that the interactions are complex. Network configuration influences effe...

  7. Social and Leadership Factors Influencing Moral Decision Making in Canadian Military Operations: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    et al.), Westerman et al. also hypothesized that cultures categorized as individualistic and lower power distance will be more influenced by peers...while collectivistic and high power distance cultures will be less influenced by peers. Westerman and colleagues point out that people from...Humansystems® Social and Leadership Factors influencing Ethical Decision Making Page 25 individualistic cultures (e.g., Germany and Italy) are concerned

  8. Social and demographic factors that influence the diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ginny; Steer, Colin; Golding, Jean

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies in epidemiology have highlighted the existence of children with autistic difficulties who remain undiagnosed. Other studies have identified 'access barriers' to clinics which include factors mediated by parents as well as health and education services. The purpose of this study was to examine whether social and demographic factors play a role in receiving a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) independently of symptom severity. Retrospective secondary analysis of a longitudinal UK cohort study, namely, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). With the severity of autistic traits held constant, boys were more likely to receive an ASD diagnosis than girls. Younger mothers and mothers of first-born children were significantly less likely to have children diagnosed with ASD. Maternal depression before and around the time of their children's autistic difficulties was associated with lack of diagnosis. The study provides evidence that social as well as biological factors can influence whether children are brought to the clinic.

  9. Do levels of social competence influence the perception of social affordances among students with low levels of education? An exploratory case study of the relationship between offline and online socializing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moekotte, Paulo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Ritzen, Henk

    2018-01-01

    In this exploratory case study we investigate the relation between off line and online factors that influence social dynamics of online, collaborative learning, that is the levels of social competence and the perception of social affordances. We argued that low educated with low social competences

  10. Influencing Factors of University Students’ Use of Social Network Sites: An Empirical Analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the influencing factors of Chinese university students in accepting and using social networking sites (SNS to propose measures and recommendations that can guide and help these students correctly use SNS. In addition, this paper aims to provide theoretical support in increasing user loyalty for the SNS service providers and attract new users. The correlation and multiple regression analyses showed that perceived value, enjoyment, and influence positively influence the intention of individuals to use SNS.

  11. The influence of social psychological factors on behaviour, stress and dose in Chernobyl affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Allen, P.

    1998-01-01

    During the 12 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, people in the affected areas have lived day to day with the risks of radiation. During these 12 years many countermeasures have been applied to minimise dose and thus reduce the threat to the health of the affected populations. Some of these countermeasures are aimed at changing daily life; for example, advice and restrictions on behaviours relating to the forest, consumption of forest produce and the consumption of private milk. In order to be effective, these countermeasures require action, or compliance, on the part of the affected populations. How have people in these areas responded to this risk and to the countermeasures employed to minimise the risk? A number of social psychological factors may be involved in peoples responses to this situation, including their perceptions of threat, the perceived costs and benefits of the behaviours involved, and the influence of other people. We examine the influence of these various social psychological factors on compliance behaviour, dose, and stress related health through a survey of people in the affected areas using quantitative questionnaire measures. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission-sponsored project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey, Symlog and NRPB as well as partners in the CIS. Specific objectives include: to characterise, using quantitative methods, the nature and psychological impact of countermeasures and the influence of behaviour on dose, and to develop, guidance on the implementation of countermeasures, taking account of the social and psychological context. (authors)

  12. SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH INDICATORS IN CHILDREN LIVING WITH HIV AND AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengada Krishnaraj S. P

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Social factors in CLHA play important role in growth indicators. Both parents alive, loss of breadwinner of the family, widows working for children, orphaned CLHA, guardian and NGO’s taking care of CLHA, below poverty line status are some of the social factors that will have impact on growth indicators. This study was done to study these factors influence on growth indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective study from April 2014 to March 2015. All children on ART. Consent was obtained. Demographic data, height and weight measured monthly. Nutritional counseling and adherence counseling was given to all CLHA and caretakers. Gain in mean weight and height were tabulated. Data were grouped with both parents alive, mother alive, father alive, both parent dead, under guardian care, under NGO or GO care, two sibling families, below and above poverty line, sibling with HIV, at least one family member earning and two family members earning. Results were analysed. RESULTS Subjects 212. Male:female ratio 126:86. Mean age 9.6 years. (Males 9.8 and females 9.4 years. Mean duration of ART 45.5 months. 35% had both parents alive, 38% only mother alive, 8% only father alive and 17% both parents dead. 40% of orphaned taken care by guardians, rest by NGO’s. 9 families had more than 2 siblings. 21% had no earning family members. 80% were below poverty line. Mean increase in height was 5.75cms and weight was 2.87kgs during one year. No difference in gain in height in social groups. Orphaned children taken care by NGO’s and guardians have high gain in weight. Number of earning member does not influence in gain in weight. Gain in weight in above poverty line is better than below poverty line. CLHA under father’s care gained only 2.47kgs. CLHA with mother’s care gained more weight than father’s care. CONCLUSION 20% CLHA were orphaned and without earning member. Mothers, income of the family, NGO’s homes and guardians improve growth

  13. Influence of social factors on patient-reported late symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Trille Kristina; Johansen, Christoffer; Andersen, Elo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of head and neck cancer and morbidity and mortality after treatment are associated with social factors. Whether social factors also play a role in the prevalence of late-onset symptoms after treatment for head and neck cancer is not clear. METHODS: Three hundred sixty...... ratio [OR] = 3.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-8.63). For survivors who lived alone, the adjusted ORs were significantly increased for physical functioning (2.17; 95% CI = 1.01-4.68) and trouble with social eating (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.14-4.47). CONCLUSION: Self-reported severe late symptoms...... were more prevalent in survivors with short education and in those living alone, suggesting differences in perception of late symptoms between social groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2015....

  14. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence......Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  15. Regulatory Accessibility and Social Influences on State Self-Control

    OpenAIRE

    vanDellen, Michelle R.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2009-01-01

    The current work examined how social factors influence self-control. Current conceptions of state self-control treat it largely as a function of regulatory capacity. The authors propose that state self-control might also be influenced by social factors because of regulatory accessibility. Studies 1 through 4 provide evidence that individuals’ state self-control is influenced by the trait and state self-control of salient others such that thinking of others with good trait or state self-contro...

  16. [Concomitant influence of occupational and social risk factors on health of workers engaged into powder metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Kostarev, V G; Lebedeva-Nesevria, N A; Shliapnikov, D M

    2012-01-01

    Results of health risk evaluation in workers engaged into powder metallurgy, using complex of hygienic, medical, epidemiologic and sociologic studies, enable to define priority occupational and social risk factors, to assess degree of their influence on the workers' health and to identify occupationally induced diseases.

  17. Clinical factors influencing participation in society after successful kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, S.F.; Groothoff, J.W.; van Sonderen, E.L.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Jong, P.E.; van Son, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Little information is available on the degree of actual social functioning after successful kidney transplantation. Moreover, information on factors that influence participation in social activities is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of clinical factors on

  18. The influence of psychological and social factors on market behaviour of young consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kicińska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research concerning the influence of psychological and social factors on market behaviour of young consumers in Poland and in the world. The research confirms that children and the youth constitute a separate market group and the age determines their market independence. Making decisions regarding purchase of goods young consumers tend to ask for help those whom they rely on, which is connected with their small market experience. The need to do market shopping is mainly influenced by the feeling of lack of young people and then parents’ suggestions and peers’ advice. Young consumers buy goods also on impulse. It regards mainly comestibles. Fashion is the most important for children and the youth in case of clothing articles and shoes. The factor of market novelty is not a determinant of a big importance in the choice of goods purchased by children and the youth.

  19. Understanding factors influencing vulnerable older people keeping warm and well in winter: a qualitative study using social marketing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, Angela Mary; Lusambili, Adelaide; Homer, Catherine; Abbott, Joanne; Cooke, Joanne Mary; Stocks, Amanda Jayne; McDaid, Kathleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    To understand the influences and decisions of vulnerable older people in relation to keeping warm in winter. A qualitative study incorporating in-depth, semi-structured individual and group interviews, framework analysis and social marketing segmentation techniques. Rotherham, South Yorkshire, UK. 50 older people (>55) and 25 health and social care staff underwent individual interview. The older people also had household temperature measurements. 24 older people and 19 health and social care staff participated in one of the six group interviews. Multiple complex factors emerged to explain whether vulnerable older people were able to keep warm. These influences combined in various ways that meant older people were not able to or preferred not to access help or change home heating behaviour. Factors influencing behaviours and decisions relating to use of heating, spending money, accessing cheaper tariffs, accessing benefits or asking for help fell into three main categories. These were situational and contextual factors, attitudes and values, and barriers. Barriers included poor knowledge and awareness, technology, disjointed systems and the invisibility of fuel and fuel payment. Findings formed the basis of a social marketing segmentation model used to develop six pen portraits that illustrated how factors that conspire against older people being able to keep warm. The findings illustrate how and why vulnerable older people may be at risk of a cold home. The pen portraits provide an accessible vehicle and reflective tool to raise the capacity of the NHS in responding to their needs in line with the Cold Weather Plan.

  20. Factors Influencing Social Media Marketing In Different Culture Context.

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Juwayria

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgave økonomi og administrasjon- Universitetet i Agder, 2014 Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social med...

  1. The impact of social influence on adolescent intention to smoke: combining types and referents of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, Paulo D; Salgueiro, M Fátima; Silva, Sílvia A; De Vries, H

    2009-11-01

    Theory and research suggest that the intention to smoke is the main determinant of smoking initiation and emphasizes the role of cognitive and social factors on the prediction of the intention to smoke. However, extended models such as the I-Change and results from published studies reveal inconsistencies regarding the impact of social influence on the intention to smoke. Possible explanations for this may be the definition and measurement of the constructs that have been used. The current study was designed with two main goals: (i) to test a measurement model for social influence, combining different types of social influence (subjective norms, perceived behaviour, and direct pressure) with various referents of influence (parents, siblings, peers, and teachers); (ii) to investigate the impact of social influence on adolescent intention to smoke, controlling for smoking behaviour. LISREL was used to test these models. The sample includes 3,064 Portuguese adolescents, with a mean age of 13.5 years, at the beginning of the seventh school grade. The hypothesized measurement model of social influence was supported by results and explained 29% of the variance of the intention to smoke. A more extended model, including attitude and self-efficacy, explained 55% of the variance of the intention to smoke. Perceived behaviour of peers, parental norms, and perceived behaviour of parents were the social influence factors with impact on adolescent intention to smoke. Results suggest that different referents exert their influence through distinct types of social influence and recommend further work on the definition and measurement of social influence.

  2. Regulatory accessibility and social influences on state self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Hoyle, Rick H

    2010-02-01

    The current work examined how social factors influence self-control. Current conceptions of state self-control treat it largely as a function of regulatory capacity. The authors propose that state self-control might also be influenced by social factors because of regulatory accessibility. Studies 1 through 4 provide evidence that individuals' state self-control is influenced by the trait and state self-control of salient others such that thinking of others with good trait or state self-control leads to increases in state self-control and thinking of others with bad trait or state self-control leads to decreases in state self-control. Study 5 provides evidence that the salience of significant others influences both regulatory accessibility and state self-control. Combined, these studies suggest that the effects of social influences on state self-control occur through multiple mechanisms.

  3. Factors influencing the intention to use social media for work-related purposes at a South African higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Cilliers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The rapid development of information communication technology (ICT has changed much of contemporary society. ICT’s influence extends to the working context with ramifications not only for employees but also for the entire organisation. Research purpose: The primary purpose of this research was to investigate the behavioural intention of a sample of employees at a traditional higher education institution to make use of social media within the workplace. Motivation for the study: Social media has become a common tool within society for communication and networking purposes. An understanding of the factors that influence behavioural intention to use social media within the workplace can assist the organisation to better manage social media usage within the workplace. Research design, approach and method: The research adopted the positivism paradigm with a quantitative research approach. The data were analysed making use of exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. A traditional higher education institution was chosen as the research site for the study, relying on a convenience sample (n = 134 and data gathered using the work-related social media scale and behavioural intention to use scale. Main findings: Although most employees make use of social media for problem-solving and communication purposes already in the workplace, organisations should allow their employees to help manage their reputation on social media. Practical and managerial implications: An understanding of the factors that influence behavioural intention to use social media within the workplace can serve as a useful precursor for both employee and organisational-specific interventions. This study has specific relevance to the use of ICT platforms, such as social media, in traditional higher education institutions in South Africa. The study’s results are therefore useful to both employees as end-users and managers as drivers of such interventions

  4. Uncovering the influence of social skills and psychosociological factors on pain sensitivity using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoichi; Nishi, Yuki; Nishi, Yuki; Osumi, Michihiro; Morioka, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a subjective emotional experience that is influenced by psychosociological factors such as social skills, which are defined as problem-solving abilities in social interactions. This study aimed to reveal the relationships among pain, social skills, and other psychosociological factors by using structural equation modeling. A total of 101 healthy volunteers (41 men and 60 women; mean age: 36.6±12.7 years) participated in this study. To evoke participants' sense of inner pain, we showed them images of painful scenes on a PC screen and asked them to evaluate the pain intensity by using the visual analog scale (VAS). We examined the correlation between social skills and VAS, constructed a hypothetical model based on results from previous studies and the current correlational analysis results, and verified the model's fit using structural equation modeling. We found significant positive correlations between VAS and total social skills values, as well as between VAS and the "start of relationships" subscales. Structural equation modeling revealed that the values for "start of relationships" had a direct effect on VAS values (path coefficient =0.32, p social support. The results indicated that extroverted people are more sensitive to inner pain and tend to get more social support and maintain a better psychological condition.

  5. Social media in tourism: Establishing factors influencing attitudes towards the usage of social networking sites for trip organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Matikiti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of this study was to determine the attitude towards the use of SNSs for trip organisation and its precursors. Problem investigated: Tourism organisations and destination policy makers need to understand factors that influence tourist use of SNSs for trip organisation in order for them to be able to effectively utilise SNSs. Methodology: The methodological approach followed was exploratory and quantitative in nature. Data were collected from a total of 340 respondents using a structured questionnaire. Structural equation modelling through the use of Partial Least Squares was for data analysis. Findings and implications: The results show that attitude towards the use of SNSs for trip organisation is affected by perceived benefits, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control, with perceived usefulness having the greatest influence. The implication is that managers of tourism organisations need to ensure that their sites are informative, easy to use and able to safeguard users’ online privacy if they are to attract more and loyal users to their sites. Value of the research: Very little research in the South African context exists with specific reference to how SNSs are being utilised for trip organisation. This article contributes by unravelling factors that influence the use of SNSs for trip organisation. Conclusion: Perceived usefulness measured by functional benefits and social benefits is the key factor that influences attitude towards the use of SNSs for trip organisation. It is the responsibility of destination marketers to provide all the necessary or valuable information on their SNS accounts, in order to encourage travellers to use SNSs

  6. Influence of psycho-social factors on the emergence of depression and suicidal risk in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pješčić, Katarina Dokić; Nenadović, Milutin M; Jašović-Gašić, Miroslava; Trajković, Goran; Kostić, Mirjana; Ristić-Dimitrijević, Radmila

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of certain psychosocial factors - insight, psycho-education, family and social support, loneliness and social isolation - on the appearance of depression and suicidal risk in schizophrenia. This was a cross-sectional study that comprised hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in the initial remission phase. The assessment of depression and suicidal risk was made by applying a semi-structured psychiatric interview that included scrutinized factors (insight, psycho-education, family and social support, loneliness and social isolation), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). On the basis of the assessment results, the sample was divided into two groups: Group of patients with depression and suicidal risk in schizophrenia (N = 53) and Control group (N = 159) of patients with schizophrenia without depression and suicidal risk. In the Group of patients with depression and suicidal risk, compared with the Control group, there was significantly higher frequency of insight in the mental status (χ² = 31.736, p risk in schizophrenia. This study shows that considered psycho-social factors - insight in the mental status, lack of psycho-education, as well as social isolation - could be predictors for appearance of depression and suicidal risk in schizophrenia.

  7. White-tailed deer vigilance: the influence of social and environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A Lashley

    Full Text Available Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer.

  8. Neural Correlates of Social Influence Among Cannabis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M

    2017-06-01

    Although peer influence is an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of cannabis use, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of peer influence among cannabis users. The current review summarizes research on the neuroscience of social influence in cannabis users, with the goal of highlighting gaps in the literature and the need for future research. Brain regions underlying peer influence may function differently in cannabis users. Compared to non-using controls, regions of the brain underlying reward, such as the striatum, show greater connectivity with frontal regions, and also show hyperactivity when participants are presented with peer information. Other subcortical regions, such as the insula, show hypoactivation during social exclusion in cannabis users, indicating that neural responses to peer interactions may be altered in cannabis users. Although neuroscience is increasingly being used to study social behavior, few studies have specifically focused on cannabis use, and therefore it is difficult to draw conclusions about social mechanisms that may differentiate cannabis users and controls. This area of research may be a promising avenue in which to explore a critical factor underlying cannabis use and addiction.

  9. Effects of workplace, family and cultural influences on low back pain: what opportunities exist to address social factors in general consultations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Campbell, Paul; Nelson, Candace C; Main, Chris J; Linton, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    Social factors are widely acknowledged in behavioural models of pain and pain management, but incorporating these factors into general medical consultations for low back pain (LBP) can be challenging. While there is no compelling evidence that social factors contribute to LBP onset, these factors have been shown to influence functional limitation and disability, especially the effects of organisational support in the workplace, spousal support, family conflict and social disadvantage. A number of barriers exist to address such social factors in routine medical encounters for LBP, but there is emerging evidence that improving social and organisational support may be an effective strategy to reduce the negative lifestyle consequences of LBP. For clinicians to address these factors in LBP treatment requires a clearer psychosocial framework in assessment and screening, more individualised problem-solving efforts, more patient-centred interventions involving family, peers and workplace supports and a less biomechanical and diagnostic approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy model factors on regular mammography performance in life-transition aged women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Young Im

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed predictors of regular mammography performance in Korea. In addition, we determined factors affecting regular mammography performance in life-transition aged women by applying an attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy (ASE) model. Data were collected from women aged over 40 years residing in province J in Korea. The 178 enrolled subjects provided informed voluntary consent prior to completing a structural questionnaire. The overall regular mammography performance rate of the subjects was 41.6%. Older age, city residency, high income and part-time job were associated with a high regular mammography performance. Among women who had undergone more breast self-examinations (BSE) or more doctors' physical examinations (PE), there were higher regular mammography performance rates. All three ASE model factors were significantly associated with regular mammography performance. Women with a high level of positive ASE values had a significantly high regular mammography performance rate. Within the ASE model, self-efficacy and social influence were particularly important. Logistic regression analysis explained 34.7% of regular mammography performance and PE experience (β=4.645, p=.003), part- time job (β=4.010, p=.050), self-efficacy (β=1.820, p=.026) and social influence (β=1.509, p=.038) were significant factors. Promotional strategies that could improve self-efficacy, reinforce social influence and reduce geographical, time and financial barriers are needed to increase the regular mammography performance rate in life-transition aged.

  11. Analyzing determinants influencing an individual׳s intention to use social commerce website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Lal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of social media has changed the landscape of online commerce for both organizations as well as customers. Introduction of social commerce websites has bought shift in consumers׳ buying decision, i.e. from individual to social shopping. This study aims to identify factors that influence an individual׳s decision to use social commerce websites in an Indian Context. A conceptual model was developed based on extensive literature review. Wherein total six factors that influence an individual׳s intention to use social commerce were identified and were divided into three broad categories: social factors (informational support and community commitment, trust (towards members and community and website quality (ease of use and service quality. Research model was empirically examined using structural equation modeling. The findings of this study demonstrated positive relationship between all six factors and an individual׳s intention to use social commerce website. Additionally, study identified informational support as the most significant factor that influences an individual׳s intention to use social commerce website followed by trust towards members, service equality, trust towards community, ease of navigation, and community commitment.

  12. Influencers :The Role of Social Influence in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Christilene

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractSocial influence is the corner stone of consumer psychology. In fact, in the last decade of the 19th century the study of consumer psychology emerged from an interest in advertising and its influence on people. Traditionally research on social influence has focused on understanding how people respond to influence attempts and how social influence emerges. This dissertation challenges common methodological conventions used to study social influence in consumer behavior and, mor...

  13. Healthcare services consumer behavior in the light of social norms influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian GÂRDAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare services consumers’ behavior represents an multidimensional concept, that implies the cumulative effects of different factors. The process of consumption is very different and complex in the case of healthcare services due to the nature of the needs and consumption motivations on one hand and because of the complexity of the services itself on the other hand. Amongst the factors that are influencing the consumer’s behaviour, the social ones represent a particular type. In the case of healthcare services this is because the social interactions of the patients can contribute to their own perception regarding the post consumption satisfaction, or can influence the buying decision in the first place. The influence of social factors can be analysed on multiple layers – from the effect of the affiliation and adhesion groups to the effect of social norms and regulations.

  14. Social-ecological influences on interpersonal support in people with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Paul G; Bullock, Charles C; Gibb, Zebbedia G; Himler, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    People with physical disability report lower amounts of emotional and informational social support compared with other populations but it is unclear how influences at the broader societal level impact support in this population. To address this question, Berkman and Glass's social-ecological model was used to examine the influence of upstream factors on interpersonal support in people with physical disability. It was predicted that these factors would influence support even after controlling for the traditional measures linked to social support. 331 adult participants with physical disability (43% female; mean age = 42.7; 88% White) completed an online cross-sectional survey measuring types and sources of social support, social integration, disability impact in social domains, environmental barriers, and relevant psychosocial variables such as depression. A hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that level of disability, perceived tangible support, social integration, depressive symptoms, environmental barriers, occupational independence, and having family or friends as primary support sources were significantly associated with perceived support at the final step (R(2) = .60, F(22, 255) = 17.68, p disability than typical measures studied in the literature. Improving environmental factors will help improve social support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  16. The Influence of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Social Factors on Caregivers' Decisions on the Use of OTC Medications in Preschool Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ecklund, Connie

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to determine the extent that social factors, health beliefs, and attitudes influenced caregiver's decisions in home management with over-the-counter (OTC) medications...

  17. Disentangling social selection and social influence effects on adolescent smoking: the importance of reciprocity in friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; Willems, Paul; de Vries, Hein

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine social selection and social influence within reciprocal and non-reciprocal friendships, and the role of parents and siblings, as factors explaining similarity of smoking behaviour among adolescent friends. A new social selection-social influence model is proposed. Longitudinal design with two measurements. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control group of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study. The sample consisted of 1886 adolescents with a mean age of 12.7 years. The main outcome measures were the smoking behaviours of the respondents, best friends, parents and siblings. We tested the social selection-social influence model with structural equation modelling techniques. Social selection and social influence both played an important role in explaining similarity of smoking behaviour among friends. Within non-reciprocal friendships, only social selection explained similarity of smoking behaviour, whereas within reciprocal friendships, social influence and possibly also social selection explained similarity of smoking behaviour. Sibling smoking behaviour was a more important predictor of adolescent smoking behaviour than parental smoking behaviour. Social selection and social influence both promote similarity of smoking behaviour, and the impact of each process differs with the degree of reciprocity of friendships. These insights may contribute to further refinement of smoking prevention strategies.

  18. Analyzing Factors Influencing Teaching as a Career Choice Using Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhinath Padhy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze factors influencing students’ perceptions of teaching as a career choice using structural equation modeling with the goal of shaping a teacher education recruitment program. In this study, 458 students from a Midwestern university in the United States responded to an online survey about career-related factors they value, their expectation that teaching would offer those factors, and any social-influence factors that might encourage them to choose a teaching career. The effect of 10 exogenous motivation variables (value-environment, value-intrinsic, value-extrinsic, value-altruistic, expectancy-environment, expectancy-intrinsic, expectancy-extrinsic, social-media-education, social-prior-experience, and social-suggestions on choosing a teaching career was examined. Results of our analysis showed that the factors related to expectancy-environment, expectancy-intrinsic, social-media-education, social-prior-experience, and social-suggestions were found to be significant, whereas value-related factors and expectancy-extrinsic factors were found to be insignificant.

  19. The relative influence of demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors on physical activity among boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr-Anderson Daheia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the associations of selected demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA in a sample of children and adolescents. Methods MVPA was assessed among youth (n = 294 10-17-years-old using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Youth completed measures of demographic and individual variables related to physical activity (PA, perceived social support by parents and peers, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Parents completed the long-form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The Physical Activity and Media Inventory was used to measure the home environment and Geographical Information Systems software was used to measure the physical neighborhood environment. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression were conducted stratified by gender. Results Boys participated in significantly more MVPA than girls. In hierarchical analyses, peer support, home PA equipment, and temperature were significantly associated with MVPA among boys whereas distance to the school they attended was associated with MVPA among girls. The final models accounted for 25% and 15% of the variance in MVPA among boys and girls, respectively. Conclusions Important differences exist among the individual, social, and environmental factors related to MVPA between boys and girls. Boys' levels of activity appear to be influenced by factors closely linked to unstructured and social types of activities whereas girls' activities relate to internal and external barriers as well as their proximity to their schools. The prospective contribution of these important individual, social, and environmental factors to changes in MVPA among children and adolescents remains to be determined.

  20. Understanding the Factors That Influence the Adoption and Meaningful Use of Social Media by Physicians to Share Medical Information

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, Brian S; Wasko, Molly; Vartabedian, Bryan Steven; Miller, Robert S; Freiherr, Desirae D; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar

    2012-01-01

    Background Within the medical community there is persistent debate as to whether the information available through social media is trustworthy and valid, and whether physicians are ready to adopt these technologies and ultimately embrace them as a format for professional development and lifelong learning. Objective To identify how physicians are using social media to share and exchange medical information with other physicians, and to identify the factors that influence physicians’ use of soc...

  1. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  2. Factors Influencing And Alternative Policies Offered Of Social Conflicts Indigenous Peoples Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful Deni

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a review of the social conflicts of indigenous peoples especially in North Maluku. The purpose of this review is to find out some factors causing indigenous peoples social conflicts in North Maluku and to produce alternative solutions as a policy to develop indigenous peoples livelihoods. The review resulted in several factors causing social conflicts of indigenous peoples such as the unclear boundary between the two parties the customary violations by the forest businessmen the...

  3. Influence of social motivation, self-perception of social efficacy and normative adjustment in the peer setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera López, Mauricio; Romera Félix, Eva M; Ortega Ruiz, Rosario; Gómez Ortiz, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Social Achievement Goal Scale (Ryan & Shim, 2006) in Spanish adolescent students. The second objective sought to analyse the influence of social goals, normative adjustment and self-perception of social efficacy on social adjustment among peers. A total of 492 adolescents (54.1% females) attending secondary school (12-17 years; M = 13.8, SD = 1.16) participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were performed. The validation confirmed the three-factor structure of the original scale: social development goals, social demonstration-approach goals and social demonstration-avoidance goals. The structural equation model indicated that social development goals and normative adjustment have a direct bearing on social adjustment, whereas the social demonstration-approach goals (popularity) and self-perception of social efficacy with peers and teachers exert an indirect influence. The Spanish version of the Social Achievement Goal Scale (Ryan & Shim, 2006) yielded optimal psychometric properties. Having a positive motivational pattern, engaging in norm-adjusted behaviours and perceiving social efficacy with peers is essential to improving the quality of interpersonal relationships.

  4. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  5. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A

    2014-09-16

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India.

  6. Effect of social influence on effort-allocation for monetary rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Treadway, Michael T; Curran, Max T; Calderon, Vanessa; Evins, A Eden

    2015-01-01

    Though decades of research have shown that people are highly influenced by peers, few studies have directly assessed how the value of social conformity is weighed against other types of costs and benefits. Using an effort-based decision-making paradigm with a novel social influence manipulation, we measured how social influence affected individuals' decisions to allocate effort for monetary rewards during trials with either high or low probability of receiving a reward. We found that information about the effort-allocation of peers modulated participant choices, specifically during conditions of low probability of obtaining a reward. This suggests that peer influence affects effort-based choices to obtain rewards especially under conditions of risk. This study provides evidence that people value social conformity in addition to other costs and benefits when allocating effort, and suggests that neuroeconomic studies that assess trade-offs between effort and reward should consider social environment as a factor that can influence decision-making.

  7. Effect of social influence on effort-allocation for monetary rewards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M Gilman

    Full Text Available Though decades of research have shown that people are highly influenced by peers, few studies have directly assessed how the value of social conformity is weighed against other types of costs and benefits. Using an effort-based decision-making paradigm with a novel social influence manipulation, we measured how social influence affected individuals' decisions to allocate effort for monetary rewards during trials with either high or low probability of receiving a reward. We found that information about the effort-allocation of peers modulated participant choices, specifically during conditions of low probability of obtaining a reward. This suggests that peer influence affects effort-based choices to obtain rewards especially under conditions of risk. This study provides evidence that people value social conformity in addition to other costs and benefits when allocating effort, and suggests that neuroeconomic studies that assess trade-offs between effort and reward should consider social environment as a factor that can influence decision-making.

  8. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    level factors on birth spacing behaviour in Uganda and Zimbabwe, to ... environments as potential influences on birth spacing ..... health: multivariable cross-country analysis, MACRO ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  9. Tertiary Students ’ Entrepreneurship Learning Socialization : Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun- Mei Chou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines 728 tertiary students’ entrepreneurship learning socialization and its influencing factors to serve as a school reference for the development of internship and entrepreneurship education. The results show that students’ internship experience has a significant direct effect on entrepreneurship learning socialization, and entrepreneurship intention has a significant effect on entrepreneurship learning socialization through internship experience. The influence pattern and empirical data of entrepreneurship intention and internship experience on entrepreneurship learning socialization has a good fit. This paper gives an insight from Taiwan tertiary institutions about entrepreneurial learning socialization of students and contributions to them. We describe the development of the influencing factors, discuss its implications for entrepreneurship and internship education, and finally offer suggestions for further entrepreneurship education development.

  10. How social networks influence female students' choices to major in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinland, Kathryn Ann

    Scope and Method of Study: This study examined how social influence plays a part in female students' choices of college major, specifically engineering instead of science, technology, and math. Social influence may show itself through peers, family members, and teachers and may encompass resources under the umbrella of social capital. The purpose of this study was to examine how female students' social networks, through the lens of social capital, influence her major choice of whether or not to study engineering. The variables of peer influence, parental influence, teacher/counselor influence, perception of engineering, and academic background were addressed in a 52 question, Likert scale survey. This survey has been modified from an instrument previously used by Reyer (2007) at Bradley University. Data collection was completed using the Dillman (2009) tailored design model. Responses were grouped into four main scales of the dependent variables of social influence, encouragement, perceptions of engineering and career motivation. A factor analysis was completed on the four factors as a whole, and individual questions were not be analyzed. Findings and Conclusions: This study addressed the differences in social network support for female freshmen majoring in engineering versus female freshmen majoring in science, technology, or math. Social network support, when working together from all angles of peers, teachers, parents, and teachers/counselors, transforms itself into a new force that is more powerful than the summation of the individual parts. Math and science preparation also contributed to female freshmen choosing to major in engineering instead of choosing to major in science, technology, or math. The STEM pipeline is still weak and ways in which to reinforce it should be examined. Social network support is crucial for female freshmen who are majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  11. Social media influencer marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Isosuo, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The marketing field is changing simultaneously with the digital world. Social media is getting more and more important to marketers, and there is a need to stand out in the social media noise. Social media influencer marketing could be a good alternative to other types of marketing. A need from the consignor and the interest of the author were the motivations for conducting the study. Sääskilahti Consulting has a social media influencer network Somevaikuttajat, which is offering social media ...

  12. Social and personal normative influences on healthcare professionals to use information technology: Towards a more robust social ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Richard J

    2012-09-01

    Social structures and processes are increasingly acknowledged and studied within the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) discipline. At the same time, social phenomena are rarely the focus of HFE work, leaving a knowledge gap. The present study directly addresses social and personal normative forces that influence technology use and performance. Social and personal normative influence to use electronic health records (EHR) were investigated using semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 attending physicians at two US hospitals. Analyses used a comprehensive framework based on leading social scientific theories and revealed numerous sources of influence, including hospital administration, colleagues, patients, clinical and professional groups, government, and one's self. Influence was achieved through different means and invoked different psychological processes. Findings motivate a new view of professionals' technology use as a highly social process occurring in a social context, with implications for research, policy, design, and in general the development of a robust social ergonomics.

  13. Basic Social-Economic Factors Modelling Customer’s Psychological Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Krastev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some social and economic factors influencing on customer’s behaviour – such as social class, social-economic status,occupation, education, income, referent groups, family, gender roles and marketing. Some comparisons are made between some factorsinfluencing on customer’s behaviour in the U.S. and in Bulgaria.

  14. Social influence and student choice of higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Krezel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper discusses changes in higher education sector, growing competition as a result of new private education providers and the adoption of student-as-customer perspective in recruitment and marketing of higher education institutions. The paper reviews numerous models of student choice and identifies inconsistencies in the role of social factors in the student choice. These inconsistencies are of special importance in current higher education landscape and growing prominence of peer-to-peer communication via social media. Consequently, a thorough understanding of influences that effect student choice of higher education institution is imperative. This conceptual paper puts forward a conceptual framework that integrates Kelman’s processes of social influence and Cialdini-Goldstein’s goals that underpin the acceptance of that influence to examine the effects social context has on student choice of higher education institution.

  15. #IKKESPONSORERET - Social media influencers, deres følgere og troværdighed

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Siw Wahl; Peuker, Theresa Henriette; Pedersen, Julie Lingren; Hilstrøm, Sara Andrea; Snitgaard, Michelle Andersen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how social media influencers create and maintain credibility and influence with their followers. In addition, the study also investigates how followers make sense of the information they receive from the influencer, and which factors play a part in their sense-making. Social media influencers are people with a significant number of followers on various platforms such as Instagram, YouTube and blogs. Because of their large following, influencers are highly valuable to ...

  16. Situation-specific social norms as mediators of social influence on snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Papadakis, Thalia; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2018-02-01

    Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life. We applied ecological momentary assessment to study 61 individuals in the normal-obese weight range (M BMI = 24.97 kg/m²; SD = 4.07) over a 14-day monitoring period. We used a combination of event-based snacking reports and randomly timed assessments. The presence of others eating and momentary perceptions of injunctive norms (facets of perceived appropriateness and encouragement) were measured for both assessment types. Mediated, multilevel logistic regression showed that social cues predict snacking (OR = 3.06), and that momentary perceptions of appropriateness (a*b = 0.14) and encouragement (a*b = 0.18) partially mediated these effects. Perceptions of momentary norms mediated the effects of social influence on everyday snacking, which highlights the importance of the social environment for understanding eating behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Understanding the factors that influence the adoption and meaningful use of social media by physicians to share medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Brian S; Wasko, Molly; Vartabedian, Bryan Steven; Miller, Robert S; Freiherr, Desirae D; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar

    2012-09-24

    Within the medical community there is persistent debate as to whether the information available through social media is trustworthy and valid, and whether physicians are ready to adopt these technologies and ultimately embrace them as a format for professional development and lifelong learning. To identify how physicians are using social media to share and exchange medical information with other physicians, and to identify the factors that influence physicians' use of social media as a component of their lifelong learning and continuing professional development. We developed a survey instrument based on the Technology Acceptance Model, hypothesizing that technology usage is best predicted by a physician's attitudes toward the technology, perceptions about the technology's usefulness and ease of use, and individual factors such as personal innovativeness. The survey was distributed via email to a random sample of 1695 practicing oncologists and primary care physicians in the United States in March 2011. Responses from 485 physicians were analyzed (response rate 28.61%). Overall, 117 of 485 (24.1%) of respondents used social media daily or many times daily to scan or explore medical information, whereas 69 of 485 (14.2%) contributed new information via social media on a daily basis. On a weekly basis or more, 296 of 485 (61.0%) scanned and 223 of 485 (46.0%) contributed. In terms of attitudes toward the use of social media, 279 of 485 respondents (57.5%) perceived social media to be beneficial, engaging, and a good way to get current, high-quality information. In terms of usefulness, 281 of 485 (57.9%) of respondents stated that social media enabled them to care for patients more effectively, and 291 of 485 (60.0%) stated it improved the quality of patient care they delivered. The main factors influencing a physician's usage of social media to share medical knowledge with other physicians were perceived ease of use and usefulness. Respondents who had positive

  18. Social Influence for Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work marks the reveling of scientific premises intended to structure the issue of social influence for security. The approach has as aim the identification of those elements that define and characterize the social influence in order to manage conflict, from the perspective of public communication. The proposed approach establishes some synthetic, clear boundaries through the method of research and analysis of the concept of security, social influence, revealing the specifics of public communication in conflict management.

  19. Influenced but unaware: social influence on alcohol drinking among social acquaintances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Rebecca; Field, Matt; Jones, Andrew; Christiansen, Paul; Rose, Abi; Robinson, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Drinking partners may be influenced by each other's alcohol consumption. However, these effects have only been shown in artificially created social pairings and typically among same-sex young adults. Here, we test whether similarly strong influence effects occur among "real" pairs of social acquaintances (friends and partners) and whether people are aware of this influence on their alcohol consumption. Forty-six pairs of social acquaintances aged between 19 and 60 years old participated in a between-subjects experiment, in a semi-naturalistic bar laboratory setting. One member of each pair (the confederate) was randomly selected and asked to consume only alcoholic (alcohol condition) or soft drinks (nonalcohol condition), while the pair completed a game together in a bar setting. The other participant (naïve) was unaware of these drinking instructions. Postconsumption, we measured the extent to which naïve participants believed that their partner had influenced their own drinking behavior. A large effect of condition on alcohol consumption was observed, χ² (2) = 15.8, p < 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.59, whereby the number of alcoholic drinks selected by naïve participants in the alcohol confederate condition was significantly greater than in the nonalcohol confederate condition. The majority of naïve participants (81%) also tended to be unaware that their partner had influenced their alcohol consumption. Social acquaintances are influenced by each other's alcohol consumption and may not be aware of this influence on their behavior. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Siersma, Volkert

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between social-cognitive factors, school factors, and smoking initiation among adolescents who had never smoked. METHODS: The study was based on longitudinal data on Danish adolescents attending randomly selected public schools....... Adolescents enrolled in grade 7 (mean age, 13 years) who had never smoked (n = 912) were followed up for 6 months after baseline. Those who had still never smoked were followed up again 18 months after baseline, in grade 8 (n = 442). Social-cognitive factors were examined with five measures: self......-efficacy, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors at baseline and smoking initiation as well as the random effects of school, school class, and gender group...

  1. Influencers :The Role of Social Influence in Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Du Plessis (Christilene)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractSocial influence is the corner stone of consumer psychology. In fact, in the last decade of the 19th century the study of consumer psychology emerged from an interest in advertising and its influence on people. Traditionally research on social influence has focused on understanding

  2. Online Chat Dependency: The Influence of Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Chang, Shu-Chen

    Recent developments in information technology have made it easy for people to “chat” online with others in real time, and many do so regularly. “Virtual” relationships can be attractive, especially for people with social interaction problems in the “real world”. This study examines the influence on online chat dependency of three dimensions of social anxiety: general social situation fear, negative evaluation fear, and novel social situation fear. Participants of this study were 454 college students. The survey results show that negative evaluation fear and general social situation fear are relative to online chat dependency, while novel social situation fear does not seem to be a relevant factor.

  3. Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O

    2013-08-01

    The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Internal Factors within Entrepreneurs that Influence the Acceptance and Use of Social Commerce among SMEs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilahwati Binti Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current technological advances, particularly in information and communications technology (ICT and social media have sparked a phenomenon in the business world. The existence of social commerce (s-commerce, which is a combination of e-commerce and social media, has opened up greater opportunities for SMEs in Malaysia. The use of s-commerce as a medium for marketing and buying and selling is capable of helping SMEs to increase the sales and profitability of their businesses. However, according to studies conducted by SME Corp Malaysia, the usage of e-commerce and social media is still low. Attitude and self-efficacy are variables that are often used in studies related to entrepreneurs and their intention to accept a new business innovation or technology. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify the internal factors within entrepreneurs, namely attitude and self-efficacy, which influence the acceptance and use of s-commerce among SMEs in Malaysia.

  5. A review of research on the identification of factors influencing the social response to technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned; plans for technological development are being met by a variety of individual and group demands for a closer examination of the associated benefits and risks and a consideration of social values and concerns in the regulatory process. This has created conditions of conflict with some groups sponsoring proposals intended to fulfill perceived social needs while other groups, with different perceptions of society's needs, work actively in opposition. Only in recent years, as the rate of technological innovation has increased, has significant attention been given to the rapid rate of social and cultural change and the associated risks which have emerged. The degree to which an individual responds to these changes is related to his perception of their importance in his life; likewise, the repsonse to risk situations, on the individual and societal level, is based upon how the risks are perceived. The social response to the introduction of nuclear power provides an interesting case in point: here several studies have indicated that nuclear power plants might be considered ''safe''; however, nuclear power is nevertheless being opposed in many countries by those who perceive it as an unacceptable source of risk. This paper reviews research oriented toward understanding the response to technological risks through identification of the specific technical, social and psychological factors which influence their perception. Several such factors have been identified which relate to the risk object, the individual at risk, and the risk situation in which the individual encounters this object. Nuclear power was found to be characterised by more of the factors tending to increase risk perception than was any other technology. It is hypothesized that, in part due to its high ''risk visibility'' and an unconscious psychological coupling with the death imagery of nuclear weapons, nuclear energy

  6. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  7. "Implementation and Social Influence"

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi Matsushima

    2008-01-01

    This paper incorporates social psychology into implementation theory. Real individuals care not only about their material benefits but also about their social influence in terms of obedience and conformity. Using a continuous time horizon, we demonstrate a method of manipulating the decision-making process, according to which, an uninformed principal utilizes her/his power of social influence to incentivize multiple informed agents to make honest announcements. Following this method, we show ...

  8. Socializing the human factors analysis and classification system: incorporating social psychological phenomena into a human factors error classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletz, Susannah B F; Bearman, Christopher; Orasanu, Judith; Holbrook, Jon

    2009-08-01

    The presence of social psychological pressures on pilot decision making was assessed using qualitative analyses of critical incident interviews. Social psychological phenomena have long been known to influence attitudes and behavior but have not been highlighted in accident investigation models. Using a critical incident method, 28 pilots who flew in Alaska were interviewed. The participants were asked to describe a situation involving weather when they were pilot in command and found their skills challenged. They were asked to describe the incident in detail but were not explicitly asked to identify social pressures. Pressures were extracted from transcripts in a bottom-up manner and then clustered into themes. Of the 28 pilots, 16 described social psychological pressures on their decision making, specifically, informational social influence, the foot-in-the-door persuasion technique, normalization of deviance, and impression management and self-consistency motives. We believe accident and incident investigations can benefit from explicit inclusion of common social psychological pressures. We recommend specific ways of incorporating these pressures into theHuman Factors Analysis and Classification System.

  9. Iranian nurses self-perception -- factors influencing nursing image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaei, Shokoh; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perspectives of Iranian nurses regarding factors influencing nursing image. Nursing image is closely tied to the nurse's role and identity, influencing clinical performance, job satisfaction and quality of care. Images of nursing and nurses are closely linked to the cultural context in which nursing is practised, hence, this study explores how Iranian nurses perceive the factors that influence their own image. A descriptive study using a survey design was conducted with 220 baccalaureate qualified nurses working in four teaching hospitals in an urban area of Iran. A Nursing Image Questionnaire was used and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. In the domains of 'characteristics required for entry to work', 'social role characteristics of nursing' and 'prestige, economic and social status, and self image' the nurses had negative images. 'Reward' and 'opportunity for creativity and originality' were factors that least influenced choosing nursing as a career. The presence of a nurse in the family and working in the hospital had the greatest impact on the establishment of nurses' nursing image. Improving the nursing profession's prestige and social position as well as providing the opportunity for creativity and originality in nursing practice will change the self-image of Iranian nurses, facilitating effective and lasting changes in nursing's image. Nurse managers are well-placed to influence nurses' perceptions of nursing's image. Given the finding that thinking about leaving a job positively correlates with holding a negative nursing image, nurse managers need to consider how they can work effectively with their staff to enhance morale and nurses' experience of their job. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the unbanked population. ... Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... the influences of the adoption behaviour at different level of market maturity and points of time.

  11. [Therapeutic education of total laryngectomy patients: Influence of social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisard, V; Galtier, A; Baumann, L; Delpierre, C; Puech, M; Balaguer, M

    Current health policies promote patient education, parti­cu­lar­ly in oncology. Therapeutic education program must be tailo­red to the characteristics, needs and expectations of the population. In the ENT Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Larrey Hospital in Toulouse, a therapeutic education program for patient with total laryngectomy has been experienced since 2011. But its propagation remains difficult. The aim of this study is to determine if social factors are nfluencing the parti­cipation of the laryngectomized population in the program. The brochure explaining this program and a registration form coupled with a survey questionnaire were distributed to the regio­nal population of patient with total laryngectomy. After two months of investigation we collected 42 responses. It is clear from their analysis that social factors underlie partici­pa­tion, particularly educational level, available financial resources level and the socio-professional group.

  12. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  13. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  14. The influencing factors on place attachment in neighborhood of Kampung Melayu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, W. M.; Sumabrata, J.

    2018-03-01

    Place attachment on neighborhood differs according to place characteristics and person characteristics. By dividing the research area of Kelurahan Kampung Melayu into flood area and non-flood area, this research aims at analyzing place attachment on neighborhood and analyzing factors influencing the place attachment. This research using quantitative approach using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Self-administered questionnaires using likert scale were distributed randomly to 400 residents. Result of the research shows that residents tend to have place attachment to their neighborhood. Factors influencing place attachment on residents born in the neighborhood with length of stay 10 years or longer and having house are family factor for residents living in non-flood area and physical factor as well as social factor for residents in flood area. This research concludes that place attachment on neighborhood is formed because dimension of place is interpreted not merely physically but also socially, namely the existence of family ties and social relationship with people in the neighborhood.

  15. Gossip Consensus Algorithm Based on Time-Varying Influence Factors and Weakly Connected Graph for Opinion Evolution in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a new gossip algorithm to investigate the problem of opinion consensus with the time-varying influence factors and weakly connected graph among multiple agents. What is more, we discuss not only the effect of the time-varying factors and the randomized topological structure but also the spread of misinformation and communication constrains described by probabilistic quantized communication in the social network. Under the underlying weakly connected graph, we first denote that all opinion states converge to a stochastic consensus almost surely; that is, our algorithm indeed achieves the consensus with probability one. Furthermore, our results show that the mean of all the opinion states converges to the average of the initial states when time-varying influence factors satisfy some conditions. Finally, we give a result about the square mean error between the dynamic opinion states and the benchmark without quantized communication.

  16. Social influence on risk perception during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Lisa J; Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-05-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Interaction between social influence and payoff transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Xie, Wenwen; Ye, Maolin

    2014-02-01

    Social influence and payoff transparency interact with each other to influence decision making. Social influence masks payoff transparency, and lacking transparency drives people to seek social influence. Moreover, our survey supports our claim by showing that social influence and payoff transparency correlate with each other (r(53) = -.71). Bentley et al.'s model can be revised to accommodate the covariance.

  18. Identifying the social capital influencing diabetes control in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Yohei; Suematsu, Mina; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Kentaro; Yasui, Hiroki; Hida, Takeshi; Uemura, Kazumasa; Murotani, Kenta; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes is increasing in Japan. Recently, Social capital (SC) has received increasing attention as a factor influencing health conditions. In the US, the relation between SC and diabetes control has been reported, but little attention has been paid to this connection in Japan. Three SC questionnaires, entitled “trust in people in a community,” “social support,” and “social relationships,” were constructed. The subjects were adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Inf...

  19. Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Dumitrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

  20. Medical and social factors influencing reproduction in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulović Vojin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present results of researches whose aim was to determine the factors that may substantially influence population reproduction in the Republic of Serbia, taking into consideration all specific factors, like cultural background, economic situation, health education, health service organization, religious and historical factors, etc. The research was based on the population census from 1981. Seventeen regions of the inner part of the Republic of Serbia, Vojvodina and Kosovo were included in this research. Stratification was made according to the place of living (village, town age, occupation (farmer, housewife, non and half-qualified, qualified and highly qualified workers and education (without education, with unfinished or finished primary school, with secondary school, with college or university degree. In this way 2,141 women were questioned with 101 questions by the method of interview. Interviews were conducted exclusively by doctors - gynaecologists. We determined the frequency of the use of contraceptives, intentional abortions, spontaneous abortions, pre-term deliveries, marriage infertility and term deliveries. Thus, 57.4% of women had basic knowledge of contraception, but only 15.9% of them used it; 58.9% of women had intentional abortions; 16.2% of women had spontaneous abortions, 5.1% of them had pre-term deliveries, and 67% of women had term deliveries. Marriage infertility was found in 8.6% of women. When evaluating population health and behavior, we obtained some information and data concerning addicted diseases (alcohol, smoking, drugs, tranquilizers homosexuality and ways of sexual intercourse. It was concluded that enormous differences existed among certain regions in the Republic of Serbia, which were conditioned by the diversity of the above mentioned influences. Proposals for the measures to be undertaken in the Republic of Serbia in order to regulate population policy, are given.

  1. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-01-01

    The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...

  2. Teachers and Social Learning as a Factor of Modern Educational Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raicevic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational process is becoming increasingly complex, subject of the influence of many intrapersonal and interpersonal factors. Conceptual basis of this work is Bandura social learning theory, which stresses the importance of the so-called, social learning, or learning by model, positioned in the educational context. The aim is to present the results of modern studies that dealt with the personality of a teacher from a model of student behavior and social learning, which mediates in the process of modeling the student behavior, as well as the performance factors of the modern educational process. The general conclusion is that the teachers' personality through a process of social learning has important influence on students' behavior and efficiency of the educational process and that the various development and educational programs aimed at the teachers' empowerment and encouraging the operation of positive social impact, can significantly contribute to the quality and improvement of the effects of the educational efforts on the school and preschool age.

  3. Students' Dependence on Smart Phones: The Influence of Social Needs, Social Influences and Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Norazah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether social needs, social influences and convenience of smart phones affects students' dependence on them. This research also examines whether students' dependence on smart phones influences their purchase behaviour. This investigation is conducted among the students in a public university in the…

  4. Socially related fears following exposure to trauma: environmental and genetic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Taylor, Steven; Jang, Kerry L

    2009-03-01

    Few studies have examined why socially related fears and posttraumatic stress commonly, but not invariably, co-occur. It may be that only traumata of human agency (e.g., sexual assault), for which there is an interpersonal component, give rise to co-occurring socially related fears. These symptoms might also co-occur because of shared genetic factors. We investigated these issues using a sample of 882 monozygotic and dizygotic twins. No significant differences in socially related fear (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, fear of socially observable arousal symptoms) were found between participants reporting assaultive or nonassaultive trauma. However, significant differences in socially related fear were found when participants were grouped into probable PTSD and no PTSD groups. Participants with probable PTSD exhibited greater socially related fear (i.e., fear of negative evaluation) than those without PTSD. Using biometric structural equation modeling, trauma exposure was best explained by shared and nonshared environmental influences. The fear of socially observable arousal symptoms was influenced by genetic and nonshared environmental influences. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people.

  6. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people. PMID:26599437

  7. HOW SOCIAL STABILITY INFLUENCES THE LEVEL OF SOCIAL TRUST IN YOUNG UKRAINIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shyriaeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the current events in Ukraine it appears logical to consider the concept of trust. It has always been and still functions as a cement of human cooperation. Influencing various aspects of interpersonal relations, including interpersonal, intergroup, and individual ones, it illustrates the state of the political, economic and professional ability to maintain social connections. Trust makes the basis for problem solving and is characterized with constructive correlation. Thus, it is seen as the factor of transformation of the state’s social status on its way to become democratic and transparent. Without exaggeration, it is trust that forms the ground for the majority of social processes.

  8. Social Media and eBusiness: Cultural Impacts on the Influence Process in Consumer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Social media has been used as an important tool by firms to influence consumers’ attitude and behavior. Influence occurs in consumer communities in social media because community members have the control of discovering, producing, sharing, and distributing information and because the spread out of their experiences and opinions in the format of electronic word-of-mouth forms emerging conformance. Prior research has explored how the influence occurring in online social media communities impacts consumers’ attitude and behavior (e.g., product attitude and purchase decision, effectual thinking and behavior, brand trust and brand loyalty). But because social media has the ability of global reach, cross-border factors should not be neglected in studying the influence process. As such, this paper adopts national cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede (1984), individualism/collectivism and power distance particularly, the index of cultural distance, and the social influence theory to explore how culture impacts the influence occurring in consumer communities in social media.

  9. Do social factors matter for innovation, and do they influence innovation in Aeronautics Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Yazan, Abdurrahman Mete

    2013-01-01

    Based on the report for the course on “Social Factors of Innovation” of the PhD Program on Technology Assessment, supervised by Prof. António Brandão Moniz, Monte de Caparica, University NOVA Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, July 2013 As innovation plays an important role in economic growth and development, it is necessary to understand the factors, especially the social factors, which determine the differences in innovation intensity across countries and regions. However, sinc...

  10. Awareness of social influence on food intake. An analysis of two experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Field, Matt

    2015-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that the amount of food we consume can be influenced by the eating behaviour of other people. Some previous experimental studies reported that consumers are unaware of this influence on their behaviour. The present research tested whether people may be more aware of social influence on their eating than previously assumed. In two studies, participants (total n = 160) were exposed to information about the amount of snack food other people had been eating shortly before being served the same snack food and eating as much as they liked. After this, participants responded to questions regarding whether they thought their food intake had been socially influenced, and reported the reasons why they believed they had or had not been influenced. Of the 160 participants, 34% reported that they had been influenced, 10% were unsure and 56% reported they had not been influenced. Crucially, participants' reports of social influence appeared to be accurate; the food intake of participants reporting social influence was significantly affected by the amount of food other people had been eating, whereas the food intake of participants denying social influence was unaffected. Individuals may be more aware of the effect that social influence has on their eating behaviour than previously assumed. Further work is needed to identify the factors which determine whether people are susceptible to social influence on eating behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social influence protects collective decision making from equality bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Romand-Monnier, Margaux; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-02-01

    A basic tenet of research on wisdom of the crowds-and key assumption of Condercet's (1785) Jury Theorem-is the independence of voters' opinions before votes are aggregated. However, we often look for others' opinions before casting our vote. Such social influence can push groups toward herding, leading to "madness of the crowds." To investigate the role of social influence in joint decision making, in Experiment 1 we had dyads of participants perform a visual oddball search task together. In the Independent (IND) condition participants initially made a private decision. If they disagreed, discussion and collective decision ensued. In the Influence (INF) condition no private decisions were made and collective decision was immediately negotiated. Dyads that did not accrue collective benefit under the IND condition improved with added social influence under the INF condition. In Experiment 2, covertly, we added noise to 1 of the dyad members' visual search display. The resulting increased heterogeneity in dyad members' performances impaired the dyadic performance under the IND condition (Bahrami et al., 2010). Importantly, dyadic performance improved with social influence under the INF condition, replicating results in Experiment 1. Further analyses revealed that under the IND condition, dyads exercised equality bias (Mahmoodi et al., 2015) by granting undue credit to the less-reliable partner. Under the INF condition, however, the more-reliable partner (correctly) dominated the joint decisions. Although social influence may impede collective success under ideal conditions, our results demonstrate how it can help the group members overcome factors such as equality bias, which could potentially lead to catastrophic failure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Emotional valence and context of social influences on drug abuse-related behavior in animal models of social stress and prosocial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisewander, J L; Peartree, N A; Pentkowski, N S

    2012-11-01

    Social factors are important determinants of drug dependence and relapse. We reviewed pre-clinical literature examining the role of social experiences from early life through the development of drug dependence and relapse, emphasizing two aspects of these experiences: (1) whether the social interaction is appetitive or aversive and (2) whether the social interaction occurs within or outside of the drug-taking context. The models reviewed include neonatal care, isolation, social defeat, chronic subordination, and prosocial interactions. We review results from these models in regard to effects on self-administration and conditioned place preference established with alcohol, psychostimulants, and opiates. We suggest that in general, when the interactions occur outside of the drug-taking context, prosocial interactions are protective against drug abuse-related behaviors, whereas social stressors facilitate these behaviors. By contrast, positive or negative social interactions occurring within the drug-taking context may interact with other risk factors to enhance or inhibit these behaviors. Despite differences in the nature and complexity of human social behavior compared to other species, the evolving animal literature provides useful models for understanding social influences on drug abuse-related behavior that will allow for research on the behavioral and biological mechanisms involved. The models have contributed to understanding social influences on initiation and maintenance of drug use, but more research is needed to understand social influences on drug relapse.

  13. Micro and Small Entrepreneur Social Ads: The Influence of Risk Perception as Measured by Self-Monitoring and Social Expectation on Poverty Reduction Social Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Zakaria Afiff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the growing usage of social ads in Indonesia, the effectiveness of these social ads has not really been assessed. One theme of the social ads that is related to the poverty problem in this country is the micro and small entrepreneur social ads, namely a number of related social ads issued by the government that persuades its audience to release themselves from poverty by becoming micro and small entrepreneurs that is supported by low cost loans from the government.As becoming a micro or small entrepreneur has both an individual and a social risk perception, a 2x2x2 experiment was conducted using self-monitoring to represent the individual risk perception, social expectation to represent the social risk perception and message framing; to see how these 3 factors affect the target audience attitude toward the message of becoming a micro and small entrepreneur. The result of the study shows that self-monitoring, the individual risk perception, has the strongest influence over the audience’s attitude, in which the higher the self-monitoring characteristic of the audience the more positive the attitude formed toward the message. Social expectation and message framing does not show any direct significant influence, however the interaction of the 2 factors show significant influence toward the attitude the message.

  14. DEPENDENCE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CRITICAL QUALITY FACTORS AND SOCIAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvarez García

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the empirical study conducted in 186 tourist accommodation businesses in Spain certified under the “Q for Tourist Quality”, own System Quality Management. It was raised with the purpose of analyzing the structure of the relationship between critical quality factors and results-social impact, how they operate and the level of their influence on obtaining these results within the company. Starting from a deep theoretical revision we propose a theoretical model together with the hypotheses to be tested, and we proceed to validation using the technique of Structural Equation Models. The results obtained show that companies wishing to improve their social impact should take into account that leadership is the most important factor to achieve it. Leadership indirectly affects the social impact through its influence on alliances and resources, quality policy/planning, personnel management and learning.

  15. The importance of psychological and social factors in influencing the uptake and maintenance of physical activity after stroke: a structured review of the empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqui; Oliver, Tracey; Kroll, Thilo; Macgillivray, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background. People with stroke are not maintaining adequate engagement in physical activity (PA) for health and functional benefit. This paper sought to describe any psychological and social factors that may influence physical activity engagement after stroke. Methods. A structured literature review of studies indexed in MEDLINE, CinAHL, P&BSC, and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to stroke, physical disabilities, and PA. Publications reporting empirical findings (quantitative or qualitative) regarding psychological and/or social factors were included. Results. Twenty studies from 19 publications (9 surveys, 1 RCT, and 10 qualitative studies) were included. Seventeen studies reported findings pertinent to psychological factors and fourteen findings pertinent to social factors. Conclusion. Self-efficacy, physical activity beliefs, and social support appear particularly relevant to physical activity behaviour after stroke and should be included in theoretically based physical interventions. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour are candidate behavioural models that may support intervention development.

  16. Social-Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bronwyn E; Luthar, Suniya S

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social-emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social-emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students' learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social-emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed.

  17. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  18. Analyzing Social Influence through Social Media: A Structured Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, R.; Helms, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of social media enables billions of people to share their content and in doing so they influence others and are being influenced themselves. This virtual environment provides a new perspective for the current social influence theories. In this study, the state-of-the-art literature on

  19. Dengue vector dynamics (Aedes aegypti influenced by climate and social factors in Ecuador: implications for targeted control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Stewart Ibarra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is now the fastest spreading tropical disease globally. Previous studies indicate that climate and human behavior interact to influence dengue virus and vector (Aedes aegypti population dynamics; however, the relative effects of these variables depends on local ecology and social context. We investigated the roles of climate and socio-ecological factors on Ae. aegypti population dynamics in Machala, a city in southern coastal Ecuador where dengue is hyper-endemic. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied two proximate urban localities where we monitored weekly Ae. aegypti oviposition activity (Nov. 2010-June 2011, conducted seasonal pupal surveys, and surveyed household to identify dengue risk factors. The results of this study provide evidence that Ae. aegypti population dynamics are influenced by social risk factors that vary by season and lagged climate variables that vary by locality. Best-fit models to predict the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae included parameters for household water storage practices, access to piped water, the number of households per property, condition of the house and patio, and knowledge and perceptions of dengue. Rainfall and minimum temperature were significant predictors of oviposition activity, although the effect of rainfall varied by locality due to differences in types of water storage containers. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the potential to reduce the burden of dengue in this region by conducting focused vector control interventions that target high-risk households and containers in each season and by developing predictive models using climate and non-climate information. These findings provide the region's public health sector with key information for conducting time and location-specific vector control campaigns, and highlight the importance of local socio-ecological studies to understand dengue dynamics. See Text S1 for an executive summary in

  20. Social recipes for appetite. Peer influence on young people's food choice and intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the growing obesity epidemic, it is important to investigate social factors that influence people’s eating behavior. People are believed to adjust their consumption behavior to social benchmarks in situations without pre- existing guidelines and/or when they have social motives to conform

  1. Factors that influence attitudes and sexual behavior among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey was carried out to assess attitudes and behaviour among youth within four constituencies in Oshana region, Namibia and to understand to how certain social and cultural factors inform attitudes and influence sexual behaviour among the population of young people surveyed. Using a structured questionnaire, ...

  2. The differential impact of scientific quality, bibliometric factors, and social media activity on the influence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Gómez-Garcia, Francisco; Alcalde Mellado, Patricia; Gay-Mimbrera, Jesus; Carmona-Fernandez, Pedro J; Maestre-López, Beatriz; Sanz-Cabanillas, Juan Luís; Hernández Romero, José Luís; González-Padilla, Marcelino; Vélez García-Nieto, Antonio; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using on line social networks to promote their work. Some authors have suggested that measuring social media activity can predict the impact of a primary study (i.e., whether or not an article will be highly cited). However, the influence of variables such as scientific quality, research disclosures, and journal characteristics on systematic reviews and meta-analyses has not yet been assessed. The present study aims to describe the effect of complex interactions between bibliometric factors and social media activity on the impact of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016053181). Methodological quality was assessed using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Altmetrics, which consider Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ mention counts as well as Mendeley and SCOPUS readers, and corresponding article citation counts from Google Scholar were obtained for each article. Metadata and journal-related bibliometric indices were also obtained. One-hundred and sixty-four reviews with available altmetrics information were included in the final multifactorial analysis, which showed that social media and impact factor have less effect than Mendeley and SCOPUS readers on the number of cites that appear in Google Scholar. Although a journal's impact factor predicted the number of tweets (OR, 1.202; 95% CI, 1.087-1.049), the years of publication and the number of Mendeley readers predicted the number of citations in Google Scholar (OR, 1.033; 95% CI, 1.018-1.329). Finally, methodological quality was related neither with bibliometric influence nor social media activity for systematic reviews. In conclusion, there seems to be a lack of connectivity between scientific quality, social media activity, and article usage, thus predicting scientific success based on these variables may be inappropriate in the particular case of systematic reviews.

  3. The differential impact of scientific quality, bibliometric factors, and social media activity on the influence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Garcia, Francisco; Alcalde Mellado, Patricia; Gay-Mimbrera, Jesus; Carmona-Fernandez, Pedro J.; Maestre-López, Beatriz; Sanz-Cabanillas, Juan Luís; Hernández Romero, José Luís; González-Padilla, Marcelino; Vélez García-Nieto, Antonio; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using on line social networks to promote their work. Some authors have suggested that measuring social media activity can predict the impact of a primary study (i.e., whether or not an article will be highly cited). However, the influence of variables such as scientific quality, research disclosures, and journal characteristics on systematic reviews and meta-analyses has not yet been assessed. The present study aims to describe the effect of complex interactions between bibliometric factors and social media activity on the impact of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016053181). Methodological quality was assessed using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Altmetrics, which consider Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ mention counts as well as Mendeley and SCOPUS readers, and corresponding article citation counts from Google Scholar were obtained for each article. Metadata and journal-related bibliometric indices were also obtained. One-hundred and sixty-four reviews with available altmetrics information were included in the final multifactorial analysis, which showed that social media and impact factor have less effect than Mendeley and SCOPUS readers on the number of cites that appear in Google Scholar. Although a journal’s impact factor predicted the number of tweets (OR, 1.202; 95% CI, 1.087–1.049), the years of publication and the number of Mendeley readers predicted the number of citations in Google Scholar (OR, 1.033; 95% CI, 1.018–1.329). Finally, methodological quality was related neither with bibliometric influence nor social media activity for systematic reviews. In conclusion, there seems to be a lack of connectivity between scientific quality, social media activity, and article usage, thus predicting scientific success based on these variables may be inappropriate in the particular case of systematic reviews. PMID:29377889

  4. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schöbel

    Full Text Available People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  5. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

  6. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  7. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  8. Identifying the Factors Influence Turkish Deposit Banks to Join Corporate Social Responsibility Activities by Using Panel Probit Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yuksel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influencing factors of the banks to join corporate social responsibility activities. Within this scope, annual data of 23 deposit banks in Turkey for the periods between 2005 and 2015 was taken into the consideration. In addition to this situation, panel probit model was used in the analysis so as to achieve this objective. According to the results of the analysis, it was determined that there is a negative relationship between CSR activities and nonperforming loans ratio. This situation shows that banks do not prefer to make social responsibility activities in case of higher financial losses. In addition to this situation, it was also identified that there is a positive relationship between return on asset and corporate social responsibility activities of the banks. In other words, it can be understood that Turkish deposit banks, which have higher profitability, joint more CSR activities in comparison with others.

  9. The Influence of Social Network on Consumer Purchase Intention of Young Generation in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Korompis, Prycilia Novita

    2014-01-01

    Social network now is very prevalent in the society. Today, many small enterprises sell and promote their product through social network and also many people are likely to make an online purchase especially for young generation. Social network is play a vital role in increasing someone intention to buy a product. This research is designed because there are some factor in social network that influence someone purchase intention. The original purpose of this research is to know the influence of...

  10. Neural mechanisms of social influence in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welborn, B Locke; Lieberman, Matthew D; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J; Galván, Adriana; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-01-01

    During the transformative period of adolescence, social influence plays a prominent role in shaping young people's emerging social identities, and can impact their propensity to engage in prosocial or risky behaviors. In this study, we examine the neural correlates of social influence from both parents and peers, two important sources of influence. Nineteen adolescents (age 16-18 years) completed a social influence task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Social influence from both sources evoked activity in brain regions implicated in mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex, left temporoparietal junction, right temporoparietal junction), reward (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), and self-control (right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). These results suggest that mental state reasoning, social reward and self-control processes may help adolescents to evaluate others' perspectives and overcome the prepotent force of their own antecedent attitudes to shift their attitudes toward those of others. Findings suggest common neural networks involved in social influence from both parents and peers. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Social dimension and complexity differentially influence brain responses during feedback processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Gittenberger, Marianne; Lamm, Claus

    2017-10-30

    Recent research emphasizes the importance of social factors during performance monitoring. Thus, the current study investigated the impact of social stimuli -such as communicative gestures- on feedback processing. Moreover, it addressed a shortcoming of previous studies, which failed to consider stimulus complexity as potential confounding factor. Twenty-four volunteers performed a time estimation task while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Either social complex, social non-complex, non-social complex, or non-social non-complex stimuli were used to provide performance feedback. No effects of social dimension or complexity were found for task performance. In contrast, Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes were sensitive to both factors, with larger FRN and P300 amplitudes after social compared to non-social stimuli, and larger FRN amplitudes after complex positive than non-complex positive stimuli. P2 amplitudes were solely sensitive to feedback valence and social dimension. Subjectively, social complex stimuli were rated as more motivating than non-social complex ones. Independently of each other, social dimension and visual complexity influenced amplitude variation during performance monitoring. Social stimuli seem to be perceived as more salient, which is corroborated by P2, FRN and P300 results, as well as by subjective ratings. This could be explained due to their given relevance during every day social interactions.

  12. Factors Influencing Consumers Intention for Online Grocery Shopping - A Proposed Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, SFF; Thoo, AC; Tan, LC; Muharam, FM; Talib, NA

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, Internet is one of the most popular platforms for people to do online shopping including grocery items. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the determinants of customer intentions for online grocery shopping. Till now, there is no consensus on what are the factors that actually influencing people to shop grocery items through Internet. This paper aims to explore the factors such as social influences, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivations, perceived risk and perceived trust that influence the consumer intention to purchase grocery online. Questionnaires will be the main instrument of the study and they will be distributed to target respondents using Internet survey. Respondents of the study will be selected using convenience sampling. After data collection, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be employed for data analysis. Overall, the result of the study is important to retailers to identify the important factors in increasing their customers’ intention to purchase grocery online.

  13. A Study of Factors Influencing International Students' Choice of Higher Education Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Akadu, Victor Abia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the factors that influence international students’ choice of higher education institutions. The research conducted using the international students in the University of Nottingham (Malaysia Campus) and Monash University (Malaysia Campus) and survey questionnaires were mainly used to gather primary data for the purpose of this study. Findings from this research indicated that product and university based factors, cost factors, promotion, location and social influences all ...

  14. Changing Attitudes Through Social Influence: Does Social Distance Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Amanda L; Bryan, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    To test the effects of social influence and social distance on attitudes, we assessed judgments of gay and lesbian targets in various contexts over three studies (n = 814, 51% female). We compared the impact of a derogatory message to a relatively favorable message ostensibly written by another participant. Participants were robustly moved by the feedback; social influence was a significant predictor in final evaluations of the target, as was social distance. Discrimination against gay men and lesbian women appears not to be a fixed behavior; seemingly anyone can be persuaded to discriminate or not to discriminate by mere peer suggestion.

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    S ARMAN; M SOLTANI

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...

  16. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eFalk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both, which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

  17. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Way, Baldwin M; Jasinska, Agnes J

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

  18. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  19. SOCIAL INFLUENCE AND DEPENDENCE IN THE FACEBOOK USE BY ROMANIAN AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentas Lamanauskas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The time spent on Facebook by university students is continuously increasing. This fact is raising many questions as regards the relation between the social networking websites and the university. The educators are challenged to understand the factors that are driving the adoption of social networking websites, the characteristics of the daily use as well as the positive and negative effects on the university work. The social influence has been recognized as one of the factors that are driving the adoption of information systems. On another hand, the excessive use may lead to addiction. The first objective of this research is to explore the correlation between the social influence and the Facebook dependence. A model with these latent variables has been specified and tested on two samples of university students, the first from Romania and the second from Lithuania. The second objective of the research is to comparatively discuss the measures in each country. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis has been carried on to test the configural and metric invariance. The comparison of means shows that university students reporting higher social influence have a higher risk of Facebook dependence. The comparative analysis revealed that for both variables, the mean values are higher for the Romanian sample.

  20. Social influence bias: a randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchnik, Lev; Aral, Sinan; Taylor, Sean J

    2013-08-09

    Our society is increasingly relying on the digitized, aggregated opinions of others to make decisions. We therefore designed and analyzed a large-scale randomized experiment on a social news aggregation Web site to investigate whether knowledge of such aggregates distorts decision-making. Prior ratings created significant bias in individual rating behavior, and positive and negative social influences created asymmetric herding effects. Whereas negative social influence inspired users to correct manipulated ratings, positive social influence increased the likelihood of positive ratings by 32% and created accumulating positive herding that increased final ratings by 25% on average. This positive herding was topic-dependent and affected by whether individuals were viewing the opinions of friends or enemies. A mixture of changing opinion and greater turnout under both manipulations together with a natural tendency to up-vote on the site combined to create the herding effects. Such findings will help interpret collective judgment accurately and avoid social influence bias in collective intelligence in the future.

  1. Factors Which Influence The Fish Purchasing Decision: A study on Traditional Market in Riau Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswati, Latifa; Putri, Asgami

    2018-05-01

    The purposes of the research are to analyze and assess the factors which influence fish purchasing by the community at Tenayan Raya district Pekanbaru.Research methodology which used is survey method, especially interview and observation technique or direct supervision on the market which located at Tenayan Raya district. Determination technique of sampling location/region is done by purposive sampling. The sampling method is done by accidental sampling. Technique analysis of factors which used using the data that derived from the respondent opinion to various fish variable. The result of this research are the factors which influence fish purchasing decision done in a traditional market which located at Tenayan Raya district are product factor, price factors, social factor and individual factor. Product factor which influences fish purchasing decision as follows: the eyelets condition, the nutrition of fresh fish, the diversity of sold fish. Price factors influence the fish purchasing decision, such as: the price of fresh fish, the convincing price and the suitability price and benefits of the fresh fish. Individual factors which influence a fish purchasing decision, such as education and income levels. Social factors which influence a fish purchasing decision, such as family, colleagues and feeding habits of fish.

  2. Biological, environmental, and social influences on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M Karen

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased globally over the past three decades, with evidence of recent leveling off in developed countries. Reduction in the, currently high, prevalence of obesity will require a full understanding of the biological and social pathways to obesity in order to develop appropriately targeted prevention strategies in early life. Determinants of childhood obesity include individual level factors, including biological, social, and behavioral risks, acting within the influence of the child's family environment, which is, in turn, imbedded in the context of the community environment. These influences act across childhood, with suggestions of early critical periods of biological and behavioral plasticity. There is evidence of sex and gender differences in the responses of boys and girls to their environments. The evidence that determinants of childhood obesity act at many levels and at different stages of childhood is of policy relevance to those planning early health promotion and primary prevention programs as it suggests the need to address the individual, the family, the physical environment, the social environment, and social policy. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize current, and emerging, literature in a multilevel, life course framework.

  3. INFLUENCE OF COMPETENCE, TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL CAPITAL AND PERFORMANCE ON EMPLOYEE CAREERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Kusuma Wardhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every employee would expect a career enhancement in his job. There are many factors that affect employee careers. This study aims to examine the influence of Competence, Transformational Leadership, Social Capital and Performance to Career Employees of Mercu Buana University, is a quantitative research with Path Analysis method. This research was conducted at Mercu Buana University in West Jakarta area, the research sample was 185 employees using Simple Random Sampling method. Associated with the performance of employees, the results showed that there is an influence of competence on performance, there is the influence of transformational leadership on performance, there is the influence of social capital on performance. In the case of employee career, the result of research indicate that there is influence of competence to career of employee, there is influence of employee career performance, there is influence of social capital to career of employee. The result of path analysis gives a structural equation Y = 0,258X1 + 0,213X2 + 0,229X3 + 0,416X4 + 0,36. Thus it can be explained that the most direct influence on Employee Career is a Performance variable of 41.6%, while the Competence variable of 25.8% and social capital variable of 22.9%.

  4. Review of research on identification of factors influencing social response to technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned. The social response to plans for further technological development has often taken the form of demands for a closer examination of the associated benefits and risks, and consideration of social values in public planning and decision processes. A theoretical framework for interdisciplinary risk assessment studies is presented to allow the balancing of complex technical data with measures of the corresponding social values. The cognitive limitations which affect rationality in intuitive decision-making are summarized as background for the introduction of formal decision methodologies. Methods for obtaining value measures are reviewed and an attitude-based method is developed in detail; this model allows identification of the relative importance of the technical, psychological and social factors which underlie attitudes and indicates which factors differentiate between social groups. A pilot application to nuclear power indicated that, for the subjects tested, attitudes pro and con were primarily determined by strongly differing beliefs about the benefits of nuclear power. Symbolic aspects of the nuclear controversy are reviewed, including psychological associations with nuclear weapons. It is suggested that nuclear energy is providing a forum to evaluate a wide range of social issues, perhaps playing a symbolic role in a dialogue about the shape and direction of a technologically-determined future. (author)

  5. Election process as a factor of youth socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveeva E. A.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available the analysis of the process of political socialization of youth and its factors is given in the article. The article covers urgent issues of political organizations influence on the process of adoption of values, standards and attitudes by an individual. It was formed in youth attitudes and behavior patterns that determine the strategy for the development of national and humanistic traditions, political culture and tolerance. And the role of political socialization of the younger generation in this connection it is important.

  6. An Investigation of Referral- and Comparison-based Social Influence on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Kausar, Devi; Soesilo, Primidya K. M.

    between SNS engagement and both referral-based and comparison-based social influence for restaurant selection. Further, it was also identified that the relationships between SNS engagement and social influence are moderated by the different dimensions of consumers’ susceptibility to global influence......This study explored social influence resulting from two distinct social reference processes on social networking sites (SNS). A web-based survey was conducted among consumers in the USA and Indonesia using restaurant consumption as a research context. The study identified the positive relationships...

  7. Factors influencing patient compliance with therapeutic regimens in chronic heart failure: A critical incident technique analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, A; Broström, A; Dahlström, U; Fridlund, B

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing compliance with prescribed treatment in patients with chronic heart failure. A qualitative design with a critical incident technique was used. Incidents were collected through interviews with 25 patients with heart failure strategically selected from a primary health care clinic, a medical ward, and a specialist clinic. Two hundred sixty critical incidents were identified in the interviews and 2 main areas emerged in the analysis: inward factors and outward factors. The inward factors described how compliance was influenced by the personality of the patient, the disease, and the treatment. The outward factors described how compliance was influenced by social activities, social relationships, and health care professionals. By identifying the inward and outward factors influencing patients with chronic heart failure, health care professionals can assess whether intervention is needed to increase compliance.

  8. Background factors related to and/or influencing occupation in mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Helena; Ivarsson, Ann-Britt; Söderlund, Anne

    2006-09-01

    Knowledge of background and occupational related factors of mentally disordered offenders are missing. It is essential to understand these issues when planning discharge from forensic psychiatric hospital care to enable community dwelling. One aim was to investigate mentally disordered offenders' background factors, confidence in and how they value occupations. Another aim was to investigate MDOs background factors' in relation to and the influences on Occupational Performance and Social Participation. Data was collected with an explorative, correlative design after informed consent, from 74 mentally disordered offenders (mean age 34,2) cared for in forensic psychiatric hospitals. Assessments were Allen Cognitive Level Screen, Capability to Perform Daily Occupations, Interview Schedule of Social Interaction, Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, Self-efficacy Scale and Importance scale. Eight background factors were assembled from the individual forensic psychiatric investigation. Most of the investigated background factors relate to and half of them influence occupational performance, particular the cognitive aspect of occupational performance. The influences on occupation originate from adulthood, such as suffering from schizophrenia, psycho/social problems, and having performed violent crimes. These findings indicate that staff in forensic hospital care should initiate rehabilitation with knowledge about MDOs' complex daily occupations. For avoiding information bias, information gathering preceding treatment planning should be performed in collaboration between caring staff and mentally disordered offenders.

  9. Conformity-based cooperation in online social networks: The effect of heterogeneous social influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the conformity model by introducing heterogeneous social influence into the analysis. We associate the influence of a player in the network with its degree centrality assuming that players of higher degree exhibit more social influence on its neighbors. The results show that the equilibrium level of cooperators can be dramatically enhanced if the conformity-driven players are preferentially influenced by neighbors of higher degree. We attribute this finding to two elementary mechanisms in the evolutionary process: (1) degree-based social influence facilitates the formation of strategic clusters around hubs; and (2) payoff-heterogeneity between cooperative clusters and defective clusters contributes to the promotion of cooperation. This research reveals the important role of heterogeneous social influence on the emergence of cooperation in social networks.

  10. Social experiential deprivation in autism spectrum disorders: A possible prognostic factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Sowmyashree Mayur; Basheer, Salah; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Girimaji, Satish Chandra; Srinath, Shoba

    2017-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are well known to be influenced by various environmental factors. Among these influencers, social experiential deprivation (SED) in infancy is one of them which is not well reported. We explored factors contributing to SED in 11 young children diagnosed to have ASD and compared them to 24 children without SED also having ASD. Intervention mainly addressing factors causing SED for 6 months demonstrated that children with SED had a better outcome at follow up. Could SED be a possible prognostic factor in children with ASD? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms: Close Relationships as Social Context and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Brett; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Depression is associated with social dysfunction and maladaptive social environments, but mechanisms through which social relationships affect depressive psychopathology are unclear. We hypothesized that emotion regulation (ER) is such a mechanism, with outcomes of individuals’ ER efforts sensitive to the social context, and individuals’ ER strategy repertoire and use sensitive to social influence. In Study 1, a longitudinal study of community adults (N = 1,319), associations of individuals’ ER strategies with depressive symptoms depended on social connectedness and romantic relationship status (social context hypothesis). Moreover, associations of social connectedness and relationship status with symptoms were accounted for by maladaptive ER concurrently and, for social connectedness, prospectively over 1 year (social influence hypothesis). Study 2a, using a national sample (N = 772), replicated and extended these findings with a broader array of ER strategies, and ruled out alternative explanations regarding social skills and psychological wellbeing. Among participants in romantic relationships (Study 2b; N = 558), intimacy and trust buffered associations of maladaptive ER strategies with symptoms (context), and maladaptive and adaptive ER mediated links between relationship variables and symptoms (influence). Findings suggest that close relationships—and variation in underlying relational processes within relationships— influence the ER strategies people use, and also affect whether individuals’ own ER repertoires contribute to depression when deployed. Results elucidate core social mechanisms of ER in terms of both basic processes and depressive psychopathology, suggest ER is a channel through which social factors affect internal functioning and mental health, and inform relationship pathways for clinical intervention. PMID:26479366

  12. Cooperative networks overcoming defectors by social influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    We address the cooperation problem in structured populations by considering the prisoner’s dilemma game as a metaphor of the social interactions between individuals with imitation capacity. We present a new strategy update rule called democratic weighted update where the individual’s behavior is socially influenced by each one of their neighbors. In particular, the capacity of an individual to socially influence other ones is proportional to its accumulated payoff. When in a neighborhood there are cooperators and defectors, the focal player is contradictorily influenced by them and, therefore, the effective social influence is given by the difference of the accumulated payoff of each strategy in its neighborhood. First, by considering the growing process of the network and neglecting mutations, we show the evolution of highly cooperative systems. Then, we broadly show that the social influence allows to overcome the emergence of defectors into highly cooperative systems. In this way, we conclude that in a structured system formed by a growing process, the cooperation evolves if the individuals have an imitation capacity socially influenced by each one of their neighbors. Therefore, here we present a theoretical solution of the cooperation problem among genetically unrelated individuals.

  13. Factors explaining user loyalty in a social media-based brand community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis M. Potgieter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marketers are interested in taking advantage of the capabilities of social media-based brand communities to develop long-term relationships with their customers. This research investigated the usage of a South African Facebook page to understand user attitudes and attendant pressures on users related to social norms and user loyalty. Objectives: The research investigated the extent to which perceived value, service quality and social factors influenced the customer’s intention to continue using a global motor vehicle firm’s social media-based online brand community (OBC. Method: We used an online voluntary survey to collect data from social media-based brand community members. In total, 303 responses were collected over a period of 4 weeks from a population of 3100 members. We analysed the relationship between trust, perceived responsiveness, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, social norms and the members’ intention to continue using the firm’s OBC. 293 usable observations were subjected to descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. Results: The age of the respondents varied from 18 to 58 years with a mean age of 32 years. Of these, 60% were men and 40% women. About 86.7% of the respondents reported having at least some form of tertiary education. The results of the multiple regression analysis indicate that service quality factors such as trust (25.5% and social influence factors such as social norms (12.5% explain a greater part of the variance in OBC continuance intention compared with utility factors such as perceived usefulness (18.2%. The effects for responsiveness and ease of use were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Social media-based brand communities are playing an important role in enhancing the overall trust relationship, value offering, sociality, knowledge and information sharing between customers and firms. Practitioners should note that the loyalty of customers using a firm

  14. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    OpenAIRE

    Emily eFalk; Emily eFalk; Baldwin eWay; Agnes eJasinska

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neur...

  15. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuro...

  16. Factors Influencing And Alternative Policies Offered Of Social Conflicts Indigenous Peoples Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Deni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the social conflicts of indigenous peoples especially in North Maluku. The purpose of this review is to find out some factors causing indigenous peoples social conflicts in North Maluku and to produce alternative solutions as a policy to develop indigenous peoples livelihoods. The review resulted in several factors causing social conflicts of indigenous peoples such as the unclear boundary between the two parties the customary violations by the forest businessmen the injustice of the law enforcement officers in solving the problems the destruction of the indigenous people and the forest community narrow forest the lack positive contribution of forest management so far to indigenous peoples and forest communities companies do not involve indigenous peoples andor forest communities in forest exploitation destruction of customary buildings as places of worship deforestation timber exploitation while timber by indigenous peoples is sacred wood or abstinence to be felled. Alternative solutions are required by local government such as policy on legal recognition of indigenous peoples indigenous peoples empowerment implementation of indigenous peoples aspirations indigenous peoples economic development based on local wisdom and dispute resolution of indigenous peoples through special courts of a holistic nature.

  17. Social Influence and Cognitive-Motivational Effects on Terrorism Preparedness: A Hurdle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Philip W.; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The identification of factors which influence peoples' preparation for health safety risks posed by natural and man-made disasters is a central concern in health education. Prior studies have generally approached this issue from either a cognitive or a social influence perspective, and have failed to recognise the increased importance…

  18. Exploring the factors influencing clinical students' self-regulated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Joris J; Helmich, Esther; Teunissen, Pim W; van den Berg, Joost W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Jaarsma, A Debbie C

    2015-06-01

    The importance of self-regulated learning (SRL) has been broadly recognised by medical education institutions and regulatory bodies. Supporting the development of SRL skills has proven difficult because self-regulation is a complex interactive process and we know relatively little about the factors influencing this process in real practice settings. The aim of our study was therefore to identify factors that support or hamper medical students' SRL in a clinical context. We conducted a constructivist grounded theory study using semi-structured interviews with 17 medical students from two universities enrolled in clerkships. Participants were purposively sampled to ensure variety in age, gender, experience and current clerkship. The Day Reconstruction Method was used to help participants remember their activities of the previous day. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed iteratively using constant comparison and open, axial and interpretive coding. Self-regulated learning by students in the clinical environment was influenced by the specific goals perceived by students, the autonomy they experienced, the learning opportunities they were given or created themselves, and the anticipated outcomes of an activity. All of these factors were affected by personal, contextual and social attributes. Self-regulated learning of medical students in the clinical environment is different for every individual. The factors influencing this process are affected by personal, social and contextual attributes. Some of these are similar to those known from previous research in classroom settings, but others are unique to the clinical environment and include the facilities available, the role of patients, and social relationships pertaining to peers and other hospital staff. To better support students' SRL, we believe it is important to increase students' metacognitive awareness and to offer students more tailored learning opportunities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Process of Social Influence: Readings in Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisecker, Thomas D., Ed.; Parson, Donn W., Ed.

    An attempt to synthesize primarily experimental studies of the process of social influence is presented. The point is made that each of us is involved in the process of social influence, both because we often attempt to influence someone else, and because we are constantly targets for attempts at social influence. This book is divided into four…

  20. The Use of English Songs with Social Content as a Situated Literacy Practice: Factors that Influence Student Participation in the EFL Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Palacios Mena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This action research study examines the factors that influence student participation when songs with social content are utilised in the EFL classroom. The study proposes the use of English songs as a situated social practice under the perspective of critical pedagogy. The study was done in the 11th English class of a public high school located in the south of Bogota, Colombia. Data was collected through field observations, semistructured interviews, questionnaires and artefacts made by the students. The results indicate that factors relate to the songs and the students themselves. The study suggests that providing different opportunities for students to explore different dimensions of literacy that go beyond the linguistic aspects of a foreign language can encourage meaningful participation and interest in learning English as a Foreign Language.

  1. Normative social influence is underdetected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jessica M; Schultz, P Wesley; Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J; Griskevicius, Vladas

    2008-07-01

    The present research investigated the persuasive impact and detectability of normative social influence. The first study surveyed 810 Californians about energy conservation and found that descriptive normative beliefs were more predictive of behavior than were other relevant beliefs, even though respondents rated such norms as least important in their conservation decisions. Study 2, a field experiment, showed that normative social influence produced the greatest change in behavior compared to information highlighting other reasons to conserve, even though respondents rated the normative information as least motivating. Results show that normative messages can be a powerful lever of persuasion but that their influence is underdetected.

  2. Development and validation of an instrument to assess perceived social influence on health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOLT, CHERYL L.; CLARK, EDDIE M.; ROTH, DAVID L.; CROWTHER, MARTHA; KOHLER, CONNIE; FOUAD, MONA; FOUSHEE, RUSTY; LEE, PATRICIA A.; SOUTHWARD, PENNY L.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of social influence on health behavior is often approached through a situational context. The current study adapted an existing, theory-based instrument from another content domain to assess Perceived Social Influence on Health Behavior (PSI-HB) among African Americans, using an individual difference approach. The adapted instrument was found to have high internal reliability (α = .81–.84) and acceptable testretest reliability (r = .68–.85). A measurement model revealed a three-factor structure and supported the theoretical underpinnings. Scores were predictive of health behaviors, particularly among women. Future research using the new instrument may have applied value assessing social influence in the context of health interventions. PMID:20522506

  3. Modeling social norms and social influence in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, David A; Hammond, Ross; Rahmandad, Hazhir; Wang, Youfa; Hovmand, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has led to changes in what is considered "normal" or desirable weight, especially among populations at higher risk. We show that social norms are key to understanding the obesity epidemic, and that social influence mechanisms provide a necessary linkage between individual obesity-related behaviors and population-level characteristics. Because influence mechanisms cannot be directly observed, we show how three complex systems tools may be used to gain insights into observed epidemiologic patterns: social network analysis, agent-based modeling, and systems dynamics modeling. However, simulation and mathematical modeling approaches raise questions regarding acceptance of findings, especially among policy makers. Nevertheless, we point to modeling successes in obesity and other fields, including the NIH-funded National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) Envison project.

  4. A Survey of Models and Algorithms for Social Influence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimeng; Tang, Jie

    Social influence is the behavioral change of a person because of the perceived relationship with other people, organizations and society in general. Social influence has been a widely accepted phenomenon in social networks for decades. Many applications have been built based around the implicit notation of social influence between people, such as marketing, advertisement and recommendations. With the exponential growth of online social network services such as Facebook and Twitter, social influence can for the first time be measured over a large population. In this chapter, we survey the research on social influence analysis with a focus on the computational aspects. First, we present statistical measurements related to social influence. Second, we describe the literature on social similarity and influences. Third, we present the research on social influence maximization which has many practical applications including marketing and advertisement.

  5. Age-related differences in social influence on risk perception depend on the direction of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Lisa J; Leung, Jovita T; Foulkes, Lucy; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents are particularly susceptible to social influence. Here, we investigated the effect of social influence on risk perception in 590 participants aged eight to fifty-nine-years tested in the United Kingdom. Participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations, were then informed about the rating of these situations from a (fictitious) social-influence group consisting of teenagers or adults, and then re-evaluated the situation. Our first aim was to attempt to replicate our previous finding that young adolescents are influenced more by teenagers than by adults. Second, we investigated the social-influence effect when the social-influence group's rating was more, or less, risky than the participants' own risk rating. Younger participants were more strongly influenced by teenagers than by adults, but only when teenagers rated a situation as more risky than did participants. This suggests that stereotypical characteristics of the social-influence group - risk-prone teenagers - interact with social influence on risk perception. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Principales factores de riesgo psicológicos y sociales en el adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Herrera Santi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza un análisis de los principales factores de riesgo psicosociales que pueden incidir en los adolescentes, y se hace una distinción entre los factores de riesgo psicológicos y los sociales; se considera que el conocimiento más profundo de éstos puede servir de ayuda al médico de la familia en la atención a este grupo social, con el objetivo de prevenir la aparición de futuros problemas de salud.In this paper it is made an analysis of the main psychosocial risk factors that may influence on the adolescents. It is also made a distinction between the psychological risk factors and the social ones. It is considered that a better knowledge of these factors may help the family physician to give attention to this social group in order to prevent the appearance of future health problems.

  7. Occupation and social experience: Factors influencing attitude towards people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishige, Naoko; Hayashi, Naoki

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of occupation and social experience as factors determining the attitude of psychiatric care workers and other workers from various backgrounds toward people with schizophrenia. To measure the attitude of 786 subjects from six occupational groups toward people with schizophrenia, the evaluation scale applying semantic differential technique and the modified Social Rejection Scale were used, which assess two aspects of the attitude: affective acceptance and social distancing, respectively. The results of the two scales from the six groups were similar on the whole. Public health nurses showed the most accepting attitude in both scales. Psychiatric nurses and local welfare commissioners were the second and the third groups in affective acceptance, and the third and the second in socially accepting behavior, respectively. There was no significant difference in attitude among the rest of the groups (non-psychiatric care workers, professional probation officers and non-care workers). These results can be understood in terms of the workers' experience of contact with people with schizophrenia, and education and other support opportunities. The importance of positive contact experiences and the means for facilitation of an accepting attitude in psychiatric care workers and other workers need to be stressed.

  8. Assessment of factors affecting social media use for HIV andAIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated factors that affect use of social media for HIV and AIDS ... Structured questionnaire copies were administered to 355 undergraduate students. ... media sites for HIV and AIDS information communication was influenced by ...

  9. Factors that influence exercise activity among women post hip fracture participating in the Exercise Plus Program

    OpenAIRE

    Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; D?Adamo, Christopher; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Hawkes, William; Shardell, Michelle; Golden, Justine; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Magaziner, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Using a social ecological model, this paper describes selected intra- and interpersonal factors that influence exercise behavior in women post hip fracture who participated in the Exercise Plus Program. Model testing of factors that influence exercise behavior at 2, 6 and 12 months post hip fracture was done. The full model hypothesized that demographic variables; cognitive, affective, physical and functional status; pain; fear of falling; social support for exercise, and exposure to the Exer...

  10. Factors influencing workplace health promotion intervention: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina

    2017-10-01

    Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Factors influencing happiness of the grandmothers raising grandchildren in rural areas of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Powwattana, Arpaporn

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 400 grandmothers, aged 50-79 years, who raised their grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected through a structured interview from April to July 2009 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and Multiple regression analysis. Nearly half (46.8%) of grandmothers raising grandchildren had high level of happiness, followed by moderate level (40.4%) and low level (12.8%). The factors, which significantly influenced the happiness of the grandmothers, were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p-value happiness of the grandmothers by 48.1%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of happiness among grandmothers. The factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote happiness of grandmothers, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the grandmother's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  12. The benefits of social influence in optimized cultural markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market.

  13. Factors determining social participation in the first year after kidney transplantation : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Siirike F.; van Son, Willem J.; van Sonderen, Eric L. P.; de Jong, Paul E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background. This study describes changes in social participation in the first year after kidney transplantation and examines the influence of clinical factors, health status, transplantation-related symptoms, and psychological characteristics on change in social participation. Methods. A prospective

  14. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  15. Factors that influence the QOL of cancer patients who have undergone radiotherapy as outpatients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senuma, Maiko; Shinoda, Shizuyo; Kitada, Yoko; Takei, Akemi; Kanda, Kiyoko; Seyama, Ruka; Igarashi, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the factors that influence the QOL of cancer patients who have undergone radiotherapy in the outpatient setting. The patient's quality of life (QOL) was investigated by using the QOL evaluation standard functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G) in 73 cancer patients (mean age 64.2±12.2 yrs standard deviation (SD)) who had undergone radiotherapy as outpatients. The mean QOL score was 74.8±17.1 pointy, and a significant difference was seen in about 25 items as a result of examining the factors that influenced the patient's QOL. In addition, a stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the factors which influenced the QOL were the operation due to the original disease, social support (excluding the family), tiredness, relapse and the metastasis, performance status (PS), uneasiness of presence in descending order of influence. The results revealed the strong influence of psychological, mental and social factors on the QOL score. From the patient of view of nursing support for cancer patients, screening for these factors may allow earlier detection of any decrease in the QOL, or identify when the QOL has already decreased. Furthermore, support should be initiated at as early a stage as possible. (author)

  16. The influence of social media in destination choice

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Min-En Aaron

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of social media in destination choice. The evolution of social media within tourism has provided further impetus towards destination information search and image formation. To this end, existing studies have presented the influence of social media at destination micro-levels, such as accommodation and restaurants. At a macro-level, some studies have investigated the influence of social media on a destination. However, current scope is l...

  17. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  18. [Anxiety disorders and influence factors in adolescent patients with cleft lip and palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Ran, Hao; Jiang, Chang-wei; Zhou, Meng

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the anxiety disorders and influence factors that occur in adolescent patients with cleft lip and palate and to provide theoretical foundation for mental intervention. A total of 120 adolescent patients with cleft lip and palate were investigated using a general information questionnaire, the self-rating anxiety scale, and the social support rating scale (SSRS). The influence factors of anxiety disorders were analyzed. The effective questionnaires were 119. The occurrence rate of anxiety disorder in adolescent patients was 49.6% (59/119), and the occurrence rates of mild, moderate, and severe anxieties were 41.2% (49/119), 7.6% (9/119), and 0.8% (1/119), respectively. The gender, residential area, disease category, family status (one child or no children), and incidence rate of anxiety disorder in patients were statistically different (Ppalate. dender and social support were important influencing factors for anxiety disorder. In the after-mental intervention, considerable attention should be given to the anxiety disorders of patients and improve their mental health.

  19. Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    Full Text Available Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  20. The benefits of social influence in optimized cultural markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Abeliuk

    Full Text Available Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market.

  1. The Emotional Impact Nursing Faculty Experience in Relationship to Student Academic Dishonesty and the Social and Political Factors That Influence Their Decision to Report Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scebold, Jody L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the emotional impact nursing faculty experience in relationship to nursing student academic dishonesty and the social and political factors that influence their decision to report suspected acts of academic dishonesty. The study was based on Fontana's 2009 study titled "Nursing Faculty Experiences of…

  2. Influence of Race, Ethnicity and Social Determinants of Health on Diabetes Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebekah J; Strom Williams, Joni; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-04-01

    There is strong evidence that race, ethnicity and social determinants of health significantly influence outcomes for patients with diabetes. A better understanding of the mechanisms of these relationships or associations would improve development of cost-effective, culturally tailored programs for patients with diabetes. This article reviews the current state of the literature on the influence of race and ethnicity and social determinants of health on process of care, quality of care and outcomes for diabetes, with particular emphasis on the rural South to give an overview of the state of the literature. The literature review shows that racial or ethnic differences in the clinical outcomes for diabetes, including glycemic, blood pressure (BP) and lipid control, continue to persist. In addition, the literature review shows that the role of social determinants of health on outcomes, and the possible role these determinants play in disparities have largely been ignored. Psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, depression, social support and perceived stress, show consistent associations with self-care, quality of life and glycemic control. Neighborhood factors, such as food insecurity, social cohesion and neighborhood esthetics have been associated with glycemic control. Perceived discrimination has also been associated with self-care and the psychological component of quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to be skilled in assessing social determinants of health and taking them into consideration in clinical care. In addition, more research is needed to identify the separate and combined influence of race and ethnicity and social determinants of health on process of care, quality of care and outcomes in diabetes, especially in the South, where the burden of disease is particularly high. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding the local context and its possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social accountability initiatives for maternal health services in rural Democratic Republic of the Congo : a contextual factor analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafuta, E.M.; Hogema, L.M.; Mambu, T.N.M.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Dieleman, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social accountability has to be configured according to the context in which it operates. This paper aimed to identify local contextual factors in two health zones in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and discuss their possible influences on shaping, implementing and running social

  4. What Factors Influence Well-being of Students on Performing Small Group Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulanyani, N. M. S.; Vembriati, N.

    2018-01-01

    Generally, Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University applied Small Group Discussion (SGD) in its learning process. If group problem solving succeeds, each individual of the group will individually succeed. However, the success is also determined by each individual’s level of psychological well-being. When the students are in the high level of wellbeing, they will feel comfortable in small group discussion, and teamwork will be effective. Therefore, it is needed to conduct a research which investigates how psychological factors, such as traits, needs, cognitive, and social intelligence, influence students’ wellbeing in performing SGD. This research is also initiated by several cases of students who prefer individual learning and take SGD merely to fulfill attendance requirement. If the students have good wellbeing, they will take the SGD process optimally. The subject of this research was 100 students of Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University. This survey research used psychological test assessment, Psychological well-being scale, and Social Intelligence scale to gain data analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that all aspects of traits together with aspects ‘need for rules and supervision’ affect social intelligence. Furthermore, social intelligence factor with cognitive factors influence wellbeing of the students in the process of SGD.

  5. Attitude change: persuasion and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W

    2000-01-01

    This chapter reviews empirical and theoretical developments in research on social influence and message-based persuasion. The review emphasizes research published during the period from 1996-1998. Across these literatures, three central motives have been identified that generate attitude change and resistance. These involve concerns with the self, with others and the rewards/punishments they can provide, and with a valid understanding of reality. The motives have implications for information processing and for attitude change in public and private contexts. Motives in persuasion also have been investigated in research on attitude functions and cognitive dissonance theory. In addition, the chapter reviews the relatively unique aspects of each literature: In persuasion, it considers the cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying attitude change, especially dual-mode processing models, recipients' affective reactions, and biased processing. In social influence, the chapter considers how attitudes are embedded in social relations, including social identity theory and majority/minority group influence.

  6. The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Allen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

  7. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  8. Spontaneous emergence of social influence in online systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-26

    Social influence drives both offline and online human behavior. It pervades cultural markets, and manifests itself in the adoption of scientific and technical innovations as well as the spread of social practices. Prior empirical work on the diffusion of innovations in spatial regions or social networks has largely focused on the spread of one particular technology among a subset of all potential adopters. Here we choose an online context that allows us to study social influence processes by tracking the popularity of a complete set of applications installed by the user population of a social networking site, thus capturing the behavior of all individuals who can influence each other in this context. By extending standard fluctuation scaling methods, we analyze the collective behavior induced by 100 million application installations, and show that two distinct regimes of behavior emerge in the system. Once applications cross a particular threshold of popularity, social influence processes induce highly correlated adoption behavior among the users, which propels some of the applications to extraordinary levels of popularity. Below this threshold, the collective effect of social influence appears to vanish almost entirely, in a manner that has not been observed in the offline world. Our results demonstrate that even when external signals are absent, social influence can spontaneously assume an on-off nature in a digital environment. It remains to be seen whether a similar outcome could be observed in the offline world if equivalent experimental conditions could be replicated.

  9. Psychological and social factors influencing the choice of strategy after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the post-accident situation in Chernobyl provides information that focuses on social and psychological factors in the management of nuclear accidents. This paper concentrates on the short term countermeasures. It presents the main conclusions of a field survey carried out in Ukraine. The issues talked are the concern about extend of post-response in Chernobyl, the worries over health, contamination, the concern over the future and the complexity of post-accident situation. In a second part, the paper analyses and models the factors that caused the 1993 post-accident situation. Finally, several advices are given concerning the public information and behaviour focusing on the social and psychological aspect of short-term decisions (a constant effort should always be, for example, limiting the element of surprise in order to reduce the stress of population). (TEC). 3 figs

  10. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  11. Social influence, intention to smoke, and adolescent smoking behaviour longitudinal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, Paulo D; Salgueiro, M Fátima; Silva, Silvia A; de Vries, Hein

    2011-11-01

    There is a debate on the determinants of smoking behaviour, their relative impact, and how impacts are exerted. This longitudinal study is on the relations among social influence, intention to smoke, and smoking behaviour, controlling for attitude and self-efficacy. A model combining parents and peers with subjective and descriptive norms, resulting in four factors, was used to assess social influence. Data were collected at the beginning of the 7th(-T1), 8th(-T2), and 9th(-T3) school years, concerning 578 students (M(age) = 13.04 at T1). Structural Equation Modelling was used to test longitudinal effects. Variances explained by the model were high: R(2) (intention-T2) = .65, R(2) (behaviour-T2) = .67, and R(2) (behaviour-T3) = .76. Longitudinal analyses confirmed the effects of social influence on intention and behaviour. These effects on behaviour were direct and indirect (peers' and parents' descriptive norms in both cases). Descriptive norms had a stronger effect on behaviour than subjective norms. Peers' effect on behaviour was stronger than parents', but peers' effect was exerted only through descriptive norms while parents' effect was exerted through both norms. The intention effect on behaviour was not as detached as expected and its role of full mediator between other variables' effects on behaviour was not confirmed, since descriptive norms and self-efficacy had also a mediation role. Results show direct and indirect effects of social influence on behaviour. Descriptive norms are an important variable to operationalize social influence. Peers and parents exert influence on adolescents' intention and behaviour through different processes. The impact of intention on behaviour is not as important as expected. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Social influences on inequity aversion in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McAuliffe

    Full Text Available Adults and children are willing to sacrifice personal gain to avoid both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity. These two forms of inequity aversion follow different developmental trajectories, with disadvantageous inequity aversion emerging around 4 years and advantageous inequity aversion emerging around 8 years. Although inequity aversion is assumed to be specific to situations where resources are distributed among individuals, the role of social context has not been tested in children. Here, we investigated the influence of two aspects of social context on inequity aversion in 4- to 9-year-old children: (1 the role of the experimenter distributing rewards and (2 the presence of a peer with whom rewards could be shared. Experiment 1 showed that children rejected inequity at the same rate, regardless of whether the experimenter had control over reward allocations. This indicates that children's decisions are based upon reward allocations between themselves and a peer and are not attempts to elicit more favorable distributions from the experimenter. Experiment 2 compared rejections of unequal reward allocations in children interacting with or without a peer partner. When faced with a disadvantageous distribution, children frequently rejected a smaller reward when a larger reward was visible, even if no partner would obtain the larger reward. This suggests that nonsocial factors partly explain disadvantageous inequity rejections. However, rejections of disadvantageous distributions were higher when the larger amount would go to a peer, indicating that social context enhances disadvantageous inequity aversion. By contrast, children rejected advantageous distributions almost exclusively in the social context. Therefore, advantageous inequity aversion appears to be genuinely social, highlighting its potential relevance for the development of fairness concerns. By comparing social and nonsocial factors, this study provides a detailed picture of

  13. Influence of Youth Volunteering on Socialization and Development of Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Volunteering is one of manifestations of citizenship. It indicates the individual’s quality in terms of citizenship and the readiness to take an active part in public activities. The current paper analyses the phenomenon of volunteering (its place and role in ensuring public development and sustainability. The influence of volunteer - ing on the youth socialization and personal development of competences (in particular, social, professional and communicative is disclosed in the article. The article also highlights the motives and factors that promote and prevent the youth participation in voluntary activities.

  14. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  15. Factors Influencing Smokeless Tobacco Use in Rural Ohio Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M.; Liu, Sherry T.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Methods Fifteen focus groups and twenty-three individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n=63) and adolescent (n=53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. Results ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. Conclusions In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to 1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and 2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  16. Exploring physicians' extended use of electronic health records (EHRs): A social influence perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Zhao, Xiping; Sun, Jinglei; Zhou, Guangquan

    2016-12-01

    Once electronic health records (EHRs) have been fully implemented and integrated into the daily work of a healthcare organisation/hospital, there is considerable pressure on management to demonstrate the benefits that these systems can deliver to the organisation. One practical way to maximise the value and highlight the benefits of EHRs is to encourage physicians to increase and extend their use of EHR functions. This study used a social influence theory context to examine the impact of mechanisms of social influence on the intentions of physicians to extend their use of EHRs. A survey of physicians (n = 205) in a first-class comprehensive hospital in southern China was conducted approximately 2 years after the hospital's introduction of EHRs. A 16-item questionnaire was developed to measure the impact of four social influence factors (reward, punishment, social image and group norm) on physicians' intentions to extend their use of EHRs. The research model included two additional control variables (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) to account for potential covariance among social influence measures. The study's research model showed significant relationships between physicians' responses on two of the social influence measures (rewards and group norm) and their intentions to extend their use of EHRs. Punishment and social image measures did not influence physicians' intentions to increase their use of EHRs. These findings have suggested that for healthcare organisations to maximise the benefits of EHRs, the efforts of hospital management should be directed towards rewarding those physicians who increase their use of EHRs; and to promoting and reinforcing the increased usage of EHRs among physicians as a group norm. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro

    2010-08-05

    An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status), psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons), social variables (social support), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking and

  18. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Kaori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. Methods The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status, psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social variables (social support, environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Results Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on

  19. Social Influence on Positive Youth Development: A Developmental Neuroscience Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; van Hoorn, Jorien; Rogers, Christina R; Do, Kathy T

    2018-01-01

    Susceptibility to social influence is associated with a host of negative outcomes during adolescence. However, emerging evidence implicates the role of peers and parents in adolescents' positive and adaptive adjustment. Hence, in this chapter we highlight social influence as an opportunity for promoting social adjustment, which can redirect negative trajectories and help adolescents thrive. We discuss influential models about the processes underlying social influence, with a particular emphasis on internalizing social norms, embedded in social learning and social identity theory. We link this behavioral work to developmental social neuroscience research, rooted in neurobiological models of decision making and social cognition. Work from this perspective suggests that the adolescent brain is highly malleable and particularly oriented toward the social world, which may account for heightened susceptibility to social influences during this developmental period. This chapter underscores the need to leverage social influences during adolescence, even beyond the family and peer context, to promote positive developmental outcomes. By further probing the underlying neural mechanisms as an additional layer to examining social influence on positive youth development, we will be able to gain traction on our understanding of this complex phenomenon. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Parenting Factors on Childhood Social Anxiety: Direct Observation of Parental Warmth and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rork, Kristine E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the association of parenting behaviors and social anxiety in children. Three parental factors--including parental socialization, control, and warmth--were investigated in a sample of 31 two-parent families. Rather than solely relying upon retrospective questionnaires, this study incorporated direct…

  1. Understanding the Role of Social Factors in Farmworker Housing and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Ben; Milofsky, Carl; Kissam, Edward; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    Differences in social advantage significantly influence health conditions and life expectancy within any population. Such factors reproduce historic class, race, and ethnic disparities in community success. Few populations in the United States face more social and economic disadvantage than farmworkers, and farmworker housing has significant potential to ameliorate or amplify the health impact of those disadvantages. Drawing on the limited direct research on farmworkers, and on additional research about poor, isolated, and immigrant societies, we propose four mechanisms through which housing can be expected to affect farmworker health: quality of social capital within farmworker communities, stress effects of poor housing situations, effects of housing on social support for healthy behaviors, and interactions among these factors, especially effects on children that can last for generations. Policy and planning definitions of "adequate" farmworker housing should take a more holistic view of housing needs to support specific social and community benefits in design decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Introductory analysis of sustainable consumption and production : Factors of corporate social responsibility management in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    八木, 迪幸; 國部, 克彦

    2017-01-01

    As an introductory analysis of sustainable consumption and production, this paper examines what factors influence corporate social responsibility management in Japan. Following some underlying theories (management control system; the neo-institutional theory; performance measurement systems; the stakeholder theory; the resource dependence theory), this paper conducts empirical studies using firm-level data. The first three studies examine what factors encourage corporate social responsibility...

  3. Black churches and HIV/AIDS: factors influencing congregations’ responsiveness to social issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Brad R

    2011-01-01

    The ambivalent response of many black churches to current social issues has caused some scholars to question the centrality of black churches within African-American communities. Using a nationally representative sample of black congregations, this study engages the debate about the institutional centrality of black churches by focusing on their response to HIV/AIDS. Although many congregational studies treat black churches as a monolithic whole, this analysis identifies heterogeneity among black churches that shapes their responsiveness to social issues. Contrary to prior claims, a congregation's liberal-conservative ideological orientation does not significantly affect its likelihood of having an HIV/AIDS program. Beyond assessing churches’ internal characteristics, this study uses institutional theory to analyze churches as open systems that can be influenced by their surrounding environment. It demonstrates that externally engaged congregations are significantly more likely to have a program. These results indicate that black churches maintain institutional centrality by engaging their external environment.

  4. Development of Education in Kenya: Influence of the Political Factor beyond 2015 Mdgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackatiani, Caleb; Imbovah, Mercy; Imbova, Navin; Gakungai, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical appraisal of development of education system in Kenya. Education of any country is an important tool for the developmental process of that particular nation. There are various factors that influence national systems of education. They range from social, economical, technological to political influences. In this…

  5. Considering the context: social factors in responses to drugs in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Harriet; Sayette, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Drugs are typically used in social settings. Here, we consider two factors that may contribute to this observation: (i) the presence of other people may enhance the positive mood effects of a drug, and conversely, (ii) drugs may enhance the value of social stimuli. We review evidence from controlled laboratory studies with human volunteers, which investigated either of these interactions between social factors and responses to drugs. We examine the bidirectional effects of social stimuli and single doses of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and cannabis. All four classes of drugs interact with social contexts, but the nature of these interactions varies across drugs, and depends on whether the context is positive or negative. Alcohol and stimulant drugs enhance the attractiveness of social stimuli and the desire to socialize, and social contexts, in turn, enhance these drugs' effects. In contrast, opioids and cannabis have subtler effects on social interactions and their effects are less influenced by the presence of others. Overall, there is stronger evidence that drugs enhance positive social contexts than that they dampen the negativity of unpleasant social settings. Controlled research is needed to understand the interactions between drugs of abuse and social contexts, to model and understand the determinants of drug use outside the laboratory.

  6. An exploration of motivations for two screen viewing, social interaction behaviors, and factors that influence viewing intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hongjin; Oh, Poong; Song, Hyunjin; Lee, Yeonkyung

    2015-03-01

    This study explores whether, and how, motivations for two screen viewing predicted social interaction behaviors and subsequent viewing intention of TV programs. A total of 453 respondents who responded that they use social networking sites (SNSs) via smartphones and actively watch entertainment programs completed an online survey questionnaire. In agreement with uses and gratifications assumptions, motivations for TSV predicted distinctive sets of social interaction behaviors, which mediated the influence of motivations on viewing intentions. Respondents' two screen viewing was meaningfully related with social interaction, engagement with programs, information seeking, and passing time. Results suggest that two screen viewing could provide shared experiences nourishing social capital and reintegrate TV audiences by social adhesive resulting from TV with SNSs.

  7. Factors affecting Malaysian university students’ purchase intention in social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh Sharifi fard; Ezhar Tamam; Md Salleh Hj Hassan; Moniza Waheed; Zeinab Zaremohzzabieh

    2016-01-01

    This study applied the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 to examine acceptance and use of social networking sites in a marketing setting. This study uses 370 regular higher education students in Malaysia as respondents. Quantitative method is used. The findings revealed that performance expectancy (PE) and hedonic motivation were the main factors that influence users’ online purchase intention (PI) through social networking sites (SNSs) in Malaysia. As for moderating influe...

  8. Ethical Factors of Social Capital Increasing in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors’ definition of social capital as an institutional and ethical category, determined by the structure of moral and ethical features of economic agents is considered. It is shown that the level of social capital directly depends on the prevalence of such features of economic agents as honesty, fairness, responsibility, humanity, patriotism. Despite the fact that the level of social capital is currently evaluated through qualitative (personal, expert methods, it is possible to identify its impact on specific economic indicators. For the analysis based on the elements of social capital and other indicators of socio-economic development the authors used Russian official statistics, international organizations data and sociological surveys results. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of correlation and regression analysis and mathematical methods in Economics in general, the authors set the task not to construct a multifactor model of economic and non-economic indicators interrelation, but to confirm their close ties according to the purpose to substantiate the necessity of the government social and economic policy improvement by taking into account the influence of institutional and ethical factors that have long been investigated outside the pure economic science. Key factors of social capital increasing include honesty, trust, fairness, but their level in Russia remains extremely low due to cultural and historical peculiarities of national development, that can be proven by economic crimes and the shadow economy statistics. Great attention is also paid to social responsibility and patriotism, which are of particular importance in the current geopolitical environment and can be combined in the sense of national economic responsibility.

  9. Egg hormones in a highly fecund vertebrate : do they influence offspring social structure in competitive conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, Tim; Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.; Williams, Tony

    2011-01-01

    1. Social status can vary considerably among individuals and has significant implications for performance. In addition to a genetic component, social status may be influenced by environmental factors including maternal effects such as prenatal hormone exposure. Maternal effects on traits determining

  10. THE MAIN SOCIAL RISK FACTORS IN THE FEMININ DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Cristiana NILĂ STRATONE

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The feminine criminality is a social phenomenon of defining importance in trying to draw the portrait of contemporary human society. What is the basic mechanism of this dimension of human behavior remains a continuing challenge for criminology researchers and beyond. The feminine offenses segment dresses a form of atypical aggressivity. This is the main reason who determine the identification, analization and explanation of the factors that influence and shapes the behavior of the woman, bringing it to the form of criminal behavior. The contradiction between femininity and criminality is outlined as an intrigue of gender stereotypes, which the researcher can not bypass. That is why patterns, items, everything on the background of social change are considered. The social change comes, in turn, with challenges both from the domestic area and from the outside of the family. In this paper we will review the main social nature factors that trigger the deviant behavior leading this to delinquency and even determining its identification with forms of delinquency. Women's evolution in time, in terms of age and social modernization, results in changes in the feminine attitude, the typical female actions, woman's personality as a mother, married couple, daughter, girlfriend, etc. The purpose of this study is to present risk factors with criminogen potential on women's behavior in society. Behavioral deviance, as a result of the multitude of bio-psychological, econ- omic, socio-cultural, political, natural factors, turns into violence, and violence tends to become an increasingly strong component of female temper. Last but not least, it is observed that the femininity itself, under the pressure of social factors, takes on new forms, dominated by aggressiveness.

  11. The influence of social support and perceived stress on response time inconsistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phibbs, Sandi; Stawski, Robert S; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Munoz, Elizabeth; Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J

    2017-11-24

    Lack of social support and high levels of stress represent potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive aging. In this study we examined the relationships between these two risk factors and response time inconsistency (RTI), or trial-to-trial variability in choice response time tasks. RTI is an early indicator of declining cognitive health, and examining the influence of modifiable psychosocial risk factors on RTI is important for understanding and promoting cognitive health during adulthood and old age. Using data from a community sample study (n = 317; M age = 49, range = 19-83), we examined the effects of social support, including size of network and satisfaction with support, global perceived stress, and their interactions on RTI. Neither size of network nor satisfaction with support was associated with RTI independent of perceived stress. Stress was positively associated with increased RTI on all tasks, independent of social support. Perceived stress did not interact with either dimension of social support to predict RTI, and perceived stress effects were invariant across age and sex. Perceived stress, but not social support, may be a unique and modifiable risk factor for normal and pathological cognitive aging. Discussion focuses on the importance of perceived stress and its impact on RTI in supporting cognitive health in adulthood and old age.

  12. The Neural Basis of Social Influence in a Dictator Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans tend to reduce inequitable distributions. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that inequitable decisions are related to brain regions that associated with negative emotion and signaling conflict. In the highly complex human social environment, our opinions and behaviors can be affected by social information. In current study, we used a modified dictator game to investigate the effect of social influence on making an equitable decision. We found that the choices of participants in present task was influenced by the choices of peers. However, participants’ decisions were influenced by equitable rather than inequitable group choices. fMRI results showed that brain regions that related to norm violation and social conflict were related to the inequitable social influence. The neural responses in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, rostral cingulate zone, and insula predicted subsequent conforming behavior in individuals. Additionally, psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that the interconnectivity between the dorsal striatum and insula was elevated in advantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. We found decreased functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and insula, supplementary motor area, posterior cingulate gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the disadvantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. This suggests that a disadvantageous inequity influence may decrease the functional connectivity among brain regions that are related to reward processes. Thus, the neural mechanisms underlying social influence in an equitable decision may be similar to those implicated in social norms and reward processing.

  13. The Neural Basis of Social Influence in a Dictator Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhiying; Zheng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Humans tend to reduce inequitable distributions. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that inequitable decisions are related to brain regions that associated with negative emotion and signaling conflict. In the highly complex human social environment, our opinions and behaviors can be affected by social information. In current study, we used a modified dictator game to investigate the effect of social influence on making an equitable decision. We found that the choices of participants in present task was influenced by the choices of peers. However, participants' decisions were influenced by equitable rather than inequitable group choices. fMRI results showed that brain regions that related to norm violation and social conflict were related to the inequitable social influence. The neural responses in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, rostral cingulate zone, and insula predicted subsequent conforming behavior in individuals. Additionally, psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that the interconnectivity between the dorsal striatum and insula was elevated in advantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. We found decreased functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and insula, supplementary motor area, posterior cingulate gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the disadvantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. This suggests that a disadvantageous inequity influence may decrease the functional connectivity among brain regions that are related to reward processes. Thus, the neural mechanisms underlying social influence in an equitable decision may be similar to those implicated in social norms and reward processing.

  14. Liking food less: the impact of social influence on food liking evaluations in female students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Robinson

    Full Text Available Social factors are known to influence food intake and choice. However, whether social influence acts on evaluations of food and drink liking has not been studied. Across two studies, we tested whether leading a participant to believe that other people do not like a food affects food liking evaluations. In Study 1, we exposed participants to social normative information suggesting a that an in-group disliked orange juice, b that an out-group disliked orange juice or c that an in-group were neutral about orange juice. We then examined how much participants believed they liked orange juice. In Study 2, participants consumed a snack food before being led to believe that two previous participants had also eaten the food and either disliked or quite liked it. We asked participants to rate how much they had enjoyed eating the snack food. Across both studies, social influence was observed, as underlined by decreases in liking evaluations. In Study 1, beliefs about liking were only influenced by social normative information when the norm was expressed by an in-group. In Study 2, exposure to others' accounts of a negative experience with a food decreased evaluated liking of the recent consumption experience. These results suggest that social influence can act upon food liking evaluations.

  15. Liking food less: the impact of social influence on food liking evaluations in female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Social factors are known to influence food intake and choice. However, whether social influence acts on evaluations of food and drink liking has not been studied. Across two studies, we tested whether leading a participant to believe that other people do not like a food affects food liking evaluations. In Study 1, we exposed participants to social normative information suggesting a) that an in-group disliked orange juice, b) that an out-group disliked orange juice or c) that an in-group were neutral about orange juice. We then examined how much participants believed they liked orange juice. In Study 2, participants consumed a snack food before being led to believe that two previous participants had also eaten the food and either disliked or quite liked it. We asked participants to rate how much they had enjoyed eating the snack food. Across both studies, social influence was observed, as underlined by decreases in liking evaluations. In Study 1, beliefs about liking were only influenced by social normative information when the norm was expressed by an in-group. In Study 2, exposure to others' accounts of a negative experience with a food decreased evaluated liking of the recent consumption experience. These results suggest that social influence can act upon food liking evaluations.

  16. Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Customary Marine Tenure in the Indo-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Cinner

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available For generations communities in the Western Pacific have employed a range of resource management techniques (including periodic reef closures, gear restrictions, entry limitations, and the protection of spawning aggregations to limit marine resource use. Localized control over marine resources, commonly known as customary marine tenure (CMT, is the legal and cultural foundation for many of these practices. Because of their perceived potential to meet both conservation and community goals, these traditional resource management techniques are being revitalized by communities, governments, and NGOs as an integral part of national and regional marine conservation plans in the Pacific. However, the viability of conservation strategies built on a foundation of marine tenure may be in question, as it remains unclear whether marine tenure systems will be able to withstand the profound social and economic changes sweeping the Pacific region. Numerous studies have suggested that changes in marine tenure are attributed to social and economic factors, however, specific relationships between socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure are still not well understood. This paper examines the social and economic characteristics of 21 coastal communities in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and explores the characteristics of the communities that employ exclusive marine tenure to answer the following questions: Which socioeconomic factors are related to the presence of CMT regimes? How might socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to employ or maintain CMT regimes? Distance to market, immigration, dependence on fishing, and conflicts were found to be related to the presence of highly exclusive marine tenure systems. Exploring these relationships will help conservation practitioners better understand how future social changes may influence the foundation of conservation and development projects.

  17. The influence of ideological entrepreneurship to social enterprise’s success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, A.; Mursitama, T. N.

    2018-03-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities are often a product of the tension between a company’s function as a profit-optimizing institution and its social obligations, which are grounded in particular locus of sociality, which bring about change in the local society. There is also a global push to consider environmental factors and the sustainable development. The successful implementation of CSR activities of PT. Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP) in Riau, Indonesia, is an example of a program based on business and ethical values. This case produced successful models for the CSR-based social enterprise. The hypothesis here is that the success of a social enterprise is due in part to underlying moral philosophy, such as how ideological entrepreneurship is implemented based on ideological, personal and local values. Without neglecting the search for the essence of business operations, which give space for community development and empowerment, this research also proves the influence of ideological entrepreneurship on the success of a social enterprise.

  18. Factors Influencing the Identification of Sustainable Opportunities by SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Progress Choongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 to examine the factors influencing the identification of sustainable opportunities among SMEs in a developing country, Zambia. The factors under investigation include knowledge of the natural/social environment, perception of threats to the natural/social environment, altruism towards others and entrepreneurial knowledge. We interviewed 220 owner-managers in the trading and service sector who supply goods and services to the mining industry in Zambia. We found that altruism towards others was partially supported by our empirical results while the positive effects of knowledge of the natural/social environment and perception of threats to the natural/social environment on the identification of sustainable opportunities were not supported. Contrary to our expectations, entrepreneurial knowledge does not positively moderate the relationship between explanatory variables and the identification of sustainable opportunities. In sum, we found only limited empirical support for the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 concerning the identification of sustainable opportunities. Our findings contribute to literature on entrepreneurship and sustainable opportunity identification by showing what factors influence the identification of sustainable opportunities. This can help us to create awareness among entrepreneurs regarding the effects of entrepreneurial activities on the environment and society; consequently, stimulating entrepreneurs to identify sustainable opportunities.

  19. Quantifying the effects of social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Tessone, Claudio J; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    How do humans respond to indirect social influence when making decisions? We analysed an experiment where subjects had to guess the answer to factual questions, having only aggregated information about the answers of others. While the response of humans to aggregated information is a widely observed phenomenon, it has not been investigated quantitatively, in a controlled setting. We found that the adjustment of individual guesses depends linearly on the distance to the mean of all guesses. This is a remarkable, and yet surprisingly simple regularity. It holds across all questions analysed, even though the correct answers differ by several orders of magnitude. Our finding supports the assumption that individual diversity does not affect the response to indirect social influence. We argue that the nature of the response crucially changes with the level of information aggregation. This insight contributes to the empirical foundation of models for collective decisions under social influence.

  20. Social skills: a factor of protection against eating disorders in adolescentes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunian, Laura Giron; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de Souza

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the literature on the relationship between eating disorders and social skills in adolescents. A search was made on the Medline, SciELO and Lilacs databases, for items combining the terms 'eating disorders', 'anorexia nervosa', 'bulimia nervosa' and 'food behavior', with the terms 'social psychology' and 'social isolation', and with the keywords 'social competence', 'social skill' and 'interpersonal relations'. The following were included: studies on adolescents; in Portuguese, English and Spanish; published in the years 2007 through 2012. The search resulted in 63 articles, and 50 were included in this review. The majority of the studies were made in Brazil and the United States. Of the total, 43 were original articles. The studies aimed to understand how emotional state could influence the establishment of eating disorders, interpersonal relationships and peer relationship. The articles also discussed the influence of the media and of society in this process. Based on the analysis of the studies, it was observed that the greater an adolescent's repertory of social skills, the greater his or her factor of protection against the development of eating disorders.

  1. Exploring social influence on evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma games in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Hengshan; Jia, Guozhu; Cheng, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Though numerous studies demonstrate the importance of social influence in deciding individual decision-making process in networks, little has been done to explore its impact on players’ behavioral patterns in evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma games (PDGs). This study investigates how social influenced strategy updating rules may affect the final equilibrium of game dynamics. The results show that weak social influence usually inhibits cooperation, while strong social influence has a mediating effect. The impacts of network structure and the existence of rebels in social influence scenarios are also tested. The paper provides a comprehensive interpretation on social influence effects on evolutionary PDGs in networks.

  2. Transgenerational Social Stress, Immune Factors, Hormones, and Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Anthony Murgatroyd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral levels of several immune factors and related hormone levels in the adult F2 offspring of CSS exposed dams and assess whether changes in these factors are associated with previously reported deficits in allogrooming behavior. CSS decreased acid glycoprotein (α1AGP and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in F2 females, and increased granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in F2 males. There were also sex dependent changes in IL-18, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Progesterone was decreased and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH was increased in F2 males, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was decreased in F2 females. Changes in α1AGP, GM-CSF, progesterone and α-MSH were correlated with decreased allogrooming in the F2 offspring of stressed dams. These results support the hypothesis that transgenerational social stress affects both the immune system and social behavior, and also support previous studies on the adverse effects of early life stress on immune functioning and stress associated immunological disorders, including the increasing prevalence of asthma. The immune system may represent an important transgenerational etiological factor in disorders which involve social and/or early life stress associated changes in social behavior, such as depression, anxiety, and autism, as well as comorbid immune disorders. Future studies involving immune and

  3. Inferring Social Influence of Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qianyi; Zhang, Jiawei; Yu, Philip S; Emery, Sherry; Xie, Junyuan

    2017-07-01

    Anti-tobacco mass media campaigns are designed to influence tobacco users. It has been proved that campaigns will produce users' changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, and also produce meaningful behavior change of audience. Anti-smoking television advertising is the most important part in the campaign. Meanwhile, nowadays, successful online social networks are creating new media environment, however, little is known about the relation between social conversations and anti-tobacco campaigns. This paper aims to infer social influence of these campaigns, and the problem is formally referred to as the Social Influence inference of anti-Tobacco mass mEdia campaigns (Site) problem. To address the Site problem, a novel influence inference framework, TV advertising social influence estimation (Asie), is proposed based on our analysis of two real anti-tobacco campaigns. Asie divides audience attitudes toward TV ads into three distinct stages: 1) cognitive; 2) affective; and 3) conative. Audience online reactions at each of these three stages are depicted by Asie with specific probabilistic models based on the synergistic influences from both online social friends and offline TV ads. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Asie.

  4. Personal and social factors influencing age at first sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D A; Smith, A M; de Visser, R

    1999-08-01

    Early initiation of sexual activity is a concern, in part because of increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies among young people. In this study, 241 high schoolers were administered a questionnaire to establish the relationships between age at first sexual intercourse and personal qualities (sexual style, attractiveness, physical maturity, restraint, autonomy expectations, and attitudes to gender roles), smoking and drug use, and aspects of the social context (social activities, media impact, peer norms). There were few effects of sex of respondent and none in which respondents' sex impacted on age of initiation. Overall (and among the male sample), perceptions of greater physical maturity, greater use of uncommon (mostly illicit) drugs, and expectations of earlier autonomy significantly differentiated between early and later initiators. This group of factors tends to confirm the view that early experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with problem behaviors and a press toward "adult" behaviors. For girls, this pattern was even clearer, with use of uncommon drugs being replaced as a significant contributor to early sexual experience by relative lack of restraint. We conclude that the desire to achieve the transition to adulthood at an earlier age than their peers constitutes a powerful incentive for young people to become sexually active.

  5. Examining Factors Influencing the Behavioral Intention to Adopt Broadband in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Selamat, Mohamad H.; Wahab, Muhammad S. Abd; Samsudin, Mohd A. Mat; Lal, Banita

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting the adoption of broadband Internet in a developing country context by focusing upon Malaysia. The data relating to these factors was collected using a survey approach. The findings of this paper suggest that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social influence are significant factors for explaining the behavioral intention to adopt broadband Internet by Malaysian accountants. The paper proceeds to outline the research limitations, theoretical contributions, and implications for practice.

  6. The Influential Factors for the Variation of Data Sensitivity in Ubiquitous Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous social networking services offer new opportunities for developing advantageous relationships by uncovering hidden connections that people share with others nearby. As sharing of personal information is an intrinsic part of ubiquitous social networking, these services are subject......, mood, location familiarity, number of previous encounters and mutual friends, were also discovered to influence participants' data disclosure, but as factors of secondary importance....

  7. Modeling the assessment of the economic factors impact on the development of social entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalyamov, T.; Kundakchyan, R.; Zulfakarova, L.; Zapparova, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with the research of modern trends in the development of social entrepreneurship in Russia. The results of the research allow the authors to identify a system of factors that affect the development of entrepreneurship in the modern Russian economy. Moreover, the authors argue the regional specificity of the development of social entrepreneurship. The paper considers specific features and formulates the main limitations of the development of entrepreneurship and the competitive environment in the social sphere. The authors suggest an econometric model for assessing the influence of economic factors on the development of socially-oriented entrepreneurship and present an algorithm for calculating its components. The results of the econometric analysis identify the main factors of the change in the performance indicators of entrepreneurial activity and determine the degree of their impact on social entrepreneurship. The results and conclusions can serve as an estimation of the socioeconomic consequences of the sustainability disruption of the entrepreneurial potential realization in the social sphere.

  8. Empirical Research on Influencing Factors of Sustainable Supply Chain Management—Evidence from Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional development mode for social and economic progress has resulted in crises and challenges; therefore, various countries have begun to actively explore sustainable development. As a developing country, China has outstanding environmental problems. However, there are not many empirical studies on the influencing factors of sustainable supply chain in domestic enterprises. Therefore, according to the manufacturing industry in China, a hypothesis model of influencing factors of sustainable supply chain management is set up. The sustainable supply chain practice is based on three dimensions: economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social sustainability. The influencing factors of sustainable supply chain include internal management cognition, industry pressure, consumer pressure, and government participation. A structural equation model was used to analyze the questionnaire data of 167 enterprises in Beijing, China. The results show that internal management cognition and government participation has a direct effect on the sustainable supply chain management practice, and internal management cognition has a strong positive influence. Consumer pressure and industry pressure have a small positive impact on internal management cognition, while the effect of government participation on industry pressure is very significant.

  9. Factors which motivate the use of social networks by students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sanmamed, Mercedes; Muñoz Carril, Pablo C; Dans Álvarez de Sotomayor, Isabel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to identify those factors which motivate the use of social networks by 4th year students in Secondary Education between the ages of 15 and 18. 1,144 students from 29 public and private schools took part. The data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling technique. Versatility was confirmed to be the variable which most influences the motivation of students in their use of social networks. The positive relationship between versatility in the use of social networks and educational uses was also significant. The characteristics of social networks are analysed according to their versatility and how this aspect makes them attractive to students. The positive effects of social networks are discussed in terms of educational uses and their contribution to school learning. There is also a warning about the risks associated with misuse of social networks, and finally, the characteristics and conditions for the development of good educational practice through social networks are identified.

  10. CONTRACTORS OF SOCIALIZATION AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON SOCIAL PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Yu. POPOV

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the analysis of an essence of the concept "contractors of socialization" and attempt of definition of its place in structure of sociological knowledge. During the solution of this task the author seeks to define destructive nature of influence of contractors of socialization on formation of the personality both at a stage of primary socialization, and in the course of the entire period of its activity. Inclusion of this term in structure of sociological knowledge, a...

  11. Environmental factors influence language development in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Grandgeorge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While it is clearly admitted that normal behavioural development is determined by the interplay of genetic and environmental influences, this is much less the case for psychiatric disorders for which more emphasis has been given in the past decades on biological determinism. Thus, previous studies have shown that Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD were not affected by parental style. However, animal research suggests that different behavioural traits can be differentially affected by genetic/environmental factors. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we hypothesized that amongst the ASD, language disorders may be more sensitive to social factors as language is a social act that develops under social influences. Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, we compared the early characteristics of sensori-motor and language development in a large sample of children with ASD (n = 162 with parents belonging to different levels of education. The results showed that children raised by parents with a high level of education displayed earlier language development. Moreover, they showed earlier first words and phrases if their mother was at a high level of education, which reveals an additional gender effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this study may trigger important new lines of thought and research, help equilibrate social and purely biological perspectives regarding ASD and bring new hopes for environmentally based therapies.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  13. Family Structure and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn R.

    Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

  14. Social Butterflies- How Social Media Influencers are the New Celebrity Endorsement

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Kayleigh Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of visual microblogging platforms, such as Instagram, has created new opportunities for brands to communicate with stakeholders. As these platforms evolve, brands have had to adapt in order to use the available social media platforms to gain visibility in the millennial audience. Recently brands have turned to online 'celebrities' known as a social media influencer (SMI) to distribute information and influence consumers' product perceptions. This specifically has become a com...

  15. Neural Correlates of Social Influence on Risk Taking and Substance Use in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Rogers, Christina R; Van Hoorn, Jorien

    2017-09-01

    Adolescents often engage in elevated levels of risk taking that gives rise to substance use. Family and peers constitute the primary contextual risk factors for adolescent substance use. This report reviews how families and peers influence adolescent neurocognitive development to inform their risk taking and subsequent substance use. Developmental neuroscience using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has identified regions of the brain involved in social cognition, cognitive control, and reward processing that are integrally linked to social influence on adolescent risk taking. These neural mechanisms play a role in how peer and family influence (e.g., physical presence, relationship quality, rejection) translates into adolescent substance use. Peers and families can independently, and in tandem, contribute to adolescent substance use, for better or for worse. We propose that future work utilize fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in different aspects of peer and family influence, and how these contexts uniquely and interactively influence adolescent substance use initiation and escalation across development.

  16. System dynamics modeling of social/political factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.F.; Turek, M.G.; Eubanks, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The safety and performance of nuclear power plants are a function of many technical factors such as initial design, service and maintenance programs, and utility investment in improvements. Safety and performance are also a function of the social/political influences that affect requirements on personnel, practices and procedures, and resource availability. This paper describes a process for constructing models of the social/political influences on plant operations using the system dynamics technique. The model incorporates representation of internal utility actions and decisions as affected by external factors such as public opinion, intervenor actions, safety and economic regulation, and the financial community. The feedback between external agents and plant performance is explicitly modeled. The resulting model can be used to simulate performance under a variety of different external and internal policy choices. In particular, the model can be used to study means of improving performance in response to externally imposed regulations

  17. Social networks and their influence over the social consciousness forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ananeva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the analysis of social network influence on social consciousness forming. The examples of connection between international politic courses and events and blogosrheres’ virtual activity are given. Due to the analysis made, authors point at negative consequences following the information wars’ dissemination.

  18. Factors that contribute to social media influence within an Internal Medicine Twitter learning community [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3jd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Desai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical societies, faculty, and trainees use Twitter to learn from and educate other social media users. These social media communities bring together individuals with various levels of experience. It is not known if experienced individuals are also the most influential members. We hypothesize that participants with the greatest experience would be the most influential members of a Twitter community. We analyzed the 2013 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Twitter community. We measured the number of tweets authored by each participant and the number of amplified tweets (re-tweets. We developed a multivariate linear regression model to identify any relationship to social media influence, measured by the PageRank. Faculty (from academic institutions comprised 19% of the 132 participants in the learning community (p < 0.0001. Faculty authored 49% of all 867 tweets (p < 0.0001. Their tweets were the most likely to be amplified (52%, p < 0.01. Faculty had the greatest influence amongst all participants (mean 1.99, p < 0.0001. Being a faculty member had no predictive effect on influence (β = 0.068, p = 0.6. The only factors that predicted influence (higher PageRank were the number of tweets authored (p < 0.0001 and number of tweets amplified (p < 0.0001 The status of “faculty member” did not confer a greater influence. Any participant who was able to author the greatest number of tweets or have more of his/her tweets amplified could wield a greater influence on the participants, regardless of his/her authority.

  19. Explaining the role of personal, social and physical environment factors on employed women's physical activity: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtari Aghdam, Fatemeh; Baghiani Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh Nikookheslat, Saed; Noorizadeh, Roghaieh

    2013-05-13

    PA is a multi-factorial behavior that is affected by interpersonal, intra personal, environmental and social factors. In this study we applied explanatory model to determine the total, indirect and direct impact of physical environment, personal factors and social support on PA among employed women. This study was a correlational cross-sectional study which was conducted to model total, indirect and direct impact of environmental, psychological and social factors on PA. A total of 200 women were chosen from Tabriz University by using convenience sampling method. Data about demographic characteristics, psychological variables, social and physical environment were gathered by using self-reported questionnaire and also the PA was measured by using the International PA Questionnaire and pedometer. personal factors, physical and social environment, showed direct effects on PA. Social factors could be seen to have indirect effects on PA through their influence on personal factors such as pros, cons and self-efficacy; also physical environment had indirect effects on PA through social environment. The total effects of physical and social environment on PA type were respectively 0.17, 0.16 on walking, 0.05, 0.07 on moderate activity and 0.15, 0.18 on vigorous activity. Findings from this study indicated that social factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate and vigorous activity, especially through the effects on these factors of self-efficacy, physical environment, pros and cons, and the interactive role of individual, environmental and social impacts on PA. The current study identifies that psychological, physical and social factors could be shown to have direct and indirect influences on all forms of activity. The barriers of PA were the most predictor of this behavior, and based on results, it can be concluded that decreasing the barriers along with improving social and physical environment can lead to increasing PA and health promotion.

  20. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the role of indigenous institutions and social networks can be substantial for mobilizing factors for agricultural production. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market...... transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to factor markets. Specifically, we find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land...

  1. SOCIAL POLICY AS FACTOR OF STATE INSTITUTIONAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Zhukova

    2016-11-01

    priorities and directions of social policy at the state level, outlining of the main efficient ways and forms for citizens problems solving, coordinating of different social institutions activity, considering of socially-economic state development features and appearing of conditions for life level increasing. By the striving for integration to European space and building of own development strategy has to clearly understand own possibilities and external factors of influence. By the choosing the possible alternatives, the main idea of social policy should stay the strive for social justice of society and providing of stable market which doesn’t make worse the conditions and possibilities of future generations. Value/originality in the research process it’s proves that one of the primary task must be magnificent change of social policy vector and performance of urgent economic and social reforms. Looking to this, social policy institute needs serious modernization, especially in its functional displays which could be more directed to the for state social development closing for European standards. Closing of Ukraine to the economic and social standards of developed countries needs the building of socially justice society, providing of suite life conditions for socially vulnerable levels of population and increasing in efficiency of human rights protection system. In this direction, the government has to decrease the social expenses to the budget by means of private investments, transmission targeted support needy. In conditions of budget means economy, it should be carried out the transmission from paternalism in the social sphere to partnership between state, business and citizens in all aspects of social support, the result of successful functioning of social policy functioning as factor of institutional state status must be general development of Ukrainians life level.

  2. Factors Influencing Professional Help-Seeking for Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Randall, Rebecca

    2018-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the majority of people with suicidality do not seek help. Little systematic evaluation of factors influencing professional help-seeking has been done. To systematically evaluate the factors that influence professional help-seeking for suicidality. Published quantitative and qualitative studies in Medline and PsycInfo databases were reviewed following PRISMA. In all, 55 relevant studies were identified. Of these, 15 studies examined professional help-seeking intentions for perceived suicidal ideation, among people with or without suicidality; 21 studies examined professional help-seeking behavior among people with suicidality; and 19 studies examined suicidal decedents' health services use. Several potential important barriers were identified including high self-reliance, lack of perceived need for treatment, and stigmatizing attitudes toward suicide, toward mental health issues, and toward seeking professional treatment. The presence of suicidality and mental health issues was found to generally decrease help-seeking intentions for perceived suicidal ideation while facilitating actual service use. Social support and informal support from family and friends also played an important role in professional help-seeking. Although the majority of the included studies were of sound quality, some of the factors identified in the review were assessed in relatively few studies, and most of the included studies were conducted in industrialized countries. Further quantitative and qualitative studies examining the potential important factors in broader community samples, especially in developing countries, are needed.

  3. An Agent-Based Approach to Modeling Online Social Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Vecht, B. van der

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand social influence in online social media. Therefore, we propose a method in which we implement, validate and improve an individual behavior model. The behavior model is based on three fundamental behavioral principles of social influence from the

  4. Analysis of Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factors of E-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, S.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to study the relationship between e-commerce development and geographical characteristics using data of e-commerce, economy, Internet, express delivery and population from 2011 to 2015. Moran's I model and GWR model are applied to analyze the spatial pattern of E-commerce and its influencing factors. There is a growth trend of e-commerce from west to east, and it is obvious to see that e-commerce development has a space-time clustering, especially around the Yangtze River delta. The comprehensive factors caculated through PCA are described as fundamental social productivity, resident living standard and population sex structure. The first two factors have positive correlation with e-commerce, and the intensity of effect increases yearly. However, the influence of population sex structure on the E-commerce development is not significant. Our results suggest that the clustering of e-commerce has a downward trend and the impact of driving factors on e-commerce is observably distinct from year to year in space.

  5. Factors Affecting Academic Dishonesty in the Space of Social Science Education (A Case Study of Public Universities in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Qarakhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic Dishonesty is one of the important issues in the higher education system of Iran, and reducing or preventing it requires identifying the factors which have an impact on it. The present study has analyzed the perceptions and understandings of PhD students in social science fields, who have a wider experience of scientific socialization in the process of education, with the aim of identifying the factors influencing academic dishonesty in the space of social science in Iran. The findings of this research show that the factors influencing academic dishonesty in the space of social science education can be detected at two individual and structural levels. At the structural level, sources and rules, and at the individual level, academic dishonesty among three groups of actors in educational space, i.e. professors, students and managers (heads of departments and faculties, with reference to their individual and personality characteristics, have paved the way for academic dishonesty, or have resulted in its occurrence. In the framework of a combination of actor/structure in explaining social phenomena, the factors influencing academic dishonesty and non-conformity to the norms of the ethics of science in the educational space can be reduced neither to the role of the structure nor that of the actor. Dishonesty in the ethics of science in social science education and the factors affecting them can be explained in the light of a combination of structure and actor.

  6. Social identity influences stress appraisals and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-09-01

    This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Social factors in informal cancer caregivers: The interrelationships among social stressors, relationship quality, and family functioning in the CanCORS data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Kent, Erin E; Rowland, Julia H

    2016-01-15

    Social and family factors can influence the health outcomes and quality of life of informal caregivers. Little is known about the distribution and correlates of such factors for caregivers of cancer patients. This study sought to fill this gap with data from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance consortium. Lung and colorectal cancer patients nominated an informal caregiver to participate in a caregiving survey. Caregivers reported their sociodemographic and caregiving characteristics, social stress, relationship quality with the patient, and family functioning. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations were used to assess the distribution of caregivers' social factors. Multivariable linear regressions assessed the independent correlates of each social factor. Most caregivers reported low to moderate levels of social stress and good relationship quality and family functioning. In multivariable analyses, older age was associated with less social stress and better family functioning but worse relationship quality, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) up to 0.40 (P quality but worse family functioning (effect sizes ≤ 0.16, P quality. Finally, social factors were important independent correlates of one another. The results indicate the importance of personal and caregiving-related characteristics and the broader family context to social factors. Future work is needed to better understand these pathways and assess whether interventions targeting social factors can improve health or quality-of-life outcomes for informal cancer caregivers. Cancer 2016;122:278-286. © 2015 American Cancer Society. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Social class differences in health behaviours among employees from Britain, Finland and Japan: the influence of psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Laaksonen, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Chandola, Tarani; Head, Jenny; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine social class differences in smoking, heavy drinking, unhealthy food habits, physical inactivity and obesity, and work-related psychosocial factors as explanations for these differences. This is done by comparing employee cohorts from Britain, Finland and Japan. Social class differences in health behaviours are found in the two western European countries, but not in Japan. The studied psychosocial factors related to work, work-family interface and social relationships did not explain the found class differences in health behaviours.

  9. Scent-marking by coyotes, Canis latrans: the influence of social and ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese; Ruff

    1997-11-01

    We observed 49 coyotes, Canis latransfrom five resident packs for 2456 h and five transient coyotes for 51 h from January 1991 to June 1993 in the Lamar River Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A. During these observations we recorded 3042 urinations, 451 defecations, 446 ground scratches and 743 double-marks. The rate of scent-marking (via urination) was influenced by the social organization (resident versus transient) to which the coyote belonged, the social class (alpha, beta or pup) of the animal and the time of the year. Transient coyotes scent-marked at a lower rate than did members of a resident pack. Within the resident packs, alpha coyotes scent-marked at a higher rate than beta coyotes (adults and yearlings subordinant to alphas, but dominant over pups) and pups. Alpha coyotes increased their rate of marking during the breeding season; beta and pup coyotes performed scent-marks at a relatively constant rate throughout the year. There was no influence of social class or time of year on the rate of defecation. The rate of double-marking was highest among alpha coyotes with a peak during the breeding season. Alpha coyotes ground-scratched at a higher rate than did beta and pup coyotes. Alpha and beta coyotes scent-marked more than expected along the periphery of the territory compared to the interior; pups marked in the interior and edge in proportion to expected frequencies. Double-marking and ground-scratching were higher than expected along the periphery of the territory. The distribution of defecations was not different from expected along the edge versus the interior of the territory. Pack size did not influence the rate of scent-marking performed by individuals in the pack or by the alpha pair. We concluded that alpha coyotes were the primary members of the resident pack involved in scent-marking. The large coyote packs and the high rate of marking by the alpha pairs were parallel to the scent-marking behaviour displayed by wolves, C

  10. Predicting social influence with faction sizes and relative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, David; Savage, Scott V

    2013-09-01

    Building on a recent theoretical development in the field of sociological social psychology, we develop a formal mathematical model of social influence processes. The extant theoretical literature implies that factions and status should have non-linear effects on social influence, and yet these theories have been evaluated using standard linear statistical models. Our formal model of influence includes these non-linearities, as specified by the theories. We evaluate the fit of the formal model using experimental data. Our results indicate that a one-parameter mathematical model fits the experimental data. We conclude with the implications of our research and a discussion of how it may be used as an impetus for further work on social influence processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A study to detect factors influencing the formation of loyal customers’ mental image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Sobhaninia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding customers’ behavior normally helps planning better marketing strategies, which could lead to an increase in market share and profitability. Loyal customers are always considered as the most important assets for any firm. This paper presents a survey to detect factors influencing the formation of loyal customers’ mental image. The proposed study uses factor analysis to determine these factors by designing a questionnaire and distributing among some loyal customers who do banking business in Bank Melli Iran located in city of Tehran, Iran. The results indicate that there were eight important factors influencing customer loyalty including social status, business identity, brand strength, the contract role, organizational benefit, consumer rights, organizational image and supporting power.

  12. Which Factors Influence the Adoption of Social Software? An Exploratory Study of Indian Information Technology Consultancy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Razmerita, Liana

    2014-01-01

    The rationale behind traditional knowledge management initiatives is to create, capture, share, organize, and use intangible assets such as organizational knowledge. Information systems have been playing a vital role in the implementation of knowledge management practices and systems. Recently, o...... factors that hinder the adoption of such tools. Finally, on the basis of these research findings we aim to contribute to managerial implications for organizations wishing to adopt social media......., organizations are adopting new forms of information and communication technologies such as social software to encourage employees to create and share knowledge. This article explores the adoption of social software tools by Indian knowledge workers working for information technology consul- tancy firms. A mixed...... method approach has been applied, and drawing on social dilemma theory and Hofstede’s cultural theory, this study discusses the factors affecting the adoption of social software by knowledge workers. A quantitative descriptive-explanatory study and a qualitative exploratory study have been employed...

  13. Identification of influence within the social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollenbroek, Wouter Bernardus; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Gonçalves, Gisela; Somerville, Ian; Melo, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Social media is expected to have a growing impact on the corporate reputation of organizations. Various social media actors referred to as social media influencers can have a particular impact on corporate reputation. It is important for organizations to identify these actors and understand how to

  14. Gender differences in the influence of economic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on later-life health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, Steven G; Gee, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Gender differences in exposure to social resources play a significant role in influencing gender inequalities in health. A related question--and our focus--asks whether these inequalities are also influenced by gendered vulnerabilities to social forces. Specifically, this paper examines the differential impact of social forces on the health of elderly (65+) men and women. Multiple linear regression analysis is used to estimate gender differences in the influence of socioeconomic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on both self-rated health and overall functional health using data from the 1994-1995 National Population Health Survey. Key findings include: 1) the relationship between income and health is significant for older women only, whereas the converse holds for education; 2) having an acceptable body weight is positively associated with health for elderly women only; and 3) stress-related factors are stronger determinants of health for older women. Our findings shed light on the processes of healthy aging for men and women, and suggest that interventions to improve the health of elderly Canadians need to be gender-specific.

  15. Risk of non-fatal suicide ideation and behaviour in recent onset schizophrenia--the influence of clinical, social, self-esteem and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Barrowclough, Christine; Andrews, Bernice; Gregg, Lynsey

    2004-11-01

    Suicide rates amongst schizophrenic patients are high. There are disadvantages in investigating successfully completed suicides which make suicidal ideation and previous attempts important proxy measures of suicidal risk. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with these risk measures. Fifty-nine patients suffering recent onset schizophrenia were assessed for suicidal ideation and history, and a range of demographic, clinical, social (including relatives' Expressed Emotion) and self-esteem measures. Univariate comparisons were made between those with and without suicide ideation and previous attempts. Path analysis was conducted to identify factors directly or indirectly associated with a composite scale of risk (low, medium or high). Approximately 25% of the sample reported a current desire to kill themselves and 47% had made one or more previous attempts. There were numerous significant univariate differences between those with or without ideation or history. Path analysis indicated that greater hopelessness (OR 1.22) and longer duration of illness (OR 1.13) increased risk. Hopelessness was associated with higher negative self-evaluation and social isolation. Negative self-evaluation was associated with more relatives' criticism which was associated with more negative symptoms. Being a male, unmarried and unemployed were all significantly associated with an increase in negative symptoms. Social isolation was associated with being unemployed, older, more positive symptoms and longer illness duration. Duration of illness was not itself predicted by any other variables. Non-fatal suicide ideation and behaviour are significantly associated with an array of demographic, clinical, interpersonal and psychological factors. To reduce risk of suicide, these factors need to be assessed and methods developed to reduce their influence.

  16. Genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of phenotypic variation arise in part from plasticity owing to social interactions, and these patterns contribute, in turn, to the form of selection that shapes the variation we observe in natural populations. This proximate–ultimate dynamic brings genetic variation in social environments to the forefront of evolutionary theory. However, the extent of this variation remains largely unknown. Here, we use a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to assess how mate preferences are influenced by genetic variation in the social environment. We used full-sibling split-families as ‘treatment’ social environments, and reared focal females alongside each treatment family, describing the mate preferences of the focal females. With this method, we detected substantial genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences. The mate preferences of focal females varied according to the treatment families along with which they grew up. We discuss the evolutionary implications of the presence of such genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences, including potential contributions to the maintenance of genetic variation, the promotion of divergence, and the adaptive evolution of social effects on fitness-related traits. PMID:23698010

  17. Social influence in childhood obesity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.

  18. Social Network Factors and Addictive Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review To provide an overview of studies within the past five years examining the impact of social network factors on addictive behaviors among college students, to discuss gaps, limitations, and controversies in the field, and to summarize with a discussion of future directions and implications for interventions. Recent findings A review of 13 studies indicated that greater network exposure, centrality, reciprocated ties, and more tightly interconnected networks were associated with greater alcohol use and other addictive behaviors among college students. Summary Greater research is needed that expands beyond alcohol use to other addictive behaviors among college students. Additionally, more studies are needed that longitudinally study the impact of changes in social networks on addictive behaviors and vice versa, as well as studies examining sociocentric (whole) networks. Social network approaches offer innovative perspectives in understanding social influences on addictive behaviors and novel intervention strategies for potentially reducing addictive behaviors among college students. PMID:28580226

  19. Early-Life Social Isolation Influences Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations during Male-Male Social Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesom, Sarah M; Finton, Caitlyn J; Sell, Gabrielle L; Hurley, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities. Here, we tested the prediction that social isolation during early life would influence ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by adult male mice during same-sex social encounters. Starting at three weeks of age, male mice were housed individually or in social groups of four males for five weeks, after which they were placed in one of three types of paired social encounters. Pair types consisted of: two individually housed males, two socially housed males, or an individually housed and a socially housed male ("mixed" pairs). Vocal behavior (USVs) and non-vocal behaviors were recorded from these 15-minute social interactions. Pairs of mice consisting of at least one individually housed male emitted more and longer USVs, with a greater proportional use of USVs containing frequency jumps and 50-kHz components. Individually housed males in the mixed social pairs exhibited increased levels of mounting behavior towards the socially housed males. Mounting in these pairs was positively correlated with increased number and duration of USVs as well as increased proportional use of spectrally more complex USVs. These findings demonstrate that USVs are part of the suite of social behaviors influenced by early-life social isolation, and suggest that altered vocal communication following isolation reflects reduced social competence.

  20. Bringing patients' social context into the examination room: an investigation of the discussion of social influence during contraceptive counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kira; Minnis, Alexandra M; Lahiff, Maureen; Schmittdiel, Julie; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although social networks are an increasingly recognized influence on contraceptive use, little is known about if and how social influences are discussed during women's contraceptive counseling visits. We performed a mixed-methods analysis of audio recordings of contraceptive counseling visits. We examined predictors of discussion of social influence arising in a contraceptive counseling visit and analyzed the content and process of social influence discussions. Social influences were mentioned in 42% of the 342 visits included in the sample, with these discussions most commonly initiated by patients. Younger patients were more likely to have social influence mentioned than older patients. The content of social influence focused on side effects and adverse events, with the sources of influence being predominantly patients' friends and the media, with little input from partners. Providers were more likely to engage around the content of the social influence than the social influence itself. The frequency with which social influence was mentioned in these visits supports the importance of women's social context on their contraceptive decision making. However, the fact that patients initiated the discussion in the majority of cases suggests that providers may not recognize the relevance of these influences or may not be comfortable engaging with them. Increasing providers' ability to elicit and engage patients about their social context with regard to contraception could enhance providers' ability to understand women's contraceptive preferences and provide appropriate counseling to address their specific concerns or questions. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  3. Virtual Human Role Players for Studying Social Factors in Organizational Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khooshabeh, Peter; Lucas, Gale

    2018-01-01

    The cyber domain of military operations presents many challenges. A unique element is the social dynamic between cyber operators and their leadership because of the novel subject matter expertise involved in conducting technical cyber tasks, so there will be situations where senior leaders might have much less domain knowledge or no experience at all relative to the warfighters who report to them. Nonetheless, it will be important for junior cyber operators to convey convincing information relevant to a mission in order to persuade or influence a leader to make informed decisions. The power dynamic will make it difficult for the junior cyber operator to successfully influence a higher ranking leader. Here we present a perspective with a sketch for research paradigm(s) to study how different factors (normative vs. informational social influence, degree of transparency, and perceived appropriateness of making suggestions) might interact with differential social power dynamics of individuals in cyber decision-making contexts. Finally, we contextualize this theoretical perspective for the research paradigms in viable training technologies.

  4. Virtual Human Role Players for Studying Social Factors in Organizational Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Khooshabeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyber domain of military operations presents many challenges. A unique element is the social dynamic between cyber operators and their leadership because of the novel subject matter expertise involved in conducting technical cyber tasks, so there will be situations where senior leaders might have much less domain knowledge or no experience at all relative to the warfighters who report to them. Nonetheless, it will be important for junior cyber operators to convey convincing information relevant to a mission in order to persuade or influence a leader to make informed decisions. The power dynamic will make it difficult for the junior cyber operator to successfully influence a higher ranking leader. Here we present a perspective with a sketch for research paradigm(s to study how different factors (normative vs. informational social influence, degree of transparency, and perceived appropriateness of making suggestions might interact with differential social power dynamics of individuals in cyber decision-making contexts. Finally, we contextualize this theoretical perspective for the research paradigms in viable training technologies.

  5. Physiological stress response to loss of social influence and threats to masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine J

    2014-02-01

    Social influence is an important component of contemporary conceptualizations of masculinity in the U.S. Men who fail to achieve masculinity by maintaining social influence in the presence of other men may be at risk of stigmatization. As such, men should be especially likely to exhibit a stress response to loss of social influence in the presence of other men. This study assesses whether men who lose social influence exhibit more of a stress response than men who gain social influence, using data collected in a laboratory setting where participants were randomly assigned into four-person groups of varying sex compositions. The groups were videotaped working on two problem-solving tasks. Independent raters assessed change in social influence using a well-validated measure borrowed from experimental work in the Status Characteristics Theory tradition. Cortisol is used as a measure of stress response because it is known to increase in response to loss of social esteem. Results show that young men who lose social influence while working with other young men exhibit cortisol response. In contrast women do not exhibit cortisol response to loss of social influence, nor do men working with women. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of social influence in men may be associated with a physiological stress response because maintaining social influence is very important to men while in the presence of other men. This physiological response to loss of social influence underscores the importance to men of achieving masculinity through gaining and maintaining social influence, and avoiding the stigma associated with the failure to do so. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analyzing the social factors that influence willingness to pay for invasive alien species management under two different strategies: eradication and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llorente, Marina; Martín-López, Berta; Nunes, Paulo A L D; González, José A; Alcorlo, Paloma; Montes, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Biological invasions occur worldwide, and have been the object of ecological and socio-economic research for decades. However, the manner in which different stakeholder groups identify the problems associated with invasive species and confront invasive species management under different policies remains poorly understood. In this study, we conducted an econometric analysis of the social factors influencing willingness to pay for invasive alien species management under two different regimes: eradication and prevention in the Doñana Natural Protected Area (SW Spain). Controlling for the participation of local residents, tourists and conservationists, email and face-to-face questionnaires were conducted. Results indicated that respondents were more willing to pay for eradication than prevention; and public support for invasive alien species management was influenced by an individual's knowledge and perception of invasive alien species, active interest in nature, and socio-demographic attributes. We concluded that invasive alien species management research should confront the challenges to engage stakeholders and accept any tradeoffs necessary to modify different conservation policies to ensure effective management is implemented. Finally, our willingness to pay estimates suggest the Department of Environment of Andalusian Government has suitable social support to meet the budgetary expenditures required for invasive alien species plans and adequate resources to justify an increase in the invasive alien species management budget.

  7. Social Influence on Observed Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia Boda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a novel theoretical approach for understanding racial fluidity, emphasizing the social embeddedness of racial classifications. We propose that social ties affect racial perceptions through within-group micromechanisms, resulting in discrepancies between racial self-identifications and race as classified by others. We demonstrate this empirically on data from 12 Hungarian high school classes with one minority group (the Roma using stochastic actor-oriented models for the analysis of social network panel data. We find strong evidence for social influence: individuals tend to accept their peers' judgement about another student’s racial category; opinions of friends have a larger effect than those of nonfriends. Perceived social position also matters: those well-accepted among majority-race peers are likely to be classified as majority students themselves. We argue that similar analyses in other social contexts shall lead to a better understanding of race and interracial processes.

  8. SOCIAL CAPITAL FRAMEWORK AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea Mihaela-Raluca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the theoretical framework of the social capital concept, based on different approaches identified in the literature and highlight the direct influence social capital has on the entrepreneurial personality characteristics of individuals and organizations. The objectives of the paper focus first on conceptualizing the notion of social capital, by acknowledging the social capital structure and components in the acceptation of the most popular scholars in the research field, the sources of social capital and its role in building social economy; further on, the article explores the influence of social capital in the creation of innovation and economic growth, its dimensions in the entrepreneurial process and the definition of the instruments of measurement, including indicators of trust-generalized and institutional, number of social networks, associational activities-passive and active membership and civic norms. The paper gathers some of the outcomes of different researches conducted in the literature with respect to the positive relationship between social capital dimensions and entrepreneurship, through attracting the right potential of human capital and the required level of financial capital, reducing the transaction costs, identifying new market opportunities and leveraging the social networks, transfer and knowledge overflow and information channels, enabling the launch and the survival of business venture and help gain competitive advantage that would ensure sustainability and success. The case studies referenced in this article use various approaches of highlighting the social capital as a key enabler and not necessarily a generator of entrepreneurial activity, by analyzing the likelihood to launch new ventures based on the interactions with key partners and exchange of information, the sustainability and success of a start up or push/pull factors that determine an entrepreneur to enter the new

  9. Factors affecting Malaysian university students’ purchase intention in social networking sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Sharifi fard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study applied the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 to examine acceptance and use of social networking sites in a marketing setting. This study uses 370 regular higher education students in Malaysia as respondents. Quantitative method is used. The findings revealed that performance expectancy (PE and hedonic motivation were the main factors that influence users’ online purchase intention (PI through social networking sites (SNSs in Malaysia. As for moderating influences of gender and age, the results showed that gender significantly moderated purposed association between these four elements and the online PI, while the moderating effect of age was only recognized in PE. Findings of this research offer practitioners with better insights that would aid them in developing effective online marketing strategies to attract online purchasing users through SNSs.

  10. Origin of Peer Influence in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Marta D.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2014-03-01

    Social networks pervade our everyday lives: we interact, influence, and are influenced by our friends and acquaintances. With the advent of the World Wide Web, large amounts of data on social networks have become available, allowing the quantitative analysis of the distribution of information on them, including behavioral traits and fads. Recent studies of correlations among members of a social network, who exhibit the same trait, have shown that individuals influence not only their direct contacts but also friends' friends, up to a network distance extending beyond their closest peers. Here, we show how such patterns of correlations between peers emerge in networked populations. We use standard models (yet reflecting intrinsically different mechanisms) of information spreading to argue that empirically observed patterns of correlation among peers emerge naturally from a wide range of dynamics, being essentially independent of the type of information, on how it spreads, and even on the class of underlying network that interconnects individuals. Finally, we show that the sparser and clustered the network, the more far reaching the influence of each individual will be.

  11. Social Influences and the Physical Activity Intentions of Parents of Young-Children Families: An Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence within Australia and internationally suggests parenthood as a risk factor for inactivity; however, research into understanding parental physical activity is scarce. Given that active parents can create active families and social factors are important for parents' decision making, the authors investigated a range of social influences on…

  12. Interpersonal Influence in Virtual Social Networks and Consumer Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Botti Abbade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the attitude of college students regarding to interpersonal influence in virtual social networks related to consume decisions. It was conducted a survey with 200 college students from an Institution of Higher Education located in Santa Maria/RS. The sample was obtained through voluntary adhesion and the data collection instrument was applied in a virtual environment. Scales were adapted to measure and evaluate the propensity of students to influence and be influenced by their virtual contacts. The results suggest that the scales adapted are satisfactory to measure what they intend to do. The study also found that men are more able to influence the opinions of their virtual social contacts. On the other hand, the time dedicated to access the Internet positively and significantly influences the propensity of users to be influenced by their virtual social contacts. The correlation between the ability to influence the propensity to be influenced is significant and positive.

  13. Structural equation modeling analysis of factors influencing architects' trust in project design teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhi-kun; NG Fung-fai; WANG Jia-yuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis of factors influencing architects' trust in project design teams. We undertook a survey of architects, during which we distributed 193 questionnaires in 29 A-level architectural We used Amos 6.0 for SEM to identify significant personal construct based factors affecting interpersonal trust. The results show that only social interaction between architects significantly affects their interpersonal trust. The explained variance of trust is not very high in the model. Therefore, future research should add more factors into the current model. The practical implication is that team managers should promote the social interactions between team members such that the interpersonal trust level between team members can be improved.

  14. Activity-Driven Influence Maximization in Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rohit; Saleem, Muhammad Aamir; Calders, Toon

    2017-01-01

    -driven approach based on the identification of influence propagation patterns. In the first work, we identify so-called information-channels to model potential pathways for information spread, while the second work exploits how users in a location-based social network check in to locations in order to identify...... influential locations. To make our algorithms scalable, approximate versions based on sketching techniques from the data streams domain have been developed. Experiments show that in this way it is possible to efficiently find good seed sets for influence propagation in social networks.......Interaction networks consist of a static graph with a timestamped list of edges over which interaction took place. Examples of interaction networks are social networks whose users interact with each other through messages or location-based social networks where people interact by checking...

  15. Influence of the environment on participation in social roles for young adults with down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty-Rose Foley

    Full Text Available The concept of disability is now understood as a result of the interaction between the individual, features related to impairment, and the physical and social environment. It is important to understand these environmental influences and how they affect social participation. The purpose of this study is to describe the social participation of young adults with Down syndrome and examine its relationship with the physical and social environment.Families ascertained from the Down syndrome 'Needs Opinion Wishes' database completed questionnaires during 2011. The questionnaires contained two parts, young person characteristics and family characteristics. Young adults' social participation was measured using the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H and the influences of environmental factors were measured by the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE. The analysis involved descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression.Overall, participation in daily activities was higher (mean 6.45 than in social roles (mean 5.17 (range 0 to 9. When the physical and/or social environment was reported as a facilitator, compared to being no influence or a barrier, participation in social roles was greater (coef 0.89, 95%CI 0.28, 1.52, coef 0.83, 95%CI 0.17, 1.49, respectively. The relationships between participation and both the physical (coef 0.60, 95% CI -0.40, 1.24 and social (coef 0.20, 95%CI -0.47, 0.87 environments were reduced when age, gender, behavior and functioning in ADL were taken into account.We found that young adults' participation in social roles was influenced more by the physical environment than by the social environment, providing a potentially modifiable avenue for intervention.

  16. Influence of the environment on participation in social roles for young adults with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Girdler, Sonya; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Einfeld, Stewart; Tonge, Bruce; Parmenter, Trevor R; Leonard, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The concept of disability is now understood as a result of the interaction between the individual, features related to impairment, and the physical and social environment. It is important to understand these environmental influences and how they affect social participation. The purpose of this study is to describe the social participation of young adults with Down syndrome and examine its relationship with the physical and social environment. Families ascertained from the Down syndrome 'Needs Opinion Wishes' database completed questionnaires during 2011. The questionnaires contained two parts, young person characteristics and family characteristics. Young adults' social participation was measured using the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H) and the influences of environmental factors were measured by the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE). The analysis involved descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression. Overall, participation in daily activities was higher (mean 6.45) than in social roles (mean 5.17) (range 0 to 9). When the physical and/or social environment was reported as a facilitator, compared to being no influence or a barrier, participation in social roles was greater (coef 0.89, 95%CI 0.28, 1.52, coef 0.83, 95%CI 0.17, 1.49, respectively). The relationships between participation and both the physical (coef 0.60, 95% CI -0.40, 1.24) and social (coef 0.20, 95%CI -0.47, 0.87) environments were reduced when age, gender, behavior and functioning in ADL were taken into account. We found that young adults' participation in social roles was influenced more by the physical environment than by the social environment, providing a potentially modifiable avenue for intervention.

  17. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2013-10-01

    Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Review of the Literature on the Social and Environmental Factors Which Influence Children (Aged 3-5 Years) to Be Obese/Overweight and the Accuracy of Parental Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Julie; Keeney, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to review the previously published literature on the social and environmental factors which influence children (aged 3-5 years) to be obese/overweight and the accuracy of parental perceptions. Obesity levels are on the increase in today's society and habits are being passed from parents to children, with family…

  19. Does changing social influence engender changes in alcohol intake? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrew; Kellar, Ian; Conner, Mark; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Turgut, Liz

    2016-10-01

    Past research has suggested that social influences on drinking can be manipulated with subsequent reductions in alcohol intake. However, the experimental evidence for this and the best strategies to positively change these social influences have not been meta-analyzed. This research addressed these gaps. Randomized controlled trials testing social influence-based interventions on adults' drinking were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. The behavior change techniques used in each study were coded and the effect sizes showing the impact of each intervention on (a) social influence and (b) alcohol intake were calculated. Metaregressions identified the association between these effect sizes, as well as the effect of specific behavior change techniques on social influences. Forty-one studies comprising 17,445 participants were included. Changes in social influences were significantly associated with changes in alcohol intake. However, even moderate-to-large changes in social influences corresponded with only a small change in drinking behavior and changing social influences did not reduce alcohol-related problems. Providing normative information about others' behavior and experiences was the most effective technique to change social influences. Social influences and normative beliefs can be changed in drinkers, particularly by providing normative information about how much others' drink. However, even generating large changes in these constructs are likely to engender only small changes in alcohol intake. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. A social work study on socio-economic and cultural factors influencing on community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study to investigate the impacts of four factors on contribution role on society among Arab tribes Jarghoyeh women who live in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire, distributes them among 400 women, and analyzes their feedbacks. There are four hypotheses, which study the effects of various factors on women’s contribution role on society. These factors include educational background, level of welfare, numbers of children and ties of kinship. The results show that while educational background, level of welfare and ties of kinship play important role on women’s contribution role on society, having more children do not statistically have any influence on juvenile delinquency.

  1. Analyzing Spread of Influence in Social Networks for Transportation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    This project analyzed the spread of influence in social media, in particular, the Twitter social media site, and identified the individuals who exert the most influence to those they interact with. There are published studies that use social media to...

  2. Analyzing Spread of Influence in Social Networks for Transportation Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    This project analyzed the spread of influence in social media, in particular, the Twitter social media site, and identified the individuals who exert the most influence to those they interact with. There are published studies that use social media to...

  3. Moderating Effects of Social Value Orientation on the Effect of Social Influence in Prosocial Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhiying; Zheng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Prosocial behaviors are susceptible to individuals' preferences regarding payoffs and social context. In the present study, we combined individual differences with social influence and attempted to discover the effect of social value orientation (SVO) and social influence on prosocial behavior in a trust game and a dictator game. Prosocial behavior in the trust game could be motivated by strategic considerations whereas individuals' decisions in the dictator game could be associated with their social preference. In the trust game, prosocials were less likely than proselfs to conform to the behavior of other group members when the majority of group members distrusted the trustee. In the dictator game, the results of the three-way ANOVA indicated that, irrespective of the type of offer, in contrast to proselfs, prosocials were influenced more by others' generous choices than their selfish choices, even if the selfish choices were beneficial to themselves. The overall results demonstrated that the effect of social influence appears to depend on individuals' SVO: that is, prosocials tend to conform to prosocial rather than proself behaviors.

  4. Influence and Dissemination Of Sentiments in Social Network Communication Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillmann, Robert; Trier, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests the existence of sentiments in online social networks. In comparison to real life human interaction, in which sentiments have been shown to have an influence on human behaviour, it is not yet completely understood which mechanisms explain how sentiments influence users ...... that express the same sentiment polarization. We interpret these findings and suggest future research to advance our currently limited theories that assume perceived and generalized social influence to path-dependent social influence models that consider actual behaviour....

  5. Medical-and-psychosocial factors influencing on the quality of life in patients with cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Mi Son; Kang, Seung Hee; Ryu, Hee Sug; Lee, Eun Hyun; Moon, Seong Mi

    2005-01-01

    Quality of life in patients with cancer may be influenced by various kinds of variables, such as personal, environmental, and medical factors. the purpose of this study was to identify the influencing factors on the quality of life in patients with cancer. One hundred and forty seven patients, who were taking medical therapy or following up after surgery for cervix cancer, participated in the present study. Quality of life, medical variables (cancer stage, type of treatment, follow-up status, and symptom distress), and psychosocial variables (mood disturbance, orientation to life, and social support) were measured. The obtained data were computed using multiple regression analyses. The medical-and-psychosocial variables explained 63.3% of the total variance in the quality of life (R 2 = 0.633, F = 16.969, ρ = .000). Cancer stage, symptom distress, mood disturbance, social support (family), and optimistic orientation to life were significant factors influencing on the quality of life in patients with cervix cancer. An integrative care program which includes medical-and-psychosocial characteristics of patients is essential to improve quality of life in patients with cervix cancer

  6. Medical-and-psychosocial factors influencing on the quality of life in patients with cervix cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Mi Son; Kang, Seung Hee; Ryu, Hee Sug [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Hyun [Ajou Univerisity, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seong Mi [Ajou University Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    Quality of life in patients with cancer may be influenced by various kinds of variables, such as personal, environmental, and medical factors. the purpose of this study was to identify the influencing factors on the quality of life in patients with cancer. One hundred and forty seven patients, who were taking medical therapy or following up after surgery for cervix cancer, participated in the present study. Quality of life, medical variables (cancer stage, type of treatment, follow-up status, and symptom distress), and psychosocial variables (mood disturbance, orientation to life, and social support) were measured. The obtained data were computed using multiple regression analyses. The medical-and-psychosocial variables explained 63.3% of the total variance in the quality of life (R{sup 2} = 0.633, F = 16.969, {rho} = .000). Cancer stage, symptom distress, mood disturbance, social support (family), and optimistic orientation to life were significant factors influencing on the quality of life in patients with cervix cancer. An integrative care program which includes medical-and-psychosocial characteristics of patients is essential to improve quality of life in patients with cervix cancer.

  7. Social media influencers - why we cannot ignore them : An exploratory study about how consumers perceive the influence of social media influencers during the different stages of the purchase decision process

    OpenAIRE

    Gashi, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Social media is connecting individuals all over the world, where the power of interaction and information sharing has shifted from companies to consumers. Since companies now have a harder time reaching out to consumers, social media influencers have been used as a solution to influence the purchase decisions of consumers and thereby drive purchases. However, while social media influencers are said to have an impact on the purchase decisions of consumers, less is actually known about the infl...

  8. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  9. What drives technology-based distractions? A structural equation model on social-psychological factors of technology-based driver distraction engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Yen Winnie; Donmez, Birsen

    2016-06-01

    With the proliferation of new mobile and in-vehicle technologies, understanding the motivations behind a driver's voluntary engagement with such technologies is crucial from a safety perspective, yet is complex. Previous literature either surveyed a large number of distractions that may be diverse, or too focuses on one particular activity, such as cell phone use. Further, earlier studies about social-psychological factors underlying driver distraction tend to focus on one or two factors in-depth, and those that examine a more comprehensive set of factors are often limited in their analyses methods. The present work considers a wide array of social-psychological factors within a structural equation model to predict their influence on a focused set of technology-based distractions. A better understanding of these facilitators can enhance the design of distraction mitigation strategies. We analysed survey responses about three technology-based driver distractions: holding phone conversations, manually interacting with cell phones, and adjusting the settings of in-vehicle technology, as well as responses on five social-psychological factors: attitude, descriptive norm, injunctive norm, technology inclination, and a risk/sensation seeking personality. Using data collected from 525 drivers (ages: 18-80), a structural equation model was built to analyse these social-psychological factors as latent variables influencing self-reported engagement in these three technology-based distractions. Self-reported engagement in technology-based distractions was found to be largely influenced by attitudes about the distractions. Personality and social norms also played a significant role, but technology inclination did not. A closer look at two age groups (18-30 and 30+) showed that the effect of social norms, especially of injunctive norm (i.e., perceived approvals), was less prominent in the 30+ age group, while personality remained a significant predictor for the 30+ age group but

  10. Inquiry-based leadership : The influence of affective attitude, experienced social pressure and self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwijk-Luijk, L.; Krüger, M.; Zijlstra, B.; Volman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of psychological factors that influence inquiry-based leadership. This study investigates how affective attitude, experienced social pressure, and self-efficacy relate to aspects of inquiry-based school leadership. A school leader’s

  11. SOCIAL AND ETHIC INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS ON GENERAL SOCIAL STATE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the analysis of intercommunication of social and ethical aspects of the use of information networks is conducted and their influence on social development of the state is determined.

  12. Contextual and social influences on valuation and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Hein, Grit

    2013-01-01

    To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Social influence and perceptual decision making: a diffusion model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germar, Markus; Schlemmer, Alexander; Krug, Kristine; Voss, Andreas; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Classic studies on social influence used simple perceptual decision-making tasks to examine how the opinions of others change individuals' judgments. Since then, one of the most fundamental questions in social psychology has been whether social influence can alter basic perceptual processes. To address this issue, we used a diffusion model analysis. Diffusion models provide a stochastic approach for separating the cognitive processes underlying speeded binary decisions. Following this approach, our study is the first to disentangle whether social influence on decision making is due to altering the uptake of available sensory information or due to shifting the decision criteria. In two experiments, we found consistent evidence for the idea that social influence alters the uptake of available sensory evidence. By contrast, participants did not adjust their decision criteria.

  14. Socialization of Emotion: Who Influences Whom and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Emotion socialization begins within the family setting and extends outward as children transition into expanded social worlds. Children contribute to their socialization from the first years of life, so the dynamics between parents and children are reciprocal in nature. Because socialization influences are best inferred from patterns that unfold…

  15. Self-image of adolescents with mild intellectual disability in connection with social factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dolar Borštnar, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this master’s thesis is to analyse common self-image of adolescents with mild intellectual disability in mental development and social factors that influence its formation. We used questionnaire as an instrument with which we investigated the following fields: self -contentment, social and intellectual status, anxiety, popularity and physical appearance. We have also analysed the connection between recognized general and academic self-image and reached educational achievement at th...

  16. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL PATTERN AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF E-COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the relationship between e-commerce development and geographical characteristics using data of e-commerce, economy, Internet, express delivery and population from 2011 to 2015. Moran’s I model and GWR model are applied to analyze the spatial pattern of E-commerce and its influencing factors. There is a growth trend of e-commerce from west to east, and it is obvious to see that e-commerce development has a space-time clustering, especially around the Yangtze River delta. The comprehensive factors caculated through PCA are described as fundamental social productivity, resident living standard and population sex structure. The first two factors have positive correlation with e-commerce, and the intensity of effect increases yearly. However, the influence of population sex structure on the E-commerce development is not significant. Our results suggest that the clustering of e-commerce has a downward trend and the impact of driving factors on e-commerce is observably distinct from year to year in space.

  17. Analysis of Factors and Implications Influencing Leadership Ascension of Female Athletic Directors in Intercollegiate Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Rolanda C.

    2010-01-01

    This narrative analysis/life story study was designed to understand the factors influencing the career trajectory of female athletic directors in National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliated institutions and to discover how those factors functioned as a road map for future female administrators. Both social role and role congruity theories…

  18. Critical discussion of social-cognitive factors in smoking initiation among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Social-cognitive models have often been used in research on prevention in adolescent populations, even though the models were designed to describe adult behavior. The aim of the study reported here was to examine critically and constructively the five social-cognitive factors in the 'attitude......, social influence, self-efficacy' (ASE) model. Methods. The examination draws on the results of a qualitative follow-up study of smoking initiation based on semi-structured interviews and observations of 12 adolescents in two Danish school classes, grades 7 and 8. The qualitative study was conducted...... and if relevant discussed these aspects using other theoretical frameworks. Results. The results showed that aspects other than those in the ASE model are also important. Smoking initiation was often situational and unplanned and was sometimes used in negotiating social relationships and identity. Furthermore...

  19. Enterprise Social Media Influence on Organizational Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe

    This paper explores the introduction of Enterprise Social Media into organizational practices. The investigation draws on Foucault’s perspective of dispositif analysis as an approach to analyzing and understanding the influence of technology on organizations. The dispositif analysis is pursued...... through the illustration of an organization implementing an enterprise social media technology for the practice of knowledge management. In the analysis two dispositifs are considered, a dispositif of hierarchy and a dispositif of network. A discussion is carried on the dispositif analysis as a method...... including opportunities and limitations. It is argued that allowing for the analysis of historically formed dispositifs can add to our way of understanding the influences of technology on the social order of organizations....

  20. Factors Associated with Social Interactions between Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Georgina; Oakes, Peter M.; Alexander, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that deaf children can have marked social difficulties compared with their hearing peers. Factors that influence these social interactions need to be reviewed to inform interventions. A systematic search of 5 key databases and 3 specialized journals identified 14 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of…

  1. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  2. The Social Media Indicator 2 : Towards a Software Tool for Measuring the Influence of Social Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withaar, Robin J.; Ribeiro, Gabriella F.; Effing, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Influence measurement regarding social media has gained importance. This paper introduces a matrix which is a framework to measure the influence of social media by individual users. This matrix comprises the metrics to measure personal influence for Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube and Google+.

  3. The Prototypical Majority Effect Under Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv-Mashinsky, Shiri; Undorf, Monika; Schwarz, Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Majority views are reported with greater confidence and fluency than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. This Prototypical Majority Effect (PME) was attributed generally to conformity pressure, but Koriat et al. showed that it can arise from the processes underlying decision and confidence independent of social influence. Here we examined the PME under conditions that differ in social influence. In Experiment 1, a robust PME emerged in the absence of information about the majority views, but the provision sof that information increased the choice of the majority view and magnified the PME. In Experiment 2, a PME emerged in a minority-biased condition that misled participants to believe that the majority view was the minority view, but the PME was stronger in a majority-biased condition. The results were discussed in terms of a dual-process view: The PME observed under social influence may contain externally driven and internally driven components.

  4. A message passing algorithm for the evaluation of social influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassio, Luca; Fagnani, Fabio; Frasca, Paolo; Ozdaglar, Asuman

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new measure of node centrality in social networks, the Harmonic Influence Centrality, which emerges naturally in the study of social influence over networks. Next, we introduce a distributed message passing algorithm to compute the Harmonic Influence Centrality of each

  5. چکیدهPsychological and Social factors Influencing the Violence Against Women, Nourabad, Fars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mohammadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Violence against women is always of social problems which faced the individual and social health of community members. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors affecting violence against women in the Nurabad. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on a year of their lives of married women in Nurabad city in 2014 with the level of primary education or more. The assessment tool was questionnaire and 400 students were selected by cluster sampling method. Variations of gender orientation, decision-making power of women and social class of respondents were assessed. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with the aggregate variables and regression analyses were used to design a model. Results: The correlation of sexual orientation or violence against women and to the decision-making power or violence against women were 0.731and 0.657 respectively. Variable social base - economic variables on the variables of gender orientation 0.384 and on the decision-making power of women 0.295 were affected. It also showed that the variables of gender orientation at the rate of 0.423 will predict the changes in the decision-making power of women. Conclusion: Variable of gender orientation, decision-making and social class as factors determining violence against women and its incidence in the family.

  6. What factors influence UK medical students' choice of foundation school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants' choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013-2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p =0.0001). UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants.

  7. Social cure, what social cure? The propensity to underestimate the importance of social factors for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander; McMahon, Charlotte; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Steffens, Niklas K

    2018-02-01

    Recent meta-analytic research indicates that social support and social integration are highly protective against mortality, and that their importance is comparable to, or exceeds, that of many established behavioural risks such as smoking, high alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, and obesity that are the traditional focus of medical research (Holt-Lunstad et al., 2010). The present study examines perceptions of the contribution of these various factors to life expectancy within the community at large. American and British community respondents (N = 502) completed an on-line survey assessing the perceived importance of social and behavioural risk factors for mortality. As hypothesized, while respondents' perceptions of the importance of established behavioural risks was positively and highly correlated with their actual importance, social factors were seen to be far less important for health than they actually are. As a result, overall, there was a small but significant negative correlation between the perceived benefits and the actual benefits of different social and behavioural factors. Men, younger participants, and participants with a lower level of education were more likely to underestimate the importance of social factors for health. There was also evidence that underestimation was predicted by a cluster of ideological factors, the most significant of which was respondents' respect for prevailing convention and authorities as captured by Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Findings suggest that while people generally underestimate the importance of social factors for health this also varies as a function of demographic and ideological factors. They point to a range of challenges confronting those who seek to promote greater awareness of the importance of social factors for health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  9. Factors Influencing Fast-Food Consumption Among Adolescents in Tehran: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari Majabadi, Hesamedin; Solhi, Mahnaz; Montazeri, Ali; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Nejat, Saharnaz; Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Djazayeri, Abolghasem

    2016-03-01

    The consumption of different types of fast food is increasingly growing in all parts of the world, both in developed and developing countries. Because of the changes and transitions in the lifestyle and dietary habits of people, an increasing number of people from different age groups, particularly adolescents and young adults, are inclined toward consuming fast food. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors influencing fast-food consumption among adolescents in Tehran, Iran. The present qualitative study was conducted in 2012 - 2013 in Tehran, the capital of Iran. To achieve the objective of this study, 42 adolescents were enrolled in this study through a purposive sampling method, and the required data was collected via individual semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data collection and analysis were carried out simultaneously, and the collected data was analyzed via a thematic content analysis and using MAXQDA 10 software. In this study after coding the transcribed interviews, the findings were categorized into three main themes as follows: personal views, social factors, and family factors. Each theme included several categories and subcategories, and the coded sentences and phrases were placed under each category and subcategory. The results of this study showed that the number of factors promoting fast-food consumption appeared to be more than the inhibiting factors and that the diverse factors at the individual and social level influenced fast-food consumption among adolescents.

  10. Social Relationships Moderate Genetic Influences on Heavy Drinking in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Peter B; Salvatore, Jessica E; Maes, Hermine H; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Aliev, Fazil; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2017-11-01

    Social relationships, such as committed partnerships, limit risky behaviors like heavy drinking, in part, because of increased social control. The current analyses examine whether involvement in committed relationships or social support extend beyond a main effect to limit genetic liability in heavy drinking (gene-environment interaction) during young adulthood. Using data from the young adult wave of the Finnish Twin Study, FinnTwin12 (n = 3,269), we tested whether involvement in romantic partnerships or social support moderated genetic influences on heavy drinking using biometric twin modeling for gene-environment interaction. Involvement in a romantic partnership was associated with a decline in genetic variance in both males and females, although the overall magnitude of genetic influence was greater in males. Sex differences emerged for social support: increased social support was associated with increased genetic influence for females and reduced genetic influence for males. These findings demonstrate that social relationships are important moderators of genetic influences on young adult alcohol use. Mechanisms of social control that are important in limiting genetic liability during adolescence extend into young adulthood. In addition, although some relationships limit genetic liability equally, others, such as extensive social networks, may operate differently across sex.

  11. Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Smith, Timothy B; Baker, Mark; Harris, Tyler; Stephenson, David

    2015-03-01

    Actual and perceived social isolation are both associated with increased risk for early mortality. In this meta-analytic review, our objective is to establish the overall and relative magnitude of social isolation and loneliness and to examine possible moderators. We conducted a literature search of studies (January 1980 to February 2014) using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and Google Scholar. The included studies provided quantitative data on mortality as affected by loneliness, social isolation, or living alone. Across studies in which several possible confounds were statistically controlled for, the weighted average effect sizes were as follows: social isolation odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, loneliness OR = 1.26, and living alone OR = 1.32, corresponding to an average of 29%, 26%, and 32% increased likelihood of mortality, respectively. We found no differences between measures of objective and subjective social isolation. Results remain consistent across gender, length of follow-up, and world region, but initial health status has an influence on the findings. Results also differ across participant age, with social deficits being more predictive of death in samples with an average age younger than 65 years. Overall, the influence of both objective and subjective social isolation on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Analysis of Social and Genetic Factors Influencing Heterosexual Transmission of HIV within Serodiscordant Couples in the Henan Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian; Zhu, Peng; Zhang, Yilei; Li, Jie; Ma, Xuejun; Li, Ning; Wang, Qi; Xue, Xiujuan; Luo, Le; Li, Zizhao; Ring, Huijun Z; Ring, Brian Z; Su, Li

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable variability between individuals in susceptibility to infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many social, clinical and genetic factors are known to contribute to the likelihood of HIV transmission, but there is little consensus on the relative importance and potential interaction of these factors. Additionally, recent studies of several variants in chemokine receptors have identified alleles that may be predictive of HIV transmission and disease progression; however the strengths and directions of the associations of these genetic markers with HIV transmission have markedly varied between studies. To better identify factors that predict HIV transmission in a Chinese population, 180 cohabiting serodiscordant couples were enrolled for study by the Henan Center for Disease Prevention and Control, and transmission and progression of HIV infection were regularly measured. We found that anti-retroviral therapy, education level, and condom use were the most significant factors in determining likelihood of HIV transmission in this study. We also assessed ten variants in three genes (CXCL12, CCR2, and CCR5) that have been shown to influence HIV transmission. We found two tightly linked variants in CCR2 and CCR5, rs1799864 and rs1800024, have a significant positive association with transmission as recessive models (OR>10, P value=0.011). Mixed effects models showed that these genetic variants both retained significance when assessed with either treatment or condom use. These markers of transmission susceptibility may therefore serve to help stratify individuals by risk for HIV transmission.

  13. Analysis of Social and Genetic Factors Influencing Heterosexual Transmission of HIV within Serodiscordant Couples in the Henan Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhu

    Full Text Available There is considerable variability between individuals in susceptibility to infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Many social, clinical and genetic factors are known to contribute to the likelihood of HIV transmission, but there is little consensus on the relative importance and potential interaction of these factors. Additionally, recent studies of several variants in chemokine receptors have identified alleles that may be predictive of HIV transmission and disease progression; however the strengths and directions of the associations of these genetic markers with HIV transmission have markedly varied between studies. To better identify factors that predict HIV transmission in a Chinese population, 180 cohabiting serodiscordant couples were enrolled for study by the Henan Center for Disease Prevention and Control, and transmission and progression of HIV infection were regularly measured. We found that anti-retroviral therapy, education level, and condom use were the most significant factors in determining likelihood of HIV transmission in this study. We also assessed ten variants in three genes (CXCL12, CCR2, and CCR5 that have been shown to influence HIV transmission. We found two tightly linked variants in CCR2 and CCR5, rs1799864 and rs1800024, have a significant positive association with transmission as recessive models (OR>10, P value=0.011. Mixed effects models showed that these genetic variants both retained significance when assessed with either treatment or condom use. These markers of transmission susceptibility may therefore serve to help stratify individuals by risk for HIV transmission.

  14. Cafeteria factors that influence milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children: grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, P; Bednar, C; Klammer, S

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children in North Texas. Ten focus groups with a total of 41 children aged 6 to 11 years were conducted using a grounded theory approach. Based on the principles of Social Learning Theory, milk preferences and health beliefs were identified as personal factors that influenced drinking. Cafeteria rules, milk flavor, product packaging, modeling by adults, and shared experiences were environmental factors. The data suggest that school cafeterias can capitalize on their unique position to offer milk-drinking opportunities that children can share to combine nutrition education with sensory experience.

  15. Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Robledo Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

  16. Influence of personal social network and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation in Chinese university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    Full Text Available Personal social network and coping skills have important influences on suicidality of young people and such influences must be understood in the context of other factors. This study aims to assess the influences of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation and to disentangle their possible pathways using a large sample of university students from China.5972 students, randomly selected from 6 universities in China, completed the questionnaire survey for the study. Logistic regression was performed to estimate individual effect of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation. A partial least squares path model (PLSPM was used to probe possible paths of their effects in the context of psychopathology.Of the 5972 students, 16.39% reported the presence of suicidal ideation. Poor social contacts were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal ideation. The influence of coping skills varied by coping styles adapted toward problems. A high score of skills on seeking guidance and support, problem solving as well as seeking alternative rewards was associated with a reduced risk of suicidal ideation; whereas a high score of acceptance or resignation, emotional discharge as well as logical analysis was associated with a significantly increased risk. Modeling the data with PLSPM indicated that the avoidance coping skills conferred the most important dimensional variable in suicidal ideation prediction, followed by the approach coping skills and social network.Poor social contacts and deficient coping skills are strong risk factors for suicidal ideation in young students. Prevention program focusing on these problems may have an enduring effect on reducing suicidal behavior in this population.

  17. Influence of personal social network and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation in Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Qin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Personal social network and coping skills have important influences on suicidality of young people and such influences must be understood in the context of other factors. This study aims to assess the influences of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation and to disentangle their possible pathways using a large sample of university students from China. 5972 students, randomly selected from 6 universities in China, completed the questionnaire survey for the study. Logistic regression was performed to estimate individual effect of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation. A partial least squares path model (PLSPM) was used to probe possible paths of their effects in the context of psychopathology. Of the 5972 students, 16.39% reported the presence of suicidal ideation. Poor social contacts were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal ideation. The influence of coping skills varied by coping styles adapted toward problems. A high score of skills on seeking guidance and support, problem solving as well as seeking alternative rewards was associated with a reduced risk of suicidal ideation; whereas a high score of acceptance or resignation, emotional discharge as well as logical analysis was associated with a significantly increased risk. Modeling the data with PLSPM indicated that the avoidance coping skills conferred the most important dimensional variable in suicidal ideation prediction, followed by the approach coping skills and social network. Poor social contacts and deficient coping skills are strong risk factors for suicidal ideation in young students. Prevention program focusing on these problems may have an enduring effect on reducing suicidal behavior in this population.

  18. The social factors implicated in cigarette smoking in a Jordanian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, A

    2007-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among scholars and university students in Jordan. The aim of this study is to discover the environmental factors and social influences that motivate Jordanian students to smoke and to recommend adequate programs in order to stop adolescents from smoking. A questionnaire of (28) items was designed to assess students and professor's attitudes towards smoking, the sample of the study consisted of(851) participants from different levels in a community nearby Al-Isra Private University. The study also attempted to examine the effects of the following factors: social status, age, gender, parental education and mode of spending free time, having parents, siblings, friends and teachers who smoke. The results show that the proportion of smokers to nonsmokers was of (33:67). The first cigarette smoked by 65% of the sample, was before the age of 18 years and 88.5% was before the age of 21 years. The environmental factors and social influences that motivate students to smoke were related to teachers and friends behavior. The major reasons to start smoking were to try something new and Spending free time with friends more than with family. Also Health disturbances suffered by smokers (fatigue, stress, frustration and depression) were as two times greater compared to nonsmokers. Desire to quit smoking among participants were very high and there was a positive correlation between nonsmokers and high level of education. Desire were greatly negative to have smoker mate = 93%, smoker children = 96% or smoker friends = 87%. In conclusion the increased rate of smoking before age of 18 years indicates that smoking prevention programs need to be started at an earlier age. The risk factors of smoking onset are subject to modification and families must be aware of the potential risks of certain ways of spending time and modifying attitudes.

  19. Factors that influence exercise activity among women post hip fracture participating in the Exercise Plus Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; D'Adamo, Christopher; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Hawkes, William; Shardell, Michelle; Golden, Justine; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Magaziner, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Using a social ecological model, this paper describes selected intra- and interpersonal factors that influence exercise behavior in women post hip fracture who participated in the Exercise Plus Program. Model testing of factors that influence exercise behavior at 2, 6 and 12 months post hip fracture was done. The full model hypothesized that demographic variables; cognitive, affective, physical and functional status; pain; fear of falling; social support for exercise, and exposure to the Exercise Plus Program would influence self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and stage of change both directly and indirectly influencing total time spent exercising. Two hundred and nine female hip fracture patients (age 81.0 +/- 6.9), the majority of whom were Caucasian (97%), participated in this study. The three predictive models tested across the 12 month recovery trajectory suggest that somewhat different factors may influence exercise over the recovery period and the models explained 8 to 21% of the variance in time spent exercising. To optimize exercise activity post hip fracture, older adults should be helped to realistically assess their self-efficacy and outcome expectations related to exercise, health care providers and friends/peers should be encouraged to reinforce the positive benefits of exercise post hip fracture, and fear of falling should be addressed throughout the entire hip fracture recovery trajectory.

  20. The influence of social and psychological factors in the management of contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantseva, G.M.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.-M.; Alien, P.T.; Arkhangelskaya, H.V.; Nyagu, A.I.; Prilipko, V.; Ageeva, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    adaptive behaviors. Financial compensation based on the notion of victimization may have reinforced expressions of helplessness, vulnerability and self-reported low health status. The difficult issue of health consequences related to radiation in combination with extensive medical examinations and communication problems furthermore seem to have enhanced worries about current and long term health effects. The importance of decision makers taking account of social and psychological factors in the management of radiological accidents is emphasized and the central role of correct and continuous information is acknowledged and specified regarding type and focus in the medium and long term time perspectives. Information to populations in areas to which people may be relocated is discussed, as well as the social psychological influences of utilized countermeasures and their relationships to decision making and public reactions. It is suggested that less overall negative psychological impact could be achieved by regular monitoring of public opinions and sentiments, a general availability of information and medical care combined with selective medical examinations focused on vulnerable groups, selected on the basis of predictive studies of the health development, time limited financial compensation and the distribution of compensation or benefits in relation to adaptive protective behavior

  1. Factors influencing HIV-risk behaviors among HIV-positive urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Fletcher, Audwin; Miller, J Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    Urban African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV, the virus associated with AIDS. Although incidence and mortality appear to be decreasing in some populations, they continue to remain steady among inner-city African Americans. A major concern is the number of HIV-positive individuals who continue to practice high-risk behaviors. Understanding factors that increase risks is essential for the development and implementation of effective prevention initiatives. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social and cultural factors that influence high-risk behaviors among inner-city HIV-positive African Americans. Leininger's culture care diversity and universality theory guided the study. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-positive African Americans in the community to explore social and cultural factors that increase HIV-risky behaviors. For this study, family/kinship, economic, and education factors played a significant role in risky behaviors. Reducing HIV disparity among African Americans is dependent on designing appropriate interventions that enhance protective factors. Clinicians providing care to HIV-positive individuals can play a key role in reducing transmission by recognizing and incorporating these factors when designing effective prevention interventions.

  2. The influence of personality on social attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, D.W.; Bischof, W.F.; Anderson, N.C.C.; Jakobsen, T.; Kingstone, A.

    2014-01-01

    The intersection between personality psychology and the study of social attention has been relatively untouched. We present an initial study that investigates the influence of the Big Five personality traits on eye movement behaviour towards social stimuli. By combining a free-viewing eye-tracking

  3. Revising TAM for hedonic location-based social networks: the influence of TAM, perceived enjoyment, innovativeness and extraversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Mariëlle E.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria

    2014-01-01

    As a hedonic information system, a location-based social network (LBSN) is often seen as a promising innovative mobile service. However, research on LBSNs is still limited. Little is known about the factors influencing the intention to use LBSNs. Our study aims to explain the critical factors

  4. Influence of Creativity and Social Capital on the Entrepreneurial Intention of Tourism Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ching Chia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional knowledge coordination and the systematic promotion of rural culture using a combination of ecological advantages and environmental education are emerging topics in discussions on entrepreneurship. Considering that both creativity and social capital are critical factors for developing touristic activities, this study investigated their influences on the entrepreneurial intentions of tourism students in a metropolitan area, with the objective of contributing towards talent development in touristic entrepreneurship. A survey was administered at one university in Taiwan, and 213 valid subjects were analysed. The results first revealed that tourism students’ creativity was divided into two dimensions, namely originality and usefulness; that social capital could be categorised as being either bridging or bonding; and that entrepreneurial intention was divided into conviction and preparation. The results indicated that tourism students with higher levels of creativity showed stronger entrepreneurial intentions. The usefulness of creativity had a stronger influence on entrepreneurial conviction than on entrepreneurial preparation. In addition, bridgingbased social capital had a significant influence on the entrepreneurial conviction of tourism students. The results of this study may serve as a reference for tourism administrators in the development of strategies for human resources management, particularly in personnel selection and training.

  5. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Olena V.; Kanekar, Shami; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2017-01-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results. PMID:23685235

  6. Knowledge in schizophrenia: The Portuguese version of KAST (Knowledge About Schizophrenia Test) and analysis of social-demographic and clinical factors' influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltio, C S; Attux, C; Ferraz, M B

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, and the knowledge about it can have a positive impact. The purpose of this study was to make the translation and cultural adaptation of the Knowledge About Schizophrenia Test (KAST) into Portuguese and determine the influence of clinical and socio-demographic factors on knowledge. The test was applied to 189 caregivers of patients enrolled in Schizophrenia Program of the Federal University of São Paulo, 30 caregivers of clinical patients of the General Outpatient Clinic of the same University, and 30 health professionals. The face and content validity of the test was established. The mean value (SD) obtained with the application of the final version to caregivers of schizophrenic patients was 12.96 (2.45) - maximum 17. Level of knowledge increased considering the following order: caregivers of clinical patients, caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and mental health professionals. The intraclass correlation coefficient (0.592) obtained in the test-retest was statistically significant. An influence of social class, race, gender and education of the caregiver on the test was observed, and the last two factors were more relevant. The KAST translated and adapted into Portuguese is a valid instrument and can be used as an evaluation tool on psychoeducational interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on the relation between parental social class and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Petersen, L.; Prescott, Eva Irene Bossano

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and maternal prenatal environmental factors as well as the post-natal rearing environment may contribute to the association between childhood socioeconomic circumstances and later mortality. In order to disentangle these influences, we studied all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a c...... in a cohort of adoptees, in whom we estimated the effects of their biological and adoptive fathers' social classes as indicators of the genetic and/or prenatal environmental factors and the post-natal environment, respectively....

  8. Factors influencing the planning of social activities : empirical analysis of social interaction diary data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den P.E.W.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Results of a study on the planning of social activities are reported. Data collected in the Netherlands from social interaction diaries were used to estimate a multinomial logistic regression model to analyze whether a social activity is prearranged, routine, or spontaneous as a function of personal

  9. [Influence of autonomy support, social goals and relatedness on amotivation in physical education classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Murcia, Juan A; Parra Rojas, Nicolás; González-Cutre Coll, David

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze some factors that influence amotivation in physical education classes. A sample of 399 students, of ages 14 to 16 years, was used. They completed the Perceived Autonomy Support Scale in Exercise Settings (PASSES), the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE), the factor of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES) adapted to physical education and the amotivation> factor of the Perceived Locus of Causality Scale (PLOC). The psychometric properties of the PASSES were analyzed, as this scale had not been validated to the Spanish context. In this analysis, the scale showed appropriate validity and reliability. The results of the structural equation model indicated that social responsibility and social relationship goals positively predicted perception of relatedness, whereas the context of autonomy support did not significantly predict it. In turn, perception of relatedness negatively predicted amotivation. The findings are discussed with regard to enhancing students' positive motivation.

  10. Factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management in patients with COPD: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpershoek, Yjg; Vervoort, Scjm; Nijssen, Lit; Trappenburg, Jca; Schuurmans, M J

    2016-01-01

    In patients with COPD, self-management skills are important to reduce the impact of exacerbations. However, both detection and adequate response to exacerbations appear to be difficult for some patients. Little is known about the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and explain the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management behavior. A qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews was performed according to the grounded theory approach, following a cyclic process in which data collection and data analysis alternated. Fifteen patients (male n=8; age range 59-88 years) with mild to very severe COPD were recruited from primary and secondary care settings in the Netherlands, in 2015. Several patterns in exacerbation-related self-management behavior were identified, and a conceptual model describing factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management was developed. Acceptance, knowledge, experiences with exacerbations, perceived severity of symptoms and social support were important factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management. Specific factors influencing recognition of exacerbations were heterogeneity of exacerbations and habituation to symptoms. Feelings of fear, perceived influence on exacerbation course, patient beliefs, ambivalence toward treatment, trust in health care providers and self-empowerment were identified as specific factors influencing self-management actions. This study provided insight into factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management behavior in COPD patients. The conceptual model can be used as a framework for health care professionals providing self-management support. In the development of future self-management interventions, factors influencing the process of exacerbation-related self-management should be taken into account.

  11. Quantifying social influence in an online cultural market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pickard, Galen; Pentland, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    We revisit experimental data from an online cultural market in which 14,000 users interact to download songs, and develop a simple model that can explain seemingly complex outcomes. Our results suggest that individual behavior is characterized by a two-step process--the decision to sample and the decision to download a song. Contrary to conventional wisdom, social influence is material to the first step only. The model also identifies the role of placement in mediating social signals, and suggests that in this market with anonymous feedback cues, social influence serves an informational rather than normative role.

  12. Quantifying social influence in an online cultural market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coco Krumme

    Full Text Available We revisit experimental data from an online cultural market in which 14,000 users interact to download songs, and develop a simple model that can explain seemingly complex outcomes. Our results suggest that individual behavior is characterized by a two-step process--the decision to sample and the decision to download a song. Contrary to conventional wisdom, social influence is material to the first step only. The model also identifies the role of placement in mediating social signals, and suggests that in this market with anonymous feedback cues, social influence serves an informational rather than normative role.

  13. Factors Influencing Older Worker Quality of Life and Intent to Continue to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokus, Diane

    2008-01-01

    High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A…

  14. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2016-01-01

    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  15. Parents, Peer Groups, and Other Socializing Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2000-01-01

    Critically examines three propositions of Harris' group socialization theory (1995, 1998) related to parents' long-term effects on children's psychological characteristics, peer groups' influences, and the nature of dyadic relationships. Maintains that available evidence is more consistent with a model of multiple socialization agents. Proposes a…

  16. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  17. [Psychological conditions and the influence factors of the Sichuan Three Gorges immigrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jianni; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yang; Li, Ge

    2009-01-01

    To learn and analyze the psychological conditions and the influence factors of Sichuan immigrations so as to provide the science basis for the government. Take residents generally questionnaire, symptom checklist (SCL90), psychosocial stress survey for groups(PSSG) and social support rating scale (SSRS) four questionnaires to collect and analyze the mental conditions and influences of Sichuan immigrations and local residents by cluster stratified random sampling. There is no difference in the sex, age, marriage, culture, occupation, economy and character between immigrations and local residents. Immigrations owned medical safeguard are less than local residents (P marriage, the occupation, psychological stress and social support of migrants relate to the mental health of migrants. The mental health of Sichuan immigrations is bad, so the government should strengthen their financial support and pay attention to their humanist concern.

  18. Game theory, conditional preferences, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Wynn C; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.

  19. Factors influencing emergency nurses' ethical problems during the outbreak of MERS-CoV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2018-05-01

    Whenever there has been a worldwide contagious disease outbreak, there have been reports of infection and death of healthcare workers. Particularly because emergency nurses have contact with patients on the front line, they experience ethical problems in nursing while struggling with infectious diseases in an unfavorable environment. The objective of this study was to explore emergency nurses' ethical problems and to identify factors influencing these problems during the outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus in Korea. For this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire survey was conducted with emergency nurses working in six hospitals selected through convenience sampling from the hospitals designated for Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus patients in the capital area. Data were collected from 169 emergency nurses in Korea during August 2015. Ethical considerations: This research was approved by the Institutional Review Board of G University in Korea. The findings of this study suggest that during the Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus outbreak, emergency nurses experienced ethical problems tied to a mind-set of avoiding patients. Three factors were found to influence emergency nurses' ethical problems (in order of influence): cognition of social stigmatization, level of agreement with infection control measures, and perceived risk. Through this study, we obtained information on emergency nurses' ethical problems during the Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus outbreak and identified the factors that influence them. As found in this study, nurses' ethical problems were influenced most by cognitions of social stigmatization. Accordingly, to support nurses confidently care for people during future health disasters, it is most urgent to promote appropriate public consciousness that encourages healthcare workers.

  20. Health Literacy among Medically Underserved: The Role of Demographic Factors, Social Influence, and Religious Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Gwede, Clement K; Sutton, Steven K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Davis, Stacy N; Abdulla, Rania; Ravindra, Chitra; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard; Meade, Cathy D

    2017-11-01

    The current study examined the sociodemographic and psychosocial variables that predicted being at risk for low health literacy among a population of racially and ethnically diverse patients accessing primary care services at community-based clinics. Participants (N = 416) were aged 50-75 years, currently not up-to-date with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, at average CRC risk, and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at promoting CRC screening. Participants completed a baseline interview that assessed health literacy as measured by Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised, sociodemographic factors, and psychosocial variables (e.g., health beliefs) prior to randomization and receipt of an intervention. Thirty-six percent of the participants were found to be at risk for low health literacy. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were assessed as predictors of being at risk for low health literacy using logistic regression. In the final model, predictors were male gender, being from a racial/ethnic minority group, being unable to work, having higher social influence scores, and having higher religious belief scores. These findings suggest several patient characteristics that may be associated with low health literacy, and highlight the importance of supporting all patients through simplified and clear communications and information to improve understanding of CRC screening information.

  1. Influence Maximization in Social Networks with Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucur, Doina; Iacca, Giovanni; Squillero, Giovanni; Burelli, Paolo

    We live in a world of social networks. Our everyday choices are often influenced by social interactions. Word of mouth, meme diffusion on the Internet, and viral marketing are all examples of how social networks can affect our behaviour. In many practical applications, it is of great interest to

  2. Social integration of Latin-American immigrants in Spain: the influence of the community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Asur; Herrero, Juan

    2012-11-01

    The main goal of this study is to analyze the degree to which several community elements such as insecurity, discrimination and informal community support might have an influence on the social integration of Latin-American immigrants, a group at risk of social exclusion in Spain. Multivariate linear regression analyses results showed that informal community support is positively related to social integration whereas insecurity is negatively related. The statistical relationship between discrimination and social integration disappears once levels of informal community support are taken into account. A better understanding of the factors that either promote or inhibit the social integration progress of immigrant population is important to orientate public policies and intervention programs that contribute to the adaptation of this population to the host society.

  3. Collective influence in evolutionary social dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-03-01

    When evolutionary games are contested in structured populations, the degree of each player in the network plays an important role. If they exist, hubs often determine the fate of the population in remarkable ways. Recent research based on optimal percolation in random networks has shown, however, that the degree is neither the sole nor the best predictor of influence in complex networks. Low-degree nodes may also be optimal influencers if they are hierarchically linked to hubs. Taking this into account leads to the formalism of collective influence in complex networks, which as we show here, has far-reaching implications for the favorable resolution of social dilemmas. In particular, there exists an optimal hierarchical depth for the determination of collective influence that we use to describe the potency of players for passing their strategies, which depends on the strength of the social dilemma. Interestingly, the degree, which corresponds to the baseline depth zero, is optimal only when the temptation to defect is small. Our research reveals that evolutionary success stories are related to spreading processes which are rooted in favorable hierarchical structures that extend beyond local neighborhoods.

  4. Film festival as a factor of art cinema social institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ye. Konovalov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing recently interest towards the art house cinema stipulates the relevance in the field of sociological investigations of the cinema proper as a social institution and directly the art cinema, as this area most brightly covers those pressing problems and cardinal social changes that occur nowadays. The article deals with the analysis of the film festival as a structural element when researching the art house cinema as a social institution. At the same time, carrying out the function of the mass media and social institution, the art house cinema represents a great interest for studying in the field of sociology. Acting as mass media, art cinema can originally influence its audience, forming specific models of behavior, social aims, and sometimes political views of its audience. A new judgment of factors of social institutionalization of art cinema is offered for consideration, one of which is the film festival. Basic research on the basis of modern scientific works of foreign researches of the cinema is conducted. This subject offers judgment of processes concerning social interaction in the framework of film festival acting as establishment for performing the function of mass media and a social institution on behalf of the art house cinema.

  5. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  6. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  7. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the context of the most recently crisis, named the Great Recession (2008 and after, when the economies are starting to recover (2013. Using linear regression in R (lm function, the goal is to explain the relationship between the interest variable (GDP per capita and certain independent variables. It is expected that even tough the estimators are to be different – as level – in both cases studied, the relationship type between them to be the same. The goodness of fit for the models used will be made based on ANOVA.

  8. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001). Conclusion UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants. PMID:28458589

  9. Predicting Dynamical Crime Distribution From Environmental and Social Influences

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    Simon Garnier

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how social and environmental factors contribute to the spatio-temporal distribution of criminal activities is a fundamental question in modern criminology. Thanks to the development of statistical techniques such as Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM, it is possible to evaluate precisely the criminogenic contribution of environmental features to a given location. However, the role of social information in shaping the distribution of criminal acts is largely understudied by the criminological research literature. In this paper we investigate the existence of spatio-temporal correlations between successive robbery events, after controlling for environmental influences as estimated by RTM. We begin by showing that a robbery event increases the likelihood of future robberies at and in the neighborhood of its location. This event-dependent influence decreases exponentially with time and as an inverse function of the distance to the original event. We then combine event-dependence and environmental influences in a simulation model to predict robbery patterns at the scale of a large city (Newark, NJ. We show that this model significantly improves upon the predictions of RTM alone and of a model taking into account event-dependence only when tested against real data that were not used to calibrate either model. We conclude that combining risk from exposure (past event and vulnerability (environment, following from the Theory of Risky Places, when modeling crime distribution can improve crime suppression and prevention efforts by providing more accurate forecasting of the most likely locations of criminal events.

  10. Inquiry-Based Leadership: The Influence of Affective Attitude, Experienced Social Pressure and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uiterwijk-Luijk, Lisette; Krüger, Meta; Zijlstra, Bonne; Volman, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of psychological factors that influence inquiry-based leadership. This study investigates how affective attitude, experienced social pressure, and self-efficacy relate to aspects of inquiry-based school leadership. A school leader's inquiry habit of mind, data literacy, and the…

  11. Social factors matter in cancer risk and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; Gehlert, Sarah; Neuhouser, Marian L; Oh, April; Zanetti, Krista; Goodman, Melody; Thompson, Beti; Visvanathan, Kala; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2018-07-01

    Greater attention to social factors, such as race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and others, are needed across the cancer continuum, including breast cancer, given differences in tumor biology and genetic variants have not completely explained the persistent Black/White breast cancer mortality disparity. In this commentary, we use examples in breast cancer risk assessment and survivorship to demonstrate how the failure to appropriately incorporate social factors into the design, recruitment, and analysis of research studies has resulted in missed opportunities to reduce persistent cancer disparities. The conclusion offers recommendations for how to better document and use information on social factors in cancer research and care by (1) increasing education and awareness about the importance of inclusion of social factors in clinical research; (2) improving testing and documentation of social factors by incorporating them into journal guidelines and reporting stratified results; and (3) including social factors to refine extant tools that assess cancer risk and assign cancer care. Implementing the recommended changes would enable more effective design and implementation of interventions and work toward eliminating cancer disparities by accounting for the social and environmental contexts in which cancer patients live and are treated.

  12. Multiple effect of social influence on cooperation in interdependent network games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Li, Wen-Jing; Wang, Zhen

    2015-10-01

    The social influence exists widely in the human society, where individual decision-making process (from congressional election to electronic commerce) may be affected by the attitude and behavior of others belonging to different social networks. Here, we couple the snowdrift (SD) game and the prisoner’s dilemma (PD) game on two interdependent networks, where strategies in both games are associated by social influence to mimick the majority rule. More accurately, individuals’ strategies updating refers to social learning (based on payoff difference) and above-mentioned social influence (related with environment of interdependent group), which is controlled by social influence strength s. Setting s = 0 decouples the networks and returns the traditional network game; while its increase involves the interactions between networks. By means of numerous Monte Carlo simulations, we find that such a mechanism brings multiple influence to the evolution of cooperation. Small s leads to unequal cooperation level in both games, because social learning is still the main updating rule for most players. Though intermediate and large s guarantees the synchronized evolution of strategy pairs, cooperation finally dies out and reaches a completely dominance in both cases. Interestingly, these observations are attributed to the expansion of cooperation clusters. Our work may provide a new understanding to the emergence of cooperation in intercorrelated social systems.

  13. Influence of social media on Ghanaian youths: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore, highlights the nature of social media, uses of social media in Ghana, theoretical framework on social interactions and influence of social media on Ghanaian youths. It also identifies various ways by which counsellors could intervene to assist youths to make effective use of social media and avoid the ...

  14. The influence of social hierarchy on primate health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapolsky, Robert M

    2005-04-29

    Dominance hierarchies occur in numerous social species, and rank within them can greatly influence the quality of life of an animal. In this review, I consider how rank can also influence physiology and health. I first consider whether it is high- or low-ranking animals that are most stressed in a dominance hierarchy; this turns out to vary as a function of the social organization in different species and populations. I then review how the stressful characteristics of social rank have adverse adrenocortical, cardiovascular, reproductive, immunological, and neurobiological consequences. Finally, I consider how these findings apply to the human realm of health, disease, and socioeconomic status.

  15. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  16. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  17. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  18. Social appraisal influences recognition of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or anger in Experiment 1; fear, happiness, anger, or neutral in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a contextual face, which appeared simultaneously in the periphery of the screen, expressed an emotion (fear, happiness, anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. We manipulated gaze direction to be able to distinguish between a mere contextual effect (gaze away from both the target face and the participant) and a specific social appraisal effect (gaze toward the target face). Results of both experiments provided evidence for a social appraisal effect in emotion recognition, which differed from the mere effect of contextual information: Whereas facial expressions were identical in both conditions, the direction of the gaze of the contextual face influenced emotion recognition. Social appraisal facilitated the recognition of anger, happiness, and fear when the contextual face expressed the same emotion. This facilitation was stronger than the mere contextual effect. Social appraisal also allowed better recognition of fear when the contextual face expressed anger and better recognition of anger when the contextual face expressed fear. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  19. The "Inverse Relationship" between Social Capital and Sport: A Qualitative Exploration of the Influence of Social Networks on the Development of Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Edoardo G. F.

    2015-01-01

    Sport players' likelihood to fulfil their career expectations is influenced by both technical and non-technical aspects, including self-drive, self-confidence and access to high-quality coaching and to positive learning environments. Among other factors, belonging in the "right" social networks may help players to gain access to critical…

  20. Longitudinal examination of social and environmental influences on motivation for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A; McDonough, Meghan; Fu, Rong

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity behavior is influenced by numerous factors including motivation, social interactions, and the walkability of the environment. To examine how social contexts and environmental features affect physical activity motivational processes across time. Participants (N=104) completed 3 monthly online surveys assessing self-determination theory constructs, social partners in physical activity, neighborhood walkability, and weekly physical activity. Longitudinal path analysis examined the degree to which physical activity was predicted by individual goals, orientation, and autonomy support and whether these associations were meditated by motivation and moderated by the social and environmental contexts of physical activity. The effect of controlled exercise orientations on physical activity was mediated by autonomous motivation. This association was stronger among those who perceived less crime in their neighborhoods. To improve the ability to tailor physical activity counseling it is important to understand how each person views exercise situations and to understand his/her social and neighborhood environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Personality traits influencing somatization symptoms and social inhibition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai WongpakaranFaculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: Somatization is a common symptom among the elderly, and even though personality disorders have been found to be associated with somatization, personality traits have not yet been explored with regard to this symptom. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality traits and somatization, and social inhibition.Patients and methods: As part of a cross-sectional study of a community sample, 126 elderly Thais aged 60 years or over completed self-reporting questionnaires related to somatization and personality traits. Somatization was elicited from the somatization subscale when using the Symptom Checklist SCL-90 instrument. Personality traits were drawn from the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and social inhibition was identified when using the inventory of interpersonal problems. In addition, path analysis was used to establish the influence of personality traits on somatization and social inhibition.Results: Of the 126 participants, 51% were male, 55% were married, and 25% were retired. The average number of years in education was 7.6 (standard deviation =5.2. “Emotional stability” and “dominance” were found to have a direct effect on somatization, as were age and number of years in education, but not sex. Also, 35% of the total variance could be explained by the model, with excellent fit statistics. Dominance was found to have an indirect effect, via vigilance, on social inhibition, which was also influenced by number of years in education and emotional stability. Social inhibition was not found to have any effect on somatization, although hypothetically it should.Conclusion: “Emotional stability”, “dominance”, and “vigilance”, as well as age and the number of years in education, were found to have an effect on somatization. Attention should be paid to these factors in the elderly

  2. The Dynamics of Social Capital in Influencing Use of Soil Management Options in the Chinyanja Triangle of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemimah M. Njuki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital has become a critical issue in agricultural development as it plays an important role in collective action, such as, management of common resources and collective marketing. Whilst literature exists on the role of social capital in the use and adoption of improved agricultural technology, such literature is fraught with issues of the measurement of social capital beyond membership of farmers in groups. We hypothesized that different types of social capital influence the adoption of soil management options differently. This study looked at the measurement of social capital, differentiating between the main types of social capital and employed factor analysis to aggregate indicators of social capital into bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. Using logit analysis, the role of these types of capitals on influencing use of different soil management options was analyzed. The study found that bonding, bridging, and linking social capital all influence the adoption and use of different soil management options differently, a trend that might be similar for other agricultural technologies as well. The study recommends more research investments in understanding the differentiated outcomes of these forms of social capital on use and adoption of technologies to further guide agricultural interventions.

  3. Generational Approach to Factors Influencing Career Choice in Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Hsiao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims to grasp which factors influence the generation Y to choose accounting as its career. A significant decline in the number of candidates willing to pursue a career as accountant has been observed abroad - USA, Australia, and Japan. However, in other countries - Brazil, Singapore, and Hong Kong - the opposite has been observed. Another issue is the decline in educational qualification of those pursuing an accounting career, contributing in a way that many talented students change their career choice. This may be explained by the fact that people tend to believe accounting is an exact science, full of calculations, boring, and not very creative, bringing an unbalance between the traits an individual should have according to the job market and those perceived by society. In order to give a contribution to literature concerning the factors that influence the generation Y in its career choice, a goal of this research was conducting an exploratory study where some hypotheses were formulated to support the discussion. We used Mannheim's Generational Theory and the literature on career choice. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, based on Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire and Germeijs and Verschueren's Student Choice Task Inventory, adapted through focus group interview. Data were fully collected online and the sample consisted of 665 subjects. The results showed that people who chose accounting as their career were influenced by factors such as creativity, independence, challenging and dynamic environment, job security, money-making, job availability, and other significant people - friends and teachers. The subjects were not influenced by social factors, such as working with people and making contributions to society and family. They wish for more autonomy, creativity, and flexibility at work, and people still care about job security and money-making.

  4. An extended technology acceptance model for detecting influencing factors: An empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamd Hakkak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid diffusion of the Internet has radically changed the delivery channels applied by the financial services industry. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors that encourage customers to adopt online banking in Khorramabad. The research constructs are developed based on the technology acceptance model (TAM and incorporates some extra important control variables. The model is empirically verified to study the factors influencing the online banking adoption behavior of 210 customers of Tejarat Banks in Khorramabad. The findings of the study suggest that the quality of the internet connection, the awareness of online banking and its benefits, the social influence and computer self-efficacy have significant impacts on the perceived usefulness (PU and perceived ease of use (PEOU of online banking acceptance. Trust and resistance to change also have significant impact on the attitude towards the likelihood of adopting online banking.

  5. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  6. Nutritional status influences socially regulated foraging ontogeny in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Amy L; Kantarovich, Sara; Meisel, Adam F; Robinson, Gene E

    2005-12-01

    In many social insects, including honey bees, worker energy reserve levels are correlated with task performance in the colony. Honey bee nest workers have abundant stored lipid and protein while foragers are depleted of these reserves; this depletion precedes the shift from nest work to foraging. The first objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lipid depletion has a causal effect on the age at onset of foraging in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). We found that bees treated with a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor (TOFA) were more likely to forage precociously. The second objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between social interactions, nutritional state and behavioral maturation. Since older bees are known to inhibit the development of young bees into foragers, we asked whether this effect is mediated nutritionally via the passage of food from old to young bees. We found that bees reared in social isolation have low lipid stores, but social inhibition occurs in colonies in the field, whether young bees are starved or fed. These results indicate that although social interactions affect the nutritional status of young bees, social and nutritional factors act independently to influence age at onset of foraging. Our findings suggest that mechanisms linking internal nutritional physiology to foraging in solitary insects have been co-opted to regulate altruistic foraging in a social context.

  7. Factors Influencing Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran: A Case Study of Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Hosseininia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish the social and environmental factors that influence sustainable entrepreneurship (SE in Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. It also attempted to identify whether the demographic background of the entrepreneur influences the SE in SMEs of the Iranian food industry. A mixed method approach, employing the use of questionnaires and interviews from a sample size of approximately 130 participants and 12 owner-managers of SMEs in food industry, was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and several inferential analyses. Findings showed that certain characteristics of the entrepreneur, including work experience and education, have a significant impact on SE. Furthermore, out of the eight identified factors, according to the participants’ perception, the most important factors towards sustainable performance of SMEs in food industry are social factors, including customer orientation, as well as human resources and environmental factors, including recycling and the future of Earth. This research paper concludes that considering the social and environmental aspects of sustainability and employing experienced staff would majorly contribute to the pursuit of SE in SMEs of food industry.

  8. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luan

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties. To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review] that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review, participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase

  9. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing; Yao, Zhong; Bai, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas) and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas) components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP) methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase intentions.

  10. Transforming Water: Social Influence Moderates Psychological, Physiological, and Functional Response to a Placebo Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Alia J; Phillips, Damon J; Goyer, J Parker; Akinola, Modupe; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how social influence can alter physiological, psychological, and functional responses to a placebo product and how such responses influence the ultimate endorsement of the product. Participants consumed a product, "AquaCharge Energy Water," falsely-labeled as containing 200 mg of caffeine but which was actually plain spring water, in one of three conditions: a no social influence condition, a disconfirming social influence condition, and a confirming social influence condition. Results demonstrated that the effect of the product labeling on physiological alertness (systolic blood pressure), psychological alertness (self-reported alertness), functional alertness (cognitive interference), and product endorsement was moderated by social influence: participants experienced more subjective, physiological and functional alertness and stronger product endorsement when they consumed the product in the confirming social influence condition than when they consumed the product in the disconfirming social influence condition. These results suggest that social influence can alter subjective, physiological, and functional responses to a faux product, in this case transforming the effects of plain water.

  11. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  12. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...

  13. Identification of influence within the social media

    OpenAIRE

    Vollenbroek, Wouter Bernardus; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Gonçalves, Gisela; Somerville, Ian; Melo, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Social media is expected to have a growing impact on the corporate reputation of organizations. Various social media actors referred to as social media influencers can have a particular impact on corporate reputation. It is important for organizations to identify these actors and understand how to interact with them in order to safeguard the organizational reputation. In this study, based on extensive literature review and a Delphi study, we constructed a model for the identification of the s...

  14. The Factors Influencing the Sense of Home in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Review from the Perspective of Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Rijnaard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide an overview of factors influencing the sense of home of older adults residing in the nursing home. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. Inclusion criteria were (1 original and peer-reviewed research, (2 qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research, (3 research about nursing home residents (or similar type of housing, and (4 research on the sense of home, meaning of home, at-homeness, or homelikeness. Results. Seventeen mainly qualitative articles were included. The sense of home of nursing home residents is influenced by 15 factors, divided into three themes: (1 psychological factors (sense of acknowledgement, preservation of one’s habits and values, autonomy and control, and coping; (2 social factors (interaction and relationship with staff, residents, family and friends, and pets and activities; and (3 the built environment (private space and (quasi-public space, personal belongings, technology, look and feel, and the outdoors and location. Conclusions. The sense of home is influenced by numerous factors related to the psychology of the residents and the social and built environmental contexts. Further research is needed to determine if and how the identified factors are interrelated, if perspectives of various stakeholders involved differ, and how the factors can be improved in practice.

  15. Attachment style and oxytocin receptor gene variation interact in influencing social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzon, S; Domschke, K; Holitschke, K; Ziegler, C; Arolt, V; Pauli, P; Reif, A; Deckert, J; Zwanzger, P

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety has been suggested to be promoted by an insecure attachment style. Oxytocin is discussed as a mediator of trust and social bonding as well as a modulator of social anxiety. Applying a gene-environment (G × E) interaction approach, in the present pilot study the main and interactive effects of attachment styles and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variation were probed in a combined risk factor model of social anxiety in healthy probands. Participants (N = 388; 219 females, 169 males; age 24.7 ± 4.7 years) were assessed for anxiety in social situations (Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory) depending on attachment style (Adult Attachment Scale, AAS) and OXTR rs53576 A/G genotype. A less secure attachment style was significantly associated with higher social anxiety. This association was partly modulated by OXTR genotype, with a stronger negative influence of a less secure attachment style on social anxiety in A allele carriers as compared to GG homozygotes. The present pilot data point to a strong association of less secure attachment and social anxiety as well as to a gene-environment interaction effect of OXTR rs53576 genotype and attachment style on social anxiety possibly constituting a targetable combined risk marker of social anxiety disorder.

  16. Social Influence and Safe Behavior in Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2018-01-01

    This research presents a model designed to explore the cognitive and social mechanisms that mediate the relationship between organizational safety climate and safety behaviors. Specifically the presented research demonstrates the usefulness of Sussmann and Vecchio (1982) social influence interpre......This research presents a model designed to explore the cognitive and social mechanisms that mediate the relationship between organizational safety climate and safety behaviors. Specifically the presented research demonstrates the usefulness of Sussmann and Vecchio (1982) social influence...... interpretation of worker motivation to understand safety motivation. Survey data was collected from 428 employees in seven factories within the electronics industry in China. The data were analyzed using structural modelling. The results suggest that factory workers with more knowledge about the products...... that the total effects of a factory workers experience with safety and health problems seems to affect safe work behavior negatively, and that this is caused by a decrease in confidence and abilities to work safely. In relation to practical implications the present study demonstrate how manufacturing managers...

  17. The Influence of Social Factors on Customer Purchase Intention in Using Wedding Organizer in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pandowo, Merinda; Tuwo, Hillary Julia

    2015-01-01

    Trends in wedding business is being exported globally. There is market opportunity to make the proliferation of event organizer business to become wedding organizer. The Wedding organizer business is needed at this time for the success of wedding preparation and ceremony. Now social influences are not new to the wedding industry because most of the time couples, especially brides-to-be, are consulting to external parties in order to acquire ideas and suggestions on how to enrich the context a...

  18. Social dialogue and social conflict as a topical factors of social transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Derzhko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical state of society can be measured by a system of interrelated indicators - economic, technologi­cal, political, cultural, ethnic and demographic. However, it is no exaggeration to state that they originally focused on the social aspects of life people lead to an integrated life crisis at a time of social transformations. There is no universal model of social dialogue; it is a means of improving productivity and competitiveness. Social dialogue - not only a form of crisis management, sometimes governments are turning to social part­ners only in case of economic crisis, seeking their support in taking unpopular measures. This approach is fundamentally wrong, because the dialogue is based on mutual trust and confidence, cooperation achieved over the years. That social dialogue should be used not only in adverse but also in favorable socio-economic circumstances. Opposition, competition, conflict, alternative, dissent is not only inevitable characteristics of a complex human world, but necessary factors that discourage stagnation, stagnation of society, the condi­tions of its constant renewal and development. Clarification of the nature and essence of social conflict as a specific manifestation of the contradictions of social relations requires consideration of a number of interre­© І.З. Держко, 2015 lated factors. First of all, we should take into account the fact that modern society is the very course of change in scientific thinking, social structure, is drawn into a new state, which is accompanied by adapting social transformation. That is why these problems require analysis of the conditions of its emergence, development methods and tools for forecasting and warning deviation from social norms. Social process includes ways of interaction between state and society, institutions and groups, political system and social environment, government and citizens. Social dialogue is one way of interaction between state and society

  19. The effect of social media (#SoMe) on journal impact factor and parental awareness in paediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, F; Nason, G J; Manecksha, R P; Cascio, S; Quinn, F J; Leonard, M; Koyle, M A; Farhat, W; Leveridge, M J

    2017-10-01

    Social media (SoMe) comprises a number of internet-based applications that have the capability to disseminate multimodal media and allow for unprecedented inter-user connectivity. The role of Twitter has been studied in conferences and education; moreover, there is increasing evidence that patients are more likely to use social media for their own health education. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social media platforms on the impact factor of both urological and paediatric journals that publish on paediatric urology, and to assess parental awareness of social media in paediatric urology. A filtered Journal of Citation Reports (JCR) search was performed for the period 2012-16 for journals that published articles on paediatric urology. Journals were ranked according to impact factor, and each individual journal website was accessed to assess for the presence of social media. Parents in paediatric urology clinics and non-paediatric urology patients also filled out a questionnaire to assess for awareness and attitudes to social media. All statistical analysis was performed using Prism 6 software (Prism 6, GraphPad Software, California, USA). Overall, there were 50 urological journals and 39 paediatric journals with a mean impact factor of 2.303 and 1.766, respectively. There was an overall average increase in impact factor across all urological journals between 2012 and 16. The presence of a Twitter feed was statistically significant for a rise in impact factor over the 4 years (P = 0.017). The cohort of parents was statistically more likely to have completed post-secondary education, to have and access to a social media profile, use it for health education, and use it to access journal/physician/hospital social media accounts. This study examined, for the first time, the role of social media in paediatric urology, and demonstrated that SoMe use is associated with a positive influence in impact factor, but also a parental appetite for it

  20. Using Machine Learning for Sentiment and Social Influence Analysis in Text

    OpenAIRE

    Kolog, Emmanuel Awuni; Montero, Calkin Suero; Toivonen, Tapani

    2017-01-01

    Students’ academic achievement is largely driven by their social phenomena, which is shaped by social influence and opinion dynamics. In this paper, we employed a machine learning technique to detect social influence and sentiment in text-based students’ life stories. The life stories were first pre-processed and clustered using k-means with euclidean distance. After that, we identified domestic, peer and school staff as the main influences on students’ academic development. The various influ...

  1. [Quality of life and related influencing factors in Chinese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Q; Wang, L M; Zhang, M

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) and influencing factors on Chinese adults. 83 666 subjects from 2010 Chronic Non-communicable Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance Project in China were included in this study. Questionnaire was used to collect information on general condition and health status. WHOQOL-BREF was adopted as an instrument to measure the QOL on all the subjects.t test was used to compare QOL from different groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of QOL with BMI, by gender. Among all the 83 666 subjects, mean scores of physical,psychological, social relationship and environment domains appeared as (73.97 ± 13.84), (66.65 ± 14.21), (65.76 ± 14.08) and (56.59 ± 15.15), respectively. Age, residential areas (urban/rural), education levels and marital status all showed significant impact on scores of the four domains (Peducation level (Peducation levels, marital status and chronic diseases could significantly influence the QOL of Chinese adults.

  2. [Comparison of the factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to compare factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families. The participants were 692 children aged 11 to 13 yr (388 in two parent families and 304 in single parent families) recruited from 20 community agencies and 5 elementary schools in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul City, South Korea. Data were collected from May to July, 2007 using a survey questionnaire containing items on self-esteem, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, family hardiness, parent-child communication and social support. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 program and factors affecting children's self-esteem were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. Scores for the study variables were significantly different between the two groups. The factors influencing children's self-esteem were also different according to family type. For two parent families, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.505, psingle parent families, social support, family hardiness, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.444, p<.001). Nurse working with children should consider family type-specific factors influencing their self-esteem.

  3. Your Health Buddies Matter: Preferential Selection and Social Influence on Weight Management in an Online Health Social Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of online social networks are designed with the intention to promote health by providing virtual space wherein individuals can seek and share information and support with similar others. Research has shown that real-world social networks have a significant influence on one's health behavior and outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on how individuals form social networks in virtual space and whether such online social networks exert any impact on individuals' health outcomes. Built on the Multi-Theoretical Multilevel (MTML) framework and drawing from literature on social influence, this study examined the mechanisms underlying the formation of an online health social network and empirically tested social influence on individual health outcomes through the network. Situated in a weight management social networking site, the study tracked a health buddy network of 709 users and their weight management activities and outcomes for 4 months. Actor-based modeling was used to test the joint dynamics of preferential selection and social influence among health buddies. The results showed that baseline, inbreeding, and health status homophily significantly predicted preferential selection of health buddies in the weight management social networking site, whereas self-interest in seeking experiential health information did not. The study also found peer influence of online health buddy networks on individual weight outcomes, such that an individual's odds of losing weight increased if, on average, the individual's health buddies were losing weight.

  4. Factors influencing job satisfaction among Swedish occupational therapists in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, M; Hallberg, I R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined job satisfaction among occupational therapists in Swedish psychiatric care, and investigated how clinical supervision, organizational aspects and demographic characteristics contributed to job satisfaction. We received 332 returned questionnaires, corresponding to a response rate of 66.9%. Job satisfaction factors that emerged were: general satisfaction with work, communication and co-operation among team members, managerial feedback, the patients' influence on care and the relatives' influence on care. The respondents rated their general satisfaction, co-operation and communication as high. They were least satisfied with the relatives' influence on care. We found few relationships between other factors and job satisfaction, but, for example, satisfaction with the patients' influence on care was higher among occupational therapists working in outpatient care than among those working in hospital wards. Furthermore, having supervision was positively associated with co-operation and communication. This study revealed a fairly satisfactory situation, possibly thanks to social support, advantageous care-planning strategies and supervision. However, managerial staff must be aware that measures need to be taken continuously to counteract detrimental forces. The study pointed to a need for further research that relates occupational therapists' job satisfaction with issues such as support, control and individual need for growth.

  5. Research on Factors Influencing Municipal Household Solid Waste Separate Collection: Bayesian Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujie Chu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Municipal household solid waste (MHSW has become a serious problem in China over the course of the last two decades, resulting in significant side effects to the environment. Therefore, effective management of MHSW has attracted wide attention from both researchers and practitioners. Separate collection, the first and crucial step to solve the MHSW problem, however, has not been thoroughly studied to date. An empirical survey has been conducted among 387 households in Harbin, China in this study. We use Bayesian Belief Networks model to determine the influencing factors on separate collection. Four types of factors are identified, including political, economic, social cultural and technological based on the PEST (political, economic, social and technological analytical method. In addition, we further analyze the influential power of different factors, based on the network structure and probability changes obtained by Netica software. Results indicate that technological dimension has the greatest impact on MHSW separate collection, followed by the political dimension and economic dimension; social cultural dimension impacts MHSW the least.

  6. Influence of Students' Affective and Conative Factors on Laboratory Learning: Moderating Effect of Online Social Network Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Kongcharoen, Chaknarin; Ghinea, Gheorghita

    2017-01-01

    According to aptitude theory, the measures of aptitude include not only cognitive factors but also affective factors (i.e., emotions) and conative factors (i.e., motivation) that can influence students' learning achievement (LA). Therefore, this study employed structural equation modelling from experimental data of 96 college students to…

  7. Information and influence propagation in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Lakshmanan, Laks V S

    2013-01-01

    Research on social networks has exploded over the last decade. To a large extent, this has been fueled by the spectacular growth of social media and online social networking sites, which continue growing at a very fast pace, as well as by the increasing availability of very large social network datasets for purposes of research. A rich body of this research has been devoted to the analysis of the propagation of information, influence, innovations, infections, practices and customs through networks. Can we build models to explain the way these propagations occur? How can we validate our models

  8. [The influencing factors on alienation in high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Sook

    2004-02-01

    This study was performed to identify the influencing factors on alienation among high school students. Data was collected by questionnaires from 550 students of academic and vocational high schools in G city. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. The scores of alienation among students in financially lower middle class and lower class were higher than those of the upper middle class students, resulting in significant differences(F=6.87, p=.00). A sense of alienation showed a significantly negative correlation with the scores of responding parenting style(r=-.32), family cohesion(r=-.33), school attachment(r=-.51), academic performance(r=-.34), peer relationships(r=-.38), self-control (r=-.43), and social skills(r=-.33). The most powerful predictor of alienation among high school students was school attachment and the variance explained was 26%. A combination of school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance account for 40% of the variance in alienation among high school students. This study suggests that school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance are significant influencing factors on alienation in high school students. Therefore, nursing strategy is needed to manage these revealed factors.

  9. Overlapping genetic and environmental influences among men's alcohol consumption and problems, romantic quality and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, J E; Prom-Wormley, E; Prescott, C A; Kendler, K S

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol consumption and problems are associated with interpersonal difficulties. We used a twin design to assess in men the degree to which genetic or environmental influences contributed to the covariance between alcohol consumption and problems, romantic quality and social support. The sample included adult male-male twin pairs (697 monozygotic and 487 dizygotic) for whom there were interview-based data on: alcohol consumption (average monthly alcohol consumption in the past year); alcohol problems (lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms); romantic conflict and warmth; friend problems and support; and relative problems and support. Key findings were that genetic and unique environmental factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol consumption and romantic conflict; genetic factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol problems and romantic conflict; and common and unique environmental factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol problems and friend problems. Recognizing and addressing the overlapping genetic and environmental influences that alcohol consumption and problems share with romantic quality and other indicators of social support may have implications for substance use prevention and intervention efforts.

  10. Individual, social environmental, and physical environmental influences on physical activity among black and white adults: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Brownson, Ross C; Clark, Eddie M; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2006-02-01

    Social ecological models suggest that conditions in the social and physical environment, in addition to individual factors, play important roles in health behavior change. Using structural equation modeling, this study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of physical activity to examine theorized direct and indirect effects of individual (e.g., motivation and self-efficacy), social environmental (e.g., social support), and physical environmental factors (e.g., neighborhood quality and availability of facilities). A community-based sample of adults (N = 910) was recruited from 2 public health centers (67% female, 43% African American, 43% motivation for physical activity, perceived social support, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the physical environment. Results indicated that (a) perceptions of the physical environment had direct effects on physical activity, (b) both the social and physical environments had indirect effects on physical activity through motivation and self-efficacy, and (c) social support influenced physical activity indirectly through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. For all forms of activity, self-efficacy was the strongest direct correlate of physical activity, and evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between self-efficacy and intensity of physical activity. Findings from this research highlight the interactive role of individual and environmental influences on physical activity.

  11. The Influence of Social Networking Photos on Social Norms and Sexual Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two studies tested whether online social networking technologies influence health behavioral social norms, and in turn, personal health behavioral intentions. In Study 1, experimental participants browsed peers' Facebook photos on a college network with a low prevalence of sexually suggestive content. Participants estimated the percentage of their peers who have sex without condoms, and rated their own future intentions to use condoms. Experimental participants, compared to controls who did not view photos, estimated that a larger percentage of their peers use condoms, and indicated a greater intention to use condoms themselves in the future. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to view sexually suggestive or nonsexually suggestive Facebook photos, and responded to sexual risk behavioral questions. Compared to participants viewing nonsuggestive photos, those who viewed sexually suggestive Facebook photos estimated that a larger percentage of their peers have unprotected sexual intercourse and sex with strangers and were more likely to report that they themselves would engage in these behaviors. Thus, online social networks can influence perceptions of the peer prevalence of sexual risk behaviors, and can influence users' own intentions with regard to such behaviors. These studies suggest the potential power of social networks to affect health behaviors by altering perceptions of peer norms. PMID:23438268

  12. Emotions as agents of social influence: insights from Emotions as Social Information (EASI) theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; Harkins, S.G.; Williams, K.D.; Burger, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Emotion is part and parcel of social influence. The emotions people feel shape the ways in which they respond to persuasion attempts, and the emotions people express influence other individuals who observe those expressions. This chapter is concerned with the latter type of emotional influence. Such

  13. Counteracting estimation bias and social influence to improve the wisdom of crowds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Albert B; Berdahl, Andrew M; Hartnett, Andrew T; Lutz, Matthew J; Bak-Coleman, Joseph B; Ioannou, Christos C; Giam, Xingli; Couzin, Iain D

    2018-04-01

    Aggregating multiple non-expert opinions into a collective estimate can improve accuracy across many contexts. However, two sources of error can diminish collective wisdom: individual estimation biases and information sharing between individuals. Here, we measure individual biases and social influence rules in multiple experiments involving hundreds of individuals performing a classic numerosity estimation task. We first investigate how existing aggregation methods, such as calculating the arithmetic mean or the median, are influenced by these sources of error. We show that the mean tends to overestimate, and the median underestimate, the true value for a wide range of numerosities. Quantifying estimation bias, and mapping individual bias to collective bias, allows us to develop and validate three new aggregation measures that effectively counter sources of collective estimation error. In addition, we present results from a further experiment that quantifies the social influence rules that individuals employ when incorporating personal estimates with social information. We show that the corrected mean is remarkably robust to social influence, retaining high accuracy in the presence or absence of social influence, across numerosities and across different methods for averaging social information. Using knowledge of estimation biases and social influence rules may therefore be an inexpensive and general strategy to improve the wisdom of crowds. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. A model of social influence on body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ross A; Ornstein, Joseph T

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we develop an agent-based model of social influence on body weight. The model's assumptions are grounded in theory and evidence from physiology, social psychology, and behavioral science, and its outcomes are tested against longitudinal data from American youth. We discuss the implementation of the model, the insights it generates, and its implications for public health policy. By explicating a well-grounded dynamic mechanism, our analysis helps clarify important dependencies for both efforts to leverage social influence for obesity intervention and efforts to interpret clustering of BMI in networks. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Social influence approaches to encourage resource conservation : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Would somebody be more willing to start recycling if they knew that their friends were all recycling? Social influence refers to the ways in which our behaviour is affected by what other people do, or by what other people think. Various insights from theories of social influence have been applied as

  16. Social Factors and Preference Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Frith, Chris D

    2012-01-01

    not be the prime force that drives human behavior. Rather, our principle motivation is to be noticed by our fellows (i.e. to have a reputation) and acquiring wealth is just one way to enhance our reputation. In this chapter we review evidence for social motivations, considering implicit social processes that alter...... our individual behavior (without our awareness) and explicit social factors that play a crucial role in enabling our collaborations with others to achieve more than the sum of the individuals involved....

  17. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Karl H Pang,3 Wayne Rebello,4 Zoe Rubakumar,4 Victoria Fung,5 Suresh Venugopal,6 Hena Begum4 1Division of Surgery and Interventional science, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 6Department of Urology, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2 doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001. Conclusion: UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware

  18. (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus of control and gender. ... approach, social support should be in the front burner, society should be sensitized to the importance of social support that is culturally appropriate and behaviour modification focused.

  19. Factors influencing risky sexual behaviour among Mozambican miners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins-Fonteyn, Emilia; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Baltazar, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    determinants framework. RESULTS: The odds of reporting one sexual partner were roughly three times higher for miners working as perforators as opposed to other types of occupation. As well, the odds of condom use - always or sometimes - for miners in the 31-40 age group were three times higher than the odds...... of condom use in the 51+ age group. Miners with lower education levels were less likely to use condoms. The odds of being HIV positive when the miner reports use of alcohol or drugs (sometimes/always) is 0.32 times lower than the odds for those reporting never use of alcohol or drugs. And finally, the odds...... findings suggest there is a need to change thinking processes about how to influence safer sexual behaviour. This is viewed to be the result of a person's individual decision, due to of the complexity of social and contextual factors that may also influence sexual behaviours. This only stresses the need...

  20. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Diana J R; Laudenslager, Mark L; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  1. Dynamic Socialized Gaussian Process Models for Human Behavior Prediction in a Health Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yelong; Phan, NhatHai; Xiao, Xiao; Jin, Ruoming; Sun, Junfeng; Piniewski, Brigitte; Kil, David; Dou, Dejing

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and predicting human behaviors, such as the level and intensity of physical activity, is a key to preventing the cascade of obesity and helping spread healthy behaviors in a social network. In our conference paper, we have developed a social influence model, named Socialized Gaussian Process (SGP), for socialized human behavior modeling. Instead of explicitly modeling social influence as individuals' behaviors influenced by their friends' previous behaviors, SGP models the dynamic social correlation as the result of social influence. The SGP model naturally incorporates personal behavior factor and social correlation factor (i.e., the homophily principle: Friends tend to perform similar behaviors) into a unified model. And it models the social influence factor (i.e., an individual's behavior can be affected by his/her friends) implicitly in dynamic social correlation schemes. The detailed experimental evaluation has shown the SGP model achieves better prediction accuracy compared with most of baseline methods. However, a Socialized Random Forest model may perform better at the beginning compared with the SGP model. One of the main reasons is the dynamic social correlation function is purely based on the users' sequential behaviors without considering other physical activity-related features. To address this issue, we further propose a novel “multi-feature SGP model” (mfSGP) which improves the SGP model by using multiple physical activity-related features in the dynamic social correlation learning. Extensive experimental results illustrate that the mfSGP model clearly outperforms all other models in terms of prediction accuracy and running time. PMID:27746515

  2. Factors influencing Dipylidium sp. infection in a free-ranging social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marion L; Kurze, Christoph; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert

    2013-12-01

    We provide the first genetic sequence data for a Dipylidium species from a wild carnivore plus an analysis of the effects of ecological, demographic, physiological and behavioural factors on Dipylidium sp. infection prevalence in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Our sequence data from a mitochondrial gene fragment (1176 base pair long) had a similarity of between 99% and 89% to Dipylidium caninum. We determined infection prevalence in 146 faecal samples from 124 known animals in three social groups (termed clans) using molecular screening and Dipylidium proglottid presence. Our analysis revealed significantly higher infection prevalence in juveniles (55%) than adults (15.8%), indicating that predominantly juveniles maintained infection in clans. The likelihood of infection in juveniles significantly: (1) increased as the number of adults and older juveniles (>6 months) at communal dens increased, implying a positive relationship between this factor and the size of the intermediate host (probably a flea species) population at communal dens; (2) decreased as the number of younger juveniles (Dipylidium fecundity and hence decrease infection prevalence in the den flea population. Our study provides useful insights into Dipylidium epidemiology in a social carnivore population subject to large fluctuations in prey abundance.

  3. Peer Influence on Academic Performance: A Social Network Analysis of Social-Emotional Intervention Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Zhang, Linlin; Hanish, Laura D; Miller, Cindy F; Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Kochel, Karen P; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Longitudinal social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine how a social-emotional learning (SEL) intervention may be associated with peer socialization on academic performance. Fifth graders (N = 631; 48 % girls; 9 to 12 years) were recruited from six elementary schools. Intervention classrooms (14) received a relationship building intervention (RBI) and control classrooms (8) received elementary school as usual. At pre- and post-test, students nominated their friends, and teachers completed assessments of students' writing and math performance. The results of longitudinal SNA suggested that the RBI was associated with friend selection and peer influence within the classroom peer network. Friendship choices were significantly more diverse (i.e., less evidence of social segregation as a function of ethnicity and academic ability) in intervention compared to control classrooms, and peer influence on improved writing and math performance was observed in RBI but not control classrooms. The current findings provide initial evidence that SEL interventions may change social processes in a classroom peer network and may break down barriers of social segregation and improve academic performance.

  4. The impact of social and family-related factors on women's stress experience in household and family work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the contribution of social and family-related factors to women's experience of an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in household and family work. Using a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3,129), we performed stepwise logistic regression analysis in order to determine the relative impact of social and family-related factors on ERI. All factors investigated showed a significant association with at least one ERI component. Considering all predictors simultaneously in the multivariate analysis resulted in a decrease in significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the effort-reward ratio while the impact on low reward partly remained significant. In addition, age of youngest child, number of children, lower levels of perceived social support, domestic work inequity and negative work-to-family spillover, irrespective of being half- or full-time employed, revealed to be important in predicting ERI. The experience of ERI in domestic work is influenced by the social and family environment. Particularly among socially disadvantaged mothers, lack of social recognition for household and family work proved to be a relevant source of psychosocial stress.

  5. Customer Segmentation by Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty and Customer Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Vebrová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty and customer involvement are two important concepts that help explain and understand a significant part of consumer shopping behavior. The aim of the present work is to identify factors influencing brand loyalty and customer involvement. A further aim is to consider subsequent segmentation of customers with respect to different degrees of brand loyalty and customer involvement. The research was focused on the field of Czech telecommunication services – mobile operators. Primary data were acquired through the method of questionnaire survey. In total, the questionnaire was completed by 340 respondents, of which 319 respondents owned their mobile phones for private purposes only. For more accurate interpretation of the identified factors the Exploratory Factor Analysis method was used. Four factors of brand loyalty were extracted, which account for 75 % of the variability of the original parameters: (1 Cognitive affective loyalty, (2 Trustworthiness, (3 Attitudinal loyalty and (4 Commitment and three factors of customer involvement were found to account for 71 % variability of the original parameters: (1 Social involvement, (2 Centrality, (3 Importance. High loyalty customers mostly have only one SIM card and 73 % of them use a tariff. In a further group of highly involved customers own from 80 % only one SIM card. This study forms part of a research programme investigating the influence of customer involvement on brand loyalty.

  6. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND FACTORS AT THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE HOUSING AND UTILITIES SECTOR IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Safronova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical marketing regional research on supply and demand factors of housing and communal services (HCS revealed determinants of customer loyalty and satisfaction with the service level and factors influencing on willingness to purchase additional services. Specific features of housing and utilities sector (HUS as a social significant industry determine requirements to models reflecting reciprocal influence of indices of satisfaction, loyalty and economic indices of operation. The article presents definition of requirements along with development of techniques for modeling influence of satisfaction and loyalty on consumer behaviour of clients. The authors demonstrate trustworthy statistical results of correlative interrelationship of different factors. There have been designed regression models for taking management solutions by executives of management company housing and communal services at the development environmental responsibility. The causes that lead and hamper development of socially oriented services in different regions of the Russian Federation have been identified.

  7. Neural responses to exclusion predict susceptibility to social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Cascio, Christopher N; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Carp, Joshua; Tinney, Francis J; Bingham, C Raymond; Shope, Jean T; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2014-05-01

    Social influence is prominent across the lifespan, but sensitivity to influence is especially high during adolescence and is often associated with increased risk taking. Such risk taking can have dire consequences. For example, in American adolescents, traffic-related crashes are leading causes of nonfatal injury and death. Neural measures may be especially useful in understanding the basic mechanisms of adolescents' vulnerability to peer influence. We examined neural responses to social exclusion as potential predictors of risk taking in the presence of peers in recently licensed adolescent drivers. Risk taking was assessed in a driving simulator session occurring approximately 1 week after the neuroimaging session. Increased activity in neural systems associated with the distress of social exclusion and mentalizing during an exclusion episode predicted increased risk taking in the presence of a peer (controlling for solo risk behavior) during a driving simulator session outside the neuroimaging laboratory 1 week later. These neural measures predicted risky driving behavior above and beyond self-reports of susceptibility to peer pressure and distress during exclusion. These results address the neural bases of social influence and risk taking; contribute to our understanding of social and emotional function in the adolescent brain; and link neural activity in specific, hypothesized, regions to risk-relevant outcomes beyond the neuroimaging laboratory. Results of this investigation are discussed in terms of the mechanisms underlying risk taking in adolescents and the public health implications for adolescent driving. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFECTING POPULATION IN ROMANIA

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    Toader Valentin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the fact that at the end of 2011, in Romania, was conducted the Population and Houses Census, many studies were focused on the demographic evolution from our country. Our paper is focused on the factors that are influencing the evolution of population in Romania, in order to explain the evolution of demographics. The study was conducted on a 20 years timespan, using statistical data that are characterizing the macroeconomic and demographic environment between 1990 and 2010. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released (time series and cross section data by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the evolution of population and social (natural increase of population, net migration and economic factors (employment, average net wage, GDP. We conclude sustaining that the increase of emigrants and the ageing phenomenon in last 20 years decreased the number of population, while the increase of employment and GDP are two factors that have a positive influence on the population evolution. The average net wage may have two types of effects: an increase of the wage may represent an opportunity for some families to cover easily the cost of having a child, while for others, the opportunity of gaining higher wages may change their working behavior determining them to focus on career and postponing the birth of a child.

  9. Evaluating reproductive decisions as discrete choices under social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Brock, William A; Caiado, Camila C S; O'Brien, Michael J

    2016-04-19

    Discrete choice, coupled with social influence, plays a significant role in evolutionary studies of human fertility, as investigators explore how and why reproductive decisions are made. We have previously proposed that the relative magnitude of social influence can be compared against the transparency of pay-off, also known as the transparency of a decision, through a heuristic diagram that maps decision-making along two axes. The horizontal axis represents the degree to which an agent makes a decision individually versus one that is socially influenced, and the vertical axis represents the degree to which there is transparency in the pay-offs and risks associated with the decision the agent makes. Having previously parametrized the functions that underlie the diagram, we detail here how our estimation methods can be applied to real-world datasets concerning sexual health and contraception. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  12. ESTIMATION OF EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCE ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND RESOURCE SUPPORT OF ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Gusak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The engineering industry is characterized by deep specialization and high co-operation, which suggests a high degree of interaction with other industries and the economy, highly sensitive to external factors. Effective regulation of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support will ensure coherence of all the subsystems of the market economy, the competitive environment, a full course of the investment process and the success of the industry. Therefore there is a need for detailed estimation and analysis of the external factors’ influence on the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support. Methodology. To establish the close connection between the set of external factors of formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support the correlation analysis was used, to calculate the amount of the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support’s change under the influence of the external factors with malleability coefficient were applied. Findings. The external influence factors on the engineering industry organizational-resource support by the source of origin: industrial, economical, political, informational, and social were separated and grouped. The classification of the external factors influence on the engineering industry organizational-resource support, depending on their influence’s direction on the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support was made. The connection closeness and the amount of the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support change (the machinery index of and the sales volume machinery index under the influence of the external factors with malleability coefficient were determined. Originality. The estimation of the external factors

  13. Relationship Between Cognitive Factors and Social Indicators in Designing the Healing Spaces for Old-Age People

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    Ali Sharghi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion Based on these findings, it is concluded that the perceptual factors (emotional and mental of the elderly environment is affected by any alterations in their social and cultural relations. According to the results derived from the demographic characteristics, it is concluded that some features of people also influence these factors. Therefore, these features should be considered in architecture to improve life quality.

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

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    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  15. Perinatal risk factors and social withdrawal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Cote, Sylvana J; Larroque, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to assess prevalence of social withdrawal behaviour in infants aged 12 months included in the French Perinatal Risk Factor Study Eden; (2) To study the correlation between relational withdrawal and several perinatal and parental factors assessed in the EDEN study. A longitudinal study using the ADBB scale was conducted within the Eden Cohort in the year 2008. 1,586 infants were included in the study. Fourteen percent of the children who had an ADBB assessment had a score at 5 and over on the ADBB, a scale designed to assess social withdrawal behaviour at age 0-24 months. Social withdrawal at 12 months was associated with low birth weight, low gestational age and with intra uterine growth retardation. Social withdrawal was independently associated with several maternal and paternal risk factors. The level of social withdrawal behaviour increased with a score of maternal difficulties. This study on a large longitudinally followed volunteer sample demonstrate a clear association of social withdrawal behaviour at age one with low birth weight and preterm birth, possibly mediated by parental vulnerabilities. Social withdrawal behaviour seems to be an important alarm signal to detect early on particularly in premature and small for date babies. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  16. Persuasion, Influence, and Value: Perspectives from Communication and Social Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily; Scholz, Christin

    2018-01-04

    Opportunities to persuade and be persuaded are ubiquitous. What determines whether influence spreads and takes hold? This review provides an overview of evidence for the central role of subjective valuation in persuasion and social influence for both propagators and receivers of influence. We first review evidence that decisions to communicate information are determined by the subjective value a communicator expects to gain from sharing. We next review evidence that the effects of social influence and persuasion on receivers, in turn, arise from changes in the receiver's subjective valuation of objects, ideas, and behaviors. We then review evidence that self-related and social considerations are two key inputs to the value calculation in both communicators and receivers. Finally, we highlight biological coupling between communicators and receivers as a mechanism through which perceptions of value can be transmitted.

  17. Satisfaction Levels and Factors Influencing Satisfaction With Use of a Social App for Neonatal and Pediatric Patient Transfer Information Systems: A Questionnaire Study Among Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Iee; Kim, Sun Jun; Cho, Soo Chul; Kim, Il Nyeo

    2016-01-01

    Background The treatment of neonatal and pediatric patients is limited to certain medical institutions depending on treatment difficulty. Effective patient transfers are necessary in situations where there are limited medical resources. In South Korea, the government has made a considerable effort to establish patient transfer systems using various means, such as websites, telephone, and so forth. However, in reality, the effort has not yet been effective. Objective In this study, we ran a patient transfer information system using a social app for effective patient transfer. We analyzed the results, satisfaction levels, and the factors influencing satisfaction. Methods Naver Band is a social app and mobile community application which in Korea is more popular than Facebook. It facilitates group communication. Using Naver Band, two systems were created: one by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and the other by the Department of Pediatrics at Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital, South Korea. The information necessary for patient transfers was provided to participating obstetricians (n=51) and pediatricians (n=90). We conducted a survey to evaluate the systems and reviewed the results retrospectively. Results The number of patients transferred was reported to increase by 65% (26/40) obstetricians and 40% (23/57) pediatricians. The time taken for transfers was reported to decrease by 72% (29/40) obstetricians and 59% (34/57) pediatricians. Satisfaction was indicated by 83% (33/40) obstetricians and 89% (51/57) pediatricians. Regarding factors influencing satisfaction, the obstetricians reported communication with doctors in charge (P=.03) and time reduction during transfers (P=.02), whereas the pediatricians indicated review of the diagnosis and treatment of transferred patients (P=.01) and the time reduction during transfers (P=.007). Conclusions The users were highly satisfied and different users indicated different factors of satisfaction. This finding

  18. Satisfaction Levels and Factors Influencing Satisfaction With Use of a Social App for Neonatal and Pediatric Patient Transfer Information Systems: A Questionnaire Study Among Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Iee; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Sun Jun; Cho, Soo Chul; Kim, Il Nyeo

    2016-08-04

    The treatment of neonatal and pediatric patients is limited to certain medical institutions depending on treatment difficulty. Effective patient transfers are necessary in situations where there are limited medical resources. In South Korea, the government has made a considerable effort to establish patient transfer systems using various means, such as websites, telephone, and so forth. However, in reality, the effort has not yet been effective. In this study, we ran a patient transfer information system using a social app for effective patient transfer. We analyzed the results, satisfaction levels, and the factors influencing satisfaction. Naver Band is a social app and mobile community application which in Korea is more popular than Facebook. It facilitates group communication. Using Naver Band, two systems were created: one by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and the other by the Department of Pediatrics at Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital, South Korea. The information necessary for patient transfers was provided to participating obstetricians (n=51) and pediatricians (n=90). We conducted a survey to evaluate the systems and reviewed the results retrospectively. The number of patients transferred was reported to increase by 65% (26/40) obstetricians and 40% (23/57) pediatricians. The time taken for transfers was reported to decrease by 72% (29/40) obstetricians and 59% (34/57) pediatricians. Satisfaction was indicated by 83% (33/40) obstetricians and 89% (51/57) pediatricians. Regarding factors influencing satisfaction, the obstetricians reported communication with doctors in charge (P=.03) and time reduction during transfers (P=.02), whereas the pediatricians indicated review of the diagnosis and treatment of transferred patients (P=.01) and the time reduction during transfers (P=.007). The users were highly satisfied and different users indicated different factors of satisfaction. This finding implies that users' requirements should be

  19. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Dalton

    Full Text Available Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120 rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  20. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  1. Social influence and the Matthew mechanism: The case of an artificial cultural market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bask, Miia; Bask, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    We show that the Matthew effect, or Matthew mechanism, was present in the artificial cultural market Music Lab in one-fourth of the “worlds” when social influence between individuals was allowed, whereas this effect was not present in the “world” that disallowed social influence between individuals. We also sketch on a class of social network models, derived from social influence theory, that may generate the Matthew effect. Thus, we propose a theoretical framework that may explain why the most popular songs could be much more popular, and the least popular songs could be much less popular, than when disallowing social influence between individuals.

  2. Social factors in innovation: A review of the literature; El Estudio de los Factores en la Innovacion. Revision de la Literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C; Sola, R

    2009-10-12

    This report analyses the main approaches in the social sciences in the study of technological innovation processes. The literature review aims at linking different perspectives such as innovation systems, the socio technical approach, the social shaping of technologies, the studies on social life cycle assessment, the social construction of technologies approach and the studies on technology policy. These approaches have allowed understanding technology deployment not as a natural phenomenon, but as the result of the investment of resources by the different actors. Feedbacks among the different components of the innovation system, such as research, technological knowledge, potential market, design, users and the social context modify the result of innovation. The main objective is to identify and to get a deeper knowledge of the factors influencing the successful implementation of energy technologies in society. (Author) 98 refs.

  3. Gender influences on preschool children's social problem-solving strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sue; Irving, Kym; Berthelsen, Donna

    2002-06-01

    The authors investigated gender influences on the nature and competency of preschool children's social problem-solving strategies. Preschool-age children (N = 179; 91 boys, 88 girls) responded to hypothetical social situations designed to assess their social problem-solving skills in the areas of provocation, peer group entry, and sharing or taking turns. Results indicated that, overall, girls' responses were more competent (i.e., reflective of successful functioning with peers) than those of boys, and girls' strategies were less likely to involve retaliation or verbal or physical aggression. The competency of the children's responses also varied with the gender of the target child. Findings are discussed in terms of the influence of gender-related social experiences on the types of strategies and behaviors that may be viewed as competent for boys and girls of preschool age.

  4. Cultural, social and intrapersonal factors associated with clusters of co-occurring health-related behaviours among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, Mariska; Dusseldorp, Elise; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Paulussen, Theo G. W. M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Adverse health-related behaviours (HRBs) have been shown to co-occur in adolescents. Evidence lacks on factors associated with these co-occurring HRBs. The Theory of Triadic Influence (TTI) offers a route to categorize these determinants according to type (social, cultural and

  5. Physicians under the influence: social psychology and industry marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sunita; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and medical device companies apply social psychology to influence physicians' prescribing behavior and decision making. Physicians fail to recognize their vulnerability to commercial influences due to self-serving bias, rationalization, and cognitive dissonance. Professionalism offers little protection; even the most conscious and genuine commitment to ethical behavior cannot eliminate unintentional, subconscious bias. Six principles of influence - reciprocation, commitment, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity - are key to the industry's routine marketing strategies, which rely on the illusion that the industry is a generous avuncular partner to physicians. In order to resist industry influence, physicians must accept that they are vulnerable to subconscious bias and have both the motivation and means to resist industry influence. A culture in which accepting industry gifts engenders shame rather than gratitude will reduce conflicts of interest. If greater academic prestige accrues to distant rather than close relationships with industry, then a new social norm may emerge that promotes patient care and scientific integrity. In addition to educating faculty and students about the social psychology underlying sophisticated but potentially manipulative marketing and about how to resist it, academic medical institutions should develop strong organizational policies to counteract the medical profession's improper dependence on industry. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  6. Evolution of extortion in the social-influenced prisoner’s dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Miao; Wang, Dan; Chen, Qinghe

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of extortion strategy has attracted much attention since it dominates any evolutionary opponent in iterated prisoner’s dilemma games. Despite several studies argue that extortion is difficult to survive under strategy imitation and birth-death updating rules in well-mixed populations, it has recently been proven that a myopic best response rule facilitate the evolution of cooperation and extortion. However, such updating rules require a strong assumption of complete knowledge of all players, which is unlikely to hold in social networks in reality. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of social influence into the model to limit players’ knowledge within their neighborhood. It turns out that this myopia initiated by social influence prevents players from observing superior strategies and therefore enables cooperators and extortioners to be evolutionarily stable. We also suggest that heterogeneous networks contribute to the evolution of cooperation and extortion under such social influence.

  7. General Adjustment Influence Factor of Malaysian Construction Expatriates Executives Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainol Halmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of Malaysian construction companies creates an opportunity to explore abroad. Past studies have shown that the difficulty of expatriates in adjusting to a new environment is the main aspect that leads to failure of assignments. The success in implementing an overseas assignment does not solely depend on an expatriate’s technical expertise. The adjustment issues such as the interaction with the host nationals, and adaptability to the host country’s culture also exert influence on the assignment. The research was conducted to identify the influence of executive expatriate general adjustment on assignment in host countries. The objective of the study was to identify adjustment influence factors relating to general adjustment abroad. Questionnaires were sent to Malaysian expatriate executives. Sixty four Malaysian expatriate executives from Malaysian construction companies overseas were involved in this study. The findings show interaction, social and living environment influences their adjustment during expatriation. Pre-departure training preparation aspects for expatriates is a good step before their departure to host countries.

  8. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Electric Appliances Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Łatuszyńska

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the impact of different factors on consumer buying behaviour. It analyses the relationship between several independent variables, such as cultural, social, personal, psychological and marketing mix factors, and consumer behaviour (as the dependent variable in the electric appliances market. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting consumer preferences and behaviour in the electric appliances market in Iraq. The data employed to analyse the factors influencing consumers’ purchase decision-making processes were obtained through a questionnaire that was conducted in December 2011 in Basra, a city in southern Iraq. The major findings of the study indicated that, overall, the set of independent variables are weakly associated with the dependent variable. However, the in-depth analysis found that social factors, physical factors, and marketing mix elements are strongly associated with consumer buying behaviour. These analyses make it possible to discover consumer decision-making rules. The results may assist producers and retailers in understanding consumer behaviour and improving consumer satisfaction.

  9. Determinant Factors of Corporate Social Disclosures in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniati Gunawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as one of the big developing countries has been responding rapidly to the issue of Corporate Social Disclosure (CSD. This can be seen from the CSD section in the listed companies’ annual reports which keep increasing throughout the years. However, there are still inconclusive findings in factors that determine the extent of CSD. Based on a comprehensive research, therefore, this paper examines some selected factors in their relations to the extent of CSD, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Corporate annual reports for the year 2003 to 2006 were examined to verify the CSD practices by applying a content analysis method and multiple regression analysis. Then, firm’s characteristics (category, size, financial performances, age, and group influential (creditors, auditors, owners were analysed to seek their significant relationships to the extent of CSD. The findings show that (1 there was no significant influence of ‘company type’ to the extent of CSD; but ‘company status’ was significantl y influence CSD (2 ‘company size’, ‘financial performances’, ‘age’, and ‘auditors’ influences’ were found to have significant positi ve influences to the extent of CSD; (3 ‘Owners’ influence’ correlated positivel y rather than negati vely to CSD; and (4 Mixed results were provided by the ‘creditors’ influence’ throughout the years. The overall correlations between predictor and criterion variables are considered to be low to moderate, varied from 0.463 to 0.607 for correlation coefficients (R and 0.215 to 0.368 for determinant coefficients (R2 in the regression model.

  10. A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkner, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods: A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls’ perspectives of how significant others’ influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Results: Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. Conclusion: The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls’ perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity. PMID:29405881

  11. A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Yvonne; Fawkner, Samantha; Niven, Ailsa

    2018-12-01

    Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls' perspectives of how significant others' influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls' perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity.

  12. A Factor Analysis of The Social Interest Index--Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarski, John J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Social Interest Index-Revised (SII-R), which measures levels of social interest attained in each of four life task areas. Four factors (N=308) were defined, i.e., a self-significance factor, a love factor, a friendship factor, and a work factor. Results support the empirical validity of the scale. (Author/PAS)

  13. Longitudinal influences of neighbourhood built and social environment on children's weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Maria; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Willié, Bianca; Johannsen, Maike; Landsberg, Beate; Müller, Manfred J

    2013-10-15

    The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children's body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children's BMI-SDS. Between 2006-2008 and 2010-2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8-6.4)). Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates) were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/buses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment) had an impact on children's BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment.

  14. Social factors outside of family and school related to student dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović-Ilić Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematisation of broader social factors affecting student dropout in Serbia from the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s approach. Although recognised by authors and commonly related to community and education as a system, these factors are rarely investigated. Starting from our previous research into dropout, focused primarily on family and school, this study is aimed at investigating community and systemic factors. The data were compiled by semi-structured interviews with respondents from the following groups (including relevant public statistical data: students who dropped out/are at risk and their parents; school principals and counsellors from schools with high and low attrition rates; teachers’, parents’ and students’ representatives from schools with high dropout rates; social workers in charge of schools with a low attrition rate; representatives of national educational institutions. The findings reveal that factors with a negative impact on children’s education dominate over supportive ones which could have a preventive effect on attrition. Negative influences exist in all social niches: in microsystems (peers prone to risky behaviour, poor neighbourhoods, in weak mesosystem connections of school and family with local institutions, in exosystems (undeveloped regions, up to the macrosystem level (legislative inefficiency, lack of cooperation within educational institutions and between governmental departments. Productive features were observed in mesosystem connections of schools as examples of good practice, as well as at macrosystem level in the form of recognising the dropout problem at the national level. Although preliminary, the obtained results provide useful guidelines for future investigations.

  15. Cultural, social and intrapersonal factors associated with clusters of co-occurring health-related behaviours among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, M.; Dusseldorp, E.; Nieuwenhuijzen, M. van; Paulussen, T.W.G.M.; Junger, M.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse health-related behaviours (HRBs) have been shown to co-occur in adolescents. Evidence lacks on factors associated with these co-occurring HRBs. The Theory of Triadic Influence (TTI) offers a route to categorize these determinants according to type (social, cultural and intrapersonal) and

  16. Influencing Factors on Choosing Psychiatry as a Career: An Exploration in Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiawei; Zheng, Luna; Chen, Xiaoling; Gao, Qianqian; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    There is a consistent need of psychiatric professionals in the world including China, and a consistent challenge to recruit more medical students into the psychiatric careers. We aimed to look for factors which have an impact on career-choosing of psychiatry in Chinese university students. We invited 508 non-medical students (NM), 304 medical students without (MO) and 123 medical students with clinical internship experience (MW), to answer a matrix of 43 questions regarding factors influencing career-choosing of psychiatry. Answers to these questions were analyzed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, once the latent factors were identified and structurally-validated, their mean scores in three groups of students were calculated. Five factors with five items each were identified, namely social status inferiority, career importance, practice reward, career preference, and practice stress. NM scored lower than MO and MW did on Social Status Inferiority; NM group scored higher than MO and MW groups did on Career Importance; MW scored lower than NM and MO did on Practice Reward and on Career Preference; Regarding Practice Stress, NM scored higher than MO did, who then in turn, scored higher than MW did. In addition, Practice Stress was positively correlated with advice of the medical educators; and Social Status Inferiority and Career Preference were positively correlated with the psychiatry teaching of the medical educators. Raising career rewards, improving social status, and reinforcing psychiatric education might help to recruit more medical students to specialize in psychiatry practicing.

  17. Factors Affecting Intention to Use in Social Networking Sites: An Empirical Study on Thai Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairak, Rath; Sahakhunchai, Napath; Jairak, Kallaya; Praneetpolgrang, Prasong

    This research aims to explore the factors that affect the intention to use in Social Networking Sites (SNS). We apply the theory of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), intrinsic motivation, and trust properties to develop the theoretical framework for SNS users' intention. The results show that the important factors influencing SNS users' intention for general purpose and collaborative learning are task-oriented, pleasure-oriented, and familiarity-based trust. In marketing usage, dispositional trust and pleasure-oriented are two main factors that reflect intention to use in SNS.

  18. SOCIAL CLEAVAGES IN THE AMERICAN SOCIETY AS A FACTOR OF 2016 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kanevskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current article is dedicated to analysis of social cleavages in the American elections and the ways they influenced on presidential election in 2016. Originally developed by S. Rokkan and S.M. Lipset, social cleavages became a classic theme for contemporary political sociology. However, despite the fact that the theory has been developing primarily by Americans, it has been rarely used to analyze electoral system in the USA. Traditionally it’s been aimed at European and developing countries where electoral fragmentation is seen more clearly. But recent changes in the American society and the political system demonstrate the emergence of social cleavages that had not been inherent before. The article shows how American electoral space transformed since the 1980s and how it became more fragmented under the influence of social, economic and ideological factors. Elections in 2016 became a watershed for social cleavages that accumulated through time and aggravated even more considering internal crises in the Democratic and more so in the Republican parties. Donald Trump’s victory is an impersonation of the American party system crisis and of the mainstream politicians’ inability to find proper explanation of the changing electorate. Author shows that American society today is polarized even more than many European countries while group identification determines vectors of political change.

  19. UV Deprivation Influences Social UV Preference in Juvenile Sticklebacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Modarressie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Social aggregations occur in many different animal taxa and mainly result from non-random assortment. Investigating factors that shape and maintain the composition of social aggregations are among others a main topic for understanding ecological speciation processes. Aggregation decisions are mediated by olfactory and visual cues, which in many animals are extended into the UV part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, we were interested in developmental plasticity of social preferences with respect to UV radiation in aquatic organisms. Specifically, we tested whether different lighting environments with respect to UV wavelengths during early life stages influence the shoaling preference in juvenile threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus. Family (full-sibling groups were split and reared under UV-lacking (UV- and UV-present (UV+ lighting conditions. Subsequent shoal choice experiments, in which test fish from both rearing conditions could simultaneously choose between a shoal seen behind a UV-blocking (UV- and a shoal seen behind a UV-transmitting (UV+ filter, revealed a significant effect of lighting condition during rearing on association preference. Test fish that had been deprived of UV spent significantly more time near the UV- shoal compared to the test fish reared under full-spectrum lighting conditions. The results are discussed with respect to plasticity of the visual system and environmental lighting conditions.

  20. The Influences of Social Self-Efficacy on Social Trust and Social Capital--A Case Study of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Wang, Shih-Ting; Liu, Feng; Hu, Da-Chain; Hwang, Wu-Yuin

    2012-01-01

    Facebook is currently the most popular social networking service in the world. With such tremendous influence on community networks, Facebook has been attracting considerable attention both from the media and academia. A review of the literature indicates that most researchers are concerned primarily with the influence of personal traits on online…

  1. Assessing influences on social vulnerability to wildfire using surveys, spatial data and wildfire simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveglio, Travis B; Edgeley, Catrin M; Stasiewicz, Amanda M

    2018-05-01

    A growing body of research focuses on identifying patterns among human populations most at risk from hazards such as wildfire and the factors that help explain performance of mitigations that can help reduce that risk. Emerging policy surrounding wildfire management emphasizes the need to better understand such social vulnerability-or human populations' potential exposure to and sensitivity from wildfire-related impacts, including their ability to reduce negative impacts from the hazard. Studies of social vulnerability to wildfire often pair secondary demographic data with a variety of vegetation and wildfire simulation models to map potential risk. However, many of the assumptions made by those researchers about the demographic, spatial or perceptual factors that influence social vulnerability to wildfire have not been fully evaluated or tested against objective measures of potential wildfire risk. The research presented here utilizes self-reported surveys, GIS data, and wildfire simulations to test the relationships between select perceptual, demographic, and property characteristics of property owners against empirically simulated metrics for potential wildfire related damages or exposure. We also evaluate how those characteristics relate to property owners' performance of mitigations or support for fire management. Our results suggest that parcel characteristics provide the most significant explanation of variability in wildfire exposure, sensitivity and overall wildfire risk, while the positive relationship between income or property values and components of social vulnerability stands in contrast to typical assumptions from existing literature. Respondents' views about agency or government management helped explain a significant amount of variance in wildfire sensitivity, while the importance of wildfire risk in selecting a residence was an important influence on mitigation action. We use these and other results from our effort to discuss updated

  2. Factores psicosociales en alcohólicos dependientes Psychological and social factors in dependent alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Revilla Cervantes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 4 casos clínicos de pacientes alcohólicos dependientes no complicados pertenecientes al Consultorio Médico de Familia No. 5 del Policlínico Docente "Frank País García", con vistas a identificar los factores psicosociales que influían en estos. Como principales condicionantes de la conducta adictiva en el grupo estudiado se observaron: la influencia del medio, las tradiciones culturales y la participación de eventos vitales de prevalencia negativa. Además, los afectados mostraron un fuerte arraigo a la conducta alcohólica y el deseo de continuarla.Four case reports of uncomplicated dependent alcoholic patients belonging to the Family Doctor's Office No. 5 from «Frank País García Teaching Polyclinic are presented with the aim of identifying the psychological and social factors influencing on them. As main conditions of the addictive behavior in the studied group there were: the influence of the environment, the cultural traditions and the participation in vital events of negative prevalence. Also, those affected showed a strong dependence on the alcoholic behavior and the desire of continuing it.

  3. Influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gecková, A.; Pudelsky, M.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support were investigated in sample of adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years). The perceived social support was studied in five spheres: school, interpersonal relations, serious

  4. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Diana J. R.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges. PMID:26529405

  5. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  6. Social distance influences the outcome evaluation of cooperation and conflict: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yezi; Lu, Jiamei; Wang, Yiwen; Feng, Zhouqi; Yuan, Bo

    2017-04-24

    Previous research shows that social distance plays an important role in promoting cooperation and that subtle cues that reduce social distance increase the tendency to cooperate. However, it is unclear how social distance influences our outcome evaluation of cooperative and conflict feedback. The present study investigated the influence of social distance on cooperative and conflict behavior and the evaluation process of the cooperative and conflict outcomes, using the event-related potentials (ERPs) technique. We recorded ERPs from 14 normal adults playing a social game task against a friend and a stranger. The results showed that the FRN (Feedback Related Negativity) and P300 were affected by the opponent's choice to cooperate or aggress; however, only the P300 was affected by social distance. Specifically, when the opponent chose to cooperate, the feedback elicited a smaller FRN and a larger P300 amplitude; and compared with playing against friends, the P300 had a larger amplitude when participants gaming with strangers. Our results indicate that at the early stage of the evaluation of cooperation and conflict outcomes, individuals may initially and quickly encode the valence of outcomes, judging whether an outcome is consistent with their expectations. However, at the late stage, which involves a top-down cognitive appraisal process, some social factors, such as social distance, may moderate processing of attention resource allocation of feedback about outcomes, and of higher-level motivation/affective appraisal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple levels of social influence on adolescent sexual and reproductive health decision-making and behaviors in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Sneha; Manu, Abubakar; Morhe, Emmanuel; Dalton, Vanessa K; Loll, Dana; Dozier, Jessica; Zochowski, Melissa K; Boakye, Andrew; Adanu, Richard; Hall, Kelli Stidham

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the multilevel social determinants of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) that shape the use of family planning (FP) among young women in Africa. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 63 women aged 15-24 years in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. We used purposive, stratified sampling to recruit women from community-based sites. Interviews were conducted in English or local languages, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Grounded theory-guided thematic analysis identified salient themes. Three primary levels of influence emerged as shaping young women's SRH experiences, decision-making, and behaviors. Interpersonal influences (peers, partners, and parents) were both supportive and unsupportive influences on sexual debut, contraceptive (non) use, and pregnancy resolution. Community influences included perceived norms about acceptability/unacceptability of adolescent sexual activity and its consequences (pregnancy, childbearing, abortion). Macro-social influences involved religion and abstinence and teachings about premarital sex, lack of comprehensive sex education, and limited access to confidential, quality SRH care. The willingness and ability of young women in our study to use FP methods and services were affected, often negatively, by factors operating within and across each level. These findings have implications for research, programs, and policies to address social determinants of adolescent SRH.

  8. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  9. [Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature.

  10. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  11. Study of the factors of interregional convergence/divergence in real incomes and «social well-being» of Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkina Marina, Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the measurement of the degree of inter-regional convergence / divergence of Russian regions in per capita GRP, nominal and real incomes and social well-being index (SWI in 2004-2013, as well as the evaluation of the factors that have caused these changes. Methods: deflation of household incomes by means of relative cost of living index in the regions; measurement of social well-being, based on the index of localization of real incomes relatively intraregional Gini coefficient; calculation of weighted indices of inter-regional differentiation (Gini and variation coefficients, Hachman, Theil and Atkinson indexes; proportional method of factor analysis. Results obtained: 1 in 2004-2013 in Russia there was a convergence of all regional indicators, however, in a change of the social well-being index there are two periods of divergence: 2009 (a weak growth and 2012 (a significant burst; 2 the main factors of regions’ convergence in the SWI were: (re distribution factor (its impact over time increased significantly, inflation factor (it is observed a small reduction in its influence and the factor of intraregional income inequality (its influence is mainly depleted. The results may be useful for different levels government in the management of regional development.

  12. Influence sociale et leadership dans la direction des personnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bapes Ba Bapes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte actuel de direction des personnes, la bonne articulation de l’influence sociale et du leadership constitue un véritable défi à relever. Partagées entre la rupture d’avec les modes de management classiques et la fidélité au management traditionnel, les organisations se trouvent de plus en plus insérées dans un champ où s’expriment diverses rationalités toujours plus complexes. Les modes d’exercice du leadership semblent en fait subir l’influence de l’environnement social et culturel dans lequel ils s’expriment, ce qui consacre un certain relativisme qui vise à recommander désormais un ré-encastrement social du leadership. Les enjeux actuels de la direction des personnes placent les organisations au cœur d’une remise en question nécessaire, du moment où les valeurs de la démocratie semblent orienter les problématiques actuelles. Dès lors, une redéfinition de l’influence sociale et du leadership, qui tienne compte des élaborations théoriques et des constations empiriques s’impose, en vue de déboucher sur une culture d’entreprise négociée qui rende plus réelle l’optimisation du capital humain.In the present context of personnel management, the good articulation of social influence and leadership is a major challenge. Caught between the break away from classical management methods and faithfulness to traditional management, organizations are becoming more and more integrated in a field where different and even more complex rationalities are expressed. Actually, ways of practicing leadership seem to be subject to the influence of the social and cultural environment in which they are used. This, therefore, establishes some sort of relativism which aims henceforth at recommending a new social build-in of leadership. The present issues in personnel management place organizations at the centre of a necessary questioning, as democratic values seem to be oriented towards current problems

  13. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SOCIAL INSTITUTION OF EDUCATION AND COMPUTER VIRTUAL REALITY: POINTS OF INFLUENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Tarakanov Sergey Anatolevich

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of computer virtual reality to education as a social institution. Author gives a description of education as a social institution. Outlines the main changes of the institute of education under the influence of a virtual online-environment. Author makes the following conclusions: 1. Computer virtual reality expands sphere of activity of social institution of education. 2. Computer virtual reality deletes status and role differences. It influences on the system...

  15. Social and cultural factors associated with perinatal grief in Chhattisgarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne; Lee, Jerry W; Anderson, Barbara A

    2012-06-01

    Stillbirth is a globally significant public health problem with many medical causes. There are also indirect causal pathways including social and cultural factors which are particularly salient in India's traditional society. The purpose of this study was to explore women's perceptions of stillbirth and to determine how issues of gender and power, social support, coping efforts, and religious beliefs influence perinatal grief outcomes among poor women in rural Chhattisgarh, India. Structured interviews were done face-to-face in 21 randomly selected villages among women of reproductive age (N=355) who had experienced stillbirth (n=178) and compared to those who had not (n=177), in the Christian Hospital, Mungeli catchment area. Perinatal grief was significantly higher among women with a history of stillbirth. Greater perinatal grief was associated with lack of support, maternal agreement with social norms, and younger maternal age. These predictors must be understood in light of an additional finding-distorted sex ratios, which reflect gender discrimination in the context of Indian society. The findings of this study will allow the development of a culturally appropriate health education program which should be designed to increase social support and address social norms, thereby reducing psychological distress to prevent complicated perinatal grief. Perinatal grief is a significant social burden which impacts the health women.

  16. Susceptibility and Influence in Social Media Word-of-Mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.

    Peer influence through word-of-mouth (WOM) plays an important role in many information systems but identification of causal effects is challenging. We identify causal WOM effects in the empirical setting of game adoption in a social network for gamers by exploiting differences in individuals...... and receiver side. We find that users with the most influence on others tend to be better gamers, have larger social networks, but spend less time playing. Interestingly, these are also the users who are least susceptible to WOM effects....

  17. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.

  18. Risk Factors for Social Isolation in Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Ko, Jisook; Lee, Juyoung; Kim, Miyong T

    2016-02-01

    Given the importance of social ties and connectedness in the lives of older ethnic immigrants, the present study examined the prevalence of social isolation and its risk factors in older Korean Americans. Using survey data from 1,301 participants (Mage = 70.5, SD = 7.24), risk groups for marginal social ties with family and friends were identified and predictors of each type of social isolation explored. Male gender and poorer rating of health were identified as common risk factors for marginal ties to both family and friends. Findings also present specific risk factors for each type of social isolation. For example, an increased risk of having marginal ties with friends was observed among individuals with perceived financial strain, greater functional impairment, and a shorter stay in the United States. The common and specific risk factors should be incorporated in programs to reduce social isolation in older immigrant populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Reconceptualizing Social Influence in Counseling: The Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Brian W.; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    1989-01-01

    Presents Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion (a reconceptualization of the social influence process) as alternative model of attitude change. Contends ELM unifies conflicting social psychology results and can potentially account for inconsistent research findings in counseling psychology. Provides guidelines on integrating…

  20. Factors Influencing Levels of CSR Disclosure by Forestry Companies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: With the international community’s increasing concern for social and environmental problems, the fulfilment and disclosure of corporate social responsibility (CSR has been advocated and promoted across the world. Forestry companies, which are particularly sensitive to environmental and social issues, are increasingly developing and improving their levels of CSR disclosure. However, information on emerging country contexts is still lacking. To fill this gap, this study focuses on Chinese forestry companies’ CSR disclosure and introduces new disclosure indices through content analysis of annual reports by listed companies between 2011–2015. It then builds a correlation analysis of the factors influencing these companies’ disclosure indices in order to gain a better understanding of the current situation for CSR implementation by forestry companies in emerging economies like China. Although context-specific, our findings can provide a reference for researchers and policy makers, and promote sustainable development via improved CSR disclosure by forestry companies, especially in developing regions.

  1. The impact of social and organizational factors on workers' use of personal protective equipment: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, Steffen; Grøgaard, Jens B; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne

    2005-08-01

    On the basis of the job demands-control-support model by Karasek and Theorell, we investigated how social and organizational factors influence workers' use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1420 workers in 203 motor vehicle-repair garages. Multilevel modeling was performed to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. Social and management support correlated positively with PPE use at the worker level. Low demands measured at the garage level and having a health and safety management system at the garage also correlated with active use of PPE. An interaction effect between social support and garage-level demands was observed. In addition to health information and provision of PPE, focusing on social and organizational factors seems necessary to get more workers to comply with the instructions on PPE use.

  2. What affects social attention? Social presence, eye contact and autistic traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Freeth

    Full Text Available Social understanding is facilitated by effectively attending to other people and the subtle social cues they generate. In order to more fully appreciate the nature of social attention and what drives people to attend to social aspects of the world, one must investigate the factors that influence social attention. This is especially important when attempting to create models of disordered social attention, e.g. a model of social attention in autism. Here we analysed participants' viewing behaviour during one-to-one social interactions with an experimenter. Interactions were conducted either live or via video (social presence manipulation. The participant was asked and then required to answer questions. Experimenter eye-contact was either direct or averted. Additionally, the influence of participant self-reported autistic traits was also investigated. We found that regardless of whether the interaction was conducted live or via a video, participants frequently looked at the experimenter's face, and they did this more often when being asked a question than when answering. Critical differences in social attention between the live and video interactions were also observed. Modifications of experimenter eye contact influenced participants' eye movements in the live interaction only; and increased autistic traits were associated with less looking at the experimenter for video interactions only. We conclude that analysing patterns of eye-movements in response to strictly controlled video stimuli and natural real-world stimuli furthers the field's understanding of the factors that influence social attention.

  3. Cognitive and Social Factors Influencing Students׳ Response and Utilization of Facilitator Feedback in a Problem Based Learning Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Gonzaga Mubuuke

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Both cognitive and socio-contextual factors have the potential in influencing ways in which students receive and utilize facilitator feedback in PBL tutorials. Therefore, tutorial facilitators need to be cognizant of these factors when framing their feedback messages.

  4. Factores sociales y salud infantil asociados con la vejez Childhood health and social factors associated to elderly morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Elisa Ruiz-Pantoja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar si el estado de salud de la vejez en México al inicio del siglo XXI está asociado con las condiciones sociales y de salud vividas en la infancia, diferenciando por sexo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron personas que sobrevivieron a condiciones adversas durante la infancia y en los siguientes años, originarias de medios rurales donde los servicios básicos eran escasos, lo que provocó elevadas tasas de mortalidad infantil a causa de enfermedades infecciosas o parasitarias. Se utilizó como fuente de información el Estudio Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México 2001, y el modelo de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: Los estilos de vida de la infancia y la etapa adulta no son independientes, sino que interactúan y definen conjuntamente la morbilidad adquirida en las edades mayores. CONCLUSIÓN: La escolaridad de los padres y las características de la vivienda de la infancia aparecen como factores protectores importantes, aunque estas conclusiones no pueden generalizarse.OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determinate if health status of the elderly in Mexico at the beginning of the 21st. Century is associated to earlier social and health conditions during child-hood, including sex differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research was conducted using survey data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS 2001. RESULTS: Linear regression models point out that life styles during childhood and adulthood are not independent, both influencing morbidity in elderly years. CONCLUSION: Parents' education and household characteristics through childhood represent main protection factors; however, this finding cannot be generalized.

  5. Social Networks in the Classroom: Personality Factors as Antecedents of Student Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…

  6. Environmental and Biological Factors Influencing Infant’s Low Birth Weight in Teenage Mothers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Samira Mokhlesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pregnancy in low age has been proposed as one of the important factors causing risks and adverse outcomes. One of these complications is low birth weight (LBW, which is an important health indicator in any countries. In this study, texts related to Environmental and Biological Factors Influencing Infant’s Low Birth Weight in teenage mothers was reviewed. Methods: In the present study, articles indexed in the databases Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, were used. Results: In the present study, a total of 22 articles related to teenage pregnancy and low birth weight were studied. Also, all factors influencing infants’ low birth weight in teenegers were evaluated in the areas of biological and environmental factors. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that environmental and biological parameters are factors influencing low birth weight in teenage pregnancy. Thus, to reduce social problem of low birth weight and to improve this indicator in both environmental and biological issues, health intervention is necessary.

  7. Social Media Influence and Intensity of Watching Television Drama on Achievement of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Himawan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to get: (1 the influence of the social media use on achievement of students; (2 the influence of the watching television drama intensity on achievement of students grade X TKJ in SMK Batik 1 Surakarta; and (3 the influence both of social media use and the watching television drama intensity on achievement of students. The sample used was 78 from 100 student population based on Isaac and Michael table. This study was quantitative research using ex post facto method. The data were collected by questionnaire and documentation. Data analysis used single and multi-linear regression. The result showed that there was significance influence between the used of social media towards the achievement of the students, there was significance influence between the intensity of watching television drama towards the achievement of the students, there was significance influence between the social media use and the intensity of watching television drama towards the achievement of students. Out of the two independent variables, the use of social media is a variable that contributes more influence to student learning outcomes.

  8. Factors influencing Dipylidium sp. infection in a free-ranging social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marion L.; Kurze, Christoph; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first genetic sequence data for a Dipylidium species from a wild carnivore plus an analysis of the effects of ecological, demographic, physiological and behavioural factors on Dipylidium sp. infection prevalence in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Our sequence data from a mitochondrial gene fragment (1176 base pair long) had a similarity of between 99% and 89% to Dipylidium caninum. We determined infection prevalence in 146 faecal samples from 124 known animals in three social groups (termed clans) using molecular screening and Dipylidium proglottid presence. Our analysis revealed significantly higher infection prevalence in juveniles (55%) than adults (15.8%), indicating that predominantly juveniles maintained infection in clans. The likelihood of infection in juveniles significantly: (1) increased as the number of adults and older juveniles (>6 months) at communal dens increased, implying a positive relationship between this factor and the size of the intermediate host (probably a flea species) population at communal dens; (2) decreased as the number of younger juveniles (Dipylidium fecundity and hence decrease infection prevalence in the den flea population. Our study provides useful insights into Dipylidium epidemiology in a social carnivore population subject to large fluctuations in prey abundance. PMID:24533344

  9. The Frequency and Influencing Factors of Antenatel Care in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim KILIC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy requires antenatal care either for mother and her baby from initial of pregnancy to delivery. Main aims of antenatal care are to identify probable mother’s disease and to determine health risk which would endanger mother and her baby. The aim of this study is evaluation of antenatal care frequency and its influencing factors in women who were complete 28 weeks of her pregnancy in GATA hospital and ZTB Hospital. The study conducted among on a total number of 200 women who consent involves in study. There was a statistically significant difference among two groups about distributions of maternal education level, maternal occupation which has income, husband’s education level, husband’s occupation, family’s total monthly income, ownership a social security (p<0,001. We determine that the attitude of antenatal care is influenced by maternal education level, maternal occupation which has income, husband’s education level, husband’s occupation, family’s total monthly income, and ownership a social security, like another study which conducted about this issue ether national and international. There is another significant point that some women had not adequate antenatal care even if they have a social security, she and her husband have high level education, and she has high level income. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 91-97

  10. The Frequency and Influencing Factors of Antenatel Care in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim KILIC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy requires antenatal care either for mother and her baby from initial of pregnancy to delivery. Main aims of antenatal care are to identify probable mother’s disease and to determine health risk which would endanger mother and her baby. The aim of this study is evaluation of antenatal care frequency and its influencing factors in women who were complete 28 weeks of her pregnancy in GATA hospital and ZTB Hospital. The study conducted among on a total number of 200 women who consent involves in study. There was a statistically significant difference among two groups about distributions of maternal education level, maternal occupation which has income, husband’s education level, husband’s occupation, family’s total monthly income, ownership a social security (p<0,001. We determine that the attitude of antenatal care is influenced by maternal education level, maternal occupation which has income, husband’s education level, husband’s occupation, family’s total monthly income, and ownership a social security, like another study which conducted about this issue ether national and international. There is another significant point that some women had not adequate antenatal care even if they have a social security, she and her husband have high level education, and she has high level income. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 91-97

  11. Social influence in computer-mediated communication : The effects of anonymity on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first

  12. Aging and place in long-term care settings: influences on social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifas, Robin P; Simons, Kelsey; Biel, Barbara; Kramer, Christie

    2014-12-01

    This article presents results of a qualitative research study that examined how living in a long-term care (LTC) home influences the quality of residents' relationships with peers, family members, and outside friends. Semistructured interviews using a phenomenological approach were conducted with 23 residents of a LTC home. Thematic analysis was employed to illuminate residents' perspectives on the nature of social relationships in this setting. Four key themes were identified that highlight the role of place in social relationships. Residing in a LTC home influences the context of social interactions, impacts their quality and process, clusters individuals with health and functional declines that hinder socialization, and poses structural and cultural barriers that impede social interactions. Health and functional limitations posed the greatest challenge to socialization relative to characteristics of the facility itself. Residents' insights emphasize how personal characteristics influence community culture and the experience of place. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. A generational comparison of social networking site use: the influence of age and social identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N=256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer communication, and social compensation. Regardless of age, participants reporting high collective self-esteem and group identity were more likely to use social networking sites for peer communication and social identity gratifications, while those reporting negative collective self-esteem were more likely to use social networking sites for social compensation. The theoretical implications of the strong relationship between social identity gratifications and social compensation are discussed.

  14. DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PUBLIC OPINION ON PROSTITUTION: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN KWAZULU-NATAL PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pudifin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under the Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957, it is generally ignored by the police, which results in a quasi-legalised reality on the ground. In recent years there has been growing demand for the decriminalisation of prostitution, and as a result the issue is currently under consideration by the South African Law Reform Commission. The Commission released a Discussion Paper on Adult ProSstitution in May 2009, and is expected to make recommendations to parliament for legal reform in this area. An exploratory survey of 512 South Africans revealed interesting correlations between opinion on prostitution and both demographic characteristics (including gender, age, race and education level and so-called "social" characteristics (including religiosity, belief in the importance of gender equality, the acceptance of rape myths, and a belief that prostitutes have no other options. The survey reveals two key findings in respect of the attitudes of South Africans to prostitution. Firstly, an overwhelming majority of South Africans - from all walks of life - remain strongly morally opposed to prostitution, and would not support legal reforms aimed at decriminalising or legalising prostitution. Secondly, our data confirm that these views are strongly influenced by certain demographic and 'social' variables. In particular, race, gender, religiosity, cohabitation status, and socio-economic status were found to be religiosity, cohabitation status, and socio-economic status were found to be statistically significantly related to opinions on prostitution, while other variables - particularly the belief in the importance of gender equality and the

  15. The Role of Social Factors in the Accessibility of Urban Areas for People with Motor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Gharebaghi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities recognizes the right of people with disabilities to attain full social participation without discrimination on the basis of disability. Furthermore, mobility is one of the most important life habits for achieving such participation. Providing people with disabilities with information regarding accessible paths and accessible urban places therefore plays a vital role in achieving these goals. The accessibility of urban places and pedestrian networks depends, however, on the interaction between human capabilities and environmental factors, and may be subdivided into physical or social factors. An optimal analysis of accessibility requires both kinds of factors, social as well as physical. Although there has been considerable work concerning the physical aspects of the environment, social aspects have been largely neglected. In this paper, we highlight the importance of the social dimension of environments and consider a more integrated approach for accessibility assessment. We highlight the ways by which social factors such as policies can be incorporated into accessibility assessment of pedestrian networks for people with motor disabilities. Furthermore, we propose a framework to assess the accessibility of pedestrian network segments that incorporates the confidence level of people with motor disabilities. This framework is then used as a tool to investigate the influence of different policies on accessibility conditions of pedestrian networks. The methodology is implemented in the Saint-Roch neighborhood in Quebec City and the effectiveness of three policy actions is examined by way of illustration.

  16. Factors influencing the patient with rheumatoid arthritis in their decision to seek podiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, A; Mandy, P J; Stew, G

    2013-12-01

    Despite the level of foot involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the literature to support early assessment of foot care needs, local referral of patients to podiatry has been occurring too late to instigate certain preventative interventions. Preliminary fieldwork has highlighted that the primary responsibility for the instigation of this lies with the patient. The present study describes the factors that influence the patient with RA in their decision to self-report foot problems. A case study research strategy was employed. Nine patients attending the outpatient rheumatology department participated in the study and data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. This information was analysed using a framework approach. The key themes derived from the data suggested that there are a variety of factors influencing the patient's decision to self-report foot concerns. Some will act to encourage the action and others will act to oppose it. Other factors can influence the decision either way, depending on the individual patient (psychological state, previous experience, body image changes). In addition, age, gender, and cultural and social aspects are also significant. Due to the multitude of factors influencing the individual's decision to seek help, the patient cannot be given sole responsibility for their foot health if we wish to achieve timely and appropriate podiatry, as recommended in the literature. Responsibility should be three-way; the patient, the members of the rheumatology team and, once in the podiatry service, the podiatrist should maintain this. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Can I trust you? Negative affective priming influences social judgments in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I.; Tully, Laura M.; Verosky, Sara C.; Fisher, Melissa; Holland, Christine; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2010-01-01

    Successful social interactions rely on the ability to make accurate judgments based on social cues as well as the ability to control the influence of internal or external affective information on those judgments. Prior research suggests that individuals with schizophrenia misinterpret social stimuli and this misinterpretation contributes to impaired social functioning. We tested the hypothesis that for people with schizophrenia social judgments are abnormally influenced by affective information. 23 schizophrenia and 35 healthy control participants rated the trustworthiness of faces following the presentation of neutral, negative (threat-related), or positive affective primes. Results showed that all participants rated faces as less trustworthy following negative affective primes compared to faces that followed neutral or positive primes. Importantly, this effect was significantly more pronounced for schizophrenia participants, suggesting that schizophrenia may be characterised by an exaggerated influence of negative affective information on social judgment. Furthermore, the extent that the negative affective prime influenced trustworthiness judgments was significantly associated with patients’ severity of positive symptoms, particularly feelings of persecution. These findings suggest that for people with schizophrenia negative affective information contributes to an interpretive bias, consistent with paranoid ideation, when judging the trustworthiness of others. This bias may contribute to social impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:20919787

  18. Bio-psycho-social factors affecting sexual self-concept: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potki, Robabeh; Ziaei, Tayebe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, it is believed that mental and emotional aspects of sexual well-being are the important aspects of sexual health. Sexual self-concept is a major component of sexual health and the core of sexuality. It is defined as the cognitive perspective concerning the sexual aspects of 'self' and refers to the individual's self-perception as a sexual creature. The aim of this study was to assess the different factors affecting sexual self-concept. English electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar as well as two Iranian databases including Scientific Information Database and Iranmedex were searched for English and Persian-language articles published between 1996 and 2016. Of 281 retrieved articles, 37 articles were finally included for writing this review article. Factors affecting sexual self-concept were categorized to biological, psychological and social factors. In the category of biological factors, age gender, marital status, race, disability and sexual transmitted infections are described. In the psychological category, the impact of body image, sexual abuse in childhood and mental health history are present. Lastly, in the social category, the roles of parents, peers and the media are discussed. As the development of sexual self-concept is influenced by multiple events in individuals' lives, to promotion of sexual self-concept, an integrated implementation of health policies is recommended.

  19. Social and human capital as determining factors of entrepreneurship in the Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Neira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship, innovation and creativity are considered key factors of the economic growth because they usually bring on behaviors aligned with the market development, productivity and social cohesion. This study aims to analyze the factors that influence the entrepreneurial role, and provide a better understanding of this behavior from a dynamic perspective, in order to support policies for encouraging entrepreneurship. To do this we used the data presented in the report of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, in its 2011 edition, which is based on an empirical analysis of a sample of 27,000 Spanish citizens.The results confirm that the perception of market opportunities, and having the skills and knowledge required to create new companies are explanatory factors of the entrepreneurial activity. However, it is also possible to assert that the increase of the entrepreneurial activity rate motivated by the need of self-employment of the entrepreneur influences the increase of fear of failure, and this could generate a dynamic harmful to the business creation in the medium term.Our model aims to support the decisions of public institutions about the incentive measures for entrepreneurs. This work contributes to the study of entrepreneurship and business creation from a multidisciplinary perspective, incorporating psychological, sociological and economic approaches from a dynamic perspective. It also allows an in-depth analysis of factors undetected with other methodologies.We examined the determining factors of entrepreneurship by estimating a logit model based on entrepreneur’s social capital (networking and the geographical location (region of the business activity. This analysis has shown significant differences of these factors according to the stage of the entrepreneurial process. These results have let discuss the implications for the entrepreneurial dynamic, in order to support new policies in favor of entrepreneurship.

  20. Surprise, Recipes for Surprise, and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Jeffrey

    2018-02-07

    Surprising people can provide an opening for influencing them. Surprises garner attention, are arousing, are memorable, and can prompt shifts in understanding. Less noted is that, as a result, surprises can serve to persuade others by leading them to shifts in attitudes. Furthermore, because stories, pictures, and music can generate surprises and those can be widely shared, surprise can have broad social influence. People also tend to share surprising items with others, as anyone on social media has discovered. This means that in addition to broadcasting surprising information, surprising items can also spread through networks. The joint result is that surprise not only has individual effects on beliefs and attitudes but also collective effects on the content of culture. Items that generate surprise need not be random or accidental. There are predictable methods or recipes for generating surprise. One such recipe is discussed, the repetition-break plot structure, to explore the psychological and social possibilities of examining surprise. Recipes for surprise offer a useful means for understanding how surprise works and offer prospects for harnessing surprise to a wide array of ends. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Romeo T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  2. Physical and social factors determining quality of life for veterans with lower-limb amputation(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Ipsen, Thomas; Doherty, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    of the literature to summarize any evidence on the physical and social determinants for HRQoL in veterans with uni- or bilateral lower-limb amputation(s). Method MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, CINAHL, Scopus and Cochrane databases were searched systematically for eligible studies. Inclusion criteria were: traumatic lower......-limb amputation(s), HRQoL outcome and veterans. Physical and social factors that influence HRQoL were extracted. Results The literature search identified 2073 citations, leading to the inclusion of 10 studies in the systematic review. Physical activity level, sport participation, level of amputation, back pain...

  3. The factor structure of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Thomas; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Schramm, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Stefan G; Stangier, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are two compendium measures that have become some of the most popular self-report scales of social anxiety. Despite their popularity, it remains unclear whether it is necessary to maintain two separate scales of social anxiety. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the factor analytic structure of both measures to determine the factorial validity of each scale. For this purpose, we administered both scales to 577 patients at the beginning of outpatient treatment. Analyzing both scales simultaneously, a CFA with two correlated factors showed a better fit to the data than a single factor model. An additional EFA with an oblique rotation on all 40 items using the WLSMV estimator further supported the two factor solution. These results suggest that the SIAS and SPS measure similar, but not identical facets of social anxiety. Thus, our findings provide support to retain the SIAS and SPS as two separate scales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 1 The Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Social Behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-20

    Feb 20, 2015 ... item Peer Pressure on Adolescents Behaviour Questionnaire ... influence of peer pressure on social behaviour, self-concept, gender and parental ... However, these young teenagers find social expectations confusing and the ...

  5. Practicing Professional Values: Factors Influencing Involvement in Social Work Student Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Dorothy; Olate, René; Anderson, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most promising avenues for the development of professional values is involvement in professional student organizations. A convenience sample of baccalaureate social work students (n = 482) was drawn from 15 institutions. Regression analyses revealed several predictors of involvement in social work student organizations, including…

  6. Factors Affecting Online Impulse Buying: Evidence from Chinese Social Commerce Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Akram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available First, the purpose of this study is to examine the impact of situational variables, scarcity and serendipity, on online impulse buying (OIB in Chinese social commerce (SC environment. Second, the study further assesses the moderating role of five dimensions of hedonic shopping value. Data were gathered from 671 online shoppers who come from two metropolitan cities of China, Beijing, and Shanghai. Structure equation modeling utilized was generated by AMOS 23 version to test the study hypotheses. The results confirm that situational factors positively influence the online impulse buying among Chinese online shoppers in SC environment. Four dimensions of hedonic shopping value (social shopping, relaxation shopping, adventure shopping and idea shopping positively moderate the relationship between serendipity and OIB; value shopping is insignificant with moderation effect. The finding is helpful to the online retailers and SC web developers by recommending them to take the scarcity and serendipity in their consideration. These factors have the potential to motivate the consumers to initiate the hedonic shopping aptitude to urge to buy impulsively. Unlike the previous work which remained unsuccessful in incorporating all factors into one study, this study has incorporated irrational and unplanned consumption along with rational and planned one in the same research.

  7. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.

  8. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction Among Long-Term Care Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kelly; Resnick, Barbara; Swanberg, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    We assessed the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational factors that predicted job satisfaction among long-term care employees. Baseline data were used to describe characteristics that influence job satisfaction. Using a forced linear regression model, while controlling for age and job title, we assessed if higher physical activity levels, fewer symptoms of depression, stress, and/or anxiety (ie, decreased mood), less back pain, stronger social support, and reports of low work demands were associated with higher job satisfaction. Mood (β = -0.412, P = 0.003) explained 17% of the variance in job satisfaction. This information can be used to guide facility wide programs and interventions aimed at increasing job satisfaction among all long-term care staff.

  9. Social inequalities in mental health in Norway: possible explanatory factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalgard Odd

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that there is a social gradient in mental health, the prevalence of mental disorders stepwise increasing by lower social status. The reason for this, however, is not clear, and the purpose of the present study was to explore possible mediating factors between social status and mental health. Methods The study has a cross-sectional design, and was based on a nationwide survey in Oslo, Norway, counting 12 310 people in the age of 30–60 years. Immigrants from non-western countries were excluded. Socio-demographic data were gathered from existing registers, whereas data on health, psychosocial variables and life style were gathered by structured interview. As indicator of mental health was used a 10-items version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist, measuring psychological distress. Measures of general self-efficacy and sense of powerlessness was used as indicators of control of own life situation. Results A strong social gradient in mental health was found, the prevalence of psychological distress increasing by decreasing social status. Psychosocial factors, including self-efficacy, sense of powerlessness, control of work, social support and negative life events, in particular economic problems, as well as life style factors (physical exercise, BMI, smoking and somatic health, likewise showed a social gradient, all risk factors increasing by decreasing social status. When adjusting for the risk factors in multivariate statistical analyses, the social gradient in mental health was eliminated. Low self-efficacy and sense of powerlessness emerged as important explanatory factors, alongside with poor social support, economic problems, smoking and somatic disorder. Conclusion Both individual characteristics, supposedly linked to the personality, like low self-effica